A_AC_105_C_1_104_EC
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Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Fiftieth session第五十届会议
Vienna, 11-22 February 20132013年2月11日至22日,维也纳
Item 13 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目13
Long-term sustainability of outer space activities外层空间活动的长期可持续性
Information on experiences and practices related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities与外层空间活动长期可持续性有关的经验和做法的信息
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.
In accordance with the terms of reference and methods of work of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, adopted by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space at its fifty-fourth session, in 2011 (A/66/20, annex II), member States of the Committee, international intergovernmental organizations having observer status with the Committee, international non-governmental organizations having observer status with the Committee, United Nations entities and intergovernmental bodies, and other international organizations and bodies, subject to the provisions of paragraphs 16 and 17 of the terms of reference and methods of work, were invited by the Secretariat to provide information on their experiences and practices that might relate to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities and on their experiences and practices in the conduct of sustainable space activities, as well as on how they envisage work under the topic.1. 根据和平利用外层空间委员会2011年第五十四届会议通过的科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的职权范围和工作方法(A/66/20,附件二),秘书处请委员会各成员国、在委员会享有观察员地位的国际政府间组织、在委员会享有观察员地位的非政府组织、联合国实体和政府间机构,以及其他国际组织和机构,依据职权范围和工作方法第16段和第17段的规定提供信息,介绍其可能与外层空间活动长期可持续性有关的经验和做法、其开展可持续性空间活动的经验和做法,以及其对这一专题下的工作有何设想。
2. The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from the Committee on Space Research and Secure World Foundation, international non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee; and from the Office for Disarmament Affairs of the Secretariat.2. 本文件是由秘书处根据从在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的国际非政府组织空间研究委员会和世界安全基金会,以及从秘书处裁军事务厅收到的资料编写的。
The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites has informed the Secretariat that their contribution, contained in document A/AC.105/C.1/103/Add.1, is still valid.欧洲气象卫星应用组织通知秘书处其提供的载于A/AC.105/C.1/103/Add.1号文件的资料仍然有效。
II. Replies received from international non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee二. 从在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的国际非政府组织收到的答复
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[26 October 2012][2012年10月26日]
Scientific Commission on Space Studies of the Upper Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets including Reference Atmospheres地球和行星高层大气包括参考大气空间研究科学委员会
The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Scientific Commission on Space Studies of the Upper Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets including Reference Atmospheres studies terrestrial upper atmospheres and also creates reference atmospheres, which can contribute to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.
The research area includes satellite/rocket and ground-based observations of the mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere and a part of the magnetosphere, modelling of the atmosphere from the ground to the upper atmosphere, and updating of reference atmospheres. Many of the satellites, especially low Earth orbit satellites, are in the researched atmospheres. Recent studies by COSPAR have shown that the couplings between different atmospheric regions are much more significant than previously thought. Electromagnetic teleconnection along geomagnetic fields is important, but so is coupling by various waves in the plasma and neutral atmospheres from the ground to the top of the atmosphere as well as between the hemispheres.空间研究委员会(空间研委会)地球和行星高层大气包括参考大气空间研究科学委员会研究地球高层大气,还创建参考大气,这可能有助于外层空间活动的长期可持续性。研究领域包括卫星/火箭以及中层、热大气层、电离层和一部分磁层的地面观测,从地面到高层大气的大气建模,以及参考大气的最新情况。许多卫星,特别是低地轨道卫星,均处在研究的大气层中。空间研委会最近的研究表明,不同大气区段之间的耦合作用比原先想象的重要得多。地磁场周围的电磁遥相关很重要,但等离子区和地面到大气上层之间的中性大气以及南北半球之间各种波的耦合也很重要。空间研委会尝试将这些不同场理解为“整个大气”并通过复杂的模型来描述这种大气,这个办法对于规划或运行可持续性的外层空间活动非常有帮助。
COSPAR efforts to understand these different regions as a “whole atmosphere” and to describe it through sophisticated models is very useful in planning or operating sustainable outer space activities. Scientific Commission on Space Plasmas in the Solar System, including Planetary Magnetospheres太阳系空间等离子包括行星磁层研究科学委员会
The COSPAR Scientific Commission on Space Plasmas in the Solar System, including Planetary Magnetospheres studies the large- and small-scale environment of the interplanetary medium and its connection with energetic particle transport. Theoretical considerations and real-time observations are used to protect spacecraft systems and other relevant technologies (such as the Global Positioning System (GPS)) from damage and, hence, to predict space weather. The knowledge of transport and acceleration of energetic particles helps to understand the risk of air flights over the poles, their influence on ozone depletion and other atmospheric molecules, and to interpret the results of Earth-bound large-area telescopes, such as IceCube, Milagro, Pierre Auger and others. A good understanding of energetic particle fluxes is required for manned space missions in order to protect the astronauts.空间研委会太阳系空间等离子包括行星磁层研究科学委员会研究行星际介质的大小规模环境及其与高能粒子输运的联系。利用理论考虑和实时观测来保护航天器系统和其他相关技术(例如全球定位系统)免受损害,并因此被用来预测空间气象。高能粒子的输运和加速知识有助于了解飞机飞过两极上空的危险及其对臭氧消耗和其他大气分子的影响,并介绍地球上超级望远镜,如IceCube、Milagro、Pierre Auger和其他超级望远镜的成果。载人航天飞行任务须充分了解高能粒子通量,从而保护宇航员。
The long-term variability of the cosmic ray flux is used to reconstruct the long-term variability of the Sun and its influence on climate, which in turn requires the knowledge of all relevant processes in interplanetary space.宇宙射线通量的长期变化性被用来重建太阳的长期变化性及其对气候的影响,而这反过来要求了解星际空间中的所有相关进程。
Finally, the heliospheric and Earth magnetospheric models are used in comparative studies of other astrospheres and exoplanetary magnetospheres.最后,日光层和地球磁层模型被用于其他星体核心球和地外行星磁层的比较研究。
Scientific Commission on Research in Astrophysics from Space空间天文物理学研究科学委员会
Astronomy and solar and heliospheric physics天文学、太阳和日光层物理学
The use of space techniques plays a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to gamma rays, complemented by planned ground-based large observatories. The increasing size and complexity of large space-based observatory missions places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. This is particularly marked by the increasing range of joint missions involving the large space agencies of Europe (European Space Agency (ESA)), Japan (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)), the Russian Federation (Russian Federal Space Agency) and the United States of America (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)), while an important contribution from the Chinese and Indian space agencies is becoming a fact.空间技术的利用在天体物理学的发展中发挥着关键作用,办法是提供获取无线电到伽马射线等全部电磁频谱的机会,并以有规划的大型地基观测站为补充。大型天基观测站任务的规模日渐庞大且越来越复杂,愈加重视国际协作。一个尤为明显的特点是联合任务的范围越来越广,涉及欧洲(欧洲空间局)、日本(日本宇宙航空研究开发机构)、俄罗斯联邦(俄罗斯联邦航天局)和美利坚合众国(国家航空和航天局(美国航天局))的大型空间机构,而中国和印度的航天机构也正在做出重要贡献。
It is important that the world’s space agencies coordinate their mission plans for both large- and smaller-scale enterprises. The coordination of existing and future data sets from space-based and ground-based observatories is an evident mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive collaboration to address problems that can be tackled only through the application of large multi-wavelength data sets. At a time of worldwide restricted financial capabilities, the lack of a common strategy at the international level could become a major stumbling block. Inter-agency coordination will be the obvious way to limit large single agency investment in observatory class satellites (Hubble, the James Webb Space Telescope etc.) to ensure a sustainable scientific space programme in the next two decades.世界空间机构协调其面向大小型企业的任务计划很重要。协调当前和今后来自天基和地基观测站的数据集业已证明是一种功能强大且相对低廉的协作模式,这种协作解决那些只有通过应用大型多波长数据集才能解决的问题。在全球范围内财力有限之际,国际层面上缺乏一项共同的战略可能会成为主要的绊脚石。机构间协调将成为限制单个大型机构投资天文台级卫星的显而易见方式(哈勃空间望远镜、詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜等),以确保今后二十年中的可持续性科学空间方案。
An updated overview of worldwide space programmes in astronomy and astrophysics has been produced by the COSPAR Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy (Ubertini and others, Advances in Space Research, vol. 50, issue 1 (2012), pp. 1-55).空间研委会太空天文学的未来问题工作小组已编制天文学和天体物理学领域世界各地空间方案最新概览(Ubertini和其他人,《空间研究的进展》,第50卷,第1期(2012年),第1-55页)。
Conclusions结论
Astronomy from space is a model for international scientific cooperation.
Most missions have some international hardware collaboration, and virtually all feature extensive data-sharing. International astronomical databases now include ground-based as well as space-based archival data in standard formats, so that astronomers anywhere in the world can access all results after brief proprietorial periods. Hence, astronomers can perform extensive multi-wavelength investigations of large data samples from their desktops; this minimizes investment and travelling and makes possible important scientific investigations aided by a sustained contribution from the scientific communities of developing countries and those with new and mid-sized space programmes.空间天文学是国际科学合作的典范。大多数任务有一些国际硬件合作,并且几乎所有合作都具有广泛共享数据的特点。国际天文数据库现在包括以标准格式统计的地基和天基档案数据,所以世界任何地方的天文学家均可在短暂的专利权期限结束后查访所有结果。因此,天文学家从其桌面就可进行大型数据样本的广泛多波长调查;这最大限度地减少了投资和差旅,并且使可能重要的科学调查获得发展中国家以及拥有新的中等规模空间方案的国家科学界的持续捐助。
With respect to space sustainability, an important role is played by the effect of the Sun-Earth interaction, an essential part of space astrophysics investigations. This interaction drives space weather-related events and their effect on human activities for different societies and for different economic sectors. Space weather is now formally recognized as an area of relevance to World Meteorological Organization activities.关于空间可持续发展,日地相互作用的影响发挥着重要作用,这是空间天体物理学调研的重要组成部分。这种相互作用推动着与空间气象相关的事件及其对不同社会和不同经济部门人类活动的影响。空间气象现正式被确认为世界气象组织活动的一个重要领域。
Finally, an important and growing concern in terms of the sustainability of space activities is advance planning for de-orbiting of large space observatories at the end of their lives.最后,空间活动可持续性方面的一个重要且越来越严重的关切是大型空间观测站寿命结束时为其脱离轨道工作进行提前规划。
Panel on Technical Problems related to Scientific Ballooning科学气球技术问题小组
The current worldwide development of stratospheric balloon systems clearly demonstrates the long-term sustainability of this kind of vehicle for near-space science. For example, among the major balloon operators, the following may be mentioned:当前全世界平流层气球系统的发展明确展示了用于近空间科学的这类飞行器的长期可持续性。例如,可能提及下列主要的气球操作方:
(a) NASA/Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (United States). The Facility has operated eight flights from its balloon facilities (Palestine, Texas and Fort Sumner, New Mexico) and from Kiruna, Sweden, and three long-duration flights from the United States McMurdo Station (Antarctica) are being planned during the next winter;(a) 美国航天局/哥伦比亚科学气球中心(美国)。该中心已经从其各气球中心(得克萨斯州帕勒斯坦和新墨西哥州萨姆纳堡)和瑞典基律纳进行了八次飞行,并正在计划下一个冬季从美国麦克默多站(南极洲)进行三次长时间飞行;
(b) JAXA (Japan): despite the use of the new Taiki site, with its two annual campaigns, the search for a foreign site is in progress to increase the number of flight opportunities and flight durations;(b) 日本宇宙航空研究开发机构(日本):虽然启用了新的大樹航空宇宙实验场,且举行两次年度运动,不过正在寻找国外发射场,以增加飞行机会的数量和飞行持续时间;
(c) Centre national d’études spatiales (CNES) (France): the qualification of the new telemetry, tracking and control system (NOSYCA) developed for zero-pressure stratospheric balloons has begun. The operation of this new complete system is planned for the next 15 years, and its use will be extended to the other types of balloon (e.g. superpressure and infrared Montgolfier balloons);(c) 法国国家空间研究中心(法国):为零压力平流层气球开发的新的遥测、跟踪和控制系统(NOSYCA)的质量鉴定工作已经开始。这种新的完整系统计划运行时间为今后15年,该系统的使用将扩大到其他类型的气球(例如,超高压和红外孟戈菲气球);
(d) Canadian Space Agency (CSA) (Canada): the establishment of a new balloon facility in Timmins, Ontario, in cooperation with CNES. The qualification flights of the NOSYCA system will take place from this new balloon facility in early 2013.(d) 加拿大航天局(加空局)(加拿大):与法国国家空间研究中心合作,在安大略省蒂明斯建立了一个新的气球中心。NOSYCA系统的质量鉴定飞行将于2013年初从这个新的气球中心进行。
Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space研究对环境可能有害的太空活动小组
Space debris is one of the seven topics to be addressed by the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee. COSPAR was one of the first international bodies to hold regular discussions concerning the nature of the space debris environment and the hazards it presents to operational space systems. The first technical session on space debris was held during the 25th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR, in Graz, Austria, in 1984. For many years, the Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space has held multiple space debris sessions at each biannual COSPAR Assembly.空间碎片问题是科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组探讨的七个专题之一。空间研委会是最早就空间碎片环境的性质及其对运行中空间系统所构成的危害举办定期讨论的国际机构之一。首届空间碎片问题技术会议于1984年在奥地利格拉茨举行空间研委会第25次科学大会期间举办。多年来,研究对环境可能有害的太空活动小组在两年一次的空间研委会大会上举行了多届空间碎片问题会议。
At the 39th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR in 2012, the theme of the sessions of the Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space was “Space debris — steps toward environmental control”. One half-day session was devoted to space debris mitigation and remediation, which are the principal space debris issues with respect to the long-term sustainability of activities in outer space. In 2014, the theme of the Panel’s sessions will be “Space debris — responding to a dynamic environment”.在2012年空间研委会第39次科学大会上,研究对环境可能有害的太空活动小组的会议主题是“空间碎片问题——走向环境控制”。为期半天的会议专门讨论空间碎片减缓及补救问题,这些是外层空间活动长期可持续性所面临的首要空间碎片问题。2014年,该小组的会议主题将是“空间碎片问题——应对动态环境”。
COSPAR continues to be a leader in promoting a better understanding of the nature, risks and evolution of the space debris environment and in encouraging spacefaring nations and organizations to act responsively in space for the benefit of all through each mission phase, including deployment, operations and disposal.空间研委会继续牵头促进提高对空间碎片环境的性质、风险及演变的认识,并鼓励从事航天活动的国家和组织为了所有各方的利益而在包括部署、运作和处置在内的飞行任务各阶段负责任地开展空间活动。
Panel on Radiation Belt Environment Modelling辐射带环境建模小组
The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modelled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low Earth orbits, higher Earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations with the phase of the solar cycle.空间辐射环境对航天器系统和器械的影响是空间飞行任务设计的重要考虑方面。为了应对这些挑战并拥有可靠和成本效益良好的设计,必须了解辐射环境并准确建模。低地轨道、高地轨道和行星际空间之间的环境性质差别很大。在太阳周期阶段既有短期变化又有长期变化。这自然促使人们对空间环境及其对空间飞行器和航天员的影响开展详细研究。当前的一大挑战是解决航天器设计在地球轨道运行时间必须达到10年及以上时间方面出现的新问题。这类长期飞行任务往往超出了用于描述卫星设计空间环境特点的数据集时间段。
This naturally leads to a detailed study of the space environment and of the effects that it induces on space vehicles and astronauts.
One major challenge is to address new issues that arise for spacecraft that must be designed to operate for 10 or more years in Earth orbit.
Such long missions often exceed the duration of the data sets used to characterize the space environment for satellite design.
In the next few years several space missions dedicated to the study of radiation belts will be launched (e.g., the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (United States), launched 2012; Energization and Radiation in Geospace (Japan); and Resonance and Lomonosov (Russian Federation). These missions will generate much activity in the next 10-15 years, during which data will accumulate and be analysed.接下来的几年将启动若干专门研究辐射带的空间飞行任务(例如,2012年发射的辐射带风暴探测器(美国);地球空间电磁场加强与辐射(日本);以及共振与罗蒙诺索夫(俄罗斯联邦)。这些飞行任务将在接下来的10-15年引发众多活动,期间将积累并分析数据。当然,辐射带环境建模小组将是科学家交流新发现和协作的轴心。
Of course, the Panel on Radiation Belt Environment Modeling will be a central place for scientists to communicate about new findings and to collaborate.
Panel on Space Weather空间气象小组
Precise knowledge of the space environment and its variability are important factors in guaranteeing the sustainability of activities in space. Spacecraft are designed according to an expected environment and lifetime, taking into account the long-term properties of that environment. In addition, space weather services provide the opportunity to mitigate the impact of individual space weather events on affected space- and ground-based infrastructure through the use of real-time data and modelling. Consequently, both reliable statistics and real-time observations of key parameters are important factors.精确的空间环境及其变异知识是保障空间活动可持续发展的重要因素。航天器是根据预期的环境和使用寿命设计的,同时考虑到该环境的长期特点。此外,空间气象服务提供了通过利用实时数据和建模减轻单个空间气象事件对受影响的天基和地基基础设施影响的机会。因此,可靠的统计数据和关键参数的实时观测是重要因素。
Events of the Panel on Space Weather held during the 39th COSPAR Scientific Assembly in Mysore, India, in 2012 highlighted a number of activities relevant to sustainability and included a briefing on the plans of expert group C, on space weather, of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.空间气象小组在空间研委会于2012年在印度迈索尔举行的第39届科学大会期间举行的活动突出了一系列同可持续性有关的活动,其中包括简述科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组关于空间气象的C专家组的计划。
Operational and pre-operational space weather services rely heavily on reliable data streams from spacecraft and ground-based observatories, as well as data services providing processed data products. Many of the primary data sources that underpin current services are primarily scientific observatories, leading to high-quality data but often with a number of availability and continuity uncertainties, which a developer will find problematic. In addition, scientific missions usually have a finite lifetime and no replacement strategy enabling long-term monitoring. An example is the dependence of many services on the near-real-time solar wind measurements from the L1 vantage point.运行中和运行前的空间气象服务严重依赖来自航天器和地基观测站的可靠数据流以及提供数据处理产品的数据服务。支撑当前服务的许多主要数据来源主要是科学观测站,产生高质量的数据,但常常有许多提供率和连续性方面的不确定因素,开发者将发现这是一个问题。此外,科学任务通常具有有限的寿命,且没有可供长期监测的替换策略。一个例子是许多服务依赖从L1有利的角度进行的近实时太阳风测量。目前这些数据的主要来源是自1997年以来一直在运行的美国航天局/高级合成探测器。
The main source of these data is currently the NASA/Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft, which has been in operation since 1997. The Panel on Space Weather noted the recent work done by the Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather task group to identify and document a comprehensive set of key data requirements underpinning services. The requirements and accompanying guidelines provide a reference for current and future measurement systems. In addition, given the stringent requirements for the timeliness of data availability established for space weather services, it was noted that dedicated actions to improve existing space weather data availability and its real-time collection, storage and dissemination could substantially benefit current service provision.空间气象小组注意到空间气象方案间协调小组最近完成的工作,即查明和记录一整套支撑各项服务的关键数据要求。这些要求及相应的指南为当前和今后的测量系统提供了参照。此外,考虑到为空间气象服务制定的数据及时提供率的严格要求,因而强调采取专项行动以改善当前空间气象数据的提供率及其实时收集、储存和传播,可大大有助于目前的服务提供。
Panel on Planetary Protection行星保护小组
The Panel on Planetary Protection works on behalf of COSPAR to provide an international consensus policy on the prevention of biological interchange in the conduct of solar system exploration, specifically, (a) avoiding contamination of planets other than the Earth by terrestrial organisms, including through planetary satellites within the solar system; and (b) preventing the contamination of Earth by materials returned from outer space that may be carrying potential extraterrestrial organisms.行星保护小组代表空间研委会就开展太阳系探索过程中预防生物交叉迁移而提供达成国际共识的政策,具体来说,(a)避免地球生物体污染地球以外的行星,包括通过太阳系内的行星卫星造成污染;以及(b)防止由外层空间返回的可能携带外星生物体的材料污染地球。
The Panel works for the COSPAR Bureau and Council to develop, maintain and promulgate planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of such contamination, and through symposiums, workshops and topical meetings at COSPAR assemblies to provide an international forum for the exchange of information in this area. Through COSPAR, the Panel is expected to inform the international community — e.g. the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as well as various other bilateral and multilateral organizations — of policy consensus in this area. At the second session of its 34th meeting, on 20 October 2002, in Houston, United States of America, the COSPAR Council adopted a revised and consolidated planetary protection policy, which was most recently updated in March 2011.该小组为空间研委会主席团和理事会工作,制定、维护和颁布行星保护须知、政策和计划以预防这种污染的有害后果,并通过在空间研委会大会上举办座谈会、讲习班和专题会议为此领域内的信息交流提供一个国际论坛。期待该小组通过空间研委会使和平利用外层空间委员会以及其他各双边和多边组织等国际社会了解这个领域的政策共识。2002年10月20日在美利坚合众国休斯顿举行的空间研委会理事会第34次会议第2届会议通过了一项修订后统一合并的行星保护政策,该政策的最近一次更新是在2011年3月。
Through the prevention of biological interchange during space exploration, the COSPAR policy is intended to safeguard the future conduct of scientific investigations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, precursors and remnants, and to protect the Earth for a sustainable future of space exploration. The Panel has formed a close partnership with the COSPAR Panel on Exploration in pursuing the overlapping components of their common goals. Given their complementary roles, the Panel on Exploration and the Panel on Planetary Protection have worked together to elaborate a pathway for future expansion of environmental protection, as well as the use, of outer space.空间研委会政策通过预防空间探索期间的生物交叉迁移,意在维护今后对可能存在的外星生命形态、前身物质和残留物质开展的科学调查,并保护地球,使空间探索有一个可持续的未来。该小组与空间研委会探索小组在实现其共同目标的重合部分中结成了紧密的伙伴关系。鉴于其互补作用,探索小组和行星保护小组合作拟定进一步扩大外层空间环境保护和利用的途径。
Panel on Exploration探索小组
With increased interest in developing new infrastructure, transport systems and space probes to explore the Earth-Moon-Mars space both robotically and with humans, we are entering a new era of space exploration. Numerous national space agencies are now defining road maps and exploration architectures to plan for space activities in the decades ahead. Given the many obstacles that can be faced at any point in this process, at this time it is vital to create a long-term, sustainable space exploration programme to inform and guide the diverse plans made by individual agencies.随着对开发新的基础设施、运输系统和空间探测装置以利用机器人和载人方式探索地球—月球—火星的兴趣增加,我们正在进入一个全新的太空探索时代。许多国家空间机构现在正在制定路线图和空间探索架构来规划今后几十年的空间活动。鉴于在这个过程中任何时候都可能面临许多阻碍,因而目前建立长期、可持续空间探索方案公布具体机构制定的不同计划并对其予以指导非常重要。
Such a programme will involve international cooperation at an early stage, both the alliances of established space nations and increased engagement of new emerging and developing countries. Such cooperation, if done in a meaningful way, will be a pillar to support a sustainable global space exploration programme. While the programme must integrate the perspectives and ideas of diverse stakeholders, it will be important that the same programme be based on the most up-to-date scientific and environmental understanding about space and planetary bodies.这类方案早期阶段将涉及国际合作,包括已确定的航天国家联盟以及新兴国家和发展中国家越来越多的参与。如果此类合作以有意义的方式开展,那么此类合作将成为支持可持续的空间探索活动全球方案的支柱。
The COSPAR Panel on Exploration was created in 2008 at the COSPAR Assembly in Montreal to provide independent science input to support a global space exploration programme, while working to safeguard scientific assets of the solar system in the conduct of the programme. Since that time, the Panel on Exploration has compiled a report published in the peer-reviewed literature, entitled “Toward a global space exploration program: a stepping stone approach” (Advances in Space Research, vol. 49, issue 1 (2012), pp. 2-48). In that report, the Panel on Exploration proposed a stepping stone approach to activities that support the transition period towards larger space architectures. These stepping stones include an Earth-based analogue research programme preparing for planetary exploration, an International Space Station utilization programme enabling complementary exploration science, an international CubeSat programme in support of exploration, as well as more complex endeavours such as the conceptualization and planning of future human outposts.虽然该方案必须综合不同利益关系方的观点和想法,但该方案也必须建立在对空间和行星体最新科学和环境了解的基础上,这一点非常重要。空间研委会探索小组是2008年空间研委会在蒙特利尔举行的大会上设立的,其任务是提供独立的科学见解,以支持空间探索活动全球方案,同时在开展方案过程中努力保障太阳系的科学资产。自那时起,探索小组汇编了一份报告,该报告已发表在同行评议文献上,报告题为“实现空间探索活动全球方案:台阶方法”(《空间研究的进展》,第49卷,第1期(2012年),第2-48页)。在该报告中,探索小组提出采取台阶方法开展活动,支持过渡到更大的空间架构。这些台阶包括用于星球探索的地球模拟研究方案、促成当代探索科学的国际空间站利用方案,支持探索的国际Cubesat方案,以及更复杂的努力,例如未来人类前哨基地的构想和规划。这些筹备活动提供了囊括全球航天界广泛一整系列行动方共同参与的机会。
These preparatory activities offer the opportunity to involve a wide range of actors in the global space community.
The Panel on Exploration has elaborated a bottom-up approach that can be used to strengthen a long-term global space exploration programme.
The Panel on Exploration approach offers numerous opportunities to integrate many countries and stakeholders in preparation for the crafting and execution of any global space exploration programme. Because COSPAR unites institutions from 46 countries and works with numerous associated bodies, it can thus provide and engage a worldwide scientific network for cooperative activities in support of exploration through both approaches. To that end, the Panel on Exploration is already involved in efforts to contribute to sustainable space activities, holding several workshops annually and issuing official reports of their results, and helping to engage developing countries in worldwide space exploration efforts. In this way, the COSPAR Panel on Exploration can make important scientific and international contributions that will be crucial to planning and executing sustainable space exploration activities in the coming decades.探索小组制定了一个自下而上的方法,可利用这个方法加强空间探索活动的长期全球方案。探索小组的方法为准备制定和执行空间探索活动的任何全球方案而汇集多个国家和利益关系方提供了诸多机会。由于空间研委会联合来自46个国家的机构并与众多相关机构协同工作,因而能够形成一个世界范围的科学网并使之致力于开展合作活动,通过这两种办法支持进行探索。为此,探索小组已经参与努力促进可持续的空间活动,每年举办若干讲习班,发表其结果的官方报告,并帮助促使发展中国家参与世界范围的空间探索工作。通过这种办法,空间研委会探索小组可作出重要的科学和国际贡献,这对未来几十年中规划和执行可持续的空间探索活动将非常重要。
See www.gwu.edu/~spi/pex.cfm for additional information about the activities of the Panel on Exploration and the report on space exploration.关于探索小组和空间探索报告的补充资料可访问www.gwu.edu/~spi/pex.cfm。
Panel on Capacity-building能力建设问题小组
Sustainability of outer space necessarily requires the availability of trained scientists and technicians who can plan and carry out activities that make use of outer space in an efficient and effective way. COSPAR directly contributes to this aspect of outer-space sustainability.外层空间的可持续性必然要求具备训练有素的科学家和技术人员,他们能够以高效和有效的方式规划并开展利用外层空间的活动。空间研委会直接推动外层空间可持续性问题的这个方面。
The COSPAR Panel on Capacity-building carries out a programme of capacity-building workshops aimed at increasing the community of scientists that make use of data collected from space missions.空间研委会能力建设问题小组执行了一个能力建设讲习班方案,旨在扩大可使用自空间飞行任务中采集的数据的科学家群体。
The Panel on Capacity-building programme is now 11 years old, and in this period 17 capacity-building workshops have been organized. These workshops take place in developing countries, addressing the interest of communities that normally do not have experience with the use of space data. The workshops help to overcome the initial barrier faced by scientists in those countries when they want to access that information. The venues and topics of the workshops are selected on the basis of a few general criteria, including a regional dimension and publicly and freely available space data and analysis software.能力建设问题小组的这个方案至今已有11年,并且在此期间组织了约17期能力建设讲习班。这些讲习班在发展中国家举办,解决通常没有空间数据使用经验的各界所关注的问题。讲习班帮助这些国家的科学家克服其在想获得这类信息时所面临的最初障碍。
The workshops have a duration of two weeks and usually centre on data from one or two space missions that are in operation at the time of the workshop.
Typically, a workshop consists of 30-35 students (the term “student” in this context includes PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young staff members) and about 10 lecturers. The lecturers are scientists directly related to the missions (usually NASA, ESA or JAXA scientific space missions). Half of the time of the workshop is devoted to formal lectures on the science topics that can be addressed by the missions discussed in the workshop. The students spend the rest of the workshop working on a project using real data and software of one these space missions under the supervision of the lecturers.讲习班地点和专题的选择基于一些一般性标准,包括区域层面以及公开且可免费获取的空间数据和分析软件。讲习班为期两周,通常围绕讲习班举办时正在运作的一两个空间飞行任务产生的数据。一期讲习班往往包括30-35名学生(此处的“学生”一词包括博士生、博士后研究员和青年工作人员)和大约10名讲课老师。讲课老师是与飞行任务(通常是美国航天局、欧洲空间局或日本宇宙航空研究开发机构的空间科学飞行任务)直接相关的科学家。讲习班的一半时间专门用于有关科学题目的正式讲座,而讨论中的飞行任务恰能解决这些科学题目。学生在讲习班的其他时间利用其中一个空间飞行任务的真实数据和软件,在讲课老师的督导下着手处理一个项目。
In 11 years, about 550 students have been trained through these workshops, on topics ranging from remote sensing, Sun-Earth interactions, planetary science and astrophysics. Workshops have been held in South America (Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay), Asia (China, India and Malaysia), Africa (Egypt, Morocco and South Africa) and Eastern Europe (Romania). COSPAR contributes about one third of the costs of a workshop; the other two thirds are provided by several international organizations (ESA, NASA, the International Astronomical Union, Office for Outer Space Affairs etc.) and the host country.11年间,通过这些讲习班培训了约500名学生,专题有遥感、日地相互作用、行星科学和天体物理学等。讲习班曾在南美(阿根廷、巴西和乌拉圭)、亚洲(中国、印度和马来西亚)、非洲(埃及、摩洛哥和南非)以及东欧(罗马尼亚)举办。空间研委会提供三分之一左右的讲习班费用,其余的三分之二则由若干个国际组织(欧洲空间局、美国航天局、国际天文学联盟、外层空间事务厅等)和主办国提供。
Secure World Foundation世界安全基金会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[22 October 2012][2012年10月22日]
The Secure World Foundation (SWF) has a keen interest in the long-term sustainability of the space environment and considers it to be an important topic.
In 2012, the Foundation continued to conduct and sponsor research on space sustainability topics.
In April, SWF hosted an all-day, by-invitation-only workshop entitled “Defining sustainable use of space”.
It was the second workshop in the SWF Frameworks and Strategy for Space Sustainability (FSSS) programme.
The FSSS programme examines existing theoretical frameworks for sustainable governance and how these might contribute to the ongoing debate about space sustainability, with the ultimate goal of producing practical guidance for policymakers. The first FSSS workshop, held in September 2011, brought together a small group of experts to explore the applicability of Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom’s principles for sustainable governance of the commons to the space environment, issues with terminology, and the sufficiency of current space governance mechanisms. Major conclusions from the initial workshop informed the design of the second workshop entitled “Defining sustainable use of space”, which successfully convened a small sample of prominent, international thinkers representative of the various stakeholders in space to discuss what space sustainability means to them and what they would like to see emerge from current international initiatives. The same experts also participated the following day in a panel discussion entitled “International Perspectives on Space Sustainability from Africa, Asia and Latin America”.世界安全基金会对空间环境的长期可持续性抱有浓厚的兴趣,并认为这是一个重要专题。2012年,该基金会继续进行并赞助进行有关空间可持续性专题的研究。4月,世界安全基金会举行了为期一天且应邀才能参与的题为“界定空间可持续利用”的讲习班。这是世界安全基金会空间可持续性框架战略方案方面的第二期讲习班。空间可持续性框架战略方案研究当前可持续治理的理论框架以及这些框架如何推进目前关于空间可持续性的辩论,最终目标是为决策者提供实用指南。第一期空间可持续性框架战略讲习班于2011年9月举行,汇集一小组专家探索应用诺贝尔奖获得者埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆空间环境公共事务可持续治理原则、术语问题以及当前空间治理机制充分与否。第一期讲习班的结论促成召开第二期题为“界定空间可持续利用”的讲习班,这期讲习班成功汇集了代表空间领域不同利益关系方的一小组知名国际思想家,讨论空间可持续性对他们意味着什么以及他们希望看到当前国际举措带来什么。这些专家还在第二天参加了题为“从非洲、亚洲和拉丁美洲国际角度对空间可持续性的看法”的小组讨论。
For the third year in a row, the Secure World Foundation partnered with Beihang University and the International Space University to hold a conference in Beijing, on 8-9 November 2012, to discuss issues related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, including orbital debris mitigation and removal, national implementation of debris mitigation guidelines and regulations, tools to enhance space situational awareness data-sharing and space weather. The 2012 conference also featured two sessions of student papers from around the world in technical and law and policy topics to help foster dialogue and new thinking on space sustainability issues.世界安全基金会与北京航空航天大学及国际空间大学连续第三年合作,于2012年11月8日至9日在北京举行会议,讨论与外层空间活动长期可持续性有关的问题,其中包括轨道碎片减缓和清除、各国执行碎片减缓准则和条例的情况、加强认识空间状况数据共享空间气象的工具。2012年会议的内容还包括关于技术、法律和政策专题世界各地学生论文的两场会议,以帮助推动空间可持续性问题的对话和新思路。
On-orbit satellite servicing and active debris removal are part of an emerging category of future on-orbit activities that are critical for taking the next leap in our use of Earth orbit. The ability to repair or refuel satellites, construct new satellites in orbit and even remove orbital debris can help drive innovative uses of space and create new possibilities. These activities also raise a host of diplomatic, legal, safety, operational and policy challenges that need to be tackled for this future to be possible.在轨卫星维修和主动清除碎片是新兴类别的今后在轨活动一部分,这些活动对于我们在利用地球轨道方面再次实现飞跃非常重要。维修或为卫星添加燃料、建造新的在轨卫星乃至清除轨道碎片的能力可帮助推动创新利用空间并创造新的可能性。这些活动还提出了今后可能需解决的一系列外交、法律、安全、运作和政策挑战。
Therefore, in 2012, the Foundation continued to conduct and sponsor research on addressing some of the legal and policy concerns related to actively removing space debris from orbit and cooperative governance mechanisms for using space in a sustainable manner. Technical advisor Brian Weeden published a report examining key technical shortcomings of the current space situational awareness systems used to help satellite operators avoid collisions in orbit and conduct space activities in a safe and responsible manner. The report recommended that space situational awareness capabilities used for public safety measures, such as maintaining a catalogue of space objects and providing a collision avoidance service, be developed in a more open manner involving all stakeholders.因此,在2012年,基金会继续开展和赞助一些研究,处理与主动从轨道清除空间碎片以及有利于可持续利用空间的合作治理机制有关的一些法律和政策关切。技术顾问Brian Weeden发表了一份报告,其中审查了用来帮助卫星运营者避免在轨碰撞和安全、负责任地开展空间活动的当前空间态势感知系统的主要技术缺陷。报告建议以促使所有利益关系方参与的更加开放的方式发展用于公共安全措施的空间态势感知能力,如保留空间物体目录和提供避免碰撞服务。
In order to foster dialogue on these topics, SWF is holding two international conferences to bring in the perspectives and viewpoints from all stakeholders on issues of on-orbit servicing and active debris removal and extend the conversation to an international audience. The first conference was held in Brussels on 30 October 2012, in partnership with the French Institute of International Relations (IFRI), and the second conference is planned to take place in Singapore on 20 February 2013.为了推进关于这些专题的对话,世界安全基金会正在举办两次国际会议,汇集所有利益关系方对在轨维修和主动清除碎片问题的观点和看法,并将会谈面向国际观众。2012年10月30日与法国国际关系研究所合作在布鲁塞尔举行了第一次会议,并计划于2013年2月20日在新加坡举行第二次会议。
In June, SWF announced the release of the executive summary of Space Security Index 2012, the ninth annual report on developments that have an impact on the security and long-term sustainability of outer space. The Space Security Index provides a comprehensive summary of civil, commercial and military space activities in 2011, identifies important trends and analyses their impact on space security.今年6月,世界安全基金会宣布公布《2012年空间安全索引》的内容提要,这是关于发展情况的第九次年度报告,对外层空间的安全和长期可持续性具有影响。《空间安全索引》综合概述了2011年的民用、商业和军事空间活动,确定了重要的发展趋势,并分析了这些活动对空间安全的影响。
Also in 2012, SWF published three new fact sheets summarizing current space sustainability initiatives. The first was on the draft international code of conduct for space activities, which is a non-legally binding, voluntary international instrument aimed at building norms of responsible behaviour in space activities. The second was on the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities, an initiative of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee tasked with producing a consensus report outlining voluntary best practice guidelines for all space actors to ensure the long-term sustainable use of outer space. Finally, the third was on the group of governmental experts on transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities, which is a small group of international space experts from a variety of countries convened to examine and report on methods for improving cooperation and reducing the risks of misunderstanding and miscommunication in space activities.此外,2012年,世界安全基金会发表了三份新的实况简报,概述了当前空间可持续发展的举措。第一份简报介绍了空间活动国际行为守则草案,这是一项不具法律约束力的自愿性国际文书,旨在建立空间活动方面负责任的行为规范。第二份简报论述外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组,这是科学和技术小组委员会提出的一项倡议,小组委员会的任务是编制一份共识报告,列明所有空间行动方自愿的最佳做法准则,以确保长期可持续地利用外层空间。最后,第三份简报介绍外层空间活动透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组,这是一小群来自不同国家的国际空间专家聚集在一起审查和汇报为改进空间活动方面合作以及减少该领域误解和信息误传风险而采用的方法。
In March, SWF brought together officials from Australia, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States and the European Union to review the current status of the international code of conduct. The Brussels-based event focused on the international code of conduct for outer space activities, proposed by the European Union. It examined its current status, challenges and the way forward from the point of view of several States.今年3月,世界安全基金会汇聚了来自澳大利亚、日本、俄罗斯联邦、美国和欧洲联盟的官员共同审查国际行为守则的现状。在布鲁塞尔举行的活动关注欧洲联盟提出的外层空间活动国际行为守则。它从几个国家的视角研究了其现状、挑战和前进的方向。
III. Replies received from United Nations entities and other intergovernmental bodies三. 从联合国实体和其他政府间机构收到的答复
Office for Disarmament Affairs of the Secretariat秘书处裁军事务厅
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[1 October 2012][2012年10月1日]
The Conference on Disarmament began formal deliberations on the issue of prevention of an arms race in outer space in 1985 with the establishment of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space. This resulted from the initiative put forward in General Assembly resolutions 36/97 C and 36/99. In those resolutions, the General Assembly requested the Conference on Disarmament to consider the question of negotiating effective and verifiable agreements prohibiting anti-satellite weapons (resolution 36/97 C), and to embark on negotiations with a view to achieving agreement on a treaty banning the deployment of any type of arms in outer space (resolution 36/99).随着防止外层空间军备竞赛特设委员会的成立,裁军谈判会议于1985年开始正式审议防止外层空间军备竞赛这个问题。这个问题是大会第36/97号决议C节和第36/99号决议所提倡议的结果。在这些决议中,大会请裁军谈判会议审议如何就旨在禁止反卫星系统的有效可核查协定进行谈判的问题(第36/97号决议C节),并开始谈判,目的是缔结禁止在外层空间部署任何类型武器的条约(第36/99号决议)。
Although the deliberations in the Ad Hoc Committee demonstrated by the middle of the 1990s the fundamentally different perceptions of security risks to outer space activities, as well as the divergent views on the priorities and methods to address them, the Conference on Disarmament has remained seized of the matter. In accordance with its mandate, the Conference on Disarmament has centred its attention on the following issues:虽然到1990年代中期特设委员会中的审议表现出对外层空间活动的安全风险具有不同看法且在解决这些问题的优先次序和方法上存在意见分歧,但裁军谈判会议始终围绕这个问题。按照其任务规定,裁军谈判会议集中关注以下问题:
(a) Ban on the placement of weapons in outer space;(a) 禁止在外层空间部署武器;
(b) Prohibition of the use of satellites themselves as weapons;(b) 禁止利用卫星本身作为武器;
(c) Prohibition of testing and use of weapons on satellites so as to destroy or damage them;(c) 禁止在卫星上试验和使用武器以致摧毁或损坏卫星;
(d) Development of transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities.(d) 制定外层空间活动领域的透明度和建立信任措施。
Working papers submitted by Canada, China and the Russian Federation, including the draft treaty on the prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space and of the threat or use of force against outer space objects (CD/1839 of 2008) by China and the Russian Federation, have served as a basis for discussion on the above-mentioned issues.加拿大、中国和俄罗斯联邦提交的工作文件,包括中国和俄罗斯联邦提交的关于防止在外层空间部署武器以及防止对外层空间物体威胁使用或使用武力的条约草案(CD/1839,2008年),充任就上述问题进行讨论的基础。
In 2012, Member States addressed the issue of the prevention of an arms race in outer space at two plenary meetings in the framework of the thematic discussions that were held in the Conference on Disarmament. They took into consideration the work at the first session of the group of governmental experts on transparency and confidence-building measures established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/68 and the European Union draft international code of conduct for outer space activities. The expectation was expressed that the recommendations of the group of governmental experts, jointly with the European Union draft international code of conduct would constitute a set of measures and rules that would help to mitigate risks related to space debris. Many delegations spoke out in favour of expanding cooperation between United Nations institutions and agencies in order to make progress in providing more secure and safer conditions for outer space activities.2012年,会员国在裁军谈判会议上举行的专题讨论框架内的两次全体会议上讨论了防止外层空间军备竞赛的问题。会员国考虑到根据大会第65/58号建议和欧洲联盟外层空间活动国际行为守则草案建立的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组第一届会议的工作。表示期望政府专家组的建议以及欧洲联盟国际行为守则草案将构成有助于减轻空间碎片相关风险的一系列措施和规则。许多代表团表示赞成扩大联合国机构与各机构之间的合作,从而在为外层空间活动提供更安全环境方面取得进展。
At the same time, as the number of nations aspiring to gain access to outer space is growing and the orbits are getting more and more populated with space objects of different kinds, the question has arisen whether the current international legal framework on outer space, including the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies of 1967 is still adequate to address all space security challenges. In that regard, the view was expressed that as long as the Conference on Disarmament remains in deadlock, efforts on non-discriminatory and universally accepted transparency and confidence-building measures could be stepped up. At the same time, such efforts cannot be considered a substitute for negotiations on a legally binding instrument but rather a step-by-step process towards achieving legally binding measures complemented by and mutually reinforced through transparency and confidence-building measures.与此同时,由于渴望进入外层空间的国家数量正在增多且轨道空间变得越来越拥挤,充斥着不同种类的空间物体,所以产生了一个问题,即当前关于外层空间的国际法律框架,包括1967年《关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》,是否仍足以应对所有空间安全挑战。在这方面,有人表示,只要裁军谈判会议仍然处于僵局,那么即可加强关于非歧视性和普遍接受的透明度和建立信任措施方面的努力。同时,这种努力不能被视为可替代通过进行谈判达成一项具有法律约束力的文书,而应当是作为一种促成具有法律约束力措施的循序渐进过程,这些措施以透明度和建立信任措施作为补充并与之相辅相成。
* A/AC.105/C.1/L.328.A/AC.105/C.1/L.328。