CAC_COSP_IRG_I_3_1_ADD_17_EC
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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.17 V1500599.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.17 V1500598.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.17CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.17
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
29 January 201529 January 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.17CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.17
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.17CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.17
V.15-00599 (E) 040215 050215V.15-00598 (C)
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Implementation Review Group实施情况审议组
Sixth session第六届会议
Vienna, 1-5 June 20152015年6月1日至5日,维也纳
Item 2 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目2
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CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1.CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1。
Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption审议《联合国反腐败公约》实施情况
Executive summary提要
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Addendum增编
Contents目录
Page页次
Executive summary提要
22
Luxembourg卢森堡
22
II. Executive summary二. 提要
Luxembourg卢森堡
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Luxembourg in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:卢森堡在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和体制框架概述
Luxembourg signed the United Nations Convention against Corruption during the High-level Political Conference in Mérida (Mexico) on 10 December 2003.卢森堡于2003年12月10日在梅里达(墨西哥)举行的高级别政治会议期间签署了《联合国反腐败公约》。
The Convention was ratified by an Act adopted by the national Parliament on 10 July 2007 and signed by the Grand Duke on 1 August 2007.《公约》经国家议会于2007年7月10日通过的并由卢森堡大公于2007年8月1日签署的一项法案获得批准。
Luxembourg deposited its instrument of ratification with the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 6 November 2007.卢森堡于2007年11月6日向联合国秘书长交存了批准书。
Luxembourg is a State member of the European Union, the OECD, the Council of Europe’s Group of States against Corruption (GRECO), MONEYVAL and FATF.卢森堡是欧洲联盟、经合组织、欧洲委员会反腐败国家集团、反洗钱措施和资助恐怖主义问题专家评估委员会和金融行动特别工作组的成员。 按照一项既定已久的卢森堡最高法院(高等法院、宪法法院和行政法院)的判例,公认的国际法和国际公约规则一经获得议会法案批准并生效,即构成卢森堡国内法不可分割的组成部分,且其效力高于国内法的任何其他相悖的规定。
According to a long established jurisprudence of Luxembourg’s Supreme Courts (Cour de cassation, Cour constitutionnelle and Cour administrative, generally accepted rules of international law and international conventions, once they have been ratified by an act of Parliament and have come into effect, shall form an integral part of Luxembourg’s domestic law and shall override any other contrary provision of domestic law.因此,《公约》现已成为卢森堡国内法中一个不可分割的组成部分。
Accordingly, the Convention has become an integral part of Luxembourg’s domestic law.与实施《公约》最具相关性的立法载于《刑法典》、《刑事诉讼法》和各专项法。
The most relevant implementation legislation is found in the Criminal Code (Code Pénal, “CP”), the Criminal Procedure Code (Code d’Instruction Criminelle, “CIC”) and in special laws.2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述 贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条) 关于行贿受贿的规定载于《刑法典》第246、247、249和250条。 该法典并未载有关于“公职人员”的定义。 但是,法典及一项注释性说明提到了“保存或执法代理人或者负责某项公务或承担某项公共选举任务的任何人”(《刑法典》第246、247和249条)。 上市公司和外国官员的代理人与国家官员适用同等概念和定义。 单纯通过提议给予或者实际给予贿赂而进行的单方面腐败现已通过2001年1月15日的法律引入《刑法典》。 “腐败协议”的存在不再是定罪的必要条件。 关于“不正当好处”这一概念,现行法律严禁对“好处费”实行任何豁免。 法律文本未就官员是否违反其职责行事做出区分。 影响力交易在《刑法典》第246至249条中被定为了犯罪。 但是,惟有达到意图“从某部门或公共行政部门获得任何特殊待遇、就业、公开招标或任何其他任何有利决定之程度的,方能定罪”。 另一方面,犯罪行为即便没有达到预期的结果,同样构成犯罪既遂。
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review《公约》第二十一条系通过《刑法典》第310-1条实施。
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)卢森堡法律在贯彻《公约》要求的基础上更进一步,规定商业活动之外的领域同等适用。
The provisions on active and passive bribery are contained in articles 246, 247, 249 and 250 CP. The law does not contain a definition of “public official”.但是,国家立法者保留了“未作预先知会且未经授权”的准则。
Nevertheless, the law and an explanatory note refer to a “depositary or law enforcement agent, or a person in charge of a public service mission or vested with a public election mandate” (arts. 246, 247, 249 CP).洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)
With regard to agents of public companies and foreign officials, the same concepts and definitions apply as for national officials.卢森堡现已通过《刑法典》第506-1至506-8条的规定将洗钱定为犯罪。 卢森堡虽已选择列出上游犯罪的清单,但《刑法典》第506-1(1)条最后一项规定,鉴于最低刑罚为6个月监禁,故卢森堡实际上对洗钱行为几乎采取了一种“所有犯罪”做法。
Unilateral corruption through the simple offering or giving of a bribe has been introduced into the CP by the Law of 15 January 2001.特别是,该条还单设一项,专门列出了所有腐败犯罪。
There is no longer a requirement of a “corruption pact”.关于实施洗钱未遂、为此进行准备和共谋实施以及共同参与的规定载于《刑法典》第506-1(4)、506-4、506-5和506-6条,以及《刑法典》第66和67条的一般规定(犯罪主谋和同谋)。
Concerning the concept of “undue advantage”, the law in force does not allow any exemptions for facilitation payments.《刑法典》第506-4条明确规定,自我洗钱属刑事犯罪。
The legal texts do not distinguish whether the official acts in violation of his duties or not. Trading in influence is criminalized in articles 246 to 249 CP. However, it is only criminalized to the extent that one intends to “obtain from an authority or a public administration any distinction, employment, public tender or any other favourable decision”.关于窝赃的规定载于《刑法典》第505和506条。
On the other hand, the offence is completed even if it does not achieve the desired result.贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条)
Article 21 of the Convention is implemented through article 310 1 CP. Luxembourg law goes beyond the requirements of the Convention in that it applies equally outside the context of business activities.与《公约》第十七条相对应的国内法规定是《刑法典》第240条(贪污)和第491条(违反信托)。
However, the national legislator has retained the formula “without the knowledge and authorization”.《公司法》第171-1条宽泛地将私营部门内侵吞财产的行为定为犯罪,还就违背公司利益行使权力的行为做出了予以惩罚的规定。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)另一方面,只有法律上或事实上的管理人员才有可能成为犯罪行为人。
Luxembourg has criminalized money-laundering through the provisions in articles 506-1 to 506-8 CP. While Luxembourg has opted for a list of predicate offences, the last indent of article 506 1(1) CP means that, due to the low minimum penalty of 6 months imprisonment, in practice Luxembourg almost has an all-crimes approach to money-laundering.卢森堡通过《刑法典》第240、243、244和245条实施《公约》第十九条。
In particular, all corruption offences are specifically covered by a separate indent.卢森堡国家预防腐败委员会讨论了将资产非法增加(《公约》第二十条)定为犯罪的可能性,但最终决定不建议政府做此法律变更,因为这在实践中会将举证责任转嫁到犯罪嫌疑人身上,而这被认为是与无罪推定的基本法律原则相抵触。
Attempt, preparation and conspiracy to commit money-laundering, as well as complicity are covered by articles 506-1(4), 506-4, 506-5 and 506-6 CP, as well as through the general provisions in articles 66 and 67 CP (authors and accomplices of crimes).妨害司法(第二十五条)
Article 506-4 CP explicitly provides for the criminalization of self-laundering.国家机关报告称,通过《刑法典》第140、141、223、224、251至253和282条之规定通过并实施《公约》第二十五条第 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠项。
Concealment is covered by the provisions in articles 505 and 506 CP. Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)《公约》第二十五条第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项则通过《刑法典》第140、141、251至253和275条及以后各条予以实施。
The domestic provisions which correspond to article 17 of the Convention are article 240 CP (embezzlement) and article 491 (breach of trust).法人责任(第二十六条)
Article 171 1 of the Corporations Act criminalizes the embezzlement of property in the private sector in a broad manner, also penalizing the exercise of powers contrary to the interests of the company.卢森堡援引了《刑法典》第34至40条。
On the other hand, only managers, de jure or de facto, may be perpetrators of the offence.《公约》第二十六条第一和第二款系通过《刑法典》第34条实施。
Luxembourg has implemented article 19 of the Convention through articles 240, 243, 244 and 245 CP. Luxembourg’s National Anti-Corruption Committee (COPRECO) discussed the possibility of criminalizing illicit enrichment (Art. 20 of the Convention) but decided not to recommend this legal change to the government because this would in practice put the burden of proof on the suspect, which was considered to be incompatible with the fundamental legal principle of the presumption of innocence.可承担法人责任的人员为其董事会成员或其法律上或事实上的管理人员(《刑法典》第34条)。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)审议专家指出,法人责任的属物理由和属人理由范围宽泛,涵盖所有的罪行和犯罪,覆及所有法人,包括公法所辖对象(国家和市镇除外)和公共企业。
The national authorities reported the adoption and implementation of article 25 (a) of the Convention through 140, 141, 223, 224, 251 to 253 and 282 CP. Article 25(b) of the Convention is implemented through articles 140, 141, 251 to 253 and 275 et seq.此外,在追究公司刑事责任时,以行政制裁为辅(1915年8月10日《商业公司法》(经修订)第203条)。
CP. Liability of legal persons (art. 26)根据《刑法典》第34(2)条,法人责任独立于犯罪个人的责任之外。
Luxembourg cited articles 34 to 40 CP. Article 26, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Convention is implemented through article 34 CP. The persons who can incur the liability of the legal person are the members of its boards or its de jure or de facto managers (art. 34 CP).相反,卢森堡法院认为,法人的刑事责任即便是在该机构或代表可能尚未受到有效起诉和被定罪之时亦可考虑予以追究。
The reviewing experts noted the large scope rationae materiae and personae of the liability of legal persons which covers all crimes and offences and includes all legal persons, including those governed by public law (except for the State and the communes) and public enterprises.铭记关于法人刑事责任的立法直至2010年方才颁布,审议专家指出,迄今为止,一直缺乏针对法人腐败相关犯罪行为的刑事制裁措施。
Moreover, corporate criminal liability is supplemented by administrative sanctions (art. 203 Loi modifiée du 10 août 1915 sur les sociétés commerciales).参与和未遂(第二十七条)
According to article 34(2) CP, the liability of legal persons is independent from the liability of the individual who commits the offence.卢森堡通过《刑法典》第66至69条的规定通过并实施《公约》第二十七条第一款。
Conversely, the Luxembourg courts have held that criminal liability of legal persons may be examined even when the organ or the representative may not have been effectively prosecuted and convicted of the offence.《刑法典》第51和52条对未遂做出了规定。
Bearing in mind that the legislation on the criminal liability of legal persons was only enacted in 2010, the reviewing experts noted the absence of criminal sanctions for corruption-related offences imposed on legal persons to date.卢森堡指出,就腐败犯罪而言,关于未遂的一般规定在实践中鲜有适用。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)按照卢森堡法律,单纯的准备行为不构成刑事犯罪。
Luxembourg has adopted and implemented article 27(1) of the Convention through the provisions in articles 66 to 69 CP. Attempt is governed by articles 51 and 52 CP. Luxembourg pointed out that as far as corruption offences are concerned, there was little practical application for the general rules on attempt.起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
Simple preparatory acts are not criminalized under Luxembourg’s law.卢森堡法律就不同类别的犯罪(重罪、轻罪和违警罪)做了区分,犯罪的严重性可视每项犯罪的量刑范围纳入考虑。
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)腐败犯罪所受制裁的力度足够大。
The law distinguishes between different categories of offences (crime, délit, contravention) and the gravity of the offence can be taken into account due to the range of sentences for each offence.唯一享有有限豁免权的公职人员是议员和大公。
The level of sanctions for corruption offences is adequate.只有在议会开会期间逮捕议员才需事先征得议会批准(《宪法》第68条和69条)。
The only public officials who enjoy a very limited immunity are the members of Parliament and the Grand Duke.但是,《宪法》第116条赋予了议会对政府成员提起刑事诉讼的酌处权。
Only the arrest of an MP during a parliamentary session requires prior approval by Parliament (Art. 68, 69 of the Constitution).卢森堡实行自由裁量起诉制度,且不受强制起诉原则约束。
However, Article 116 of the Constitution vests Parliament with the discretionary power to pursue itself criminal proceedings against a member of the Government.但是,起诉是惯常做法,特别是对腐败犯罪等可判处监禁的犯罪而言。
Luxembourg has a discretionary prosecution system and is not governed by the principle of mandatory prosecution.被告人凡不主动出席法院审理程序的,可予以逮捕(《刑事诉讼法》第119条)。
However, prosecution is the rule, particularly for offences punishable with prison sentences, like corruption offences.关于假释的规定见《刑事诉讼法》第116、119和94条,以及《刑事诉讼法》第619条及以后各条和《刑法典》第100条。
A defendant who does not show up voluntarily at court proceedings can be arrested (art. 119 CIC).《公约》第三十条第六款系通过《公职人员法》第48和49条加以实施。
The regulation about parole can be found in articles 116, 119 and 94 CIC, as well as articles 619 et seq.卢森堡《刑法典》第7、10、11和14条以及《公职人员法》第48和49条规定了取消被判犯有腐败罪者担任公职的资格的程序。
CIC and article 100 CP. Article 30(6) of the Convention is implemented through articles 48 and 49 of the Civil Servants Act.在卢森堡,纪律和刑事制裁可同时适用。
Luxembourg has established procedures for the disqualification of persons convicted of corruption offences from holding public office in articles 7, 10, 11, 14 CP and articles 48 and 49 of the Civil Servants Act.通过立法促进被定罪者重新融入社会。
Luxembourg can apply disciplinary and criminal sanctions simultaneously.《刑事诉讼法》第644至658条及以后各条和《监狱管理法》对犯罪人员重新融入社会做出了规定。
The legislation promotes the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences.此外,该国还有一部关于刑罚执行的法律。
The reintegration into society of offenders is governed by articles 644 to 658 et seq.在恐怖主义、有组织犯罪和毒品贩运案件中,可能会给予刑事诉讼证人豁免权,而在腐败案件中则无此可能性。
CIC and the Law on Penitentiary Administration.但是,在这类案件中,犯罪者予以配合的,可考虑从轻处罚。
Moreover, there is the Law on the execution of penalties.保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)
While in terrorism, organized crime and drug trafficking cases there is a possibility for granting crown witnesses immunity, this possibility does not exist in corruption cases.在秘密调查这一极为特殊的情况下,证人的身份可不予披露。
However, in such cases, the cooperation of the offender can be taken into account to mitigate the punishment.在证人保护方面,卢森堡与其他国家进一步开展合作。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)鉴于卢森堡是个小国,该国并未设立任何正式的证人保护方案。
The non-disclosure of the identity of a witness is possible in the very special case of covert investigation.通过2011年2月13日的一项关于保护举报人的法案保护举报人。
Luxembourg further cooperates with other States in the field of witness protection.《劳动法》第L.271-2条规定,对报复性解雇案件实行举证责任倒置。
Given the small size of the country, there are no formal witness protection programmes in Luxembourg.公职人员不仅有权受到免遭报复的保护,实际上还有举报腐败情形的义务。
The protection of reporting persons has been implemented through the Act of 13 February 2011 on whistle-blower protection.透明国际驻卢森堡办事处已开设一条举报人热线电话,该热线由卢森堡供资。
The Labour Act lays down a reversal of the burden of proof for cases of retaliatory dismissal in article L.271-2.冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
Civil servants are not only protected from reprisals but are actually obliged to report instances of corruption.关于冻结、扣押和没收的国内法律框架载于《刑法典》第7、14、19、21、31、32和32-1条。
Transparency International (TI) Luxembourg has established a hotline for whistle-blowers which is financed by the State.这些章节不仅涵盖犯罪所得,还涵盖用于或意图用于实施犯罪的工具。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)卢森堡尚未建立专门处置被冻结、被扣押或被没收财产的资产管理机构。
The domestic legal framework on freezing, seizing and confiscation can be found in articles 7, 14, 19, 21, 31, 32, 32-1 CP. These chapters cover not only proceeds of crime, but also instrumentalities used, or intended to be used, in the commission of a crime.被冻结或被扣押财产的管理由国家负责。
Luxembourg has not established an asset management agency to specifically dispose of frozen, seized or confiscated property.在涉及毒品贩运、洗钱和资助恐怖主义行为的案件中,财产由国家转移至资产充公基金(打击某些形式的犯罪基金)。
The administration of frozen or seized property is handled by the State.已被部分或者全部转变或者转化为其他财产的犯罪所得可予冻结和没收。
In cases related to drug trafficking, money-laundering or financing of terrorism, the property is transferred by the State to the Asset Forfeiture Fund (Fonds de lutte contre certaines formes de criminalité).银行单据亦可没收,但前提是它被认为是犯罪工具。
Proceeds of crime that have been transformed or converted, in part or in full, into other property, is liable to freezing and confiscation.反之,如果它被认为是证据,则会被放入案件卷宗,在结案后加以销毁或归还其合法所有者(《刑事诉讼法》第31-35、65、66、66-1至66-5、67、67-1条)。
Confiscation can also comprise banking documentation if it was considered an instrument of the offence.卢森堡未设立银行账户中央登记册。
Otherwise, if it was considered evidence, it would form part of the case file and would be destroyed or given back to its legitimate owner at the closing of the case (arts. 31-35, 65, 66, 66-1 to 66-5, 67, 67-1 CIC).实行《刑事诉讼法》第66-4和66-5条后,预审法官可通过一道简化的程序责令一家信贷机构提供关于银行账户或银行交易的资料或文件。
Luxembourg does not have a central register of bank accounts.根据该程序,命令书可通过以电子形式进行通知的方式送达有关信贷机构。
Following the introduction of articles 66-4 and 66-5 CIC, the investigating judge may order a credit institution to provide information or documents concerning bank accounts or banking transactions through a simplified procedure.该信贷机构在接到命令书后,应在命令书规定时间内,以电子形式将要求出具的资料或文件送交预审法官。
According to this procedure, the order may be served to the credit institution concerned by way of a notification made electronically.拒不遵守此类命令书的,可处1,250欧元到125,000欧元的罚款(《刑事诉讼法》第66-5(3)条)。
The credit institution notified by the order shall communicate the information or documents requested electronically to the investigating judge within the time period indicated in the order.此外,银行还要配合金融情报机构的工作,对“了解你的客户”的报表负刑事责任。
Non-compliance with such an order is punishable by a fine of 1,250 to 125,000 euros (article 66-5 (3) CIC).根据《公约》第三十一条第八款,卢森堡曾考虑有否可能要求由罪犯证明所指称的犯罪所得或者其他应当予以没收的财产的合法来源,但最终决定不这样做,理由是此要求被认为不符合无罪推定的基本法律原则。
Moreover, banks cooperate with the FIU and are criminally liable for Know-Your-Customer statements.但是,自由评估证据的原则同样适用于所指称的犯罪所得的合法或非法来源。
In accordance with article 31 (8) of the Convention, Luxembourg has considered the possibility of requiring that an offender demonstrates the lawful origin of alleged proceeds of crime or other property liable to confiscation but decided not to do so because such a requirement was considered to be inconsistent with the fundamental legal principle of the presumption of innocence.善意第三方的权利受《刑法典》第31(4)和32-1(4) 条保护。
However, the principle of the free assessment of the evidence equally applies to the lawful or illegal origin of alleged proceeds of crime.时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)
The rights of bona fide third parties are protected under articles 31(4), 32-1(4) CP. Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)《刑法典》第91至 99条和《刑事诉讼法》第635至643条就有关时效的规则做了规定。
The rules about the statute of limitations are regulated in articles 91 to 99 CP and articles 635 to 643 CIC.规定的重罪的诉讼时效为10年,而轻罪则为5年(《刑事诉讼法》第637和638条)。
The prescription period for the prosecution of crimes is 10 years, and 5 years in the case of misdemeanours (art. 637 and 638 CIC).腐败案件的诉讼时效一般自腐败行为实施之刻起算。
Prescription of corruption cases generally commences the moment in which the acts are committed.一经出现如下事由,诉讼时效中断:出具证据或提起诉讼。
Prescription is interrupted each time evidence is taken or proceedings are brought.待至逮捕令签发,诉讼时效期间重新起算。
The issuing of an arrest warrant would restart the clock.在做处罚裁定时,法院可能会考虑到任何以往的判罪,包括外国的判罪(《刑事诉讼法》第7-5条)。
In the determination of the punishment the court has the possibility to take into consideration any previous, including foreign, conviction (art. 7-5 CIC).管辖权(第四十二条)
Jurisdiction (art. 42)《刑事诉讼法》就有关刑事案件管辖权的规则做了规定。
The rules about jurisdiction in criminal cases are regulated in the CIC.卢森堡在确立管辖权方面适用属地管辖原则与主动和被动属人管辖原则。
Luxembourg has implemented the territoriality principle and both the active and passive personality principle for establishing jurisdiction.卢森堡法院对本国国民在其境外犯下的重罪具有管辖权,不受两国共认犯罪这一条件约束(《刑事诉讼法》第5(1)条)。
Luxembourg courts have jurisdiction over crimes committed by its nationals outside its territory without a requirement for dual criminality (art. 5(1) CIC).而对轻罪而言,两国共认犯罪这一条件必须具备。
For misdemeanours, dual criminality is required.将某些上游犯罪所得金钱存入卢森堡账户构成洗钱,卢森堡即对此案具有管辖权。
The simple fact of keeping money stemming from certain predicate offences in an account in Luxembourg would constitute money-laundering and thus establish Luxembourg’s jurisdiction over the case.卢森堡可在被指控罪犯处于其领域内而其仅因该人为本国国民而不予引渡时,确立其对根据《公约》确立的犯罪的管辖权(《刑事诉讼法》第5-1 条)。
Luxembourg can establish its jurisdiction over the offences established in accordance with the Convention when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite such person solely on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals (art. 5-1 CIC).腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)根据卢森堡法律,腐败仅会导致合同可作废,而非在法律上无效。
Under Luxembourg law, corruption does not make a contract void ipso iure, only voidable.在私法诉讼中,可因欺诈原因撤销合同或吊销特许权。
In private law proceedings, a contract can be rescinded or a concession revoked for reasons of fraud.此外,公共采购法中载有明确的腐败犯罪行政处罚措施。
Moreover, public procurement law contains specific administrative sanctions for corruption offences.自然人和法人如有犯罪,一律记录在案。
A criminal record for natural and legal persons exists.在刑事诉讼中,可要求获得损害赔偿,民事当事人可根据《刑事诉讼法》第56至62条提出索赔主张。
Compensation for damage is available and can be claimed under articles 56 to 62 CIC by the civil party in criminal proceedings.专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条)
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)卢森堡无专门的反腐败机构。
Luxembourg does not have a specialized anti-corruption body.打击腐败的斗争是刑事警察和检察机关的任务。
Rather, the fight against corruption is the task of the criminal police and the prosecution service.在卢森堡警方以及在检察官办公室中,有一定数量的人员专门从事反腐败工作(即通过专门的培训),并负责腐败案件。
Within the Luxembourg police as well as within the Prosecutor’s office, a certain number of people are specialized in combating corruption (i.e.卢森堡法律规定检察官和法官享有同等地位,以此确保其独立性。
by special training) and are responsible for corruption cases.警方在行政上保持独立。
Prosecutors and Judges have the same status under Luxembourg law, ensuring their independence.法警在检察长的监督下行事,但在就具体卷宗行事时,仅听命于预审法官。
The police are administratively independent.卢森堡设有一个司法型金融情报机构,其职责不仅限于调查可疑交易报告中所载的事实。
The police judiciaire act under the supervision of the prosecutor general, but under the sole orders of the investigating magistrate if acting in a specific file.金融情报机构的工作人员为检察官,其权力与预审法官类似。
Luxembourg has a judicial type FIU which is not limited in its investigations by the facts contained in a suspicious transaction report.卢森堡现已设立一个预防腐败的横向委员会(“国家反腐败委员会”)。
The FIU is staffed by prosecutors who have powers similar to those of an investigating judge.预防腐败委员会可邀请私营部门和民间社会的代表参与。
Luxembourg has established a horizontal committee for the prevention of corruption (the “COPRECO”).2008年《合作法》规定,国家机关负有自发共享信息的义务。
COPRECO can invite representatives from the private sector and civil society.此外,公职人员有举报腐败犯罪的义务(《刑事诉讼法》第23条)。
The 2008 Act on Cooperation contains an obligation for spontaneous information sharing between national authorities.公共机关定期组织开办主题为私营部门腐败的讲习班和会议。
Moreover, civil servants are obliged to report corruption offences (art. 23 CIC).卢森堡向透明国际反腐败热线提供资金支持,人们可拨打此热线,举报与腐败有关的可疑行为。
The public authorities are regularly organizing workshops and conferences on the subject of corruption with the private sector.2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Luxembourg is granting financial support to TI to run an anti-corruption hotline where persons can report suspicious acts linked to corruption.总体而言,在实施《公约》第三章方面,突出强调下列成功经验和良好做法:
2.2. Successes and good practices(第二十一条)卢森堡法律在贯彻《公约》要求的基础上更进一步,规定商业活动之外的领域同等适用;
Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing Chapter III of the Convention are highlighted:(第二十二条)将私营部门内侵吞财产的行为定为犯罪的条款适用范围广泛;
(Art. 21) Luxembourg law goes beyond the requirements of the Convention in that it applies equally outside the context of business activities;(第三十条)仅给予议员豁免权,从而严格限制了享有此项特权的官员人数;
(Art. 22) The broad scope of application of the provision criminalizing embezzlement in the private sector;(第三十三条)通过《举报人保护法》在《劳动法》中引入具体的报复防范措施;
(Art. 30) The granting of immunities to members of parliament only, thus strictly limiting the number of officials enjoying this privilege;(第三十六条)其金融情报机构权力广泛,检察官享有与法官类似的独立地位;
(Art. 33) The specific protection against reprisals in the Labour Act introduced by the Whistleblower Protection Act;(第四十二条)在对卢森堡国民境外犯罪确立刑事管辖权时,无需具备两国共认犯罪这一条件,轻罪则另当别论。
(Art. 36) The far-reaching powers of its FIU and the independent status of the prosecutors which is akin to that of judges;2.3. 实施方面的挑战
(Art. 42) The absence of the requirement of double criminality for the establishment of criminal jurisdiction over extraterritorial offences other than misdemeanours committed by nationals of Luxembourg.尽管注意到卢森堡有着先进的反腐败法律制度,但审议人员发现该国在实施方面存在一些挑战和(或)有理由加以进一步改进,并就此作出如下评述,供国家主管机关采取行动或予以考虑(视《公约》相关规定的强制性或任择性而定)。
2.3. Challenges in implementation此外,作为一项一般性意见,他们还指出,如能从多个方面多加提供一些统计数据、实例和判例法,则可更好地展现《公约》的实际实施情况。
While noting Luxembourg’s advanced anti-corruption legal system, the reviewers identified some challenges in implementation and/or grounds for further improvement and made the following remarks to be taken into account for action or consideration by the competent national authorities (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant Convention requirements).(第十八条)铭记该条款的任择性质,审议专家建议卢森堡考虑对关于影响力交易的判例实行监督,以确定该法是否全面到足以涵盖任何“不正当好处”;
Moreover, they noted, as a general observation, that more statistics, examples and case law in many areas could have better demonstrated the implementation of the Convention in practice.(第二十条)牢记卢森堡关于不将资产非法增加定为刑事犯罪的决定,审议专家建议该国加强现有的资产申报制度,并针对高级官员推行此类制度;
(Art. 18) Bearing in mind the optional nature of the provision, the reviewing experts recommend that Luxembourg consider monitoring the jurisprudence pertaining to trading in influence in order to establish if the law is comprehensive enough to cover any “undue advantage”;(第二十六条)审议专家建议卢森堡考虑修正现有立法,以确保其行为可触发法人责任者的权限范围灵活可变,并反映出法人决策体系的广泛多样性。
(Art. 20) Bearing in mind the decision not to criminalize illicit enrichment, the reviewing experts recommend strengthening existing asset declaration systems and introducing such systems for high-ranking officials;此外,他们还要求卢森堡监督关于法人刑事责任的判例。
(Art. 26) The reviewing experts recommend that Luxembourg consider amending the existing legislation so that the level of authority of the person whose conduct triggers the liability of the legal person is flexible and reflects the wide variety of decision-making systems in legal persons.(第三十条)审议专家对《宪法》第116条所载规则表示关切,该条规定赋予议会以对政府成员提起刑事诉讼的酌处权。
Moreover, Luxembourg is requested to monitor the jurisprudence on the criminal liability of legal persons;他们建议按照关于修改宪法的第6030号动议草案所作设想,确立一项起诉政府成员的综合制度;
(Art. 30) The reviewing experts voiced concern about the rule in article 116 of the Constitution, vesting Parliament with the discretionary power to pursue itself criminal proceedings against a member of Government.(第三十二条)鉴于卢森堡是个小国,审议专家建议该国与周边国家一道,针对腐败案件实行证人特别保护安排。
They recommend the adoption of a comprehensive system of prosecution of members of Government as foreseen in draft bill n°6030 on the revision of the Constitution;3. 第四章:国际合作
(Art. 32) Given the small size of the country the reviewing experts recommend applying the ad hoc protection arrangements for witnesses with neighbouring countries to cases of corruption.3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
3. Chapter IV: International cooperation引渡;被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、四十五和四十七条)
3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review关于引渡的基本规定载于2001年6月20日的《引渡法》。
Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47)该法适用于无双边或多边协定的情形,且不妨碍《2002年6月13日关于欧洲逮捕证和欧洲联盟成员国间罪犯移交程序的框架决定》的适用。
The basic provisions on extradition are found in the Extradition Law of 20 June 2001.上述《框架决定》通过经2011年8月3日法律修正的《2004年3月17日关于欧洲逮捕证和欧洲联盟成员国间罪犯移交程序法》予以落实。
This law applies in the absence of bilateral or multilateral agreements and without prejudice to the applicability of the Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) and the surrender procedures between States members of the European Union.可引渡的犯罪经查明确定后,为起诉目的而提出引渡请求的,最低处罚门槛为一年监禁,为执行此类判决而提出引渡请求的,为至少六个月的未服完刑期。
The Law of 17 March 2004 on the EAW and the surrender procedures between States members of the European Union, as modified by Law of 3 August 2011, implements the above-mentioned Framework Decision.两国共认犯罪的要求在此适用,但重点在于基本行为。
The threshold for the identification of extraditable offences is at least one year of imprisonment in the event of a request for extradition for prosecution purposes or a remainder of sentence of at least six months where extradition is requested for purposes of enforcement of such sentence.因此,卢森堡对该项要求的解释相当灵活。
The requirement of dual criminality is applied, but with a focus on the underlying conduct.此外,2004年3月17日的法律规定,在关于腐败和清洗犯罪所得的案件中,欧洲逮捕证的签发可不受两国共认罪这一条件制约,但前提是所涉犯罪在签发国可被处以刑罚或至少剥夺三年自由的措施 。
Therefore, a flexible approach is taken on the interpretation of this requirement.即便在无国际条约或公约的情况下,卢森堡也可以适用国内法进行引渡。
In addition, the law of 17 March 2004 stipulates that the EAW could be executed without dual criminality in cases of corruption and laundering of proceeds of crime, provided that the related offences are punishable in the issuing State by a penalty or a measure of deprivation of liberty of a maximum of at least 3 years.《公约》具有直接法律效力,原因在于国际条约具有至高无上的地位。
Luxembourg may extradite even in the absence of an international treaty or convention, applying the domestic law. The Convention has direct force of law by virtue of the primacy of international treaties. Therefore, most of its extradition-related provisions are directly applicable without the need for implementing legislation. Almost all offences under the Convention have been covered by domestic legislation. Additionally, reciprocity could be used as a legal basis. The formalities and information necessary in order to process a request for extradition are set forth in article 10 of the EAW Law and article 23 of the Extradition Law which provide simplified extradition proceedings. In the framework of the EAW, the person sought may consent to his/her surrender without further formality. He/she may also waive the rule of specialty. Under the national law of extradition, the lifting of the specialty rule is possible on the advice of the Council Chamber of the Court of Appeal and subject to the consent of the person sought. The Extradition Law provides for the provisional arrest of the person sought to ensure his/her presence in extradition proceedings. The Extradition Law sets out the principle of aut dedere, aut judicare. It establishes nationality as one of the grounds for refusal of an extradition request. Extradition may also be refused if the person sought is a foreigner who resides permanently in the Luxembourg and if extradition is considered inappropriate due to his integration or to the community ties that he has built in Luxembourg, provided however that he may be prosecuted in Luxembourg for the facts for which the extradition is requested. Where a request for extradition is refused on the ground of nationality, the authorities forward the case to prosecution authorities without delay, the prosecution in lieu of extradition is also possible through the direct application of treaties. The Act of 27 October 2010 has completed the Act of 20 June 2001 by inserting article 14-1, in application of the principle “aut dedere aut judicare”. Safeguards of due process guarantee all human rights of the person sought from the moment of his/her arrest and throughout the extradition process. Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights is applied by the courts in domestic extradition proceedings. Luxembourg does not refuse extradition for tax offences if the latter are related to other extraditable offences (accessory extradition). Although article 6 of the Extradition Act simply states that “[e]xtradition shall not be granted for offences on issues of taxes and levies, customs and foreign exchange”, extradition is only denied if the relevant request is based exclusively on tax offences. The national authorities confirmed that fiscal offences do not pose difficulties in corruption-related investigations. Under article 1 of the Law on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons, if the Luxembourg national who has been the subject of a final conviction by a foreign jurisdiction and who evades the enforcement of that condemnation seeks refuge in Luxembourg, Luxembourg can take responsibility for the execution of this condemnation at the request of the State which has pronounced the final sentence. Luxembourg has not entered yet into a bilateral agreement on this matter. The transfer of sentenced persons is possible on the basis of the Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons of 1983 and its Additional Protocol of 1997. The Act of 25 April 2003 is applied in the absence of applicable multilateral or bilateral conventions. Luxembourg has no specific law concerning the transfer of criminal proceedings. In practice, the transfer is possible and is decided upon by the competent judicial authorities of Luxembourg and the other country concerned. Mutual legal assistance (art. 46) The legal framework for mutual legal assistance (MLA) is set out in Law of 8 August 2000. In addition, Luxembourg has entered into a number of bilateral and multilateral agreements on MLA.因此,《公约》关于引渡的大部分条款可以直接适用,而无需另行立法。
The Convention could be used as legal basis.《公约》规定的所有犯罪几乎全部为国内立法所涵盖。
MLA can also be afforded on the basis of reciprocity.此外,互惠也可作为一项法律依据。 处理引渡请求所需的手续和资料载于《欧洲逮捕证法》第10条和《引渡法》第23条,这两项条款规定了简化的引渡程序。
The General Prosecutor’s Office has been designated as the central authority for MLA.在欧洲逮捕证的框架内,被请求引渡人可能会不经进一步手续即同意将其移交。
Luxembourg does not require a formal decision of the requesting State, but the request must come from a competent judicial authority.他/她也可能会放弃其援引特定规则的权利。
The request must also relate to an investigation, prosecution or judicial proceedings in the requesting State.根据国家引渡法,经上诉法院合议庭提出建议,并经被请求引渡人同意,特定规则可予解除。
MLA can be requested and obtained for all the purposes set forth in article 46, paragraph 3, of the Convention.《引渡法》规定,可对被请求引渡人实施临时逮捕,以确保他/她出席引渡诉讼。
It may also be provided in relation to alleged offences involving legal persons, according to Law of 3 March 2010.《引渡法》确立了“不引渡即审判”的原则。 该法规定,国籍是可予拒绝引渡请求的理由之一。 如果被请求引渡人是长期居住卢森堡的外国人,且卢森堡鉴于该人已融入该国社会或其在该国建立的社会关系而认为引渡是不当之举,也可能会拒绝引渡,但前提是该人可能会因引渡请求所针对的事实在卢森堡接受起诉。
The Convention can be used as the basis for spontaneous transmission of information outside the European Union framework.凡以国籍为由拒绝引渡请求的,当局需将案件送交检察机关,不得延误。
Although bank secrecy is not mentioned in the domestic legislation, the national authorities confirmed that bank secrecy does not pose difficulties in corruption-related investigations.通过直接适用条约,以起诉代替引渡同样可行。 在适用“不引渡即审判”原则方面,2010年10月27日的法案通过插入第14-1条完善了2001年6月20的法案。 适当程序保障措施保障被请求引渡人自被捕之刻起和在整个引渡过程中的所有人权。 法院在国内引渡程序中适用《欧洲人权公约》第6条。 但是,如果是涉税犯罪,且涉及其他可引渡的犯罪,则卢森堡不会拒绝引渡(附带引渡)。 虽然《引渡法》第6条仅规定,“凡涉及税务、课税、关税和外汇问题的犯罪,一律不予引渡”,但事实上,只有在引渡请求仅有涉税犯罪这一个理由时,才会加以拒绝。 国家机关确认,经济犯罪不会给腐败相关调查造成困难。 按照《被判刑人员移管法》第1条,卢森堡国民凡经某外国法域终审判决被认定有罪但却逃避判决执行的,如果在卢森堡寻求避难,经最终判决宣布国提出请求,卢森堡可代为执行该判决。 卢森堡尚未就该问题缔结任何双边协定。 根据1983年《被判刑人员移管公约》及其1997年《附加议定书》,被判刑人的移管是可行的。 若无适用的多边或双边公约,则代之适用2003年4月25日的法案。 卢森堡并未就刑事诉讼的移交出台任何专门法律。 在实践中,此种移交是可行的,由卢森堡主管司法机关和其他有关国家决定。 司法协助(第四十六条) 2000年8月8日的法律规定了司法协助的法律框架。 此外,卢森堡已缔结多项关于司法协助的双边和多边协定。 《公约》可作为法律依据。 司法协助也可以在互惠的基础上提供。 检察长办公室已被指定为司法协助的中央主管机关。 卢森堡不要求请求国出具正式决定书,但该请求必须由主管司法机关提出。 该请求还必须涉及到请求国的侦查、起诉或审判程序。 可以为《公约》第四十六条第三款所规定之一切目的而请求给予并获得司法协助。 根据2010年3月3日的法律,亦可为涉及法人的指控犯罪提供司法协助。
MLA may be refused if it is likely to endanger the national sovereignty or jeopardize security or pose a threat to public order or harm other essential national interests; and if the assistance is requested for political offences.《公约》可以作为自发提供欧洲联盟框架以外的资料的依据。
In addition, article 3 of the Law of 8 August 2000, as amended by article 10 of the Law of 27 October 2010 relating to the Fight against Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing, indicates that “[s]ubject to the provisions of conventions, a request for MLA is refused if it exclusively involves offences related to taxes, customs duties or currency exchange under Luxembourg law”.尽管国内立法并未提及银行保密,但国家机关确认,银行保密不会给腐败相关调查造成困难。
Dual criminality is not required to grant MLA requests, unless coercive measures are involved, in which case judicial authorization is mandatory.司法协助可能会被拒绝的情形有二:一是这有可能会危及国家主权或破坏安全或者威胁到公共秩序或损害其他重要的国家利益;二是此协助的请求系针对政治犯罪。
Requests for assistance that do not involve coercion will be executed even in the absence of dual criminality, as long as the grounds for refusal set out in the MLA law do not apply.此外,2000年8月8日的法律第3条经2010年10月27日《打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义行为法》第10条修正后规定,“在遵守各公约之规定的前提下,卢森堡法律规定,司法协助请求若仅是针对涉及税务、关税或汇兑的犯罪,即予拒绝”。
The transfer of detainees for the purpose of assisting in investigations can be authorized through the Convention, on the basis of existing MLA treaties or on a reciprocity basis.两国共认犯罪不是同意司法协助请求的必要条件,除非其中牵涉到强制性措施,但如若如此,司法授权即具有强制性。
The provisions of articles 46(10) to (12) are directly applicable.而协助请求不涉及强制性的,只要《司法协助法》所规定的拒绝理由不适用,将一律予以执行,即便是在两国共认犯罪这一条件并不具备的情况下。
Requests sent via fax and e-mail are generally accepted.为协助调查之目的而进行的被拘留者的移管可根据现有的司法协助条约或在互惠的基础上,通过《公约》获得授权。
Oral requests are refused but oral consultations are welcomed.第四十六条第十至十二款的规定直接适用。
In principle the requests would be executed on the basis of national legislation to the extent that such execution does not contravene the national law.通过传真和电子邮件发送的请求是普遍可接受的。
Videoconference hearings are commonly carried out by Luxembourg at the request of foreign judicial authorities.卢森堡拒绝口头请求,但欢迎口头磋商。
This form of assistance is carried out for the hearing of witnesses and experts but not of defendants.原则上,请求会按照国家立法加以执行,但前提是这类执行不能违反国家法律。
In application of article 13 of the MLA Act, information obtained through MLA may not be used in criminal or administrative proceedings other than that for which the assistance was granted (rule of specialty).卢森堡通常会按照外国司法机关的要求,举行视频会议听讯。
Luxembourg ensures confidentiality of the facts and substance of the request if the requesting State so required.这种形式的协助只是针对听取证人和鉴定人而非被告的证词。
Luxembourg does not refuse MLA if the relevant request also includes tax offences which are accessory to corruption offences.在适用《司法协助法》第13条方面,通过司法协助获得的信息可能不得用于同意协助所针对之程序之外的刑事或行政诉讼(特定规则)。
The refusal of an MLA request is always preceded by consultations.请求国如有要求,卢森堡会确保对请求的事实资料和实质内容保密。
A detailed timeline for the execution of MLA requests is not set out in domestic legislation.如果司法协助请求还涉及到腐败犯罪所附带的涉税犯罪,则卢森堡不会拒绝该请求。
However, MLA cases are treated as a priority pursuant to MLA legislation.在拒绝司法协助请求之前,一贯会展开磋商。
Regarding the safe conduct of witnesses, article 11 of the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters of 1959 is in force in relation to Luxembourg.国内立法并未就执行司法协助请求的详细时间表做出规定。
The costs of MLA requests are borne by Luxembourg.但是,按照司法协助立法,司法协助案件会优先处理。
Judicial fees are borne by Luxembourg even if they are very high.关于证人的安全保障,1959年《欧洲刑事事项互助公约》第11条在卢森堡有效。
Documents accessible to the public are provided in the framework of MLA requests requiring no measure of coercion, thus outside of the condition of dual incrimination.执行司法协助请求的费用由卢森堡承担。
All documents not accessible to the public but deemed relevant as a means of evidence in the context of a criminal investigation may be seized by the competent examining judge in accordance with the specific provisions of the CIC and other applicable legal provisions.司法费用即便再高,也由卢森堡承担。
Luxembourg is bound by regional instruments on MLA.向公众开放的文件在司法协助请求的框架内提供,无需采取强制性措施,从而不受双重归罪这一条件的限制。
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50)所有不向公众开放但被认为作为一种证据手段与刑事调查存在相关性的文件可由主管预审法官按照《刑事诉讼法》及其他适用法律条文的具体规定予以扣押。 卢森堡受关于司法协助的区域文书的约束。
Law enforcement authorities engage in broad, consistent and effective cooperation with international counterparts to combat transnational crime, including corruption offences.执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
The Central authority to deal with the cooperation is the Prosecutor’s General’s Office.在打击包括腐败犯罪在内的跨国犯罪方面,执法机关与国际同行一贯保持着广泛、连贯且有效的合作。
Luxembourg uses several networks such as Europol, INTERPOL, Schengen Information Service, Bureau de Cooperation Policière, COPRECOR and Eurojust, to facilitate the exchange of police information.合作事项的中央主管机关是检察长办公室。
For information exchange, Luxembourg uses EGMONT, CARIN, Siena, Europol, and FIU Net.卢森堡利用欧洲警察署、国际刑警组织、申根信息服务系统、警务合作局、卢森堡国家预防腐败委员会和欧洲司法组织等若干网络来促进警务信息的交流。
The measures to provide necessary items of quantities of substances for investigative purposes are successfully implemented, is done through police and judicial channels.卢森堡利用埃格蒙特集团、卡姆登资产追回机构间网络、Siena(安全信息交流网应用)、欧洲警察署和金融情报机构网进行信息交流。
Luxembourg does not have liaison officers on other jurisdictions but on occasion has used liaison officers of neighbouring countries in investigations.这些提供必要数目或数量的物品以供调查之用的措施通过警察和司法渠道予以顺利实施。
Joint investigation teams (JITs) can be established with other European Union member States.卢森堡并未在其他法域设立联络官,偶尔会借用邻国联络官开展调查。
In case other countries requested to carry out such joint investigations, the Convention would be used as legal basis.卢森堡可与欧洲联盟其他成员国一道设立联合调查小组。
With regard to special investigative techniques, systematic surveillance, telephone tapping, the monitoring of banking relations and undercover operations can be carried out.如果其他国家要求开展此类联合调查,《公约》可作为法律依据。
In the context of MLA, the special investigative techniques mentioned can all be carried out at the request of the foreign judicial authorities on the basis of the Convention.关于特殊侦查手段,系统监视、窃听电话、监控银行关系和秘密行动皆属此列。
Regarding the use of controlled delivery at the international level, the Convention would be directly applicable.在司法协助方面,所提到的特殊侦查手段均可在《公约》基础上按照外国司法机关的要求加以采用。
3.2. Successes and good practices关于控制下交付在国际层面的使用,《公约》将直接适用。
Overall, the following points are regarded as successes and good practices in the framework of implementing chapter IV of the Convention:3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
The establishment of a comprehensive legal framework on international cooperation in criminal matters which encompasses all forms of international cooperation;总体而言,以下几点被认为是在实施《公约》第四章方面的成功经验和良好做法:
(Arts. 44(1), 46(9) and 43(2)) The flexible interpretation of the double criminality requirement based on the underlying conduct of the offence;确立了关于刑事事项国际合作的综合法律框架,涵盖一切形式的国际合作;
(Art. 50) The protection of undercover investigators is explicitly provided for by law.(第四十四条第一款、第四十六条第九款和第四十三条第二款)视构成犯罪的行为,灵活解释两国共认犯罪这一要求; (第五十条)从法律上对秘密调查员的保护做出了明确规定。
3.3. Challenges in implementation3.3. 实施方面的挑战
The following points are brought to the attention of the Luxembourg authorities for their action or consideration (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant Convention requirements) with a view to enhancing international cooperation to combat offences covered by the Convention:提请卢森堡当局注意下述几点建议,供其采取行动或予以考虑(视《公约》相关规定是强制性还是任择性而定),以期加强国际合作,共同打击《公约》所涵盖的各种犯罪:
(Art. 44(2)) Notwithstanding the flexible interpretation of the double criminality requirement in domestic extradition proceedings, the reviewing experts encouraged the national authorities to explore the possibility of relaxing the strict application of the requirement in cases of Convention-based offences not established in domestic legislation, in line with article 44(2) of the Convention;(第四十四条第二款)尽管在国内引渡程序中对两国共认犯罪这一要求的解释十分灵活,但审议专家仍鼓励国家机关按照《公约》第四十四条第二款之规定,探索是否有可能就《公约》所涵盖但国内法律中尚未做出规定的犯罪放宽对该要求的严格适用;
(Arts. 45, 48) Luxembourg is encouraged to consider the expansion of its network of bilateral treaties on transfer of sentenced persons because of the high number of foreign prisoners in its penitentiary institutions;(第四十五和四十八条)鼓励卢森堡考虑扩大其关于被判刑人员移管问题的双边条约网络,因为其教养机构中关押的外国囚犯人数众多;
(Arts. 46(13), (14)) Notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations about the central authority for processing MLA requests, as well as the acceptable languages;(第四十六条第十三和十四款)向联合国秘书长通报处理司法协助请求的中央主管机关以及可接受的语文;
(Art. 47) Consider whether it could be appropriate to establish guidelines for the public prosecutor to identify cases, where a transfer of the proceeding is appropriate, and expand the network of treaties with non-European countries;(第四十七条)考虑就适宜诉讼移交的案件确立检察官查案准则及扩大与非欧洲国家的条约网络是否适当;
(Art. 49) Consider setting up joint investigation teams in cross-border investigations.(第四十九条)考虑在跨境调查方面成立联合调查小组。