A_AC_105_C_1_109_ADD_1_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/109/ADD.1 V1408275.doc (English)A/AC.105/C.1/109/ADD.1 V1408274.doc (Chinese)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Fifty-second session第五十二届会议
Vienna, 2-13 February 20152015年2月2日至13日,维也纳
Item 7 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目7
Space debris空间碎片
National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris各国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全 及其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Addendum增编
I.一.
Introduction导言
1.1.
The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from two Member States, Japan and Mexico.本文件由秘书处根据日本和墨西哥这两个会员国提供的资料编写。
The information provided by Japan, which includes pictures and figures related to space debris, will be made available as a conference room paper at the fifty-second session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.日本提供的资料包括与空间碎片相关的图片和数字,将作为科学和技术小组委员会第五十二届会议的会议室文件提供。
II.二.
Replies received from Member States从会员国收到的答复
Japan日本
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[13 November 2014][2014年11月13日]
1.1.
Overview概况
In Japan, activities relating to space debris are mainly conducted by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).日本与空间碎片相关的活动主要由日本宇宙航空研究开发机构(宇宙航空机构)进行。
The details of the JAXA strategic plan for space debris were set out in the document “National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris” dated 16 November 2012 (A/AC.105/C.1/107).宇宙航空机构有关空间碎片的战略计划详情,列于2012年11月16日的文件“各国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全及其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究”(A/AC.105/C.1/107)。
In the section below, major advances are presented in the following space debris-related activities conducted by JAXA during 2014:下节介绍宇宙航空机构2014年期间开展以下空间碎片相关活动所取得的主要进展:
(a)(a)
Research on conjunction assessment and collision avoidance manoeuvres in relation to JAXA satellites and debris;结合宇宙航空机构的卫星和碎片,对会合评估和避免碰撞机动操作开展研究;
(b)(b)
Research on technology for observing objects in low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and for determining the orbits of such objects;对观测低地球轨道和地球同步轨道物体和确定此种物体轨道的技术开展研究;
(c)(c)
In situ microdebris measurement system;现场微型碎片测量系统;
(d)(d)
Protection from the impact of microdebris;微型碎片撞击的防护;
(e)(e)
Development of a propellant tank that easily disintegrates during re-entry;研发易于在重返过程中解体的推进剂燃料箱;
(f)(f)
Contribution to the activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).对国际标准化组织(标准化组织)活动的贡献。
2. Status2. 现状
2.1.2.1.
Research on conjunction assessment and collision avoidance manoeuvres in relation to JAXA satellites and debris结合宇宙航空机构的卫星和碎片,对会合评估和避免碰撞机动操作开展研究
JAXA receives conjunction notifications from the Joint Space Operations Center.宇宙航空机构接收联合空间业务中心的会合通知。
For example, in September 2014, the number of notifications received was 27, which exceeded a specified conjunction threshold value.例如,2014年9月收到的通知是27次,超过了某一特定的会合阈值。
Between 2009 and 2014 (September) JAXA executed nine collision avoidance manoeuvres for LEO spacecraft.在2009年至2014年(9月)期间,宇宙航空机构为低地球轨道航天器执行了九次避撞机动操作。
In parallel, JAXA determines the orbit of space objects by using radar and telescope observation data from the Kamisaibara spaceguard centres of the Japan Space Forum, predicts close approaches using the latest orbit ephemerides of JAXA satellites, and calculates probability of collision data using its in-house methods.与此平行,宇宙航空机构利用日本空间论坛上斋原太空护卫中心的雷达和望远镜观测数据确定空间物体的轨道,利用宇宙航空机构卫星的最新轨道星历预测接近途径,并利用内部方法计算碰撞数据概率。
Also, JAXA evaluates the criteria for conjunction assessment and collision avoidance manoeuvres based on its experience.另外,宇宙航空机构在自身经验的基础上评价会合评估和避撞机动操作的标准。
In its evaluations, the trends in parameters for conjunction conditions and prediction errors due to perturbations (e.g. uncertainty in air drag) are analysed.在评价中,分析会合条件参数的趋势和微扰(如空气阻力不稳定)造成的预测误差。
2.2.2.
2.
Research on technology for observing objects in low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit and for determining the orbits of such objects对观测低地球轨道和地球同步轨道物体和确定此种物体轨道的技术开展研究
Generally the observation of LEO objects is conducted by radar, but JAXA has been trying to use optical systems instead to reduce the cost for both construction and operation.低地球轨道物体一般通过雷达观测。 但是,宇宙航空机构正在尝试代之以光学系统,以便降低建造和运营成本。
Arrays of optical sensors are used to cover large regions of the sky.为了覆盖宽广的空域使用了光学传感器阵列。
Survey observations using an 18-cm telescope and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera showed that objects 30 cm or more in diameter were detectable at an altitude of 1,000 km and that 15 per cent of those were uncatalogued.用一架18厘米孔径望远镜和一架电荷耦合器件(CCD)照相机所作的观测调查表明,在1,000公里的高度可测到直径30厘米或以上的物体,而其中有15%未列入目录。
For GEO observation, a field-programmable gate array that can analyse 32 frames with a resolution of up to 4,096x4,096 pixels (commonly referred as 4Kx4K) in 40 seconds confirmed that objects 14 cm in diameter were detectable by analysing CCD images taken with a one-metre telescope at the Bisei spaceguard centre.至于地球同步轨道的观测,可在40秒内分析32帧分辨率高达4,096 x 4,096(通常称为4Kx4K)像素图像的一个现场可编程逻辑门阵列证实,通过分析在美星太空护卫中心用1米孔径望远镜摄取的CCD图像,可测到直径14厘米的物体。
Compared to the current size limit for detecting objects in GEO, reported to be 1 metre, this result can be said to show that the technique is effective for detecting small fragments caused by the break-ups in the GEO region.地球同步轨道物体的检测目前受到尺寸限制,据报告为1米,与之相比,可以说这个结果表明,用这种技术方法检测地球同步轨道区域物体解体造成的小型碎片是有效的。
2.
2.3.3.
In situ microdebris measurement system现场微型碎片测量系统
For microdebris (less than 1 mm in diameter), which cannot be detected from the ground, JAXA is developing an on-board detector for in situ measurement.微型碎片(直径小于1毫米)无法从地面检测。 宇宙航空机构目前正在研发一种机载检测仪用于现场测量。
Its sensor is the first to apply a sensing principle based on conductive (resistive) lines.这种仪器上的传感器,是最先应用以导(阻)线为基础的传感原理的传感器。
If such sensors were installed on a large number of spacecraft, the data acquired could help to improve the debris environment model.如果把这种传感器安装在大量航天器上,获取的数据就能帮助改善碎片环境模型。
An improved flight model will be launched with the H-II Transfer Vehicle Kounotori-5 (HTV-5) in 2015.将于2015年用H-II东方白鹳号转移飞行器-5(HTV-5)发射一个经过改良的飞行模型。
The environmental and impact verification tests have been completed.环境和撞击验证测试现已完成。
Currently little is known about tiny debris and micrometeoroids in outer space, although having such information is essential for impact risk assessment, for spacecraft survivability analysis, and for designing cost-effective protection for spacecraft.关于外层空间的细小碎片和微流星,目前知之甚少,尽管此类信息对碰撞风险评估、对航天器生存力分析和为航天器设计成本效益高的保护是不可或缺的。
It would be very welcome if the world’s space agencies launched such devices, installed them on their spacecraft, shared the data collected, and thus contributed to the improvement of the existing debris and meteoroid models.如果世界各国的空间机构能发射此类装置,把这类仪器安装在其航天器上,交流收集到的信息,从而为完善现有的碎片和流星模型做出贡献,将会特别受到欢迎。
2.
2.4.4.
Protection from the impact of microdebris微型碎片撞击的防护
The amount of LEO microdebris (less than 1 mm in diameter) has increased.低地球轨道上的微碎片(直径小于1毫米)增加了数量。
The impact of microdebris can inflict critical damage on satellites because its impact velocity is, on average, 10 km/s.微碎片的冲击速度平均达到10公里/秒,其撞击会对卫星造成致命破坏。
To assess the effects of debris impact on satellites, JAXA is conducting hypervelocity impact tests and numerical simulations for structure panels and bumper shield materials.宇宙航空机构为了评估碎片撞击对卫星的影响,正在对结构板和防护罩材料进行超高速撞击测试和数码模拟试验。
Internal damage to structure panels has also been investigated with the help of numerical simulations.另外还借助数码模拟方法检查结构板受到的内部损伤。
The results of that research are reflected in the “Space debris protection design manual” (JAXA manual JERG-2-144-HB).《空间碎片防护设计手册》(JAXA manual JERG-2-144-HB)反映了这项研究的结果。
The original version of the manual was published in 2009, and it was revised in 2014.手册原始版于2009年出版,2014年做了修订。
JAXA has developed a debris impact risk assessment tool named Turandot.宇宙航空机构研发了一种称为“图兰朵”的碎片撞击风险评估工具。
Turandot analyses debris impact risks using a three-dimensional model of a given spacecraft.“图兰朵”利用航天器的三维模型分析碎片撞击风险。
Turandot has been updated to apply the latest debris environment model of the European Space Agency, MASTER-2009.为了应用欧洲航天局最新的碎片环境模型MASTER-2009,“图兰朵”已经做了更新。
2.
2.5.5.
Development of a propellant tank that easily disintegrates during re-entry研发易于在重返过程中解体的推进剂燃料箱
Propellant tanks are usually made of titanium alloys, which are superior because of their light weight and good chemical compatibility with the propellants used.推进剂燃料箱通常用钛合金制造。 钛合金重量轻,与使用的推进剂有良好的化学兼容性,因此是优质材料。
However, their melting point is so high that they would not disintegrate during re-entry and pose the risk of casualties on the ground.但是,由于熔点极高,在重返时不会解体,所以会对地面构成伤亡威胁。
JAXA has conducted research to develop an aluminium-lined tank overwrapped with carbon composites, which will have a lower melting point.宇宙航空机构开展了研究,希望研制一种铝衬燃料箱,外裹碳复合材料,这样的燃料箱熔点就会降低。
As a feasibility study JAXA has conducted fundamental tests, including a test to determine the compatibility of aluminium as a lining material with hydrazine propellant, and an arc heating test.在可行性研究中,宇宙航空机构进行了基本测试,包括确定铝制衬里材料与肼推进剂之间兼容性的测试和一次电弧加热测试。
JAXA is now conducting trial production of a scale model named Trial 1.宇宙航空机构目前正在试验性生产一种称为Trial 1的比例模型。
Before the carbon fibre-reinforced plastic was wrapped around the tank, fundamental tests were conducted to determine the filament winding parameters using a proxy that represented the cylindrical part of the aluminium liner.在把碳纤维增强塑料裹附在燃料箱外表之前进行了基本测试,利用一个铝衬圆柱体部分的替代物确定碳丝缠绕参数。
The next step is trial production of the full-scale tank and a qualification test.下一步骤是试验性生产原尺寸的燃料箱和进行合格测试。
Once it has passed the qualification test, the tank will cost less and have a shorter manufacturing lead time than previous titanium tanks.一旦通过合格测试,这种燃料箱的成本就会降低,从设计到完工的制造时间就会少于过去使用的钛制燃料箱。
2.
2.6.6.
Contribution to the activities of the International Organization for Standardization对国际标准化组织(标准化组织)活动的贡献
The ISO technical committee on aircraft and space vehicles, subcommittee on space systems and operations (ISO/TC20/SC14), has developed many debris-related standards.标准化组织的飞行器和空间运载工具技术委员会空间系统和作业小组委员会(ISO/TC20/SC14)制订了多项碎片相关标准。
They consist of top-level standard ISO-24113:2011 (Space systems: space debris mitigation requirements) and several lower-level standards that detail the methods, procedures and techniques to be followed to meet the top-level standard.其中包括高层标准ISO-24113:2011(空间系统:空间碎片减缓规定)和若干低层标准,在低层标准中详列了用以达到高层标准的方法、程序和技术。
Japan has proposed to develop a more comprehensive technical report to support the engineers in charge of designing spacecraft systems, subsystems and components, and spacecraft operators.日本已经建议拟订一份更全面的技术报告,为负责设计航天器系统、次级系统及构件的工程师提供支持。
Its draft title is “Space debris design and operational manual for spacecraft” (reference number TR-18146).提案的标题是“航天器空间碎片设计和作业手册”(参考编号TR-18146)。
It will suggest the timely application of mitigation measures at every phase of development and recommend best practices for major subsystems and components.日本将建议在每个研发阶段及时采取减缓措施,并就主要的次级系统和构件提出最佳做法建议。
Mexico墨西哥
[Original: Spanish][原文:西班牙文]
[28 October 2014][2014年10月28日]
With regard to the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board, Mexico participates actively in the work of the scientific and technical subcommittee and the legal subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.关于携载核动力源空间物体的安全问题,墨西哥积极参与和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会和法律小组委员会的工作。
Mexico adheres to the relevant principles for the use of nuclear power sources in outer space and is a peaceful State guided by such international instruments as the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco).墨西哥信守有关在外层空间使用核动力源的各项原则,是以《拉丁美洲和加勒比禁止核武器条约》(《特拉特洛尔科条约》)等国际文书为指导的和平国家。
此外,墨西哥还是《核安全公约》的缔约国。
In addition, Mexico is party to the Convention on Nuclear Safety, which approaches the issue of safety as a preventive and systematic endeavour and reflects the importance that the international community attaches to “ensuring that the use of nuclear energy is safe, well regulated and environmentally sound”.该公约对安全问题的处理是一种防护性和有系统的努力,并体现出国际社会对“确保核能利用安全、受良好监督管理和与环境相容”的重视。
Mexico considers it important to formalize and make progress in the analysis of the proposals to develop a universal and comprehensive convention that makes the principles relating to outer space binding and that supplements the provisions of the existing United Nations treaties on outer space.墨西哥认为,重要的是,应当把拟订一项普遍和全面公约的提案正式化,并在分析各种提案方面取得进展,这项公约将使有关外层空间的原则具有约束力,并将补充现有联合国外空条约的规定。
Without prejudice to the foregoing, Mexico is party to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the Outer Space Treaty) of 1967, in which the first paragraph of article IV establishes that:在无碍上述立场的前提下,墨西哥是1967年《关于各国探索和利用外层空间包括月球和其他天体活动所应遵守的原则的条约》(《外空条约》)的缔约国,该项公约第四条第一段规定:
“States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.”“本条约各缔约国承诺不在环绕地球的轨道上放置任何载有核武器或任何其他种类大规模毁灭性武器的物体,不在天体上装置这种武器,也不以任何其他方式在外层空间设置这种武器。”
Although there are binding and non-binding regulations, the fact of the matter is that there are no sanctions in the case of a disaster caused by a space object carrying a nuclear load, other than what we might understand by “reparation in respect of the damage”, in the words of the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects.虽然章程有约束性的,也有非约束性的,但事实上,除了我们可以用《空间物体所造成损害的国际责任公约》的措辞理解为“对损害的赔偿”之外,对某一载有核动力源的空间物体造成了灾害的情况,并不存在任何制裁。
This issue is key to “transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities”.这个问题,是“外空活动透明度和建立信任措施”的关键。
Mexico collaborates with the Working Group on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities within the four expert groups: expert group A: sustainable space utilization supporting sustainable development on Earth; expert group B: space debris, space operations and tools to support collaborative space situational awareness; expert group C: space weather; and expert group D: regulatory regimes and guidance for actors in the space arena.墨西哥在四个专家组内同外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组开展协作:A专家组:支持全球可持续发展的可持续空间利用、B专家组:空间碎片、空间作业和支持协作感知空间态势的工具、C专家组:空间气象、D专家组:针对空间领域行动者的管理制度和指导。
Mexico participated in the initiative of Canada, Czech Republic and Germany to create a compendium of space debris mitigation standards, submitted at the fifty-third session of the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, which is the first document with direct information from the Member States (including Mexico) on regulatory measures for the mitigation and removal of space debris.墨西哥参加了在和平利用外层空间委员会法律小组委员会第五十三届会议上提交的加拿大、捷克共和国和德国关于创建一份空间碎片减缓标准汇编的倡议,这是第一份收列直接来自会员国(包括墨西哥)的减缓和消除空间碎片治理措施信息的文件。
* A/AC.105/C.1/L.341.* A/AC.105/C.1/L.341。
11
With some exceptions, the treaties do not establish any sanctions; the space treaties are not among those exceptions.除有某些例外之外,这些条约并没有规定任何制裁,这些空间条约不在例外之列。