A_RES_61_177_e_A_RES_61_177_c_EC
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Resolution adopted by the General Assembly大会决议
[on the report of the Third Committee (A/61/448 and Corr.2)][根据第三委员会的报告(A/61/448)通过]
61/177.61/177.
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance保护所有人免遭强迫失踪国际公约
The General Assembly,大会,
Taking note of Human Rights Council resolution 1/1 of 29 June 2006,1 by which the Council adopted the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance,注意到人权理事会2006年6月29日第1/1号决议,1 其中理事会通过了《保护所有人免遭强迫失踪国际公约》,
1.1.
Acknowledges the adoption by the Human Rights Council of the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance;确认人权理事会通过《保护所有人免遭强迫失踪国际公约》;
2.2.
Adopts and opens for signature, ratification and accession the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, the text of which is annexed to the present resolution;通过本决议所附《保护所有人免遭强迫失踪国际公约》,并开放供签署、批准和加入;
3.3.
Recommends that the Convention be opened for signature at a signing ceremony in Paris.建议在巴黎签字仪式上开放《公约》供签署。
82nd plenary meeting 20 December 20062006年12月20日 第82次全体会议
Annex附件
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance保护所有人免遭强迫失踪国际公约
Preamble序言
The States Parties to this Convention,本公约缔约国,
Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms,考虑到各国在《联合国宪章》下的义务——促进普遍尊重和遵守人权和基本自由,
Having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,考虑到《世界人权宣言》,
Recalling the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the other relevant international instruments in the fields of human rights, humanitarian law and international criminal law,回顾《经济、社会、文化权利国际公约》、《公民及政治权利国际公约》及人权、人道主义法和国际刑法领域的其他有关国际文书,
Also recalling the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 47/133 of 18 December 1992,又回顾联合国大会1992年12月18日第47/133号决议中通过的《保护所有人不遭受强迫失踪宣言》,
Aware of the extreme seriousness of enforced disappearance, which constitutes a crime and, in certain circumstances defined in international law, a crime against humanity,认识到强迫失踪的极端严重性,认为它是一项罪行,且在国际法界定的某些情况下,构成危害人类罪,
Determined to prevent enforced disappearances and to combat impunity for the crime of enforced disappearance,决心防止强迫失踪,制止犯有强迫失踪罪而不受惩罚的现象,
Considering the right of any person not to be subjected to enforced disappearance, the right of victims to justice and to reparation,认为任何人都享有不遭受强迫失踪的权利,受害人有得到司法公正和赔偿的权利,
Affirming the right of any victim to know the truth about the circumstances of an enforced disappearance and the fate of the disappeared person, and the right to freedom to seek, receive and impart information to this end,申明任何受害人对强迫失踪的案情和失踪者的下落,享有了解真相的权利,并享有为此目的自由查找、接受和传递信息的权利,
Have agreed on the following articles:兹商定如下条款:
Part I第一部分
Article 1第一条
1. No one shall be subjected to enforced disappearance.一、 任何人不应遭到强迫失踪。
2. No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification for enforced disappearance.二、 任何情况,不论是处于战争状态或受到战争威胁、国内政治动乱,还是任何其他公共紧急状态,均不得用来作为强迫失踪的辩护理由。
Article 2第二条
For the purposes of this Convention, “enforced disappearance” is considered to be the arrest, detention, abduction or any other form of deprivation of liberty by agents of the State or by persons or groups of persons acting with the authorization, support or acquiescence of the State, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of liberty or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which place such a person outside the protection of the law.在本公约中,“强迫失踪”系指由国家代理人,或得到国家授权、支持或默许的个人或组织,实施逮捕、羁押、绑架,或以任何其他形式剥夺自由的行为,并拒绝承认剥夺自由之实情,隐瞒失踪者的命运或下落,致使失踪者不能得到法律的保护。
Article 3第三条
Each State Party shall take appropriate measures to investigate acts defined in article 2 committed by persons or groups of persons acting without the authorization, support or acquiescence of the State and to bring those responsible to justice.各缔约国应采取适当措施,调查未得到国家授权、支持或默许的人或组织制造的第二条所界定的行为,并将责任人绳之以法。
Article 4第四条
Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to ensure that enforced disappearance constitutes an offence under its criminal law.各缔约国应采取必要措施,确保在本国的刑法中将强迫失踪行为列为犯罪。
Article 5第五条
The widespread or systematic practice of enforced disappearance constitutes a crime against humanity as defined in applicable international law and shall attract the consequences provided for under such applicable international law.大规模或有组织的强迫失踪行为,构成相关国际法所界定的危害人类罪,应招致相关国际法所规定的后果。
Article 6第六条
1. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to hold criminally responsible at least:一、 各缔约国应采取必要措施,至少追究下列人员的刑事责任:
(a) Any person who commits, orders, solicits or induces the commission of, attempts to commit, is an accomplice to or participates in an enforced disappearance;㈠ 所有制造、指令、唆使或诱导制造或企图制造强迫失踪的人,以及同谋或参与制造强迫失踪的人;
(b) A superior who:㈡ 上级官员:
(i) Knew, or consciously disregarded information which clearly indicated, that subordinates under his or her effective authority and control were committing or about to commit a crime of enforced disappearance;1. 知情,或已有清楚迹象表明受其实际领导或控制的下属正在或即将犯下强迫失踪罪而故意对有关情况置若罔闻者;
(ii) Exercised effective responsibility for and control over activities which were concerned with the crime of enforced disappearance; and2. 对与强迫失踪罪有牵连的活动,实际行使过责任和控制;
(iii) Failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures within his or her power to prevent or repress the commission of an enforced disappearance or to submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and prosecution;3. 没有在本人的权限范围内采取一切必要、合理的措施,防止或制止强迫失踪,阻止犯下此种罪行,或将有关问题提交主管机关调查或起诉。
(c) Subparagraph (b) above is without prejudice to the higher standards of responsibility applicable under relevant international law to a military commander or to a person effectively acting as a military commander.㈢ 以上第㈡项并不影响相关国际法对于军事指挥官或实际上担任军事指挥的人所适用的更高标准的责任。
2. No order or instruction from any public authority, civilian, military or other, may be invoked to justify an offence of enforced disappearance.二、 任何文职的、军事的,或其他方面的公共当局下达的命令或指示,都不得用以作为强迫失踪罪的辩护理由。
Article 7第七条
1. Each State Party shall make the offence of enforced disappearance punishable by appropriate penalties which take into account its extreme seriousness.一、 各缔约国应考虑到强迫失踪罪的极端严重性,对之给予相应的处罚。
2. Each State Party may establish:二、 各国可规定:
(a) Mitigating circumstances, in particular for persons who, having been implicated in the commission of an enforced disappearance, effectively contribute to bringing the disappeared person forward alive or make it possible to clarify cases of enforced disappearance or to identify the perpetrators of an enforced disappearance;㈠ 减轻罪行的情况,特别是虽参与制造强迫失踪,但还是实际帮助解救了失踪者的人,或帮助查明强迫失踪案件、指认制造强迫失踪罪犯的人;
(b) Without prejudice to other criminal procedures, aggravating circumstances, in particular in the event of the death of the disappeared person or the commission of an enforced disappearance in respect of pregnant women, minors, persons with disabilities or other particularly vulnerable persons.㈡ 在不影响其他刑事程序的条件下,加重罪行的情节,特别是在失踪者死亡的情况下,或制造强迫失踪的对象是怀孕妇女、未成年人、残疾人或其他特别易受害的人。
Article 8第八条
Without prejudice to article 5,在不影响第五条的情况下,
1. A State Party which applies a statute of limitations in respect of enforced disappearance shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the term of limitation for criminal proceedings:一、 对强迫失踪案件实行诉讼时效的缔约国,应采取必要措施,确保对刑事诉讼的时效:
(a) Is of long duration and is proportionate to the extreme seriousness of this offence;㈠ 有较长的时段,并与此种犯罪的极端严重性相称;
(b) Commences from the moment when the offence of enforced disappearance ceases, taking into account its continuous nature.㈡ 考虑到强迫失踪犯罪的持续性,从停止犯罪之时算起。
2. Each State Party shall guarantee the right of victims of enforced disappearance to an effective remedy during the term of limitation.二、 各缔约国应保证,在时效持续期间,强迫失踪的受害人享有得到有效补偿的权利。
Article 9第九条
1. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to establish its competence to exercise jurisdiction over the offence of enforced disappearance:一、 各缔约国应采取必要措施,确定对下述强迫失踪罪案行使管辖权:
(a) When the offence is committed in any territory under its jurisdiction or on board a ship or aircraft registered in that State;㈠ 犯罪发生在其管辖的任何领土上,或发生在在该国注册的船只或飞机上;
(b) When the alleged offender is one of its nationals;㈡ 指称的罪犯为其国民;
(c) When the disappeared person is one of its nationals and the State Party considers it appropriate.㈢ 失踪人为其国民,缔约国认为适当的情况下。
2. Each State Party shall likewise take such measures as may be necessary to establish its competence to exercise jurisdiction over the offence of enforced disappearance when the alleged offender is present in any territory under its jurisdiction, unless it extradites or surrenders him or her to another State in accordance with its international obligations or surrenders him or her to an international criminal tribunal whose jurisdiction it has recognized.二、 各缔约国还应采取必要措施,在指称的罪犯留在任何该国管辖的领土上时,确定对该强迫失踪罪案的司法管辖权,除非该国根据其国际义务将嫌犯引渡或移交给另一国家,或移交给该国承认其管辖权的某个国际刑事法庭。
3. This Convention does not exclude any additional criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with national law.三、 本公约不排除根据国内法行使任何其他刑事管辖权。
Article 10第十条
1. Upon being satisfied, after an examination of the information available to it, that the circumstances so warrant, any State Party in whose territory a person suspected of having committed an offence of enforced disappearance is present shall take him or her into custody or take such other legal measures as are necessary to ensure his or her presence. The custody and other legal measures shall be as provided for in the law of that State Party but may be maintained only for such time as is necessary to ensure the person’s presence at criminal, surrender or extradition proceedings.一、 对强迫失踪罪的犯罪嫌疑人,任何缔约国在研究了所掌握的材料后,确定情况属实,案情需要,应将在其境内的嫌犯拘留,或采取其他必要法律措施,确保其不得潜逃。这种拘留和其他法律措施,应根据该缔约国的法律规定,但在时间上仅限于确保对该人的刑事诉讼、移交或引渡程序所必需。
2. A State Party which has taken the measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall immediately carry out a preliminary inquiry or investigations to establish the facts. It shall notify the States Parties referred to in article 9, paragraph 1, of the measures it has taken in pursuance of paragraph 1 of this article, including detention and the circumstances warranting detention, and of the findings of its preliminary inquiry or its investigations, indicating whether it intends to exercise its jurisdiction.二、 采取本条第一款所述措施的缔约国,应立即展开初步询问和调查,确定事实。该国还应将根据本条第一款所采取的措施,包括拘留和致使实施拘留的犯罪情节,以及初步询问和调查的结果,通知第九条第一款中所指的缔约国,并表明它是否准备行使其管辖权。
3. Any person in custody pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article may communicate immediately with the nearest appropriate representative of the State of which he or she is a national, or, if he or she is a stateless person, with the representative of the State where he or she usually resides.三、 根据本条第一款被羁押的任何人,得立即与本人所持国籍国之最接近的适当代表取得联系,如他或她为无国籍人,应与其惯常居住地国的代表取得联系。
Article 11第十一条
1. The State Party in the territory under whose jurisdiction a person alleged to have committed an offence of enforced disappearance is found shall, if it does not extradite that person or surrender him or her to another State in accordance with its international obligations or surrender him or her to an international criminal tribunal whose jurisdiction it has recognized, submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.一、 缔约国在其管辖的领土上发现据称犯有强迫失踪罪的人,如果不按其国际义务将该人引渡或移交给另一国家,或移交该缔约国承认其司法权的某一国际刑事法庭,则该国应将案件提交本国的主管机关起诉。
2. These authorities shall take their decision in the same manner as in the case of any ordinary offence of a serious nature under the law of that State Party. In the cases referred to in article 9, paragraph 2, the standards of evidence required for prosecution and conviction shall in no way be less stringent than those which apply in the cases referred to in article 9, paragraph 1.二、 主管机关应按该缔约国的法律规定,以审理任何性质严重的普通犯罪案件相同的方式作出判决。在第九条第二款所指的情况下,起诉和定罪的证据标准,不得比第九条第一款所指的情况应采用的标准宽松。
3. Any person against whom proceedings are brought in connection with an offence of enforced disappearance shall be guaranteed fair treatment at all stages of the proceedings. Any person tried for an offence of enforced disappearance shall benefit from a fair trial before a competent, independent and impartial court or tribunal established by law.三、 因强迫失踪罪而受到起诉的任何人,应保证其在起诉的各个阶段受到公正待遇。因强迫失踪罪而受到审判的任何人,应在依法设立的主管、独立和公正的法院或法庭受到公正审判。
Article 12第十二条
1. Each State Party shall ensure that any individual who alleges that a person has been subjected to enforced disappearance has the right to report the facts to the competent authorities, which shall examine the allegation promptly and impartially and, where necessary, undertake without delay a thorough and impartial investigation. Appropriate steps shall be taken, where necessary, to ensure that the complainant, witnesses, relatives of the disappeared person and their defence counsel, as well as persons participating in the investigation, are protected against all ill-treatment or intimidation as a consequence of the complaint or any evidence given.一、 各缔约国应确保任何指称有人遭受强迫失踪的人,有权向主管机关报告案情,主管机关应及时、公正地审查指控,必要时立即展开全面、公正的调查。必要时并应采取适当措施,确保举报人、证人、失踪人家属及其辩护律师,以及参与调查的人得到保护,不得因举报或提供任何证据而受到任何虐待或恐吓。
2. Where there are reasonable grounds for believing that a person has been subjected to enforced disappearance, the authorities referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall undertake an investigation, even if there has been no formal complaint.二、 在有正当理由相信有人遭到强迫失踪的情况下,即使无人正式告发,缔约国也应责成本条第一款所指的机关展开调查。
3. Each State Party shall ensure that the authorities referred to in paragraph 1 of this article:三、 各缔约国应确保本条第一款所指主管机关:
(a) Have the necessary powers and resources to conduct the investigation effectively, including access to the documentation and other information relevant to their investigation;㈠ 拥有展开有效调查所需的权利和资源,包括查阅与调查有关的文件和其他材料;
(b) Have access, if necessary with the prior authorization of a judicial authority, which shall rule promptly on the matter, to any place of detention or any other place where there are reasonable grounds to believe that the disappeared person may be present.㈡ 有权进入任何拘留场所,或有正当理由认为可能藏匿失踪者的任何其他地点,必要时事先取得司法机关的授权,司法机构也应尽快作出裁决。
4. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to prevent and sanction acts that hinder the conduct of an investigation. It shall ensure in particular that persons suspected of having committed an offence of enforced disappearance are not in a position to influence the progress of an investigation by means of pressure or acts of intimidation or reprisal aimed at the complainant, witnesses, relatives of the disappeared person or their defence counsel, or at persons participating in the investigation.四、 各缔约国应采取必要措施,防止和惩处妨碍展开调查的行为。各缔约国尤应确保,涉嫌犯有强迫失踪罪的人不得利用其地位影响调查的进行,例如对投诉人、证人、失踪者亲属或他们的辩护律师,及参与调查的人员施加压力、恐吓,或实施报复。
Article 13第十三条
1. For the purposes of extradition between States Parties, the offence of enforced disappearance shall not be regarded as a political offence or as an offence connected with a political offence or as an offence inspired by political motives. Accordingly, a request for extradition based on such an offence may not be refused on these grounds alone.一、 就缔约国之间的引渡而言,不应将强迫失踪罪视为政治犯罪、与政治犯罪有联系的普通犯罪,或带有政治动机的犯罪。因此,不得仅以这些理由拒绝对此种犯罪提出的引渡要求。
2. The offence of enforced disappearance shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing between States Parties before the entry into force of this Convention.二、 本公约生效前各缔约国之间已有的任何引渡条约,应将强迫失踪罪均视为可予引渡的罪行。
3. States Parties undertake to include the offence of enforced disappearance as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty subsequently to be concluded between them.三、 各缔约国承诺,今后彼此之间签订的所有引渡条约,均将强迫失踪罪列为可引渡的犯罪。
4. If a State Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention as the necessary legal basis for extradition in respect of the offence of enforced disappearance.四、 以条约为引渡条件的缔约国,当收到另一个与之未签订引渡条约的缔约国提出的引渡要求时,可考虑将本公约作为对强迫失踪罪给予引渡的必要法律依据。
5. States Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize the offence of enforced disappearance as an extraditable offence between themselves.五、 不以条约作为引渡条件的缔约国,应承认强迫失踪罪为彼此之间可予引渡的犯罪。
6. Extradition shall, in all cases, be subject to the conditions provided for by the law of the requested State Party or by applicable extradition treaties, including, in particular, conditions relating to the minimum penalty requirement for extradition and the grounds upon which the requested State Party may refuse extradition or make it subject to certain conditions.六、 在所有情况下,引渡均须符合被请求缔约国的法律规定或适用的引渡条约所规定的条件,特别应包括有关引渡的最低处罚要求,和被请求缔约国可能拒绝引渡或要求引渡符合某些条件的理由。
7. Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as imposing an obligation to extradite if the requested State Party has substantial grounds for believing that the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s sex, race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin, political opinions or membership of a particular social group, or that compliance with the request would cause harm to that person for any one of these reasons.七、 如果被请求缔约国有充分理由认为,提出引渡要求的目的,是因某人的性别、种族、宗教、国籍、族裔、政治见解或属于某个特定的社会群体而对之进行起诉或惩罚,或同意引渡将在上述原因的某个方面造成对该人的伤害,则本公约的任何内容均不得解释为强制的引渡义务。
Article 14第十四条
1. States Parties shall afford one another the greatest measure of mutual legal assistance in connection with criminal proceedings brought in respect of an offence of enforced disappearance, including the supply of all evidence at their disposal that is necessary for the proceedings.一、 缔约国在对强迫失踪罪提起刑事诉讼方面,应彼此提供最大限度的司法协助,包括提供所掌握的诉讼所必需的全部证据。
2. Such mutual legal assistance shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the domestic law of the requested State Party or by applicable treaties on mutual legal assistance, including, in particular, the conditions in relation to the grounds upon which the requested State Party may refuse to grant mutual legal assistance or may make it subject to conditions.二、 此种司法协助应符合被请求缔约国国内法或适用的司法协助条约规定的要件,特别是被请求缔约国可藉以拒绝提供司法协助的理由,或对提供司法协助附加的条件。
Article 15第十五条
States Parties shall cooperate with each other and shall afford one another the greatest measure of mutual assistance with a view to assisting victims of enforced disappearance, and in searching for, locating and releasing disappeared persons and, in the event of death, in exhuming and identifying them and returning their remains.各缔约国应相互合作,并应彼此给予最大限度的协助,援助强迫失踪的受害人,查找、发现和解救失踪者,在失踪者死亡的情况下,挖掘和辨认遗体,并将之送返原籍。
Article 16第十六条
1. No State Party shall expel, return (“refouler”), surrender or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he or she would be in danger of being subjected to enforced disappearance.一、 如果有充分理由相信,将某人驱逐、送返(“驱回”)、移交或引渡到另一国家,有造成此人遭受强迫失踪的危险,任何缔约国均不得采取上述行动。
2. For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations, including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights or of serious violations of international humanitarian law.二、 为确定是否存在这种理由,主管当局应斟酌一切有关因素,包括在适用的情况下,考虑有关国家是否存在一贯严重、公然或大规模侵犯人权或严重违反国际人道主义法的情况。
Article 17第十七条
1. No one shall be held in secret detention.一、 任何人都不应受到秘密监禁。
2. Without prejudice to other international obligations of the State Party with regard to the deprivation of liberty, each State Party shall, in its legislation:二、 在不影响缔约国在剥夺自由问题方面的其他国际义务前提下,各缔约国应在本国的法律中:
(a) Establish the conditions under which orders of deprivation of liberty may be given;㈠ 规定下令剥夺自由的条件;
(b) Indicate those authorities authorized to order the deprivation of liberty;㈡ 说明有权下令剥夺自由的主管机关;
(c) Guarantee that any person deprived of liberty shall be held solely in officially recognized and supervised places of deprivation of liberty;㈢ 保证任何被剥夺自由的人,只能关押在官方认可并加以监督的地点;
(d) Guarantee that any person deprived of liberty shall be authorized to communicate with and be visited by his or her family, counsel or any other person of his or her choice, subject only to the conditions established by law, or, if he or she is a foreigner, to communicate with his or her consular authorities, in accordance with applicable international law;㈣ 保证任何被剥夺自由的人都能获准与其家属、律师或他或她选择的任何其他人取得联系并接受探视,且仅受法律规定条件的限制,如果此人是外国人,应根据相应的国际法,准许其与本国的领事机构联系;
(e) Guarantee access by the competent and legally authorized authorities and institutions to the places where persons are deprived of liberty, if necessary with prior authorization from a judicial authority;㈤ 保证主管机关和法律授权机构的人员可进入被剥夺自由人的关押地点,如有必要,应事先得到司法机关的批准;
(f) Guarantee that any person deprived of liberty or, in the case of a suspected enforced disappearance, since the person deprived of liberty is not able to exercise this right, any persons with a legitimate interest, such as relatives of the person deprived of liberty, their representatives or their counsel, shall, in all circumstances, be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that the court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of the deprivation of liberty and order the person’s release if such deprivation of liberty is not lawful.㈥ 保证任何被剥夺自由的人,或在怀疑发生强迫失踪的情况下,由于被剥夺自由的人无法行使这项权利,任何有合法利益的人,如被剥夺自由人的家属、他们的代表或律师,在任何情况下都有权向法院提起诉讼,以便法院立即对剥夺其自由是否合法作出裁决,如果剥夺自由不合法,则应下令释放。
3. Each State Party shall assure the compilation and maintenance of one or more up-to-date official registers and/or records of persons deprived of liberty, which shall be made promptly available, upon request, to any judicial or other competent authority or institution authorized for that purpose by the law of the State Party concerned or any relevant international legal instrument to which the State concerned is a party. The information contained therein shall include, as a minimum:三、 各缔约国应保证编制并维持一份或数份被剥夺自由者的最新官方登记册和/或记录,并在收到要求时,及时将之提供给有关缔约国在这方面有法律授权的任何司法或其他主管机关或机构,或该国已加入的任何相关国际法律文书所授权的司法或其他主管机关或机构。登记册中收入的资料至少应包括以下内容:
(a) The identity of the person deprived of liberty;㈠ 被剥夺自由者的身份;
(b) The date, time and place where the person was deprived of liberty and the identity of the authority that deprived the person of liberty;㈡ 被剥夺自由的人,收监的日期、时间和地点,以及剥夺此人自由的负责机关;
(c) The authority that ordered the deprivation of liberty and the grounds for the deprivation of liberty;㈢ 下令剥夺自由的机关及剥夺自由的理由;
(d) The authority responsible for supervising the deprivation of liberty;㈣ 负责监管剥夺自由的机关;
(e) The place of deprivation of liberty, the date and time of admission to the place of deprivation of liberty and the authority responsible for the place of deprivation of liberty;㈤ 剥夺自由的地点、收押日期和时间,以及剥夺自由地点的负责机关;
(f) Elements relating to the state of health of the person deprived of liberty;㈥ 被剥夺自由者健康的主要情况;
(g) In the event of death during the deprivation of liberty, the circumstances and cause of death and the destination of the remains;㈦ 若在剥夺自由期间死亡,死亡的情况和死因,以及遗体的下落;
(h) The date and time of release or transfer to another place of detention, the destination and the authority responsible for the transfer.㈧ 释放或转移到另一羁押地点的日期和时间、目的地,及负责转移的机关。
Article 18第十八条
1. Subject to articles 19 and 20, each State Party shall guarantee to any person with a legitimate interest in this information, such as relatives of the person deprived of liberty, their representatives or their counsel, access to at least the following information:一、 在不违反第十九和第二十条的情况下,各缔约国应保证,任何对以下信息有合法利益的人,例如被剥夺自由者的亲属、他们的代表或律师,应至少能获得以下信息:
(a) The authority that ordered the deprivation of liberty;㈠ 下令剥夺自由的机关;
(b) The date, time and place where the person was deprived of liberty and admitted to the place of deprivation of liberty;㈡ 剥夺该人自由以及收押的日期、时间和地点;
(c) The authority responsible for supervising the deprivation of liberty;㈢ 负责监管剥夺自由的机关;
(d) The whereabouts of the person deprived of liberty, including, in the event of a transfer to another place of deprivation of liberty, the destination and the authority responsible for the transfer;㈣ 被剥夺自由者的下落,包括在转往另一监押场所的情况下,转移的地点和负责转移的机关;
(e) The date, time and place of release;㈤ 释放的日期、时间和地点;
(f) Elements relating to the state of health of the person deprived of liberty;㈥ 被剥夺自由者健康的主要情况;
(g) In the event of death during the deprivation of liberty, the circumstances and cause of death and the destination of the remains.㈦ 若在剥夺自由期间死亡,死亡的情况和死因,以及遗体的下落。
2. Appropriate measures shall be taken, where necessary, to protect the persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, as well as persons participating in the investigation, from any ill-treatment, intimidation or sanction as a result of the search for information concerning a person deprived of liberty.二、 必要时应采取适当措施,保护本条第一款中讲到的人和参与调查的人员,不得因查寻被剥夺自由者的情况,而受到任何虐待、恐吓或处罚。
Article 19第十九条
1. Personal information, including medical and genetic data, which is collected and/or transmitted within the framework of the search for a disappeared person shall not be used or made available for purposes other than the search for the disappeared person. This is without prejudice to the use of such information in criminal proceedings relating to an offence of enforced disappearance or the exercise of the right to obtain reparation.一、 在查找失踪者的过程中收集和/或转交的个人资料,包括医疗和遗传学资料,不得用于查找失踪者以外之其他目的,或提供给其他方面。这一规定不影响在审理强迫失踪罪的刑事诉讼中,或在行使获得赔偿权过程中使用这些资料。
2. The collection, processing, use and storage of personal information, including medical and genetic data, shall not infringe or have the effect of infringing the human rights, fundamental freedoms or human dignity of an individual.二、 收集、处理、使用和储存个人资料,包括医疗和遗传学资料,不得侵犯或实际上造成侵犯个人的人权、基本自由或人的尊严。
Article 20第二十条
1. Only where a person is under the protection of the law and the deprivation of liberty is subject to judicial control may the right to information referred to in article 18 be restricted, on an exceptional basis, where strictly necessary and where provided for by law, and if the transmission of the information would adversely affect the privacy or safety of the person, hinder a criminal investigation, or for other equivalent reasons in accordance with the law, and in conformity with applicable international law and with the objectives of this Convention. In no case shall there be restrictions on the right to information referred to in article 18 that could constitute conduct defined in article 2 or be in violation of article 17, paragraph 1.一、 只有在对某人采取法律保护措施,且剥夺自由受到司法控制的条件下,或者转交资料会对该人的隐私或安全造成不利影响、妨碍刑事调查,或出于其他相当原因,方可作为例外,在严格必需和法律已有规定的情况下,依法并遵照相关国际法和本公约的目标,对第十八条中讲到的信息权加以限制。对第十八条所述信息权的任何限制,如可能构成第二条所界定的行为或违反第十七条第一款的行为,均在禁止之列。
2. Without prejudice to consideration of the lawfulness of the deprivation of a person’s liberty, States Parties shall guarantee to the persons referred to in article 18, paragraph 1, the right to a prompt and effective judicial remedy as a means of obtaining without delay the information referred to in article 18, paragraph 1. This right to a remedy may not be suspended or restricted in any circumstances.二、 在不影响审议剥夺某人自由是否合法的前提下,缔约国应保证第十八条第一款中所指的人有权得到及时、有效的司法补救,以便立即得到第十八条第一款中所提到的信息。这项获得补救的权利,在任何情况下都不得取消或受到限制。
Article 21第二十一条
Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to ensure that persons deprived of liberty are released in a manner permitting reliable verification that they have actually been released. Each State Party shall also take the necessary measures to assure the physical integrity of such persons and their ability to exercise fully their rights at the time of release, without prejudice to any obligations to which such persons may be subject under national law.各缔约国应采取必要措施,确保被剥夺自由的人获释能得到可靠核实,即他们确实得到释放。各缔约国还应采取必要措施,确保获释时这些人的身体健全并能完全行使他们的权利,且不得影响这些人在本国法律下可能承担的任何义务。
Article 22第二十二条
Without prejudice to article 6, each State Party shall take the necessary measures to prevent and impose sanctions for the following conduct:在不影响第六条的情况下,每一缔约国都应采取必要措施,防止和惩处以下行为:
(a) Delaying or obstructing the remedies referred to in article 17, paragraph 2 (f), and article 20, paragraph 2;㈠ 拖延或阻碍第十七条第二款第㈥项以及第二十条第二款中讲到的补救办法;
(b) Failure to record the deprivation of liberty of any person, or the recording of any information which the official responsible for the official register knew or should have known to be inaccurate;㈡ 任何人被剥夺自由而未予记录,或记录的任何信息并不准确,而负责官方登记的官员了解这一情况或应当知情;
(c) Refusal to provide information on the deprivation of liberty of a person, or the provision of inaccurate information, even though the legal requirements for providing such information have been met.㈢ 尽管已经满足提供有关情况的法律要求,但仍拒绝提供某人被剥夺自由的情况,或提供不准确的情况。
Article 23第二十三条
1. Each State Party shall ensure that the training of law enforcement personnel, civil or military, medical personnel, public officials and other persons who may be involved in the custody or treatment of any person deprived of liberty includes the necessary education and information regarding the relevant provisions of this Convention, in order to:一、 各缔约国应确保,对执法人员、文职或军事人员、医务人员、国家官员和其他可能参与监押或处置任何被剥夺自由者的人的培训,应包括对本公约相关规定的必要教育和信息,以便:
(a) Prevent the involvement of such officials in enforced disappearances;㈠ 防止这类官员卷入强迫失踪案件;
(b) Emphasize the importance of prevention and investigations in relation to enforced disappearances;㈡ 强调防止和调查强迫失踪案件的重要性;
(c) Ensure that the urgent need to resolve cases of enforced disappearance is recognized.㈢ 确保认识到解决强迫失踪案件的迫切性。
2. Each State Party shall ensure that orders or instructions prescribing, authorizing or encouraging enforced disappearance are prohibited. Each State Party shall guarantee that a person who refuses to obey such an order will not be punished.二、 各缔约国应确保禁止发布任何命令和指示,指令、授权或鼓励制造强迫失踪。各国应保证,拒绝遵守这类命令的人不得受到惩罚。
3. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this article who have reason to believe that an enforced disappearance has occurred or is planned report the matter to their superiors and, where necessary, to the appropriate authorities or bodies vested with powers of review or remedy.三、 各缔约国应采取必要措施,确保当本条第一款所指的人有理由相信强迫失踪案件已经发生或正在计划之中时,应向上级报告,并在必要时报告拥有审查权或补救权的有关当局或机关。
Article 24第二十四条
1. For the purposes of this Convention, “victim” means the disappeared person and any individual who has suffered harm as the direct result of an enforced disappearance.一、 在本公约中,“受害人”系指失踪的人和任何因强迫失踪而受到直接伤害的个人。
2. Each victim has the right to know the truth regarding the circumstances of the enforced disappearance, the progress and results of the investigation and the fate of the disappeared person. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures in this regard.二、 每一受害者都有权了解强迫失踪案情的真相,调查的进展和结果,以及失踪者的下落。各国应在这方面采取适当措施。
3. Each State Party shall take all appropriate measures to search for, locate and release disappeared persons and, in the event of death, to locate, respect and return their remains.三、 各缔约国应采取一切适当措施,查寻、找到和解救失踪者,若失踪者已经死亡,应找到、适当处理并归还其遗体。
4. Each State Party shall ensure in its legal system that the victims of enforced disappearance have the right to obtain reparation and prompt, fair and adequate compensation.四、 各缔约国应在其法律制度范围内,确保强迫失踪的受害人有权取得补救和及时、公正和充分的赔偿。
5. The right to obtain reparation referred to in paragraph 4 of this article covers material and moral damages and, where appropriate, other forms of reparation such as:五、 本条第四款中所指的获得补救的权利,涵盖物质和精神损害,以及视情况而定,其他形式的补救,如:
(a) Restitution;㈠ 复原;
(b) Rehabilitation;㈡ 康复;
(c) Satisfaction, including restoration of dignity and reputation;㈢ 平反,包括恢复尊严和名誉;
(d) Guarantees of non-repetition.㈣ 保证不再重演。
6. Without prejudice to the obligation to continue the investigation until the fate of the disappeared person has been clarified, each State Party shall take the appropriate steps with regard to the legal situation of disappeared persons whose fate has not been clarified and that of their relatives, in fields such as social welfare, financial matters, family law and property rights.六、 在不影响缔约国的义务——继续调查,直至查明失踪者下落的条件下,对尚未查明下落的失踪者,各缔约国应对其本人及家属的法律地位问题,在社会福利、经济问题、家庭法和财产权等方面,采取必要措施。
7. Each State Party shall guarantee the right to form and participate freely in organizations and associations concerned with attempting to establish the circumstances of enforced disappearances and the fate of disappeared persons, and to assist victims of enforced disappearance.七、各缔约国必须保证自由组织和参加有关组织和协会的权利,以求查明强迫失踪的案情和失踪者的下落,及为强迫失踪受害人提供帮助。
Article 25第二十五条
1. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to prevent and punish under its criminal law:一、各缔约国应采取必要措施,根据本国刑法防止并惩处以下行为:
(a) The wrongful removal of children who are subjected to enforced disappearance, children whose father, mother or legal guardian is subjected to enforced disappearance or children born during the captivity of a mother subjected to enforced disappearance;㈠ 非法劫持遭受强迫失踪的儿童,其父母或法律监护人遭受到强迫失踪的儿童,或母亲在遭受强迫失踪期间出生的儿童;
(b) The falsification, concealment or destruction of documents attesting to the true identity of the children referred to in subparagraph (a) above.㈡ 伪造、藏匿或销毁证明以上第㈠项中所指儿童真实身份的证件。
2. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to search for and identify the children referred to in paragraph 1 (a) of this article and to return them to their families of origin, in accordance with legal procedures and applicable international agreements.二、各缔约国应采取必要措施,查找和认定本条第一款第㈠项所指的儿童,并根据法律程序和适用的国际协议,将儿童归还本来的家庭。
3. States Parties shall assist one another in searching for, identifying and locating the children referred to in paragraph 1 (a) of this article.三、各缔约国应相互协助,查找、辨认和找到本条第一款第㈠项中所指的儿童。
4. Given the need to protect the best interests of the children referred to in paragraph 1 (a) of this article and their right to preserve, or to have re-established, their identity, including their nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law, States Parties which recognize a system of adoption or other form of placement of children shall have legal procedures in place to review the adoption or placement procedure, and, where appropriate, to annul any adoption or placement of children that originated in an enforced disappearance.四、 鉴于必须保护本条第一款第㈠项中所指的儿童的最佳利益,他们保留或恢复本人身份的权利,包括法律承认的国籍、姓名和家庭关系,承认领养关系或其他安置儿童形式的缔约国应制定法律程序,审查领养或安置程序,并在适当情况下宣布任何源自强迫失踪的儿童领养或安置无效。
5. In all cases, and in particular in all matters relating to this article, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration, and a child who is capable of forming his or her own views shall have the right to express those views freely, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.五、 在所有情况下,特别是在本条所涉的所有问题上,儿童的最大利益均应作为首要考虑,有独立见解能力的儿童应有权自由表达意见,并应根据儿童的年龄和成熟程度,对本人的意见给予适当考虑。
Part II第二部分
Article 26第二十六条
1. A Committee on Enforced Disappearances (hereinafter referred to as “the Committee”) shall be established to carry out the functions provided for under this Convention. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights, who shall serve in their personal capacity and be independent and impartial. The members of the Committee shall be elected by the States Parties according to equitable geographical distribution. Due account shall be taken of the usefulness of the participation in the work of the Committee of persons having relevant legal experience and of balanced gender representation.一、 将设立一个强迫失踪问题委员会(下称“委员会”),履行本公约规定的职能。委员会将由十名德高望重、在人权领域的才能受到公认的专家组成,他们应以个人身份任职,秉持独立、公正之立场。委员会成员将由缔约国根据公平地域分配的原则选出。应适当考虑吸收具有相关法律资历的人士参加委员会的工作,注意代表的性别平衡。
2. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties from among their nationals, at biennial meetings of the States Parties convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations for this purpose. At those meetings, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.二、 委员会成员的选举,应由联合国秘书长为此目的每两年召开一次缔约国会议,由缔约国从本国国民中提名,对提名的名单通过无记名投票方式选出。在这些会议上,三分之二的缔约国即构成法定人数,当选的委员会委员为获得票数最多、且获得出席会议并投票的各缔约国代表绝对多数票之人士。
3. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of entry into force of this Convention. Four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit nominations within three months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the State Party which nominated each candidate, and shall submit this list to all States Parties.三、 第一次选举应在本公约生效之日起六个月内举行。联合国秘书长应在每一次选举日之前四个月致函各缔约国,请他们在三个月之内提名候选人。秘书长应将所有提名的人按字母顺序列出名单,注明每个候选人的提名缔约国,并将此名单提交所有缔约国。
4. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election once. However, the term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the chairman of the meeting referred to in paragraph 2 of this article.四、 当选的委员会委员任期四年,可连任一次。然而,在首次选举中当选的五位委员,他们的任期将在两年后届满,在首次选举结束后,本条第二款中所指会议的主席将立刻通过抽签方式确定这五位委员的姓名。
5. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or for any other reason can no longer perform his or her Committee duties, the State Party which nominated him or her shall, in accordance with the criteria set out in paragraph 1 of this article, appoint another candidate from among its nationals to serve out his or her term, subject to the approval of the majority of the States Parties. Such approval shall be considered to have been obtained unless half or more of the States Parties respond negatively within six weeks of having been informed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the proposed appointment.五、 如果委员会的一位委员死亡、辞职或由于任何其他原因不能继续履行他或她在委员会的职责,提名的缔约国应根据本条第1款所列标准,从其国民中指定另一位候选人完成剩下的任期,但须征得多数缔约国的核准。除非一半或更多的缔约国在联合国秘书长向其通报了拟议的任命后六周内表示反对,否则应认为已获得这一核准。
6. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.六、 委员会应制定自身的议事规则。
7. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the Committee with the necessary means, staff and facilities for the effective performance of its functions. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of the Committee.七、 联合国秘书长应为有效履行委员会的职能,向委员会提供一切必要的手段、工作人员和设施。应由联合国秘书长召开委员会的第一次会议。
8. The members of the Committee shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations, as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.八、 委员会委员应享有《联合国特权与豁免公约》有关章节所规定的联合国出访专家所享有的各项便利、特权和豁免权。
9. Each State Party shall cooperate with the Committee and assist its members in the fulfilment of their mandate, to the extent of the Committee’s functions that the State Party has accepted.九、 各缔约国应在其接受的委员会职能范围内,与委员会合作,为委员会委员履行任务提供协助。
Article 27第二十七条
A Conference of the States Parties will take place at the earliest four years and at the latest six years following the entry into force of this Convention to evaluate the functioning of the Committee and to decide, in accordance with the procedure described in article 44, paragraph 2, whether it is appropriate to transfer to another body — without excluding any possibility — the monitoring of this Convention, in accordance with the functions defined in articles 28 to 36.在本公约生效后至少四年但最多六年,应举行缔约国会议,评估委员会的工作,并依照第四十四条第二款确定的程序,在不排除任何可能性的前提下,决定是否应根据第二十八至三十六条规定的职能,将本公约的监督职能转交给另一机构。
Article 28第二十八条
1. In the framework of the competencies granted by this Convention, the Committee shall cooperate with all relevant organs, offices and specialized agencies and funds of the United Nations, with the treaty bodies instituted by international instruments, with the special procedures of the United Nations and with the relevant regional intergovernmental organizations or bodies, as well as with all relevant State institutions, agencies or offices working towards the protection of all persons against enforced disappearances.一、 委员会应在本公约所授予的权限范围内,与所有联合国有关机关、办事处、专门机构和基金合作,与各项国际文书所建立的条约机构、联合国的特别程序合作,并与所有有关的区域政府间组织和机构,以及一切从事保护所有人不遭受强迫失踪的有关国家机构、机关或办事处合作。
2. As it discharges its mandate, the Committee shall consult other treaty bodies instituted by relevant international human rights instruments, in particular the Human Rights Committee instituted by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, with a view to ensuring the consistency of their respective observations and recommendations.二、 委员会在履行任务时,应与相关国际人权文书所设立的其他条约机构磋商,特别是《公民及政治权利国际公约》设立的人权事务委员会,以确保彼此提出的意见和建议相互一致。
Article 29第二十九条
1. Each State Party shall submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, a report on the measures taken to give effect to its obligations under this Convention, within two years after the entry into force of this Convention for the State Party concerned.一、 各缔约国应当在本公约对该缔约国生效后两年内,通过联合国秘书长向委员会提交一份报告,说明为履行本公约义务而采取措施的情况。
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make this report available to all States Parties.二、 联合国秘书长应将报告提供给所有缔约国。
3. Each report shall be considered by the Committee, which shall issue such comments, observations or recommendations as it may deem appropriate. The comments, observations or recommendations shall be communicated to the State Party concerned, which may respond to them, on its own initiative or at the request of the Committee.三、 委员会应对每份报告进行审议,之后酌情提出评论、意见或建议。评论、意见或建议应当转达有关缔约国,缔约国可主动或应委员会的要求作出答复。
4. The Committee may also request States Parties to provide additional information on the implementation of this Convention.四、 委员会也可要求缔约国提供有关履行本公约的补充资料。
Article 30第三十条
1. A request that a disappeared person should be sought and found may be submitted to the Committee, as a matter of urgency, by relatives of the disappeared person or their legal representatives, their counsel or any person authorized by them, as well as by any other person having a legitimate interest.一、 失踪者的亲属、他们的法律代表、律师或任何得到其授权的人,以及任何拥有合法权益的其他人,均可作为紧急事项,向委员会提出查找失踪者的请求。
2. If the Committee considers that a request for urgent action submitted in pursuance of paragraph 1 of this article:二、 如果委员会认为根据本条第一款提出紧急行动请求:
(a) Is not manifestly unfounded;㈠ 并非明显地毫无依据;
(b) Does not constitute an abuse of the right of submission of such requests;㈡ 并不构成滥用提交来文请求之权利;
(c) Has already been duly presented to the competent bodies of the State Party concerned, such as those authorized to undertake investigations, where such a possibility exists;㈢ 在可能的情况下,已经正式提交有关缔约国的主管机关,如有权展开调查的机关;
(d) Is not incompatible with the provisions of this Convention; and㈣ 并不违背本公约的规定;及
(e) The same matter is not being examined under another procedure of international investigation or settlement of the same nature;㈤ 同一问题目前未由同一性质的另一国际调查或解决程序审理;
it shall request the State Party concerned to provide it with information on the situation of the persons sought, within a time limit set by the Committee.委员会应请有关缔约国在委员会限定的时间内,向其提供所查找人员境况的资料。
3. In the light of the information provided by the State Party concerned in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, the Committee may transmit recommendations to the State Party, including a request that the State Party should take all the necessary measures, including interim measures, to locate and protect the person concerned in accordance with this Convention and to inform the Committee, within a specified period of time, of measures taken, taking into account the urgency of the situation. The Committee shall inform the person submitting the urgent action request of its recommendations and of the information provided to it by the State as it becomes available.三、 根据有关缔约国依本条第二款所提供的资料,考虑到情况的紧迫性,委员会可向缔约国提出建议,如请缔约国采取一切必要措施,包括一些临时措施,遵照本公约,找到有关个人并加以保护,并在委员会限定的时间内,向委员会报告采取措施的情况。委员会应将它的建议和委员会收到的国家提供的情况,通报提出紧急行动要求的人。
4. The Committee shall continue its efforts to work with the State Party concerned for as long as the fate of the person sought remains unresolved. The person presenting the request shall be kept informed.四、 在查明失踪人士的下落之前,委员会应继续与有关缔约国共同作出努力。应随时向提出请求的人通报情况。
Article 31第三十一条
1. A State Party may at the time of ratification of this Convention or at any time afterwards declare that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction claiming to be victims of a violation by this State Party of provisions of this Convention. The Committee shall not admit any communication concerning a State Party which has not made such a declaration.一、 缔约国可在批准本公约时,或在之后的任何时候宣布,承认委员会有权接受和审议受该国管辖、声称是该缔约国违反本公约规定之受害人本人或其代理提出的来文。委员会不得受理来自未作此宣布之缔约国的来文。
2. The Committee shall consider a communication inadmissible where:二、 委员会不应受理下列来文:
(a) The communication is anonymous;㈠ 匿名来文;
(b) The communication constitutes an abuse of the right of submission of such communications or is incompatible with the provisions of this Convention;㈡ 来文构成滥用提交此类来文的权利,或不符合本公约的规定;
(c) The same matter is being examined under another procedure of international investigation or settlement of the same nature; or where㈢ 同一事项正由具有同一性质的另一国际调查或解决程序审理;
(d) All effective available domestic remedies have not been exhausted. This rule shall not apply where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged.㈣ 尚未用尽一切有效的国内补救办法。如果补救请求长期拖延,不合情理,本规则不复适用。
3. If the Committee considers that the communication meets the requirements set out in paragraph 2 of this article, it shall transmit the communication to the State Party concerned, requesting it to provide observations and comments within a time limit set by the Committee.三、 如果委员会认为来文满足本条第二款规定的要求,委员会应将来文转交有关缔约国,并请该国在委员会限定的时间内提出意见和评论。
4. At any time after the receipt of a communication and before a determination on the merits has been reached, the Committee may transmit to the State Party concerned for its urgent consideration a request that the State Party will take such interim measures as may be necessary to avoid possible irreparable damage to the victims of the alleged violation. Where the Committee exercises its discretion, this does not imply a determination on admissibility or on the merits of the communication.四、 在收到来文后,但在确定是非曲直之前,委员会可随时向有关缔约国提出请求,请该国紧急考虑采取必要的临时措施,以避免对指称侵权行为的受害人造成不可弥补的损害。委员会行使酌处权,并不意味着已就来文是否可予受理或其是非曲直作出决定。
5. The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under the present article. It shall inform the author of a communication of the responses provided by the State Party concerned. When the Committee decides to finalize the procedure, it shall communicate its views to the State Party and to the author of the communication.五、 委员会在根据本条审查来文时应举行非公开会议。委员会应当向来文提交人通报有关缔约国所作的答复。委员会在决定结束程序后,应将委员会的意见通报缔约国和来文提交人。
Article 32第三十二条
A State Party to this Convention may at any time declare that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications in which a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under this Convention. The Committee shall not receive communications concerning a State Party which has not made such a declaration, nor communications from a State Party which has not made such a declaration.本公约缔约国可在任何时候声明,承认委员会有权接受和审议一个缔约国声称另一缔约国未履行本公约义务的来文。委员会不接受涉及一个尚未作此声明的缔约国的来文,也不接受未作此声明的缔约国的来文。
Article 33 1. If the Committee receives reliable information indicating that a State Party is seriously violating the provisions of this Convention, it may, after consultation with the State Party concerned, request one or more of its members to undertake a visit and report back to it without delay. 2. The Committee shall notify the State Party concerned, in writing, of its intention to organize a visit, indicating the composition of the delegation and the purpose of the visit. The State Party shall answer the Committee within a reasonable time. 3. Upon a substantiated request by the State Party, the Committee may decide to postpone or cancel its visit. 4. If the State Party agrees to the visit, the Committee and the State Party concerned shall work together to define the modalities of the visit and the State Party shall provide the Committee with all the facilities needed for the successful completion of the visit.第三十三条
5. Following its visit, the Committee shall communicate to the State Party concerned its observations and recommendations.一、 如果委员会收到可靠消息,表明一个缔约国正在严重违反本公约的规定,委员会可在征求有关缔约国的意见后,请一位或几位委员前往调查,并立即向委员会提出报告。
Article 34二、委员会应将安排访问的意图书面通知有关缔约国,并说明代表团的组成情况和访问的目的。缔约国应在合理的时间内向委员会作出答复。
If the Committee receives information which appears to it to contain well-founded indications that enforced disappearance is being practised on a widespread or systematic basis in the territory under the jurisdiction of a State Party, it may, after seeking from the State Party concerned all relevant information on the situation, urgently bring the matter to the attention of the General Assembly of the United Nations, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations.三、委员会在收到缔约国提出的有充分依据的请求后,可决定推迟或取消访问。
Article 35四、 如果缔约国同意接待来访,委员会应与有关缔约国共同制定访问计划,缔约国应为顺利完成访问,向委员会提供一切必要的便利。
1. The Committee shall have competence solely in respect of enforced disappearances which commenced after the entry into force of this Convention.五、 访问结束后,委员会应向有关缔约国通报它的意见和建议。
2. If a State becomes a party to this Convention after its entry into force, the obligations of that State vis-à-vis the Committee shall relate only to enforced disappearances which commenced after the entry into force of this Convention for the State concerned.第三十四条
Article 36如果委员会收到的消息表明,有充分迹象显示,某缔约国管辖下的领土正在发生大规模或有组织的强迫失踪问题,委员会可向有关缔约国索取一切有关资料,并通过联合国秘书长,将问题紧急提请联合国大会注意。
1. The Committee shall submit an annual report on its activities under this Convention to the States Parties and to the General Assembly of the United Nations.第三十五条
2. Before an observation on a State Party is published in the annual report, the State Party concerned shall be informed in advance and shall be given reasonable time to answer. This State Party may request the publication of its comments or observations in the report.一、 委员会的管辖权仅限于本公约生效后发生的强迫失踪案件。
Part III二、 若一国在本公约生效后成为缔约国,则该国对委员会的义务仅限于本公约对该国生效后发生的强迫失踪案件。
Article 37第三十六条
Nothing in this Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the protection of all persons from enforced disappearance and which may be contained in:一、 委员会应就本公约下开展活动的情况,向缔约国和联合国大会提交年度报告。
(a) The law of a State Party;二、 在年度报告中发表对缔约国的意见之前,应事先通报有关缔约国,并给予适当时间作出答复。该缔约国可以要求在报告中发表其评论或意见。
(b) International law in force for that State.第三部分
Article 38第三十七条
1. This Convention is open for signature by all Member States of the United Nations.本公约的任何内容均不影响对保护所有人不遭受强迫失踪更有利的规定,包括以下法律中的规定:
2. This Convention is subject to ratification by all Member States of the United Nations. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.㈠ 缔约国的法律;
3. This Convention is open to accession by all Member States of the United Nations. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General.㈡ 对该国有效的国际法。
Article 39第三十八条
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.一、 本公约对联合国所有会员国开放供签署。
2. For each State ratifying or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, this Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of that State’s instrument of ratification or accession.二、 本公约供联合国所有会员国批准。批准书应交存联合国秘书长。
Article 40三、 本公约对联合国所有会员国开放供加入。加入经向联合国秘书长交存加入书后生效。
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify all States Members of the United Nations and all States which have signed or acceded to this Convention of the following:第三十九条
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 38;一、 本公约于第二十件批准书或加入书交存联合国秘书长之日起第三十天生效。
(b) The date of entry into force of this Convention under article 39.二、 在第二十件批准书或加入书交存之后批准或加入本公约的每个国家,本公约将于该国交存批准书或加入书之日起第三十天生效。
Article 41第四十条
The provisions of this Convention shall apply to all parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.联合国秘书长应将下列事项通知联合国所有会员国以及已签署或加入本公约的所有国家:
Article 42㈠ 根据第三十八条签署、批准和加入的情况;
1. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which cannot be settled through negotiation or by the procedures expressly provided for in this Convention shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months from the date of the request for arbitration the Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those Parties may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court.㈡ 根据第三十九条本公约生效的日期。
2. A State may, at the time of signature or ratification of this Convention or accession thereto, declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article. The other States Parties shall not be bound by paragraph 1 of this article with respect to any State Party having made such a declaration.第四十一条
3. Any State Party having made a declaration in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of this article may at any time withdraw this declaration by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.本公约各项规定适用于联邦国家的全部领土,无任何限制或例外。
Article 43第四十二条
This Convention is without prejudice to the provisions of international humanitarian law, including the obligations of the High Contracting Parties to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the two Additional Protocols thereto of 8 June 1977, or to the opportunity available to any State Party to authorize the International Committee of the Red Cross to visit places of detention in situations not covered by international humanitarian law.一、 两个或两个以上缔约国之间对本公约的解释或适用出现任何争端,如不能通过谈判或本公约明文规定的程序得到解决,应在其中一方的要求下提交仲裁。如在提出仲裁要求之日起六个月内各方不能就仲裁组织达成协议,则任何一方均可根据国际法院规约,请求将争端提交国际法院。
Article 44二、 各国在签署、批准,或在加入本公约时,可声明不受本条第一款的约束。其他缔约国对发表此项声明的任何缔约国,也不受本条第一款之约束。
1. Any State Party to this Convention may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties to this Convention with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposal. In the event that within four months from the date of such communication at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations.三、 根据本条第二款发表声明的任何缔约国,可随时通知联合国秘书长撤回其声明。
2. Any amendment adopted by a majority of two thirds of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to all the States Parties for acceptance.第四十三条
3. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall enter into force when two thirds of the States Parties to this Convention have accepted it in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.本公约不影响国际人道主义法的规定,包括缔约国依1949年8月12日日内瓦四公约及其1977年6月8日两项附加议定书承担的各项义务,也不影响任何国家在国际人道主义法没有做出规定的情况下,授权红十字国际委员会查访羁押地点。
4. When amendments enter into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of this Convention and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.第四十四条
Article 45一、 本公约任何缔约国均可提出修正案并将其提交联合国秘书长。秘书长应随即将提议的修正案发给公约各缔约国,并请各缔约国表明他们是否赞成召开缔约国会议,审议该项提案并对之进行表决。在发出通知之日起四个月内,如果至少三分之一的缔约国赞成召开这一会议,秘书长应在联合国主持下召开会议。
1. This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.二、 得到出席会议并参加表决的三分之二缔约国通过的所有修正案,均将由秘书长提交所有缔约国接受。
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of this Convention to all States referred to in article 38.三、 根据本条第一款通过的修正案,经本公约三分之二缔约国根据本国宪法程序予以接受后即行生效。
1 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Sixty-first Session, Supplement No. 53 (A/61/53), part one, chap. II, sect. A.四、 修正案一旦生效,即对接受修正案的各缔约国具有约束力,其他缔约国仍受本公约各项规定及之前他们已接受的一切修正案的约束。
---第四十五条
3一、 本公约阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文各文本同一作准,交存联合国秘书长。
3二、 联合国秘书长应将经过核证的公约副本发送第三十八条中提到的所有国家。
United Nations A/RES/61/177A/RES/61/177
General Assembly Distr.A/RES/61/177 16 15 联 合 国 A/RES/61/177 大 会 Distr.
: General: General
12 January 200712 January 2007
Sixty-first session第六十一届会议 议程项目 68
Agenda item 6806-50504
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