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A/68/189A/68/189
United Nations联合国
A/68/189*A/68/189*
General Assembly大 会
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
29 July 201329 July 2013
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
A/68/189A/68/189
13-4083513-40834 (C)
13-40835* (E) 30091313-40834 * (C) 270913 300913
*1340835**1340834C*
13-4083513-40834 (C)
Sixty-eighth session第六十八届会议 临时议程** 项目99(c)
Reissued for technical reasons on 27 September 2013.全面彻底裁军:外层空间活动中的 透明度和建立信任措施 外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组
A/68/150.秘书长的说明
Item 99 (c) of the provisional agenda**秘书长谨随函转递外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组的报告。
General and complete disarmament: transparency and该专家组是依照大会第65/68号决议设立。 2013年9月27日由于技术原因重新印发。
confidence-building measures in outer space activitiesA/68/150。 外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组的报告 摘要
Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities本报告载有联合国秘书长设立的外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组就外层空间的透明度和建立信任措施开展的研究所取得的结果。
Note by the Secretary-General研究报告以协商一致方式获得通过。
The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit herewith the report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities.专家组的结论是,世界日益依赖天基系统和技术以及它们提供的信息,因此需要合作努力,以解决外层空间活动的可持续性和安全面临的威胁。 透明度和建立信任措施可减少、乃至消除就各国在外层空间的活动和意图产生的误解、不信任和错误判断。
The Group was established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/68.专家组认识到,现有的外层空间条约载有数项强制性的透明度和建立信任措施。
Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities不具约束力的外层空间活动措施应成为现有的空间活动国际法律框架的补充,同时不应损害现有的法律义务或妨碍合法使用外层空间,特别是新兴空间行为体的使用。
Summary The present report contains the study on outer space transparency and confidence-building measures conducted by the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities, which was established by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.专家组还赞同,此类外层空间活动措施可有助于监测军备限制和裁军协定执行情况的措施,但不能替代后者。 专家组经过广泛和深入的讨论,起草了一系列外层空间活动措施,包括交流有关外层空间重大军事支出等问题的国家空间政策信息,通告外层空间活动以减少风险,以及访问空间发射场和设施。 专家组讨论了外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施的拟订标准,并讨论了这些措施的执行及核查工作的检验标准。
The study was adopted by consensus.此外,专家组鼓励航天国与非航天国进一步发展在和平利用外层空间方面的国际合作,以造福所有国家。
The Group concluded that the world’s growing dependence on space-based systems and technologies and the information they provide requires collaborative efforts to address threats to the sustainability and security of outer space activities.专家组起草的拟议措施还包括协调和协商机制,目的是增进外层空间活动参与者之间的互动,并澄清信息和含糊不清的情况。 为促进透明度和建立信任措施的有效执行,专家组建议在裁军事务厅、外层空间事务厅和联合国的其他主管实体之间建立协调关系。
Transparency and confidence-building measures can reduce, or even eliminate, misunderstandings, mistrust and miscalculations with regard to the activities and intentions of States in outer space. The Group acknowledged that the existing treaties on outer space contain several transparency and confidence-building measures of a mandatory nature. Non-legally binding measures for outer space activities should complement the existing international legal framework pertaining to space activities and should not undermine existing legal obligations or hamper the lawful use of outer space, particularly by emerging space actors. The Group further agreed that such measures for outer space activities could contribute to, but not act as a substitute for, measures to monitor the implementation of arms limitation and disarmament agreements. After extensive and in-depth discussions, the Group drafted a series of measures for outer space activities, including exchange of information relating to national space policy such as major military expenditure on outer space, notifications on outer space activities aimed at risk reduction, and visits to space launch sites and facilities.
The Group discussed criteria for developing transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities and for testing their implementation and validation.专家组建议各国和国际组织在自愿基础上,并以不妨碍履行根据现有法律承诺所承担的义务为前提,考虑并执行本报告载列的透明度和建立信任措施。
In addition, the Group encouraged further development of international cooperation between spacefaring and non-spacefaring nations in the peaceful uses of outer space for the benefit of all States. The proposed measures drafted by the Group also include coordination and consultative mechanisms aimed at improving interaction between participants in outer space activities and clarifying information and ambiguous situations. In order to promote effective implementation of the transparency and confidence-building measures, the Group recommended that coordination be established between the Office for Disarmament Affairs, the Office for Outer Space Affairs and other appropriate United Nations entities. The Group recommended that States and international organizations consider and implement the transparency and confidence-building measures contained in the present report on a voluntary basis and without prejudice to the implementation of obligations deriving from existing legal commitments. The Group further recommended that the General Assembly decide how to best advance transparency and confidence-building measures and facilitate their universal consideration and support, including by the relevant offices of the Secretariat and the United Nations entities whose work relates to disarmament.
The Group also requested the Secretary-General to circulate its report to all relevant entities of the United Nations system.专家组还建议大会决定如何以最佳方式推行透明度和建立信任措施,并为普遍考虑和支持这些措施提供协助,包括协助秘书处有关部门和工作涉及裁军的联合国各实体对其予以考虑和支持。 专家组还请秘书长将报告分发给联合国系统的所有相关实体。
Contents目录
Page页次
Foreword by the Secretary-General秘书长的前言
44
Letter of transmittal送文函
55
Introduction导言
99
Background overview背景概述
99
General characteristics and basic principles of outer space transparency and confidence-building measures一般特性和基本原则
1211
Nature and purpose of outer space transparency and confidence-building measures外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的性质和目的
1211
Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施
1312
Criteria for transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的标准
1413
Enhancing the transparency of outer space activities提升外层空间活动的透明度
1514
Information exchange on space policies空间政策信息交流
1614
Information exchange and notifications related to outer space activities外层空间活动信息交流与通报
1614
Risk reduction notifications减少风险的通报
1715
Contact and visits to space launch sites and facilities接触并访问航天发射场和设施
1816
International cooperation国际合作
1816
Consultative mechanisms协商机制
1917
Outreach外联
2018
Coordination协调
2018
Conclusions and recommendations结论和建议
2118
Foreword by the Secretary-General秘书长的前言
The societies of our globalized world are increasingly dependent on the more than 1,000 operational satellites that orbit Earth.在我们的全球化世界中,社会越来越依赖于绕地球轨道运行的1 000多颗业务卫星。
Space-based platforms can collect and almost instantly broadcast large amounts of information worldwide.天基平台可在世界范围内收集并可几乎即时广播大量信息。
The benefits derived from outer space resources are now fundamental components of our daily lives.现在,外层空间资源产生的种种惠益是我们日常生活的基本组成部分。
From agriculture and weather forecasting to mapping and communications, space plays an ever-growing role in human activities and development.从农业和天气预报到制图和通信,外层空间在人类活动和发展中发挥着越来越大的作用。
However, outer space is a fragile environment where the steps taken by one actor may have an impact on others, including users of space services on Earth.然而,外层空间是一个脆弱的环境,一个行为体在这个环境中所采取的措施可能影响其他行为体,包括地球上的空间服务使用者。
The broader application of space operations and the increased strategic value of space have resulted in a growing focus on safety in outer space activities.空间业务的应用愈加广泛,空间的战略价值不断增加,由此导致外层空间活动的安全受到越来越多的关注。
Satellites provide strategic advantages but they are also vulnerable.卫星提供战略优势,但它们也是脆弱的。
Protecting space assets has thus become a serious international security concern.因此,保护空间资产已成为一个严重的国际安全关切问题。
The applicability of transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities was explored for the first time at the global level in 1993, when few countries were able to operate satellites and spacecraft.1993年首次在全球一级探讨了对外层空间活动适用透明度和建立信任措施的问题,当时只有几个国家能够运作卫星和航天器。
Today, more than 60 States, government consortiums and other entities own or operate space assets, and the number of spacefaring nations continues to grow.今天,60多个国家、政府联盟和其他实体拥有或运营空间资产,航天国的数目不断增加。
This fundamental change in the political climate surrounding outer space led me to establish, in 2012, the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities.在围绕外层空间的政治环境内产生的这一根本性变化促使我在2012年建立了外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组。
The present report contains the Group’s conclusions and recommendations. It builds on the recommendations of a previous group of experts and on proposals for outer space transparency and confidence-building measures submitted to the United Nations by Member States.本报告载有专家组的结论和建议,并借鉴了上一个专家组的建议以及会员国向联合国提交的有关外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的提议。
The study reaffirms that international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space can help States to develop and strengthen their capacities to benefit from space activities.研究报告重申,和平利用外层空间方面的国际合作可帮助各国发展并加强从空间活动中受益的能力。
The Group agreed on a number of substantive transparency and confidence-building measures, which I commend to the General Assembly for consideration.专家组商定了若干实质性的透明度和建立信任措施,我将其提交大会以供审议。
I also support the Group’s recommendation to establish coordination between various entities of the United Nations Secretariat and other institutions involved in outer space activities.我也支持专家组有关在联合国秘书处各实体和其他参与外层空间活动的机构之间建立协调关系的建议。
This would facilitate the implementation of the transparency and confidence-building measures and promote their further development.这将有助于执行透明度和建立信任措施,并促进这些措施的进一步发展。
Outer space is an inherently multilateral domain.外层空间必然是一个多边领域。
If we are to continue to take advantage of the invaluable resources that outer space provides, it is critically important for all nations to work collectively to keep it free from destabilizing conflict and to make it safe, secure and sustainable in the long term for the benefit of all humankind.如果我们要继续利用外层空间提供的宝贵资源,所有国家就必须携手合作,使其免受破坏稳定的冲突的影响,并使其获得长期的安全、保障和可持续性,从而造福全人类。
Letter of transmittal送文函
19 July 20132013年7月19日
I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities, established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/68.我谨随函提交依照大会第65/68号决议设立的外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组的报告。
The members of the Group are as follows:专家组成员如下:
Brazil巴西
Mr. João Marcelo Galvão de Queiroz Head, Disarmament and Sensitive Technologies DivisionJoão Marcelo Galvão de Queiroz先生
Ministry of Foreign Relations外交部裁军和敏感技术司司长
Brasilia巴西利亚
Chile智利
Mr. Helmut LagosHelmut Lagos先生
Deputy Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations智利常驻联合国副代表
Vienna维也纳
China中国
Mr. Dai Huaicheng戴怀诚先生
Director Department of Arms Control and Disarmament Ministry of Foreign Affairs外交部军控司处长
Beijing北京
France法国
Mr. Gérard BrachetGérard Brachet先生
President, Academy of Air and Space空域和空间研究院院长
Paris巴黎
Italy意大利
Mr. Sergio Marchisio Director Institute of International Legal StudiesSergio Marchisio先生
National Research Council国家研究委员会国际法律研究所所长
Rome罗马
Kazakhstan哈萨克斯坦
Mr. Ruslan AmirgereyevRuslan Amirgereyev先生
Head, Military Programmes Ministry of Defence国防部军事方案负责人
Astana阿斯塔纳
Nigeria尼日利亚
Mr. Augustine U. Nwosa MinisterAugustine U.Nwosa先生
Permanent Mission of Nigeria to the United Nations尼日利亚常驻联合国代表团公使
New York纽约
Republic of Korea大韩民国
Mr. Chulmin Park Deputy Director General International Organizations BureauChulmin Park先生
Ministry of Foreign Affairs外交部国际组织局副局长
Seoul首尔
Romania罗马尼亚
Mr. Dimitru-Dorin Prunariu PresidentDimitru-Dorin Prunariu先生
Scientific Council of the Romanian Space Agency罗马尼亚空间局科学理事会会长
Bucharest布加勒斯特
Russian Federation俄罗斯联邦
Mr. Victor L. Vasiliev Deputy Permanent RepresentativeVictor L.Vasiliev先生
Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other international organizations (Geneva)俄罗斯联邦常驻联合国日内瓦办事处和其他国际组织代表团常驻副代表
Geneva日内瓦
South Africa南非
Mr. Peter MartinezPeter Martinez先生
Chairman空间事务委员会
Council for Space Affairs主席
Cape Town开普敦
Sri Lanka斯里兰卡
Mr. Musthafa M. JaffeerMusthafa M.Jaffeer先生
Ambassador of Sri Lanka to Norway斯里兰卡驻挪威大使
Oslo奥斯陆
Ukraine乌克兰
Mr. Andrii Kasianov Counsellor Division of Disarmament and Non-proliferationAndrii Kasianov先生
Ministry of Foreign Affairs外交部裁军与不扩散处参赞
Kyiv基辅
(First session)(第一届)
Mr. Borys Atamanenko HeadBorys Atamanenko先生
International Relations Department State Space Agency国家空间局国际关系司司长
Kyiv基辅
(Second and third sessions)(第二和三届)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
Mr. Richard Crowther Chief EngineerRichard Crowther先生
United Kingdom Space Agency联合王国空间局总工程师
Swindon, Wiltshire威尔特郡Swindon
United States of America美利坚合众国
Mr. Frank A. RoseFrank A.Rose先生
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Space and Defence Policy国务院军控、核查与执行局国家空间与防务政策助理国务卿帮办
Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance哥伦比亚特区华盛顿
Department of State Washington, D.C. The report was prepared between July 2012 and July 2013, during which period the Group of Governmental Experts held three sessions: the first and third sessions were held in New York, from 23 to 27 July 2012 and from 8 to 12 July 2013 respectively, and the second session was held in Geneva, from 1 to 5 April 2013.报告于2012年7月至2013年7月编写,在此期间,政府专家组举行了三届会议:第一和三届会议分别于2012年7月23日至27日和2013年7月8日至12日在纽约举行; 第二届会议于2013年4月1日至5日在日内瓦举行。 专家组在开展工作时考虑到秘书长题为“关于在外层空间适用建立信任措施的研究”的报告(A/48/305和Corr.1)。
In carrying out its work, the Group took into account the report of the Secretary-General entitled “Study on the application of confidence-building measures in outer space” (A/48/305 and Corr.1).专家组还考虑到一些专家和在专家组内没有代表的国家提出的若干提议。 专家组为了编写一份全面的研究报告,授权组长在闭会期间同参与和平探索与利用外层空间的政府间组织举行磋商。
It also considered a number of proposals from experts and from States that were not represented by experts in the Group.组长向裁军谈判会议以及和平利用外层空间委员会通报了专家组内的讨论情况。
With the purpose of preparing a comprehensive study, the Group authorized the Chair to conduct consultations during the intersessional periods with intergovernmental organizations involved in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space.此外,他还同国际电信联盟和世界气象组织举行了磋商。 专家们经过广泛和深入的讨论,商定了一套外层空间活动的透明度和建立信任措施,并建议各国在自愿基础上予以考虑和执行。
The Chair briefed the Conference on Disarmament and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space about discussions within the Group.这些措施包括交流各种关于空间政策和活动的信息,为减少风险发出通知以及由专家访问各国的空间设施。
In addition, he conducted consultations with the International Telecommunication Union and the World Meteorological Organization.专家组建议,大会应决定如何进一步推动透明度和建立信任措施,并促使其得到普遍考虑和支持。
Following extensive and in-depth discussions, the experts agreed upon a set of transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities and recommended that States consider and implement them on a voluntary basis.此外,专家组请秘书长将本报告分发给和平利用外层空间委员会以及联合国系统的其他相关实体。 还应努力实现对各项现有的外层空间活动法律协定的普遍参加、执行和全面遵守。
The measures include the exchange of different types of information relating to space policy and activities, risk reduction notifications and expert visits to national space facilities.专家组强调,应结合本报告建议的透明度和建立信任措施执行此类国际协定,使其将为在各国之间营造信任和信心气氛的一个基本要素。
The Group recommended that the General Assembly decide how to further advance transparency and confidence-building measures and provide for their universal consideration and support. In addition, it requested the Secretary-General to circulate the present report to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other relevant entities of the United Nations system. Efforts should also be made to reach universal participation in, implementation of and full adherence to the existing legal agreements relating to outer space activities. The Group stressed that the implementation of those international agreements in combination with the transparency and confidence-building measures recommended in the report would constitute an essential element for building a climate of trust and confidence among States. The members of the Group wish to express their appreciation for the assistance they received from members of the United Nations Secretariat, in particular those who served as Secretaries of the Group.
The Group also wishes to express its appreciation for the contribution of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, which served as consultant to the Group.专家组成员谨感谢联合国秘书处成员、特别是担任专家组秘书的成员提供协助。 专家组还感谢担任专家组顾问的联合国裁军研究所做出的贡献。
I have been requested by the Group of Governmental Experts, as its Chair, to submit to you, on its behalf, the present report, which was approved by consensus.政府专家组要求我作为组长,代表专家组向你提交以协商一致方式核准的本报告。
(Signed) Victor L. Vasiliev Chair外层空间活动中的透明度和建立
Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and信任措施问题政府专家组组长
Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space ActivitiesVictor L. Vasiliev(签名)
I.一.
Introduction导言
1.1.
Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/68, the Secretary-General established the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities, on the basis of equitable geographical representation, with the purpose of conducting a study on outer space transparency and confidence-building measures, making use of the relevant reports of the Secretary-General.秘书长依照大会第65/68号决议,基于公平地域代表性,设立了外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施问题政府专家组,目的是利用秘书长的相关报告,对外层空间的透明度和建立信任措施开展研究。
The General Assembly has noted the need to conduct the study, without prejudice to the substantive discussions on the prevention of an arms race in outer space within the framework of the Conference on Disarmament.大会已注意到需要进行这项研究,但不妨碍在裁军谈判会议框架内就防止外层空间的军备竞赛进行实质性讨论。
2.2.
The present report reflects the recommendations of the Group of Governmental Experts on possible transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities that could be adopted voluntarily by States on a unilateral, bilateral, regional or multilateral basis.本报告反映了政府专家组的建议,说明各国可在单边、双边、区域或多边基础上自愿采取的外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施。
Section II provides a background overview.第二节是背景概述。
In section III, the general characteristics and basic principles of outer space transparency and confidence-building measures are discussed.第三节讨论了外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的一般特征和基本原则。
Sections IV-VIII reflect the specific measures recommended by the Group on transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities.第四至八节说明了专家组就外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施建议采取的具体措施。
Finally, section IX provides general conclusions and recommendations for the implementation of the measures presented in sections IV-VIII.最后,第九节载有关于执行第四至八节所列措施的结论和建议。
3.3.
For the preparation of the report, the Group carried out a wide range of consultations and received input from Member States, international organizations and civil society.专家组为编写本报告进行了广泛磋商并收到会员国、国际组织和民间社会的投入。
II.二.
Background overview背景概述
4.4.
The outer space environment, and the immense resources it provides, is a critical component of human endeavour in the twenty-first century.外层空间环境及其提供的庞大资源是人类在21世纪所作努力的一个主要构成部分。
From communications to financial operations, farming to weather forecasting and environmental monitoring to navigation, surveillance and treaty monitoring, outer space resources play a key role in the activities of all nations.从通信到财政业务,从耕作到天气预报,从环境监测到导航,从监视到条约监测,外层空间资源在所有国家的活动中发挥着关键影响。 外层空间活动在社会、经济和科技活动以及国际和平与安全方面起着重要作用。 5.
Outer space activities play a significant role in social, economic, scientific and technological development, as well as in the field of international peace and security.目前,有1 000多颗业务卫星围绕地球轨道运行。 超过60个国家、政府联盟和其他实体拥有或经营这些空间资产,越来越多的国家正在成为航天国并(或)在扩大它们的天基能力和资源。
5.6.
Today, there are more than 1,000 operational satellites in orbit around the Earth.空间行为体和空间利用者增多的结果是,空间环境、特别是重要的地球轨道,在过去几十年来得到越来越多的利用。
More than 60 States, government consortiums and other entities own or operate those space assets and more and more States are becoming spacefaring nations and/or increasing their space-based capabilities and resources.因此,外层空间环境变得日益拥挤、争议更多、竞争更加激烈。 结合国际和平与安全问题,人们越来越担忧,未来十年,随着自然和人为灾害的发生以及干扰性和破坏性反太空能力可能出现的发展,至关重要的外层空间能力有可能受到越来越大的威胁。
6.7.
The result of the increase in space actors and space users is that the space environment, especially key Earth orbits, has become increasingly utilized over the past few decades. As a consequence, the outer space environment is becoming increasingly congested, contested and competitive. In the context of international peace and security, there is growing concern that threats to vital space capabilities may increase during the next decade as a result of both natural and man-made hazards and the possible development of disruptive and destructive counterspace capabilities.除了空间行为体和空间资源利用者增加之外,自政府专家关于在外层空间采取建立信任措施的上一次研究报告(A/48/305和Corr.1)以来,关于外层空间可持续性和安全性的政治气候已发生根本改变,除其他外,这一改变反映在大会通过的关于外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施的各项决议、裁军谈判会议就防止外层空间军备竞赛开展的实质性讨论、和平利用外层空间委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性问题工作组的实质性讨论以及国际电信联盟(国际电联)和世界气象组织(气象组织)的活动当中。 人们还提出了各种建议,包括在裁军谈判会议提出的关于防止在外层空间放置武器和对外层空间物体使用或威胁使用武力的条约草案(见CD/1839)以及外层空间活动国际行为守则提案。
7.{§1}
In addition to the growth of space actors and space resource users, since the last study by governmental experts on the application of confidence-building measures in outer space (A/48/305 and Corr.1), the political climate regarding outer space sustainability and security has fundamentally changed, as reflected in, inter alia, the resolutions adopted by the General Assembly on transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities, and the substantive discussions of the Conference on Disarmament on the prevention of an arms race in outer space and of the Working Group on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, as well as the activities of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Various proposals have also been put forward, including a draft treaty introduced at the Conference on Disarmament on the prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space and of the threat or use of force against outer space objects (see CD/1839) and the proposal for an international code of conduct for outer space activities.{§1} 8. The Group recognized the invaluable role played by the existing international treaties on outer space, adopted by the General Assembly, especially the 1967 Treaty on the Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, in consolidating a legal regime aimed at fostering use of outer space and strengthening international cooperation in outer space activities. In that context, the Group recognized that States are ultimately responsible for the authorization and continuing supervision of all space activities under their jurisdiction.
Under the legal framework of those treaties and of other instruments that may also be relevant and applicable to the space environment in that context, use of outer space by States, international organizations and private entities has flourished.{§2} As a result, space technology and services contribute immeasurably to economic growth and improvements in the quality of life around the world. 9. With regard to maintaining international peace and security, it is clear that it is in the shared interest of all nations to act responsibly and in accordance with international law when carrying out outer space activities, in order to help to prevent mishaps, misperceptions and miscalculations. As more governmental and non-governmental entities become involved in outer space activities, greater international cooperation is needed to uphold the long-standing principle that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries. Such cooperation is essential if the international community is to succeed in safeguarding the use of outer space for peaceful purposes and for future generations.
10.8.
The Group noted that efforts by States, and the international community as a whole, are being undertaken to advance concerted, well-thought out, effective and timely bilateral, regional and multilateral initiatives to strengthen stability and security in outer space in a constructive manner.专家组确认,大会通过的各项关于外层空间的现有国际条约,特别是《关于各国探索与利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》,为巩固旨在促进利用外层空间和加强外空活动中的国际合作的法律制度发挥了宝贵作用。
11. The work that takes place within the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and its Legal Subcommittee, makes a significant contribution to the promotion of the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.在此背景下,专家组确认,最终应由各国负责授权和持续监管在其管辖范围内的所有空间活动。 在这些条约和可能关系到并适用于空间环境的其他文书构成的法律框架内,各国、国际组织和私营实体开展的外空利用活动已经欣欣向荣。
The Committee and its Subcommittees play a central role in the development of treaties, principles and guidelines related to outer space activities.{§2} 因此,空间技术和服务对世界各地的经济增长和生活质量的改善作出了无法估量的贡献。
12.9.
In 2010, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee established the Working Group on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities.就维护国际和平与安全而言,在开展外层空间活动时负责任地采取行动并遵守国际法,以帮助防止事故、误解和误判的做法显然符合所有国家的共同利益。
The Working Group is mandated to prepare a report on the long-term sustainability of outer space activities and to recommend a set of guidelines focused on practical and prudent measures that could be implemented in a timely manner to enhance the safety and long-term sustainability of outer space activities.随着参与外层空间活动的政府和非政府实体越来越多,更需要加强国际合作,以维护为所有国家的福祉和利益探索和利用外层空间这一长期原则。 国际社会要成功地为和平目的和今世后代而保护利用外层空间,就必须进行合作。
13.10.
The Group of Governmental Experts recognized the active participation of member States of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the development of those guidelines and noted the importance of their subsequent implementation by all States and intergovernmental organizations.专家组注意到,各国和国际社会作为一个整体正在开展努力,推动采取协调一致、深思熟虑、有效和及时的双边、区域和多边举措,以建设性的方式加强外层空间的稳定与安全。 11. 和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会与法律小组委员会开展的工作对促进外层空间活动的长期可持续性做出了重大贡献。
These guidelines will have characteristics similar to those of transparency and confidence-building measures;委员会及其小组委员会在制订有关外空活动的条约、原则和指导方针方面发挥了核心作用。 12. 2010年,科学和技术小组委员会设立了外空活动长期可持续性问题工作组。
some of them could be considered as potential transparency and confidence-building measures, while others could provide the technical basis for the implementation of certain transparency and confidence-building measures proposed by this Group of Governmental Experts.该工作组的任务是编写关于外空活动长期可持续性的报告,并建议一整套准则,重点放在能够及时执行的实际和审慎的措施,以增强外层空间活动的安全性和长期可持续性。 13. 政府专家组确认,和平利用外层空间委员会各成员国积极参与制订这些准则,并指出,所有国家和政府间组织随后实施这些准则是非常重要的。
The report of the Working Group on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities will be presented to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.这些准则的某些特点与透明度和建立信任措施相像,其中一些可以被视为潜在的透明度和建立信任措施,另一些则可以为实施政府专家组提议的某些透明度和建立信任措施奠定技术基础。
Once the finalized guidelines are approved, they will be presented to the Fourth Committee of the General Assembly, and then to the General Assembly itself for endorsement and adoption.外空活动长期可持续性问题工作组将向和平利用外层空间委员会提交报告。 最终的准则一旦获得批准,就将提交大会第四委员会,之后提交大会供其核准和通过。
14.14.
The Group noted the extensive work of the First Committee of the General Assembly on confidence-building measures in various sectors.专家组注意到,大会第一委员会就不同部门的建立信任措施开展了广泛工作。
Specifically, the Group noted that the First Committee recommends for adoption by the Assembly a draft resolution on transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities on an annual basis.专家组特别注意到,第一委员会建议大会每年通过一项关于外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施的决议草案。
Additionally, the Group noted the concrete proposals from Member States on outer space transparency and confidence-building measures, as contained in the report of the Secretary-General entitled “Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities” (A/65/123 and Add.1).此外,专家组注意到各会员国就外层空间透明度和建立信任措施提出的具体建议,它们载于秘书长题为“外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施”的报告(A/65/123和Add.1)。
15.15.
The Group noted that the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament includes the item “Prevention of an arms race in outer space”.专家组注意到,裁军谈判会议的议程列有“防止外层空间的军备竞赛”项目。
In that context, several initiatives related to transparency and confidence-building measures have been proposed. They include, for example, working papers on transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space (CD/1815) and on the merits of certain draft transparency and confidence-building measures and treaty proposals for space security (CD/1865).在此项目下,提出了若干有关透明度和建立信任措施的倡议,其中的例子包括关于外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施的工作文件(CD/1815),还包括关于若干透明度和建立信任措施草案以及空间安全条约提案的优缺点的工作文件(CD/1865)。
Also of note is the draft treaty on prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space and of the threat or use of force against outer space objects (see CD/1839).还值得注意的是防止在外空放置武器和对外空物体使用或威胁使用武力的条约草案(见CD/1839)。
16.16.
Following General Assembly resolutions on transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space, the European Union presented a draft of a non-legally binding international code of conduct for outer space activities to the international community in Vienna on 5 June 2012.继大会通过关于外层空间的透明度和建立信任措施的决议之后,欧洲联盟于2012年6月5日在日内瓦向国际社会提交了不具法律约束力的外层空间活动国际行为守则草案。
The Group noted the open-ended consultations on the proposal that were held in Kyiv on 16 and 17 May 2013.专家组注意到,2013年5月16日和17日,在基辅举行了关于该提案的第一次不限成员名额协商会议。
17.17.
The Group noted the role of ITU in the management of the radio frequency spectrum and geostationary orbital slots.专家组注意到国际电联在管理射频频谱和地球静止轨道位置方面发挥的作用。
In the context of transparency and confidence-building measures, the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau plays a key role in addressing harmful radio-frequency interference, as provided for in article 45 of the ITU Constitution and article 15 of the ITU Radio Regulations.就透明度和建立信任措施而言,国际电联无线电通讯局依照国际电联《组织法》第四十五条和国际电联《无线电规章》第十五条的规定,在处理有害的无线电频率干扰方面起着关键作用。
The Group also noted the importance of commitments to establish and implement policies and procedures to minimize any form of harmful radio-frequency interference.专家组还注意到,必须坚定致力于制订和执行政策和程序,以便把所有形式的有害无线电频率干扰降至最低程度。
18.18.
The Group noted that regional intergovernmental organizations provide useful platforms for the development and implementation of transparency and confidence-building measures related to coordination and international cooperation.专家组注意到,区域政府间组织为制订和执行有关协调和国际合作的透明度和建立信任措施提供了有益平台。
19.19.
The Group noted that, since 2004, several States have introduced a policy of not being the first State to place weapons in outer space.专家组注意到,2004年以来,几个国家推出了不最先在外层空间放置武器的政策。
III.三.
General characteristics and basic principles of outer space transparency and confidence-building measures外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的一般特性和基本原则
A.A.
Nature and purpose of outer space transparency and confidence-building measures外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的性质和目的
20.20.
In general terms, transparency and confidence-building measures are a means by which Governments can share information with the aim of creating mutual understanding and trust, reducing misperceptions and miscalculations and thereby helping both to prevent military confrontation and to foster regional and global stability. They also assist in building confidence as to the peaceful intentions of States and can help States to increase understanding, enhance clarity of intentions and create conditions for establishing a predictable strategic situation in both the economic and security arenas. 21. Although there is no universal or comprehensive prescription for identifying transparency and confidence-building measures, there are certain characteristics that may be used to determine their effectiveness. In general, there are two types of transparency and confidence-building measures: those dealing with capabilities and those dealing with behaviours.
The Group took note of the “Guidelines for appropriate types of confidence-building measures and for the implementation of such measures on a global or regional level”, as contained in the “Study on the application of confidence-building measures in outer space” (A/48/305 and Corr.1, annex, appendix II).总体而言,透明度和建立信任措施是一种手段,各国政府可借此分享信息,以期建立相互了解和信任,减少误解和误判,从而帮助防止军事冲突,促进区域和全球稳定。 它们还有助于建立对各国和平意图的信心,帮助各国增进相互了解,提高意图的明确性,并为在经济和安全领域建立一个可预测的战略局面创造条件。
22.21.
Transparency and confidence-building measures have been employed in a number of terrestrial contexts for decades.虽然不存在确定透明度和建立信任措施的普遍适用或包罗万象的方案,但可利用这些措施的某些特性来确定其实效。
They had an especially important role during the cold war, where they were intended to contribute to reducing the risk of armed conflict through mitigating misunderstandings related to military activities, particularly in situations where States lacked clear and timely information.一般来说,透明度和建立信任措施有两种类型:一种类型涉及能力,另一种类型涉及行为。 专家组注意到关于在外层空间适用建立信任措施的研究报告(A/48/305和Corr.1,附件,附录二)所载指导方针,即关于建立信任措施的适当类型以及关于在全球或区域范围执行这些措施的指导方针。
23.22.
The Group was of the view that transparency and confidence-building measures developed in a multilateral framework are more likely to be adopted by the wider international community.透明度和建立信任措施已在一些地面环境中实施了几十年,它们在冷战期间发挥了特别重要的作用。 当时,这些措施的意图是化解与军事活动有关的误解(特别是在各国缺乏明确、及时的情报的局势下),从而帮助降低武装冲突的风险。
B.23.
Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities专家组认为,在多边框架内制订的透明度和建立信任措施更有可能被广大国际社会采用。
24.B.
The Group recognized that transparency and confidence-building measures, for the purpose of its study, were to be considered as non-legally binding voluntary measures.外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施 24. 专家组确认,就本项研究的目的而言,透明度和建立信任措施应被视为不具有法律约束力的自愿措施。
At the same time, it noted that elements of transparency and confidence-building measures may be found in existing international agreements.与此同时,专家组指出,在现有的国际协议中可以找到透明度和建立信任措施的内容。
The Group also discussed other measures, including those of a legally binding nature.专家组还讨论了其他措施,包括具有法律约束力的措施。
25.25.
The Group recognized that the need for transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities has increased significantly over the past two decades.专家组确认,过去二十年里,外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施的必要性显著增加。
It is generally acknowledged that such measures can augment the safety, sustainability and security of day-to-day space operations and can contribute both to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States and peoples.人们普遍认识到,这些措施可以增强日常空间作业的安全、可持续性和安保,促进国家之间和人民之间的相互了解和友好关系。
That recognition has been reflected in numerous resolutions of the General Assembly.大会的多项决议均反映了这种认识。
26.26.
Transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities are part of a broader context of such measures.外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施包含在范围更广的此类措施之内。
The General Assembly endorsed, in its resolution 43/78 H, the guidelines for appropriate types of confidence-building measures, as adopted by the Disarmament Commission at its 1988 substantive session.大会在第43/78 H号决议中核准了裁军审议委员会1988年实质性会议通过的关于适当类型的建立信任措施的指导方针。
In that resolution, the Assembly noted that “confidence-building measures, while neither a substitute nor a precondition for arms limitation and disarmament measures, can be conducive to achieving progress in disarmament”.大会在该决议中指出,“建立信任措施虽然不能代替军备限制和裁军措施,也不是其先决条件,但可帮助裁军取得进展。
27.27.
The Group identified the following categories of transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities as being of relevance:专家组确定,外层空间活动中的以下各类透明度和建立信任措施是有意义的:
(a)(a)
General transparency and confidence-building measures aimed at enhancing the availability of information on the space policy of States involved in outer space activities;一般性的透明度和建立信任措施,其目的在于提高参与外层空间活动国家的空间政策信息的可获得性;
(b)(b)
Information exchange about development programmes for new space systems, as well as information about operational space-based systems providing widely used services such as meteorological observations or global positioning, navigation and timing;交流有关新的空间系统研发方案的信息,以及关于提供气象观测或全球定位、导航和定时等广泛使用的各项服务的空基业务系统的信息;
(c)(c)
The articulation of a State’s principles and goals relating to their exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes;阐明国家为和平目的探索和利用外层空间的原则和目标;
(d)(d)
Specific information-exchange measures aimed at expanding the availability of information on objects in outer space and their general function, particularly those objects in Earth orbits;旨在更广泛提供外层空间物体、特别是地球轨道物体信息及其一般功能信息的具体信息交流措施;
(e)(e)
Measures related to establishing norms of behaviour for promoting spaceflight safety such as launch notifications and consultations that aim at avoiding potentially harmful interference, limiting orbital debris and minimizing the risk of collisions with other space objects;涉及制定行为规范以促进航天安全的措施,例如通报发射活动以及举行协商,以避免潜在的有害干扰,限制轨道碎片和尽可能降低与其他空间物体碰撞的风险;
(f)(f)
International cooperation measures in outer space activities, including measures aimed at promoting capacity-building and disseminating data for sustainable economic and social development, that are consistent with existing international commitments and obligations.符合现有国际承诺和义务的外层空间活动中的国际合作措施,包括旨在促进能力建设和传播有利于经济和社会可持续发展的数据的措施。
28.28.
The Group agreed that transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities can also contribute to, but not substitute for, measures to verify arms limitation and disarmament agreements.专家组同意,外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施也能够有助于验证军备限制和裁军协议的措施,但不应取代这些措施。
29.29.
The Group noted that some transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities have already been enacted at the multilateral and/or the national level.专家组注意到,在多边和(或)国家一级已经颁布了一些外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施。
Such measures include pre-launch notifications, space situational awareness data-sharing, notifications of hazards to spaceflight safety and other significant events, and the publication of national space policies.这些措施包括发射前通报、空间态势感知数据共享、通报对航天安全的危害和其他重大事件以及公布国家空间政策。
Several countries have also proposed new voluntary unilateral or collective transparency and confidence-building measures in space.一些国家还提出了新的自愿性单边或集体的空间透明度和建立信任措施。
C.C.
Criteria for transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space外层空间透明度和建立信任措施的标准
30.30.
Transparency and confidence-building measures can be developed and implemented by States and intergovernmental organizations unilaterally, bilaterally, regionally and multilaterally.国家和政府间组织可采用单独、双边、区域和多边方式制订和执行透明度和建立信任措施。
States should implement such measures to the greatest extent practicable, consistent with their national interests and obligations.国家应在符合其国家利益和义务的情况下尽最大可能执行这些措施。
Transparency and confidence-building measures promote mutual confidence among States through constructive dialogue and increased awareness and insight.透明度和建立信任措施可通过建设性对话及提高认识和加深了解的方式促进国家间的相互信任。
31.31.
In general terms, transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities should be aimed at increasing the security, safety and sustainability of outer space.总体而言,外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施的目的应该是提高外层空间的安保、安全和可持续性。
Particular attention should be given to the development and implementation of voluntary and pragmatic measures to ensure the security and stability of all aspects of outer space activities.应特别注重制订并执行自愿和务实的措施,以确保外层空间活动所有方面的安全和稳定。
In developing transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities, it is particularly important to be able to demonstrate the practicability of a particular measure or set of actions to the various actors involved, within the scope of that proposed measure or set of actions.在制订外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施时,特别重要的是要能够向拟议措施或行动所涉及的各行为体显示某一特定措施或整套行动的实用性。
32.32.
The Group observed that the existing treaties on outer space contain several transparency and confidence-building measures of a mandatory nature.专家组认为,关于外层空间的现有条约包含一些强制性的透明度和建立信任措施。
Non-legally binding transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities should complement the existing international legal framework pertaining to outer space activities, and not undermine existing legal obligations or hamper the legal use of outer space, particularly by emerging space actors.不具有法律约束力的外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施应补充有关外层空间活动的现行国际法律框架,而不是破坏现行法律义务或阻碍对外层空间的合法利用,特别是新兴空间行为体开展的合法利用。
Once adopted, certain transparency and confidence-building measures might have specific effects in a domestic context, especially with regard to their implementation through relevant national mechanisms.一旦获得通过,透明度和建立信任措施可能在国内范围产生具体影响,特别是在通过相关国家机制予以落实的方面产生这些影响。
33.33.
Transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities should complement, but not substitute for, the verification measures in arms control agreements and regimes.外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施应补充而不是代替军备控制协议和制度中的核查措施。
Voluntary transparency and confidence-building measures could contribute to the consideration of concepts and proposals for legally binding arms control measures as well as verification protocols included in legally binding international instruments.自愿的透明度和建立信任措施可有助于审议为具有法律约束力的军备控制措施以及为具有法律约束力的国际文书所附核查议定书提出的概念和提议。
34.34.
A proposed transparency and confidence-building measure should:拟议的透明度和建立信任措施应当:
(a)(a)
Be clear, practical and proven, meaning that both the application and the efficacy of the proposed measure have been demonstrated by one or more actors;清晰、实用和证实有效,即所提议措施的适用性和功效已得到一个或多个行为体的证实;
(b)(b)
Be able to be effectively confirmed by other parties in its application, either independently or collectively;能够在适用时由其他缔约方独立或集体予以有效的确认;
(c)(c)
Reduce or even eliminate the causes of mistrust, misunderstanding and miscalculation with regard to the activities and intentions of States.减少甚或消除对国家活动和意图产生不信任、误解和误判的肇因。
35.35.
The following table attempts to capture the essence of testing a transparency and confidence-building measure for its implementation and validation/demonstration.下表试图反映对透明度和建立信任措施的执行以及核查/展示工作进行检验的基本内容。
执行 展示 何人 应由谁来执行措施?
Testing a transparency and confidence-building measure谁有能力确认已执行了措施? 什么 应执行什么措施?
Implementation措施是否明确且被清楚理解?
Demonstration必须展示什么才能确认已经执行?
Who为什么
Who should implement the measure?执行措施会产生什么价值或好处?
Who will be able to confirm that the measure has been implemented?是否明确理解为什么必须能够确认或展示已经采取了措施?
What何时
What is the measure that should be implemented?应在何时执行措施? 应在何时进行展示或确认? 如何
Is it clearly identified and understood?应如何执行措施?
What should be demonstrated to confirm implementation?如何核查、展示或确认措施的执行情况? 四. 提升外层空间活动的透明度
Why36.
What is the value or benefit of performing the measure?通过双边、区域和多边机制进行的交流是为了提供定期和例行的机会,供各国说明本国当前开展和计划开展的空间活动。
Does a clear understanding of why it is important to be able to confirm or demonstrate implementation exist? When各国可交流关于本国外层空间政策和空间活动的一般性信息,并就可预见的危险情况作出通报以降低风险。 此类风险包括对宇航员生命和健康或对人类航空活动构成的危险,以及可能对航天器造成有害干扰的自然现象。
When should the measure be implemented?应鼓励各国与其他政府和非政府航天器运营者及有关国际组织及时共享信息。
At what point is demonstration or confirmation performed?各国可考虑自愿视察与空间有关的设施以熟悉情况。
HowA.
How should the measure be implemented?空间政策信息交流
How is implementation of the measure validated, demonstrated or confirmed?就国家外层空间政策的原则和目标交换信息
IV.37.
Enhancing the transparency of outer space activities各国应公布国家空间政策和战略信息,包括与安全有关的信息。
36. Exchanges of information through bilateral, regional and multilateral mechanisms are intended to serve as regular and routine opportunities for States to describe their current and planned space activities.为在全世界各国之间就军事和非军事事务建立信任和信心,各国还应公布主要外层空间研究和利用方案的信息。 应当根据现有的多边承诺开展信息交流。 各国还可提供反映其相关国防政策、军事战略和理论的补充信息。
States may exchange general information on their outer space policies and space activities and provide risk reduction notifications for foreseeable hazardous situations. Risks may include dangers to the lives or health of astronauts or to human spaceflight activity, as well as natural phenomena that may cause harmful interference to spacecraft.就主要外层空间军事支出和其他国家安全空间活动交换信息 38. 按照就主要军事支出作出国家报告的现行政治承诺以及适用于所有会员国的就军事情况提供客观情报的指导方针和建议,各国应利用现有机制报告其外层空间军事支出和其他国家安全空间活动(大会第66/20号决议,第1段和A/66/89及Corr.1至3,附件二)。
States should be encouraged to share information with other governmental and non-governmental spacecraft operators and relevant international organizations in a timely manner.作为对此类报告的补充,各国可就所提交的数据提供解释性说明,以解释或澄清报告中的数字,如国家安全空间总支出在国内生产总值中所占份额以及自上次报告来发生的主要变化。
States may consider on a voluntary basis familiarization visits to space-related facilities.B. 外层空间活动信息交流与通报 就外层空间物体轨道参数和潜在的轨道会合交换信息
A.39.
Information exchange on space policies交流外层空间物体的基本轨道参数信息有助于提高追踪空间物体时的准确性。
Exchanges of information on the principles and goals of a State’s outer space policy具体措施可包括:
37.(a)
States should publish information on their national space policies and strategies, including those relating to security.交流空间物体的轨道信息,在切实可行的范围内向受影响国家的政府和私营部门航天器运营者通报潜在的航天器轨道会合情况;
States should also publish information on their major outer space research and space applications programmes in order to build a climate of trust and confidence between States worldwide on military and non-military matters.(b) 各国应按照《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》(1975年)和大会题为“关于加强国家和国际政府间组织登记空间物体的做法的建议”的第62/101号决议,尽快向联合国提供登记信息; (c)
This should be carried out in line with existing multilateral commitments.向公众提供查看国家空间物体登记册的机会。
States may provide any additional information reflecting their relevant defence policy, military strategies and doctrines.通过双边、区域和多边机制作出的此类通报可使具体的空间活动更为透明。
Exchanges of information on major military outer space expenditure and other national security space activities对航天活动的共同了解可促进全球航天安全并有助于防止事故、误解和怀疑。 就外层空间中的自然危害交换信息
38.40.
Consistent with existing political commitments for national reporting on major military expenditure and guidelines and recommendations for objective information on military matters to all Member States, Governments should use existing mechanisms to report on their military space expenditure as well as other national security space activities (General Assembly resolution 66/20, para. 1, and A/66/89 and Corr.1-3, annex II).根据《外层空间条约》,各国如发现包括月球和其他天体在内的外层空间中有可能对航天员生命或健康或对人类航天活动构成威胁的任何现象,应立即通知其他国家或联合国秘书长。 各国还应考虑在自愿的基础上向其他政府和非政府航天器运营者及时提供信息,通报可能对用于和平探索和利用外层空间的航天器造成有害干扰的自然现象。 通报计划进行的航天器发射
They may supplement such reports with explanatory remarks regarding submitted data to explain or clarify the figures provided in the reports, such as total national security space expenditure as a share of gross domestic product and major changes from previous reports.41. 各国应就航天器发射和运载火箭任务提供发射前通报。 专家组指出,《防止弹道导弹扩散海牙行为准则》中载有此类通报的范例。
B.C.
Information exchange and notifications related to outer space activities减少风险的通报
Exchanges of information on orbital parameters of outer space objects and potential orbital conjunctions通报可能危及其他空间物体飞行安全的排定调整动作
39.42.
Exchanges of information on the basic orbital parameters of outer space objects may assist in increasing the accuracy of the tracking of space objects.各国应尽最大可能及时向可能受影响的国家通报可能会危及其他国家空间物体飞行安全的排定调整动作。
Specific measures could include:通报和监测无控制的高风险重返大气层事件
(a)43.
Exchange of information on the orbital elements of space objects and the provision, to the extent practicable, of notifications of potential orbital conjunctions involving spacecraft to affected government and private sector spacecraft operators;各国应支持建立并执行信息交流措施,及时并尽最大可能向所有可能受影响的国家、联合国秘书长和相关国际组织通报预计发生的高风险重返大气层事件,即重返大气层的空间物体或其残留物可能造成重大损害或放射性污染的事件。 通报紧急情况
(b)44.
Provision of registration information to the United Nations as soon as practicable, in accordance with the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (1975) and General Assembly resolution 62/101, entitled “Recommendations on enhancing the practice of States and international intergovernmental organizations in registering space objects”;当出现与自然或人为威胁空间物体飞行安全有关的事件时,各国应及时并尽最大可能通知所有可能受影响的国家。 这包括空间物体出现运转故障或失控造成的风险,这将大幅提高发生高风险重返大气层事件或空间物体相撞的可能性。 通报故意轨道解体
(c)45.
Provision of public access to national registries of space objects.应避免故意摧毁轨道中的航天器或运载火箭轨道级,或进行其他可产生长期碎片的有害活动。
Such notifications, through bilateral, regional and multilateral mechanisms, can provide transparency regarding specific space activities.如有确定必要进行故意解体,则有关国家应通知可能受其计划影响的国家,包括为确保在足够低的高空进行故意解体将采取的措施,以限制所产生碎片的轨道寿命。
Shared awareness of spaceflight activity may foster global spaceflight safety and contribute to avoidance of mishaps, misperceptions and mistrust.所有行动都应按照大会题为“和平利用外层空间中的国际合作”的第62/217号决议所核准的《联合国减少空间碎片准则》开展。
Exchanges of information on forecast natural hazards in outer spaceD. 接触并访问航天发射场和设施 为熟悉情况而自愿进行的访问
40.46.
In accordance with the Outer Space Treaty, States should immediately inform other States or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including on the Moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts or to human spaceflight activity.为熟悉情况而自愿进行的访问可以提供机会,加深国际社会对一国军民两用和军事空间活动流程和程序的了解,并可以为准备和进行通报和磋商提供背景。
States should also consider providing, on a voluntary basis, timely information to other governmental and non-governmental spacecraft operators of natural phenomena that may cause potentially harmful interference to spacecraft engaged in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space. Notification of planned spacecraft launches专家访问,包括访问空间发射场; 邀请国家观察员访问发射场、飞行指挥和控制中心及外层空间基础设施中的其他业务设施
41.47.
States should provide pre-launch notifications of space vehicle launches and the mission of launch vehicles.专家组注意到《外层空间条约》第十条和其他多边承诺,鼓励各国在自愿的基础上考虑由专家访问空间设施,其中可包括空间状况宣传中心。
The Group noted that the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation provides an example of such a notification.展示火箭和空间技术
C.48.
Risk reduction notifications Notifications on scheduled manoeuvres that may result in risk to the flight safety of other space objects应根据现有的多边承诺和国家出口管制条例,在自愿的基础上展示火箭和其他空间技术。 五. 国际合作
42.49.
States should notify, in a timely manner and to the greatest extent practicable, potentially affected States of scheduled manoeuvres that may result in risk to the flight safety of the space objects of other States.和平利用外层空间方面的国际合作为所有国家发展和加强自身能力,以开展空间活动和(或)从中受益提供了基础。
Notifications and monitoring of uncontrolled high-risk re-entry events航天国家和非航天国家在科学和技术项目方面开展国际合作有助于建立信任。
43.50.
States should support the development and implementation of measures to exchange information with and notify, in a timely manner and to the greatest extent practicable, all States that may be affected, the Secretary-General of the United Nations and relevant international organizations of predicted high-risk re-entry events in which the re-entering space object or residual material from the re-entering space object potentially could cause significant damage or radioactive contamination. Notifications in the case of emergency situations 44. States should, in a timely manner and to the greatest extent practicable, notify all other potentially affected States of events linked to natural and man-made threats to the flight safety of space objects. These may include risks caused by the malfunctioning of space objects or loss of control that could result in a significantly increased probability of a high-risk re-entry event or a collision between space objects.
Notification of intentional orbital break-ups虽然一些国家已建立了很强的航天能力,但许多非航天国家强烈希望能直接参与外层空间活动并分享空间技术。
45.51.
Intentional destruction of any on-orbit spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages or other harmful activities that generate long-lived debris should be avoided. When intentional break-ups are determined to be necessary, States should inform other potentially affected States of their plans, including measures that will be taken to ensure that intentional destruction is conducted at sufficiently low altitudes to limit the orbital lifetime of resulting fragments.关于在外层空间适用建立信任措施的研究报告(A/48/305和Corr.1)指出,各国在航天能力上存在差距、多数国家只有借助他国才能参与空间活动、国家之间的空间技术的充分转让存在不确定性、许多国家无法获得重要的天基信息,这些都是导致国家之间缺乏互信的因素。 国际合作是促进每个国家权利的重要工具,使各国能实现为本国发展和福祉而受益于空间技术的正当目标。 52.
All actions should be carried out in conformity with the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the United Nations as endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 62/217, entitled “International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space”.专家组进一步指出,每个国家均可在平等和可以共同接受的基础上,自由决定其参与国际空间合作的性质,同时须注意各方关切的正当权利和利益,如适当的技术保障安排、多边承诺以及相关标准和惯例。
D.53.
Contact and visits to space launch sites and facilities专家组一致认为,应将《外层空间条约》视为在外层空间活动中加深国际合作的基础。
Voluntary familiarization visits根据条约第一条,外层空间的探索和利用“应造福和有利于所有国家,不论其经济或科学发展程度如何,应该是全人类共有的领域”。
46.54.
Voluntary familiarization visits can provide opportunities to improve international understanding of a State’s processes and procedures for space activities, including dual-use and military activities, and can provide context for the development and implementation of notifications and consultations.专家组注意到《关于开展探索和利用外层空间的国际合作,促进所有国家的福利和利益,并特别考虑到发展中国家的需要的宣言》(大会第51/122号决议,附件),并特别指出,该宣言应成为发展外层空间活动国际合作的基础。
Expert visits, including visits to space launch sites, invitation of international observers to launch sites, flight command and control centres and other operations facilities of outer space infrastructure宣言第3和第5段尤其重要。
47.55.
Taking note of article X of the Outer Space Treaty, as well as other multilateral commitments, States are encouraged to consider, on a voluntary basis, expert visits to space facilities.空间科学和技术方面的双边、区域和多边能力建设方案有助于培养全球发展中国家教育工作者和科学家的太空技能和知识。
Such visits could include space situational awareness centres.此类方案应通过集中于理论、研究、应用、实地演练和试点项目来开展能力建设,以在目标国家和区域推动社会和经济发展。
Demonstrations of rocket and space technologies专家组注意到已存在很多区域和多边能力建设方案。
48. Demonstrations of rockets and other space-related technologies could be carried out on a voluntary basis and in line with existing multilateral commitments and national export control regulations. V.尤其是联合国空间应用方案,这是一个非常成熟的能力建设方案,将受益于来自各航天国家的更广泛支持。 其他国际组织,例如联合国教育、科学及文化组织、气象组织和国际电信联盟,在各自的专长领域贡献了具体的能力建设方案。
International cooperation在双边层面也有各种形式的能力建设方案,此类方案通常与具体的合作协议挂钩。
49.56.
International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space provides a basis for all States to develop and strengthen their capacity to undertake and/or derive benefits from space activities.为实现可持续经济和社会发展实行一项开放的卫星数据收集和传播政策符合大会题为“关于从外层空间遥感地球的原则”的第41/65号决议。
International cooperation on scientific and technical projects between both spacefaring and non-spacefaring nations can contribute to confidence-building. 50.为推动数据传播政策,各国还可考虑制定方案,培训和教育发展中国家用户如何接收和判读有关卫星数据,并将此类数据提供给国内和国际终端用户,使之对它们有用,并可以为它们所获取。
While there are a number of States that have acquired significant space-related capabilities, many non-spacefaring States have a strong desire to participate directly in outer space activities and to share in space technology. 51. As noted in the study on the application of confidence-building measures in outer space (A/48/305 and Corr.1), the disparity in the space capabilities of States, the inability of most States to participate in space activities without the assistance of others, uncertainty concerning sufficient transfer of space technologies between States and the inability of many States to acquire significant space-based information are factors contributing to a lack of confidence among States. International cooperation is an important vehicle for promoting the right of each nation to achieve its legitimate objectives of benefiting from space technology for its own development and welfare. 52.
The Group further noted that each State is free to determine the nature of its participation in international space cooperation on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis with regard to the legitimate rights and interests of parties’ concerns, for example, appropriate technology safeguard arrangements, multilateral commitments and relevant standards and practices. 53. The Group agreed that the Outer Space Treaty should be regarded as a basis for the furthering of international cooperation in outer space activities and, in accordance with article I of the Treaty, that the exploration and use of outer space “shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind”. 54. The Group took note of the Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries (General Assembly resolution 51/122, annex) and specifically noted that the Declaration should form a basis for the development of international cooperation in outer space activities.
Paragraphs 3 and 5 of the Declaration are of particular relevance. 55.专家组指出,一些国家已经在提供免费的遥感数据,以促进经济和社会发展。
Bilateral, regional and multilateral capacity-building programmes on space science and technologies can contribute to developing the space skills and knowledge of educators and scientists in developing countries throughout the world. Such programmes should build capacity through a focus on theory, research, applications, field exercises and pilot projects in order to advance social and economic development in their target States and regions. The Group noted that there are many regional and multilateral capacity-building programmes already in place. In particular, the United Nations Programme on Space Applications is a well-established capacity-building programme that would benefit from wider support from spacefaring countries. Other international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, WMO and ITU contribute specific capacity-building programmes in their respective areas of competence.
Capacity-building programmes are also available, in various formats, at the bilateral level. Such programmes are often associated with a specific cooperation agreement.专家组还注意到,2012年在巴西里约热内卢举行的联合国可持续发展大会确认,空间科学和技术在促进可持续发展方面发挥着重要作用(见大会第66/288号决议,附件)。
56. Adoption of an open satellite data-collection and dissemination policy for sustainable economic and social development would be consistent with General Assembly resolution 41/65, entitled “Principles relating to remote sensing of the Earth from outer space”. In promoting data dissemination policies, States could also consider establishing programmes aimed at training and educating users in developing countries to receive and interpret relevant satellite-based data and to make such data available, useful and accessible to domestic and international end users. The Group noted that some States already disseminate free remote sensing data for the promotion of economic and social development. The Group also noted that the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2012, recognized the important role that space science and technology play in promoting sustainable development (see General Assembly resolution 66/288, annex).
VI.六.
Consultative mechanisms协商机制
57.57.
Timely and routine consultations through bilateral and multilateral diplomatic exchanges and other government-to-government mechanisms, including bilateral, military-to-military, scientific and other channels, can contribute to preventing mishaps, misperceptions and mistrust. They may also be useful in:通过双边和多边外交交流及其他政府间机制(包括双边、军方之间、科学和其他渠道)进行及时和例行协商有助于防止事故、误解和不信任,并有助于:
(a)(a)
Clarifying information regarding the exploration and use of space, including for national security purposes;澄清关于空间开发和利用(包括为国家安全目的)的信息;
(b)(b)
Clarifying information provided on space research and space applications programmes;澄清关于空间研究和利用方案的信息;
(c)(c)
Clarifying ambiguous situations;澄清模棱两可的情况;
(d)(d)
Discussing the implementation of agreed transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities;讨论商定的外层空间活动中透明度和建立信任措施的执行情况;
(e)(e)
Discussing the modalities and appropriate international mechanisms for addressing practical aspects of outer space uses;讨论解决外层空间利用中实际问题的方式和适当的国际机制;
(f)(f)
Preventing or minimizing potential risks of physical damage or harmful interference.防止或尽量减少发生物质损害或有害干扰的潜在风险。
58.58.
States are encouraged to consider using existing consultative mechanisms, for example, those provided for in article IX of the Outer Space Treaty and in the relevant provisions of the ITU Constitution and Radio Regulations.鼓励各国考虑利用现有的协商机制,如《外层空间条约》第九条以及《国际电信联盟组织法》和《无线电规章》的有关条款所规定的机制。
59.59.
The Group was of the opinion that its establishment, work and consultative function serve as transparency and confidence-building measures in their own right.专家组认为,专家组的设立、工作和协商职能本身就是透明度和建立信任措施的一部分。
VII.七.
Outreach外联
60.60.
Outreach measures can improve understanding between States as well as regional, multilateral, non-governmental and private sector cooperation.外联措施能够改善各国之间的相互理解以及区域、多边、非政府和私营部门合作。
This can help to promote the security of all States by fostering mutual trust through the implementation of political and diplomatic outreach measures relating to outer space activities.外联活动通过采取有关外层空间活动的政治和外交措施来增进相互信任,可以有助于加强所有国家的安全。
Specific measures may include States’ participation in thematic workshops and conferences on space security issues.具体措施包括各国参加关于空间安全问题的专题讨论会和会议。
61.61.
Spacefaring States should inform the Secretary-General, the general public and the international scientific community of the character, conduct, locations and results of outer space activities, in accordance with the Outer Space Treaty.航天国家应按照《外层空间条约》的规定,向秘书长、公众和国际科学界通报其外层空间活动的性质、进行方式、位置和结果。
62.62.
The Group noted the important intellectual contribution of international organizations and non-governmental organizations to facilitating outreach activities.专家组注意到国际组织和非政府组织为促进外联活动所作的重要知识贡献。
Such activities provide an opportunity for all States and other relevant stakeholders to develop constructive dialogue.此类活动使所有国家和其他有关的利益攸关方有机会进行建设性对话。
Within the United Nations system, the work of the Office for Outer Space Affairs, the Office for Disarmament Affairs and the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research are of particular note.在联合国系统内,外层空间事务办公室、裁军事务厅和联合国裁军研究所所作的工作尤其值得注意。
States should actively encourage all stakeholders, including academia and non-governmental organizations, to actively participate in raising public awareness about outer space policies and activities.各国应积极鼓励所有利益攸关方,包括学术界和非政府组织,积极参与提高公众对外层空间政策和活动的认识。
VIII.八.
Coordination协调
63.63.
States are encouraged, including through their space agencies or other authorized entities, existing mechanisms and international organizations, to promote the coordination of their space policies and space programmes in order to enhance the safety and predictability of the uses of space.鼓励各国促进空间政策和空间方案之间的协调,通过本国的空间机构或其他授权实体、现行机制和国际组织这样做,以增强空间利用的安全性和可预测性。
In support of that goal, they may also conclude bilateral, regional or multilateral arrangements, consistent with multilateral commitments.为支持这一目标,各国还可根据多边承诺作出双边、区域或多边安排。
64.64.
The Group considered that coordination among multilateral organizations engaged in developing transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities is essential.专家组认为,在参与制定外层空间活动中透明度和建立信任措施的多边组织之间进行协调至关重要。
Such coordination should be carried out in accordance with the respective mandates of those organizations.应根据这些组织各自的任务规定开展此类协调。
65.65.
The Group agreed that, for the purpose of strengthening coordination in outer space activities, States, international organizations and private sector actors conducting space programmes should establish focal points for coordination. 66.专家组一致认为,为加强外层空间活动的协调,各国、各国际组织和开展空间方案的私营部门行为体应当设立协调中心。
The Group recommended that coordination be established between the Office for Outer Space Affairs, the Office for Disarmament Affairs and other appropriate United Nations entities on matters related to transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities. The Group also considered that a United Nations inter-agency mechanism could provide a useful platform for the promotion and effective implementation of transparency and confidence-building measures for outer space activities. 67. States should seek to participate, to the maximum extent possible, in the outer space-related activities of intergovernmental entities of the United Nations system, such as the Conference on Disarmament, ITU, WMO, the Commission on Sustainable Development and any of their successor bodies. States conducting space activities should actively participate, as members or observers, in activities of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
IX.66.
Conclusions and recommendations 68. The Group of Governmental Experts recommends that States and international organizations, on a voluntary basis and without prejudice to the implementation of obligations deriving from existing legal commitments, consider and implement the transparency and confidence-building measures described in the present report.专家组建议,外层空间事务办公室、裁军事务厅和其他有关联合国实体之间应就外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施所涉问题建立协调关系。 专家组还认为,如果建立一个联合国的机构间机制,可为有效执行外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施提供有益平台。
69.67.
The Group endorses efforts to pursue political commitments, for example, in the form of unilateral declarations, bilateral commitments or a multilateral code of conduct, to encourage responsible actions in, and the peaceful use of, outer space.各国应尽最大可能寻求参与联合国系统中政府间实体,例如裁军谈判会议、国际电联、气象组织、可持续发展委员会及这些机构的任何后继机构开展的与外层空间有关的活动。
The Group concludes that voluntary political measures can form the basis for consideration of concepts and proposals for legally binding obligations.开展空间活动的国家应以成员或观察员身份积极参与和平利用外层空间委员会的活动。
70.九.
The Group encourages States to review and implement the proposed transparency and confidence-building measures through relevant national mechanisms on a voluntary basis. Transparency and confidence-building measures should be implemented to the greatest extent practicable and in a manner that is consistent with States’ national interests. As specific unilateral, bilateral, regional and multilateral transparency and confidence-building measures are agreed to, States should regularly review the implementation of the measures and discuss potential additional ones that may be necessary, including those necessitated owing to advances in the development of space technologies and in their application. 71. In order to build confidence and trust among States, the Group recommends universal participation in, implementation of and full adherence to the existing legal framework relating to outer space activities, to which they are parties, or subscribe, which includes: the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies;
the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space; the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects;结论和建议 68. 政府专家组建议各国和国际组织在自愿且不妨碍履行现有法律承诺和义务的基础上,审议并执行本报告所述透明度和建立信任措施。
the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space;69.
the Constitution and the Convention of the International Telecommunication Union and its Radio Regulations, as amended;专家组支持各国努力实践其政治承诺,例如以单边宣言、双边承诺或多边行为守则等形式这样做,以鼓励负责任的外层空间行动和对外层空间的和平利用。
the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization, as amended;专家组得出结论认为,可在自愿的政治措施的基础上考虑有法律约束力义务的构想和建议。
the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water;70. 专家组鼓励各国通过相关国家机制自愿审议并执行拟议的透明度和建立信任措施。
and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.应在符合本国利益的情况下,尽最大可能执行透明度和建立信任措施。
States that have not yet become parties to the international treaties governing the use of outer space should consider ratifying or acceding to those treaties.各国在商定具体的单边、双边、区域和多边措施后,应定期审查透明度和建立信任措施的执行情况并讨论可能需要增加的措施,包括因空间技术及其应用的进步而必需增加的措施。
72.71.
The Group of Governmental Experts recommends that the General Assembly decide how to further advance transparency and confidence-building measures and provide for their universal consideration and support, including by referring the above recommendations to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the Disarmament Commission and the Conference on Disarmament for consideration, as appropriate.为在各国之间建立信心和信任,专家组建议各国普遍参与、执行并全面遵守它们加入或签署的与外层空间活动有关的现行法律框架,包括:《关于各国探索与利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》、《关于援救航天员,送回航天员及送回射入外空之物体之协定》、《外空物体所造成损害之国际责任公约》、《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》、经修订的《国际电信联盟组织法和公约》及其《无线电规章》、经修订的《世界气象组织公约》、《禁止在大气层、外层空间和水下进行核武器试验条约》和《全面禁止核试验条约》。
The First and Fourth Committees of the General Assembly may also decide to hold a joint ad hoc meeting to address possible challenges to space security and sustainability.尚未加入利用外层空间的国际条约的国家应考虑批准或加入此类条约。
73.72.
The Group further recommends that Member States take measures to implement, to the greatest extent practicable, principles and guidelines endorsed on the basis of consensus by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the General Assembly.政府专家组建议大会决定应如何进一步推行外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施,并规定各方应普遍审议和支持此类措施,包括酌情把上述建议转交和平利用外层空间委员会、裁军审议委员会、裁军谈判会议审议。
Member States should also consider, where appropriate, taking measures to implement other internationally recognized space-related principles.大会第一委员会和第四委员会也可以决定举行联合特别会议,讨论空间安全和可持续性可能面临的挑战。
74.73.
The Group encourages relevant international intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to consider and implement the proposed transparency and confidence-building measures as appropriate and to the greatest extent practicable.专家组进一步建议会员国采取措施,尽最大可能执行和平利用外层空间委员会和大会在协商一致基础上认可的原则和准则。 会员国还应酌情考虑采取措施,执行其他国际公认的空间原则。
75.74.
The Group of Governmental Experts recommends that the Secretary-General of the United Nations circulate the present report of the Group to all relevant entities and organizations of the United Nations system in order that they may assist in effectively implementing the conclusions and recommendations contained within it.专家组鼓励有关的国际政府间组织和非政府组织酌情并尽最大可能考虑和执行拟议的透明度和建立信任措施。 75. 政府专家组建议秘书长将本报告分发给联合国系统所有有关实体和组织,供其协助有效执行本报告所载结论和建议。
11
http://eeas.europa.eu/non-proliferation-and-disarmament/outer-space-activities/index_en.htm.http://eeas.europa.eu/non-proliferation-and-disarmament/outer-space-activities/index_en.htm。
22
Reference is made mainly to the mentioned 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1968 Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space, the 1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects and the 1975 Convention on the Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, and the ITU Constitution and Convention and its Radio Regulations, as amended.主要是1967年《外层空间条约》、1968年《关于援救航天员,送回航天员及送回射入外空之物体之协定》、1972年《外空物体所造成损害之国际责任公约》、1975年《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》以及经修订的《国际电联组织法和公约》及其《无线电规章》。