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Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Forty-ninth session第四十九届会议
Vienna, 6-17 February 20122012年2月6日至17日,维也纳
Item 14 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目14
Long-term sustainability of outer space activities外层空间活动的长期可持续性
Information on experiences and practices related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities与外层空间活动长期可持续性有关的经验和做法的信息
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
In accordance with the terms of reference and methods of work of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, adopted by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space at its fifty-fourth session, in 2011 (A/66/20, annex II), member States of the Committee, international intergovernmental organizations having observer status with the Committee, international non-governmental organizations having observer status with the Committee, United Nations entities and intergovernmental bodies, and other international organizations and bodies, subject to the provisions of paragraphs 16 and 17 of the terms of reference and methods of work, were invited by the Secretariat to provide information on their experiences and practices that might relate to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities and on their experiences and practices in the conduct of sustainable space activities, as well as how they envisage work under the topic.1. 根据和平利用外层空间委员会2011年第五十四届会议通过的科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的职权范围和工作方法(A/66/20,附件二),秘书处请委员会各成员国、在委员会享有观察员地位的国际政府间组织和非政府组织、联合国实体和政府间机构以及其他国际组织和机构依据职权范围和工作方法第16段和第17段的规定提供信息,介绍其可能与外层空间活动长期可持续性有关的经验和做法、其开展可持续性空间活动的经验和做法,以及其对这一专题下的工作有何设想。
2. The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from the following member States: Australia, Belgium, Japan and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; from the following international intergovernmental organization having permanent observer status with the Committee: Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization; and from the following international non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee: Committee on Space Research, International Astronautical Federation, Secure World Foundation and Space Generation Advisory Council.2. 本文件是由秘书处根据从下列成员国和组织收到的资料编写的,提供这些资料的成员国有澳大利亚、比利时、日本和大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国;提供这些资料的、在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的国际政府间组织有亚洲太平洋空间合作组织;以及提供这些资料的、在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的国际非政府组织有空间研究委员会、国际宇航联合会、世界安全基金会和空间新一代咨询理事会。
II. Replies received from member States二. 从成员国收到的答复
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[10 November 2011][2011年11月10日]
The Australian Government is a party to all the major United Nations space-related treaties, including the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States on the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and supports international cooperation through those treaties and other international agreements.澳大利亚政府已加入包括1967年《关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》在内的联合国所有与空间问题有关的主要条约,并支持通过这些条约及其他国际协定进行国际合作。
The Australian Government has developed a policy framework entitled “Principles for a national space industry policy”, which identifies a framework around space sustainability. One of the key policy principles is “Contributing to a stable space environment”; Australiawill continue to support rules-based international access to the space environment and the promotion of peaceful, safe and responsible activities in space.澳大利亚政府拟订了一个题为“国家空间工业政策原则”的政策框架,该政策框架围绕空间可持续性问题确定了一个框架。其中一项关键的政策原则是“帮助建立稳定的空间环境”;澳大利亚将继续支持国际社会按规章进入空间环境,并促进和平、安全及负责任的空间活动。
The Australian Government also encourages the sustainability of space by supporting projects that contribute to a safe and sustainable outer space environment. This supports Australia’s policy objective of ensuring access to space-based capabilities. This is also addressed under the second principle, “Ensure access to space capability”. Through this policy principle Australiahopes to ensure resilient access to those space systems on which we rely now and those important for our future national security, economy, environment and social well-being.澳大利亚政府还通过支持有益于外层空间环境安全及可持续的项目来促进空间可持续性。这支持了澳大利亚关于确保获得天基能力的政策目标。第二项原则“确保获得空间能力”对此也有论述。澳大利亚希望借此政策原则确保机动利用现在我们所依赖并且对我们今后国家安全、经济、环境和社会福祉至关重要的各类空间系统。
The Australian Government also has a regulation in place that governs space-launch activities by Australian nationals. The Australia Space Licensing and Safety Office implements the regulatory and safety regime for space activities in Australiaand by Australians overseas. The Office has responsibility for enforcing the provisions of the Space Activities Act (1998) and the Space Activities Regulations (2001).澳大利亚政府还出台了一项条例,规范澳大利亚本国开展的空间发射活动。澳大利亚空间许可证颁发和安全办公室实施关于澳大利亚在其境内外开展空间活动的监管和安全制度。该办公室负责执行《空间活动法》(1998年)和《空间活动条例》(2001年)各项规定。
The importance of space situational awareness is also recognized by the Australian Government, and Australiais working in partnership with the United Stateson this issue.澳大利亚政府也认识到了空间状况的重要性,并正就此问题与美国开展合作。
The Australian Government’s Australian Space Research Programme has funded a project entitled “Automated Laser Tracking of Space Debris”. The project is aimed at effectively resolving orbit prediction uncertainty by demonstrating significantly higher accuracy of satellite orbits through the use of a fully automatic remotely operated laser-based tracking station. The project outcomes contribute important research and development within the space surveillance industry.澳大利亚政府的澳大利亚空间研究方案资助了一个题为“激光自动跟踪空间碎片”的项目。该项目旨在利用一个全自动遥控激光跟踪站大幅度提高显示的卫星轨道精确度,以此有效化解轨道预测方面的不确定性。项目的结果有助于空间监测业内的重大研发。
More detail on the “Principles for a national space industry policy”, the Space Licensing and Safety Office regulation and safety regime and the Australian Space Research Program can be found on the website www.space.gov.au.关于“国家空间工业政策原则”、空间许可证颁发和安全办公室监管和安全制度及澳大利亚空间研究方案,详见网址www.space.gov.au。
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[7 September 2011][2011年9月7日]
Belgium considers the topic of the long-term sustainability of space activities one of the most important topics addressed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. It is a challenge not only for its member States to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Committee and its subordinate bodies, but also for the space community to formulate solutions to ensure the sustainable and sound use of outer space for all nations.比利时认为空间活动的长期可持续性议题是和平利用外层空间委员会所涉的一项最重要的议题。它不仅给委员会成员国显示委员会及其附属机构的有效性提出了挑战,而且给空间界制定解决方案以确保所有国家以可持续且稳健的方式利用外层空间带来了挑战。
In an early phase, Belgiumsupports a technical approach to the main concerns and issues identified as the bases of the work of the Working Group and its expert groups. Those expert groups should be given the possibility of assessing draft documents prepared by experts at the request of the chair of each expert group. It is the view of Belgiumthat the work already performed and the document already published by the Brachet group, to the extent that it can be endorsed by the members of the expert groups, could serve that purpose. Belgiumalso proposes that the work of each expert group focus on three dimensions:在初期,比利时支持用技术方法解决各项主要关切和问题,因为这些关切和问题被确定为工作组及其专家组的工作基础。这些专家组应被给予可能的机会,评估专家们应各专家组主席请求而编拟的文件草案。比利时认为,布拉赫特组已经履行的工作和编拟的文件只要能被专家组成员核可,便符合该目的。比利时还提议,各专家组的工作要侧重于三个方面:
(a) Identification and review of current national and international measures, mechanisms or actions undertaken with regard to the topic to be handled;(a) 确定和审查就所处理的议题所采取的国家和国际措施、机制或行动;
(b) Assessment of the positive and negative results, achievements or shortcomings of those existing measures, mechanisms or actions;(b) 评估这些现行措施、机制或行动的积极和消极结果、成就或不足之处;
(c) Formulation and suggestions regarding possible extensions, corrections, improvements or complements to be brought to those existing measures, mechanisms or actions.(c) 对这些现行措施、机制或行动做出可能的扩展、修正、改进或补充,并提出相关建议。
Belgium therefore suggests that the chair of each expert group set up as soon as possible a drafting committee, composed of three or four experts, which would prepare a non-paper to be circulated among the members of the expert group, by e-mail, calling for a first round of comments, remarks, proposals, ideas or suggestions, to be provided to the Chair before a fixed date. At the end of this first round, a meeting of the expert group could be organized to discuss the results and the way forward.因此,比利时建议,各专家组主席尽快成立一个由三至四名专家组成的起草委员会,编拟非正式文件,并通过电子邮件方式分发给专家组成员,征求首轮意见、评论、提议、想法或建议,以在某个确定日期前提供给主席。在首轮终了时,可组织一次专家组会议,讨论结果和前进道路。
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[11 November 2011][2011年11月11日]
Experiences and practices related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities and space weather in Japan日本与外层空间活动长期可持续性和空间气象有关的经验和做法
I. Long-term sustainability of outer space activities一. 外层空间活动的长期可持续性
A. Background of orbital environmentA. 轨道环境的背景
Major efforts to limit the generation of space debris have been made in most countries. However, from the perspective of long-term sustainability, we should take into account the following points:大多数国家为限制空间碎片的产生做出了重大努力。但是,从长期可持续性的角度看,我们应当顾及下列各点:
(a) The debris environment is deteriorating in spite of the establishment of the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other international and national standards;(a) 尽管制定了和平利用外层空间委员会《空间碎片减缓准则》及其他国际和国家标准,碎片环境仍在恶化;
(b) The risk of collision cannot be ignored in densely populated orbital regions;(b) 在空间物体稠密的轨道区域,碰撞风险不容忽视;
(c) The major source of debris generation in the near future will be a collision among existing objects.(c) 近期碎片产生的主要来源将是现有物体间的碰撞。
Thus, preventing damage from collisions with orbital objects in the following ways should be emphasized, in addition to limiting the generation of debris:因此,除限制产生碎片外,还应强调以下列方式预防与在轨物体碰撞而造成损害:
(a) Preventing collisions with large debris (including debris clouds just after fragmentation);(a) 预防与大型碎片(包括刚刚破碎之后的碎片云)碰撞;
(b) Preventing collisions with manned space systems at the launching phase;(b) 预防在发射阶段与载人空间系统碰撞;
(c) Preventing damage from collisions with tiny debris.(c) 预防与小型碎片碰撞而造成的损害。
B. Experiences and practices in JapanB. 日本的经验和做法
Japan, mainly through the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is executing measures to limit the generation of debris and also addressing protection from collision. To develop comprehensive measures with regard to debris, it is useful to follow the contingency planning method, which consists of “preventive measures”, “detection of threats”, “immediate action” and “permanent measures”.日本正主要通过日本宇宙航空研究开发机构实行限制产生碎片的各项措施,并处理免受碰撞的问题。为了拟定有关碎片问题的全面措施,宜遵循应急规划法,包括“预防性措施”、“查明威胁”、“立即行动”和“永久性措施”。
1. Practice, procedure and technical rules associated with expert group B topics1. 与B专家组各议题有关的做法、规程和技术规则
(a) Space debris(a) 空间碎片
Measures to reduce the creation and proliferation of space debris include:旨在减少空间碎片的产生和扩散的措施包括:
(a) Application by JAXA of a space debris mitigation standard that is almost equivalent to the space debris mitigation requirements of International Organization for Standardization standard 24113 (ISO 24113);(a) 日本宇宙航空研究开发机构应用一项减缓空间碎片标准,该标准几乎与国际标准化组织标准24113(标准化组织24113)的空间碎片减缓标准相当;
(b) Good compliance with the standard for “mission-related objects”, “prevention of break-ups” and “removal from the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) protected region”. Some areas are identified as needing improvement.(b) 良好地遵守“与飞行任务有关的物体”、“预防碎裂”和“从地球同步轨道保护区域清除”的标准。有些领域经确定需要改进。
With regard to re-entry notifications and hazardous substances on board, JAXA requires operators to refrain from using materials that will survive re-entry because of their high melting point or high specific heat. This should be encouraged throughout the world.关于再入大气层的通知和携载有害物质,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构要求运营方避免使用因其具有高熔点或高比热而在重返时无法燃尽的材料。这应当在全世界加以推广。
With regard to technical developments and possibilities regarding space debris removal, Japanconducts research on technologies to remove objects mainly by using the electrodynamic tether system.关于与空间碎片清除有关的技术发展情况和各种可能,日本在主要通过使用电动绳系系统清除物体的各项技术方面开展研究。
(b) Space operations(b) 空间作业
Conjunction assessment is conducted using available information in the world, and avoidance manoeuvres will be planned, if necessary.利用世界现有资料进行会合评估,并将在必要时规划避免碰撞机动操作。
JAXA provides pre-launch notifications in accordance with the Hague Code of Conduct, and it analyses the probability of collision with manned systems and controls the launch window. Collision avoidance for manned systems at launch is expected to be encouraged among the world’s launch service providers.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构依据《防止弹道导弹扩散国际行为守则》提供发射前通知,并分析与载人系统发生碰撞的概率和控制发射的最佳时间。预计将在世界发射服务提供方间提倡在发射阶段避免载人系统发生碰撞。
(c) Tools to support collaborative space situational awareness(c) 支助协作认识空间状况的工具
With regard to registries of operators and contact information, to assess risk and plan avoidance manoeuvres, the status and point of contact of approaching spacecraft are expected to be made available on the United Nations website in timely fashion.关于运营方和联络信息登记簿,为了评估风险和规划避免碰撞机动操作,预计将在联合国网站上及时提供正在飞近的航天器的现况和接触点。
With regard to the collection, sharing and dissemination of data on functional and non-functional space objects:关于收集、共享和传播有功能和无功能空间物体数据:
(a) JAXA provides the United Nations with information on when the space object was registered and when it was no longer functional or in Earth orbit, in accordance with the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space and the recommendations on enhancing the practice of States and international intergovernmental organizations in registering space objects;(a) 日本宇宙航空研究开发机构依据《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》和“关于加强国家和国际政府间组织登记空间物体的做法的建议”向联合国提供关于空间物体何时登记以及何时失去功能或不再位于地球轨道的信息;
(b) JAXA publishes satellite launch information and in-orbit operation status as needed;(b) 日本宇宙航空研究开发机构根据需要发布卫星发射信息和在轨运行状况;
(c) JAXA intends that information regarding functional and non-functional space objects is shared through the usage and improvement of the website of the Office for Outer Space Affairs.(c) 日本宇宙航空研究开发机构打算通过使用及改进外层空间事务厅网站而共享关于有功能和无功能空间物体的信息。
With regard to the storage and exchange of operational information:关于存储和交流操作信息:
(a) Information on orbital characteristics can be obtained from catalogued United Statesdata, on which Japanbasically depends;(a) 关于轨道特征的信息可从日本主要依靠的美国编目数据中获取;
(b) If an operating satellite causes a break-up, the operator should so inform the appropriate organization. The relevant authority is expected to notify the world of the event.(b) 若一颗运行中卫星导致碎裂,运营方应当相应通知主管组织。期望有关当局将此事项通报世界。
(d) Other(d) 其他
For rendezvous and proximity operations, JAXA operates the H-II Transfer Vehicle based on internationally agreed rendezvous, proximity operations and the de-orbit operations procedure. The detection, notification and avoidance procedures for the close approach of space debris are also specified in the flight rules and the operations interface procedure.对于近地会合作业,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构参照国际上商定的近地会合作业和脱离轨道作业程序操控H-II号转移飞行器。飞行规则和作业接口程序还具体规定了空间碎片接近时的探测、通知和避免程序。
The impact of tiny objects is risky for spacecraft. The United Nations is expected to encourage academic institutes to study population models for tiny debris and cost-effective protection design.小型物体对航天器有极大影响。期待联合国鼓励学术机构研究小型碎片群体模型和成本效益较高的防护设计。
Quality and reliability are major factors involved in the debris issue. The sharing of mature technologies with newcomers and students is encouraged, through ISO and other international standards.质量和可靠性是碎片问题涉及的主要因素。鼓励通过标准化组织及其他国际标准与新手和学生共享成熟技术。
2. Relationship to current work in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other bodies2. 与和平利用外层空间委员会及其他机构现有工作的关系
The population models for tiny debris and the cost-effective protection design can be encouraged in the work of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC).小型碎片群体模型和成本效益较高的防护设计可在机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)的工作中予以推进。
The standards to ensure quality and reliability can be promoted by ISO.标准化组织可对确保质量和可靠性的标准加以宣传。
3. Relationship of input submission to other expert groups3. 信息提交与其他专家组的关系
The suggestion regarding “quality and reliability” is to be discussed with expert group D.将与D专家组讨论关于“质量和可靠性”的建议。
II. Space weather二. 空间气象
(a) Space-based observation(a) 天基观测
JAXA is now conducting space environment measurement by using five satellites: low-Earth orbit (LEO), 2; GEO, 1; Quasi-Zenith Satellite orbit, 1; and International Space Station (ISS)/Japan Experiment Module.目前,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构利用五颗卫星开展空间环境测量工作:低地球轨道,2颗;地球同步轨道,1颗;准天顶卫星轨道,1颗;以及国际空间站/日本实验舱。数据视情形经日本宇航研发机构网站实时或近实时提供。
Data have been provided in real time or quasi-real time, depending on the situation, via the JAXA website.
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) is also gathering solar wind data by using the NICT ground station. Solar wind data have been provided via the NICT website in real time.国家信息与通信技术研究所还在利用该研究所地面站收集太阳风数据。太阳风数据经该研究所网站实时提供。
(b) Ground-based observation(b) 地基观测
Ground-based observation has been performed by NICT and the Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University.地基观测由国家信息与通信技术研究所和九州大学空间环境研究中心开展。
NICT conducts solar observations by optical telescope and radio telescope. The data have been provided via the NICT website in real time.国家信息与通信技术研究所通过光学望远镜和射电望远镜进行太阳观测。数据经该研究所网站实时提供。
SERC has deployed magnetometer systems to over 50 places all over the world. The data have been provided via the SERC website in real time or quasi-real time.空间环境研究中心在全世界50余处部署了磁强计系统。数据经空间环境研究中心网站实时或近实时提供。
(c) Space weather modelling(c) 空间气象建模
There are several space weather models in Japan, most of which are being developed in universities. JAXA too has been developing a space radiation model based on the observation data collected by JAXA satellites. It is an empirical/average model, depending on solar activity. In 2011, JAXA published a paper that demonstrated a new dynamic model.日本拥有若干个空间气象模型,其中大部分处于大学研发之中。日本宇宙航空研究开发机构还在基于该机构卫星收集的观测数据开发一个空间辐射模型。这是一个依靠太阳活动的实证/平均模型。2011年,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构发表了一篇论文,论证一个新的动力模型。
(d) Space weather forecast tool(d) 空间气象预测工具
NICT has been developing a real-time geospace simulator, whose input is real-time solar wind information. In 2011, NICT succeeded in calculating the space plasma environment in the vicinity of satellites. The NICT geospace simulation data is open to the public via the NICT website.国家信息与通信技术研究所正在开发一台地球空间实时模拟器,其所提供的信息为实时太阳风信息。2011年,该研究所成功计算出了卫星附近的空间等离子体环境。国家信息与通信技术研究所地球空间模拟数据通过该研究所网站面向公众开放。
(e) Standard for satellite manufacturing(e) 卫星制造标准
There are space weather effects on satellite charging and the single event, etc. JAXA has been revising the document on the standard for satellite manufacturing.空间气象对卫星电荷和单粒子等有影响。日本宇宙航空研究开发机构正在修订关于卫星制造标准的文件。
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[4 November 2011][2011年11月4日]
1. Introduction1. 导言
Many countries have reflected their obligations under the outer space treaties through the enactment of national legislation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland brought into force its Outer Space Act in 1986. When the outer space treaties were developed, there was no understanding of space debris. However, the treaties and national regulations are flexible enough to address the issue in an effective manner, relying upon best practice and codes and principles to encourage the adoption of space debris mitigation measures.许多国家通过颁布国家法律体现本国在外层空间条约下的义务。大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国的《外层空间法》于1986年生效。在外层空间条约制定之时,人们尚未认识空间碎片。然而,条约和国家条例非常灵活,足以有效应对这一问题,并依靠最佳做法、规范和原则来鼓励通过空间碎片减缓措施。
A number of standards and guidelines for minimizing debris production and protecting spacecraft now exist at both the national and the international level. The importance of such mitigation measures is recognized by space-faring nations. This is a key step in managing the future evolution of the orbital environment in a fair and equitable manner, as there is a cost associated with many mitigation practices.如今,一些关于尽量减少碎片产生和保护航天器的标准和准则既在国家一级也在国际一级存在。发展航天事业的国家承认这类减缓措施的重要性。这是迈向以公平、公正方式管理轨道环境今后演变的重要一步,因为许多减缓做法离不开花费。
To ensure that their application will not penalize operational competitiveness, such mitigation measures must be recognized and applied by all users of space in a coordinated manner. To be effective, mitigation practices will need to become an intrinsic and consistent element of in-orbit operations rather than a piecemeal, ad hoc practice. If these practices can be embodied within national legislation, then operators will be obliged to consider space debris mitigation during all phases of a mission, from initial definition and feasibility studies to final disposal. The United Kingdom’s Outer Space Act is the basis for licensing the activities of United Kingdomnationals in space, and technical assessments have recently been adapted to include consideration of space debris mitigation practices when deciding whether to issue a licence to an applicant.为确保其应用不会妨碍作业竞争力,所有空间使用者都必须承认并协调统一地应用这类减缓措施。为了产生效果,减缓做法将需要成为在轨作业的一个内在一致要素,而非支离破碎的临时性做法。如果这些做法能够被纳入国家立法,那么运营方将有义务从最初定义和可行性研究到最后处置的飞行任务所有阶段全盘考虑空间碎片减缓问题。联合王国《外层空间法》是向联合王国国民空间活动颁发许可证的依据,最近对技术评估做了修改,以在决定是否向某位申请人发放许可证时将空间碎片减缓措施考虑在内。
2.2. 《外层空间法》
Outer Space Act
The Outer Space Act 1986 is the legal basis for the regulation of activities in outer space (including the launch and operation of space objects) carried out by persons connected with the United Kingdom. The Act confers licensing and other powers on the Secretary of State acting through the UK Space Agency. The Act ensures compliance with United Kingdomobligations under the international conventions covering the use of outer space to which it is a signatory. Those conventions are:1986年《外层空间法》是规范联合王国相关人员开展的外层空间活动(包括发射和操作空间物体)的法律依据。该法将颁发许可证的权力及其他权力赋予通过英国国家航天中心行事的大臣。该法确保遵守联合王国在其签署的利用外层空间相关国际公约下的各项义务。这些公约是:
(a) Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty);(a) 《关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》(《外层空间条约》);
(b) Agreement on the rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Rescue Agreement);(b) 《营救宇宙航行员、送回宇宙航行员和归还发射到外层空间的物体的协定》(《营救协定》);
(c) Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Liability Convention);(c) 《空间物体所造成损害的国际责任公约》(《赔偿责任公约》);
(d) Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Registration Convention).(d) 《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》(《登记公约》)。
Under the legislation of the Outer Space Act, the Secretary of State shall not grant a licence unless he is satisfied that the activities authorized by the licence will not jeopardize public health or the safety of persons or property, will be consistent with the international obligations of the United Kingdom and will not impair the national security of the United Kingdom. Further, the Secretary of State requires the licensee to conduct operations in such a way as to prevent the contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the environment of the Earth, and to avoid interference with activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space.根据《外层空间法》的规定,除非大臣确信许可证所授权的活动不会危及公共卫生或人身财产安全,与联合王国的国际义务一致,也不会损害联合王国的国家安全,否则他可以不颁发许可证。此外,大臣要求许可证持有人采取避免污染外层空间或使地球环境产生不利变化和避免干扰他人和平探索及利用空间的活动的方式开展作业。
The Secretary of State requires the licensee to insure himself against liability incurred in respect of damage or loss suffered by third parties, in the United Kingdomor elsewhere, as a result of the activities authorized by the licence. Further the licensee shall indemnify Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdomagainst any claims brought against the Government in respect of damage or loss arising out of activities carried out by the licensee to which the Act applies.大臣要求许可证持有人投保由许可证授权活动造成的,因在联合王国或其他地方的第三方遭受损害或损失而招致的责任险。此外,许可证持有人应当保证联合王国政府不因许可证持有人开展该法适用的活动而引起的损害或损失而向政府提出任何要求。
The Outer Space Act provides the necessary regulatory oversight to: consider public health and safety and the safety of property; to evaluate the environmental impact of proposed activities; to assess the implications for national security and foreign policy interests; and to determine financial responsibilities and international obligations.《外层空间法》向以下方面提供必要的监管:审议公共卫生及安全和财产安全;评价拟议活动的环境影响;评估对国家安全和国外政策利益的影响;确定财政责任和国际义务。
3. Licensing process and technical evaluation3. 许可证颁发程序和技术评价
Safety evaluation is aimed at determining whether an applicant can safely conduct the launch of the proposed launch vehicle(s) and any payload.
Because the licensee is responsible for public safety, it is important that the applicant demonstrate an understanding of the hazards involved and discuss how the operations will be performed safely. There are a number of technical analyses, some quantitative and some qualitative, that the applicant must perform in order to demonstrate that the commercial launch operations will pose no unacceptable threat to the public. The quantitative analyses tend to focus on the reliability and functions of critical safety systems and the hazards associated with the hardware, and the risk those hazards pose to public property and individuals near the launch site and along the flight path and to satellites and other in-orbit spacecraft. The qualitative analyses focus on the organizational attributes of the applicant, such as launch safety policies and procedures, communications, qualifications of key individuals and critical internal and external interfaces.安全评价旨在确定申请人是否能够安全地发射所拟议的运载火箭和任何有效载荷。因为许可证持有人要对公共安全负责,所以申请人务必要显示出对所涉危险有所了解并讨论如何安全地执行作业。有若干技术分析,其中一些是定量的还有一些是定性的,申请人必须开展这些技术分析以便证明商业性发射操作不会对公众构成无法接受的威胁。定量分析往往侧重于关键安全系统的可靠性和功能以及与硬件有关的危险,还侧重于这些危险对发射场附近和航迹沿线的公共财产和个人以及对卫星和其他在轨航天器所构成的风险。定性分析则侧重于申请人的组织属性,如发射安全政策和程序、通信、关键个人的资质以及重要的内外部界面。
The launch of a payload into orbit and the hazards associated with such an operation can be categorized according to the general mission phases of:发射有效载荷进入轨道和与此类操作有关的危险可根据以下一般的飞行任务阶段分类:
• Pre-launch发射前
• Launch发射
• Orbit acquisition轨道捕获
• Re-entry重返大气层
In the technical submissions for a licence under the Outer Space Act 1986, an applicant must provide an assessment of the risk to public safety and property, covering each phase of the mission relevant to the proposed operations and licensed activity. The assessment should include:在申请1986年《外层空间法》下许可证的技术呈件中,申请人必须提供对公共安全和财产风险的评估,其中涵盖与拟议作业和许可活动有关的飞行任务的各阶段。评估应当包括:
(a) Discussion of possible vehicle and payload failures that could affect safety (including the safety of other active spacecraft);(a) 讨论可能影响安全(包括其他运行中航天器的安全)的发射器和有效载荷故障;
(b) Estimation of the likelihood of their occurrence, supported by vehicle reliability data, both theoretical and historical;(b) 借助发射器可靠性的理论和历史数据,估计故障发生的可能性;
(c) Consideration of the effects of such failures.(c) 审议此类故障的影响。
As appropriate, the assessment should address:评估应当酌情解决:
(a) Launch range risks;(a) 发射场风险;
(b) Risk to down-range areas owing to the impact of discarded mission hardware;(b) 因废弃的飞行任务硬件影响而对前下方航程地区造成的风险;
(c) Overflight risks;(c) 飞越风险;
(d) Orbital risks, including the risk of collision and/or debris generation, owing to intermediate and final orbits of vehicle upper stages and payloads;(d) 轨道风险,包括因发射器末级和有效载荷中间和最终轨道而引起的碰撞和(或)碎片产生风险;
(e) Re-entry risks of vehicle upper stages and payloads.(e) 发射器末级和有效载荷的重返大气层风险。
The risk assessment is then used as a basis for the review conducted by assessors to determine whether the applicant’s proposed activities are compliant with the requirements of the Outer Space Act. The qualitative and quantitative criteria used for the evaluation are based on standards and practices employed by a variety of formal bodies. In each case, the assessor seeks to understand the approach proposed by the licence applicant, to judge the quality of the process, to check the degree of consistency within the project, to consider the effectiveness of the proposed technology or process and to establish its conformance with industry or Agency norms and with the requirements of the Outer Space Act. In the document hierarchy, level 0 documents are those which outline the United Kingdom’s international obligations, level 1 documents are those which present the specific requirements placed on the applicant, level 2 documents are those generated by the applicant to demonstrate compliance (or otherwise), level 3 documents are those generated by the assessors in their evaluation of the application, and level 4 documents are the licences themselves.此后风险评估将被用作评估人员为确定申请人所拟议的活动是否遵守《外层空间法》各项要求而作审查的依据。评价所用的定性和定量标准立足于多个正式机构所采用的标准和做法。无论何种情况,评估人员均力求理解许可证申请人提议的方法,评判程序的质量,检查项目内部的一致程度,审议拟议技术或程序的有效性,并确定其与行业或英国国家航天中心各项规范和与《外层空间法》各项要求之间的一致性。在文件层级中,0级文件是概要介绍联合王国国际义务的文件,1级文件是向申请人提出具体要求的文件,2级文件是由申请人生成以证明遵守情况(或其他方面)的文件,3级文件是评估人员在评价申请过程中所生成的文件,4级文件则是许可证本身。
4. Space debris mitigation and interpretation under the Outer Space Act In developing the technical evaluation framework to reflect space debris mitigation issues, the particular issues of physical interference and contamination referred to in the Outer Space Act are employed.4. 空间碎片减缓及《外层空间法》给出的解释
Although the problem of space debris was not recognized when the Outer Space Act was enacted in 1986, the Act is flexible enough to allow interpretation to cover this aspect in the technical evaluation. Thus, “physical interference” is used to address probability of collision with other objects in orbit and “contamination” to address safe disposal at end of life. As regards the actual measures that are used to evaluate a licence application, use is made of the growing number of guidelines, codes and standards that are being developed to deal with space debris mitigation. The Mitigation Guidelines of IADC and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the European code of conduct provide qualitative and quantitative measures that are used to assess the compliance of licence applicants’ proposed activities and measures with recognized best practice within the community.在拟定反映空间碎片减缓问题的技术评价框架时,采用了《外层空间法》所提及的特殊问题:物理干扰和污染。虽然在1986年颁布《外层空间法》之时人们尚未认识到空间碎片问题,但是该法具有伸缩性,足以用解释来包含技术评价的这个方面。因此,“物理干扰”被用来论述与其他在轨物体的碰撞概率,而“污染”被用来论述寿命终止时的安全处置问题。关于用以评价许可证申请的实际措施,则利用正在拟定的处理空间碎片减缓问题的准则、规范和标准,这些准则、规范和标准的数目在不断增加。空间碎片协委会与和平利用外层空间委员会的《减缓准则》以及欧洲的行为守则提供定性和定量措施,用来评估许可证申请人所拟议的活动和措施是否遵守业界公认的最佳做法。英国国家航天中心最常处理的许可证是有效载荷许可证。对于有效载荷许可证来说,安全评估人员检查卫星平台的技术规格(如:姿态控制系统、轨道、电力存储机制、发射装置界面和分离机制)和安全流程(计划和程序),以便评估其在空间碎片减缓方面的效力。举例如下:
The most common licence that the UK Space Agency processes is a payload licence.
In the case of a payload licence, the safety assessors check the satellite platform’s specification (e.g. attitude control system, orbit, power storage mechanism, launcher interface and separation mechanism) and the safety processes (plans and procedures) to assess their effectiveness at space debris mitigation.
Examples are given below:
Attitude control system. Initial determination of nature of system and whether fit for purpose. Is the technology cold gas thrusters, reaction/momentum wheels, is there a potential for stored energy at end of life? If so, consider the likelihood of fragmentation occurring and if so, recommend passivation measures at end of life.姿态控制系统。初步确定系统性质及是否符合用途。技术是冷气推进器、反作用/动量轮吗?寿命终止时可能有剩存能源吗?如有,考虑碎裂发生的可能性,并建议寿命终止时的钝化措施。
Orbit. Basic understanding of the orbital elements of the proposed trajectory. Consider natural lifetime, stability of orbit under the influence of natural perturbations, degree of crowding at a particular altitude, any unique aspects of orbit configuration.轨道。基本了解拟议流轨的轨道要素。考虑自然寿命、自然摄动影响下的轨道稳定性、在某一高度上的拥挤程度、轨道配置的任何独特方面。
Power storage mechanism. General review of technology and suitability. Is it physical (flywheel) or electric, are fuel cells standard technology, are there any unique/exotic elements (e.g. radioisotope thermal generator), is the system scaled for platform power requirements and charge cycles (account for eclipse characteristics), is there a potential overcharge problem at end of life, passivation consideration?电力存储机制。对技术和适当性的一般性审查。它是物理的(飞轮)还是电动的?是燃料电池标准技术吗?有独特/外来元件(如:放射性同位素热能发电机)吗?系统根据平台电力要求和充电周期划分等级了吗(说明蚀时特征)?在寿命终止时可能出现过度充电的问题吗?有无钝化考虑?
Launcher interface and separation mechanism. Understand the nature of the coupling and ejection process. Is the interface dictated by the launcher or payload, is the launch environment very demanding, is the launch environment well understood/specified and payload qualified, how many objects are introduced into orbit in addition to upper stage and payload, does separation process minimize debris production? Safety processes and procedures.发射装置界面和分离机制。了解耦合和抛射过程的性质。界面是由发射装置或有效载荷支配吗?发射环境要求很高吗?搞清楚/详细说明发射环境了吗?有效载荷合格吗?除末级和有效载荷外,还有多少物体被送入轨道?分离过程把产生的碎片降到最低了吗?
Determine existence and consideration of safety issues. Where relevant to the launch phase, consider the safety implications of the payload for the launcher; are there unique risks associated with the payload, if it is a multiple payload launch, does payload deployment pose a risk to others? With regard to contamination of the environment, the impact on both the debris and radiation environment is assessed (for example, frequency interference).安全流程和程序。确定安全问题是否存在并予以考虑。如与发射阶段相切合,考虑有效载荷对发射装置的安全影响;有与有效载荷有关的独特风险吗?若是多有效载荷发射,那么有效载荷部署对其他有效载荷构成风险吗?关于环境污染,评估对碎片和辐射环境的影响(如:频率干扰)。
Impact on the debris environment. Safety assessors consider the likelihood of collision of payload with other operational payloads and the general debris environment. This is determined by orbital configuration, orbital lifetime, physical size and spatial density of objects at proposed altitude. De-orbit and re-orbit plans.对碎片环境的影响。安全评估人员考虑有效载荷与其他运作中的有效载荷碰撞的可能性和总体的碎片环境。这由拟议高度上的轨道配置、轨道寿命、物理尺寸和物体空间密度决定。
Regarding the operator’s ability to comply with safety requirements, the applicant is asked about his de-orbit/re-orbit plans, whether plans exist to remove the satellite from the operational orbit should an irrecoverable failure occur, whether such capability is available, etc. Safety assessors need to understand if plans exist and if so, are they effective? Has the issue been considered, at what altitude is operational orbit, is disposal necessary, is re-orbit to higher altitude or de-orbit to lower altitude planned, are disposal orbits effective, do they comply with existing standards/guidelines (e.g. use of IADC re-orbiting formula for GEO satellites, 25-year maximum disposal orbit lifetime below 2,000 km), what is feasible with platform technology, the extent of autonomy on-board to conduct de-orbit/re-orbit without ground intervention, what criteria are used to determine end of life? Are operational procedures agreed or will they be put in place prior to regular operations?脱离轨道和变轨计划。关于运营方遵守安全要求的能力,询问申请人他的脱离轨道和变轨计划,一旦发生无可挽救的故障,是否有计划将卫星清除出运行轨道,是否有此种能力等。安全评估人员需要清楚计划是否存在,如果存在,它们有效吗?考虑过这个问题吗?运行轨道在何等高度?如果需要处置,那么计划进行变轨进入更高轨道或脱离轨道至较低轨道吗?弃星轨道有效吗?它们遵守现行标准/准则(如:使用空间碎片协委会关于地球同步轨道卫星的变轨规则,2,000千米以下为最长不超过25年的弃星轨道寿命)吗?平台技术有何灵活之处?在无地面干涉情况下,舱内执行脱离轨道/变轨的自主程度?用何标准确定寿命终止?作业程序经一致同意了吗?或作业程序在定期作业前就配备到位了吗?
5. Summary5. 摘要
The United Kingdomhas implemented space debris mitigation measures in its evaluation of licence applications under the Outer Space Act 1986 to ensure compliance with the established outer space treaties and conventions and the emerging set of guidelines, codes and standards. The United Kingdomrecognizes that regulation is an important element of ensuring the sustainability of operations in outer space.联合王国在评价根据1986年《外层空间法》所提出的许可证申请时执行了空间碎片减缓措施,以确保遵守各项既定的外层空间条约和公约以及一套新的准则、规范和标准。联合王国承认,监管是确保外层空间作业可持续性的一大要素。
III. Replies received from international intergovernmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee三. 从在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的国际政府间组织收到的答复
Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization亚洲太平洋空间合作组织
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[24 October 2011][2011年10月24日]
Sustainable space utilization supporting sustainable development on Earth支持地球可持续发展的可持续空间利用
A data-sharing service platform and its applications pilot project were a top-priority project whose feasibility study was completed last year, and it is now in the implementation stage. China, being a member Stateof the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO), has already committed to contribute remote-sensing data for the service. The first part of the project is expected to be completed by the end of May 2012, and the applications pilot projects are expected to be undertaken by member States subsequently.一个数据共享平台及其申请试点项目是最被优先考虑的项目,其可行性研究已于去年完成,现处于实施阶段。中国是亚洲太平洋空间合作组织(亚太空间合作组织)的成员国,该国已经致力于为这项服务提供遥感数据。预计2012年5月底将完成项目第一部分,还预计随后各成员国将执行申请试点项目。
The APSCO Applied High-Resolution Satellite Project was the second project on the priority list. Its feasibility and system-definition study was completed last year, in which experts from all member States of APSCO, as well as Ukraine, took part. The study envisages having a constellation of two satellites, but the second will be developed after launching the first so as to use the experience gained from the first. The first satellite will have a panchromatic imager with two-metre resolution and a multispectral imager with eight-metre resolution, besides other auxiliary and experimental payloads.亚太空间合作组织的应用高分辨率卫星项目是第二大优先项目。其可行性和系统定义研究已于去年完成,来自亚太空间合作组织所有成员国以及乌克兰的专家参与了此项工作。该研究设想有一个由两颗卫星组成的星座,但要在发射第一颗卫星后才开发第二颗卫星,以便利用从第一颗卫星中获得的经验。第一颗卫星除其他辅助和实验用有效载荷外,还配有一台分辨率为两米的全色成像仪和一台分辨率达八米的多谱成像仪。将通过国际竞标决定制造商。主要控制站和备用控制站将位于亚太空间合作组织的成员国境内。项目于2011年1月最后一周获得核准。在必要的准备工作后,预计项目将于明年初启动。
The manufacturer will be determined through competitive international bidding.
The prime and backup control stations will be located in the member States of APSCO. The project was approved in the last week of January 2011. After the necessary preparations are made, the project is expected to kick off early next year. Space debris, space operations and tools to support collaborative space situational awareness空间碎片、支助协作认识空间状况的空间作业和工具
The Asia-Pacific ground-based optical space observation system is another prioritized project whose feasibility study was completed last year, and it was approved in the last week of January 2011. The project will facilitate space object detecting, tracking and identification, orbit determination and cataloguing, collision early warning, re-entering space object prediction, technical consultation and training. The first phase of the project is under implementation and is expected to be completed by the end of May 2012, after which regular operation will start. Phase two of the project will commence subsequently.亚洲太平洋地基光学空间观测系统是另一个优先项目,其可行性研究已于去年完成,并于2011年1月最后一周获得核准。项目将推动空间物体探测、跟踪和识别、轨道确定和编目、碰撞预警、重返大气层的空间物体预测、技术咨询和培训。项目一期正在实施中,预计将于2012年5月底完成,之后将启动定期作业。项目二期将紧随其后。
Space weather空间气象
The projects on electromagnetic satellite payload for earthquake prediction and research on determining precursor ionospheric signatures of earthquakes by ground-based ionospheric sounding have recently been approved by the APSCO Council for conducting feasibility studies.
APSCO is currently going through a phase of assessing the requirements of the member States of APSCO.
A symposium on that theme, conducted in Beijingin September 2011, was also a step towards the consolidation of requirements of member States and the completion of feasibility studies. After a preliminary requirement assessment, detailed proposals will be invited from APSCO member States and discussed in an expert group meeting planned for the second half of 2011. Discrete technical proposals on the electromagnetic satellite payload for earthquake prediction and research on determining precursor ionospheric signatures of earthquakes by ground-based ionospheric sounding will be consolidated with the cost-benefit analysis and implementation plan and will be presented to the APSCO Council by mid-2012 for approval. The research and implementation of these projects will focus on ionospheric signatures, thermal infrared activities, long-wave radiation, atmospheric changes, etc., and will contribute to modelling space weather.最近,亚太空间合作组织理事会核准了关于通过地基电离层探测确定地震电离层信号前兆特征的地震预测和研究用电磁卫星有效载荷项目,以进行可行性研究。目前,亚太空间合作组织正处于评估其成员国各项要求的阶段。2011年9月,在北京召开了一次关于该专题的座谈会,这也是向整合成员国要求和完成可行性研究迈出了一步。在对要求进行初步评估后,将请亚太空间合作组织成员国提出详细建议,并计划于2011年下半年召开一次专家组会议来讨论这些建议。关于通过地基电离层探测确定地震电离层信号前兆特征的地震预测和研究用电磁卫星有效载荷的分散技术建议将与成本效益分析和实施计划相整合,并在2012年中前提交给亚太空间合作组织理事会供核准。这些项目的研究和实施工作将关注电离层信号、热红外活动、长波辐射、大气变化等,还将有助于空间气象建模。
IV. Replies received from international non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee四. 从在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的国际非政府组织收到的答复
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[3 November 2011][2011年11月3日]
Scientific Commission on Space Studies of the Earth’s Surface, Meteorology and Climate地面、气象和气候空间研究科学委员会
The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Scientific Commission on Space Studies of the Earth’s Surface, Meteorology and Climate promotes and enhances effective international coordination, discussion and cooperation in various areas of the study of the Earth system where space observations can make unique and useful contributions. Earth observation is essential to monitor the current state and evolution of our planet’s environment. Space satellites provide a large amount of data that can be (a) assimilated into various models for better forecasts in meteorology and oceanography or (b) analysed for monitoring the state of and changes in climate and ecosystems. Additional phenomena such as health, energy, agriculture and biodiversity, energy and disasters have also increased the use of Earth observation data during recent decades.空间研究委员会(空间研委会)地面、气象和气候空间研究科学委员会促进并加强地球系统研究各领域内的有效国际协调、研究和合作,因为在这些领域,地球观测可做出独特的有益贡献。地球观测对于监测我们地球环境的现状和演变至关重要。空间卫星提供大量数据,这些数据可:(a)被各种模型吸收,以进行更好的气象学和海洋学预测,或(b)可供分析,以监测气候和生态系统的状况及变化。近几十年,卫生、能源、农业和生物多样性、能源和灾害等其他现象也增加了对地球观测数据的使用。
The Scientific Commission’s activities relevant to long-term sustainability are achieved through COSPAR membership in the Group on Earth Observations, which is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for providing decision-support tools to a wide variety of users. A dedicated Group on Earth Observations task group has been created within COSPAR to promote, among other things, education and outreach regarding sustained, high-accuracy, well-calibrated, regional observing systems in developing countries for contributions to global data sets.科学委员会与长期可持续性问题相关的活动是通过空间研委会加入地球观测组织实现的。地球观测组织正在协调各种努力,以便建立一个全球对地观测分布式系统(全球测地系统),为广大用户提供决策支持工具。在空间研委会内成立了一个专门的地球观测工作组,以除其他外,在发展中国家推广关于可持续、高精度、更标准的区域观测系统,为全球数据集提供信息。
Various scientists involved in the Scientific Commission are also contributing to international bodies such as the Global Terrestrial Observing System, the Global Climate Observing System and the Integrated Global Ocean Services System to assist in writing scientific or policy reports aimed at promoting long-term sustainability activities for the study of our planet. The Scientific Commission has recently participated in educational activities through several capacity-building workshops around the world whose objectives are to promote the long-term sustainability of Earth observation data analysis in various domains.参与科学委员会的多名科学家也在为全球地面观测系统、全球气候观测系统和全球海洋服务综合系统等国际机构贡献力量,协助撰写旨在推进以研究我们的地球为目的的长期可持续性活动的科学或政策报告。最近,科学委员会通过若干次世界范围内的能力建设讲习班参加了教育活动,这些讲习班的目标是促进各领域内地球观测数据分析的长期可持续性。
Panel on Satellite Dynamics卫星动力学小组
Part of the activities of the Panel on Satellite Dynamics concerns the orbital motion and precise orbit determination of Earth-orbiting artificial satellites. Precise knowledge of the orbital motion of near-Earth orbiting objects is not only crucial regarding the safety of activities in space (e.g. collision avoidance and evolution of space debris and decommissioned satellites), but is also indispensable for the use and exploitation of almost all near-Earth-orbiting satellites, including navigation, telecommunication and almost all scientific Earth-observing satellites. For monitoring the Earth’s environment and climate, it is often required to reconstruct the orbital motion of satellites with decimetre- or even centimetre-level precision.卫星动力学小组的部分活动涉及地球轨道人造卫星的轨道运动和精确定轨。近地轨道物体轨道运动方面的精确知识不仅攸关空间活动(如:避免碰撞以及空间碎片的演变和退役卫星)的安全,而且对使用和开发包括导航、通信和几乎所有科学性地球观测卫星在内的几乎全部近地轨道卫星都必不可少。为监测地球环境和气候,经常要求以分米或甚至厘米精度重建卫星的轨道运动。
The Panel on Satellite Dynamics brings together scientists and users who continuously work on implementing and improving methods and software systems for orbit determination. In addition, the Panel addresses the impact of such work in the fields of positioning and Earth monitoring (sea-level change, ice-mass balance, natural hazards, etc.).卫星动力学小组所汇集的科学家和使用者不懈开展工作,执行并改进定轨方法和软件系统。此外,该小组还处理此类工作在定位和地球监测领域的影响(如:海平面变化、冰块平衡、自然灾害等)。
Panel on Technical Problems Related to Scientific Ballooning科学气球技术问题小组
The current worldwide development of stratospheric balloon systems demonstrates clearly the long-term sustainability of this kind of vehicle for space science. For example, among the major balloon operators, the following may be mentioned:目前平流层气球系统在全世界的发展表明了用于空间科学的这类飞行器具有长期可持续性。例如,可提及下列主要的气球操作方:
(a) NASA/Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (United States of America): after 10 years of development, the Ultra-Long Duration Balloon project, a balloon system operating at any latitude and in any season for stratospheric flights lasting up to several weeks, is progressing and is now in the beginning of the qualification phase;(a) 美国航天局/哥伦比亚科学气球中心(美利坚合众国):经过10年的开发,超长时气球项目(在任何高度和任何季节都能运作的气球系统,可进行长达数周的平流层飞行)不断取得进展,现正处于资格审定的初期阶段;
(b) JAXA (Japan): implementation of a new balloon launch site in Japan(Taiki Aerospace Research Field) with first flights operated in mid-2008;(b) 日本宇宙航空研究开发机构(日本):在日本执行一个新的气球发射场(大树航空航天研究场),首段飞行于2008年中操作;
(c) Swedish Space Corporation (Sweden): construction of a second building for integration of a scientific gondola on its rocket and balloon base in northern Sweden(Kiruna); availability for operations is scheduled for 2013;(c) 瑞典空间公司(瑞典):在瑞典北部(基律纳)建造第二幢建筑物,以将一个科学吊舱集成在其火箭和气球底部上,定于2013年投入运作;
(d) Centre national d’études spatiales (CNES) (France): in 2013 qualification of Nosyca, a new, complete system for operating stratospheric balloons, with a planned duration of use of 15 years.(d) 法国国家空间研究中心(国家空间研究中心)(法国):2013年对Nosyca进行资格审定。Nosyca是一个新的操作平流层气球的完整系统,计划使用时长为15年。
Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space关于可能有害环境的空间活动问题小组
Space debris is one of the seven topics to be addressed by the new Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee. COSPAR was one of the first international bodies to hold regular discussions concerning the nature of the space debris environment and the hazards it presents to operational space systems. The first technical session on space debris was organized during the 25th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR in Graz, Austria, in 1984. For many years the Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space has held multiple space debris sessions at each biannual COSPAR Assembly.空间碎片问题是新的科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组处理的七个议题之一。空间研委会是最早就空间碎片环境的性质及其对运转中空间系统所构成的危害举办定期讨论的一个国际机构。首届空间碎片问题技术会议于1984年在奥地利格拉茨举行空间研委会第25次科学大会期间举办。多年来,关于可能有害环境的空间活动问题小组在两年一次的空间研委会大会上举行了多届空间碎片问题会议。
In 2010 the theme of the Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space sessions was “Space debris — a global challenge”. One half-day session was devoted to space debris mitigation and remediation, the principal space debris issues facing the long-term sustainability of activities in outer space. At the 39th Scientific Assembly of COSPAR, in 2012, the theme of the Panel’s sessions will be “Space debris — steps towards environmental control”. COSPAR continues to be a leader in promoting a better understanding of the nature and risks of the space debris environment and in encouraging space-faring nations and organizations to act responsively in space for the benefit of all through each mission phase, including deployment, operations and disposal.2010年关于可能有害环境的空间活动问题会议的主题是“空间碎片问题——一项全球性挑战”。为期半天的会议专门讨论空间碎片减缓问题及补救问题,这些是外层空间活动长期可持续性所面临的首要空间碎片问题。在2012年空间研委会第39次科学大会上,该小组的会议主题将是“空间碎片问题——走向环境控制”。空间研委会继续牵头促进提高对空间碎片环境性质及风险的认识,并鼓励发展航天事业的国家和组织在空间负责任地行事,以使人人都能从包括部署、作业和处置在内的飞行任务各阶段受益。
Panel on Radiation Belt Environment Modelling辐射带环境建模小组
The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modelled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low Earth orbits, higher Earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations.空间辐射环境对航天器系统和器械的影响是空间飞行任务设计的重要考虑方面。为了应对这些挑战并产生既可靠、成本低、效率又高的设计,必须认识辐射环境并准确建模。近地轨道、高地轨道和行星际空间的环境性质差别很大。既有短期差异又有长期差异。这自然促使人们对空间环境及其对空间飞行器和航天员的影响开展详细研究。当前的一大挑战是推动欧洲航天局空间状况认识方案等最近发起的项目。
This naturally leads to a detailed study of the space environment and of its effects on space vehicles and astronauts.
One major current challenge is to contribute to recently initiated programmes such as the European Space Agency’s space situational awareness programme.
In the next two to three years several space missions dedicated to the study of radiation belts will be launched (RBSB, United States of America;
ERG, Japan; and Resonance, Russian Federation). Those missions will generate much activity in the next 10 to 15 years, during which time data will accumulate and be analysed. Of course, the Panel on Radiation Belt Environment Modelling will be a central forum for scientists to communicate about new findings and to collaborate.在接下来的两到三年,将启动若干专门研究辐射带的空间飞行任务(RBSB,美利坚合众国;ERG,日本;Resonance,俄罗斯联邦)。这些飞行任务将在接下来的10到15年产生众多活动,期间将收集并分析数据。当然,辐射带环境建模小组将是科学家交流新发现和协作的中心论坛。
Panel on Space Weather空间气象小组
The Panel on Space Weather welcomes the inclusion of space weather within the remit of a working group, and the Panel officers look forward to the group’s initial report with interest. The Vice-Chair of the Panel on Space Weather has been elected Chair of the associated Space Weather expert group.空间气象小组欣见将空间气象问题纳入一个工作组的职权范围,该小组官员感兴趣地期待工作组的首份报告。空间气象小组副主席已当选相关的空间气象专家组主席。
The Panel’s recent activities have been aimed at illustrating the wide range of ongoing international activities in the area of space weather and at encouraging collaboration between groups involved. Recent events have clearly highlighted the wealth of data currently available and the rapidly evolving field of research. Further investigation is welcome in order to identify mechanisms to optimize the sharing of scientific and technical information of common interest with a view to ensuring the safety of space assets.该小组的近期活动旨在阐明空间气象领域进行中的广泛国际活动,并鼓励所涉各组开展协作。近期事件明确突显了现有数据之丰富以及研究领域的快速发展。欢迎进一步地调查,从而查明优化共享共同关心的科学技术信息的各种机制,以期确保空间资产的安全。
Recent Panel events have also focused on the sustainability of key data sets underpinning services. In addition to the study of short-term variability in the space environment, the study of longer-term properties through use of long-term and historical data archives has been highlighted as a key aspect of understanding space weather phenomena. The recent solar minimum period gave a good example of this case, with scientists looking at measurements dating back many solar cycles in order to better understand current phenomena.该小组的近期活动还侧重于支撑服务的关键数据集的可持续性问题。除研究空间环境的短期差异外,还通过利用长期和历史数据档案重点研究了长期属性,以此作为认识空间气象现象的一个关键方面。最近的太阳活动极小期便是这种情形的一个极好例证,其中科学家追溯查看了很多个太阳周期以前的测量值,以便更好地认识当前现象。
The Panel on Space Weather also emphazises the importance of bringing together the scientific and engineering communities to better understand the problems experienced by modern systems and encourage greater awareness of space weather among the operators and owners of affected systems. For example, issues such as timeliness and data formats, which, although not primary goals in the context of scientific understanding of space weather phenomena, are critical for providing actionable information to end-users.空间气象小组还强调将科学界和工程界聚集到一起颇为重要,这将更好地理解现代系统所经历的各种问题,促进受影响系统的运营方和所有者提高对空间气象问题的认识。比如,虽然时线和数据格式等问题不是科学理解空间气象现象方面的主要目的,但对于向最终用户提供行动信息来说至关重要。
Panel on Planetary Protection行星保护小组
The Panel on Planetary Protection works on behalf of COSPAR to provide an international consensus policy on the prevention of biological interchange in the conduct of solar system exploration, specifically, (a) avoiding contamination of planets other than the Earth by terrestrial organisms, including planetary satellites within the solar system, and (b) preventing the contamination of Earth by materials returned from outer space that may be carrying extraterrestrial organisms.行星保护小组代表空间研委会就预防开展太阳系探索过程中生物间相互作用提供达成国际共识的政策,具体来说,(a)避免包括太阳系内行星卫星在内的陆地生物体污染除地球外的其他行星,(b)防止由外层空间返回、可能携带地外生物体的材料污染地球。
The Panel works for the COSPAR Bureau and Council to develop, maintain and promulgate planetary protection knowledge, policy and plans to prevent the harmful effects of such contamination, and through symposiums, workshops and topical meetings at COSPAR Assemblies to provide an international forum for the exchange of information in this area. Through COSPAR, the Panel is expected to inform the international community, e.g., the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations, as well as various other bilateral and multilateral organizations, of policy consensus in this area. At the second session of its 34th meeting, on 20 October 2002, in Houston, United States of America, the COSPAR Council adopted a revised and consolidated planetary protection policy, which was most recently updated in March 2011.该小组为空间研委会主席团和理事会工作,制定、维护和颁布行星保护知识、政策和计划以预防这种污染的有害后果,并通过在空间研委会大会上举办座谈会、讲习班和专题会议来为此领域内的信息交流提供一个国际论坛。期待该小组通过空间研委会使联合国和平利用外层空间委员会以及其他各双边和多边组织等国际社会了解这个领域的政策共识。2002年10月20日在美利坚合众国休斯顿举行的空间研委会理事会第34次会议第2届会议通过了一项经订正和合并的行星保护政策,该政策于2011年3月获得最近一次的更新。
Through the prevention of biological interchange during space exploration, the COSPAR policy is intended to safeguard the future conduct of scientific investigations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, precursors and remnants, and to protect the Earth for a sustainable future of space exploration. The Panel has formed a close partnership with the COSPAR Panel on Exploration in pursuing the overlapping components of their common goals.空间研委会政策通过预防空间探索期间生物间的相互作用,意在维护今后开展对可能存在的地外生命形态、前体和残留物的科学调查,并保护地球,使空间探索有一个可持续的未来。该小组与空间研委会探索小组在实现其共同目标的重复部分过程中结成了紧密的伙伴关系。
Panel on Exploration探索小组
The mandate of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration, founded in Montrealin 2008, is to provide independent science input to support a global space exploration programme while working to safeguard the scientific assets of our solar system. Apart from alliances of established space nations, the engagement of newly emerging and developing countries at an early stage and in a meaningful way will be a pillar to support a sustainable global space exploration program. The first Panel on Exploration report, entitled: “Towards a global space exploration programme: a stepping-stone approach” (June 2010; an updated version will appear in Advances in Space Research in 2011), proposes activities that support the transition towards larger space architectures.空间研委会探索小组于2008年在蒙特利尔创建,其任务授权是提供独立的科学信息以支助一个全球性空间探索方案,并在同时捍卫我们太阳系的科学资产。除既定空间国家的联盟外,新兴国家和发展中国家在早期以富有意义的方式参与其中,将成为支助可持续的全球性空间探索方案的一大支柱。探索小组题为“实现全球空间探索方案:台阶方法”的首份报告(2010年6月;最新版将载入2011年《空间研究的进步》)提议了支助过渡到更大空间架构的各种活动。
The stepping stones include Earth-based analog research programmes preparing for planetary exploration, an International Space Station (ISS) exploitation programme enabling exploration science, and an international CubeSat programme in support of exploration, as well as more complex endeavours, such as human outposts. Several of these preparatory activities should involve a wide range of actors in the global space community. By joining such preparatory activities, developing and emerging space nations that are constrained by limited budgets and expertise face a low entry-barrier to gaining experience in the conduct of future space exploration. Building up basic space technology capacity with a wider range of countries, ensuring that new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement provide a broader interest in space exploration and programme sustainability.台阶包括为行星探索做准备的地球上相似研究方案、一个使探索科学得以实现的国际空间站开发方案和一个支持探索活动的国际CubeSat方案,以及人类外驻等更为复杂的努力。其中若干项准备活动应当包括全球空间界的广泛行动者。受制于有限预算和专门知识的发展中空间国家及新兴空间国家通过参加此类准备活动,面临着较低的门槛,以获取今后开展空间探索的经验。构建更广大国家基本的空间技术能力,确保新的空间行动者负责任地行事,并提高公众认识及其参与度会扩大人们对空间探索和方案可持续性的兴趣。
In summary, the Panel on Exploration is developing a bottom-up approach to strengthen a long-term global space exploration programme by highlighting opportunities to integrate many countries and stakeholders into that endeavour. COSPAR unites institutions from 46 countries and works with numerous associated bodies, and can thus provide and engage a worldwide scientific network for cooperation. On behalf of COSPAR, and in support of this approach, the Panel holds workshops, issues official reports and helps engage developing countries in worldwide space exploration efforts.总之,探索小组正在制定一个自下而上的方法来加强长期的全球性空间探索方案,具体方法是强调多个国家和利益攸关方加入该努力的各种机会。空间研委会联合来自46个国家的机构并与众多相关机构一道工作,因而能够提供并参与一个世界性的科学合作网。为支助此方法,该小组代表空间研委会举办讲习班,发布正式报告,帮助发展中国家参与全世界的空间探索工作。
Panel on Capacity-Building能力建设问题小组
The sustainability of outer space necessarily requires the availability of trained scientists and technicians who can plan and carry out activities that make use of outer space in an efficient and effective way. COSPAR contributes directly to this aspect of outer-space sustainability.可持续的外层空间必然要求具备训练有素的科学家和技术员,他们能够以高效和有效的方式规划并开展利用外层空间的活动。空间研委会直接推动外层空间可持续性问题的这个方面。
The Panel on Capacity-Building carries out a programme of capacity-building workshops aimed at augmenting the community of scientists who make use of data collected from space missions.能力建设问题小组执行了一个能力建设讲习班方案,旨在扩大利用收集自空间飞行任务的数据的科学家群体。
This Panel on Capacity-Building programme is now 10 years old, and in that time about 15 capacity-building workshops have been organized. The workshops take place in developing countries, addressing the interest of communities that normally do not have experience with the use of space data. The workshops help to overcome the initial barrier faced by scientists in those countries when they want to access such information.能力建设问题小组的这个方案至今已有10年,在此期间组织了约15次能力建设讲习班。讲习班在发展中国家举办,解决通常没有空间数据使用经验的各界所关注的问题。讲习班帮助这些国家的科学家克服其在想获得这类信息时所面临的最初障碍。
The venues and topics of the workshops are selected on the basis of a few general criteria, including a regional dimension and publicly and freely available space data and analysis software. The workshops have a duration of two weeks, and usually centre on data from one or two space missions that are in operation at the time of the workshop. Typically, a workshop consists of 30 to 35 students (the term “student” includes PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young staff members) and about 10 lecturers. The lecturers are scientists directly related to the missions (usually NASA, ESA or JAXA scientific space missions).讲习班地点和专题的选择基于一些一般性标准,包括区域层面以及公开且可免费获取的空间数据和分析软件。讲习班为期两周,通常围绕其举办之时正在作业的一两个空间飞行任务产生的数据。一次讲习班往往包括30至35名学生(“学生”一词包括博士生、博士后研究员和青年工作人员)和10名左右的讲师。讲师是与飞行任务(通常是美国航天局、欧洲航天局或日本宇宙航空研究开发机构的科学性空间飞行任务)直接相关的科学家。讲习班的一半时间专门用于有关科学题目的正式讲座,而讨论中的飞行任务恰能解决这些科学题目。学生在其他时间利用其中一个空间飞行任务的真实数据和软件,在讲师的督导下着手处理一个项目。
Half of the time of the workshop is devoted to formal lectures on the science topics that can be addressed by the missions being discussed.
The students spend the rest of the time working on a project using real data and software of one of those space missions, under the supervision of the lecturers.
In 10 years about 500 students have been trained through these workshops, on topics such as remote sensing, Sun-Earth interactions, planetary science and astrophysics. Workshops have been held in South America (Argentina, Braziland Uruguay), Asia (China, Indiaand Malaysia), Africa (Egypt, Moroccoand South Africa) and Eastern Europe (Romania). COSPAR contributes about one third of the costs of a workshop; the other two thirds is provided by several international organizations (ESA, NASA, International Astronomical Union (IAU), Office for Outer Space Affairs, etc.) and the host country.10年间,这些讲习班培训了约500名学生,专题有遥感、地球和太阳的相互作用、行星科学和天体物理学等。讲习班曾在南美(阿根廷、巴西和乌拉圭)、亚洲(中国、印度和马来西亚)、非洲(埃及、摩洛哥和南非)以及东欧(罗马尼亚)举办。空间研委会提供三分之一左右的讲习班费用,其余的三分之二则由若干个国际组织(欧洲航天局、美国航天局、国际天文学联盟(天文学联盟)、外层空间事务厅等)和主办国提供。
International Astronautical Federation国际宇航联合会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[7 November 2011][2011年11月7日]
International Astronautical Federation and the issue of long-term sustainability of outer space activities国际宇航联合会与外层空间活动长期可持续性问题
A series of incidents, such as the collision between two spacecraft — Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 — in February 2009, has illustrated the danger of the ever-increasing orbital debris population, particularly in low Earth orbits, the crowding of selected orbit families and various radio interference concerns between active spacecraft in the geostationary orbit. Faced with this situation, the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) has taken an interest in the issue of long-term sustainability of outer space activities. As the only international federation of actors in outer space bringing together governmental institutions, private commercial companies and academia, its duty is to facilitate exchanges of views and dialogue between these actors on ways and means to maintain outer space as a safe and secure environment. IAF is active in many areas of direct relevance to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, particularly through its Committee on Space Security, set up in late 2008.一系列事件,如两架航天器——Cosmos 2251和Iridium 33——在2009年2月相撞等,说明了尤其是在近地轨道不断增加的轨道碎片群所造成的危险,特定轨道系统的拥挤状态,以及对地球静止轨道内运行中航天器间无线电干扰的各种关切。面对这种情形,国际宇航联合会(宇航联)对外层空间活动长期可持续性问题产生了兴趣。它是唯一一个国际性外层空间行动方联合会,汇集了政府机构、私营商业企业和学术界,其职责是便利这些行动方就维持外层空间成为安全无虞环境的方式和方法交流看法,并开展对话。
That Committee, chaired by Kazuto Suzuki of Hokkaido University, Japan, addressed this topic during the 60th International Astronautical Congress, held in Daejeon, Republic of Korea, in October 2009; the 61st Congress, held in Prague, in October 2010; and the 62nd Congress, held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 3 to 7 October 2011. The Committee consists of more than 20 experts on political, economic, legal and technical matters, including Peter Martinez, Chair of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.宇航联活跃在许多与外层空间活动长期可持续性直接相关的领域,尤其是通过其于2008年末成立的空间安全委员会。该委员会由日本北海道大学的Kazuto Suzuki担任主席,并在2009年10月在大韩民国大田举行的第60次国际宇航大会、2010年10月在布拉格举行的第61次大会和2011年10月3日至7日在南非开普敦举行的第62次大会期间论述了这个议题。该委员会包括20余名政治、经济、法律和技术事项方面的专家,其中包括科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组主席Peter Martinez。
The International Astronautical Congress is organized every year by IAF in association with the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Institute of Space Law. The Congress brings together more than 2,500 experts from the scientific, technical, legal and cultural areas of outer space and provides an excellent opportunity to review the progress made in ensuring the safety of space activities and mitigating space debris and to discuss technical and legal issues of active orbital debris removal.国际宇航大会每年由宇航联联合国际宇航科学院和国际空间法学会举办。大会汇集来自外层空间科学、技术、法律和文化领域的2500多名专家,并为回顾确保空间活动安全和减缓空间碎片方面取得的进展以及讨论主动式轨道碎片清除所涉的技术和法律问题提供绝好的机会。
The 62nd Congress brought together 2,900 participants. As had previous Congresses, it included a symposium dedicated to space debris, coordinated by Nicholas Johnson of NASA and Christophe Bonnal of CNES, with many high-quality contributions, including some on active debris removal. One session of the symposium focused on mitigation and standards and another on space debris removal issues.第62次大会汇集了2900名参加者。同往届大会一样,它包括一次专门讨论空间碎片问题的座谈会。座谈会由美国航天局的Nicholas Johnson和法国空研中心的Christophe Bonnal协调,并收到了众多高质量的投入,其中一些涉及主动式碎片清除问题。有一期座谈会重点讨论了减缓问题,另一期则着重讨论了空间碎片清除问题。
The topic “Towards space debris remediation” was selected for the 26th International Academy of Astronautics/International Institute of Space Law Scientific/Legal Round Table, chaired by Kai-Uwe Schrogl of ESA and Wendell Mendel of NASA. Presentations were given on the status of space objects that should be removed, the potential costs of the removal and the changes required in the legal and regulatory framework. There was a shared view that, with the recent cases of re-entry of larger space objects (most recently the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite and Roentgen Satellite), threats in outer space and on the ground were not only increasing but were also becoming more visible to the public. Measures therefore had to be taken to avoid the further production of space debris through collisions with larger inactive space objects, as well as to avoid endangering people on the surface of the Earth and to avoid a negative image among the public.国际宇航科学院/国际空间法学会第26次科学/法律圆桌会议选择的议题是“走向空间碎片修复”。圆桌会议由欧洲航天局的Kai-Uwe Schrogl和美国航天局的Wendell Mendel主持。所作的专题报告涉及应被清除的空间物体状况、潜在的清除费用以及法律和监管框架需做的改变。与会者一致认为,随着近来较大型空间物体(最近是高层大气研究卫星和伦琴卫星)重返大气层的情况出现,外层空间内和地面上的威胁不仅在增加,而且越来越多地进入公众视野。因此,必须采取措施,以避免因与废弃的较大型空间物体碰撞而更多地产生空间碎片,以及避免危及地球表面的人类和避免在公众中产生负面形象。除技术措施外,还必须形成法律框架,办法是像现行的国际空间法那样,不把空间碎片当作“空间物体”而予以分类和处理。一个关键问题是碎片清除任务仍然花费太大了,而不能被纳入考虑范围,即使可以抵消一件空间垃圾(如:废弃的大型航天器)所产生的潜在损害。
Besides the technical steps, the legal framework would have to be shaped in such a way that space debris could be classified and dealt with without treating them as “space objects”, as is the case under current international space law.
A critical issue was that debris removal missions were still far too costly to be taken into consideration, even if the potential damage produced by a single item of space debris, such as an inactive large spacecraft, could be offset.
Of particular interest to delegations to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the issue of long-term sustainability of outer space activities was the topic of a specific session of the symposium on space policy, law and economics, on 5 October. That session was jointly organized by the IAF Committee on Space Security and Commission V of the International Academy of Astronautics. Peter Martinez, Chair of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, chaired the session, which included a number of contributions. Mr. Martinez then moderated a panel discussion, with the participation of Ciro Arévalo, Chair of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 2008-2009, Gerard Brachet, Chair of the Committee in 2006-2007, and Karl Doetsch, Chair of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee in the period 2004-2006.和平利用外层空间委员会各代表团尤其感兴趣的是,外层空间活动长期可持续性问题成为了10月5日空间政策、法律和经济学座谈会某一次会议的议题。该次会议由宇航联空间安全委员会和国际宇航科学院第五委员会联合举办。科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组主席Peter Martinez担任主持,这次会议获得了一些投入。Martinez先生随后主持了一次小组讨论会,参加者有和平利用外层空间委员会2008-2009年主席Ciro Arévalo、委员会2006-2007年主席Gerard Brachet以及科学和技术小组委员会2004-2006年期主席Karl Doetsch。
The 63rd International Astronautical Congress will be held in Naples, Italy, from 1 to 5 October 2012.第63次国际宇航大会将于2012年10月1日至5日在意大利那不勒斯举行。
It will again include a symposium dedicated to space debris.大会仍将包括一次专门讨论空间碎片问题的座谈会。
More information on the programme of the 63rd Congress is available at www.iac2012.org.关于第63次大会方案的更多信息,可查阅:www.iac2012.org。
Following its meeting in Cape Town, the IAF Committee on Space Security plans a joint session with the space debris symposium at the 63rd Congress, dedicated to political, economic and institutional aspects of space debris mitigation and removal.继开普敦会议之后,宇航联空间安全委员会计划在第63次大会上召开一届与空间碎片问题座谈会的联席会议,专门讨论空间碎片减缓和清除工作的政治、经济和制度方面。
The IAF Committee on Space Security has also discussed preliminary ideas for sessions dedicated to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities at the 64th Congress, in Beijingin October 2013.宇航联空间安全委员会还讨论了针对2013年10月北京第64次大会上外层空间活动长期可持续性问题专门会议的初步想法。
IAF and its partner organizations, the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Institute of Space Law, are actively involved in promoting a safe and secure space environment for use by all nations and by future generations.宇航联及其伙伴组织——国际宇航科学院和国际空间法学会——正积极参与促进安全无虞的空间环境,以供所有国家和今后各代使用。
Secure World Foundation世界安全基金会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[5 November 2011][2011年11月5日]
The long-term sustainability of space activities is the primary focus of the Secure World Foundation (SWF). Throughout 2011, the Foundation has worked with a variety of partners to stimulate thinking and action on the set of issues that space sustainability raises. SWF staff are also participating as experts in the United States contribution to the expert groups in support of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee. The following paragraphs list the major activities SWF has undertaken in support of this important goal.空间活动的长期可持续性问题是世界安全基金会的主要关注点。2011年全年,基金会和各类伙伴一道工作,以促使思考空间可持续性所引发的一系列问题进行,并就此采取行动。世界安全基金会工作人员还作为专家,参与美国对支持科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的各专家组提供帮助的工作。下列各段列出了世界安全基金会为支持这个重要目标而开展的主要活动。
Brussels Space Policy Round Table: 2011 Space Security Index launch in Europe, November 2011布鲁塞尔空间政策圆桌会议:2011年11月,2011年欧洲空间安全索引发布会
SWF and the Mission of Canada to the European Union partnered to organize the 2011 Space Security Index launch in Europe as the part of the SWF Brussels Space Policy Round Table series of short panel discussions focusing on significant global space events with a particular emphasis on Europe.世界安全基金会和加拿大驻欧洲联盟代表团结成伙伴,举办了2011年欧洲空间安全索引发布会,以此作为短期小组讨论会世界安全基金会布鲁塞尔空间政策系列圆桌会议的一部分。发布会重点在于意义重大的全球性空间活动,并特别注重欧洲。
Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities外层空间活动透明度和建立信任措施
SWF and the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research organized an event titled: “TCBMs in outer space activities: looking back and moving forward”, which was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York Cityin October 2011. The event featured speakers from a range of disciplines discussing the current state of, past work on and possible future of transparency and confidence-building measures in space, with special attention paid to the upcoming meeting of the group of governmental experts on the subject.世界安全基金会和联合国裁军研究所举办了一次题为“外层空间活动透明度和建立信任措施:回顾与前进”的活动。该活动于2011年10月在纽约联合国总部举行。该活动的特色是来自广泛学科的发言者就空间现状、既往的空间工作以及空间透明度和建立信任措施可能的未来开展讨论,并特别关注政府专家组即将就该主题召开的相关会议。
Beijing Space Sustainability Conference, October 20112011年10月,北京空间可持续性会议
The Space Sustainability Conference, held at BeihangUniversity in Beijing, discussed issues related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, including orbital debris mitigation and removal, national implementation of debris mitigation guidelines and regulations, tools to enhance space situational awareness data-sharing, and space weather. The Conference was co-organized by SWF, InternationalSpace Universityand Beihang University. Ensuring the long-term sustainability of outer space activities The long-term sustainability of space activities is a matter of common concern for all current and future space actors.在北京的北京航空航天大学举行的空间可持续性会议讨论了与外层空间活动长期可持续性有关的问题,其中包括轨道碎片减缓和清除、各国执行碎片减缓准则和条例的情况、加强认识空间状况数据共享的工具和空间气象。会议由世界安全基金会、国际空间大学和北京航空航天大学共同举办。
The increasing number of countries and private operators operating space systems and the growing amounts of space debris raise important questions about continuing to operate spacecraft in Earth orbit over the long term.确保外层空间活动的长期可持续性
Frequency management to prevent interferences and the influence of space weather are other critical issues. A session held during the International Astronautical Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, in October 2011, was intended to support the activities of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities; it explored the policies, guidelines and application of the legal provisions of the outer space treaties that will be needed to assure long-term sustainability. SWF staff co-chaired the session and contributed two conference papers, on ensuring the long-term sustainability of space activities and on developing a potential strategy and policies for space sustainability based on sustainable management of common resources.空间活动的长期可持续性是当前和今后所有空间行动方共同关切的一个问题。运营空间系统的国家和私人运营商数目日益增多,空间碎片数量也在不断上升,这引发了有关继续在地球轨道长期运营航天器的重要问题。进行频率管理以预防空间气象的干扰及影响是其他关键问题。2011年10月南非开普敦国际宇航大会期间举行的一届会议意在支持外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的活动;会议探究了将需要用来保障长期可持续性的政策、准则以及外层空间条约法律规定的应用问题。世界安全基金会工作人员共同主持了这届会议,并提交了两份会议文件,这两份文件分别涉及确保空间活动的长期可持续性,以及基于对共有资源的可持续管理制定空间可持续性的潜在战略及政策。
Analysing the development paths of emerging space nations While the advent of emerging space nations certainly creates opportunities, it also raises new concerns.分析新兴空间国家的发展道路
Balancing the new sets of opportunities and risks requires an understanding of the rationale and development paths of all space actors, including emerging ones.
An analysis of six emerging space nations (Brazil, India, Malaysia, Nigeria, South Africaand Venezuela(Bolivarian Republic of)) reveals opportunities and challenges to space sustainability. The analysis, entitled Analysing the Development Paths of Emerging Space Nations, done by three recent graduates of the George Washington University master’s programme, examines those nations’ space policy development and interest (or lack thereof) in international cooperation, assessing how best the United States and the international community can reach out to them in the advancement of space sustainability. The authors also examine the European Union’s draft code of conduct for outer space activities to assess how those emerging actors view it. Finally, the authors discuss the role that the United Stateshas played to date and suggest ways in which it might enhance its efforts.新兴空间国家的到来当然产生了机会,但也引发新的关切。平衡兼顾各组新机遇和新风险需要了解包括新兴空间国家在内的所有空间行动方的理由和发展道路。对六个新兴空间国家(巴西、印度、马来西亚、尼日利亚、南非和委内瑞拉玻利瓦尔共和国)所作的一次分析显示了空间可持续性所面临的机遇和挑战。这次题为“分析新兴空间国家的发展道路”的分析由乔治·华盛顿大学硕士课程的三名新毕业生完成,研究了这些国家的空间政策制定情况及其对国际合作的兴趣(或缺少兴趣),从而评估美国和国际社会帮助它们推进空间可持续性的最佳方法。作者还分析了欧洲联盟的外层空间活动行为守则草案,以评估这些新兴行动方对此的看法。最后,作者讨论了美国迄今为止所起的作用,并就其可加强努力的方式方法提出了建议。
Improving Our Vision V, Chateau de Betzdorf, Luxembourg, June 20112011年6月,卢森堡沙托·贝茨多夫,“开阔我们的视野五”
Organized in cooperation with the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies, the Studies and Expansion Society, and Intelsat, this fifth in the series of space situational awareness workshops examined ways in which shared space situational awareness data could be applied to enhance the safety, stability and security of operations in space. Discussions included an expanded look at issues beyond in-orbit operations, to include a comprehensive consideration of space systems’ life cycle from launch to final disposal, discussion of United Statesand European policies for sharing space situational awareness data, and potential mechanisms to apply the uses of those data to improving the shared use of the space domain.认识空间状况系列讲习班的第五期是与艾森豪威尔空间和防御研究中心、研究和扩展学会以及国际通信卫星组织(通信卫星组织)合作组织的,研究了如何才能应用共享的认识空间状况数据,以增强空间作业的安全、稳定和保障。讨论包括扩展对在轨作业以外的其他问题的审视,以全面考虑到空间系统从发射到最后处置整个生命周期,还包括讨论美国和欧洲共享认识空间状况数据的政策,以及应用这些数据的用途改进对空间领域共同使用的潜在机制。
2011 Space Security Index release in Washington, D.C., June 20112011年6月在华盛顿特区举行的2011年空间安全索引发布会
Held in partnership with the Canadian Embassy, the Space Security Index launch event focused on an overview of the 2011 Space Security Index, which examines major space security and sustainability events of the preceding year, and a discussion of various issues that may affect space security and sustainability over the coming year. The goal of the Space Security Index is to improve transparency with respect to space activities and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national and international policies that contribute to space security and sustainability.空间安全索引发布活动是与加拿大使馆联合举行的,侧重于回顾2011年空间安全索引,其中研究了前一年度主要的空间安全和可持续性活动,还侧重于讨论来年可能影响空间安全和可持续性的各种问题。空间安全索引的目标是提高空间活动的透明度,并提供一个共有的综合知识库,以支助制定有益于空间安全和可持续性的国家和国际政策。
Space policies and laws in Asia亚洲空间政策和法律
Given the rapid increase in space activities in Asiaand the increasing importance of space in the lives of Asian citizens, many States in the region are building or refining their national space policies and laws. This is a crucial time for the region, as it builds its legal and policy frameworks that are needed to support the long-term sustainability and use of space for Asiaand the international community in general. The workshop, on space policies and laws in Asia, held in Beijingin May 2011 in partnership with the China Academy of Sciences Institute for Policy and Management, brought together regional and international experts to examine the history, current state of affairs and future of Asian space policy. It also explored space cooperation at the national and regional levels in support of space sustainability.鉴于亚洲空间活动迅速增多,空间在亚洲公民的生活中日益重要,该区域许多国家正在构建或完善本国的空间政策和法律。对于该区域来说,此时此刻,十分关键,因为它在构建需用以支助空间长期可持续性和为亚洲及整个国际社会利用空间的法律和政策框架。关于亚洲空间政策和法律的讲习班是2011年5月与中国科学院科技政策与管理科学研究所联合在北京举办的,目的是研究亚洲空间政策的历史、现状和未来,区域和国际专家参加了此次讲习班。该讲习班还探究了在国家和区域各级支助空间可持续性的空间合作问题。
Space verification: building common understanding空间核证:构筑共识
The workshop on the theme “Space verification: building common understanding” was aimed at identifying and exploring key topics that need to be agreed upon in order to lay the foundation for future verification norms for outer space that would increase international security and stability. The workshop, held at the Brusselsoffice of SWF in March 2011, explored exactly what space verification should encompass and what factors need to be taken into account when assessing how to implement verification methods.关于“空间核证:构筑共识”这个主题的讲习班旨在确定和探究需商定的关键议题,以便为今后提高国际安全和稳定的外层空间核证规范奠定基础。讲习班于2011年3月在世界安全基金会布鲁塞尔办事处举办,准确探究了空间核证应当包括的内容和在评估如何实施核证方法时需要考虑的因素。
Space Generation Advisory Council空间新一代咨询理事会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[4 November 2011][2011年11月4日]
The next generation of space leaders believes that the sustainability of space activities is crucial to future space endeavours. To this end, the Space Generation Advisory Council’s Space Safety and Sustainability Working Group supports the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and participated in its session at the 62nd International Astronautical Congress, in Cape Town, South Africa. The Space Safety and Sustainability Working Group provides a forum for enthusiastic students and young professionals to participate in global deliberations on the safety and sustainability of space activities. Comprising members from established and emerging space countries and an advisory team of professionals in the field, the group identifies and exchanges ideas concerning critical issues threatening the sustainability of space activities.下一代空间领袖认为,空间活动的可持续性对于今后的空间努力至关重要。为此,空间新一代咨询理事会空间安全和可持续性工作组支持科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组,并参加了后者在南非开普敦第62次国际宇航大会上的届会。空间安全和可持续性工作组为充满热情的学生和青年专门人员提供了一个论坛,以让他们参与关于空间活动安全和可持续性问题的全球审议工作。该工作组包括来自既定空间国家和新兴空间国家的成员以及由此领域内专门人员组成的一个咨询小组,负责查明威胁空间活动可持续性的关键问题并就此交流意见。
The Group co-hosted the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS) paper competition, and the three winners were sponsored to present their research output, related to space safety and sustainability, at the 5th IAASS conference, in Versailles, France. Furthermore, the Group organized a workshop session at the 10th Space Generation Congress, during which delegates brainstormed on the subject “Technical and policy challenges of space debris mitigation and removal”, resulting in the following recommendations:该工作组共同主办了国际空间安全促进协会论文竞赛,并赞助三名优胜者在法国凡尔赛第5次国际空间安全促进协会会议上介绍其关于空间安全和可持续性问题的研究成果。此外,该工作组在第10次空间新一代大会上举办了一次讲习班,期间各位代表就“空间碎片减缓和清除的技术及政策挑战”这一问题集思广益,并达成了下列建议:
(a) To improve space situational awareness coverage and the quality of space data, and foster collaboration between established and emerging space nations to host additional SSA infrastructure;(a) 改进认识空间状况的覆盖范围和空间数据的质量,促进既定空间国家和新兴空间国家之间的协作,以安置更多的认识空间状况的基础设施;
(b) To foster the fair and responsible use of space, the issue of mistrust among space actors should be dealt with by encouraging interaction and exchange of information and thus transparency;(b) 促进公平、负责地利用空间,应当通过鼓励空间行动方间加强互动和交流信息以及由此产生的透明度来处理他们之间的不信任问题;
(c) To promote international data-sharing, establish a neutral data centre to manage sensitive or proprietary space situational awareness data voluntarily contributed by participating space actors;(c) 促进国际数据共享,设立一个中立的数据中心,以管理参与其中的空间行动方自愿提供的敏感或自有的认识空间状况的数据;
(d) The effectiveness of the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space can be increased by encouraging their adoption in national space policies and by giving incentives to space actors that comply with the guidelines.(d) 可通过鼓励各国空间政策采纳和平利用外层空间委员会的《空间碎片减缓准则》和给予遵守这些准则的空间行动方奖励来提高准则的效力。
The Group is currently compiling a literature review series in its thematic areas (space debris, space situational awareness, space weather and its effects on spacecraft, and space safety) to aid outreach efforts by providing comprehensive reference documents for people who are new to the field and expects that this will motivate them to take up careers related to the sustainability of space activities.该工作组正在汇编其专题领域(空间碎片、认识空间状况、空间气象及其对航天器的影响、空间安全)内的系列文献综述,以通过为该领域的初来乍到者提供综合参考文件援助外联工作,并期待这会激发他们从事与空间活动可持续性有关的职业。
The Group is running a number of technical projects on topics ranging from debris detection and removal to space situational awareness systems, all powered by the system toolkit of Analytical Graphics Inc. In addition, the Group is researching policy-oriented projects inspired by challenges facing the sustainability of space activities.该工作组正在开展一些技术项目,所涉题目从碎片探测和清除到认识空间状况系统,范围广泛,所有项目都由解析图形有限公司(Analytical Graphics Inc.)的系统工具箱提供技术支持。 此外,该工作组受空间活动可持续性所面临的挑战的激励,正在研究以政策为重点的项目。