GUIDE TO ENACTMENT OF THE UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON SECURED TRANSACTIONS_EC
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GUIDE TO ENACTMENT OF THE UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON SECURED TRANSACTIONS V1707549.pdf (English)GUIDE TO ENACTMENT OF THE UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON SECURED TRANSACTIONS V1707548.pdf (Chinese)
UNCITRAL UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW
UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions
Guide to Enactment
Further information may be obtained from:
UNCITRAL secretariat, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria
Telephone: (+43-1) 26060-4060
Internet: www.uncitral.org
Telefax: (+43-1) 26060-5813
E-mail: uncitral@uncitral.org
UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW联合国国际贸易法委员会
UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions贸易法委员会担保交易示范法
Guide to Enactment颁布指南
UNITED NATIONS Vienna, 2017联合国2017年,维也纳
Note说明
Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of letters combined with figures.联合国文件都用英文字母附加数字编号。
Mention of such symbols indicates a reference to a United Nations document.凡是提到这种编号,就是指联合国的某一个文件。
© United Nations, December 2017.©联合国,2017年12月。
All rights reserved, worldwide.世界范围版权所有。
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.本出版物所用名称及其材料的编制方式并不意味着联合国秘书处对于任何国家、领土、城市或地区或其当局的法律地位或对于其边界或界限的划分表示任何意见。
Publishing production: English, Publishing and Library Section, United Nations Office at Vienna.出版:联合国维也纳办事处英文、出版和图书科。
Contents目录
Preface1序言1
I.Purpose of the Guide to Enactment 3一.《颁布指南》的目的3
II.Purpose of the Model Law 4二.示范法的目的3
III.The Model Law as a tool for modernizing and harmonizing laws 4三.作为法律更新和协调统一工具的示范法4
IV.Main Features of the Model Law 6四.示范法的主要特征5
A.Relationship of the Model Law with the secured transactions texts of UNCITRAL6A.《示范法》与贸易法委员会担保交易案文之间的关系5
B.Key objectives, fundamental policies and implementation of the Model Law7B.《示范法》的关键目标和基本政策5
V.Assistance from the UNCITRAL secretariat8五.贸易法委员会秘书处的协助6
A.Assistance in drafting legislation8A.协助起草法律6
B.Information on the interpretation of legislation based on the Model Law9B.有关对基于《示范法》的法规进行解释的情况7
Article-by-article remarks逐条评述
Chapter I.Scope of application and general provisions11第一章.适用范围和一般规定9
Article 1.Scope of application11第1条.适用范围9
Article 2.Definitions and rules of interpretation15第2条.定义和解释规则11
Article 3.Party autonomy.26第3条.当事人意思自治19
Article 4.General standards of conduct27第4条.一般行为标准20
Article 5.International origin and general principles28第5条.国际渊源和一般原则20
Chapter II.Creation of a security right31第二章.担保权的创设23
A.General rules31A.一般规则23
Article 6.Creation of a security right and requirements for a security agreement31第6条.担保权的创设和担保协议的要求23
Article 7.Obligations that may be secured33第7条.可作担保的债务24
Article 8.Assets that may be encumbered34第8条.可以设保的资产24
Article 9. Description of encumbered assets and secured obligations34第9条.对设保资产和有担保债务的描述25
Article 10.Rights to proceeds and commingled funds35第10条.对收益和混合款项的权利25
Article 11. Tangible assets commingled in a mass or transformed into a product36第11条.混合在混集物中或转换为制成物的有形资产26
Article 12.Extinguishment of security rights37第12条.担保权的消灭27
B.Asset-specific rules 38B.资产特定规则27
Article 13 Contractual limitations on the creation of security rights in receivables 38第13条.对创设应收款担保权的合同限制27
Article 14. Personal or property rights securing or supporting payment or other performance of encumbered receivables or other intangible assets, or negotiable instruments 40第14条.给支付或以其他方式履行设保应收款或其他无形资产或可转让票据作保或提供支持的对人权或对财产权28
Article 15. Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account 41第15条.银行账户贷记款受付权28
Article 16. Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents 41第16条.可转让单证和由可转让单证涵盖的有形资产28
Article 17. Tangible assets with respect to which intellectual property is used第17条.有关使用知识产权的有形资产
4229
Chapter III.Effectiveness of a security right against third parties第三章.担保权对抗第三方的效力
4331
A.General rulesA.一般规则
4331
Article 18.Primary methods for achieving third-party effectiveness第18条.实现第三方效力的主要方法
4331
Article 19.Proceeds第19条.收益
4331
Article 20. Tangible assets commingled in a mass or transformed into a product第20条.混合于混集物或转换为制成物的有形资产
4432
Article 21. Changes in the method for achieving third-party effectiveness第21条.实现第三方效力方法的变更
4532
Article 22.Lapses in third-party effectiveness第22条.第三方效力的失效
4532
Article 23. Continuity in third-party effectiveness upon a change of the applicable law to this Law第23条.本法律的适用法律发生变更时第三方效力的延续
4532
Article 24.Acquisition security rights in consumer goods第24条.消费品上的购置款担保权
4633
B.Asset-specific rulesB.资产特定规则
4633
Article 25. Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account第25条.银行账户贷记款受付权
4633
Article 26. Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents第26条.可转让单证和由可转让单证涵盖的有形资产
4733
Article 27.Uncertificated non-intermediated securities第27条.无凭证非中介证券
4834
Additional considerations for States parties to the Geneva Uniform Law and the Bills and Notes Convention《日内瓦统一法》及《汇票和本票公约》缔约国的其他考虑
4834
Chapter IV.The registry system第四章.登记处系统
4935
Article 28.Establishment of the Registry第28条.登记处的设立
4935
Model Registry Provisions登记处示范条文
5136
Section A.General rulesA节.一般规则
5136
Article 1.Definitions and rules of interpretation第1条.定义和解释规则
5136
Article 2.Grantor's authorization for registration第2条.设保人对登记的授权
5136
Article 3.One notice sufficient for multiple security rights第3条.足以涵盖多项担保权的一份通知
5337
Article 4.Advance registration第4条.预先登记
5337
Section B.Access to registry servicesB节.访问登记处的服务
5438
Article 5.Conditions for access to registry services第5条.访问登记处服务的条件
5438
Article 6. Rejection of the registration of a notice or a search request第6条.拒绝对通知或查询请求办理登记
5539
Article 7. Information about the registrant's identity and scrutiny of the form or contents of a notice by the Registry第7条.关于登记人身份的信息及登记处对通知格式和内容的认真检查
5639
Section C. Registration of a noticeC节.对通知的登记
5740
Article 8.Information required in an initial notice第8条.初始通知所需信息
5740
Article 9.Grantor identifier第9条.设保人的身份标识
5840
Article 10.Secured creditor identifier第10条.有担保债权人的身份标识
5941
Article 11.Description of encumbered assets第11条.对设保资产的描述
6042
Article 12.Language of information in a notice第12条.通知中信息的语文
6143
Article 13. Time of effectiveness of the registration of a notice第13条.对通知的登记的生效时间
6243
Article 14. Period of effectiveness of the registration of a notice第14条.对通知的登记的有效期
6344
Article 15. Obligation to send a copy of a registered notice第15条.发送已登记通知副本的义务
6444
Section D. Registration of an amendment or cancellation noticeD节.对修订通知或取消通知的登记
6545
Article 16. Right to register an amendment or cancellation notice第16条.对修订通知或取消通知办理登记的权利
6545
Article 17.Information required in an amendment notice第17条.修订通知所需信息
6645
Article 18. Global amendment of secured creditor information第18条.对有担保债权人信息的全面修订
6746
Article 19. Information required in a cancellation notice第19条.取消通知所需信息
6746
Article 20. Compulsory registration of an amendment or cancellation notice第20条.对修订通知或取消通知的强制性登记
6846
Article 21. Effectiveness of the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice not authorized by the secured creditor第21条.对未获有担保债权人授权的修订通知或取消通知办理登记的效力
7048
Section E. SearchesE节.查询
7249
Article 22. Search criteria第22条.查询标准
7249
Article 23.Search results第23条.查询结果
7350
Section F.Errors and post-registration changesF节.差错和登记后更改
7451
Article 24.Registrant errors in required information第24条.登记人在所需信息上的差错
7451
Article 25.Post-registration change of grantor identifier第25条.对设保人身份标识的登记后更改
7652
Article 26. Post-registration transfer of an encumbered asset第26条.设保资产的登记后转让
7753
Section G.Organization of the Registry and the registry recordG节.对登记处和登记处记录的安排
7954
Article 27.The registrar第27条.登记官
7954
Article 28. Organization of information in the registry record第28条.登记处记录中信息的编排
8054
Article 29.Integrity of information in the registry record第29条.登记处记录中信息的完整性
8155
Article 30. Removal of information from the public registry record and archival第30条.删除公共登记处记录中信息并加以存档
8155
Article 31.Correction of errors made by the Registry第31条.由登记处更正差错
8256
Article 32.Limitation of liability of the Registry第32条.对登记处赔偿责任的限制
8356
Article 33.Registry fees第33条.登记处的收费
8457
Chapter V.Priority of a security right第五章.担保权的优先权
8759
A.General rulesA.一般规则
8759
Article 29.Competing security rights created by the same grantor第29条.由同一设保人创设的相竞担保权
8759
Article 30. Competing security rights created by different grantors第30条.由不同设保人创设的相竞担保权
9061
Article 31. Competing security rights in the case of a change in the method of third-party effectiveness第31条.实现第三方效力的方法发生变更情况下的相竞担保权
9061
Article 32.Competing security rights in proceeds第32条.收益上的相竞担保权
9161
Article 33. Competing security rights in tangible assets commingled in a mass or transformed into a product第33条.混合在混集物中或转变为制成物的有形资产上的相竞担保权
9262
Article 34. Security rights competing with rights of buyers or other transferees, lessees or licensees of an encumbered asset第34条.与设保资产买受人或其他受让人、承租人或被许可人的权利相竞的担保权
9363
Article 35. Impact of the grantor's insolvency on the priority of a security right第35条.设保人破产对担保权优先权的影响
9464
Article 36. Security rights competing with preferential claims第36条.与优先求偿权相竞的担保权
9564
Article 37. Security rights competing with rights of judgment creditors第37条.与胜诉债权人权利相竞的担保权
9665
Article 38. Acquisition security rights competing with non-acquisition security rights第38条.与非购置款担保权相竞的购置款担保权
9765
Article 39.Competing acquisition security rights第39条.相竞购置款担保权
10068
Article 40. Acquisition security rights competing with the rights of judgment creditors第40条.与胜诉债权人权利相竞的购置款担保权
10168
Article 41. Competing security rights in proceeds of an asset subject to an acquisition security right第41条.设定购置款担保权的资产上收益的相竞保权
10269
Article 42.Acquisition security rights extending to a mass or product competing with non-acquisition security rights in the mass or product第42条.延伸至与混集物或制成物非购置款担保权相竞的混集物或制成物的购置款担保权
10470
Article 43.Subordination第43条.排序居次
10470
Article 44.Future advances and future encumbered assets第44条.未来预付款和未来设保资产
10571
Article 45. Irrelevance of knowledge of the existence of a security right第45条.对担保权有否的知悉的无关联性
10571
B. Asset-specific rulesB.资产特定规则
10671
Article 46. Negotiable instruments第46条.可转让票据
10671
Article 47. Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account第47条.银行账户贷记款受付权
10772
Article 48.Money第48条.货币
10873
Article 49. Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents第49条.可转让单证及其涵盖的有形资产
10973
Article 50.Intellectual property第50条.知识产权
10974
Article 51.Non-intermediated securities第51条.非中介证券
11074
Chapter VI.Rights and obligations of the parties and third-party obligors...第六章.当事人及第三方承付人的权利和义务
11377
Section I.Mutual rights and obligations of the parties to a security agreement第一节.担保协议当事人的相互权利和义务
11377
A.General rulesA.一般规则
11377
Article 52.Sources of mutual rights and obligations of the parties第52条.当事人相互权利和义务的来源
11377
Article 53. Obligation of the party in possession to exercise reasonable care第53条.占有权人行使合理谨慎的义务
11477
Article 54. Obligation of the secured creditor to return an encumbered asset第54条.有担保债权人返还设保资产的义务.
11478
Article 55.Right of the secured creditor to use and inspect an encumbered asset, and to be reimbursed for expenses第55条.有担保债权人使用和检查设保资产及获得费用补偿的权利.
11578
Article 56.Right of the grantor to obtain information第56条.设保人获得信息的权利.
11678
B.Asset-specific rulesB.资产特定规则.
11779
Article 57. Representations of the grantor of a security right in a receivable第57条.设保人关于应收款担保权的说明.
11779
Article 58. Right of the grantor or the secured creditor to notify the debtor of the receivable第58条.设保人或有担保债权人通知应收款债务人的权利
11779
Article 59. Right of the secured creditor to payment of a receivable第59条.有担保债权人支付应收款的权利.
11880
Article 60. Right of the secured creditor to preserve encumbered intellectual property第60条.有担保债权人保全所设保的知识产权的权利
11980
Section II.Rights and obligations of third-party obligors第二节.第三方承付人的权利和义务.
11981
A.ReceivablesA.应收款
11981
Article 61.Protection of the debtor of the receivable第61条.保护应收款债务人.
11981
Article 62.Notification of a security right in a receivable第62条.应收款担保权通知
12081
Article 63.Discharge of the debtor of the receivable by payment..第63条.通过付款解除应收款债务人的义务
12182
Article 64. Defences and rights of set-off of the debtor of the receivable第64条.应收款债务人的抗辩和抵销权.
12383
Article 65. Agreement not to raise defences or rights of set-off第65条.不提出抗辩或抵销权的协议
12483
Article 66. Modification of the contract giving rise to a receivable第66条.对产生应收款的合同的修改
12484
Article 67.Recovery of payments第67条.付款的追回
12584
B.Negotiable instrumentsB.可转让票据
12584
Article 68. Rights as against the obligor under a negotiable instrument第68条.在可转让票据下对抗承付人的权利.
12584
C.Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank accountC.银行账户贷记款受付权
12685
Article 69.Rights as against the deposit-taking institution第69条.对抗接收存款机构的权利
12685
D.Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documentsD.可转让单证和由可转让单证涵盖的有形资产.
12785
Article 70. Rights as against the issuer of a negotiable document第70条.对抗可转让单证签发人的权利
12785
E.Non-intermediated securitiesE.非中介证券.
12785
Article 71. Rights as against the issuer of a non-intermediated security第71条.对抗非中介证劵发行人的权利
12785
Chapter VII.Enforcement of a security right第七章.担保权的强制执行
12987
A.General rulesA.一般规则
12987
Article 72. Post-default rights第72条.违约后权利.
12987
Article 73.Methods of exercising post-default rights第73条.行使违约后权利的方法
13087
Article 74.Relief for non-compliance第74条.有关不履约的救济
13188
Article 75. Right of affected persons to terminate enforcement第75条.受影响的人终止强制执行的权利
13289
Article 76. Right of a higher-ranking secured creditor to take over enforcement第76条.排序较高的有担保债权人接管强制执行过程的权利
13389
Article 77. Right of the secured creditor to obtain possession of an encumbered asset第77条.有担保债权人取得设保资产占有权的权利.
13490
Article 78. Right of the secured creditor to dispose of an encumbered asset第78条.有担保债权人处分设保资产的权利
13691
Article 79. Distribution of the proceeds of a disposition of an encumbered asset and debtor's liability for any deficiency第79条.设保资产处分收益的分配以及债务人对任何缺额的偿付责任
13792
Article 80. Right to propose the acquisition of an encumbered asset by the secured creditor第80条.有担保债权人提议获取设保资产的权利
13893
Article 81.Rights acquired in an encumbered asset第81条.在设保资产上获取的权利
13993
B.Asset-specific rulesB.资产特定规则
14094
Article 82. Collection of payment第82条.收取付款.
14094
Article 83. Collection of payment by an outright transferee of a receivable第83条.应收款彻底受让人收取付款
14195
Chapter VIII.Conflict of laws第八章.法律冲突
14397
Introduction导言
14397
A.General rulesA.一般规则
14497
Article 84. Mutual rights and obligations of the grantor and the secured creditor第84条.设保人和有担保债权人的相互权利和义务
14497
Article 85.Security rights in tangible assets第85条.有形资产担保权
14598
Article 86.Security rights in intangible assets第86条.无形资产担保权
14699
Article 87. Security rights in receivables relating to immovable property第87条.不动产相关应收款担保权
14799
Article 88.Enforcement of security rights第88条.对担保权的强制执行.
14799
Article 89.Security rights in proceeds第89条.收益担保权.
148100
Article 90.Meaning of "location" of the grantor第90条.设保人“所在地”的含义
149100
Article 91.Relevant time for determining location第91条.确定所在地的相关时间.
149101
Article 92.Exclusion of renvoi第92条.排除反致
151101
Article 93. Overriding mandatory rules and public policy (ordre public)第93条.压倒一切的强制性规则和公共政策(公共秩序)
151102
Article 94. Impact of commencement of insolvency proceedings on the law applicable to a security right第94条.启动破产程序对担保权适用法律的影响
152102
Article 95.Multi-unit States第95条.多领土单位国家
153103
B.Asset-specific rulesB.资产特定规则
154103
Article 96. Rights and obligations between third-party obligors and secured creditors第96条.第三方承付人与有担保债权人之间的权利和义务
154103
Article 97. Security rights in rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account第97条.银行账户贷记款受付权的担保权
154104
Article 98. Third-party effectiveness of a security right in certain types of asset by registration第98条.以登记方式实现某些类别资产担保权的第三方效力
156105
Article 99.Security rights in intellectual property第99条.知识产权担保权
157105
Article 100.Security rights in non-intermediated securities第100条.非中介证券担保权
158106
Chapter IX.Transition第九章.过渡
161109
Introduction导言
161109
Article 101.Amendment and repeal of other laws第101条.修正和撤销其他法律
161109
Article 102.General applicability of this Law第102条.本法律的普遍可适用性
162109
Article 103. Applicability of prior law to matters that are the subject of proceedings commenced before the entry into force of this Law第103条.先前法律对在本法律生效之前启动的诉讼事由可适用性
163110
Article 104. Applicability of prior law to the creation of a prior security right第104条.先前法律对先前担保权创设的可适用性
164111
Article 105 . Transitional rules for determining the third-party effectiveness of a prior security right第105条.确定先前担保权第三方效力的过渡规则
165111
Article 106. Application of prior law to the priority of a prior security right as against the rights of competing claimants arising under prior law第106条.先前法律对先前担保权所享有的相对于在先前法律下产生的相竞求偿人权利优先权的适用
166112
Article 107. Entry into force of this Law第107条.本法律的生效
169112
Annexes附件
I.UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions: Decision of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law and General Assembly resolution 71/136一.贸易法委员会担保交易示范法:联合国国际贸易法委员会的决定和大会第71/16号决议.
169115
A.Decision of the CommissionA.贸法会的决定
169115
B.General Assembly resolution 71/136B.大会第71/136号决议
172116
II.Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions: Decision of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law二.《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》颁布指南:联合国国际贸易法委员会的决定....
175119
Preface序言
At its forty-ninth session, in 2016, the Commission considered and adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions (the decision of the Commission and the relevant General Assembly resolution are contained in annex I).贸法会2016年第四十九届会议审议并通过了《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法颁布指南》(贸法会的决定和联大相关决议载于附件一)。
At that session, having before it a first draft of a guide to enactment of the Model Law (the "Guide to Enactment"), the Commission noted that the Guide to Enactment would be an extremely important text for the implementation and interpretation of the Model Law, and gave Working Group VI (Security Interests) up to two sessions to complete its work and submit the Guide to Enactment to the Commission for final consideration and adoption at its fiftieth session, in 2017.在审议示范法颁布指南(《颁布指南》)草案第一稿时,贸法会该届会议注意到,《颁布指南》是执行和解释《示范法》的一项极为重要的案文,并且给第六工作组(担保权益)拨出至多两届会议来完成其工作,并将《颁布指南》提交贸法会2017年第五十届会议最后审议并通过。
At its thirtieth and thirty-first sessions in December 2016 and February 2017, Working Group VI discussed and approved the substance of the draft Guide to Enactment.第六工作组2016年12月第三十届会议和2017年2月第三十一届会议讨论并核准了颁布指南草案的实质内容。
At its fiftieth session, in 2017, the Commission considered and adopted the Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions (the decision of the Commission is contained in annex II).贸法会2017年第五十届会议审议并通过了《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法颁布指南》(贸法会的决定载于附件二)。
I.一.
PURPOSE OF THE GUIDE TO ENACTMENT《颁布指南》的目的
1.The Guide to Enactment is intended to explain briefly the thrust of each provision of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions (the "Model Law")and its relationship with the corresponding recommendation(s) of the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions (the "Secured Transactions Guide") and other UNCITRAL texts on secured transactions, including the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade (the "Assignment Convention"), the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions: Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property (the "Intellectual Property Supplement"), and the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry (the "Registry Guide").1.《颁布指南》意在简要解释《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》(《示范法》)各项条文的要旨及其与《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》(《担保交易指南》)相应一项(多项)建议和包括《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》(《转让公约》)、《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南:知识产权担保权补编》(《知识产权补编》)和《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》(《登记处指南》)等贸易法委员会有关担保交易的其他案文之间的关系。
2.Together these texts provide comprehensive guidance to States with respect to legal and practical issues that need to be addressed in a modern secured transaction regime.2.这些案文就现代担保交易机制所需要处理的法律和实际问题向各国共同提供全面指导。
To avoid unnecessary repetition, the Guide to Enactment incorporates by reference the relevant recommendations and commentary contained in the Secured Transactions Guide, the Intellectual Property Supplement and the Registry Guide.为避免不必要的重复,《颁布指南》以参照方式纳入了《担保交易指南》、《知识产权补编》和《登记处指南》所载相关建议和评述意见。
3.A number of the provisions of the Model Law indicate that a State enacting the Model Law (the "enacting State") is required to make a decision or choose among several options.3.《示范法》的若干条文指出,《示范法》颁布国(“颁布国”)需要就若干选项作出决定或从中选择某一选项。
The Guide to Enactment is also intended to explain the import of these decisions or choices and thus assist enacting States in making those decisions or choices.《颁布指南》还意在解释这些决定或选择的意蕴并从而协助颁布国作出决定或选择。
4.The Guide to Enactment is primarily directed to executive and legislative branches of Governments considering reform of their secured transactions laws.4.《颁布指南》主要着眼于考虑对其担保交易法律进行改革的政府行政部门和立法部门。
However, it may also provide useful insight to other users of the text, such as judges, arbitrators, practitioners and academics.但它也可给法官、仲裁员、从业人员和学术人员等案文其他使用方提供有益见解。
It has been prepared by the Secretariat at the request of the Commission, and is based on the deliberations and decisions of the Commission and Working Group VI.它是由秘书处应贸法会的请求编拟的,并基于贸法会和第六工作组的审议和决定。
II.二.
PURPOSE OF THE MODEL LAW示范法的目的
5.The purpose of the Model Law is to assist States in developing a modern secured transactions law dealing with security rights in movable assets.5.《示范法》的目的是协助各国拟订处理动产担保权的现代担保交易法律。
The Model Law is designed to increase the availability of credit at more affordable rates by providing an effective and efficient secured transactions law (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 1 (a)).《示范法》旨在提供一部卓有成效的担保交易法,从而以更可承受的费率增加提供信贷(见《担保交易指南》建议1(a))。
The Model Law is based on the assumption that, to the extent that a secured creditor is entitled to rely on the value of the encumbered asset for the payment of the secured obligation, the risk of non-payment is reduced and this is likely to have a beneficial impact on the availability and the cost of credit.《示范法》所基于的假设是,如果有担保债权人有权依赖设保资产的价值来偿付有担保债务,则能降低不予偿付的风险,这就有可能对信贷的供应和成本产生有益的影响。
The Model Law is intended to be useful both to States that currently do not have efficient and effective secured transactions laws and to States that already have such laws but wish to modernize them, and harmonize them with the laws of other States that have modern secured transactions laws that are generally consistent with the Model Law (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, para. 1).《示范法》意在对这样两类国家均有助益,即目前尚没有卓有成效的担保交易法的国家和虽然已经有这类法律但仍然期望对其加以更新并且使这类法律与已有同《示范法》大体一致的其他国家的法律相协调国家(见《担保交易指南》导言第1段)。
The Model Law has been designed for implementation in States with different legal traditions.《示范法》是为在法律传统各不相同的国家加以落实而设计的。
III.三.
THE MODEL LAW AS A TOOL FOR MODERNIZING AND HARMONIZING LAWS作为法律更新和协调统一工具的示范法
6.6.
In general, States that incorporate the Model Law into their national law are advised to adhere as much as possible to its uniform text.一般而言,建议把《示范法》纳入本国法律的国家尽可能遵行其统一案文。
This can help the enacting State to obtain the full economic benefit of the legal system envisioned by the Model Law, to avoid unintended consequences that may follow when a change in one provision has unforeseen effects elsewhere in the law, and to gain the benefits flowing from the harmonization of its secured transactions law with that the laws of other States.这可帮助颁布国得到《示范法》所设想的法律体系的所有经济益处,避免因一项条文的变动对法律其他条文造成无法预见的影响从而可能产生始料不及的后果,并使颁布国得以获得将其担保交易法与其他国家法律协调统一而产生的益处。
This does not deprive enacting States of any necessary flexibility as the Model Law provides options and leaves a number of matters to the enacting State.这不会让颁布国丧失任何必要的灵活性,因为《示范法》提供了各种选项,并将若干事项留待颁布国处理。
7.7.
Examples of flexibility in the Model Law include the following:《示范法》中有关灵活性的实例包括如下实例:
(a) certain terms used in the Model Law may need to be adjusted to ensure that they are meaningful in the context of local law (e.g. "authorized deposit-taking institution", "movable property", "immovable property" and "securities"; see art. 2, subparas. (c), (u) and (hh), and paras. 39, 53 and 65 below);(a)可能需要调整《示范法》所用某些用语以确保这些用语在当地法律的背景下仍是有意义的(例如“受权接受存款机关”、“动产”、“不动产”、和“证券”);见第2条(c)、(u)和(hh)项及下文第39、53和65段);
(b) several provisions of the Model Law refer within square brackets to issues that are left to the enacting State (e.g. art. 1, para. 3 (e), and para. 28 below);(b)置于方括号内的《示范法》的一些条文提及留待颁布国处理的一些问题(例如第1条第3款(e)项及下文第28段);
(c) other provisions of the Model Law include options from which the enacting State may choose (e.g. art. 6, para. 3, and para. 88 below);(c)《示范法》的其他条文列入了颁布国可从中选择的各种选项(例如第6条第3款和下文第88段);
(d) the Model Law leaves it to the enacting State to decide how to clarify in its enactment of the Model Law that the general rules are subject to the asset-specific rules (see footnote 4 of the Model Law);(d)《示范法》交由颁布国决定在其对《示范法》的颁布中如何澄清一般规则受制于资产特定规则(见《示范法》脚注4);
(e) the Model Law leaves it to the enacting State to decide whether to implement the Model Registry Provisions in its enactment of the Model Law, in a separate law or in another type of legal instrument (see footnote 8 of the Model Law);(e)《示范法》交由颁布国决定究竟是在其对《示范法》的颁布中或在一项单独的法规中还是在另一类法律文书中执行《登记处示范条文》(见《示范法》脚注8);
and (f) the Model Law leaves it to the enacting State to decide whether to incorporate the conflict-of-laws provisions of the Model Law in its enactment of the Model Law or in a separate law addressing conflict-of-laws issues generally (see footnote 36 of the Model Law).及(f)《示范法》交由颁布国决定究竟是把对《示范法》法律冲突条文的规定纳入其对《示范法》的颁布中还是将其纳入笼统处理法律冲突问题的一项单独法律(见《示范法》脚注36)。
8.8.
The enacting State may need to make some changes to the Model Law in order to adapt it to its national legal system (for the harmonization of the enactment of the Model Law with other laws of the enacting State, see para. 9 below).颁布国可能需要对《示范法》作出某些修改以便使其适应本国法律体系(关于《示范法》的颁布与颁布国其他法律之间的协调统一,见下文第9段)。
Any modification, however, should not depart from the fundamental provisions of the Model Law, such as those implementing the functional, integrated and comprehensive approach to secured transactions (e.g. art. 1, para. 1, and art. 2, subpara. (kk), and paras. 23 and 68 below), the protection of the grantor and the debtor of the receivable (e.g. art. 1, paras. 5 and 6), the right of the parties to structure their security agreement as they wish to meet their needs (e.g. art. 3, and paras. 72-75 below), the notice registration system (e.g. art. 18, and para. 118 below), the priority between a security right and the right of a competing claimant (e.g. art. 29, and paras. 285-294 below) and the right to enforce a security right without application to a court or other authority while protecting the rights of the grantor and other parties with rights in the encumbered asset (e.g. art. 77, para. 3, and art. 78, para. 3, and paras. 443 and 447 below).然而,任何修改都不应偏离《示范法》的基本条文,例如落实对担保交易的注重功能的综合全面做法(例如第1条第1款和第2条(kk)项及下文第23段和第68段)、保护设保人和应收款债务人(例如第1条第5款和第6款)、当事人为满足其需求而如愿安排其担保协议的权利(例如第3条和下文第72-75段)、通知登记系统(例如第18条和下文第118段)、担保权和相竞求偿人权利之间的优先权(例如第29条和下文第285-294段)和在不向法院或其他主管机关提出申请的情况下强制执行担保权的权利,并同时保护设保人和对设保资产享有权利的其他当事人的权利(例如第77条第3款和第78条第3款及下文第443段和第447段)。
Otherwise, the enacting State will not be able to obtain the full economic benefits to be derived from the Model Law or achieve the harmonization of its law with the law of other States that enact the Model Law.颁布国不然则无法获得从《示范法》中所能得到的所有经济惠益,也无法实现其法律同将颁布《示范法》的其他国家法律之间的协调统一。
9.9.
In enacting the Model Law, States will also need to consider whether complementary amendments to other related laws (e.g. contract, property, insolvency, civil procedure and electronic commerce law) are required to ensure the overall coherence of its national law (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, paras. 80-83).在颁布《示范法》时,各国还需要考虑是否需要对其他相关法律(例如合同、财产、破产、民事诉讼程序和电子商务法)作出补充性修订,以确保其国内法律的总体一致性(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第80-83段)。
For example, it is extremely important that the insolvency law of the enacting State recognizes the effectiveness of a security right, its priority and its enforceability in the case of the grantor's insolvency (for the treatment of security rights in insolvency, see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. XII).举例说,颁布国的破产法承认在设保人破产情况下担保权的效力及其优先权和可强制执行性极为重要(关于在破产情况下如何对待担保权问题,见《担保交易指南》,第十二章)。
In addition, enacting States will need to consider: (a) harmonization with their existing legal framework, concepts and drafting technique (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, paras. 73-83); and (b) transition issues, including the preparation of an official commentary, model notice forms and agreements, the organization of educational programmes for users of the new law and the introduction of a case law reporting system if one is not already in place (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, paras. 84-89).此外,颁布国需要考虑:(a)与现行法律框架、概念和起草手段保持协调统一(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第73-83段);及(b)过渡性问题,包括编拟一份官方评述意见、示范通知表格和协议,给新增法律的用户组织举办教育培训方案,并且如果还没有案例法报告系统的话则引入该系统(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第84-89段)。
10.10.
Unlike an international convention, model laws do not require enacting States to notify the United Nations or other enacting States of their enactment.不同于国际公约,示范立法不要求颁布国将其颁布事宜通知联合国或通知其他颁布国。
However, States are strongly encouraged to inform the UNCITRAL secretariat of their enactment of the Model Law (or indeed any other model law resulting from the work of UNCITRAL).然而,仍然强烈鼓励各国将其对《示范法》的颁布(或实际上由贸易法委员会工作所产生的任何其他示范法)通知贸易法委员会秘书处。
This information will be made available on the UNCITRAL website to publicize the fact that the enacting State has adopted an international standard and will assist other States in their consideration of the Model Law.可以在贸易法委员会网站上提供该信息,以便让世人知晓,颁布国已经采纳一项国际标准,并且将帮助其他国家审议《示范法》。
IV.四.
MAIN FEATURES OF THE MODEL LAW示范法的主要特征
A.A.
RELATIONSHIP OF THE MODEL LAW WITH THE SECURED TRANSACTIONS TEXTS OF UNCITRAL《示范法》与贸易法委员会担保交易案文之间的关系
11.11.
The Secured Transactions Guide, the Intellectual Property Supplement and the Registry Guide contain detailed commentary and recommendations on the issues that need to be addressed in a modern secured transactions law.《担保交易指南》、《担保交易指南知识产权补编》和《登记处指南》载有关于担保交易示范法需要述及的问题的详细评述意见和建议。
However, they are lengthy texts and States will need assistance in transforming their recommendations into concrete legislative language.然而,它们是篇幅很长的案文,各国需要得到协助以便将其建议转化为具体的立法语言。
The Model Law responds to this need.《示范法》对该需求作出了回应。
By providing concrete legislative language, the Model Law also provides a higher level of uniformity than a guide does.由于使用了具体的法律语言,《示范法》的统一性也高于指南。
12.12.
The Model Law reflects the policies embodied in the recommendations of the Secured Transactions Guide, the Intellectual Property Supplement and the Registry Guide.《示范法》反映了《担保交易指南》、《知识产权补编》和《登记处指南》的建议所体现的政策。
Differences in formulation between those recommendations and corresponding provisions of the Model Law are generally due to the legislative nature of the Model Law and are briefly explained in the relevant parts below.这些建议与《示范法》相应条文之间在行文上的区别一般是由于《示范法》的立法性质所致,并且在下文相关部分中作了简要解释。
13.13.
For reasons explained, the Model Law also addresses, in a manner that is consistent with the goals and the policies of the Secured Transactions Guide and the other texts of UNCITRAL on secured transactions, matters that were not addressed in a recommendation, or even discussed in those texts (e.g. security rights in non-intermediated securities).出于已经解释的理由,《示范法》还以同《担保交易指南》和贸易法委员会有关担保交易的其他案文的目标和政策相一致的方式处理在建议中未曾述及或甚至在这些案文从来未曾讨论的事项(例如非中介证券担保权)。
Conversely, certain matters that were addressed in the Secured Transactions Guide are excluded from the scope of the Model Law (e.g. security rights in the right to receive the proceeds under an independent undertaking) or are not addressed specifically (e.g. security rights in attachments to encumbered movable assets or immovable property).《担保交易指南》已经述及的某些事项(例如独立保证下收益收取权上的担保权)相反将被排除在《示范法》的范围之外或将不予专门述及(例如设保动产或不动产上附加物的担保权)。
14.14.
The provisions of the Model Law on security rights in receivables are substantially based on the recommendations of the Secured Transactions Guide, which in turn are based on the Assignment Convention.《示范法》有关应收款担保权的条文大体基于《担保交易指南》的建议,而这些建议又基于《转让公约》。
A State that ratifies or accedes to the Convention, but does not yet have an efficient and modern secured transactions law, will need to enact the Model Law as well, because:批准或加入了《公约》但尚未有一个有效并现代的担保交易法的国家也需要颁布《示范法》,其原因是:
(a) the Convention applies only to security rights in and outright transfers of receivables; (b) subject to limited exceptions, the Convention applies only to the assignment of international receivables and the international assignment of receivables (see art. 1, para. 1);(a)《公约》仅适用于担保权和应收款彻底转让;(b)在不违反数目有限的除外情况下,《公约》仅适用于国际应收款的转让和应收款的国际转让(见第1条第1款);
(c) the Convention does not provide substantive rules on. third-party effectiveness and priority but instead refers these matters to the applicable domestic law, that is, the law of the assignor's location (see art. 22);(c)《公约》未提供有关第三方效力和优先权的实质性规则,而是将这些事项交由可适用的国内法即转让人所在地法处理(见第22条);
and (d) the Convention does not address and leaves other substantive law issues to the applicable domestic law (e.g. the form of the assignment).及(d)《公约》未述及其他实质性法律问题(例如转让形式)而是将其留给可适用的国内法处理。
15.15.
Conversely, a State enacting the Model Law would be well advised to ratify or accede to the Assignment Convention as well, in order to promote effective international receivables financing, in particular as a convention provides a higher level of uniformity and transparency than a model law.相反,《示范法》颁布国最好还是批准或加入《转让公约》以促进有效的国际应收款融资,特别是因为公约的统一性和透明度均高于示范法。
States that are parties to a convention have the same law, except to the extent the convention allows reservations, while States enacting a model law have compatible but not exactly the same laws.加入《公约》的国家除非《公约》允许保留不然则订有相同的法律,而颁布《示范法》的国家订有可兼容但并非完全相同的法律。
This higher level of uniformity provided by the Assignment Convention has significant benefits.《转让公约》所提供的更高程度的统一性具有重大惠益。
For example, if the States where the assignor, the assignee the debtors of the receivables are located ratify or accede to the Assignment Convention, lenders will be more willing to extend receivables financing to exporters and at more affordable cost, because they will understand the legal rules that apply to the receivables owed to the exporters and thus will be more confident that they will be able to collect them.举例说,如果转让人和被转让人及应收款债务人所在的国家批准或加入了《转让公约》,放贷人就会更加愿意以比较容易承受的费用向出口商提供应收款融资,因为他们理解适用于出口商所欠应收款的法律规则,并且对其收取应收款的能力更有信心。
B.B.
KEY OBJECTIVES, FUNDAMENTAL POLICIES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MODEL LAW《示范法》的关键目标和基本政策
16.As already mentioned (see para. 5 above), the key objectives of the Model Law are the same as those of the Secured Transactions Guide (see Secured Transactions Guide rec. 1 and Introduction, paras. 43-59).16.如同已经提到的(见上文第5段),《示范法》的关键目标与《担保交易指南》相同(见《担保交易指南》建议1和导言,第43-59段)。
For example, the primary objective of the Model Law is to promote low-cost credit by enhancing the availability of secured credit (see Secured Transactions Guide rec. 1 (a) and Introduction, para. 49).举例说,《示范法》的主要目标是通过增加有担保信贷的供应而促进低成本信贷(见《担保交易指南》建议1(a)和导言,第49段)。
17.17.
The fundamental policies of the Model Law are also the same as those of the Secured Transactions Guide (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, paras. 60-72).《示范法》的基本政策也与《担保交易指南》相同(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第60-72段)。
One of these fundamental policies is a functional, integrated and comprehensive approach to secured transactions, under which any right created by agreement in any type of movable asset to secure the payment or other performance of an obligation is treated as a security right for the purposes of the application of the Model Law, regardless of the terms used by the parties to describe their agreement (e.g. pledge, charge, transfer of title for security purposes, retention-oftitle sale or financial lease; see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, para. 62, chap. I, paras. 110-112, and chap. IX, paras. 60-84).这些基本政策之一是在担保交易方面的实用、统一和综合做法,根据该做法,协议创设的为偿付或以其它方式履行债务作保的任何类型动产上的任何权利,就对《示范法》的适用而言,都将被作为担保权对待,而不论当事人为描述其协议所使用的措辞如何(例如抵押、质押、为了担保目的的产权转让、保留产权的出售或金融租赁;见《担保交易指南》,导言,第62段,第一章,第110-112段和第九章,第60-84段)。
18.18.
The enacting State may also wish to consider implementation issues, such as harmonization with existing law, issues of legislative method and drafting technique and issues relating to post-enactment acculturation (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, paras. 73-89).颁布国还不妨考虑落实问题,例如与现行法律的协调统一、立法方法和起草手段以及与颁布后的文化适应有关的问题(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第73-89段)。
For example, depending on its drafting method and technique, the enacting State may wish to consider: (a) including the key objectives of the Model Law in a preamble or other similar statement accompanying its enactment of the Model Law.举例说,取决于其起草方法和手段,颁布国不妨考虑:(a)将《示范法》关键目标列入序言及其在颁布《示范法》时所附带作出的其他类似说明。
That statement could be used in filling gaps in the Model Law (see Secured Transactions Guide Introduction, para.80, and para.该说明可用于填补在《示范法》上的空白(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第80段和下文第80段)。
80 below), and (b) producing an official commentary or guide to its enactment of the Model Law for use by courts and legal practitioners in interpreting and applying the law (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, para.86).及(b)拟订一份官方评述意见或对《示范法》的颁布指南,以供法院和法律从业人员用于解释并适用法律(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第86段)。
Such an official commentary is likely to be particularly helpful if the Model Law introduces significant changes to the enacting State's previous secured transactions laws.如果《示范法》对颁布国先前担保交易法律引入了重大修改,则这类官方说明可能特别有帮助。
Such a guide could explain the intent of the new law's provisions, in particular if they deviate significantly from the previous law, and, where necessary, provide concrete examples.这类指南可解释新的法律条文的意图,尤其是如果这些条文严重偏离先前法律,并且可在必要时提供具体的范例。
Even more importantly, such an official commentary or guide could explain the fundamental principles that underlie the Model Law, such as the functional, integrated and comprehensive approach to secured transactions (see para. 17 above).甚至更为重要的是,这类官方评述意见或指南可对《示范法》所依据的基本原则作出解释,例如有关担保交易的实用、统一和综合做法(见上文第17段)。
As the Guide to Enactment discusses all these and other relevant issues (either directly or by reference to the Secured Transactions Guide), the enacting State's commentary or guide could draw on or refer to the Guide to Enactment and the Secured Transactions Guide to allow its courts to obtain interpretative guidance from the international source from which its law was derived.由于《颁布指南》讨论了所有这些问题及其他相关问题(直接讨论或参照《担保交易指南》进行讨论,颁布国的评述意见或指南可借鉴《颁布指南》和《担保交易指南》,以便使其法院从作为其法律渊源的国际来源那里得到解释性指导。
V.五.
ASSISTANCE FROM THE UNCITRAL SECRETARIAT贸易法委员会秘书处的协助
A.A.
ASSISTANCE IN DRAFTING LEGISLATION协助起草法律
19.19.
In the context of its technical assistance activities, the UNCITRAL secretariat is prepared to assist States with the preparation of legislation based on the Model Law.在有关其技术协助活动方面,贸易法委员会秘书处准备协助各国编拟基于《示范法》的法规。
The same assistance is provided to Governments considering legislation based on other UNCITRAL model laws (e.g. the UNCITRAL Model Law on CrossBorder Insolvency), or considering adhesion to one of conventions prepared by UNCITRAL (e.g. the United Nations Convention on Independent Guarantees and Stand-by Letters of Credit (New York, 1995) or the Assignment Convention).向考虑基于贸易法委员会其他示范法(例如《贸易法委员会跨国界破产示范法》)进行立法或考虑遵行由贸易法委员会编拟的其中一项公约(例如《联合国独立担保和备用信用证公约》(1995年,纽约)和《转让公约》)的国家的政府提供相同的协助。
20.Further information concerning the Model Law and other texts developed by UNCITRAL, may be obtained from the UNCITRAL secretariat at the address below:20.可按照以下地址向贸易法委员会秘书处索取有关由贸易法委员会拟订的《示范法》及其他法规的进一步信息:
International Trade Law Division, Office of Legal AffairsInternationalTradeLawDivision,OfficeofLegalAffairs
United NationsUnitedNations
Vienna International CentreViennaInternationalCentre
P.O. Box 500P.O.Box500
1400 Vienna, AustriaA-1400Vienna,Austria
Telephone: (+43-1) 26060-4060 or 4061 Telecopy: (+43-1) 26060-5813 Electronic mail: uncitral@uncitral.org Internet home page: www.uncitral.org电话:(+43-1)26060-4060or4061电传:(+43-1)26060-5813电子邮件:uncitral@uncitral.org互联网主页:www.uncitral.org
B.B.
INFORMATION ON THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGISLATION BASED ON THE MODEL LAW有关对基于《示范法》的法规进行解释的情况
21.The UNCITRAL secretariat welcomes comments concerning the Model Law and the Guide to Enactment, as well as information concerning enactment of legislation based on the Model Law.21.贸易法委员会秘书处欣见有关《示范法》和《颁布指南》的评述意见以及有关颁布基于《示范法》的法规的情况。
The Model Law will be included in the CLOUT information system, which is used for collecting and disseminating information on case law relating to the conventions and model laws that have emanated from the work of UNCITRAL.《示范法》将列入用于收集和传播由贸易法委员会工作产生的公约和示范法相关判例法信息的法规判例法信息系统。
The purpose of the system is to promote awareness of the legislative texts formulated by UNCITRAL and to facilitate their uniform interpretation and application.该系统的目的是,加深对贸易法委员会拟订的立法文本的认识,并便利对其加以统一解释和适用。
The UNCITRAL secretariat publishes, in the six official languages of the United Nations, abstracts of decisions and arbitral awards.贸易法委员会秘书处以联合国六种官方语文公布裁定和仲裁裁决的摘要。
In addition, upon individual request and subject to any copyright and confidentiality restrictions, the UNCITRAL secretariat makes available to the public all decisions and arbitral awards on the basis of which the abstracts were prepared.此外,经个别请求并在不违反任何版权和保密限制的前提下,贸易法委员会秘书处公开提供据以编拟摘要的所有裁定和仲裁裁决。
The system is explained in a user's guide that is available from the UNCITRAL secretariat in hard copy (A/CN.9/SER.C/GUIDE/1/Rev.2) and on the above-mentioned Internet home page of UNCITRAL.用户指南对该系统作了解释,该指南的硬拷贝可由贸易法委员会秘书处提供(A/CN.9/SER.C/GUIDE/1/Rev.2)并将放在贸易法委员会上述互联网主页上。
Article-by-article remarks逐条评述
Chapter I.第一章.
Scope of application and general provisions适用范围和一般规定
Article 1.第1条.
Scope of application适用范围
22.Article 1 draws on recommendations 1-7 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. I, paras. 1-4, 13-15 and 101-112).22.第1条借鉴了《担保交易指南》建议1-7(见第一章,第1-4段、第13-15段和第101-112段)。
It is intended to set out the various types of transaction and asset covered by the Model Law (see art. 1, paras. 1-4), as well as to clarify the relationship between the Model Law and other law (see art. 1, paras. 5 and 6).该条意在列出《示范法》所涵盖的各类交易和资产(见第1条第1-4款),并澄清《示范法》与其他法律之间的关系(见第1条第5和6款)。
Generally, the Model Law follows the same functional, integrated and comprehensive approach to secured transactions as the Secured Transactions Guide.一般而言,《示范法》对担保交易遵行同样的实用、统一和综合的做法,一如《担保交易指南》。
Thus, the Model Law applies to security rights, that is, to property rights in movable assets, created by an agreement to secure payment or other performance of an obligation, regardless of whether the parties have denominated them as security rights (see art. 1, para. 1, and the definition of the term "security right" in art. 2, subpara. (kk), and para. 68 below).因此,《示范法》适用于由担保偿付债务或以其他方式履行债务的协议而创设的担保权即动产财产权,而不论当事人是否将其定名为担保权(见第1条第1款和第2条(kk)项中“担保权”一语的定义及下文第68段)。
However, there are some differences between the scope of the Model Law and the scope of the Secured Transactions Guide (see paras. 24, 26, 29 and 32-34 below).然而,在《示范法》的范围和《担保交易指南》的范围之间存在若干区别(见下文第24、26、29和32-34段)。
23.In line with recommendation 3 of the Secured Transactions Guide and article 1, paragraph 1, of the Assignment Convention, article 1, paragraph 2, provides that the Model Law also applies to outright transfers of receivables by agreement that take place, for example, in the context of factoring transactions.23.按照《担保交易指南》建议3和《转让公约》第1条第1款,《示范法》第1条第2款也适用于在例如保理交易中使用的经约定的应收款彻底转让。
The main reason for this approach is that the same third-party effectiveness and priority rules should apply to both outright transfers of and security rights in receivables because: (a)financing against receivables is often done using an outright transfer of the receivables rather than by the creation of a security right in the receivables; and (b)it is sometimes difficult to determine at the outset of a transaction whether it will be characterized as an outright transfer of, or the creation of a security right in, the receivables (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. I, paras. 25-31).采取这一做法的主要原因是,第三方效力和优先权的相同规则应适用于应收款彻底转让和应收款担保权,其原因是:(a)以应收款进行融资经常经由应收款的彻底转让而并非经由应收款担保权的创设进行;及(b)有时在交易之初难以确定,究竟交易是否表现为应收款担保权的彻底转让还是表现为应收款担保权的创设(见《担保交易指南》,第一章,第25-31段)。
While most modern secured transactions laws generally follow this approach, some laws exclude certain types of outright transfers of receivables that do not have a financing function, such as: (a) outright transfers of receivables for collection purposes where the transferee essentially acts only as a representative or trustee of the transferor; and (b) outright transfers of receivables as part of the sale of the business out of which they arose (unless the former owner remains in apparent control of the business), where the potential for other outright transferees, secured creditors or other third parties to be misled is limited.虽然多数现代担保交易法一般遵行该做法,但有些法律将显然将不具备融资功能的某些类型的应收款彻底转让排除在外,例如:(a)受让人基本只是作为转让人代理人或受托人情况下的用于收取目的的应收款彻底转让;及(b)作为出售据以产生应收款的企业的一部分的应收款彻底转让(除非原有所有人显然仍然掌控企业),前提是转让误导其他彻底受让人、有担保债权人或其他第三人的可能性是有限的。
24.24.
Unlike the Secured Transactions Guide which covered security rights in the right to receive payment under an independent undertaking (see rec. 2 (a)), the Model Law excludes from its scope security rights in both the right to receive and the right to request payment under an independent guarantee or letter of credit, whether commercial or standby (see art. 1, para. 3 (a)).不同于涵盖独立保证下收益收取权上担保权的《担保交易指南》(见建议2(a)),《示范法》将独立保证或信用证(不论是商业或备用信用证)下收益收取权和请求权上的担保权排除在其范围之外(见第1条第3款(a)项)。
The reason for this exclusion is that implementation of the relevant recommendations of the Secured Transactions Guide would have made the Model Law unduly complex.作出这一排除适用的理由是,执行《担保交易指南》的相关建议将会使《示范法》变得过于复杂。
Enacting States interested in dealing with security rights in those types of asset are encouraged to implement the relevant recommendations of the Secured Transactions Guide (recs. 27, 50, 107, 127, 176 and 212).鼓励有兴趣处理这些类型资产上担保权的颁布国执行《担保交易指南》的相关建议(建议27、50、107、127、176和212)。
25.25.
To the extent that the provisions of the Model Law are inconsistent with the enacting State's law relating to intellectual property, article 1, paragraph 3 (b), of the Model Law defers to that law (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 4 (b)).在《示范法》条文与颁布国有关知识产权的法律不符的限度内,《示范法》第1条第3款(b)项遵从该项法律(见《担保交易指南》建议4(b))。
This limitation is unnecessary if the enacting State has already coordinated the Model Law and its law relating to intellectual property or plans to do so in the context of the overall reform of its secured transactions law.如果颁布国已经协调好《示范法》与其有关知识产权相关法律之间的关系,或计划在其担保交易法总体改革的背景下加以协调,则该限制即无必要。
26.26.
Unlike recommendation 4 (c) of the Secured Transactions Guide which excludes from its scope all types of securities, article 1, paragraph 3 (c), excludes only intermediated securities.不同于将所有各类证券排除在其范围之外的《担保交易指南》建议4(c)项,《示范法》第1条第3款(c)项只是将非中介证券上的担保权排除在其范围之外。
The reasons for this approach are that: (a) nonintermediated securities often are part of commercial finance transactions (in which, for example, it is common for the lender to obtain a security right in shares in the borrower's wholly-owned subsidiaries or the shares of the borrower itself); (b) there are wide divergences among national regimes in this regard, which creates legal obstacles to their use across national borders;采取这种做法的原因是:(a)非中介证券经常是商业金融交易的一部分(在此情况下,举例说,放贷人取得在借款人独资子公司的股票或借款人自身股票上的担保权都很常见);(b)各国在这方面的机制差异很大,从而给其跨国界使用设置了法律障碍;及
and (c) security rights in nonintermediated securities are not addressed in any other uniform law text and thus no guidance is otherwise provided to States with regard to such securities.(c)非中介证券上的担保权在任何其他统一法文本中都未曾述及,从而未就这类证券向各国提供其他任何指导。
Conversely, security rights in intermediated securities are excluded as the nature of such securities and their importance for the functioning of financial markets raise a broad range of issues that merit special legislative treatment and are addressed in other uniform law texts (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. 1, paras. 37 and 38).相反,中介证券上的担保权之所以被排除在外,是鉴于这类证券的性质及其对金融市场运作的重要性引发了值得在立法方面予以特殊对待的多种问题,并且在其他统一法文本中述及(见《担保交易指南》,第一章,第37和38段)。
27.27.
Article 1, paragraph 3 (d), excludes payment rights under or from financial contracts governed by netting agreements, including foreign exchange transactions, because they raise complex issues that require special rules (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. I, para. 39).第1条第3款(d)项将包括外汇交易等受净额结算协议管辖的金融合同下产生的或因为该金融合同产生的受付权排除在外,因为它们提出了需要有特别规则的复杂问题(见《担保交易指南》第一章,第39段)。
28.28.
Combining the policy of recommendations 4 (a) and 7 of the Secured Transactions Guide, article 1, paragraph 3 (e), provides that the enacting State may exclude further types of asset (or transaction) to the extent that the matters that are addressed in the Model Law are governed by other law of the enacting State.结合适用《担保交易指南》建议4(a)项和建议7的政策,第1条第3款(e)项规定,在《示范法》所述事项由颁布国其他法律管辖的限度内,颁布国可将更多类型的资产(或交易)排除在外。
The reason for this approach is to avoid inadvertently creating gaps (where that other law does not govern an issue addressed in the Model Law) or overlaps (where that other law governs an issue that is addressed in the Model Law as well).采取这一做法的理由是,避免无意中造成法律存在空白之处(在其他法律不管辖《示范法》所述问题的情况下)或重叠之处(在其他法律也管辖《示范法》所述问题的情况下)。
Assets that may be excluded from the scope of the Model Law in article 1, paragraph 3 (e) are, for example, assets that are subject to specialized secured transactions and registration regimes.可被排除在《示范法》第1条第3款(e)项范围之外的资产举例说是受制于专门担保交易和登记制度的资产。
Enacting States that have such regimes (e.g. ship, vehicle, aircraft or intellectual property registries) will have to consider a number of issues, including the following: (a) whether registration with respect to security rights in those types of asset should take place in the security rights registry, in the specialized registry or in both;设有这类机制(例如船舶、交通车辆、航天器或知识产权登记处)的颁布国必须考虑若干问题,包括如下问题:(a)究竟是在担保权登记处还是在专门登记处办理有关这些类型资产上担保权的登记或在这两处都可办理有关这些类型资产上担保权的登记;
(b) if registration may take place in both registries, coordination of the relevant registries (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. IV, para. 117, and Registry Guide, paras. 66 and 70) and coordination of the relevant third-party effectiveness and priority rules (see Secured Transactions Guide, recs. 43 and 77, subpara. (a); see also Registry Guide, paras. 23, 30 and 65);(b)如果在这两个登记处都可办理登记,则应对相关登记处加以协调(见《担保交易指南》第四章第117段和《登记处指南》第66段和第70段)并对相关第三方效力规则和优先权规则加以协调(见《担保交易指南》,建议43和77(a)项);还见《登记处指南》第23、30和65段);
(c) the priority of acquisition security rights in consumer goods that are effective automatically (see art. 24; and Secured Transactions Guide, chap. IX, paras. 125-128, and rec. 181);(c)自动生效的消费品上购置款担保权的优先权(见第24条及《担保交易指南》,第九章,第125-128段和建议181);
and (d) the determination of the law that is applicable to security rights in tangible assets subject to specialized registration (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, paras. 37 and 38, as well as rec. 205).及(d)确定适用于必须办理专门登记的有形资产上担保权的法律(见《担保交易指南》,第十章,第37和38段及建议205)。
29.29.
Under article 10, paragraph 1, a security right in a type of asset covered by the Model Law extends to its identifiable proceeds.根据第10条第1款,《示范法》所涵盖的某类资产上的担保权延伸至其可识别收益。
Under article 1, paragraph 4, the Model Law applies even if the proceeds are a type of asset that is outside the scope of the Model Law (e.g. intermediated securities), except to the extent that other law applies to security rights in assets of that type and governs the relevant matters.根据第1条第4款,《示范法》即便在收益属于超出《示范法》范围外的某类收益(例如中介证券)情况下仍可适用,除非其他法律适用于该类资产上的担保权并管辖相关事项。
30.30.
With respect to the relationship with consumer-protection law, in line with the approach followed in the Assignment Convention (see art. 4, para. 4) and in the Secured Transactions Guide (see rec. 2 (b)), article 1, paragraph 5, is intended to preserve the application of consumer-protection law that protects a grantor or a debtor of an encumbered receivable (see also art. 1, para. 6, which preserves statutory limitations in general, and para. 31 below).关于同保护消费者法律的关系,按照《转让公约》(见第4条第4款)和《担保交易指南》(见建议2(b)项)所持做法,第1条第5款意在保全对保护设保人或设保应收款债务人的保护消费者法律的适用(还见保全一般法定限制的第1条第6款和下文第31段)。
For example, under consumerprotection law, it may not be possible to create or enforce a security right in all present and future assets, employment benefits, at least up to a certain amount, or in necessary household items of a consumer, or to collect an encumbered receivable directly from a debtor that is a consumer.举例说,根据保护消费者法律,可能无法对所有现有和未来资产、至少不超过某一数额的就业津贴或消费者必要的家用物品创设或强制执行担保权,也无法从作为消费者的债务人那里直接收取设保应收款。
Enacting States that do not have a developed consumer-protection law may need to consider whether enactment of the Model Law should be accompanied by the enactment of such special protections for consumers.尚无完善的保护消费者法律的颁布国可能需要考虑在颁布《示范法》的同时是否应当颁布有关保护消费者的这类特殊法律。
31.31.
Following the approach of recommendation 18 of the Secured Transactions Guide, article 1, paragraph 6 is intended to preserve limitations on the creation or the enforcement of a security right in, or the transferability of, certain types of asset (e.g. cultural objects) that are contained in other law.按照《担保交易指南》建议18所持做法,第1条第6款意在保全对创设或强制执行其他法律所载某些类型的资产(例如文化物品)上担保权或其可转让性所施加的限制。
At the same time, it is intended to override any limitation that is based on the sole ground that an asset is a future asset, or a part of an asset or an undivided interest in an asset (see art. 8, subparas. (a) and (b), and para. 93 below).与此同时,该款意在撤消基于某一资产是未来资产或资产一部分或其无法分割的权益的任何限制(见第8条(a)和(b)项及下文第93段)。
Paragraph 6 does not apply to contractual limitations on the creation or enforcement of a security right in, or the transferability of, receivables (see art. 13, and paras. 109-115 below) or rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account (see art. 15, and para. 119 below).第6款不适用于对创设或强制执行应收款担保权或应收款可转让性(见第13条和下文第109-115段)或银行账户贷记款受付权(见第15条和下文第119段)所作的合同限制。
32.32.
The Model Law does not include specific provisions on security rights in attachments to movable or immovable property (that is, tangible assets that are attached to movable or immovable property in a manner that does not cause them to lose their separate identity; see Secured Transactions Guide, Terminology).《示范法》未列有关于动产或不动产附加物上担保权的具体规定(以不致造成其丧失单独特性的方式附着于动产或不动产的有形资产;(见《担保交易指南》,术语)。
33.33.
With respect to attachments to movable property, there is no need for specific provisions because the general rules applicable to security rights in tangible assets are generally sufficient.关于动产附着物,根本就不需要有具体条文,其原因是,适用于有形资产担保权的一般规则通常便已足够。
Thus, a security right in a tangible asset that is or becomes an attachment to movable property may be created and made effective against third parties in accordance with the general rules of the Model Law without any further action (see recs. 21 and 41 of the Secured Transactions Guide).因此,可根据《示范法》一般规则创设是或将成为动产附着物的有形资产上担保权,而不需要采取任何进一步行动(见《担保交易指南》建议21和41)。
In addition, the general priority rules of the Model Law apply to the various priority competitions that might arise (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V, para. 115).此外,《示范法》的一般优先权规则适用于可能会出现的各种优先权竞争(见《担保交易指南》第五章第115段)。
Enacting States may, however, wish to enact a rule providing that a secured creditor enforcing a security right in an attachment to movable property is liable for any damage caused by the act of removal of the attachment other than any diminution in its value attributable solely to the absence of the attachment (see rec. 166 of the Secured Transactions Guide).然而,颁布国不妨颁布一条规则,规定强制执行动产附着物上担保权的有担保债权人可对除纯粹由于附着物缺失所致附着物价值的任何减少以外的移除附着物的行动所导致的任何损害负有赔偿责任(见《担保交易指南》建议166)。
34.34.
With respect to attachments to immovable property, the Model Law does not include special provisions because they involve issues of immovable property law that do not lend themselves to harmonization at the international level.关于动产附着物,《示范法》之所以未列入特别条文,其原因是,这类附着物涉及无法在国际层面上加以协调统一的不动产法律问题。
Enacting States that wish to enact special provisions may wish to consider the relevant recommendations of the Secured Transactions Guide (see recs. 21, 41 43, 87, 88, 164, 165 and 184).希望颁布特别条文的颁布国不妨考虑《担保交易指南》的相关建议(见建议21、41、43、87、88、164、165和184)。
Article 2.第2条.
Definitions and rules of interpretation定义和解释规则
35.35.
Article 2 contains definitions and rules of interpretation with respect to most key terms used in the Model Law.第2条载有关于《示范法》所用多数关键术语的定义和解释规则。
Other terms are defined or explained in various articles of the Model Law.其他术语在《示范法》各项条款中界定或解释。
For example, the term "judgment creditor" is explained in article 37, paragraph 1 (see para. 317 below).举例说,“胜诉债权人”这一用语在37条第1款中予以解释(见下文第317段)。
Comments are made below only on those terms that are not self-explanatory or that are not sufficiently explained in the Secured Transactions Guide, on the terminology of which article 2 is based (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, paras. 15-20).下文只是对并非不言自明或在《担保交易指南》中未得到充分解释的有关第2条所依据的术语发表了评述意见(见《担保交易指南》导言,第15-20段)。
36.36.
The rules of interpretation of the Secured Transactions Guide also apply to the Model Law.《担保交易指南》的解释规则也适用于《示范法》。
For example: (a) the word "or" is not intended to be exclusive; (b) the singular includes the plural and vice versa; and (c) the words "include" or "including" are not intended to indicate an exhaustive list (see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, para. 17).举例说:(a)“或”一词无意涵盖一切;(b)单数包括了复数,反之亦然;及(c)“包括”或“包括了”的词句无意指所列内容涵盖一切(见《担保交易指南》,导言,第17段)。
37.37.
It should be noted that time periods set out in the Guide to Enactment are suggestions (not recommendations) for the enacting State to use for its consideration of what would be appropriate for its own circumstances.应当指出的是,《颁布指南》所述时限是给颁布国用于考虑适合于本国国情的建议(而并非推荐)。
It should also be noted that issues relating to the measurement of time (e.g. whether only working days are meant) are left to other law of the enacting State.还应指出的是,有关如何计算时间的问题(例如是否仅指工作日)将交由颁布国其他法律处理。
Depending on how those issues are addressed (e.g. whether official holidays are to be included), the enacting State may wish to consider adjusting the time periods suggested in the Guide to Enactment.取决于如何述及这些问题(例如是否把公共假日列入在内),颁布国不妨考虑对《颁布指南》所建议的时限加以调整。
Acquisition security right购置款担保权
38.38.
An acquisition security right may only be created in the following types of asset: (a) a tangible asset (other than a tangible asset that embodies an intangible asset, such as a negotiable instrument; see art. 2, subparas. (b) and (ll), and para. 69 below); (b) intellectual property; and (c) the rights of a licensee under an intellectual property licence.只可以在以下类型的资产上创设购置款担保权:(a)有形资产(体现诸如可转让票据之类无形资产的有形资产除外;见第2条(b)项和(ll)项)和下文第69段);(b)知识产权;及(c)被许可人在知识产权许可下的权利。
To qualify as an acquisition security right, the security right must secure an obligation to pay the unpaid portion of the purchase price of the encumbered asset to the seller or to pay credit extended by another person to enable the grantor to acquire rights in the asset to the extent credit is actually used for that purpose.有资格作为购置款担保权的条件是,担保权必须给向出卖人支付设保资产购置款未支付部分的义务作保,或支付另一人为让设保人在信贷用于其实际用途之时获取资产上权利而提供的信贷。
Where the security right secures additional obligations, it is an acquisition security right only to the extent it secures the credit extended to enable the grantor to acquire the asset and is a non-acquisition security right to the extent it secures the additional obligations.尽管该担保权只是在给为让设保人能够获取资产所提供的信贷作保的前提下方才是购置款担保权,并且是在给额外债务作保前提下的非购置款担保权。
The distinction is important because of the special priority accorded to acquisition security rights where the specified conditions are satisfied (see arts. 37-42, and paras. 317-348 below).这一区分之所以重要,是因为在满足具体条件的情况下赋予购置款担保权以特别优先权(见第37-42条和下文第317-348段)。
Bank account银行账户
39.39.
To underline the distinction between a "bank account" and a "securities account", the Model Law defines: (a) the former term as "an account maintained by an authorized deposit-taking institution to which funds may be credited or debited" (see art. 2, subpara. (c)); (b) the latter term as "an account maintained by an intermediary to whom securities may be credited or debited" (see art. 2, subpara. (ii), and para. 66 below); and (c) the term "securities" in a manner that clearly excludes funds (see art. 2, subpara. (hh), and para. 65 below).为强调“银行账户”和“证券账户”之间的区别,《示范法》作出如下界定:(a)将前一个用语界定为“受权接收存款机构开立的可贷记或借记款项的账户”(见第2条(c)项);(b)将后一个用语界定为“由中间人开立的可向其贷记或借记证券的账户”(见第2条(ii)项和下文第66段);及(c)对“证券”一语所作界定的方式明确把该款项排除在外(见第2条(hh)项和下文第65段)。
The term "bank account" includes any type of bank account (e.g. current or checking and savings account).“银行账户”一语包括了任何类型的银行账户(例如往来账户或支票账户和储蓄账户)。
The term does not include a right against a bank to the payment of funds evidenced by a negotiable instrument drawn on that bank.该用语不包括由在银行开立的可转让票据所体现的对该银行的受付权。
The term "authorized deposit-taking institution" is intended to be sufficiently broad to include any institution authorized to receive deposits in any State.“受权接收存款机构”的用语意在范围宽泛,足以纳入受权接收任何国家的存款的任何机构。
Certificated non-intermediated securities有凭证非中介证券
40.40.
The term "represented" in the definition of the term "certificated nonintermediated securities" (see art. 2, subpara. (d)) is intended to be sufficiently broad to cover various equivalent terms that may be used in different jurisdictions (e.g. "covered" or "embodied").“有凭证非中介证券”这一用语的定义中“代表的”一语(见第2条(d)项)意在范围宽泛,足以涵盖不同法域所可能使用的各种类似用语(例如“涵盖”或“体现”)。
The term "certificate" means only a tangible document that can be subject to physical possession.“凭证”一语仅指应当实体占有的有形单证。
Thus, non-intermediated securities represented solely by an electronic record fall within the definition of uncertificated non-intermediated securities (see art. 2 subpara. (mm)).因此,纯由电子记录所代表的非中介证券属于无凭证非中介证券的范围(见第2条(mm)项)。
Competing claimant相竞求偿人
41.41.
The term "competing claimant" is principally used in the context of a potential priority dispute between a security right and the rights of another person claiming rights in the encumbered asset (see art. 2, subpara. (e)).“相竞求偿人”一语主要用于担保权和对设保资产主张权利的另一人权利之间的潜在优先权争议(见第2条(e)项)。
The term includes another creditor of the grantor that has a right in the asset (such as another secured creditor or a judgment creditor that has taken the steps necessary under other law of the enacting State to acquire a right in the asset), the grantor's insolvency representative, and a buyer or other transferee, as well as a lessee or licensee of the asset.该术语包括对该资产享有权利的设保人的另一债权人(例如另一个有担保债权人或在颁布国其他法律下已采取必要步骤以获取资产上权利的胜诉债权人)、设保人的破产管理人及资产的买受人或其他受让人、承租人或被许可人。
Consumer goods消费品
42.42.
Unlike the definition of the term "consumer goods" in the Secured Transactions Guide, the definition of this term in the Model Law (see art. 2, subpara. (f)) includes the word "primarily" to clarify that the term: (a) includes goods primarily used or intended to be used by the grantor for personal, family or household purposes and only incidentally as equipment or inventory; and (b) excludes goods primarily used or intended to be used by the grantor as equipment or inventory and only incidentally as consumer goods.不同于《担保交易指南》中“消费品”这一用语的定义,《示范法》中该用语的定义(见第2条(f)项)之所以列入“主要”一词是为了澄清该用语:(a)把主要用于或意图用于个人、家庭或家居目的而只是附带用作设备或库存品的物品列入在内;及(b)把设保人主要用作设备或库存品而只是附带用作消费品的物品排除在外。
Accordingly, it is the primary use or the primary intended use of tangible assets by the grantor that determines whether they will be classified as consumer goods, equipment or inventory.因此,决定有形资产是否被分类为消费品、设备或库存品的主要决定因素是设保人主要或主要意图将其用于哪些方面。
It should be noted that the terms "consumer goods", "equipment" and "inventory" are principally relevant to the articles on acquisition security rights (see paras. 46 and 50 below).应当指出的是,“消费品”、“设备”和“库存品”这些用语主要是与购置款担保权的条款有关(见下文第46段和第50段)。
Control agreement控制权协议
43.43.
The term "control agreement" refers to an agreement in writing between the grantor, the secured creditor and the issuer (in the case of securities) or the deposit taking institution (in the case of rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account), according to which the issuer or the deposit-taking institution agrees to follow the instructions of the secured creditor without the further consent of the grantor (see art. 2, subpara. (g)).“控制权协议”这一用语是指设保人、有担保债权人和发行人(对于证券而言)之间的协议或设保人、有担保债权人和接收存款机构(对于银行账户贷记款受付权而言)之间的书面协议,根据该协议,发行人或接收存款机构同意遵照有担保债权人的指示,而不需要设保人的进一步同意(见第2条(g)项)。
A control agreement can achieve two purposes: (a) to render a security right effective against third parties (see arts. 25 and 27, and paras. 136 and 140 below); and (b) to establish the priority of the secured creditor that has entered into the control agreement (see arts. 47 and 51, and paras. 352 and 362 below).控制权协议可实现两个目的:(a)使得担保权具有对抗第三方的效力(见第25和27条及下文第136段和第140段);及(b)确立已经订立控制权协议的有担保债权人的优先权(见第47和51条及下文第352段和第362段)。
In addition, a control agreement can help ensure the cooperation of the deposit-taking institution or the issuer of securities if the secured creditor needs to enforce its security right.此外,如果有担保债权人需要强制执行其担保权,控制权协议则有助于确保接收存款机构或证券发行人在强制执行担保权方面的合作。
Although the definition refers to an agreement in writing, it does not refer to a "signed writing" unlike the definition of this term in the Secured Transactions Guide.虽然该定义是指书面协议,但不同于《担保交易指南》中该用语的定义,并非是指“已签名的书面文件”。
This difference does not reflect a policy change but rather a decision that the matter should be left to the authentication requirements for agreements of other law of the enacting State.这一区别并不反映政策性变动,而只是反映了关于该事项应当交由颁布国其他法律中有关协议认证要求予以处理所作的决定。
Default违约
44.44.
In deference to party autonomy, the term "default" is defined to mean the debtor's failure to pay or otherwise perform the secured obligation and any other event that constitutes default under the agreement between the grantor and the secured creditor (see art. 2, subpara. (j)).遵照当事人意思自治,“违约”被界定为是指债务人未偿付有担保债务或未以其他方式履行有担保债务以及构成设保人和有担保债权人之间的协议所称违约的任何其他事件(见第2条(j)项)。
What exactly constitutes failure to pay or otherwise perform the secured obligation (e.g. a day's or a month's delay in payment) is a matter for the agreement between the parties and the law applicable to that agreement.究竟何种构成未予付款或未以其他方式履行有担保债务的确切内容(例如延误一天或一个月缴款)属于由当事人协议或由该协议适用法律处理的事项。
Encumbered asset设保资产
45.45.
Any movable asset to which the Model Law applies is an encumbered asset once it is made the subject of a security right (see art. 2, subpara. (k)).《示范法》所适用的任何动产一旦成为担保权的标的则均是设保资产(见第2条(k)项)。
As the provisions of the Model Law also apply to outright transfers of receivables by agreement, the term is defined to also include a receivable that is the subject of an outright transfer by agreement.《示范法》的条文也适用于经约定彻底转让应收款,对该用语的界定还包括了系经约定彻底转让的标的的应收款。
Equipment设备
46.46.
Unlike the definition of the term "equipment" in the Secured Transactions Guide, the definition of that term in the Model Law includes the word "primarily" to clarify that it: (a) includes goods used or intended to be used by a person primarily as equipment and only incidentally as consumer goods or inventory; and (b) excludes goods used or intended to be used by a person primarily as consumer goods or inventory and only incidentally as equipment (see art. 2, subparas. (f), (l) and (q), as well as para. 42 above and para. 50 below).不同于《担保交易指南》中“设备”一语的定义,《示范法》中该用语的定义列入了“主要”一词以澄清:(a)把一人主要用作或意图用作设备而只是附带用作消费品或库存品的物品列入在内;及(b)把一人主要用作或意图用作消费品或库存品而只是附带用作设备的物品排除在外(见第2条(f)、(l)和(q)项以及上文第42段和下文第50段)。
As the classification depends on the primary use or primary intended use of the asset, the same asset may, at different times, constitute equipment, consumer goods or inventory.由于分类取决于其主要用途或主要意图用途,相同资产在不同时段可构成“设备”、“消费品”或“库存品”。
For example, an automobile dealer may acquire a vehicle for personal use (consumer goods), then start using it in its business to provide a shuttle service for its customers (equipment) and then decide to offer it for sale as part of its stock of used vehicles (inventory), It is the use to which the asset is primarily put by the grantor at the time the security right is created that generally determines its classification for the purposes of the Model Law.举例说,汽车经销商可为个人用途获取汽车(消费品),然后又开始将其用于商业目的,给其客户提供汽车接送服务(设备),后来又决定将其作为库存二手车辆(库存品)的一部分予以出售。在担保权创设之时设保人对资产的主要用途通常是《示范法》中有关其类别的确定因素。
Grantor设保人
47.47.
The definition of the term "grantor" makes clear that a grantor of a security right may be the debtor of the secured obligation or another person (e.g. a parent company that creates a security right in its assets to secure the obligations of its subsidiary, or vice versa; see art. 2, subpara. (o) (i)).“设保人”一语的定义表明,担保权的设保人可以是有担保债务的债务人或另一人(例如在其资产上创设担保权以便为其子公司债务作保的母公司或反之亦然;见第2条(o)㈠项)。
A buyer or other transferee of an encumbered asset that acquires the asset subject to a security right is also treated as a grantor to ensure that the provisions of the Model Law remain applicable even though the grantor has disposed of the encumbered asset (see art. 2, subpara. (o) (ii)).获取受制于担保权的资产上设保资产的买受人或其他受让人也将被作为设保人对待,目的是确保即便设保人已经处分了设保资产,《示范法》的条文仍然可予以适用(见第2条(o)㈡项)。
As the provisions of the Model Law also apply to outright transfers of receivables by agreement, the term "grantor" also includes a transferor under an outright transfer of receivables by agreement (see art. 2, subpara. (o) (iii)).由于《示范法》的条文还适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让,“设保人”一语还列入了在经约定的应收款彻底转让下的转让人(见第2条(o)㈢项)。
Insolvency representative破产管理人
48.48.
The term "insolvency representative" is used in the definition of the term "competing claimant" in article 2, subparagraph (e) (see para. 41 above), and the term "insolvency proceedings" is referred to in articles 2, subparagraph (e) (iii), 35 and 94 (see para. 41 above, and paras. 312 and 500 below). In view of their limited relevance, these (and other insolvency-related terms, such as the term "insolvency estate") are not defined in the Model Law.“破产管理人”一语在第2条(e)项中“相竞求偿人”一语的定义中使用(见上文第41段)。至于第2条(e)(iii)项、第35条和94条中提及的“破产程序”一语(见上文第41段和下文第312段和第500段)因其相关性有限,该用语(以及同破产有关的其他用语,例如“破产财产”一语之类用语)在《示范法》中未作界定。
However, they are defined in the Secured Transactions Guide (see Introduction, para. 20) and the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Insolvency Law (the "Insolvency Guide"; see Introduction, para. 12).然而,在《担保交易指南》(见导言,第20段)和《贸易法委员会破产法立法指南》(《破产问题指南》,见导言第12段)中对这些用语作了界定。
In particular, the term "insolvency representative" is defined in a sufficiently broad manner to include any person responsible for administering insolvency proceedings or supervising the debtor and the debtor's affairs (see Insolvency Guide, part two, chap. III, paras. 11-18 and 35).尤其是对“破产管理人”一语的界定十分宽泛,足以纳入任何负责管理破产程序或监督债务人和债务人事务的人(见《破产问题指南》第二部分,第三章,第11-18段和第35段)。
Intangible asset无形资产
49.49.
The term "intangible asset" includes receivables, rights to the performance of obligations other than receivables, negotiable instruments or negotiable document in electronic form, rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account and uncertificated non-intermediated securities, as well as any other movable asset that is not a tangible asset (see art. 2, subpara. (p)).“无形资产”一语包括了应收款、履行除应收款外的其他债务的权利、电子形式的可转让票据或可转让单证、银行账户贷记款受付权和无凭证非中介证券以及并非有形资产的任何其他动产(见第2条(p)项)。
Whether an instrument or document is negotiable is a matter for other law.票据或单证可否转让属于由其他法律处理的事项。
Inventory库存品
50.50.
The term "inventory" refers to tangible assets held by the grantor for sale or lease in the ordinary course of the grantor's business (art. 2, subpara. (q)).“库存品”一语是指由设保人为了在设保人日常企业运营中出售或租赁而持有的有形资产(见第2条(q)项)。
Thus, it is the purpose for which tangible assets are held by the grantor that determines whether they constitute inventory, consumer goods or equipment (see paras. 42 and 46 above).因此,设保人所持有的有形资产的用途是确定这些资产是否构成库存品、消费品或设备的决定因素(见上文第42和46段)。
The term "work in process" includes "semi-processed materials".“在制品”一语包括了“半加工材料”。
Mass and product混集物和制成物
51.51.
The Model Law distinguishes between a "mass" and a "product" (see art. 2, subpara. (s)).《示范法》对“混集物”和“制成物”作了区分(见第2条(s)项)。
A "mass" arises when two or more tangible assets of the same kind are commingled in such a way that they lose their separate identity.“混集物”是两种或两种以上同类有形资产密切混合以至于丧失各自特性所产生的。
For example, a quantity of oil from one source is pumped into a storage tanker that already contains oil from another source, or a quantity of wheat from one source is put into a grain silo that already contains wheat from another source.举例说,来自某一方面的一定数量的石油被输送到已经装载了由另一方面提供的石油的某一储存装置,或由某一方面提供的一定数量的小麦被装入已经装载了由另一方面提供的谷仓。
In contrast, a "product" is manufactured when a tangible asset is physically transformed so that it loses its separate identity, or when tangible assets are physically combined so that they lose their separate identities, through a production or manufacturing process; for example, gold is fashioned into a ring, or flour and yeast are combined and baked to make bread.相形之下,“制成物”是这样制造的,即通过生产或制造程序而在物理上改变某一有形资产以至于其丧失其单独特性或在物理上将各种有形资产合并以至于其丧失其单独特性;举例说,将黄金制成指环,或将面粉和酵母混合在一起经过烘烤制成面包。
The distinction is relevant to articles 11 and 33 (see paras. 103-106 and 299-302 below).该区分事关第11和33条(见下文第103-106段和第299-302段)。
Money金钱
52.52.
The term "money" is defined to mean currency authorized as legal tender by the enacting State or any other State (see art. 2, subpara. (t)).“金钱”一语被界定为指由颁布国或任何其他国家授权作为法定货币的货币(见第2条(t)项)。
It does not include intangible money (e.g. virtual currency), as in the context of the Model Law the term "money" is intended to be physical notes and coins (see art. 2, subpara. (ll), and para. 69 below).但它不包括《示范法》背景下的无形货币(例如虚拟货币),金钱意指有形的纸币和硬币(见第2条(ll)项和下文第69段)。
Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account and negotiable instruments are distinct concepts in the Model Law (see art. 2, subparas. (c) and (ll)).在《示范法》中,银行账户贷记款受付权和可转让票据是互不相同的概念(见第2条(c)和(ll)项)。
They too are not included in the term "money".这些概念也未被列入“金钱”一语。
Movable asset动产
53.53.
The enacting State may wish to ensure that the definition of the term "movable asset" captures all assets that its law considers to be property other than immovable property (see art. 2, subpara. (u)).颁布国不妨确保“动产”一语的定义抓住了本国法律认为属于除不动产以外的其他财产的任何内容(见第2条(u)项)。
Depending on its legal tradition and terminology, the enacting State may also wish to consider replacing the terms "movable asset" and "immovable property" with the equivalent concepts in its law (e.g. "personal property" and "land").取决于其法律传统和术语,颁布国还不妨考虑是否可以将“动产”和“不动产”改为本国法律中的对等概念(例如“个人财产”和“土地”)。
Non-intermediated securities非中介证券
54.54.
The term "non-intermediated securities" refers to securities other than securities credited to a securities account and rights in securities resulting from the credit of securities to a securities account (see art. 2, subpara. (w); for the definition of the term "securities, see art. 2, subpara. (hh), and para. 65 below; for the definition of the term "securities account", see art. 2, subpara. (ii), and para. 66 below).“非中介证券”这一用语是指并非贷入某一证券账户的证券的其他证券和来自于将证券贷入证券账户所产生的证券上的权利(见第2条(w);关于“证券”一语的定义,见第2条(hh)项和下文第65段;关于“证券账户”一语的定义,见第2条㈡项和下文第66段)。
The definition is adapted from the definition of the term "intermediated securities" in the Unidroit Securities Convention (see art. 1, subpara. (b)).该定义改编自《统法协会证券公约》中“中介证券”这一用语的定义(见第1(b)条)。
It refers to "rights in securities", in contrast to the Unidroit Securities Convention, which refers to "rights or interests in securities".不同于《统法协会证券公约》中所使用的指涉“权利或利益”的措辞,它是指“证券上的权利”。
This approach is followed for reasons of consistency with the terminology of the Model Law in which the term "right" is a broad term that covers any right or interest.之所以采取该做法,是为了同《示范法》中的术语保持一致,在《示范法》中,“权利”是一个涵盖任何权利或利益的宽泛用语。
It should be noted that, if securities are held by an intermediary directly with the issuer (e.g. the intermediary is registered in the books of the issuer as the holder of the securities), these securities are not intermediated in the hands of that intermediary, even though equivalent securities credited by that intermediary to a securities account in the name of a customer are intermediated securities in the hands of the customer.应当指出的是,如果中间人在发行人处直接持有证券(例如中间人在发行人的账簿中登记为证券持有人),这些证券则并非是掌握在中间人手中的中介证券,即便由中间人以客户名义贷入证券账户的对等证券是掌握在客户手中的中介证券。
Notification of a security right in a receivable应收款担保权通知
55.55.
The definition of the term "notification of a security right in a receivable" (see art. 2, subpara. (y)) is based on the definition of the term "notification of the assignment" in the Secured Transactions Guide (see Introduction, para. 20, and rec. 118), which in turn is based on the definition of that term in the Assignment Convention (see art. 5, subpara. (d)).“应收款担保权通知”这一用语的定义(见第2条(y)项)基于《担保交易指南》中“转让通知”一语的定义(见导言第20段和建议118)而后者又基于《转让公约》中该用语的定义(见第5条(d)项)。
The requirement for the notification to identify the encumbered receivable and the secured creditor in the definition of that term in the Assignment Convention is reflected in article 62, paragraph 1 (see para. 396 below), as it states a substantive rule on the effectiveness of a notification of a security right, a matter that is addressed in that article.《转让公约》中该用语的定义所载有关通知应确定设保应收款和有担保债权人的要求已经反映在第62条第1款(见下文第396段)中,该款载有一条关于担保权通知有效性的实体规则,这一事项在该条中述及。
Possession占有
56.56.
The definition of the term "possession" (see art. 2, subpara. (z)) is based on the definition of that term in the Secured Transactions Guide. The term "possession" applies only to tangible assets, and not to intangible assets, such as negotiable instruments and negotiable documents in electronic form (see art. 2, subpara. (p), and para. 49 above). Thus, the provisions of the Model Law that refer specifically to possession of tangible assets do not apply to negotiable instruments and negotiable documents in electronic form. The general provisions of the Model Law that apply to intangible assets apply to negotiable instruments and negotiable documents in electronic form, as they are movable assets in the sense of articles 1, paragraph 1 and 2, subparagraph (u) (see paras. 23 and 53 above). States that wish to enact both the Model Law and the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records should consider their relationship.“占有”一语的定义(见第2条(z)项)基于《担保交易指南》中关于该用语的定义。“占有权”一语仅适用于有形资产,而不适用于例如电子形式的可转让票据和可转让单证之类无形资产(见第2条(p)项和上文第49段)。因此,具体述及有形资产占有权的《示范法》条文不适用于电子形式的可转让票据和可转让单证。因为这些是第1条第1款和第2款(u)项所指动产(见上文第23段和53段)。希望同时颁布《示范法》和《贸易法委员会电子转让记录示范法》的国家应当考虑两者间关系。
57.57.
The words "directly or indirectly" in recommendation 28 of the Secured Transactions Guide were not included in this definition or article 16 which is based on that recommendation, because the definition of the term "possession" is sufficiently broad to cover situations in which a person is in possession of a tangible asset on behalf of another person.列入《担保交易指南》建议28的“直接或间接”的词句没有被列入该定义,也没有被列入基于该项建议的第16条,其原因是,“占有”一语的定义范围宽泛,足以涵盖一人代表另一人占有有形资产的情况。
Priority优先权
58.58.
The definition of the term "priority" (see art. 2, subpara. (aa)) is based on the definition of that term in the Secured Transactions Guide, which is in turn partly based on the definition of that term in the Assignment Convention (see art. 5, subpara. (g)).“优先权”一语的定义(见第2条(aa)项)基于《担保交易指南》中该用语的定义,而后者又部分基于《转让公约》中该用语的定义(见第5条(g)项)。
Like the definition in the Secured Transactions Guide, this definition does not include in the concept of "priority" the steps required to establish third-party effectiveness, as third-party effectiveness and priority are the subject of separate rules in the Model Law.如同《担保交易指南》中的定义,该定义在“优先权”的概念中未列入确立第三方效力所需步骤,因为第三方效力及其优先权属于《示范法》中其他规则的标的。
Like the definition in the Assignment Convention and unlike the definition in the Secured Transactions Guide, however, this definition defines the term "priority" to mean the right of a person in preference to the right of another person.如同《转让公约》中的定义,然而不同于《担保交易指南》中的定义,该定义将“优先权”界定为是指一人所享有的优先于另一人权利的权利。
Proceeds收益
59.59.
The term "proceeds" in the Model Law (see art. 2, subpara. (bb)) has the same meaning as in the Secured Transactions Guide.《示范法》中“收益”一语(见第2条(bb)项)的含义如同其在《担保交易指南》中的含义。
It covers: (a) proceeds of the sale or other disposition, lease or licence of an encumbered asset (broadly understood); (b) proceeds of proceeds (e.g. if receivables are generated by the sale of encumbered inventory and those proceeds are deposited to a bank account, the right to payment of those funds constitutes proceeds of proceeds); and (c) natural fruits (e.g. the calves of encumbered cows) or civil fruits (e.g. rental payments derived from the lease of encumbered assets).该用语涵盖:(a)出售或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可设保资产的收益(按照广义的理解);(b)收益的收益(例如,如果收益由出售设保库存品产生,并且这些收益存放于某一银行账户,这些款项的受付权即构成收益的收益);及(c)天然孳息(例如被设保母牛的牛犊)或法定孳息(例如设保资产的租赁所产生的租金缴款)。
The terms "revenues", "dividends" and "distributions", which were included in the definition of this term in the Secured Transactions Guide, have been deleted on the understanding that they are covered by the term "civil fruits".已列入《担保交易指南》有关该用语定义的“收入”、“股息”和“分配”的用语已经予以删除,其所持的理解是,这些用语已经为“法定孳息”的用语所涵盖。
It should also be noted that the secured creditor's right in proceeds is limited by various provisions of the Model Law.还应指出的是,有担保债权人对设保资产或收益的权利受到《示范法》各项条文的限制。
For example, under article 10, paragraph 1 (see para. 97 below), the security right extends only to identifiable proceeds (see also art. 19, para. 2, and para. 128 below).举例说,根据第10条第1款(见下文第97段),担保权只延伸至可识别收益(还见第19条第2款和下文第128段)。
60.60.
The term is not limited to proceeds received by the original grantor but includes proceeds received by a transferee of an encumbered asset when that transferee is treated as a grantor because it acquired the encumbered asset subject to the security right.该用语并不限定于原始设保人收到的收益,而且还包括设保资产受让人收到的收益,前提是,该受让人所获取的设保资产受制于担保权,因而被作为设保人对待。
For example, where A creates a security right in its assets in favour of X and then transfers the assets to B who acquires its rights in the assets subject to X's security right and B subsequently sells the assets to C for a price of €1,000 payable at a future date, the receivable arising from the sale by B to C constitutes proceeds covered by X's security right.举例说,A在其资产上创设了有利于X的担保权,然后A将其资产转让给获取受制于X担保权的其在资产上权利的B,B随后将资产以在今后某一日1,000欧元的应付价款出售给C,B向C出售所得的应收款构成X担保权所涵盖的收益。
The reason for this approach is that, otherwise, a transferee of an encumbered asset that acquired the asset subject to the security right (in the example, B) could sell the asset further (in the example, to C) and retain the proceeds free of the security right.采取这一做法的原因是,不然的话,获取受制于该担保权的资产的设保资产受让人(在该范例中即是B)可进一步出售该资产(在该范例中即是C)并保有不连带担保权的收益。
The problem this approach may pose for remote transferees who are likely to search the registry under the name of their immediate transferor and who will therefore not find a registered notice relating to a security right created by the grantor is addressed in art. 26 of the Model Registry Provisions.这种做法可能会给非直接受让人造成问题,这类受让人有可能在其直接转让人名下查询登记处并因而未发现设保人所创设的担保权相关已登记通知,对该问题的论述见《登记处示范条文》第26条。
61.61.
It should be noted that proceeds may arise as a result of an action taken by a person other than the grantor or a transferee.应当指出的是,收益可产生于除设保人或受让人以外的其他人采取的行动。
For example, if funds in a bank account are transferred to another bank account at the instigation of the deposittaking institution, the funds in the second bank account constitutes "proceeds".举例说,如果在接收存款机构的唆使下将某一银行账户中的款项转往另一银行账户,第二个银行账户中的款项即构成“收益”。
Receivable应收款
62.62.
The term "receivable" means a contractual or non-contractual right to payment of money (e.g. the right of a seller of an asset to payment of the purchase price, the right of a lender to payment of the loan or the right of a person who suffers harm due to the fault of another person to claim payment of damages from that person; see art. 2, subpara. (dd)).“应收款”一语是指对受付款的合同或非合同权利(例如资产出卖人对受付购置款的权利、放贷人对受付贷款的权利或由于另一人的过失而遭受损害的某一人向该人索要损害赔偿金的权利;见第2条(dd)项)。
However, the term does not include a right to payment evidenced by a negotiable instrument, a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account or a right to payment under a non-intermediated security, as these rights are treated as distinct types of asset that are subject to different asset-specific rules of the Model Law.然而,该用语不包括由可转让票据、银行账户贷记款受付权或非中介证券下受付权所体现的受付权,因为这些权利被作为受制于《示范法》与之不同的资产特定规则的不同类型资产对待。
Secured creditor有担保债权人
63. The term "secured creditor" refers to a person that has a security right (art. 2, subpara. (ff)).63.“有担保债权人”一语是指享有担保权的人(第2条(ff)项)。
As the provisions of the Model Law also apply to outright transfers of receivables by agreement, the term also includes a transferee of a receivable in an outright transfer by agreement (e.g. a factor in a factoring contract).由于《示范法》的条文也适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让,因此该术语也包括了经约定彻底转让应收款的受让人(例如保理合同中的保理人)。
Secured obligation有担保债务
64. The term "secured obligation" includes any obligation secured by a security right, including obligations arising from credit extended by a lender, a retentionof-title seller or a financial lessor (see art. 2, subpara. (gg)).64.“有担保债务”一语纳入了由担保权作保的任何债务,包括由放贷人、保留产权出卖人或金融租赁人提供的信贷所产生的债务(见第2条(gg)项)。
It covers both monetary and non-monetary obligations, obligations already incurred at the time of the extension of the credit and obligations incurred thereafter, if the security agreement so provides.如果担保协议有此规定,则它涵盖金钱和非金钱债务、在信贷延长之时已经承担的债务以及其后承担的债务。
However, as there is no secured obligation in an outright transfer of a receivable, the provisions that refer to a "secured obligation" do not apply to an outright transfer of a receivable.然而,由于在应收款彻底转让中不存在任何有担保债务,提及“有担保债务”的规定不适用于应收款的彻底转让。
Securities证券
65. The definition of the term "securities" in the Model Law is narrower than the definition of the term in article 1, subparagraph (a), of the Unidroit Securities Convention (see art. 2, subpara. (hh)).65.《示范法》中“证券”一语的定义窄于《统法协会证券公约》第1条(a)项中该用语的定义(见第2条(hh)项)。
While a broad definition is appropriate for the purposes of that Convention, a broad definition for the purposes of the Model Law could result in overlap with movable assets in the form of money, receivables, negotiable instruments or other generic intangible assets for which the Model Law sometimes provides different asset-specific rules to the rules applicable to nonintermediated securities.虽然宽泛的定义适宜于该《公约》的目的,但就《示范法》目的而言的宽泛定义可能造成与以金钱、应收款、可转让票据或其他通类无形资产为形式的动产有所重叠,对于这些动产,《示范法》所提供的资产特定规则有时可能不同于非中介证券的适用规则。
In any case, an enacting State will need to coordinate the definition of the term "securities" in its secured transactions law with the definition of the term in its law governing the transfer of securities.无论如何,颁布国都需要使其担保交易法中“证券”一语的定义同证券转让法律中有关该用语的定义协调一致。
The definition of the term "securities" may also differ from the definition of the term as it is used in laws that regulate trading in securities, as the policies that inform the meaning of the term "securities" in that context may be different from the policies of the Model Law (e.g. the policy underlying the definition of that term in those other laws is not to regulate creation of security rights in individual securities but rather to protect the integrity of the enacting State's capital markets).应当指出的是,“证券”一语的定义也可能有别于证券交易法律中该用语的定义,因为“证券”一语的含义所依据的政策在此情况下可能有别于《示范法》的政策(例如在这些其他法律中该用语定义背后的政策并非是对个别证券的担保权创设加以规范,而是保护颁布国资本市场的完整性)。
Securities account证券账户
66. The definition of the term "securities account" in the Model Law is derived from article 1, subparagraph (c), of the Unidroit Securities Convention (see art. 2, subpara. (ii)).66.《示范法》中“证券账户”一语的定义来自于《统法协会证券公约》第1条(c)项(见第2条(ii)项)。
It refers to an account, which is maintained with a securities intermediary and to which securities may be credited or debited.它是指由证券中间人所掌管的可贷记或借记证券的账户。
Security agreement担保协议
67. The term "security agreement" is defined as an agreement that provides for the creation of a security right (see art. 2, subpara.(jj)).67.“担保协议”一语被界定为规定创设担保权的一项协议(见第2条(jj)项)。
In line with the functional, integrated and comprehensive approach to secured transactions adopted by the Model Law (see para. 17 above), an agreement is a security agreement if it provides for the creation of a property right in a movable asset to secure the payment or other performance of an obligation, even if the parties do not refer to that property right as a security right.按照《示范法》所采纳的对待担保交易的实用、统一和综合做法(见上文第17段),如果协议规定创设为偿付债务或以其他方式履行债务作保的动产上财产权,则该协议即是担保协议,即便当事人未将该财产权称之为担保权。
Thus, a retention-of-title sales agreement treated as a security agreement as it provides for the creation of a property right that secures the buyer's obligation to pay the purchase price.因此,保留产权的协议被作为担保协议对待,因为该协议规定创设了给买受人支付购置款的义务作保的财产权。
Similarly, other types of transaction that rely on the creditor's ownership to secure an obligation are also security agreements, such as a financial lease or a sale by a debtor to its creditor of an asset subject to the right of the debtor to redeem ownership on payment of the debt owing.同样,依赖于债权人为债务作保的所有权的其他类型的交易也是担保协议,例如金融租赁或在不违反债务人付清所欠债务后赎回其所有权权利前提下由债务人向其债权人出售资产。
As the provisions of the Model Law also apply to outright transfers of receivables by agreement, the term "security agreement" also includes an agreement for the outright transfer of receivables.由于《示范法》的条文还适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让,“担保协议”一语也包括了有关应收款彻底转让的协议。
Security right担保权
68. The term "security right" is defined as a property right that is created by agreement to secure payment or other performance of an obligation (see art. 2, subpara. (kk)).68.“担保权”一语被界定为通过给偿付或以其他方式履行债务作保的协议而创设的财产权(见第2条(kk)项)。
In line with the functional, integrated and comprehensive approach adopted in the Model Law (see paras. 17 and 67 above), it is irrelevant whether the parties have denominated the right as a security right or whether they have used wording that refers to a security right.按照《示范法》所遵行的实用、统一和综合做法(见上文第17和67段),当事人是否将该项权利定名为担保权或甚至是否使用提及担保权的措辞均与此无关。
Thus, the term encompasses the ownership right of a buyer/creditor under a sale of an asset by a grantor/seller for security purposes.因此,该用语涵盖买受人/债权人在设保人/出售人为担保目的出售资产下所享有的所有权权利。
It also encompasses the ownership right of a seller under a sale subject to a retention-of-title to secure the price and the ownership right of a lessor under a financial lease.它还涵盖出售人在出售下所享有的所有权权利,但不得违反给价款作保的保留产权和租赁人在金融租赁下所享有的所有权权利。
As the provisions of the Model Law also apply to outright transfers of receivables by agreement, the term "security right" also includes the right of the transferee under an outright transfer of a receivable by agreement.由于《示范法》的条文也适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让,“担保权”一语将包括经约定彻底转让应收款下的受让人的权利。
Tangible asset有形资产
69. The term "tangible asset" in the Model Law includes money, negotiable instruments, negotiable documents in paper form and certificated non-intermediated securities (even though the latter two instruments embody intangible rights), except for the purposes of certain articles that contain rules that are not appropriate for these types of asset (see art. 2, subpara. (ll)).69.《示范法》中的“有形资产”一语包括了金钱、可转让票据、纸质形式的可转让单证和有凭证非中介证券(即便后两种文书体现了无形权利),除非某些条款中所载规则不适宜于这些类型的资产(见第2条(ll)项)。
For example, the term "tangible asset" in the definition of the term "mass" (see art. 2, subpara. (s)) does not include negotiable documents because negotiable documents cannot be part of a mass as they are not fungible and therefore cannot be commingled with other documents in a manner that causes them to lose their separate identity.举例说,“混集物”一语定义中的“有形资产”一语(见第2条(s)项)不包括可转让单证,其原因是,可转让单证无法成为混集物的一部分,因为此类单证由于无法互换而无法以造成其丧失单独特性的方式与其他单证相混合。
Writing书面
70. The definition of the term "writing" is intended to ensure that where that term is referred to in the Model Law (see art. 2, subparas. (g) and (x), art. 6, para. 3, art. 63, paras. 2 and 9, art. 65, paras. 1 and 2, art. 77, para. 2 (a), art. 78, para. 4 (b) and art. 80, paras. 1, 2 (b), 4 and 6, of the Model Law, as well as art. 2, paras. 1-3, and art. 20, para. 5, of the Model Registry Provisions), this reference will include electronic communications (see art. 2, subpara. (nn)).70.“书面”一语的定义意在确保《示范法》提及该用语之时(见《示范法》第2条(g)和(x)项、第6条第3款、第63条第2款和第9款、第65条第1款和第2款、第77条第2款(a)项、第78条第4款(b)项和第80条第1款、第2款(b)项及第4款和第6款以及《登记处示范条文》第2条第1-3款和第20条第5款),该提及将包括电子通信(见第2条(nn)项)。
The definition is based on recommendation 11 of the Secured Transactions Guide, which in turn is based on article 9, paragraph 2, of the United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (the "Electronic Communications Convention").该定义基于《担保交易指南》建议11,而该建议又基于《联合国在国际合同中使用电子通信公约》(《电子通信公约》)第9条第2款。
However, the Model Law does not include a provision on the electronic equivalent of signature along the lines of recommendation 12 of the Secured Transactions Guide, which is in turn based on article 9, paragraph 3, of the Electronic Communications Convention.然而,《示范法》不包括与《担保交易指南》建议12内容大致类似的有关签名电子等同物的一项条款,后者又基于《电子通信公约》第9条第3款。
For the purpose of the articles of the Model Law that refer to signature (see art. 6, para. 1, and art. 65, paras. 1 and 2), the enacting States may wish to consider whether to include in their enactment of the Model Law an article along the lines of recommendation 12 of the Secured Transactions Guide.就《示范法》提及签名的条款而言(见第6条第1款与第65条第1和2款),颁布国不妨考虑是否在其对《示范法》的颁布中列入内容与《担保交易指南》建议12大致类似的一项条款。
International obligations of the enacting State颁布国的国际义务
71. The Model Law leaves it to the enacting State to decide, in the case of a conflict between a provision of the Model Law and a provision of any treaty or other form of agreement to which an enacting State is a party with one or more other States, whether the requirements of the treaty or agreement are to prevail (see art.71.如果《示范法》的某项条文同颁布国与其他一个或多个国家订立的任何条约或其他形式的协议的某项条文发生冲突,《示范法》将条约或协议的要求是否可能享有优先地位的问题交由颁布国决定。
3 of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency).条约或协议的要求可能享有优先地位(见《贸易法委员会跨国界破产示范法》第3条)。
This matter needs to be considered only in respect of international treaties that directly address matters governed by the Model Law.只是针对直接述及《示范法》管辖事项的国际条约,才需要述及这种做法。
In States, in which international treaties are not self-executing but require internal legislation to become law, such an approach might be inappropriate or unnecessary (see Guide to Enactment and Interpretation of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency, paras. 91-93).在国际条约无法自动执行而是需要国内立法方可成为法律的国家,这类做法可能并不合适或没有必要(见《贸易法委员会跨国界破产示范法》的颁布指南和解释,第91-93段)。
Article 3.第3条.
Party autonomy当事人意思自治
72.Article 3, paragraphs 1 and 2, reflects the rules in article 6 of the Assignment Convention and recommendation 10 of the Secured Transactions Guide.72.第3条第1款和第2款反映了《转让公约》第6条和《担保交易指南》建议10。
Paragraph 1 is intended to reflect the principle that, except for the provisions listed in paragraph 1, parties are free as between themselves to vary by agreement the effect of the provisions of the Model Law.第1款意在反映这样一条原则,即,除第1款所列举的条文外当事人可自行约定变更《示范法》条文在当事人之间效力的原则。
An agreement derogating from the provisions of the Model Law or varying its terms may be between any two parties whose rights are affected by the Model Law (e.g. between the secured creditor and the grantor, between the secured creditor and a competing claimant, between the secured creditor and the debtor of an encumbered receivable, or between the grantor and the debtor of the receivable).在其权利受到《示范法》影响的任何双方当事人之间(例如在有担保债权人和设保人之间、有担保债权人和相竞求偿人之间、有担保债权人和设保应收款的债务人之间或在设保人和应收款债务人之间),均可约定减损《示范法》的条文或变更其条款。
73.The provisions listed in paragraph 1 that are not subject to contrary agreement relate to matters that affect the rights of third parties or reflect a fundamental policy of such importance that their application should be mandatory.73.第1款列举的不受相反约定约束的条文事关反映第三方权利的事项或事关反映因其极为重要而必须强制适用的原则的事项。
In particular, article 4 sets out the general standard of conduct with which all persons must comply when exercising their rights and performing their obligations under the Model Law; article 6 establishes the requirements for the creation of a security right; article 9 deals with the standard for the description of encumbered assets and secured obligations; articles 53 and 54 (see paras. 370-375 below) deal with the obligations of the party in possession of an encumbered asset to exercise reasonable care and the obligation of the secured creditor to return encumbered assets in its possession; and article 72, paragraph 3 (see para. 424 below), prohibits a pre-default waiver of rights of the grantor and the debtor under the enforcement provisions of the Model Law in order to avoid abuse at the time of the conclusion of the security agreement.尤其是,第4条陈述了无论何人在根据《示范法》行使其现有权利并履行其义务时都必须遵守的一般行为标准;第6条确立了关于担保权创设的要求;第9条述及描述设保资产和有担保债务的标准;第53和54条(见下文第370-375段)述及设保资产占有权人行使合理谨慎的义务和有担保债权人返还其所占有的设保资产的义务;第72条第3款(见下文第424段)禁止违约前放弃设保人和债务人在《示范法》强制执行条文下所享权利,目的是避免在担保协议订立之时的滥权行为。
In addition, articles 85-100 (see paras. 473-524 below) set out the conflict-of-laws rules applicable to the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority and enforcement of security rights, as well as to the rights and obligations of third-party obligors.此外,第85-100条(见下文第473-524段)陈述了担保权创设、第三方效力、优先权和强制执行以及第三方承付人权利和义务所可适用的法律冲突规则。
Application of the law designated by these rules is mandatory and cannot be avoided by the parties' choice of a different law to ensure certainty with regard to the law applicable to these matters, which are bound to affect the rights of third parties, or the rights of the grantor and the debtor.适用由这些规则所指定的法律是强制性的,当事人不得通过选择另一不同的法律而予以规避,目的是确保这些事项的适用法律具有确定性,而这必然会影响第三方的权利或设保人和债务人的权利。
Articles 101-107 (see paras. 525 548 below) deal with transition to the new law and its application to security rights created under prior law, and are also mandatory to ensure a fair and orderly transition process.第101-107条(见下文第525-548段)述及向新的法律的过渡及其对在先前法律下所创设的担保权的适用,这些条款也是强制性的,目的是确保过渡进程公正有序。
74.Paragraph 2 reiterates the general principle of contract law that an agreement between two parties cannot affect the rights of a third party.74.第2款重申了双方当事人之间的协议不得影响第三方权利这条合同法的一般原则。
For example: (a) if one of two debtors of the same encumbered receivable agrees with the grantor, pursuant to article 65, not to raise certain defences against the secured creditor, that agreement does not bind the other debtor of the receivable, nor does it prevent that debtor from raising those defences as against another person who otherwise would have a prior right to payment of the receivable under article 63, paragraph 4 (see para. 401 below); and (b) if SC1, SC2 and SC3 have a security right in the same encumbered assets in that order of priority, and SC1 agrees to subordinate its security right to that of SC3, their agreement cannot affect the rights of SC2.举例说:(a)如果相同设保资产应收款两个债务人中有一个债务人依照第65条和设保人商定不对某一有担保债权人提出某些抗辩,该商定则对应收款的另一个债务人不具约束力,也不妨碍该债务人对另一人提出这类抗辩,该人不然根据第63条第4款享有应收款受付权的先前权利(见下文第401段);及(b)如果有对相同设保资产享有担保权的按此顺序排列的第一有担保债权人、第二有担保债权人和第三有担保债权人,并且第一有担保债权人同意将其担保权排在第三有担保债权人之后,则他们之间的商定不会影响到第二有担保债权人的权利。
The reason for reiterating this general principle of contract law is that the Model Law deals with relationships in which an agreement between two parties (e.g. the grantor and the secured creditor) might otherwise appear to have an undue impact on the rights of third parties (e.g. other creditors of the grantor).重申这条合同法一般原则的理由是,《示范法》处理两个当事人(例如设保人和有担保债权人)之间的协议不然可能似乎会对第三方当事人(例如设保人的其他债权人)的权利产生不适当的影响。
75.Paragraph 3 makes clear that, if other law allows the parties to a security agreement to agree to resolve any dispute with respect to their security agreement or a security right created by that agreement by arbitration, mediation, conciliation and online dispute resolution, nothing in the Model Law affects that agreement.75.第3款明确指出,如果其他法律允许担保协议当事人商定通过仲裁、调停、调解和网上争议解决来解决他们之间可能因其担保协议或由该协议创设的担保权而产生的任何争议,《示范法》概不影响该协议。
Paragraph 3 is based on the understanding that the use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms to resolve such disputes is important, particularly for countries with inefficient judicial enforcement mechanisms to attract investment, since the lack of efficient judicial enforcement mechanisms is likely to have a negative impact on the availability and the cost of credit.第3款所基于的理解是,利用替代争议解决机制来解决这类争议尤其对司法强制执行机制低效的国家吸引投资具有重要意义,因为缺乏有效的司法强制执行机制可能会对信贷的供应和成本产生消极影响。
It should be noted that, while paragraph 3 is intended to recognize the importance of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, it does not prejudice the discussion of arbitrability, the protection of rights of third parties or access to justice.应当指出的是,虽然第3款意在承认替代争议解决机制的重要性,但它对有关可仲裁性、保护第三方权利或司法救济的讨论并不预设立场。
Article 4.第4条.
General standards of conduct一般行为标准
76.76.
Article 4 reflects the rules in recommendation 131 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, para. 15).第4条反映了《担保交易指南》建议131所述规则(见第八章第15段)。
It is included in chapter I on the scope of application and general provisions, rather than in chapter VII on enforcement, as it states standards of conduct with which parties should comply when they exercise their rights and perform their obligations under the Model Law, even outside the context of enforcement.之所以把该条列入关于适用范围和一般条文的第一章而不是列入关于强制执行的第七章,是因为该条陈述了当事人甚至在强制执行范围外根据《示范法》行使其权利并履行其义务时所应遵守的行为标准。
Under article 4, a person must exercise all its rights and perform all its obligations under the Model Law in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner.根据第4条,某一人必须秉承善意并以商业合理方式根据《示范法》行使其所有权利并履行其所有义务。
A breach of this obligation may result in liability for damages and other consequences that are left to the relevant law of the enacting State.违反该项义务可能会导致损害赔偿责任以及将交由颁布国相关法律处理的其他后果。
77.77.
The concept of "commercial reasonableness" is not defined in the Model Law but it is generally understood to refer to actions that a reasonable person would take in circumstances similar to those encountered in a particular case by a person exercising a right or performing an obligation under the Model Law.“商业合理性”的概念在《示范法》中未予界定,但它通常被理解为是指理性人在类似于根据《示范法》行使权利或履行义务的某一人所遇到的特定情形而可能采取的行动。
While the standard is an objective one, depending on the circumstances and the type of right or obligation involved, a range of actions may meet the objective standard of "commercial reasonableness".虽然所述标准是客观的,但取决于所涉情形和权利或义务的类型,范围广泛的多种行动都可被视为符合“商业合理性”的客观标准。
It should be noted that satisfying a specific standard referred to in a provision of the Model Law (e.g. art. 78, para. 4, and para. 448 below, according to which a notice of the intended disposition of an encumbered asset must be given by the enforcing secured creditor before the expiry of the time period specified by the enacting State) should generally be sufficient to meet the general standards of conduct referred to in this article.应当指出的是,满足《示范法》条文所述(例如第78条第4款和下文第448段,据以在颁布国所述时限期满前必须由负责强制执行的有担保债权人提供有关设保资产的预期处分通知)特定标准一般应当足以满足该条所述一般行为标准。
It should also be noted that article 4 is listed in article 3 as a mandatory rule.还应当指出的是,第4条在第3条中被列作一条强制性规则。
As a result, the duty to act in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner cannot be waived or varied by agreement.因此,不得放弃或经约定变更秉承善意和以商业合理方式行事的义务。
Thus, a term of a security agreement stating that that the parties agree that a particular course of action is commercially reasonable is not effective if the specified course of action is not in fact commercially reasonable from an objective perspective.所以声明当事人商定具有商业合理性的担保协议的条款如果其所述行动从客观角度来看事实上不具商业合理性,则该协议条款不具效力。
Article 5.第5条.
International origin and general principles国际渊源和一般原则
78.Article 5 is inspired by article 7 of the CISG and article 3 of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce, article 4 of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures and article 2A of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.78.第5条受到了以下条款的启发:《销售公约》第7条、《贸易法委员会电子商务示范法》第3条、《贸易法委员会电子签名示范法》第4条和《贸易法委员会国际商事仲裁示范法》第2A条。
It is intended to provide guidance in the interpretation of the Model Law.它意在为解释《示范法》提供指导。
The expected effect of article 5 is to limit the extent to which the Model Law, once incorporated in national law, would be interpreted only by reference to concepts of national law.第5条的预期效果是,限制在《示范法》纳入国家法律以后仅参照国家法律的概念对其作出解释的范围。
79.The purpose of the reference in paragraph 1 to the international origin of the Model Law is to draw the attention of any person that might be called upon to interpret and apply a national law implementing the Model Law to the fact that its provisions, while part of a national law, should be interpreted and applied in a manner that will promote uniformity among all enacting States.79.第1款参照《示范法》国际渊源的目的是提请可能会被要求解释和适用执行《示范法》的某项国家法律的任何人注意这样一个事实,即对作为国家法律一部分的《示范法》的条文,将以促进在所有颁布国之间统一的方式加以解释和应用。
Good faith in paragraph 1 is a consideration to be taken into account in the interpretation of the Model Law.第1款中的善意是在解释《示范法》时所应顾及的一个考虑。
相形之下,应当指出的是,第1款中的“善意”一语确定了解释《示范法》所必须考虑的一个因素。
In contrast, reference to good faith in article 4 sets a standard to be complied with by all persons in the exercise of their rights and the performance of their obligations under the Model Law.相形之下,第4条中的“善意”一语陈述了任何人在根据《示范法》行使其权利并履行其义务时所应遵守的某项标准。
80.80.
Under paragraph 2, any gaps in a law implementing the Model Law are to be filled by reference to the general principles on which the Model Law is based.在第2款下,必须参照《示范法》所依据的一般原则来填补关于执行《示范法》的法律上存在的空白。
As already noted (see paras. 5 and 18 above), the primary objective of (or general principle underlying) the Model Law is to enhance the availability of credit at more affordable rates (for a complete statement and discussion of the key objectives of an effective and efficient secured transactions law, see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 1 and Introduction, paras. 43-59).如同已经注意到的(见上文第5和第18段),《示范法》的主要目的(或所依据的一般原则)是以更可承受的费率提高信贷的供应(关于对卓有成效的担保交易法律关键目标的完备阐述和讨论,见《担保交易指南》建议1和导言第43-59段)。
Chapter II.第二章.
Creation of a security right担保权的创设
A.A.
General rules一般规则
81.This chapter contains a section A with general rules and a section B with asset-specific rules.81.本章载有有关一般规则的A节和有关资产特定规则的B节。
The distinction between general and asset-specific rules is adopted in chapters III (third-party effectiveness), V (priority), VI (rights and obligations of the parties and third-party obligors), VII (enforcement) and VIII (conflict of laws). This distinction is adopted to avoid overloading the general rules with asset-specific details.第三章(第三方效力)、第五章(优先权)和第六章(当事人和第三方承付人的权利和义务)、第七章(强制执行)和第八章(法律冲突)之所以采用对一般规则和资产特定规则加以区分的做法,是为了避免让一般规则有关于资产特定规定的过多细节。
The general rules apply to all assets, but, in relation to certain types of asset, they apply subject to the asset-specific rules.一般规则适用于所有资产,但对于某些类型的资产,这些规则的适用不得违反资产特定规则。
The enacting State may wish to consider whether to include in the general rules of each chapter of its law cross-references to the asset-specific rules or a provision that states explicitly that the general rules in each chapter are subject to the asset-specific rules (see footnote 4 of the Model Law).颁布国不妨考虑究竟是在各章一般规则中列入其法律交叉参引该章资产特定规则的内容,还是拟就一则条文,明确表示各章中的一般规则不得违反资产特定规则(见《示范法》脚注4)。
Enacting States are encouraged to enact the Model Law in its entirety, including the asset-specific rules (particularly those relating to core commercial assets, such as receivables).鼓励颁布国整个颁布《示范法》,包括资产特定规则(特别是与诸如应收款等核心商业资产有关的资产的规则)。
Enacting States should only consider omitting asset-specific rules if they relate to assets that are unlikely to serve as the basis for secured credit in that State.颁布国只应在资产特定规则关涉不可能作为该国担保信贷基础的资产的唯一条件下方可考虑省略资产特定规则。
Article 6.第6条.
Creation of a security right and requirements for a security agreement担保权的创设和担保协议的要求
82.Article 6 is generally based on recommendations 13-15 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 12-37).82.第6条大体基于《担保交易指南》建议13-15(见第二章,第12-37段)。
Its purpose is to state the requirements for the creation of a security right, as well as the form and the minimum content of a security agreement, so as to enable parties to obtain a security right in a simple and efficient manner (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 1, subpara. (c)).其目的是表述关于担保权创设及担保协议形式和最低限度内容的要求,目的是让当事人以简单有效的方式取得担保权(见《担保交易指南》建议1(c)项)。
83.Under paragraph 1, a security right is created by a security agreement, for the conclusion of which no terms of art or special words need be used (see art. 2, subpara. (jj), and para. 67 above).83.根据第1款,担保权由担保协议创设,担保协议的订立不需要使用任何的条款或特别措辞(见第2条(jj)项和上文第67段)。
The creation of a security right is subject to the condition that the grantor has either rights in the asset to be encumbered or the power to encumber it.担保权的创设不得违反设保人要么对拟设保资产享有权利要么有权将其作保的先决条件。
The term "rights" is not limited to ownership rights.“权利”一语并不限定于所有权权利。
For example, if the grantor is in possession of the asset on the basis of an agreement, such as a lease agreement, with the owner of the asset, the grantor has a right to create a security right in its rights under the lease agreement.举例说,如果设保人基于同所有人之间的租赁协议之类协议占有资产,设保人即享有根据租赁协议在其权利上创设担保权的权利。
84.A person may have the power, by operation of other law or by agreement with the owner, to grant a security right in an asset in which it has no rights or only limited rights.84.一人可经由其他法律的运作或与所有人之间的协议而有权让与其无权或仅享有有限权利的资产上的担保权。
A person may also have this power by implication from the operation of the third-party effectiveness and priority rules of the Model Law.一人还可经由《示范法》第三方效力和优先权规则的运作而默示享有该项权力。
For example, a financial lease is a security right under the Model Law's functional concept of security right; and it is the clear intent of these rules that a lessor's ownership rights could be ineffective against or rank behind another secured creditor of the lessee in certain circumstances (e.g. if the lessor fails to make its right in the leased asset effective against third parties at all or in a timely fashion; see arts. 18 and 38).举例说,金融租赁是《示范法》有关担保权功能性概念下的一项担保权;这些规则的显然意图是,在某些情况下(例如如果租赁人未能使其在租赁资产上的权利享有对抗第三方的效力或未能使其权利及时享有该效力;见第18条和第38条),租赁人的所有权可能不具有对抗承租人另一有担保债权人的效力,或排在承租人另一有担保债权人的权利之后。
For these third-party effectiveness and priority rules to apply, the lessee must have the power to encumber the leased asset in favour of the other secured creditor, even though it only has possessory rights in the asset as against the lessor.适用这些第三方效力和优先权规则的前提是,承租人必须有权将租赁资产用作给其他有担保债权人设保,即便其只对租赁人享有资产上的占有式权利。
85.A similar result may apply where the creditor of a receivable transfers the receivable outright to A and then purports to create a security right in that same receivable to B.85.应收款债权人将应收款彻底转让给A然后在相同应收款上意图给B创设担保权,对于此种情况,可适用类似的结果。
Since the third-party effectiveness and priority rules of the Model Law apply to outright transfers of receivables by agreement, it follows that, if A does not make its right effective against third parties before B does so, B will have priority over A.由于《示范法》的第三方效力和优先权规则适用于经协议的应收款彻底转让,因此,如果A未在B之前使其权利具有对抗第三方的权利,B则对A享有优先权。
For this to be the case, the grantor needs to have the power to create a security right in favour of B even if it had previously transferred all its rights in the receivables to A.此种情况的前提是,设保人需要有权给B创设担保权,即便其此前已将其在应收款上的所有权利转让给了A。
86.It should also be noted that, in line with article 13, paragraph 1 (see para. 109 below), a creditor of a receivable to which that article applies has the right to encumber it despite any anti-assignment agreement with the debtor of the receivable.86.还应指出的是,按照第13条第1款(见下文第109段),本条所适用的应收款债权人虽有与应收款债务人之间的任何禁止转让协议,但仍然有权将应收款作保。
87.Paragraph 2 clarifies that a security agreement may provide for the creation of a security right in future assets (i.e. assets produced or acquired by the grantor after the conclusion of the security agreement; see definition in art. 2, subpara. (n)).87.第2款所作的澄清是,担保协议可就未来资产(即在订立担保协议之后由设保人提供或者获取的资产;见第2条(n)项中的定义)上担保权的创设作出规定。
However, the security right is created in the future assets only when the grantor acquires rights in them or the power to encumber them.然而,唯有在设保人获取其对未来资产的权利或对其加以设保的权力之时未来资产上的担保权方能创设。
88.Paragraph 3 states that a writing signed by the grantor is required for a security agreement and sets out the minimum contents of the writing.88.第3款称担保协议必须是书面的并由设保人签名,它列出了书面最低限度的内容。
Written form provides objective evidence of the existence of a security agreement and its key terms (for other reasons why a written security agreement might be required, see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. II, para. 30).书面形式提供了表明担保协议及其关键术语存在的客观证据(关于缘何可能需要有担保协议的其他理由,见《担保交易指南》第二章,第30段)。
From the two alternative wordings set out in the chapeau of paragraph 3 within square brackets, the enacting State may wish to select the one that best fits with its contract law and its law of evidence.从第3款起始句置于方括号内的两组备选措辞来看,颁布国不妨选择与其合同法和证据法最为适合的措辞。
If the enacting State selects the words "concluded in", a security agreement that is not in a writing signed by the grantor will not be effective, unless the secured creditor has possession of the encumbered assets (see art. 6, para. 4, see para. 90 below).如果颁布国选择“……订立”的措辞,则除非有担保债权人占有设保资产(见第6条第4款和下文第90段),并非由设保人签名的书面的担保协议即为无效。
For example, a written offer by the secured creditor that is subsequently accepted by the grantor by conduct would not be a sufficient security agreement under this option.举例说,由有担保债权人提出并且随后由设保人通过其行为加以接受的书面要约在该选项下不能构成充分的担保协议。
If the enacting State retains the words "evidenced by", however, a security agreement that is not in a writing signed by the grantor would still be effective if its terms are evidenced by a written document signed by the grantor (i.e. an oral agreement that is subsequently confirmed in writing).然而,如果颁布国保留“体现为”的措辞,并非由设保人签名的书面的担保协议如果其条款以由设保人签名的书面文书(例如其后经书面确认的口头协议)体现则将仍然有效。
89.Depending on what it considers as the most efficient financing practices and on reasonable expectations of local credit market participants, an enacting State may wish to consider whether to retain the requirement for a security agreement to specify the maximum amount for which the security right may be enforced (set out in brackets in paragraph 3 (d)).89.取决于它所认为的最为有效的融资做法和当地信贷市场参与方的合理期望,颁布国不妨考虑是否保留担保协议指明可强制执行担保权的最高数额的要求(载述于第3款(d)项中的括号)。
The rationale for this requirement is to facilitate the grantor's access to secured financing from other creditors in situations where the value of the assets encumbered by the prior security right exceeds the maximum amount agreed to by the parties in their security agreement.采用该要求的理据是为了便利设保人在由先前担保权设保的资产价值超出由当事人在其担保协议中商定的最高数额情况下向其他债权人争取担保融资。
Another approach is to leave out paragraph 3 (d), in order to facilitate the grantor's access to credit from the initial secured creditor (for the comparative advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches, see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. IV, paras. 92-97, and Registry Guide, paras. 200-204).另一种做法是,删除第3款(d)项,目的是便利设保人争取由头一个有担保债权人提供的信贷(关于这两种做法的相对优劣之处,见《担保交易指南》第四章,第92-97段和《登记处指南》第200-204段)。
If paragraph 3 (d) is retained, the enacting State will need to require the maximum amount to be set out in the notice registered in relation to that security agreement (see art. 8, subpara. (e), of the Model Registry Provisions, and para. 176 below).如果保留第3款(d)项,颁布国就会需要必须在就该担保协议所登记的通知中载明最高数额(见《登记处示范条文》第8条(e)项和下文第176段)。
Otherwise the objective of paragraph 3 (d) would not be realized because the maximum amount would not be disclosed to potential subsequent secured creditors upon a search of the registry record (art. 24, para. 7, of the Model Registry Provisions would also need to be retained to deal with an error in stating the maximum amount in the notice).不然则将无法实现第3款(d)项的目的,因为在查询登记处记录之时该最高数额不会为潜在后继有担保债权人所知悉(还需要保留《登记处示范条文》第24条第7款以处理通知对最高数额的记载有误的问题)。
90.Under paragraph 4, where the secured creditor is in possession of the encumbered asset, an oral security agreement with the grantor is sufficient for a security right to be created.90.根据有担保债权人占有设保资产的第4款,如果要创设担保权,与设保人之间的口头担保协议即已足够。
This is because the fact that the secured creditor is in possession of the encumbered asset is itself evidence that the grantor may not have unencumbered ownership (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. II, para. 33).这是因为有担保债权人占有设保资产的事实本身即是设保人可能并不享有未设保所有权的证据(见《担保交易指南》第二章,第33段)。
Article 7. Obligations that may be secured第7条.可作担保的债务
91.Article 7 is based on recommendation 16 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 38-48).91.第7条基于《担保交易指南》建议16(见第二章,第38-48段)。
It is primarily intended to ensure that any type of obligation may be secured, including future, conditional or fluctuating obligations.该条主要意在确保可对包括今后的、有条件的或浮动的债务等任何类型的负债加以作保。
The main reason for this approach is to facilitate modern financing transactions, in which secured obligations are not necessarily present, unconditional or fixed since disbursements of funds by the secured creditor need to be made at different times depending on the needs of the grantor (e.g. revolving credit facilities for the grantor to buy inventory).采取这一做法的主要原因是,便利现代融资交易的进行,在此类交易中,不一定存在有担保债务,这类担保债务也不一定是无条件的或固定的,其原因是,有担保债权人需要根据设保人的需求而在不同时间段分配资金(例如便于设保人购置库存品的循环信贷)。
Article 8. Assets that may be encumbered第8条.可以设保的资产
92.Article 8 is based on recommendation 17 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 49-57 and 61-70).92.第8条基于《担保交易指南》建议17(见第二章,第49-57段和第61-70段)。
It is primarily intended to ensure that future movable assets, parts of movable assets or undivided rights in movable assets, generic categories of movable assets, as well as all the movable assets of a person, may be the subject of a security agreement (for the time when a security right in future assets is created, see art. 6, para. 2, and para. 87 above).它主要意在确保未来动产、部分动产或动产未分割权益、通类动产以及一人的所有动产均可成为担保协议的标的(关于从创设未来资产上担保权之时起算的时间,见第6条第2款和上文第87段)。
93.The fact that future movable assets may be subject to a security right does not mean that statutory limitations on the creation or enforcement of a security right in specific types of movable asset (e.g. employment benefits in general or up to a specific amount) are overridden (see art. 1, para. 6, and para. 31 above).93.未来动产可受制于担保权这一事实并不意味着可撤消对特定类别动产(例如一般的就业津贴或至多不超过某一具体数额的就业津贴)上担保权创设或强制执行的法定限制(见第1条第6款和上文第31段)。
However, any such limitations should be limited and described in the law in a clear and specific way (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec.17).然而。应在法律中以明确具体的方式对任何这类限制加以限定和描述(见《担保交易指南》建议17)。
94.The fact that all the movable assets a person has may be subject to a security right so as to maximize the amount of credit that may be available and improve the terms of the credit agreement does not mean that other creditors of the grantor are necessarily unprotected.94.一人所有的所有动产均可受制于担保权以使所可利用的信贷数额最大化并改进信贷协议条款的事实并不意味着设保人的其他债权人必然不受保护。
The protection of other creditors (within and outside insolvency proceedings) is a matter for other law and is referred to in articles 35 and 36 (see paras. 312-316 below).对其他债权人的保护(在破产程序内外)是其他法律的处理事项,在第35和36条(见下文第312-316段)中已予提及。
Article 9.第9条.
Description of encumbered assets and secured obligations对设保资产和有担保债务的描述
95.Article 9 is based on recommendation 14 (d) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 58-60).95.第9条基于《担保交易指南》建议14(d)项(见第二章,第58-60段)。
For purposes of clarity and organization, the standard for the description of encumbered assets in a security agreement is presented in a separate article (rather than in art. 6, para. 3, as it was done in rec. 14 (d) of the Secured Transactions Guide).为清楚和便于安排起见,担保协议中描述设保资产的标准在单独一条中另行载述(而不是如同《担保交易指南》建议14(d)项的做法在第6条第3款中载述)。
Article 9 extends the standard to the description of secured obligations.第9条将该标准推展至对担保债务的描述。
96.Paragraph 1 sets out the standard that must be met for the description of encumbered assets and the secured obligations in a security agreement to be effective (the description must reasonably allow their identification).96.第1款陈述了为使担保协议有效而在对设保资产和有担保债务的描述方面所必须达到的标准(该描述必须合理允许确定其身份)。
Paragraph 2 is intended to ensure that, if a security right is created in a generic category of assets under article 8, subparagraph (c), a generic description in the security agreement, such as "all inventory" or "all receivables", is sufficient to meet the standard in paragraph 1 (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. II, paras. 58-67; for the description of encumbered assets in a notice, see art. 11 of the Model Registry Provisions. and paras. 185-188 below).第2款意在确保,如果根据第8条(c)项而在某一通类资产上创设了担保权,诸如“所有库存品”或“所有应收款”之类担保协议中的通类描述即足以满足第1款中的标准(见《担保交易指南》第二章,第58-67段;关于通知对设保资产的描述,见《登记处示范条文》第11条和下文第185-188段)。
Paragraph 3 similarly recognizes that a description of the secured obligation as all obligations owed to the secured creditor at any time likewise meets the standard in paragraph 1 (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. II, para. 46).第3款同样承认,将担保债务描述为在任何时候对有担保债权人的所有欠债同样符合第1款中的标准(见《担保交易指南》第二章,第46段)。
Article 10. Rights to proceeds and commingled funds第10条.对收益和混合款项的权利
97.Article 10 is based on recommendations 19 and 20 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 72-89).97.第10条基于《担保交易指南》建议19和20(见第二章,第72-89段)。
Paragraph 1 is intended to ensure that, unless otherwise agreed by the parties (as this article is not listed in art. 3 as a mandatory law rule; the same applies to other articles not listed in art. 3 as mandatory law rules), a security right in an asset automatically extends to its identifiable proceeds, including identifiable proceeds of proceeds (for the definition of "proceeds" see art. 2, subpara. (bb), and para. 59 above).第1款意在确保,除非当事人另行约定,(因为该条在第3条中未被列作一条强制性法律规则,这同样适用于在第3条中未被列作强制性规则的其他条款),某一资产上的担保权自动延伸至其可识别收益,包括收益的可识别收益(关于“收益”的定义,见第2条(bb)项和上文第59段)。
Otherwise, a grantor could effectively deprive a secured creditor of its security by disposing of the encumbered assets either to a person who would take free of the security right or to a person from whom those assets could not easily be recovered.不然,设保人可有效剥夺有担保债权人的担保权,将设保资产处分给不连带担保权取得资产的某一人或将资产处分给无法向其轻易追回这些资产的某一人。
98.Under the Model Law, unless the buyer or other transferee acquires the encumbered asset free of the security right (see, for example, art. 34, para. 4, and para. 306 below), the secured creditor has the right to enforce its security right both in the original encumbered asset and in the proceeds up to the amount of the secured obligation outstanding at the time of enforcement, even when that amount is greater than the value of the original encumbered asset at the time of disposition.98.根据《示范法》,除非买受人或其他受让人不连带设保资产取得设保资产(例如见第34条第4款和下文第306段),有担保债权人有权强制执行其在原始设保资产和收益上的担保权,但数额至多为在强制执行之时未结担保债务的数额,即便该数额大于在处分之时原始设保资产的价值。
The rationale for this rule is that it reflects the normal expectations of the parties (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. II, para. 85).该条规则所持理据是,它反映了当事人的正常期望(见《担保交易指南》第二章第85段)。
99.For example, where the original encumbered asset is inventory, receivables generated from the sale of the inventory are proceeds (if they are identifiable).99.举例说,原始设保资产是库存品的,出售库存品所得应收款即是收益(如果可以识别这类应收款的话)。
If the funds received on payment of the receivables are deposited in a bank account, the right to payment of the funds credited to the bank account is also proceeds (proceeds of proceeds of the inventory).如果将支付应收款后所得款项存放在银行账户,该银行账户的贷记款受付权也将是收益(库存品收益的收益)。
So, too, is a right to payment pursuant to a negotiable instrument (e.g. a cheque drawn by the holder of that bank account to buy new inventory).依照可转让票据的受付权(例如该银行账户持有人为购置新的库存品而签发的支票)也是如此。
If the description of the encumbered asset in the security agreement is sufficiently comprehensive to cover all assets received in respect of the original encumbered asset, they will be both original encumbered assets and proceeds.如果担保协议对设保资产作出了充分全面的描述,并且该描述涵盖在原始设保资产方面所接收的所有资产,这些资产将都是原始设保资产和收益。
100.As a security right under paragraph 1 extends only to "identifiable" proceeds, a security right in proceeds terminates once it is no longer possible to identify the relevant asset as derived from the original encumbered asset or its identifiable proceeds.100.由于第1款下的担保权仅延伸至“可识别”收益,一旦无法再识别源于原始设保资产或其可识别收益的相关资产,收益上的担保权即告终止。
Paragraph 2 introduces an exception to the identifiability requirement in paragraph 1 where proceeds in the form of money are commingled with other money of the same currency or funds credited to a bank account are commingled with other funds deposited to that account.第2款引入了一条关于第1款中可识别要求的除外规定,在该款中,以货币为形式的收益与同一币种的其他货币相混合,或银行账户贷记款与存放在该账户的其他款项相混合。
Even though the proceeds cannot be identified separately from the other money or fund, paragraph 2 (a) provides that the security right in the proceeds extends to the commingled money or funds.即便无法将收益与其他货币或款项区分开来,但第2款(a)项规定,收益上的担保权将延伸至混合后的货币或款项。
However, paragraph 2 (b) limits that security right to the value of the proceeds immediately before they were commingled.然而,第2款(b)项将该担保权限定于在混合前即刻存在的收益的价值。
For example, if proceeds in the amount of €1,000 are deposited to a bank account that has a credit balance of €1,500 or to which €1,500 are deposited, the security right in the proceeds extends only to €1,000, subject to the limitation in paragraph 2 (c).举例说,如果把1,000欧元的数额存放在贷方余额为1,500欧元的银行账户,或在该账户中存放了1,500欧元,则在不违反第2(c)款所述限制的前提下,收益上的担保权只延伸至1,000欧元。
101.Paragraph 2 (c) deals with situations in which money or funds are withdrawn after the proceeds are commingled so that at some point of time, the total amount of money or funds is less than the amount of the proceeds (in the example set out in the previous paragraph, less than €1,000).101.第2款(c)项处理在将收益相混合之后撤回货币或款项以致在某一时间点上货币或款项的总额少于收益数额的情况(在上一段所列范例中少于1,000欧元)。
Even if money or funds are subsequently added, the security right extends only to the lowest amount between the time when the proceeds were commingled and the time the security right in the proceeds is claimed.即便后来添加了货币或款项,担保权仍然只延伸至从款项混合之时到主张收益上担保权之时的最低数额。
So, in the example given in the previous paragraph, if the balance in the bank account immediately after the proceeds were deposited was €1,500, then it went down to €500 and at the time of enforcement was €750, the security right extends only to €500 (i.e. the lowest intermediate balance).因此,如果在上一段列举的范例中,存放收益后银行账户上即刻存在的结余是1,500欧元,然后下降至500欧元,并在强制执行之时是750欧元,担保权只延伸至500欧元(即最低的中间值结余)。
The rationale for this approach is that, if the credit balance of a bank account or the total amount of commingled money falls below the amount of the proceeds, funds deposited or money added thereafter cannot be deemed to be proceeds of the original encumbered assets.采取这一做法的理据是,如果银行账户的贷方结余或混合后货币的总额降至收益的数额以下,后来存放的款项或添加的货币就不可能被视为是原始设保资产的收益。
102.Where funds in a bank account are original encumbered assets, and the funds are transferred into another bank account of the grantor and mixed with other funds in that other account, then the funds transferred into that other account will be "proceeds" of the original encumbered assets, and thus the rules in article 10 will apply.102.银行账户中的款项是原始设保资产的,且将款项转入设保人的另一个银行账户并同该另一账户的其他款项相混合的,则转入该另一账户的款项即是原始设保资产的“收益”,因而第10条中的规则将予以适用。
Article 11.第11条.
Tangible assets commingled in a mass or transformed into a product混合在混集物中或转换为制成物的有形资产
103.Article 11 is generally based on recommendations 22 and 91 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 90-95 and 100-102, and chap. V, paras. 117-123).103.第11条基本基于《担保交易指南》建议22和91(见第二章,第90-95段、第100-102段和第五章,第117-123段)。
It accomplishes two objectives.它完成了两个目标。
First, paragraph 1 provides that a security right in a tangible asset that is commingled with other assets of the same kind in a mass, or transformed into a product extends to the mass or product (for the definitions of the terms "mass" and "product", see art. 2, subparas. (s) and (cc)).首先,第1款规定,与混集物上同类其他资产相混合或转换为制成物的有形资产上担保权延伸至该混集物或制成物(关于“混集物”和“制成物”的用语的定义,见第2条(s)和(cc)项)。
Second, paragraphs 2 and 3 limit the value of that security right albeit in different ways.其次,第2款和第3款对该担保权的价值加以限定,虽然方式各有不同。
Article 33 then addresses situations in which more than one secured creditor has a claim to a mass or product under article 11.第33条则处理第11条下不只一个有担保债权人依据其对混集物或制成物组成部分的担保权而对混集物或制成物提出求偿权的问题。
104.Under paragraph 2, a security right in a tangible asset that extends to a mass under paragraph 1 is limited to the same proportion of the mass that the asset bore to the quantity of the entire mass immediately after it was commingled in the mass.104.根据第2款,延伸至第1款下混集物的有形资产上担保权限定于该混集物所占比例,一如资产混合于混集物后该资产即刻在混集物总量中所占比例。
Thus, if a secured creditor has a security right in 100,000 litres of oil that is commingled with 50,000 litres of oil in the same tank so that the mass comprises 150,000 litres of oil, the security right is limited to two-thirds of the oil in the tank (i.e. 100,000 litres).因此,如果有担保债权人对同相同油库中50,000升石油混合的100,000升石油享有担保权,以至于该混集物由150,000升石油组成,担保权则限定于该油库中三分之二的石油(即100,000升石油)。
If the quantity of the oil in the tank decreases, the secured creditor will have a security right in only two-thirds of the oil in the tank.如果油库中石油的数量减少,有担保债权人只对油库中三分之二的石油享有担保权。
For example, if only 75,000 litres remain in the tank, then the secured creditor will have a security right in only two-thirds of those 75,000 litres, namely in 50,000 litres.举例说,如果油库中只剩下75,000升石油,则有担保债权人只对这75,000升石油中三分之二的石油享有担保权,也就是说对50,000升石油享有担保权。
105.The limit on the secured creditor's security right in the mass under paragraph 2 is set by reference to the quantity of the asset, rather than its value.105.根据第2款对混集物上有担保债权人担保权的限额是参照资产数量而不是参照资产价值予以设定。
Decreases or increases in the value of the asset are therefore irrelevant to the rule in paragraph 2.因此,资产价值的减少或增加与第2款中的规则无关。
Thus, in the example in the previous paragraph, the value of the security right in the oil will decrease if the value of the oil in the tank goes down and correspondingly increase if the value of the oil in the tank goes up.因此,在前一款中的实例中,如果油库中石油的价值下降,石油上担保权的价值也将随之下降,如果油库中石油的价值上升,担保权的价值也将随之上升。
This reflects commercial expectations, as it puts the secured creditor in the same position that the secured creditor would have been in if the oil had not been commingled in the tank with other oil in the first place.这种情况所反映的商业期望是,有担保债权人所处地位不变,一如油库中的石油未同其他石油混合时有担保债权人所处地位。
106.Paragraph 3 addresses the situation where the encumbered tangible assets are transformed into a product rather than being commingled in a fungible mass.106.第3款述及设保有形资产被转化为制成品而并非同可替代混集物相混合的情形。
Under paragraph 3, the security right in the product is limited by reference to the value, rather than the quantity, of the encumbered assets immediately before they became part of the product.根据第3款,制成品上的担保权是参照在成为制成品一部分之前即刻存在的设保资产的价值而并非其数量加以限定的。
Otherwise, the secured creditor would obtain a windfall gain if the value of the finished product were greater than the value of its components (e.g. because of value that is added by the debtor's production efforts including the labour of its employees; see Secured Transactions Guide chap. II, para. 94).如果制成品价值大于其组成部分的价值(例如由于债务人的生产活动包括其受雇人的劳动而创造的附加值;见《担保交易指南》第二章,第94段),有担保债权人就会收获意想不到的好处。
In addition, assets that contribute to a product may be of different types and so a quantitative comparison is not appropriate.此外,给某一制成物做出贡献的资产可能属于不同的类型,并因而不宜进行定量比较。
Thus, if encumbered gold worth €100 is fashioned into a ring worth €500, or encumbered flour worth €100 is mixed with yeast to make bread worth €500, the security right is limited to €100.因此,如果把价值100欧元的作保黄金制作成价值500欧元的项链,或如果把价值100欧元的作保面粉与酵母混合制作成价值500欧元的面包,担保权将限定于100欧元。
Article 12.第12条.
Extinguishment of security rights担保权的消灭
107.Under article 12, a security right is extinguished only where there is full payment or other satisfaction of all secured obligations and there is no longer any commitment on the part of the secured creditor to extend further credit secured by the security right.107.根据第12条,只有在全额支付或以其他方式清偿所有有担保债务并且有担保债权人不再承诺提供由担保权作保的进一步信贷的情况下担保权方可消灭。
For example, if a security right secures an amount owed under a revolving credit agreement, the security right is not extinguished simply because temporarily there may be no amount outstanding, since there is still a potential future obligation by virtue of the commitment of the secured creditor to extend further credit.举例说,如果担保权给在周转信贷协议下的所欠数额作保,该担保权不会简单地因为可能暂时不存在任何未欠数额而予消灭。因为根据有担保债权人提供进一步信贷的承诺而可能仍然存在潜在的未来债务。
108.108.
The extinguishment of a security right triggers the obligation of a secured creditor in possession to return the encumbered asset, or of a secured creditor that has registered a notice of its security right, to register an amendment or cancellation notice (see art. 54 of the Model Law, and paras. 373-375 below), as well as art. 20, para. 3 (c), of the Model Registry Provisions, and para. 214 below).担保权的消灭触发享有占有权的有担保债权人返还设保资产的义务或已经办理其担保权通知登记的有担保债权人办理修订通知或取消通知的登记的义务(见《示范法》第54条和下文第373-375段及《登记处示范条文》第20条第3款(c)项和下文第214段)。
B.B.
Asset-specific rules资产特定规则
Article 13. Contractual limitations on the creation of security rights in receivables第13条.对创设应收款担保权的合同限制
109.Article 13 is based on recommendation 24 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 106-110 and 113), which in turn is based on article 9 of the Assignment Convention.109.第13条基于《担保交易指南》建议24(见第二章,第106-110段和第113段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第9条。
Paragraph 1 provides that an agreement limiting the grantor's right to create a security right in the receivables listed in paragraph 3 (often referred to as "trade receivables") does not prevent a security right created by the grantor from being effective.第1款规定,关于限制设保人对第3款所列应收款(通常称作“贸易应收款”)创设担保权的权利的协议不妨碍由设保人创设的担保权取得效力。
The rationale underlying this approach is to facilitate the use of receivables as security for credit (see para. 112 below), which is in the interest of the economy, without unduly interfering with party autonomy.该做法的基本理据是,便利将应收款用作信贷担保(见下文第112段),而这符合经济体的利益,不会对当事人意思自治构成不当干扰。
This rule does not affect statutory limitations on the creation or enforcement of a security right in certain types of receivable (e.g. consumer or sovereign receivables; see art. 1, paras. 5 and 6, and paras. 30 and 31 above).该条规则不影响对某些类型的应收款(例如消费者应收款或主权应收款;见第1条第5和6款及上文第30段和31段)上担保权创设或强制执行的合同限制。
110.The agreement referred to in paragraph 1 may have been entered into: (a) between the initial creditor/grantor and the debtor of the receivable (e.g. where the encumbered receivable is the claim of a seller for the outstanding balance of the purchase price, an agreement between the seller and the buyer); (b) where the initial creditor/grantor transfers the receivable to another person and that person creates a security right in the receivable, between that person (referred to in article 13 as a subsequent grantor) and the debtor of the receivable (e.g. where the seller sells the receivable to A and A creates a security right in favour of B, an agreement between A and the debtor of the receivable); (c) between the initial creditor/grantor and the initial secured creditor (e.g. an agreement between the seller and A); and (d) where the initial creditor/grantor transfers the receivable to a person and that person creates a security right, between that person (referred to in art. 13 as a subsequent grantor) and any secured creditor who obtained a security right from that person (referred to in art. 13 as a subsequent secured creditor; e.g. an agreement between A and B).110.可在以下各方之间订立第1款所述协议:(a)在初始债权人/设保人和应收款债务人之间(例如在设保应收款是卖方对购置款未结余额的债权情况下卖方和买方之间的协议);(b)初始债权人/设保人将应收款转让给另一人并且该人创设了应收款上担保权的,则在该人(在第13条中称之为后继设保人)与应收款债务人之间(例如在卖方将应收款出售给A然后A创设了有利于B的担保权情况下,A和应收款债务人之间的协议);(c)初始债权人/设保人与初始有担保债权人之间(例如在卖方和A之间的协议);及(d)初始债权人/设保人将资产转让给某一人并且该人创设担保权的,则在该人(在第13条中称作后继设保人)与从该人那里得到担保权的任何有担保债权人(在第13条中称作后继有担保债权人)之间,(例如A和B之间的协议)。
111.Paragraph 2 makes it clear that, while under paragraph 1 a security right is effective notwithstanding an agreement to the contrary, a person that creates a security right in a receivable in breach of that agreement is not excused from any liability to its counter-party for damages caused by breach of that contractual provision, if there are such damages and such liability exists under other law.111.第2款明确指出,尽管根据第1款虽有相反约定而担保权仍然有效,可对于虽有该约定但仍在应收款上创设担保权的人,则不得免除其对违反该合同规定而给合约方造成的损害的任何赔偿责任,如果有这类损害赔偿并且这类赔偿责任存在于其他法律下的话。
Thus, for example, if the debtor of a receivable has sufficient negotiating power to convince the creditor of the receivable to consent to an anti-assignment agreement, and the creditor creates a security right in the receivable despite that agreement in a way that results in a loss to the debtor of the receivable, the creditor may be liable to the debtor of the receivable for damages under the law of the State whose law governs that agreement.因此,举例说,如果应收款债务人享有充分的议价权,能够说服应收款债权人同意某一禁止转让协议,并且债权人违反该协议在应收款上创设担保权从而给应收款债务人造成损失的,则根据该协议管辖法律的国家的法律,债权人就由此造成的损害可能对应收款债务人负有赔偿责任。
However, the debtor of the receivable may not avoid the contract because of that breach or raise against the secured creditor (including an outright transferee), by way of set-off or otherwise, any claim it may have against the grantor (including an outright transferor) for that breach.然而,应收款债务人不得因为该违约而宣布合同无效,也不得就该违约而对有担保债权人(包括彻底受让人)提出抗辩或以其他方式提出其本可对设保人(包括彻底转让人)提出的任何求偿主张。
In addition, under paragraph 2, a secured creditor that accepts a receivable as security for credit is not liable to the debtor of the receivable for such a breach just because it had knowledge of the anti-assignment agreement.此外,根据第2款,接受将应收款作为信贷担保的有担保债权人不会仅因为其对禁止转让协议知情而就这类违约对应收款债务人负有赔偿责任。
Otherwise, the anti-assignment agreement would in effect prevent a secured creditor from obtaining a security right in a receivable covered by the anti-assignment agreement.不然的话,禁止转让协议实际上就会妨碍有担保债权人取得由禁止转让协议涵盖的应收款上的担保权。
112.One of the benefits of the rules in paragraphs 1 and 2 is that a secured creditor does not have to review each contract from which a receivable might arise to determine whether it contains a contractual limitation on assignment that may affect the effectiveness of a security right.112.第1和2款中规则的益处之一是,有担保债权人不必审查可能据以产生应收款的各项合同以确定该合同是否载有可能影响担保权效力的对转让的合同限制。
This facilitates transactions relating to pools of existing receivables (with respect to which a review of the underlying transactions at the time of the conclusion of the security agreement is possible but which is not necessarily time- or cost-efficient), as well as transactions relating to future receivables (with respect to which such a review would not be possible at the time of the conclusion of the security agreement, with the result that future receivables would not be accepted by lenders as security for credit).这将便利关于现有(就此审查订立担保协议之时所涉基本交易是可以做到的,但在时间或成本上不一定有效率)应收款池的相关交易及未来应收款的相关交易(就此进行这类审查在担保协议订立之时将无法做到,其所造成的结果是放贷人无法接受将未来应收款用作信贷担保)。
113.Paragraphs 3 (a) to (c) limit the scope of the rule in paragraph 1 to what could broadly be described as trade receivables.113.第3款(a)至(c)项将第1款中的规则限定在可被广义描述为贸易应收款的范围内。
The rule does not apply to other types of receivables, such as receivables arising from loans.该规则不适用于诸如贷款所产生的应收款之类其他类型的应收款。
This is for the following reasons. First, the interference with party autonomy effected by the rule in paragraph 1 is most strongly justified in the case of trade receivables (see para. 109 above).这是由于下述原因,首先,根据第1款所载规则对当事人意思自治的干预在贸易应收款下理由最为充分(见上文第109段)。
Second, in relation to receivables arising from loans, there is a much greater reason for the debtor of the receivable to wish to preclude anybody other than the lender from being able to collect the receivable, since the debtor's relationship with the lender is likely to be ongoing.其次,关于贷款所产生的应收款,应收款债务人更有理由希望将除放贷人以外的任何其他人排除在能够收取应收款的人的行列之外,因为债务人与放贷人之间的关系可能是进行中的关系。
114.Receivables arising from financial contracts governed by netting agreements are generally excluded from the scope of the Model Law, except the receivable arising upon the termination of all outstanding transactions (see art. 1, para. 3 (d)).114.受净额结算协议管辖的金融合同所产生的应收款一般被排除在《示范法》的范围之外,除非应收款是在所有未结交易终结之时产生的(见第1条第3(d)款)。
Under paragraph 3 (d), the rule in paragraph 1 applies to receivables arising upon net settlement of payments due pursuant to a multilateral netting agreement.在第3(d)款下,第1款中的规则适用于依照多边净额结算协议对应收账款的任何净额结算。
Both the exclusion in article 1, paragraph 3 (d) and the exception in article 13, paragraph 3 (d) are line with articles 4, paragraph 2 (b), and 9, paragraph 3 (d), of the Assignment Convention.第1条第3(d)款的排除规定和第13条第3(d)款中的除外规定与《转让公约》第4条第2(b)款和第9条第3(d)款均是一致的。
115.Article 13 applies also to anti-assignment agreements limiting the creation of a security right in any personal or property rights securing or supporting payment or other performance of an encumbered intangible asset other than a receivable or an encumbered negotiable instrument (see art. 14, and paras. 116-118 below).115.第13条也适用于这样的禁止转让协议,即对创设给除了应收款之外的其他设保有形资产或设保可转让票据的支付或以其他方式的履行作保或提供支持的任何对人权或对财产权上的担保权加以限定(还见第14条和下文第116-118段)。
Article 14. Personal or property rights securing or supporting payment or other performance of encumbered receivables or other intangible assets, or negotiable instruments第14条.给支付或以其他方式履行设保应收款或其他无形资产或可转让票据作保或提供支持的对人权或对财产权
116.The first sentence of article 14 reflects the thrust of recommendation 25 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 111-122), which in turn is based on article 10 of the Assignment Convention.116.第14条头一句反映了《担保交易指南》建议25的要旨(见第二章,第111-122段),而它又基于《转让公约》第10条。
It is intended to ensure that a secured creditor with a security right in the types of asset described in article 14 automatically has the benefit of any personal or property right that secures or supports payment or other performance of those types of asset.它意在确保第14条所述各类资产上担保权的有担保债权人自动享有给这几类资产的支付或以其他方式的履行作保或提供支持的任何对人权或对财产权的益处。
For example, a personal or property right that secures payment of a receivable may be an accessory or secondary guarantee (or suretyship) or a security right in movable or immovable property; and a personal right that supports payment of a receivable may be an independent guarantee or a stand-by letter of credit.举例说,给支付应收款作保的对人权或对财产权可以是一项附带或次要保证(或连带保证)或一项动产或不动产担保权;给支付应收款提供支持的对人权可以是一项独立保证或备用信用证。
For example, in some States, if the performance of a receivable is secured by a personal guarantee or by a security right in movable or immovable property, the secured creditor with a security right in that receivable obtains the benefit of that personal guarantee or security right.举例说,在有些国家,如果以个人保证或动产或不动产上的担保权给应收款的履行作保,对该项应收款享有担保权的有担保债权人即获得该个人保证或担保权的益处。
This means that, if the receivable is not paid, the secured creditor may seek payment from the guarantor or enforce the security right in accordance with the relevant law and the terms of the guarantee or the security right.这就意味着,如果应收款未获偿付,有担保债权人可寻求由保证人付款,也可根据相关法律及该保证或担保权的条款强制执行该担保权。
117.Article 14 does not include the substance of recommendation 25 (g) of the Secured Transactions Guide because this matter is addressed in articles 61 and 68 (see paras. 392-394 and 414).117.第14条之所以未列入《担保交易指南》建议25(g)项的实质内容,是因为该事项已在第61和68条中述及(见第392-394段和第414段)。
Neither does article 14 include the substance of recommendation 25 (h) of the Secured Transactions Guide (which was based on art. 10, para. 6, of the Assignment Convention) because it should be self-evident that the article does not affect any requirement under other law relating to the creation of a security right in a type of asset that is not covered by the Model Law (e.g. a rule of immovable property law under which registration of an encumbrance on the relevant immovable property registry is a condition of its creation).第14条之所以也不包括《担保交易指南》建议25(h)(它基于《转让公约》第10条第6款),是因为不言而喻该条不影响其他法律在有关对《示范法》未涉类型的资产创设担保权的任何要求(例如规定在相关不动产登记处办理对质押的登记是创设其担保权一项条件的不动产法律的一项规则)。
118.The second sentence of article 14, which reflects the thrust of article 10, paragraph 1, of the Assignment Convention, is necessary because, under other law in some States, certain personal or property rights that secure or support payment or other performance of a receivable or other intangible asset, or a negotiable instrument may be transferable only with a new act of transfer.118.第14条第二句反映了《转让公约》第10条第1款的要旨,其之所以有必要,是因为在有些国家的其他法律下,给支付或以其他方式履行应收款或其他无形资产或可转让票据作保或提供支持的某些对人权或对财产权,可能唯有经过新的转让行动方可予以转让。
In such a case, article 14 does not override the other law but instead obliges the grantor to transfer the benefit of that right to the secured creditor.在这类情况下,第14条并非取代其他法律,而只是规定设保人有义务将该项权利的益处转让给有担保债权人。
Article 15.第15条.
Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account银行账户贷记款受付权
119.Article 15 reflects the thrust of recommendation 26 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, paras. 123-125).119.第15条反映了《担保交易指南》建议26的要旨(见第二章,第123-125段)。
It implements the principles underlying article 13 with respect to rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account (see paras. 109 and 112 above).它执行了有关银行账户贷记款受付权的第13条的基本原则(见上文第109和112段)。
Under article 15, a security right may be created in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account even if there was an agreement between the grantor and the deposit-taking institution prohibiting the creation of a security right.根据第15条,即便设保人和接受存款机构之间订有禁止创设担保权的协议,仍然可以在银行账户贷记款受付权上创设担保权。
However, article 69 provides that the creation of such a security right does not affect the rights and obligations of the deposit-taking institution and, in particular, does not obligate the deposit-taking institution to provide any information about the bank account to third parties (see paras. 415-418 below).然而,第69条规定,创设这类担保权不影响接受存款机构的权利和义务,尤其是不会让接受存款机构承担向第三方提供关于银行账户的任何信息的义务(见下文第415-418段)。
Article 16.第16条.
Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents可转让单证和由可转让单证涵盖的有形资产
120.Article 16 is derived from recommendation 28 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. II, para. 128).120.第16条源自于《担保交易指南》建议28(见第二章,第128段)。
It reflects the broadly accepted principle that a negotiable document is treated as embodying rights in the tangible assets covered by the document.它反映了这样一条得到广泛接受的原则,即把可转让单证当作体现它所涵盖的在有形资产上权利的对待。
As a result, a security right in those tangible assets may be created by creating a security right in the document.因此,可经由创设单证上的担保权而创设在这些有形资产上的担保权。
For example, a security right in cargo covered by a negotiable bill of lading issued by the carrier or in assets covered by a negotiable warehouse receipt issued by the operator of the warehouse in which those assets have been deposited may be created by creating a security right in the bill of lading or warehouse receipt.举例说,可经由创设提单或仓单上的担保权而创设由承运人签发的可转让提单所涵盖的货物上或由存放资产的仓库运营人签发的可转让仓单所涵盖的资产上的担保权。
121.Under article 16, a security right in a negotiable document extends to the assets covered by the document only if the issuer of the document is in possession of the assets when the security right is created.121.根据第16条,可转让单证上的担保权延伸至由该单证所涵盖的资产,唯一条件是,在创设担保权之时,单证签发人是资产的占有权人。
If this condition is satisfied, the security right in the tangible assets covered by the document continues to exist even after the assets are no longer in the possession of the issuer of the negotiable document.如果满足这一条件,即便在资产不再为可转让单证签发人所占有的情况下,该单证所涵盖的有形资产上的担保权仍将继续存在。
However, under article 26, paragraph 2, the effectiveness of the security right in the assets against third parties that was achieved by possession of the document applies while the document covers the assets and lapses once possession of the assets is relinquished by the issuer (see para. 138 below).然而,根据第26条第2款,通过占有该单证而实现的资产上担保权对抗第三方的效力仍将适用,而所述单证涵盖这些资产,并且一旦资产的占有权为签发人所放弃则将失效(见下文第138段)。
Article 17.第17条.
Tangible assets with respect to which intellectual property is used有关使用知识产权的有形资产
122.Article 17 is based on recommendation 243 of the Intellectual Property Supplement (see paras. 108-112).122.第17条基于《知识产权补编》建议243(见108-112段)。
It is intended to recognize the distinction between a tangible asset with respect to which intellectual property is used and the intellectual property (e.g. a motor vehicle that incorporates features that rely on the manufacturer's right to use a patented invention or copyrighted software as distinct from the patent or copyright itself).它意在承认有关使用知识产权的有形资产和知识产权(例如融入依赖于制造商使用专利发明或享有版权的软件功能而有别于专利或版权本身的机动车辆)之间的区别。
As a result, a secured creditor who has a security right in a tangible asset with respect to which intellectual property is used does not acquire a security right in the intellectual property, unless the intellectual property is included in the description of the encumbered assets in the security agreement and then only if the grantor has rights, or the power to create a security right, in the relevant intellectual property (see art. 6, paras. 1 and 3(c), and art. 9, para. 1, as well as paras. 83 and 96 above).因此,对有关使用知识产权的有形资产享有担保权的有担保债权人并不获取该知识产权,除非在担保协议中将知识产权列入对设保资产的描述,并且唯有设保人享有在相关知识产权上创设担保权的权利或权力(见第6条第1款和第3(c)款与第9条第1款及上文第83段和第96段)。
Chapter III.第三章.
Effectiveness of a security right against third parties担保权对抗第三方的效力
A.A.
General rules一般规则
Article 18.第18条.
Primary methods for achieving third-party effectiveness实现第三方效力的主要方法
123.Article 18 is based on recommendations 32 and 37 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 19-86).123.第18条基于《担保交易指南》建议32和37(见第三章,第19-86段)。
It sets out the primary methods for achieving the third-party effectiveness of a security right.它阐明了实现担保权第三方效力的主要方法。
The first is registration of a notice of the security right in the Registry established under article 28.第一种方法是在根据第28条建立的登记处办理对担保权通知的登记。
This method is available for all types of movable asset to which the Model Law applies.在《示范法》所适用的所有各类动产上,均可使用该方法。
The second is physical possession of a tangible encumbered asset by the secured creditor (for the definition of the term "possession", see art. 2, subpara. (z), and para. 56 and 57 above).第二种方法是有担保债权人对设保资产的实体占有(关于“占有”一语的定义,见第2条(z)项和上文第56段和57段)。
As intangible assets are not be capable of physical possession and as possession is defined in the Model Law by reference to tangible assets only, this method is available only for security rights in tangible assets.由于无形资产无法实体占有,并且由于《示范法》只是参照有形资产对占有加以界定的,该方法只能用于有形资产上的担保权。
Alternative methods of third-party effectiveness, such as a control agreement for security rights in rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account and in non-intermediated securities are set out in the asset-specific provisions of this chapter (see arts. 25 and 27, and paras. 135, 136 and 140 below).实现第三方效力的备选方法,例如在银行账户贷记款受付权和非中介证券上的担保权的控制权协议,均载于本章资产特定条文(见第25和27条及下文第135、136和140段)。
124.In practice, registration is the most commonly used method for achieving third-party effectiveness of a security right, both because it is available for all types of encumbered asset and because it allows the grantor to remain in possession of and to continue to use the encumbered asset.124.在实务中,登记是实现担保权第三方效力所用最为常见的方法,其原因既是因为该方法可用于所有各类设保资产,也是因为它能让设保人仍然占有和继续使用设保资产。
Registration is also the basis for the predictable, fair and efficient ordering of priority among competing security rights in the same asset under the general priority rule of the Model Law according to which priority is determined according to the order of registration (see art. 29, and paras. 285-293 below).登记还是在据以按照登记先后顺序确定优先权的《示范法》一般优先权规则下以可预测、公平和有效方式安排相同资产上相竞担保权之间优先权次序的基础(见第29条及下文第285-293段)。
Article 19.第19条.
Proceeds收益
125.Article 19 is generally based on recommendations 39 and 40 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 87-96).125.第19条基本基于《担保交易指南》建议39和40(见第三章,第87-96段)。
It addresses the circumstances in which the security right in identifiable proceeds of an encumbered asset that is provided for in article 10 is effective against third parties.它述及第10条所述设保资产可识别收益上担保权具有对抗第三方效力的情况。
126.Under paragraph 1, if a security right in an asset is effective against third parties, a security right in its identifiable proceeds is automatically effective against third parties, if the proceeds take the form of money, receivables, negotiable instruments or rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account.126.根据第1款,如果资产上担保权具有对抗第三方效力,其可识别收益上的担保权自动具有对抗第三方的效力,条件是收益采取金钱、应收款、可转让票据或银行账户贷记款受付权的形式。
For example, upon the sale of inventory that is subject to a security right that is effective against third parties, a security right in any identifiable receivables arising from the sale of the inventory is effective against third parties without any further act.举例说,在出售受制于具有对抗第三方效力的担保权的库存品之时,出售库存品所产生的任何可识别应收款上的担保权具有对抗第三方效力,而不必采取任何进一步行动。
127.If the assets that constitute the proceeds are of a type that is included in the description of the original encumbered assets in the security agreement, they will constitute both original encumbered assets and proceeds (see para. 99 above).127.如果构成收益的资产是列入担保协议中对原始设保资产所作描述的一类资产,其则将构成原始设保资产和收益(见上文第99段)。
Accordingly, in this situation, the security right in the proceeds will be effective against third parties without the need for any further act if the security right in the proceeds as original encumbered assets was made effective against third parties pursuant to article 18 before the proceeds arose.因此,在这种情况下,如果在收益产生前依照第18条使得作为原始设保资产的收益上担保权取得对抗第三方的效力,则收益上的担保权将具有对抗第三方的效力,而不需要采取任何进一步行动。
128.Except for proceeds of a type covered in paragraph 1, paragraph 2 provides that, if the security right in the original encumbered asset was effective against third parties, the security right in its identifiable proceeds is automatically effective against third parties for the time period specified by the enacting State after the proceeds arose. The period should be sufficient for the secured creditor to find out that proceeds have been generated and take action (such as 20-25 days).128.对于并非第1款所涵盖的某类收益,第2款规定,如果原始设保资产上的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力,其可识别收益上的担保权即在收益产生后由颁布国指明的一段短暂时期内自动具有对抗第三方的效力,该时期应当足以让有担保债权人发现收益已经生成并且就此采取行动(例如20-25天);
Thereafter, the security right in the proceeds continues to be effective against third parties only if it is made effective against third parties before the expiry of that period by one of the methods applicable to encumbered assets of that type.收益上的担保权随后将继续具有对抗第三方的效力,但只是在该时期期满之前采用该类资产所可适用的某一方法。
For example, if the proceeds take the form of a tangible asset, the security right in its identifiable proceeds will cease to be continuously effective against third parties if the secured creditor does not take the steps necessary to make its security right effective against third parties prior to the expiry of the time period set out in paragraph 2.举例说,如果收益采取有形资产的形式,其可识别收益上的担保权不再持续具有对抗第三方的效力,条件是有担保债权人在第2款所述时期期满前未采取使其担保权具有对抗第三方效力的必要步骤。
While the secured creditor may subsequently make its security right effective against third parties, it will be effective against third parties only from that time forward (see art. 22, and para. 131 below).虽然有担保债权人可事后使其担保权具有对抗第三方的效力,但该担保权只能从该时起方能具有对抗第三方的效力(见第22条和下文第131段)。
Article 20.第20条.
Tangible assets commingled in a mass or transformed into a product混合于混集物或转换为制成物的有形资产
129.129.
Article 20 is based on recommendation 44 of the Secured Transactions Guide.第20条基于《担保交易指南》建议44。
Its purpose is to ensure that, if a tangible asset subject to a security right that is effective against third parties is commingled in a mass or transformed into a product, and the security right in the tangible asset extends to the mass or product under article 11, the security right in the mass or product will be automatically effective against third parties.其目的是确保,如果受制于具有对抗第三方效力的某一担保权的有形资产混合于混集物或转换为制成物,并且该有形资产上的担保权根据第11条延伸至该混集物或制成物,该混集物或制成物上的担保权自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
In other words, no separate act is necessary to make the security right in the mass or product effective against third parties.也就是说,使得混集物或制成物上的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力不需要任何单独行动。
It should be noted that preserving continuity of third-party effectiveness is relevant for the purposes of the priority rules (for the priority of this security right, see arts. 33 and 42, and paras. 297, 298 and 341 below).应当指出的是,保全第三方效力的连续性事关优先权规则的目的(关于该担保权的优先权,见第33条和42条及下文第297、298和341段)。
Article 21.第21条.
Changes in the method for achieving third-party effectiveness实现第三方效力方法的变更
130.Article 21 is based on recommendation 46 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 120 and 121).130.第21条基于《担保交易指南》建议46(见第三章,第120段和第121段)。
It is intended to ensure that a security right that was initially made effective against third parties by one method (e.g. registration) and that is later made effective against third parties by another method (e.g. possession) remains continuously effective against third parties provided that there is no gap between the time third-party effectiveness was achieved by the first and the second method.它意在确保采用某一方法(例如登记)取得对抗第三方初始效力并稍后采取另一方法(例如占有)取得对抗第三方效力的担保权,如果在使用第一种方法与使用第二种方法实现第三方效力之间没有时间上的间隔,则其对抗第三方的效力即仍然延续不断。
It should be noted that preserving continuity of thirdparty effectiveness is important for the purpose of preserving priority as against competing claimants whose rights arise after the security right is initially made effective against third parties.应当指出的是,保全第三方效力的连续性对保全对抗其权利产生于取得对抗第三方初始效力的担保权之后的相竞求偿人优先权具有重要意义。
Article 22.第22条.
Lapses in third-party effectiveness第三方效力的失效
131.Article 22 is based on recommendation 47 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 122-127).131.第22条基于《担保交易指南》建议47(见第三章,第122-127段)。
It is intended to ensure that, if third-party effectiveness lapses, it may be re-established.它意在确保,如果第三方效力失效,则可加以重新确立。
In such a case, however, the third-party effectiveness dates only from the time it is re-established and thus priority dates as of that time.在这类情况下,第三方效力仅从重新确立之时起算因而优先权也从该时起算。
Article 23.第23条.
Continuity in third-party effectiveness upon a change of the applicable law to this Law本法律的适用法律发生变更时第三方效力的延续
132.Article 23 is based on recommendation 45 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 117-119).132.第23条基于《担保交易指南》建议45(见第三章,第117-119段)。
It addresses the situation where, under the conflict-of-laws provisions of the Model Law, the law applicable to the third-party effectiveness of a security right changes to that of a State that has enacted the Model Law as a result of a change in the relevant connecting factor, for example, because of a change in the location of the grantor or the encumbered assets (for the relevant time for determining location, see art. 91, and paras. 490-493 below).它述及根据《示范法》法律冲突条文,担保权第三方效力的适用法律改变为例如由于设保人或设保资产所在地变动所导致的相关关联因素的变动而颁布《示范法》国家的法律(关于确定所在地的相关时间,见第91条和下文第490-493段)。
Under paragraph 1, a security right that was effective against third parties under the previously applicable law continues to be effective against third parties under the law of the enacting State only if it is made effective against third parties in accordance with that law before the time when third-party effectiveness lapses under the previously applicable law or the expiry of the time period to be specified by the enacting State.第1款规定,根据先前适用的法律而具有对抗第三方效力的担保权根据《示范法》颁布国的法律仍然具有对抗第三方的效力,唯一条件是,在根据先前适用的法律第三方效力失效之时或在拟由颁布国指明的时期期满之间较早时期前根据该法律取得对抗第三方的效力。
The specified period should be sufficient to give the secured creditor an opportunity to find out that the applicable law has changed and take action (e.g. 45-60 days).指明的时期应当足以让有担保债权人有机会发现适用法律已经变更并就此采取行动(例如45至60天)。
133.133.
Under paragraph 2, if the third-party effectiveness of a security right continues under paragraph 1, it dates back to the time it was first achieved under the previously applicable law.根据第2款,如果担保权第三方效力在第1款下继续存在,则第三方效力可回溯至在已经提及的先前适用法律下首次实现第三方效力的时间。
If third-party effectiveness is not preserved under paragraph 1, it may be re-established, but third-party effectiveness will then only date from the time it is re-established (see art. 22, and para. 131 above).如果第三方效力在第1款下未曾得到保全,则可加以重新确立,但第三方效力的生效时间只是从重新确立时起算(见第22条和上文第131段)。
Article 24.第24条.
Acquisition security rights in consumer goods消费品上的购置款担保权
134.134.
Article 24 is based on recommendation 179 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IX, paras. 125-128).第24条基于《担保交易指南》建议179(见第九章,第125-128段)。
An acquisition security right (see art. 2, subpara. (b), and para. 38 above) in consumer goods is automatically effective against third parties if the purchase price of the consumer goods is below an amount to be specified by the enacting State.如果消费品购置款低于拟由颁布国指明的数额,消费品上的购置款担保权(见第2条(b)项和上文第38段)将自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
This limitation is intended to exempt from registration security rights in low-value consumer transactions.该限制意在将低值消费交易上的担保权排除在登记范围之外。
For this provision to be meaningful, the threshold price for the consumer goods should not be so high as to prevent a consumer from encumbering his or her assets to obtain credit, but not so low as to dissuade a secured creditor from entering into a transaction because the transaction costs associated with ensuring and monitoring the third-party effectiveness of its security right would outweigh the benefits (for the question of when a buyer acquires its rights free of an acquisition security right that is automatically effective against third parties under this article, see art.34, para.该项条文有意义的前提是,消费品的门槛价格不应定得过高,以至于妨碍消费者将其资产作为质押品以获取信贷,但也不应定得过低以至于阻止有担保债权人因为确保和监督其担保权第三方效力的相关交易费用超出收益而无法订立交易。
9, and para.310 below).(关于买受人根据本条何时在不连带自动具有对抗第三方效力的购置款担保权而获取其权利的问题,见第34条第9款和下文第310段)。
B.B.
Asset-specific rules资产特定规则
Article 25.第25条.
Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account银行账户贷记款受付权
135.135.
Article 25 is based on recommendation 49 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 138-148).第25条基于《担保交易指南》建议49(见第三章,第138-148段)。
Under the general third-party effectiveness rules of the Model Law, the general method for achieving the third-party effectiveness of a security right in an intangible asset is registration of a notice of the security right (see art. 18, and paras. 123 and 124 above).根据《示范法》有关第三方效力的一般规则,实现无形资产上担保权第三方效力的一般方法是办理有关担保权通知的登记(见第18条及下文第123段和第124段)。
If the intangible asset is a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account, article 25 provides three additional methods for achieving third-party effectiveness.对无形资产是银行账户贷记款受付权的情况,第25条规定了实现第三方效力的其他三种方法。
136. The availability of these alternatives depends on the type of the secured creditor.136.对这些备选方法可否加以利用取决于有担保债权人的类型。
If the secured creditor is the deposit-taking institution that holds the bank account, a security right created in its favour is automatically effective against third parties.如果有担保债权人是持有银行账户的接收存款机构,给其创设的担保权则自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
If the secured creditor is another party, the security right may be made effective against third parties by one of two methods.如果有担保债权人是另一方当事人,则可采用两种方法中的某一方法使担保权取得对抗第三方的效力。
The first is the conclusion of a control agreement between the grantor, the secured creditor and the deposittaking institution (for the definition of the term "control agreement", see art. 2, subpara. (g) (ii), and para. 43 above).第一种方法是在设保人、有担保债权人和接收存款机构之间订立控制权协议(关于“控制权协议”一语的定义,见第2条(g)(ii)项和上文第43段)。
The second is by the secured creditor becoming the account holder.第二种方法是,让有担保债权人成为账户持有人。
The precise action required for the secured creditor to become the account holder will depend on factors, such as the law to which the deposit-taking institution is subject and the terms of the account agreement.有担保债权人成为账户持有人所必需的确切行动将取决于诸如接收存款机构所应遵守的法律和账户协议条款之类其他因素。
It should be noted that these alternative methods of third-party effectiveness have different priority consequences but provide priority that is superior to that achieved by registration (see art. 47, and paras. 352-356 below).应当指出的是,这些有关第三方效力的备选方法在优先权方面所产生的后果各不相同,但所提供的优先权均优先于通过登记所实现的优先权(见第47条和下文第352-356段)。
Article 26.第26条.
Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents可转让单证和由可转让单证涵盖的有形资产
137.Article 26 is based on recommendations 51-53 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. III, paras. 154-158).137.第26条基于《担保交易指南》建议51-53(见第三章,第154-158段)。
It mainly addresses the relationship between the third-party effectiveness of a security right in a negotiable document and the third-party effectiveness of a security right in the tangible assets covered by the document.它主要处理可转让单证上担保权第三方效力和由该单证所涵盖的有形资产上担保权第三方效力之间的关系。
138.Under paragraph 1, if a security right in a negotiable document is effective against third parties and the security right extends to the assets covered by the document under article 16, the security right in the assets covered by the document will automatically be effective against third parties.138.根据第1款,如果可转让单证上的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力并且该担保权延伸至第16条下该单证所涵盖的资产,则该单证所涵盖的资产上的担保权将自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
Under paragraph 2, the security right in the assets covered by the document can be made effective against third parties by possession of the document for as long as the assets are covered by the document.根据第2款,只要资产为单证所涵盖,占有该单证即可使由该单证所涵盖的资产上的担保权取得对抗第三方的效力。
139.Under paragraph 3, a security right in an asset that is made effective against third parties by the secured creditor's possession of the document remains effective against third parties for a short period of time (such as 10 days) after possession of the document or the asset covered by the document is relinquished to the grantor (or another person) for the purpose of enabling the grantor to sell, exchange, load, unload or otherwise deal with the assets in the course of the grantor's business.139.根据第3款,为使设保人在其经营期间能够出售、交换、装载和卸载或以其它方式处理资产的目的而将把对单证或单证所涵盖的资产的占有权放弃给设保人(或另一人)之后,通过有担保债权人占有该单证取得对抗第三方效力的资产上的担保权将仍然在短时期(例如10天)内具有对抗第三方的效力。
Article 27.第27条.
Uncertificated non-intermediated securities无凭证非中介证券
140.As the Secured Transactions Guide does not address security rights in securities of any type (see rec. 4 (c), and para. 26 above), article 27 does not correspond to any of the recommendations of the Secured Transactions Guide.140.由于《担保交易指南》不述及任何类型的证券上的担保权(见第4(c)条和上文第26段),第27条与《担保交易指南》中的任何建议均不相对应。
It addresses the methods, other than registration of a notice, by which a security right in uncertificated non-intermediated securities (for the definition of that term, see art. 2, subpara. (mm)) may be made effective against third parties.它述及对通知办理登记以外的其他方法,据此可让无凭证非中介证券(关于该用语的定义,见第2条(mm)项)上的担保权取得对抗第三方的效力。
First, the security right may be made effective against third parties either by a notation of the security right or by the entry of the name of the secured creditor as the holder of the securities in the books maintained by the issuer or by another person on behalf of the issuer for the purpose of recording the name of the holder of securities.首先,既可以通过在由发行人或由代表发行人行事的另一人为记录证券持有人姓名而掌管的账簿上注明担保权也可以将有担保债权人的姓名作为证券持有人予以输入而使担保权具有对抗第三方的效力。
The enacting State should choose the method that best fits its legal system; if both methods are used in the enacting State, that State may choose to retain both methods.颁布国应选择最适合其法律制度的方法;如果某一颁布国同时使用了这两种方法,该国则可选择一并保留。
Second, similarly to the case of a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account (see paras. 135 and 136 above), the security right may be made effective against third parties by the conclusion of a control agreement between the grantor, the secured creditor and the issuer (for the definition of the term "control agreement", see art. 2, subpara. 2 (g) (i), and para. 43 above).其次,如同对于银行账户贷记款受付权上的担保权(见上文第135和136段),可通过订立设保人、有担保债权人和发行人之间的控制权协议而让该担保权取得对抗第三方的效力(关于“控制权协议”一语的定义,见第2条第2(g)(i)项)和上文第43段)。
Additional considerations for States parties to the Geneva Uniform Law and the Bills and Notes Convention《日内瓦统一法》及《汇票和本票公约》缔约国的其他考虑
141.Under article 19 of the Uniform Law provided by the Convention Providing a Uniform Law for Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes (Geneva, 1930; the "Geneva Uniform Law"), "when an endorsement contains the statements 'value in security' ('valeur en garantie'), 'value in pledge' ('valeur en gage'), or any other statement implying a pledge, the holder may exercise all the rights arising out of the bill of exchange, but an endorsement by him has the effects only of an endorsement by an agent".141.在《统一汇票和本票法公约》(1930年,日内瓦;“日内瓦统一法”)所提供的统一法第19条下,“在背书载有‘担保价值’(‘valeurengarantie’)、‘抵押品价值’(‘valeurengage’)的说明或意指抵押品的任何其他说明时,持有人可行使由汇票产生的所有各项权利,但他本人的背书只具有代理人背书的效力”。
Article 22 of the United Nations Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes (the "Bills and Notes Convention") contains a similar rule, according to which "if an endorsement contains the words 'value in security', or any other words indicating a pledge, the endorsee is a holder who: (a) may exercise all rights arising out of the instrument ...".《联合国国际汇票和国际本票公约》(《汇票和本票公约》第二十二条载有一条类似的规则,根据该条规则,“如果背书载有‘担保价值’的词句或意指抵押的任何其他词句时,背书人便是这样的持有人,即:(a)可行使由票据产生的任何权利……”。
142.An enacting State that has enacted the Geneva Uniform Law (or the Bills and Notes Convention) may wish to note that a secured creditor in possession of a negotiable instrument or certificated non-intermediated security may have, in addition to its rights under the Model Law, the rights afforded by the Geneva Uniform Law (or the Bills and Notes Convention) where the instrument or the security contains an endorsement of the kind contemplated by the Geneva Uniform Law (or the Bills and Notes Convention).142.已颁布《日内瓦统一法》(或《汇票和本票公约》)的颁布国不妨注意到占有可转让票据或无凭证非中介证券的有担保债权人可能除了其在《示范法》下享有的权利外,还享有《日内瓦统一法律》(或《汇票和本票公约》)所给予的权利,而此处票据或证券含有对《日内瓦统一法律》(或《汇票和本票公约》)所设想的那一种背书。
Chapter IV.第四章.
The registry system登记处系统
Article 28.第28条.
Establishment of the Registry登记处的设立
143.Article 28 is based on recommendations 1(f) of the Secured Transactions Guide and 1 of the Registry Guide.143.第28条基于《担保交易指南》建议1(f)项和《登记处指南》建议1。
It provides for the establishment by the enacting State of a public registry to give effect to the provisions of the Model Law relating to the registration of notices with respect to security rights (the "Registry").它规定颁布国应设立落实《示范法》对担保权办理通知登记的相关条文的公共登记处(“登记处”)。
In particular, under article 18 of the Model Law, a non-possessory security right in an encumbered asset is effective against third parties, as a general rule, only if a notice with respect to the security right is registered in the Registry (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. III, paras. 29-46 and the Registry Guide, paras. 20-25).尤其是,根据《示范法》第18条,作为一条一般规则,只有在登记处办理对担保权通知的登记前提下,设保资产上的非占有式担保权才具有对抗第三方的效力(见《担保交易指南》,第三章,第29-46段和《登记处指南》第20-25段)。
Under article 29 of the Model Law, the time of registration, again as a general rule, is also the basis for determining the order of priority between a security right and the right of a competing claimant (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V, paras. 42-50, and the Registry Guide, paras. 36-46).根据《示范法》第29条,作为一条一般规则,登记时间也事关确定担保权和相竞求偿人权利之间优先权的先后次序(见《担保交易指南》,第五章,第42-50段,和《登记处指南》第36-46段)。
144.Depending on its drafting conventions, an enacting State may incorporate the provisions relating to the registry system in its secured transactions law implementing the Model Law, in a separate law or other legal instrument, or in a combination thereof.144.取决于其起草惯例,颁布国可将有关登记处系统的条文纳入其执行《示范法》的担保交易法、一项单独的法律或其他法律文书或者这类文书的组合。
To preserve flexibility for enacting States, all the relevant registry-related provisions are collected in a set of rules presented after article 28 of the Model Law and called the "Model Registry Provisions".为保证颁布国的灵活性,下文将把与登记处有关的所有条文集中在置于《示范法》第28条之后的一套规则中,称作“登记处示范条文”。
If the Model Registry Provisions are enacted in a separate law or other legal instrument, the Model Registry Provisions and the new secured transactions law should enter into force at the same time (for the need for the Registry to be fully operational before the new law enters into force, see para. 547 below).如果在单独一项法律或其他法律文书中颁布《登记处示范条文》,《登记处示范条文》和新的担保交易法就应当同时生效(关于登记处在新的法律生效前完全投入运行的需要,见下文第547段)。
145.The Model Registry Provisions have been drafted to accommodate flexibility in registry design.145.之所以草拟《登记处示范条文》,是为了顾及在登记处设计上的灵活性。
That said, the Registry should be electronic in the sense of permitting information in registered notices to be stored in electronic form in a single database (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 54 (j) (i), and chap. IV, paras. 38-41 and 43).有鉴于此,登记处应当是电子的,也就是说,允许已登记通知中信息以电子形式储存在统一的数据库(见《担保交易指南》建议54(j)(i)项和第四章第38-41段和第43段)。
An electronic registry database is the most efficient and practical means to implement the recommendation of the Secured Transactions Guide that the registry record should be centralized and consolidated (see rec. 54 (e), and chap. IV, paras. 21-24).电子登记处数据库是落实《担保交易指南》有关登记处记录应当集中统一的建议的最有效务实手段(见建议54(e)项和第四章第21-24段)。
146.Access to registry services should also be electronic in the sense of permitting users to submit notices and search requests directly over the Internet or via networking systems (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 54 (j) (ii), and chap. IV, paras. 23-26 and 43).146.对登记处服务的访问还应当是电子访问,也就是说,允许用户在互联网上或经由联网系统直接提交通知和查询请求(见《担保交易指南》建议54(j)(ii)项和第四章第23-26段及第43段)。
This approach eliminates the risk of registry staff error in entering the information contained in a paper notice into the registry record, facilitates speedier and more efficient access to registry services by users, and greatly reduces the operational costs of the Registry, translating into lower fees for registry users (for a discussion of these advantages and guidance on implementation, see Registry Guide, paras. 82-89).这种做法消除了登记处工作人员在将纸质通知所含信息输入登记处记录时发生差错的风险,便利用户更加迅捷有效地访问登记处的服务,并大大降低了登记处的运营成本从而也就降低了对登记处用户的收费(关于对这些有利之处和落实工作指导情况的讨论,见《登记处指南》,第82-89段)。
147.The scope of application of the Model Law and, therefore, the scope of the notices of rights that are registrable in the Registry is limited to consensual security rights and outright transfers of receivables (see art. 1, paras. 1 and 2, and art. 2, subpara. (kk), and paras. 22, 23 and 68 above).147.《示范法》适用范围并因而在登记处登记的权利通知的范围均限定于合意担保权和应收款的彻底转让(见第1条第1和2款及第2条(kk)项和上文第22、23和68段)。
While the Model Law does not include a provision on this matter, some States also provide for the registration of notices of rights created by the operation of other law in favour of specified classes of creditors (e.g. the State for tax claims and employees for employment benefits; see Registry Guide, paras. 46 and 51).虽然《示范法》未列入有关该事项的一则条文,但有些国家还是规定对由其他法律的适用而创设的有利于特定类别债权人(例如国家的税款和受雇人的就业津贴);见《登记处指南》第46和51段)的通知办理登记。
If the enacting State follows this approach, it will need to ensure that the design of the Registry accommodates such registrations (and to specify the priority effect of registration in its law; see arts. 36 and 37 of the Model Law; see also Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V, para. 90, and Registry Guide, para. 51).如果颁布国沿用这一做法,则需要确保登记处的设计顾及这类登记(并在其法律中指明登记的优先权效力;见《示范法》第36和37条;还见《担保交易指南》,第五章,第90段和《登记处指南》,第51段)。
148.In addition, some States provide for the registration of notices of judgments obtained by a creditor of a grantor and treat registration as generally giving priority to the judgment creditor over consensual security rights that are subsequently made effective against third parties by registration.148.此外,有些国家规定对由设保人的债权人取得的胜诉通知办理登记,并将这类登记视为一般赋予胜诉债权人相对于随后通过登记做法而取得对抗第三方效力的合意担保权的优先权。
If the enacting State adopts this approach, it will need to ensure that the design of the Registry accommodates such registrations (and to make the appropriate adjustments to its general creditordebtor law and its version of the Model Law; see art. 37 of the Model Law, and paras. 317-319 below; see also Registry Guide, para. 40).如果颁布国采用这一做法,则需要确保登记处的设计顾及这类登记(并对其一般的债权人和债务人法律及其示范法的版本作出适当调整;见《示范法》第37条和下文第317-319段;还见《登记处指南》第40段。
149.Some States also provide for the registration of notices of the ownership rights of consignors and lessors under commercial consignments of inventory and long-term operating leases of tangible assets.149.有些国家还规定对托运人和租赁人在库存品商业托运和有形资产长期运营租赁下享有的所有权权利办理登记。
Even though these arrangements do not function to secure an obligation, bringing them within the registration regime is intended to ensure that the consignor's or lessor's right is publicized to third parties who deal with the consigned or leased tangible assets in the hands of the consignee or lessee.即便这些安排的落实并不是为了给债务作保,但随之带来的登记机制意在确保向处理由受托人或承租人掌控的托运物品或租赁的有形资产的第三方公示托运人或租赁人的权利。
If this approach is adopted, the enacting State will similarly need to ensure that the design of the Registry can accommodate such registrations (and specify the priority effect of registration in its law; see Secured Transactions Guide, Introduction, para. 26, and Registry Guide, paras. 50 and 78).如果采取这种做法,颁布国将同样需要确保登记处的设计顾及这类登记(并在其法律中指明登记的优先权效力;见《担保交易指南》,导言,第26段和《登记处指南》第50和78段)。
Model Registry Provisions登记处示范条文
Section A.A节.
General rules一般规则
Article 1.第1条.
Definitions and rules of interpretation定义和解释规则
150.150.
Article 1 of the Model Registry Provisions contains definitions of key terms used in the Model Registry Provisions.《登记处示范条文》第1条载有《登记处示范条文》所用关键术语的定义。
These terms are derived from the Registry Guide (see Registry Guide, paras. 8 and 9).这些术语来自于《登记处指南》(见《登记处指南》第8和9段)。
If the enacting State incorporates the Model Registry Provisions in its enactment of the Model Law, these definitions should be included in the provision implementing article 2 of the Model Law (except for the definition of the term "registry" which is also included in art. 2, subpara. (ee); see footnote 9 of the Model Law).如果颁布国将《登记处示范条文》纳入其对《示范法》的颁布中,这些定义就应列入执行《示范法》第2条的条文(“登记处”一语的定义除外,该用语也被列入了第2条(ee)项;见《示范法》脚注9)。
In general, the definitions are self-explanatory.总体而言,这些定义不言自明。
Where elaboration is needed, it is provided in the commentary on the relevant articles below.凡需要详细阐述的,将在下文相关条款的评述中阐述。
Article 2.第2条.
Grantor's authorization for registration设保人对登记的授权
151.Article 2 of the Model Registry Provisions is inspired by recommendations 71 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 106) and 7(b), of the Registry Guide (see para. 101).151.《登记处示范条文》第2条受到了《担保交易指南》建议71的启发(见第四章第106段)和《登记处指南》建议7(b)项(见第101段)。
Paragraph 1 provides that the registration of an initial notice is ineffective unless authorized by the grantor in writing (the rule is formulated in the negative, as the effectiveness of a registration is also subject to other requirements).第1款规定,对初始通知的登记如果没有得到设保人的书面授权即为无效(该条规则是从否定的角度拟订的,因为登记的效力还必须满足其他要求)。
If the grantor's authorization covers a narrower range of encumbered assets than that described in the registered notice, the registration would be effective only with respect to the assets for which registration was authorized by the grantor.如果设保人的授权所涵盖的设保资产范围窄于已登记通知所述范围,登记将只是对由设保人授权办理登记的资产有效。
To ensure that this rule does not interfere with the efficiency of the registration process, paragraph 6 confirms that the Registry is not entitled to require evidence of the existence of the grantor's authorization.为确保该条规则不对登记工作的效率构成干扰,第6款确认,登记处无权要求出示设保人的确授权的证据。
152.Paragraphs 4 and 5 confirm that: (a) the grantor's authorization need not be obtained before registration; and (b) the conclusion of a written security agreement automatically constitutes authorization of a registration that covers an asset encumbered under that security agreement without the need to include an express authorization clause.152.第4和5款确认:(a)设保人的授权不需要在登记之前获得;及(b)订立书面担保协议自动构成对涵盖根据该担保协议而予设保的资产办理登记的授权,而不需要列入明确授权条款。
Thus, the post-registration conclusion of a security agreement will constitute retrospective "ratification" of an initially unauthorized registration to the extent of the assets covered by the security agreement.因此,登记后订立担保协议将在由担保协议所涵盖的资产限度内,构成对最初未获授权的登记的追溯性“批准”。
If the security agreement covers a narrower range of encumbered assets than those described in the registered notice, the registration would be authorized only with respect to the assets covered by the security agreement.如果担保协议所涵盖的设保资产的范围窄于已登记通知所述范围,将只是针对担保协议所涵盖的资产授权办理登记。
153.Paragraph 2 requires the grantor's authorization for the registration of an amendment notice that adds encumbered assets to those described in the prior registered notice.153.第2款规定,对把设保资产增加到先前已登记通知所述设保资产中的修订通知,有关这类通知的登记必须得到设保人的授权。
There is no need to register an amendment notice (and thus no need to obtain the authorization of the grantor) with respect to "additional assets" that are proceeds of encumbered assets described in a registered notice if the proceeds are: (a) of a type that falls within the existing description of encumbered assets in the registered notice (for example, the notice describes the encumbered assets as "all tangible assets" of the grantor and the grantor disposes of one type of tangible asset in exchange for another; see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 39); or (b) "cash proceeds", that is, money, receivables, negotiable instruments or funds credited to a bank account (see art. 19, 1, of the Model Law, and para. 126 above).对属于已登记通知所述设保资产收益的“补充资产”,不需要办理对修订通知的登记(并且因此不需要争取设保人的授权),但先决条件是这类收益:(a)属于已登记通知中对设保资产现有描述的类型(举例说,通知将设保资产描述为设保人的“所有有形资产”,而设保人处分某类有形资产以交换另一类有形资产(见《担保交易指南》,建议39);或(b)是“现金收益”,即金钱、应收款、可转让票据或银行账户贷记款(见《示范法》第19条第1款和上文第126段)。
154.Under the bracketed language in paragraph 2, the grantor's written authorization must also be obtained for the registration of an amendment notice to increase the maximum amount set out in a registered notice for which the security right to which the registration relates may be enforced.154.根据第2款中的括号内措辞,对寻求增加据以强制执行登记相关担保权的已登记通知所述最高数额的修订通知办理登记,也必须争取设保人的书面授权。
This provision is only needed in systems that require this information to be set out in the security agreement and in the registered notice (see art. 8, subpara. (e), of the Model Registry Provisions and, para. 175 below, as well as art. 6, para. 3 (d), of the Model Law, and para. 89 above).该项条文只是在要求担保协议和已登记通知载明该信息的系统中才需要(见《登记处示范条文》第8条(e)项和下文第175段及《示范法》第6条第3款(d)项和上文第89段)。
155.Where an amendment notice seeks to add a new grantor, paragraph 3 requires the new grantor's authorization to be obtained.155.修订通知寻求增设一个新的设保人的,第3款笼求需要得到新的设保人的授权。
The existing grantor's authorization is not required for the registration of an amendment notice to disclose a post-registration change in the identifier of the grantor for the purposes of article 25; nor is the authorization of a buyer of an encumbered asset required to register an amendment notice adding the buyer as a new grantor in enacting States that decide to adopt option A or B of article 26.对为第25条的目的披露设保人身份标识的登记后更改的修订通知办理登记不需要现有设保人的授权;在决定采纳就第26条选项A或选项B的颁布国,对将买受人增设为新的设保人的修订通知办理登记不需要设保资产买受人的授权。
156.If the grantor did not authorize the registration of a notice, or only authorized the registration of a notice covering a narrower range of encumbered assets than that described in the notice, or has withdrawn an initial authorization, article 20 provides a procedure by which the grantor can compel the secured creditor to register a cancellation notice or an amendment notice, as appropriate.156.如果设保人未授权办理对通知的登记,或只是授权对所涵盖的设保资产范围窄于通知所述资产办理登记,或撤回了最初的授权,第20条规定了设保人可据以强迫有担保债权人酌情办理取消通知或修订通知登记的程序。
157.Registration of an amendment notice that adds encumbered assets, increases the maximum amount or adds a new grantor takes effect only from the time of the registration of the amendment notice regardless of whether authorization was obtained before or after its registration (see art. 13, para. 1, and para. 191 below).157.办理对增设设保资产的修订通知登记,增加最高数额或添加新的设保人,只是从对修订通知办理登记之时起有效,而不论究竟在登记前或登记后取得授权(见第13条第1款和下文第191段)。
Article 3.第3条.
One notice sufficient for multiple security rights足以涵盖多项担保权的一份通知
158.Article 3 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 68 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 101) and 14 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 125 and 126).158.《登记处示范条文》第3条基于《担保交易指南》建议68(见第四章,第101段)和《登记处指南》建议14(见第125和126段)。
It confirms that a single registered notice is sufficient to achieve the third-party effectiveness of security rights arising under one or more security agreements between the grantor and the secured creditor.它确认单独一份已登记通知足以实现设保人和有担保债权人之间在一项或多项担保协议下产生的担保权的第三方效力。
It should be emphasized that this rule applies only to the extent that the description of the encumbered assets in the registered notice includes the assets encumbered by the multiple security agreements (see Registry Guide, para. 126).应当强调的是,该条规则仅在已登记通知中对设保资产的描述包括了由多项担保协议作保的资产限度内予以适用(见《登记处指南》第126段)。
159.159.
For example, if the initial security agreement between the parties covers only the grantor's tangible assets and the registered notice describes the encumbered assets as "all the grantor's tangible assets", a new initial notice (or an amendment to the existing notice) would have to be registered for a security right in the grantor's intangible assets under a subsequent security agreement to be effective against third parties, and that notice would take effect only from the time of its registration (see arts. 13, para. 1, and para. 191 below, as well as 29 of the Model Law, and paras. 285-294 below).举例说,如果当事人之间的初始担保协议仅涵盖设保人的有形资产,并且已登记通知将设保资产描述为“设保人的所有有形资产”,则必须办理新的初始通知(或对现有通知的修订)的登记,设保人无形资产上的担保权方能根据后继担保协议具有对抗第三方的效力,并且该通知只是从办理登记之时起方才有效(见《示范法》第13条第1款和下文第191段及《示范法》第29条和下文第285-294段)。
On the other hand, if the registered notice describes the encumbered assets as "all of the grantor's movable assets", the registration of that single notice would be sufficient under the rule in this article to achieve the thirdparty effectiveness of the security rights created under both the initial and subsequent security agreements, and their priority would date from the time of the initial registration.另一方面,如果已登记通知将设保资产描述为“设保人的所有动产”,对该单个通知办理登记则足以根据本条中的规则而实现其在初始担保协议和后继担保协议下创设的担保权第三方效力,并且其优先权将从初始登记之时起算。
Article 4.第4条.
Advance registration预先登记
160.Article 4 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 67 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 98-101) and 13 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 122-124).160.《登记处示范条文》第4条基于《担保交易指南》建议67(见第四章第98-101段)和《登记处指南》建议13(见第122-124段)。
It confirms that a notice may be registered before the creation of a security right to which the notice relates.它确认可在创设与通知有关的担保权之前办理对通知的登记。
This enables a security right under a security agreement covering future assets of the grantor to be made effective against third parties by a registration before the assets are actually acquired by the grantor and the security right comes into existence (see art. 6, para. 2, and art. 2, subpara. (n), of the Model Law).这就让涵盖设保人未来资产的担保协议所辖担保权在设保人实际获取资产及担保权存在之前通过办理登记取得对抗第三方的效力(见《示范法》第6条第2款和第2条(n)项)。
161.161.
Article 4 of the Model Registry Provisions also confirms that a registration may be made before the conclusion of any security agreement between the parties to which the notice relates.《登记处示范条文》第4条还确认可在当事人订立与通知有关的任何担保协议之前办理登记。
Pre-agreement registration is compatible with the registration process since, as already noted, (see para. 151 above), the underlying security agreement does not have to be submitted to the Registry to effect the registration of a notice.协议前登记与登记程序是相符的,因为如同已经指出的(见上文第151段),基本担保协议不必提交登记处以完成对通知的登记。
Advance registration is useful because it enables a secured creditor to establish its priority ranking against competing secured creditors under the general first-to-register priority rule in article 29 of the Model Law even before its security agreement with the grantor is formally concluded.预先登记之所以有益是因为,它让有担保债权人得以即使在正式订立其与设保人的担保协议之前便能根据《示范法》第29条先登记者优先的一般优先权规则确立其对相竞有担保债权人的优先权排序。
It should be emphasized, however, that advance registration does not make the security right to which it relates effective against other categories of competing claimants, if they acquire rights in the encumbered assets before the security agreement is actually entered into and the other requirements for creation of the security right to which the notice relates are satisfied (see, notably, arts. 34, 36 and 37 of the Model Law, and paras. 303-311 and 313-319 below).然而,应当强调的是,预先登记并不能使与之相关的担保协议具有对抗其他类别相竞求偿人的效力,先决条件是,其在实际订立担保协议并满足与通知有关的创设担保权其他要求之前获得其在设保资产上的权利(尤其见《示范法》第34、36和37条及下文第303-311段和第313-319段)。
162.162.
Advance registration may be prejudicial to the grantor identified in a registered notice if a security agreement is never concluded or covers a narrower range of assets than those described in the registered notice.如果从未订立过担保协议或担保协议仅涵盖其种类少于已登记通知所述资产的若干资产,预先登记可能会不利于在已登记通知中被指明为设保人的人。
To protect the grantor in this scenario, article 20 provides a procedure under which the grantor may obtain the compulsory amendment or cancellation of the registered notice, as appropriate.为保护该情景中的设保人,第20条规定了据以让设保人酌情对已登记通知予以强制性修订或取消的相关程序。
Section B.B节.
Access to registry services访问登记处的服务
Article 5.第5条.
Conditions for access to registry services访问登记处服务的条件
163.163.
Article 5 of the Model Registry Provisions is generally based on recommendations 54, subparagraph (c), (f) and (g), and 55 (b), of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 25-228) and 4, 6 and 9 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 95-97 and 103-105).《登记处示范条文》第5条基本基于《担保交易指南》建议54(c)、(f)和(g)项及建议55(b)项(见第四章第25-228段)和《登记处指南》建议4、6和9(见第95-97段和第103-105段)。
164.164.
Paragraphs 1 and 3 confirm that the Registry must be public in the sense that any person is entitled to register a notice or search the registry record provided that the registrant or searcher submits the prescribed form of notice or search request and pays or makes any required arrangements to pay the prescribed fees, if any (as to the latter, see art.第1和3款确认登记处必须是公共的,也就是说,任何人都有权办理对通知的登记,也有权查询登记处记录。
33 of the Model Registry Provisions, and paras.277-284 below).但条件是,登记人或查询人提交规定的通知表格或查询请求表格,缴纳任何可能的规定费用或作出任何可能的有关规定费用的必要缴费安排(关于后者,见《登记处示范条文》第33条和下文第277-284段)。
165.165.
Under paragraph 1 (b), a registrant, as opposed to a searcher, must additionally identify itself to the Registry in the prescribed manner.在第1款(b)项下,登记人而不是查询人还必须以规定的方式向登记处自述其身份。
This additional requirement is aimed at assisting the person identified in a registered notice as the grantor to determine the identity of the registrant in the event that the grantor did not authorize the registration (see Registry Guide, para. 96).这一额外要求的目的是,协助在已登记通知中被指明为设保人的人在设保人未授权登记的情况下确定登记人的身份(见《登记处指南》第96段)。
This consideration must be balanced against the need to ensure efficiency and speed in the registration process.在作这一考虑的同时,必须兼顾确保登记工作效率和速度的需要。
Accordingly, the evidence of identity required of a registrant should be that which is generally accepted as sufficient in day-to-day commercial transactions in the enacting State (for example, an identity card, driver's licence or other stateissued official document) provided it includes the registrant's contact details.因此,要求登记人出示的身份证据应当是在颁布国日常商事交易中被普遍接受为足以构成证据的证据(例如身份证、驾车执照或其他由国家颁发的官方证件),前提是它列入了登记人的联系详情。
166.166.
If access to registry services is refused, paragraph 4 requires the Registry to communicate the specific reason (for example, the registrant failed to use the prescribed form or to pay the prescribed fee) "without delay".如果拒绝对登记处服务的访问,第4款则要求登记处“不加延迟地”告知具体理由(举例说,登记人未使用规定表格或未缴纳规定费用)。
The concrete meaning of the words "without delay" depends on the mode by which the notice or search request is submitted to the Registry.“不加延迟地”的词句的具体含义取决于以何种方式向登记处提交通知或查询请求。
If the system is designed to enable users to submit notices and search requests through electronic means of communication directly to the Registry, the system should be programmed to automatically communicate the reason during the registration or search process and display the reason on the registrant's or searcher's screen.如果系统的设计使得用户能够以电子通信方式直接向登记处提交通知和查询请求,对该系统的程序安排应当使该系统在登记或查询进行期间自动告知理由并在登记人或查询人的屏幕上显示理由。
If the system also permits notices and search requests to be submitted in paper form, the registry staff will need a reasonable time period to verify compliance with the conditions of access and prepare and communicate a response.如果该系统还允许以纸质形式提交通知和查询请求,登记处工作人员则需要有一段合理时间来核实对访问条件的遵守及起草和告知答复。
167.167.
To facilitate efficient and secure access to registry services, the Registry should be organized to accept payments made electronically in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of the user's financial information (see Registry Guide, para. 138).为了便利有效安全地访问登记处的服务,对登记处的安排应当能接受以确保用户财务信息保密性的方式作出的电子支付(见《登记处指南》,第138段)。
Efficient access by frequent users (such as financial institutions, automobile dealers or other suppliers of goods on credit, lawyers and other intermediaries) should be facilitated by entitling them to set up an account that enables them to deposit funds to pay for their ongoing requests for services.为便利经常用户(例如金融机构、汽车经销商或赊账货物的其他供应商、律师及其他中间人)的有效访问,应当允许用户设立能够交存资金以支付其不间断服务请求的账户。
168.168.
To limit the risk of registration of an amendment or cancellation notice that is not authorized by the person identified in the initial notice as the secured creditor, paragraph 2 requires persons who submit an amendment or cancellation notice for registration to satisfy the secure access requirements specified by the enacting State.为了限定对未获在初始通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人授权的修订通知或取消通知办理登记的风险,第2款要求提交修订通知或取消通知的人在办理登记时必须满足由颁布国指明的安全访问要求。
For example, the enacting State may require registrants to set up a passwordprotected account when submitting an initial notice and to submit all amendment and cancellation notices through that account.举例说,颁布国可能要求登记人在提交初始通知之时设立其密码受到保护的账户,然后要求通过该账户提交所有修订通知和取消通知。
Alternatively, the system might be designed to assign a unique user code to registrants automatically upon registration of an initial notice, with that code then being required to be entered on all amendment and cancellation notices submitted for registration (with respect to the effectiveness of the registration of unauthorized amendment or cancellation notices, see art. 21).不然,该系统的设计可以在登记人登记初始通知之时给其自动分派一个独一用户编码,然后要求必须在提交登记的所有修订通知和取消通知中输入该编码(关于对未获授权的修订通知或取消通知办理登记的效力,见第21条)。
Article 6.第6条.
Rejection of the registration of a notice or a search request拒绝对通知或查询请求办理登记
169.169.
Article 6 of the Model Registry Provisions reflects the principles in recommendations 8 and 10 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 97-99 and 106).《登记处示范条文》第6条反映了《登记处指南》建议8和10中的原则(见第97-99段和第106段)。
Paragraph 1 obligates the Registry to reject the registration of a notice if no information or illegible information has been entered in any of the mandatory designated fields in the notice.第1款规定,如果在通知任何一个必要指定栏目中未输入任何信息或仅输入辨认不清的信息,登记处则有义务拒绝对通知办理登记。
As all mandatory fields must be completed for a registered notice to be effective, this provision ensures that submitted notices that are self-evidently ineffective are never entered into the registry record.由于所有必要栏目都必须填写清楚,已登记通知方才有效,这一项规定确保了不言而喻明显无效的已提交通知绝不会被输入登记处的记录中。
For example, article 8, paragraph (c), requires an initial notice to include a description of the encumbered assets.举例说,第8条(c)款要求初始通知列入对设保资产的描述。
If no information or illegible information is entered in the field reserved for setting out the description, the registration will be rejected.如果未在给所作描述保留的栏目中输入任何信息或仅输入辨认不清的信息,就必须拒绝办理登记。
On the other hand, the registration will be accepted if legible information is set out in the field designated for entering a description, even if the information that is entered is incorrect or incomplete, for example, the registrant mistakenly entered the address of the grantor in the field designated for entering a description of the encumbered assets.另一方面,如果在给输入描述内容指定的栏目中输入容易辨认的信息,即便所输入的信息不准确或不完备,举例说,登记人错误地将设保人的地址输入给输入对设保资产的描述所指定的栏目,仍然还可以接受办理登记。
170.170.
Paragraph 2 obligates the Registry to reject a search request if no information or illegible information is entered in one of the designated fields for entering a search criterion.第2款规定,在输入查询标准的其中一项指定栏目中未输入任何信息或仅输入辨认不清的信息,登记处有义务拒绝查询请求。
Since searchers are entitled to search by either the identifier of the grantor or the registration number assigned to the initial notice (see art. 22), it is sufficient if legible information is entered into at least one of the search criterion fields.由于查询人有权使用设保人身份标识或分配给初始通知的登记号中的任一方法进行查询(见第22条),至少在关于查询标准栏目中的某一项栏目中输入容易辨认的信息便已足够。
171.171.
To avoid any arbitrary decisions on the part of the Registry, paragraph 3 confirms that the Registry may not reject the registration of a notice or search request where the registrant or searcher satisfies the access conditions set out in paragraphs 1 and 2.为了避免登记处作出任何任意的决定,第3款确认,在登记人或查询人满足第1和2款所设定的访问条件情况下登记处不得拒绝对通知或查询请求办理登记。
172.172.
Paragraph 4 requires the Registry to provide the reason for rejecting the registration of a notice or a search request without delay.第4款规定,登记处有义务不加延迟地提供拒绝办理通知或查询请求的登记的原因。
As already noted (see para. 166 above), the system should be programmed to automatically communicate the reason during the registration or search process and to display the reason on the registrant's or searcher's screen.如同已经注意到的(见上文第166段),对系统的编程安排应当能够在登记或查询过程中在登记人或查询人的屏幕上自动传送所述理由。
If the system also permits notices and search requests to be submitted in paper form, the registry staff will need to be given reasonable time to verify compliance, and to prepare and communicate a response.如果系统还允许以纸质形式提交通知或查询请求,就需要让登记处工作人员有合理时间对履行情况作出核实及编拟和传送答复。
Article 7.第7条.
Information about the registrant's identity and scrutiny of the form or contents of a notice by the Registry关于登记人身份的信息及登记处对通知格式和内容的认真检查
173.173.
Article 7 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 54 (d), and 55 (b), of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 15-17 and 48) and 7 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 100 and 102).《登记处示范条文》第7条基于《担保交易指南》建议54(d)项和建议55(b)项(见第四章第15-17段和第48段)和《登记处指南》建议7(见第100和102段)。
Paragraph 1 obligates the Registry to maintain the identity information submitted by registrants in compliance with article 5, paragraph 1(b), and to provide that information upon request to the person identified in the registered notice as the grantor.第1款规定登记处有义务保存由登记人依照第5条第1款(b)项提交的身份信息并根据请求向在已登记通知中被指明为设保人的人提供该信息。
While this information does not form part of the public or archived registry record, it nonetheless must be preserved by the Registry in a manner that makes it possible for its retrieval in association with the registered notice to which it relates.虽然该信息并不构成公共的或已存档的登记处记录的一部分,但它仍然必须由登记处以能够同与其相关的已登记通知一并检索的方式加以保留。
This is consistent with the rationale for obtaining and preserving this information, which is to assist the grantor in identifying the registrant in cases where the registration of the notice was not authorized by the grantor (see para. 165 above).这同获取和保留该信息的依据并行不悖,即在对通知的登记未获设保人授权的情况下协助设保人确定登记人的身份(见上文第165段)。
In order to ensure that this objective is balanced against the need to facilitate the efficiency of the registration process, paragraph 2 provides that the Registry is not permitted to require further verification of the identity information provided by a registrant under article 5, paragraph 1(b).为确保在兼顾该目标的同时,顾及便利提高登记工作效率的需要,第2款规定,登记处不得对登记人根据第5条第1款(b)项提供的身份信息加以进一步核实。
With the same objective in mind, paragraph 3 prohibits the Registry from scrutinizing the form or content of notices and search requests submitted to it except to the extent needed to give effect to articles 5 and 6.本着同样的目标,第3款在不违反落实第5和6条的必要前提下普遍禁止登记处认真检查向其提交的通知及查询请求的格式和内容。
Section C.C节.
Registration of a notice对通知的登记
Article 8.第8条.
Information required in an initial notice初始通知所需信息
174.174.
Article 8 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 57 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 65) and 23 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 157-160).《登记处示范条文》第8条基于《担保交易指南》建议57(见第四章,第65段)和《登记处指南》建议23(见第157-160段)。
It sets out the items of information required to be entered in the appropriate designated fields in an initial notice.它列出了在提交登记处登记的初始通知适当指定栏目中需要输入的各项信息。
The items specified in subparagraphs (a), (b) and (c) are the subject of articles 9, 10 and 11 of the Model Registry Provisions (see paras. 177-188 below), and the reader is generally referred to the commentary on those articles.(a)、(b)和(c)项列出的各项信息是登记处示范条文》第9、10和11条的主题事项(见下文第177-188段),并且通常会让读者参阅这些条款的评述。
It should be noted that where a notice relates to more than one grantor or secured creditor, the required information should be entered in separate designated fields for each grantor or secured creditor.应当指出的是,一项通知关系到不只一个设保人或有担保债权人的,则应在针对每一个设保人或有担保债权人的单独指定栏目中分别输入所需信息。
175.175.
Subject to its privacy laws, the enacting State may decide to require "additional information" (such as the birth date of the grantor or an identification number issued by the enacting State) to be entered to assist in uniquely identifying a grantor where there is a risk that many persons may have the same name (see bracketed text in art. 8, subpara. (a)).在不违反其隐私法的前提下,颁布国可决定要求输入“补充信息”(例如设保人的出生日期或由颁布国颁发的身份号码)以便在多个人有可能拥有相同姓名的情况下协助确定设保人的独一身份标识(见第8条(a)项中的括号内案文)。
This is more likely to pose a concern for a grantor that is a natural person as States usually impose constraints on new business entities using the same name as an existing business entity.这更有可能给引起属于自然人的设保人的关切,因为国家通常会对所用名称与现有企业实体相同的新的企业实体施加限制。
If this approach is adopted, the form of notice prescribed by the enacting State should provide a separate designated field for entering the "additional information".如果采用这一做法,由颁布国规定的通知表格就应当为输入该“补充信息”提供一项单独指定的栏目。
The enacting State should also specify the nature of the additional information to be provided and make its inclusion mandatory in the sense that it must be entered in the relevant field for a notice to be registered.颁布国还应当列明所应提供的补充信息的类型,并规定必须列入这类信息。也就是说,必须将该信息输入相关栏目,方可对通知办理登记。
If the required additional information is an identification number issued by the enacting State, it will also be necessary to address cases in which the grantor is not a citizen or resident of the enacting State, or for any other reason has not been issued an identification number.如果必需的补充信息是颁布国颁发的身份号码,则还必须述及设保人并非颁布国公民或居民或出于任何其他原因而未获颁发身份号码的情况。
Subject to privacy considerations, the enacting State might, for example, provide that the number of the grantor's foreign passport or some other foreign official document is a sufficient substitute (on all these points, see Registry Guide, rec. 23 (a) (i), and paras. 167-169, 171, 181-183, 226, as well as annex II, Examples of registry forms).在考虑到保密的前提下,颁布国例如可规定,设保人的外国护照或其他某一外国证件的号码即足可予以替代(关于所有这些要点,见《登记处指南》建议23(a)(i)项和第167-169段、第171段、第181-183段、第226段以及附件二中的登记处表格实例)。
176.176.
Subparagraph (d) appears within square brackets, as an indication of the duration of registration on an initial notice is required only if the enacting State adopts options B or C of article 14 of the Model Registry Provisions (see paras. 195-197 below; see also Registry Guide, paras. 199-204).只有在颁布国采用《登记处示范条文》第14条选项B或C的前提下方才需要将(d)项置于方括号内,以在初始通知上注明登记持续期限(见下文第195-197段;还见《登记处指南》第199-204段)。
Subparagraph (e) also appears within square brackets, as an indication of the maximum amount for which the security right may be enforced is required only if the enacting State implements the approach set out in article 6, paragraph 3 (d), of the Model Law, which also appears within square brackets (see para. 89 above).也只有在颁布国落实也置于方括号内的《示范法》第6条第3款(d)项所述做法的前提下方才需要还将(e)项置于方括号内,以注明可据以强制执行担保权的最高数额(见上文第89段)。
Article 9.第9条.
Grantor identifier设保人的身份标识
177.177.
Article 9 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 59 and 60 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 68-74), as well as recommendations 24 and 25 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 161-183).《登记处示范条文》第9条基于《担保交易指南》建议59和60(见第四章第68-74段)和《登记处指南》建议24和25(见第161-183段)。
It provides that the identifier of the grantor is the name of the grantor.它规定,设保人的身份标识即是其姓名。
It then sets out separate rules for determining the name of the grantor depending on whether the grantor is a natural person or a legal person.它随之列出了根据设保人究竟是自然人还是法人而确定设保人姓名的单独规则。
178.178.
If the grantor is a natural person, paragraph 1 provides that the grantor's name is the name that appears in the official document specified by the enacting State as the authoritative source.如果设保人是自然人,第1款规定,设保人的姓名即是出现在由颁布国指明为权威来源的官方证件上的姓名。
As not all grantors will possess a common official document (e.g., an identity card or driver's licence), the enacting State will need to specify alternative official documents as authoritative sources and specify the hierarchy of authoritativeness among them (for examples of possible approaches, see Registry Guide, paras. 163-168).由于并非所有设保人都拥有共同的官方证件(例如身份证或驾驶执照),颁布国需要指明可作为权威来源的其他官方证件,并列出这些证件的权威性等级次序(关于可能做法的实例,见《登记处指南》,第163-168段)。
179.179.
As already noted (see para. 175 above), the enacting State may require the entry of a State-issued identity or other official number as additional information to assist in uniquely identifying a grantor.正如已经指出的(见上文第175段),颁布国可要求输入由国家颁发的身份号码或其他官方号码以此作为补充信息协助确定某一设保人的独一身份标识。
Instead of the name, the enacting State may decide to make this number a grantor identifier.颁布国可决定将该号码而不是将姓名作为设保人的身份标识。
Since the grantor identifier is the criterion used to search the registry record, this approach is only feasible if there is a reliable record or other objective source that searchers can consult to determine a person's official number.由于设保人的身份标识是用于查询登记处记录的标准,该做法可行的唯一条件是,记录可靠并且查询人可据以确定一人官方号码的所可参考的其他来源均为客观。
If this approach is adopted, it will also be necessary for the enacting State to address cases in which the grantor is not a citizen or resident of the enacting State, or for any other reason has not been issued an identification number.如果采取这一做法,则颁布国还有必要述及设保人并非颁布国公民或居民的事例或出于任何原因未获颁发身份号码的事例。
The enacting State might, for example, provide that the number in some other foreign official document is a sufficient substitute provided again that the relevant number is accessible to searchers.颁布国例如不妨规定,其他一些外国官方证件中的号码足可替代,但先决条件还是相关号码向查询人开放。
Otherwise, the name of the foreign grantor will have to be used as the grantor identifier (see Registry Guide, paras. 168 and 169).否则,就必须将外国设保人的姓名用作设保人的身份标识(见《登记处指南》第168和169段)。
180.180.
Paragraph 2 requires the enacting State to indicate which components of the name of a grantor who is a natural person must be entered in the notice.第2款要求颁布国标明系自然人的设保人姓名中究竟有哪些组成部分必须输入通知。
The enacting State will need to specify, for example, whether only the given and family name of the grantor is required or whether a middle name or initial, if any, must also be included.举例说,颁布国需要指明是否只需要列入设保人的名和姓,或是否还必须列入中间名或姓名首字母。
It will also need to address the scenario where the grantor's name consists of a single word, for example, by providing that that word should be entered in the family name field and by ensuring that the registry system is designed so as not to reject notices that have no information entered in the other name fields (see Registry Guide, para. 165).它还需要处理设保人的姓名由单个字组成的情形,举例说它规定,该字应当输入姓一栏,并确保登记处系统的设计不致拒绝在其他姓名栏目中未输入任何信息的通知(见《登记处指南》第165段)。
181.181.
Paragraph 3 requires the enacting State to address how the grantor's name is to be determined where the grantor's name has legally changed under applicable law after the issuance of the official document designated in paragraph 1 as the authoritative source of the grantor's name (for example, as a result of an application for a name change under change of name legislation; see Registry Guide, para. 164 (f)).第3款要求颁布国处理在颁发了第1款所指定的可作为设保人姓名权威来源的官方证件之后设保人姓名根据适用法律合法变更(例如根据姓名变更法律申请变更姓名所致,见《登记处指南》,第164(f)段)的情况下如何确定设保人姓名的问题。
182.182.
Paragraph 4 provides that where the grantor is a legal person the name of the grantor is the name that appears in the relevant document, law or decree to be specified by the enacting State constituting the legal person (see Registry Guide, paras. 170-173).第4款规定,设保人是法人的,设保人的姓名即是出现在拟由构成法人的颁布国指明的相关证件、法律或法令中的姓名(见《登记处指南》第170-173段)。
183.183.
Paragraph 5, which appears in square brackets, provides for the possibility that an enacting State may wish to require additional information pertaining to the grantor's status to be entered in a notice in special cases, such as where the grantor is subject to insolvency proceedings (see Registry Guide, paras. 174-179).出现在方括号内的第5款规定在诸如设保人受制于破产程序等特例中颁布国可以要求将有关设保人状况的补充信息输入通知(见《登记处指南》第174-179段)。
If the enacting State adopts this approach, it must ensure that the prescribed form of notice contains a field to enter the relevant status information.如果颁布国采取该做法,它则必须确保通知规定表格含有输入相关状况信息的一栏。
Article 10.第10条.
Secured creditor identifier有担保债权人的身份标识
184.184.
Article 10 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 57 (a) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 81) and 27 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 184-189).《登记处示范条文》第10条基于《担保交易指南》建议57(a)项(见第四章第81段)和《登记处指南》建议27(见第184-189段)。
It largely replicates the rules in article 9 for determining the identifier of the grantor.它大体重申了第9条所载有关确定设保人身份标识的规则。
Unlike under article 9 of the Model Registry Provisions (read together with art. 8, subpara. (a), and para. 174 above), however, under article 10 (read together with art. 8, subpara. (b), and para. 174 above), the registrant may enter the name of a representative of the secured creditor (e.g. a law firm or other service provider or an agent of a syndicate of lenders).然而,不同于《登记处示范条文》第9条(结合第8条(a)项和上文第174段一并解读),第10条(结合第8条(b)项和上文第174段一并解读)规定,登记人可输入有担保债权人的代理人(例如法律事务所或其他服务供应商或放贷人辛迪加的代理人)的姓名。
This approach is intended to protect the privacy of the actual secured creditor and facilitate the efficiency of arrangements such as syndicated loans where there are multiple secured creditors who may change over time.这种做法意在保护事实上的有担保债权人的隐私并便利提高在有身份可能因时而变的多个有担保债权人情况下作出辛迪加贷款之类安排的效率。
This approach does not have a negative impact on the grantor, who would typically know the identity of the actual secured creditor from their dealings, or third parties, as long as the representative is authorized to act on behalf of the actual secured creditor (see Registry Guide, paras. 186 and 187).只要授权该代理人代表事实上的有担保债权人行事,这种做法不会对设保人产生消极影响,后者通常可以从其交往或从第三方那里知悉事实上的有担保债权人的身份(见《登记处指南》,第186和187段)。
It should also be noted that, as the security right is created by an off-record security agreement, the entry of the name of a representative as the secured creditor on a registered notice does not make the representative the actual secured creditor.还应当指出的是,担保权由不作记录的担保协议创设,将代理人的姓名作为有担保债权人输入已登记通知不会使代理人成为事实上的有担保债权人。
Article 11.第11条.
Description of encumbered assets对设保资产的描述
185.185.
Article 11 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 63 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 82-86) and 28 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 190-192).《登记处示范条文》第11条基于《担保交易指南》建议63(见第四章第82-86段)和《登记处指南》建议28(见第190-192段)。
The test for the adequacy of a description of the encumbered assets in a registered notice in paragraph 1 parallels the test for the adequacy of a description of the encumbered assets in a security agreement (see art. 9 of the Model Law, and paras. 95 and 96 above).有关第1款中已登记通知所载对设保资产的描述是否充分的检验标准仿效了有关担保协议中对设保资产的描述是否充分的检验标准(见《示范法》第9条和上文第95和96段)。
That said, the description in a registered notice need not be identical to the description in any related security agreement so long as it reasonably allows identification of the relevant encumbered assets in accordance with the test in paragraph 1.尽管如此,已登记通知中的描述,只要根据第1款中的检验标准合理允许确定相关设保资产的身份,则不需要同任何相关担保协议中的描述相同。
186.186.
Paragraph 2 confirms that a description in a registered notice that refers to all of the grantor's movable assets or to all of the grantor's assets within a specified generic category (for example, all receivables owing to the grantor) satisfies the test in paragraph 1 that the description reasonably allow identification of the encumbered assets.第2款确认已登记通知中提及设保人所有动产或设保人某一指明的通类资产内所有资产(举例说,归设保人所有的全部应收款)的描述即符合第1款关于所作描述合理允许确定设保资产身份的检验标准。
It follows that a generic description will be sufficient even if any related security agreement only covers a specific asset within that broad generic category (for example, the description in the registered notice refers to all "tangible assets of the grantor", whereas the security agreement only covers a specific tangible asset).由此即便任何相关担保协议仅涵盖该宽泛的通类资产中的某一特定资产,该通类描述也已足够(举例说,已登记通知中的描述提及“设保人的所有有形资产”,而担保协议仅涵盖某一特定的有形资产)。
However, the effectiveness of the registration in this scenario is dependent upon the authorization of the grantor pursuant to article 2; if the grantor only authorized a registration covering a specific asset, the registration will only be effective with respect to that asset.然而,此种场景中的登记效力取决于设保人依照第2条的授权;如果设保人只是对涵盖某一特定资产的登记予以授权,该登记将只是对该资产有效。
Moreover, the grantor is entitled, pursuant to article 20, paragraph 1, to compel the secured creditor to register an amendment notice that narrows the description of the assets in the registered notice to correspond to the encumbered assets actually covered by the security agreement unless the grantor separately authorized the secured creditor to register a broader description (see para. 150 above) and has not withdrawn that authorization.而且,依照第20条第1款,设保人有权强迫有担保债权人对缩小已登记通知中资产描述范围以与担保协议所实际涵盖的设保资产保持一致的修订通知办理登记,除非设保人另行授权有担保债权人对更广范围的描述办理登记(见上文第150段)并且未撤回该授权。
187.187.
The secured transactions laws of some States adopt special rules for describing specified classes of high-value assets that have a significant resale market alphanumerically where they have a unique serial number or equivalent unique alphanumerical identifier.有些国家的担保交易法对具有庞大转售市场的特定类别高价值资产采用了专门的字母数字式描述规则,据此给这类资产设定了独一的序列号或类似的独一字母数字式标识。
In States that adopt this approach, entry of the serial number in its own designated field is required in the sense of being necessary to preserve the priority of the security right as against specified classes of third parties that acquire rights in the asset.采用这一做法的国家要求在其指定栏目输入序列号,也就是说,输入序列号是保全担保权享有对抗获取资产上权利的特定类别第三方的优先权所必需。
Enacting States that are interested in adopting this approach will need to revise the priority rules of the Model Law to specify the priority consequences of a failure of entering the relevant serial number and to revise the registry design and the registry-related provisions to accommodate serialnumber-based registration and searching (for the rationale for, and the advantages and disadvantages of this, approach, see Registry Guide, paras. 131-134; for the consequences of a failure of entering the serial number or an error in entering the serial number, see Registry Guide, paras. 193 and 213; and for the registry design and registry provisions needed to implement this approach, see Registry Guide, para. 266).有兴趣采取该做法的国家需要修订《示范法》的优先权规则以指明未输入相关序列号给优先权造成的后果并修订登记处设计和登记处相关条文以照顾到基于序列号的登记和查询(关于这种做法的依据及其优劣之处,见《登记处指南》第131-134段;关于未输入序列号或序列号输入出现差错的后果,见《登记处指南》第193段和第213段;关于登记处的设计和落实这一做法所需登记处的规定,见《登记处指南》第266段)。
It should be noted that even in legal systems that do not adopt this approach, a registrant may choose to include the serial number in the description it enters in the notice as a convenient method of describing the encumbered asset in a manner that reasonably allows its identification (see Registry Guide, paras. 194 and 212).应当指出的是,即便在未采用这一做法的法律制度中,登记人仍可选择将序列号列入它所输入通知的描述中,从而作为以能合理确定其身份的方式描述设保资产的一种便捷方法(见《登记处指南》第194段和第212段)。
On the other hand, using only the specific serial number as the description may be risky since any error would render the description insufficient whereas a more generic description (e.g. a description of the grantor's automobile by make and model, or simply as "automobile") may reduce the risk of error.另一方面,只是利用某一具体序列号进行描述可能是有风险的,因为任何差错都会造成描述不充分,而通类性较强的描述(例如按照品牌和型号或干脆作为“汽车”对设保人的汽车所作描述)可以减少发生差错的风险。
188.188.
There is no need to register an initial or amendment notice to describe proceeds of an encumbered asset in the form of money, receivables, negotiable instruments or rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account (see art. 19, para. 1, of the Model Law).不需要对描述以金钱、应收款、可转让票据或银行账户贷记款受付权为形式的设保资产的收益的初始通知或修订通知办理登记(见《示范法》第19条第1款)。
If the proceeds take any other form and are not already covered by the description of the encumbered assets in a registered notice, the secured creditor must register a notice to add a description of the proceeds or otherwise make its security right in the proceeds effective against third parties within a short period of time to be specified by the enacting State (e.g. 20-25 days) after they arise in order to preserve the third-party effectiveness and priority of its security right in the proceeds (see arts. 19, para. 2, and 32 of the Model Law).如果收益采取任何其他形式并且尚不能为对已登记通知中设保资产的描述所涵盖,有担保债权人就必须对在收益产生后拟由颁布国指明的短时期内(例如20-25天)增设收益描述的通知办理登记或以其它方式使其在收益上的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力,目的是保全其在收益上担保权的第三方效力和优先权(见《示范法》第19条第2款和第32条)。
The registration of a notice is necessary because otherwise a third-party searcher would not be alerted to the potential existence of a security right in the assets constituting the proceeds (see Registry Guide, para. 197).之所以有必要对通知办理登记,是因为不然就无法提醒第三方查询人注意构成收益的资产上担保权的可能存在(见《登记处指南》第197段)。
Article 12.第12条.
Language of information in a notice通知中信息的语文
189.189.
Article 12 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 22 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 153-156; the Secured Transactions Guide includes a discussion of this matter in chap. IV, paras. 44-46, but does not include a recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第12条基于《登记处指南》建议22(见第153-156段;《担保交易指南》将有关该事项的讨论列入了第四章,第44-46段,但未列入一则建议)。
Paragraph 1 requires the information contained in a notice to be expressed in the language or languages to be specified by the enacting State except for the names and addresses of the grantor and the secured creditor or its representative.第1款要求颁布国所载信息以拟由颁布国指明的一种或多种语文表述,但设保人和有担保债权人或其代理人的姓名和地址除外。
Typically, the enacting State will require registrants to use its officially recognized language or languages.颁布国通常要求登记人使用得到官方承认的一种或多种语文。
As the other items of information, such as the period of effectiveness of the registration, required to be entered in a notice can be expressed by numbers, registrants will only need to translate the description of the encumbered assets.由于诸如通知有效期之类需要输入通知的其他各项信息可以使用数字方式表述,登记人只需要翻译对设保资产的描述。
Where the description of the encumbered assets is not expressed in the required language, the registration of the notice would be ineffective as seriously misleading (see art. 24, para. 4, and para. 239 below).对设保资产的描述并未以所需语文表述的,对通知办理登记将会因严重误导而归于无效(见第24条第4款和下文第239段)。
190.190.
Paragraph 2 requires all information in a notice to be in the character set prescribed and publicized by the Registry.第2款要求通知中所有信息都应以登记处规定并公布的成套字母表述。
Otherwise, the notice will be rejected as illegible under article 6, paragraph 1 (a) (see para. 169 above; for the same rule with respect to search requests, see art. 6, para. 2, and para. 170 above).不然的话,将根据第6条第1款(a)项以该通知辨认不清为由而加以拒绝(见上文第169段;对有关查询请求的相同规则,见第6条第2款和上文第170段)。
Accordingly, while the names and addresses of the grantor and secured creditor or its representative need not be translated under paragraph 1 if they are expressed in a language that uses a different character set than that prescribed by the Registry, they will need to be adjusted or transliterated to conform to the prescribed character set (see Registry Guide, para. 155).因此,设保人和有担保债权人或其代理人的姓名和地址如果以使用不同于登记处规定的成套字母的语文来表述则根据第1款不需要翻译的,则就需要对其加以调整或拼写以便与规定的成套字母相吻合(见《登记处指南》,第155段)。
Article 13.第13条.
Time of effectiveness of the registration of a notice对通知的登记的生效时间
191.191.
Article 13 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 70 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see paras. 102-105) and 11 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 107-112).《登记处示范条文》第13条基于《担保交易指南》建议70(见第102-105段)和《登记处指南》建议11(见第107-112段)。
Paragraph 1 provides that the registration of an initial or amendment notice is effective only once the information in the notice is entered into the public registry record so that it is accessible to searchers (see the definition of the term "registry record" in art. 1, subpara. (l)).第1款规定,对初始通知或修订通知办理登记只有在通知中信息一旦输入公共登记处记录以便为查询人所用的情况下方才生效(见第1条第(1)项中“登记处记录”一语的定义)。
Paragraph 3 requires the Registry to record that date and time and to make this information available to searchers.第3款要求登记处记录该日期和时间并将该信息提供给查询人。
192.192.
In view of the importance of the timing and order of registration to the third-party effectiveness and priority of a security right, paragraph 2 requires the Registry to enter the information into the registry record "without delay" and in the order in which it was submitted.鉴于办理登记的时间和次序对担保权第三方效力及其优先权的重要性,第2款要求登记处“不加延误地”按照通知提交的次序把信息输入登记处记录。
The meaning of the words "without delay" depends in practice on the design of the registry system.“不加延误地”一语的含义在实务中取决于登记处系统的设计。
If the system enables users to submit information in a notice directly to the Registry through electronic means of communication without the intervention of registry staff, those words will typically mean "with little or no delay" since in this case the information in the notice submitted to the Registry will almost instantaneously be entered into the registry record. However, in systems that permit or require the use of paper notice forms, there will inevitably be some time lag since the registry staff must enter the information on the paper notice form into the registry record.如果该系统使得用户能够通过电子通信手段在无需登记处工作人员干预的情况下直接向登记处提交通知中信息,则在通知中信息提交登记处至其可以为查询人所用的间隔期一语通常是指“少有延误或毫无延误”,因为在这种情况下,提交登记处的通知中信息几乎会同时输入登记处的记录中,然而,在允许或要求使用纸质通知表格的系统中,存在某种时滞不可避免,因为登记处工作人员必须把纸质通知表格中的信息输入登记处记录。
Thus, in this case, the words "without delay" will mean "as soon as practically feasible".因此,在此情况下,“不加延误地”一词的含义是“按实际可能尽快”。
193.193.
Paragraph 4 deals with the time of effectiveness of the registration of a cancellation notice.第4款处理对取消通知办理登记的生效时间。
Option A provides that the registration of a cancellation notice is effective once the information in the registered notices to which the cancellation notice relates is no longer publicly searchable.选项A规定,一旦与取消通知有关的已登记通知中信息不再可以公开查询,对取消通知的登记即为有效。
Option A should be adopted by enacting States that adopt option A or B of article 21 of the Model Registry Provisions (see paras. 221-223 below), since these options require the Registry to remove information in a registered notice from the public registry record and archive it upon registration of a cancellation notice pursuant to option A of article 30 of the Model Registry Provisions (see para. 263 below).因此,采用《登记处示范条文》第21条选项A或B的颁布国应当采用选项A(见下文第221-223段),其原因是,这些选项要求登记处在依照《登记处示范条文》第30条选项A对取消通知办理登记之时(见下文第263段),必须从公共登记处记录中删除已登记通知中信息并将其存档。
Option B provides that the registration of a cancellation notice becomes effective once the information in the cancellation notice is entered into the registry record so as to be accessible to searchers.选项B规定,一旦取消通知中信息输入登记处记录以便能够向查询人开放,对取消通知的登记即为生效。
Option B should be adopted by enacting States that adopt option C or D of article 21 since these options require the Registry to retain the information in all registered notices, including cancellation notices, on the public registry record until the effectiveness of the registration lapses pursuant to option B of article 30.采用第21条选项C或D的颁布国应当采用选项B,其原因是,这些选项要求,在直到登记失效以前,登记处均必须依照第30条选项B保留公共登记处记录中的所有已登记通知包括取消通知中的信息。
194.194.
Option A and option B of paragraph 5 require the Registry to record the date and time of effectiveness of the registration of a cancellation notice as determined by option A and option B of paragraph 4 respectively.第5款选项A和选项B均要求登记处记录由第4款选项A和选项B分别确定的关于对取消通知办理登记的生效日期和时间。
Accordingly, enacting States that adopt option A of paragraph 4 should adopt option A of paragraph 5, while enacting States that adopt option B of paragraph 4 should adopt option B of paragraph 5.因此,采用第4款选项A的颁布国应当采用第5款选项A,而采用第4款选项B的颁布国应当采用第5款选项B。
Article 14.第14条.
Period of effectiveness of the registration of a notice对通知的登记的有效期
195.195.
Article 14 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 69 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 87-91) and 12 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 113-121, 240 and 241).《登记处示范条文》第14条基于《担保交易指南》建议69(见第四章,第87-91段)和《登记处指南》建议12(见第113-121段、第240和241段)。
It offers enacting States a choice of three different approaches to the determination of the period of effectiveness (or duration) of the registration of a notice.它给颁布国提供了关于确定对通知办理登记的初始有效期(或持续期限)的三种不同做法的选择。
If option A is adopted, an initial notice (and any associated amendment notice) is effective for the period specified by the enacting State (e.g. five years).如果采用选项A,初始通知(以及任何相关的修订通知)将在颁布国指明的时期(例如五年)内有效。
If option B is adopted, registrants are permitted to specify the desired period of effectiveness.如果采用选项B,则允许登记人指明理想的有效期。
If option C is adopted, registrants are likewise permitted to determine the period of effectiveness but only up to the maximum number of years specified by the enacting State.如果采用选项C,则同样将允许登记人确定有效期,但至多不超出颁布国指明的最高年数。
196.196.
Paragraphs 2 and 3 permit the period of effectiveness of a notice to be extended and re-extended before its expiry by the registration of an amendment notice.第2款和第3款允许有效期期满前通过对修订通知办理登记而延长并再次延长其有效期。
Paragraph 2 of option B permits the period of effectiveness to be extended at any time before its expiry, whereas paragraph 2 of options A and C permit an extension to be made only during the period specified by the enacting State (e.g. four to six months) before expiry of the current period of effectiveness.选项B第2款允许在有效期期满前随时延长有效期,而选项A和C的第2款允许只是在现有有效期期满前由颁布国指明的时期内(例如四个月至六个月)延长有效期。
The reason for this difference is to prevent a registrant from undermining the maximum period of effectiveness specified by the enacting State under options B and C by extending the period of effectiveness of a registration at an earlier point.之所以有此区别,是为了防止登记人较早延长登记的有效期从而损害选项B和C下由颁布国指明的最长有效期。
Under paragraph 4 of option A, the duration of the registration would be extended for the period specified by the enacting State as the period of effectiveness of an initial notice.在选项A第4款下,将把由颁布国指明的时期延长为初始通知的有效期。
Under paragraph 4 of option B or option C, the registrant is permitted to determine the duration of the further period of effectiveness, but only up to the maximum number of years prescribed by the enacting State in the case of option C.选项B或选项C第4款允许登记人确定后续有效期期限,但至多不得超出选项C中由颁布国规定的最长年数。
197.197.
If option B or option C is adopted, the period of effectiveness of the registration must be included in a notice (see art. 8, subpara. (d)).如果采用选项B或选项C,就必须把登记的有效期列入通知(见第8条(d)项)。
States that adopt either of these options will also need to prescribe how registrants must enter the desired period of effectiveness in the notice.采取这些选项中任一选项的国家都还将需要规定登记人如何必须将理想的有效期输入通知。
The notice form might be designed to enable registrants to simply enter the desired number of whole years or to permit registrants to enter or select the specific day, month and year on which the registration is to expire.通知表格的设计可以让登记人干脆输入理想的整年数目或允许登记人输入或选择登记期满的具体日、月或年。
Article 15.第15条.
Obligation to send a copy of a registered notice发送已登记通知副本的义务
198.198.
Article 15 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 55 subparagraphs (c), (d) and (e) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 49-53) and 18 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 145-149).《登记处示范条文》第15条基于《担保交易指南》建议55(c)、(d)和(e)项(见第四章,第49-53段)和《登记处指南》建议18(见第145-149段)。
Paragraph 1 obligates the Registry to send a copy of the information in a registered notice to the person identified in the notice as the secured creditor without delay after the registration becomes effective.第1款规定登记处有义务在登记生效后不加延迟地向通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人发送已登记通知中信息的副本。
To avoid delay, the registry system should be designed to automatically generate and transmit the copy electronically to the secured creditor (see Registry Guide, para. 146).为避免延迟,登记处系统的设计应当自动生成副本并将其电子传送给有担保债权人(见《登记处指南》第146段)。
This is intended to enable the secured creditor to verify the correctness of the information in the registered notice and to alert it to the erroneous or unauthorized registration of an amendment or cancelation notice (for the effectiveness of the registration of amendment or cancellation notices not authorized by the secured creditor, see art. 21 of the Model Registry Provisions, and paras. 219-227 below; see also Registry Guide, paras. 249-259; for the liability of the Registry for failure to send a copy of the information in a registered notice, see art. 32 of the Model Registry Provisions, and paras. 270-275 below).它意在让有担保债权人得以核实已登记通知中信息的准确性并在修订通知或取消通知的登记有误或未获授权时发出警示(关于对未获有担保债权人授权的修订通知或取消通知办理登记的有效性,见《登记处示范条文》第21条和下文第219-227段;还见《登记处指南》第249-259段;关于登记处对未发送已登记通知中信息副本的责任,见《登记处示范条文》第32条和下文第270-275段)。
199.199.
Paragraph 2 obligates the secured creditor to forward a copy of the information it receives from the Registry pursuant to paragraph 1 to the person identified in the notice as the grantor.第2款规定有担保债权人有义务依照第1款将其从登记处收到的信息的副本送交在通知中被指明为设保人的人。
The purpose of this requirement is to enable that person to take the steps necessary to correct the registry record if the registration was wholly or partially unauthorized by that person (see art. 20).这一要求的目的是,如果该登记未获该人全部或部分授权,则能让该人采取必要步骤以更正登记处记录(见第20条)。
The secured creditor must comply with this obligation before the expiry of the period specified by the enacting State after it receives a copy of the registered notice (e.g. 14 days).有担保债权人收到已登记通知副本后必须在颁布国指明的时期(例如14天)期满前遵行该义务。
The copy must be sent to the grantor at its address set forth in the registered notice or at the grantor's new address if the secured creditor knows that the grantor has changed its address and knows or could reasonably discover that address.副本必须按照已登记通知中所述地址发送给设保人,或如果有担保债权人知悉设保人已经更改其地址及有担保债权人知悉或可能合理发现该地址,则按照设保人新的地址发送给设保人。
Placing the burden of forwarding a copy of the registered notice to the grantor on the secured creditor rather than on the Registry is the result of a cost-benefit analysis and is intended to avoid creating an additional burden for the Registry which could negatively affect its efficiency (see Registry Guide, para. 149).之所以让有担保债权人而并非让登记处承担向设保人送交已登记通知副本的责任,是经过了成本收益的分析,并且意在避免给登记处造成可能会损害其效率的额外负担(见《登记处指南》第149段)。
200.200.
Paragraph 3 provides that non-compliance by the secured creditor with its obligation under paragraph 2 does not by itself affect the effectiveness of the registration. Paragraph 4 limits the secured creditor's liability for non-compliance to a nominal amount (to be specified by the enacting State) and any actual loss or damage caused by its non-compliance.第3款规定,有担保债权人未遵行其在第2款下的义务本身不影响登记的有效性,第4款将有担保债权人对未履约的赔偿责任限定于某一名义数额(拟由颁布国指明)及因其未履约而造成的任何实际损失或损害。
Paragraph 4 leaves to the relevant law of the enacting State related matters, such as the standard of liability and the way in which the actual loss or damage is to be measured.第4款将确定赔偿责任的标准以及如何衡量实际损失或损害之类相关事项交由颁布国相关法律处理。
Section D.D节.
Registration of an amendment or cancellation notice对修订通知或取消通知的登记
Article 16.第16条.
Right to register an amendment or cancellation notice对修订通知或取消通知办理登记的权利
201.201.
Article 16 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 73 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 110-116) and 19 (a), of the Registry Guide (see paras. 150 and 225-244).《登记处示范条文》第16条基于《担保交易指南》建议73(见第四章第110-116段)和《登记处指南》建议19(a)(见第150段和第225-244段)。
Paragraph 1 gives the person identified in an initial notice as the secured creditor the right to register a related amendment or cancellation notice at any time.第1款规定,在初始通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人有权随时办理相关修订通知或取消通知的登记。
In order to limit the risk of the registration of notices not authorized by that person, the registrant must satisfy the secure access requirements that were prescribed under article 5, paragraph 2, of the Model Registry Provisions (see para. 168 above).为了限制对未获该人授权的通知办理登记的风险,登记人必须满足《登记处示范条文》第5条第2款所规定的安全访问要求(见上文第168段)。
To ensure that the person identified in the registered notice as the secured creditor (or another person acting on its behalf) may register subsequent amendment and cancellation notices, the secure access details should be communicated to that person at the time of registration of the initial notice or as soon as possible thereafter.为了确保在已登记通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人(或代其行事的另一人)能够对后继修订通知和取消通知办理登记,应当在对初始通知办理登记之时或随后尽可能快地将安全访问详细情况告知该人。
202.202.
Paragraph 2 provides that, after an amendment notice changing the person identified in a registered notice as the secured creditor has been registered, the registry system should be designed so that only the current secured creditor of record may register an amendment or cancellation notice.第2款规定,在对变更在已登记通知中被确定为有担保债权人的人的身份标识的修订通知办理登记之后,登记处系统的设计应当确保只有记录中的当前有担保债权人方可对修订通知或取消通知办理登记。
Where the change in the secured creditor identifier results from an assignment of the secured obligation, the registry system should be designed to assign new secure access details to the new secured creditor to prevent the previous secured creditor from registering an amendment or cancellation notice (see para. 155 above).有担保债权人份标识的变更缘于有担保债务的转让的,登记处系统的设计应当向新的有担保债权人提供新的安全访问详细情况以防止先前有担保债权人对修订通知或取消通知办理登记(见上文第155段)。
Where the change in the secured creditor identifier instead results from a change in the name of the secured creditor, no such precautionary step is needed since the secured creditor is still the same person.有担保债权人身份标识的变更只是由于有担保债权人姓名变更所致,不需要采取任何这类防范步骤,因为有担保债权人仍然是同一个人。
Article 17.第17条.
Information required in an amendment notice修订通知所需信息
203.203.
Article 17 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 30 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 221-224; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第17条基于《登记处指南》建议30(见第221-224段;《担保交易指南》未含有一则类似的建议)。
Paragraph 1 provides that an amendment notice must contain in the designated field the registration number assigned by the Registry to the initial notice to which the amendment relates (see art. 28, para. 1, and para. 243 below).第1款规定,修订通知指定栏目必须含有由登记处分配给与修订有关的初始通知的登记号(见第28条第1款和下文第243段)。
The reason for this requirement is to ensure that the amendment notice will be associated in the registry record with the initial notice so as to be retrieved and included in a search result (see the definition of the term "registration number" in art. 1, subpara. (j), and para. 137 above; for the registration number as a search criterion, see art. 22, subpara. (b), and para. 217 below)).提出这一要求的原因是确保在登记处记录中把修订通知与初始通知联系在一起以便其能被检索并被列入查询结果(见第1条(j)项和上文第137段中“登记号”一语的定义;关于作为查询标准的登记号,见第22条(b)项和下文第217段)。
204.204.
Paragraph 1 (b) requires the amendment notice to set out the information to be "added or changed".第1款(b)项要求修订通知载有拟“增加或更改”的信息。
The term "change" includes the release of an encumbered asset or one of several grantors.“更改”一语应包括了放弃一项设保资产或某些设保人中的一个设保人。
Although this type of change amounts in effect to a cancellation of the registration as it relates to the relevant asset or grantor, it should be effected by registering an amendment notice and not a cancellation notice.虽然这类更改因关系到相关资产或设保人而事实上等同于取消登记,但应该通过对修订通知而不是对取消通知办理登记来加以实现。
A cancellation notice is to be used only when the purpose is to cancel the effectiveness of the registration of an initial notice and all related notices in their entirety (see the definitions of "amendment notice" and "cancellation notice" in art. 1, subparas. (b) and (c), of the Model Registry Provisions, and para. 150 above).取消通知将只用于目的是完全取消初始通知及所有相关通知登记效力的情况(见《登记处示范条文》第1条(b)和(c)项及上文第150段中“修订通知”和“取消通知”的定义)。
205.205.
Paragraph 2 makes it clear that an amendment notice may relate to more than one item of information in a registered notice.第2款明确指出,修订通知可能事关已登记通知中不只一条信息。
This means that a registrant may register only one amendment notice even if it wishes, for example, to add both a description of new encumbered assets and a new grantor, or to add a new grantor and also change some information (e.g. an address) related to the grantor already covered by the registered notice.这就意味着,登记人即便愿意如同时增设对新的设保资产和新的设保人的描述,或增设新的设保人并且还更改与已登记通知已经涵盖的设保人有关的某类信息(例如地址),也只可以对一份修订通知办理登记。
It follows that the registry system must be designed to enable a registrant to change any and all items of information in a registered notice using a single amendment notice (see Registry Guide, Annex II, Examples of registry forms, II. Amendment notice).因而对登记处系统的设计必须使登记人能够使用该单一修订通知对已登记通知中的任何一条或所有各条信息加以更改(见《登记处指南》,附件二,登记处表格实例,二.修订通知)。
Article 18.第18条.
Global amendment of secured creditor information对有担保债权人信息的全面修订
206.206.
Article 18 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 31 of the Registry Guide (see para. 242; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第18条基于《登记处指南》建议31(见第242段;《担保交易指南》未含一则类似的建议)。
It addresses the scenario where there is a change in the identifier or address, or both, of the person identified in multiple registered notices as the secured creditor as a result, for example, of its relocation, its merger with another company or the assignment of all its secured obligations to a new secured creditor.它述及在多份已登记通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人的身份标识和地址或其中一项或这两项因为其搬迁或与另一家公司合并或将其所有有担保债务转让给一个新的有担保债权人而已发生变更的情况。
Its purpose is to make it possible for the secured creditor of record (option A) or the Registry on the application of that person (option B) to amend the relevant information in all the registered notices by the registration of a single global amendment notice.其目的是让记录中的有担保债权人(备选案文A)或让登记处根据该人的请求(备选案文B)有可能经对一次性全面修订通知办理登记而修订所有已登记通知中所含相关信息。
207.207.
To effect the amendment of secured creditor information in multiple notices through the registration of a single global amendment notice, the registry record must be organized in a manner that enables the retrieval of all registered notices in which a particular person is identified as the secured creditor.为执行对一次性全面修订通知办理登记而对多份通知中的有担保债权人信息进行修订,必须以能够检索某人被指明为有担保债权人的所有已登记通知的方式编排登记处记录。
To avoid the risk of the registration of unauthorized global amendment notices, the Registry should institute procedures in addition to the secure access requirements prescribed under article 5, paragraph 2, to ensure that the person requesting or effecting a global amendment is in fact the secured creditor of record (see para. 155 above).为避免对未获授权的全面修订通知办理登记的风险,登记处应当制定除第5条第2款规定的安全访问要求以外的补充程序,以确保请求或执行全面修订的人事实上是记录中的有担保债权人(见上文第155段)。
Article 19.第19条.
Information required in a cancellation notice取消通知所需信息
208.208.
Article 19 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 32 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 243 and 244; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第19条基于《登记处指南》建议32(见第243和244段;《担保交易指南》未含一则类似的建议)。
It requires a cancellation notice to contain in the designated field the registration number assigned by the Registry under article 28, paragraph 1, of the Model Registry Provisions to the initial notice to which the cancellation notice relates.它要求取消通知指定栏目含有由登记处根据《登记处示范条文》第28条第1款分配给与取消通知有关的初始通知的登记号。
The registration number is the only item of information required to be included in a cancellation notice (see Registry Guide, annex II, Examples of registry forms, III. Cancellation notice).该登记号是唯一需要列入取消通知的一条信息(见《登记处指南》,附件二,登记处表格实例,三.取消通知)。
209.209.
The inclusion of the registration number in a cancellation notice ensures that the cancellation notice extends to the information in all registered notices containing that number (see the definition of the term "registration number" in art. 1, subpara. (j)).把登记号列入取消通知将确保取消通知延伸至含有该登记号的所有已登记通知中的信息(见第1条(j)项中“登记号”一语的定义)。
To minimize the risk of the inadvertent registration of cancellation notices, the prescribed cancellation notice form should expressly indicate the effect of a cancellation (see Registry Guide, annex II, Examples of registry forms, III. Cancellation notice for States that select option A of art. 30 of the Model Registry Provisions; with respect to the effectiveness of a cancellation notice not authorized by the secured creditor, see paras. 219-227 below).为了最大限度地减少对取消通知无意中办理登记的风险,取消通知规定表格应当明示取消的效力(关于选择《登记处示范条文》第30条选项A的国家,见《登记处指南》,附件二,登记处表格实例,三.取消通知;关于未获有担保债权人授权的取消通知的效力,见下文第219-227段)。
Article 20.第20条.
Compulsory registration of an amendment or cancellation notice对修订通知或取消通知的强制性登记
210.210.
Article 20 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 72 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 107 and 108) and 33 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 260-263).《登记处示范条文》第20条基于《担保交易指南》建议72(见第四章第107段和第108段)和《登记处指南》建议33(见第260-263段)。
It should be read in conjunction with article 2, which requires the person identified as the grantor in a registered notice to authorize its registration.对该条应当结合第2条一并解读,该条要求在已登记通知中被指明为设保人的人授权其办理登记。
211.211.
Paragraph 1 (a) obligates the secured creditor to register an amendment notice deleting encumbered assets from the description in the registered notice if the grantor identified in the notice did not authorize the registration of a notice in relation to those assets and has informed the secured creditor that it will not do so in the future.第1款(a)项规定,如果通知指明的设保人未授权就这些资产办理通知登记并且通知有担保债权人其今后将不会办理此类登记,则有担保债权人有义务办理从已登记通知的描述中删除设保资产的对修订通知的登记。
For example, the secured creditor may have registered an initial notice covering "all assets" of the grantor but the security agreement between the parties covers only a specific tangible asset and the grantor informs the secured creditor that it does not contemplate entering into any further security agreement.举例说,有担保债权人可能已经登记了涵盖设保人“所有资产”的初始通知,但当事人之间的担保协议可能只涵盖某一具体的有形资产,并且设保人告知有担保债权人它并未考虑与其订立任何进一步的担保协议。
Even if the grantor separately authorized the registration of a notice covering "all assets", paragraph 1 (c) obligates the secured creditor to amend the description in its registered notice if the grantor subsequently withdraws its authorization, provided that no security agreement covering those assets is concluded thereafter (since this would automatically constitute a new authorization under art. 2).即便设保人单独授权对涵盖“所有资产”的通知办理登记,第1(c)款规定如果设保人随后撤回其授权则有担保债权人有义务对其已登记通知中的描述加以修订,但先决条件是,随后订立了涵盖这些资产的担保协议(因为这将自动构成第2条下的新的授权)。
212.212.
Paragraph 1 (b) addresses the scenario where the security agreement to which a registered notice relates is revised to release some of the initially encumbered assets from the security right.第1款(b)项述及对与已登记通知有关的担保协议加以修订以取消某些初始设保资产上的担保权。
In this scenario, the secured creditor is obligated to register an amendment notice to delete the released assets from the description in the registered notice provided that the grantor did not authorize the registration of a notice covering the released assets otherwise than by entering into the initial security agreement.在这种情形中,有担保债权人有义务对修订通知办理登记,以便把已放弃资产从已登记通知中的描述中删除,但先决条件是,设保人除订立初始担保协议外未以其他方式授权对涵盖已放弃资产的通知办理登记。
Even if the grantor executed a separate agreement authorizing the secured creditor to make the registration, paragraph 1 (c) obligates the secured creditor to register an amendment notice deleting the released assets if the grantor subsequently withdraws that authorization, provided that the parties have not entered into a new security agreement covering the released assets.即便设保人执行了授权有担保债权人办理登记的单独协议,第1款(c)项规定,如果设保人随后撤回该授权,则有担保债权人有义务办理对删除被取消资产的修订通知的登记,先决条件是,当事人未曾订立涵盖被取消资产的新的一份担保协议。
213.213.
Enacting States that implement article 8, subparagraph (e), will need to adopt paragraph 2 which requires a secured creditor to register an amendment notice reducing the maximum amount specified in a registered notice if: (a) the grantor only authorized the registration of a notice in the reduced amount and the grantor has advised the secured creditor that it will not authorize registration of a notice in the higher amount; or (b) the security agreement to which the notice relates has been revised to reduce the maximum amount and the grantor has not otherwise authorized the registration of a notice in the higher amount.执行第8条(e)项的颁布国需要采纳第2款,该款要求有担保债权人在以下前提下办理减少已登记通知所述最高限额的对修订通知的登记:(a)设保人只是授权对数额减少的通知办理登记;并且设保人已建议有担保债权人对有关较高数额的通知的登记不予授权;或(b)已修订与通知有关的担保协议以减少最高数额并且设保人未以其他方式对较高数额的通知的登记予以授权。
214.214.
Paragraphs 3 (a) and 3 (b) obligate the secured creditor to register a cancellation notice where the grantor identified in a registered notice either did not authorize the registration and has informed the secured creditor that it will not do so, or the grantor, having initially authorized the registration, later withdrew its authorization and the parties have not entered into a security agreement.第3款(a)项和第3款(b)项规定,在已登记通知所指明的设保人未授权办理登记并且已经告知有担保债权人其将不会予以授权,或设保人在最初对登记予以授权后随后又撤回其授权并且当事人未曾随后订立一份担保协议的情况下,有担保债权人有义务对取消通知办理登记。
Under paragraph 3 (c), a cancellation notice must also be registered if the obligation secured by the security right to which the registered notice relates has been extinguished.根据第3款(c)项),如果由担保权作保的与已登记通知有关的债务已经消灭,还必须对取消通知办理登记。
It should be noted that, under article 12 of the Model Law, a security right is extinguished upon full payment or other satisfaction of the secured obligation, provided that there is no commitment by the secured creditor to extend any further secured credit.应当指出的是,根据《示范法》第12条,在全额偿还或以其他方式清偿有担保债务之时,担保权即告消灭,先决条件是,有担保债权人没有提供任何进一步有担保信贷的任何承诺。
215.215.
Paragraph 4 prohibits the secured creditor from charging any fee for complying with its obligations under paragraphs 1 (a), 1 (c), 2 (a), 3 (a) and 3 (b).第4款禁止有担保债权人就遵行其在第1款(a)项、第1款(c)项、第2款(a)项、第3款(a)和(b)项下承担的义务而收取任何费用。
These provisions require a secured creditor to amend or cancel a registration either because it was never authorized by the grantor or because the grantor's initial authorization was withdrawn owing to the failure of the parties to subsequently conclude a security agreement.这些条文要求有担保债权人修订或取消登记,因为登记要么从未获得设保人的授权,要么因为设保人最初的授权因当事人未随后订立担保协议而告撤回。
In these circumstances, it is appropriate to impose the cost on the secured creditor.在这些情况下,适宜规定由有担保债权人承担费用。
216.216.
To protect grantors against the risk of non-compliance by a secured creditor with its obligation under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, paragraph 5 gives the grantor the right to send a formal written request to the secured creditor to register the appropriate amendment or cancellation notice.为保护设保人免于承受有担保债权人不履行其在第1、2和3款下承担的义务的风险,第5款规定,设保人有权向有担保债权人发送对适当的修订通知或取消通知办理登记的正式书面请求。
If the person identified as the secured creditor in the notice is not the actual secured creditor but its representative, the grantor should be entitled to send its request to the representative.如果在通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人并非事实上的有担保债权人,而是其代理人,设保人应当有权将其请求发送给该代理人。
217.217.
If the secured creditor does not comply with the grantor's request under paragraph 5 within the time period specified by the enacting State, paragraph 6 entitles the grantor to apply for an order compelling registration of the appropriate notice.如果有担保债权人未在颁布国指明的期限内遵守设保人在第5款下提出的请求,第6款规定设保人有权申请对相关通知强迫办理登记的命令。
In order to avoid unnecessary delays, it is suggested that the period specified be as short as possible (e.g. 14 days).为避免不必要的延迟,建议规定时限应尽可能短一些(例如14天)。
This is in line with the rationale underlying the requirement in paragraph 6 for the enacting State to establish a summary judicial or administrative procedure for obtaining the order.这与第6款所载颁布国确立有关取得该命令的简易司法或行政程序要求的理据是相一致的。
The enacting State may decide to use an existing administrative or judicial summary procedure or it may decide to set up a new procedure administered, for example, by the Registrar or registry staff.颁布国可决定利用现行行政程序或司法简易程序,或可决定设立新的例如由登记官或登记处工作人员管理的程序。
As noted in the Registry Guide (see para. 262), while the process should be speedy and inexpensive, it should also incorporate appropriate safeguards to protect the secured creditor against an unwarranted demand by the grantor (for example, by requiring the relevant authority to notify the secured creditor of the grantor's application and give the secured creditor a reasonable opportunity to respond).如同《登记处指南》所述(见第262段),该程序应该快捷经济,同时还能纳入适当保障措施以保护有担保债权人防范设保人提出无理要求(例如要求相关主管机关将提交给它的要求通知有担保债权人并让有担保债权人享有作出回应的合理机会)。
218.218.
Once an order for registration has been issued pursuant to the procedure under paragraph 6, paragraph 7 requires the Registry to register the appropriate notice "upon receipt of a request with a copy of the relevant order" (if the enacting State decides under para. 6 to designate a court or other external body to administer the procedure) or "upon the issuance of the relevant order" (if the enacting State decides under para. 6 to vest the Registry with the authority to administer the procedure).一旦依照第6款所述程序下达登记令,第7款要求登记处“在收到附有相关命令副本的请求之时”对适当通知办理登记(如果颁布国根据第6款决定指定法院或其他外部机构管理该程序)或“在下达相关命令之时”(如果颁布国根据第6款决定赋予登记处管理该程序的职权)对适当通知办理登记。
Article 21.第21条.
Effectiveness of the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice not authorized by the secured creditor对未获有担保债权人授权的修订通知或取消通知办理登记的效力
219.219.
Article 21 of the Model Registry Provisions addresses the effectiveness of the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice where the registration was not authorized by the secured creditor of record.《登记处示范条文》第21条述及在登记未获记录中有担保债权人授权情况下对修订通知或取消通知办理登记的效力问题。
While neither the Secured Transactions Guide nor the Registry Guide contains a recommendation on this matter, the Registry Guide discusses it in some detail (see paras. 249-259).虽然《担保交易指南》和《登记处指南》均未载有关于该事项的建议,但《登记处指南》仍较为详细地讨论了该事项(见第249-259段)。
220.220.
An unauthorized registration of an amendment or cancellation notice may occur as a result of fraud or error by a third party or even by a member of the registry staff (for corrections of errors by the Registry, see art. 31).未获授权对修订通知或取消通知办理登记可能是因为第三方或甚至登记处某一工作人员的欺诈或差错所致(关于登记处对差错的更正,见第31条)。
The issue is whether and to what extent conclusive effect should nonetheless be given to an unauthorized registration for the purposes of determining the third-party effectiveness and priority of the related security right as against a competing claimant.问题是为确定相关担保权对抗相竞求偿人的第三方效力及其优先权,是否应当及在多大程度上应当赋予未获授权的登记以决定性效力。
Article 21 requires the enacting State to choose between four options.第21条要求颁布国在四个备选办法中作出取舍。
In making that choice, enacting States will need to decide whether the balance should favour reliability of the registry record for searchers including prospective secured creditors (options A and B), or protection of secured creditors who have registered a notice of their security rights against the risk of losing the third-party effectiveness or priority status of their security right (options C and D).在作出取舍时,颁布国需要决定在平衡考虑时是否应当倾向于登记处记录对查询人包括预期有担保债权人的可靠性(备选办法A和B),或保护已对其担保权通知办理登记的有担保债权人防范其遭受担保权丧失第三方效力或优先权地位的风险(备选办法C和D)。
It should be emphasized that, regardless of which option is adopted, the risk of the unauthorized registration of amendment or cancellation notices is greatly reduced by the requirement for the enacting State to prescribe secure access procedures for registering amendment and cancellation notices (see art. 5, para.2, and para.155 above).应当强调的是,无论采纳何种备选办法,未获授权对修订通知或取消通知办理登记的风险,均因为颁布国要求拟定对修订通知和取消通知办理登记的安全访问程序而大大减少(见第5条第2款和上文第155段)。
221.221.
Under option A, the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice is effective even if it was not authorized by the person identified as the secured creditor in the registered notice to which the amendment or cancellation notice relates.根据备选案文A,即便未获在与修订通知或取消通知有关的已登记通知中被指明为有担保债权人的人的授权,对修订通知或取消通知的登记仍然有效。
222.222.
Option B is a variation of option A. While recognizing the general effectiveness of an unauthorized amendment or cancellation notice, it preserves the priority of the security right to which the unauthorized registration relates as against the right of a competing claimant over whom the security right covered by that registered notice had priority prior to the unauthorized registration of the amendment or cancellation notice.备选案文B是备选案文A的一种变通办法,在承认未获授权的修订通知或取消通知普遍有效的同时,它保留了与未获授权的登记有关的担保权对抗相竞求偿人权利的优先权,已登记通知所涵盖的担保权只是在未获授权办理对修订通知或取消通知的登记以前对相竞求偿人享有优先权。
This option is predicated on the rationale that such a claimant generally could not have been prejudiced by relying on the unauthorized registration这一备选办所依赖的理据是,求偿人通常本来就不会因依赖未获授权的登记而受损。
223.223.
If an enacting State decides to adopt option A or option B, it will need to implement option A of article 30, which obligates the Registry to remove information in a registered notice from the public registry record and archive it upon registration of a cancellation notice.如果一颁布国决定采纳备选案文A或备选案文B,则还需要执行第30条备选案文B,该备选案文规定,在对取消通知办理登记之时,登记处有义务从公共登记处记录中删除已登记通知中信息,并将其予以存档。
Otherwise, the registered notice would remain on the record and thus potentially impair the grantor's ability to obtain new secured financing notwithstanding the registration of the cancellation notice.不然的话,尽管办理了有关取消通知的登记,已登记通知将仍然留在记录中,并从而有可能损害设保人获取新的担保融资的能力。
An enacting State that adopts option A or option B will also need to implement option A of article 13, paragraphs 4 and 5, providing that the registration of a cancellation notice is effective from the time when the information in the notice to which it relates is no longer accessible to searchers of the public record.采纳备选案文A或备选案文B的颁布国还将需要执行第13条备选案文A第4和5款,条件是对取消通知的登记自通知相关信息不再可以为公共记录查询人查询之时起有效。
224.224.
Option C is at the opposite end of the spectrum from option A.备选案文C与备选案文A截然不同。
It provides that the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice is effective only if it was authorized by the secured creditor of record.它规定,只有获得记录中的有担保债权人的授权,对修订通知或取消通知的登记方能有效。
Under this approach, a searcher will need to conduct off-record inquiries to verify whether the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice was in fact authorized by the secured creditor.根据这种做法,查询人需要开展不作记录的调查以核实对修订通知或取消通知的登记是否事实上得到有担保债权人的授权。
225.225.
Option D is a variation of option C.备选案文D是备选案文C的一种变通办法。
It preserves the effectiveness of an unauthorized registration of an amendment or cancellation notice (and subordinates a security right affected by the unauthorized registration to the right of a competing claimant), if a competing claimant acquired its right in reliance on a search of the registry record made after the registration of the amendment or cancellation notice, and did not have knowledge that the registration was unauthorized when it acquired its right.它保留了未获授权对修订通知或取消通知办理的登记的效力(并将受未获授权的登记影响的担保权排序放在相竞求偿人的权利之后),先决条件是相竞求偿人是在对修订通知或取消通知办理登记后依赖对登记处记录的查询获得其权利的,并且在获得其权利时对登记未获授权并不知情。
This qualification differs from the qualification in option B above insofar as it requires the competing claimant to provide factual evidence that it searched and relied on the registry record prior to acquiring its right in order to prevail over the secured creditor whose registration was amended or cancelled without authority.这一限定不同于上文备选案文B所作的限定,因为它要求相竞求偿人提供其在获取其权利之前事实上已经查询并依赖登记处记录的事实证据,目的是享有相对于未获授权修订或取消其登记的有担保债权人的优先权。
226.226.
If an enacting State decides to adopt option C or option D, it will need to implement option B of article 30, which obligates the Registry to remove information in registered notices from the public registry record and archive it only upon the expiry of the period of effectiveness of the registration of the notice (see para. 251 below).如果颁布国决定采纳备选案文C或备选案文D,则将需要执行第30条备选案文B,该备选案文规定,登记处只有在已登记通知有效期期满之时方有义务从公共登记处记录中删除已登记通知中信息并将其予以存档(见下文第251段)。
Under option C or D, all amendment and cancellation notices need to remain in the public registry record for searchers to discover whom to contact to verify whether the amendment or cancellation was authorized.根据备选案文C或D,所有修订通知或取消通知都需要留在公共登记处记录中,目的是让查询人发现联系人以核实修订或取消是否得到授权。
If all the relevant notices were instead removed from the public record upon registration of a cancellation notice, searchers would have no means of discovering from a search of the registry that a security right effective as against them may potentially still exist.如果在办理取消通知登记之时从公共记录中删除所有相关通知,查询人就无从经在登记处查询发现具有对抗其效力的某项担保权可能仍然存在。
It will also need to implement option B of article 13, paragraphs 4 and 5, of the Model Registry Provisions, dealing with the time of effectiveness of the registration of a cancellation notice (see paras. 193 and 194 above).还将需要执行处理取消通知登记生效时间的《登记处示范条文》第13条第4和5款的备选案文B(见上文第193和194段)。
227.227.
Searchers may not necessarily appreciate that registered amendment and cancellation notices may not be legally effective.查询人可能不一定了解已登记修订通知和取消通知可能不具法律效力。
Accordingly, enacting States that implement options C or D may wish to include a note on search results advising searchers of the need to conduct off-record inquiries to verify whether the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice was authorized by the secured creditor of record.因此,执行备选案文C或D的颁布国不妨列入关于查询结果的一则说明,就开展不作记录的调查以核实对修订通知或取消通知的登记是否得到记录中的有担保债权人授权的需要向查询人提供咨询意见。
Section E.E节.
Searches查询
Article 22.第22条.
Search criteria查询标准
228.228.
Article 22 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 54 (h) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 31-36) and 34 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 264-265).《登记处示范条文》第22条基于《担保交易指南》建议54(h)项(见第四章第31-36段)和《登记处指南》建议34(见第264-265段)。
It sets out the two criteria according to which any person may conduct a search of the public registry record.该条列出了任何人都可据此查询公共登记处记录的两条标准。
229.229.
Under subparagraph (a), the first and principal search criterion is the identifier of the grantor.在(a)项下,第一条并且是主要的查询标准是设保人的身份标识。
The identifier of the grantor is its name, determined according to the rules set out in article 9.设保人的身份标识是根据第9条所述规则而确定的其姓名。
If an enacting State decides to require "additional information" to be entered to assist in uniquely identifying a grantor, this additional information does not constitute a part of the name search criterion nor is it an alternative search criterion (see art. 8, subpara. (a)). Rather it will simply appear as additional information in a search result.如果颁布国决定要求把“补充信息”输入以协助确定设保人的独一身份标识,该补充信息将既不构成姓名查询标准的一部分,也不构成备选查询标准(见第8条(a)项),而只是作为查询结果中的补充信息。
Accordingly, in States that adopt this approach, search request forms should be designed to require the entry of the additional information in a separate designated field and not in the field for entering the name of the grantor.因此,在采纳这一做法的国家,对查询请求表格的设计应要求在单独指定的一栏而不是在输入设保人姓名的栏目中输入任何补充信息。
230.230.
Under subparagraph (b), the registration number assigned to an initial notice in accordance with article 28, paragraph 1, constitutes an alternative search criterion.在(b)项下,根据第28条第1款分配给初始通知的登记号构成备选查询标准。
A search by registration number gives secured creditors an efficient means of identifying and retrieving a registered notice for the purposes of registering an amendment or cancellation notice.按照登记号进行查询让有担保债权人拥有了为了对修订通知或取消通知办理登记而确定和检索已登记通知的一种有效手段。
Searches by registration number generally will not be conducted by third parties as they typically will not know the relevant registration number.按照登记号进行查询一般并非由第三方进行,因为第三方通常并不知晓相关登记号。
In those registry systems that establish accounts for users, it may not be necessary to provide for indexing and searching according to registration numbers as the history of registrations typically will be stored in each user's account and be easily accessible to the account holder.在给用户建立账户的登记处系统中,可能没有必要规定根据登记号编制索引和进行查询,因为通常将把登记历史储存在每个用户的账户中,并且容易为该账户持有人所查询。
231.231.
If the enacting State decides to introduce the serial number of specified types of tangible asset as a search criterion, it will need to list the serial number as an additional search criterion in this article.如果一颁布国决定将指明类别的有形资产的序列号作为查询标准予以引入,则它还需要将资产序列号列作本条中的一条的补充查询标准。
It will also need to design the registry system so that registered notices can be searched and retrieved by serial number (see Registry Guide, para. 266, and para. 174 above).它还需要设计登记处系统以便能够按照序列号查询和检索已登记通知(见《登记处指南》第266段和上文第174段)。
232.232.
To allow the registration of global amendment notices, as provided in article 18, the registry record must be organized to permit registered notices to be identified and retrieved by reference to the identifier of the relevant secured creditor.为了允许按照第18条的规定办理全面修订通知的登记,必须对登记处记录加以编排以便允许参照相关有担保债权人的身份标识来识别和检索已登记通知。
For public policy reasons relating to privacy and confidentiality, the name or other identifier of the secured creditor should not be an available criterion for searching by the general public (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. IV, para. 81 and Registry Guide, para. 267).出于同隐私和保密有关的公共政策的原因,有担保债权人的姓名或其他身份标识不应当成为普通公众查询所可利用的一条标准(见《担保交易指南》,第四章第81段和《登记处指南》,第267段)。
Article 23.第23条.
Search results查询结果
233.233.
Article 23 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 35 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 268-273; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).第23条基于《登记处指南》建议35(见第268-273段;《担保交易指南》未含有一则类似的建议)。
Paragraph 1 sets out the required content of search results provided by the Registry in response to a search request.第1款列明登记处根据查询请求而提供的查询结果所需内容。
The search result must indicate the date and time when the search was performed.该查询结果必须标明查询日期和时间。
234.234.
With respect to the substantive content of the search result, paragraph 1 contemplates that an enacting State may adopt one of two options.关于查询结果的实质内容,第1款规定,颁布国可采纳两种备选案文中的某一种备选案文。
Option A contemplates that the enacting State's registry system is designed to only retrieve notices that exactly match the identifier of the grantor entered by the searcher in its search request.备选案文A规定,颁布国登记处系统的设计将只能检索由查询人在其提交查询请求时输入的与设保人身份标识严格匹配的通知。
Option B contemplates that the enacting State's registry system is designed to retrieve notices that closely match the identifier of the grantor entered by the searcher.备选案文B规定,颁布国登记处系统的设计可检索与查询人输入的设保人身份标识近似匹配的通知。
Option B builds in a certain degree of forgiveness for registrant or searcher error in entering the identifier of the grantor.备选案文B所依据的前提是对登记人在输入设保人身份标识上的差错给予某种程度的谅解。
The extent of close matches disclosed in registry systems in States that adopt option B will depend on the specific close-match search programme or logic used by the Registry.采纳备选办法B的国家的登记处系统所披露的近似匹配的范围将取决于登记处所使用的具体近似匹配查询程序或逻辑。
The enacting State should not implement a search logic that could potentially result in a long list of close matches since this would make it too difficult for a searcher to determine which, if any, of the registered notices disclosed in the search result refer to the grantor that the searcher is inquiring about.颁布国不应执行有可能造成近似匹配数目众多的查询逻辑,因为这将使得查询人极难确定在查询结果所披露的任何已登记通知中究竟有哪些通知提及查询人所正在询问的设保人。
235.235.
Option A should be read in conjunction with article 24, paragraph 1, which provides that an error by a registrant in entering the grantor identifier in a notice does not render the registration of the notice ineffective if the information in the notice would be retrieved by a search of the registry record using the grantor's correct identifier as the search criterion.应当结合第24条第1款一并解读备选案文A,该款规定,如果将设保人正确的身份标识用作查询标准在登记处记录中进行查询而可检索到通知中信息,登记人在输入通知的设保人身份标识上发生的差错不会造成对通知的登记无效。
Option B should be read in conjunction with article 24, paragraph 2, under which the registration of a notice that contains an error in the grantor's identifier might still be effective if the name that was entered by the registrant is a sufficiently close match to result in the notice being retrieved on a search using the grantor's correct identifier.应当结合第24条第2款一并解读备选案文B,该款规定,如果登记人输入的姓名与使用设保人正确的身份标识进行查询而检索到的通知中结果足以构成近似匹配,对设保人身份标识含有差错的通知办理的登记仍将有效。
236.236.
Paragraph 2 obligates the Registry to issue an official search certificate setting out a search result upon the request of a searcher.第2款规定登记处有义务颁发载有根据查询人请求所作查询的结果的官方查询证书。
Paragraph 3 dispenses with the need to obtain an official search certificate, for example, for the purposes of subsequent disputes, by providing that a written search result that purports to have been issued by the Registry is proof of its contents in the absence of evidence to the contrary.第3款免除了在例如以后发生纠纷等情况下的获取官方查询证书的需要,它规定拟由登记处颁发的书面查询结果即为在无相反证据情况下显示查询内容的证据。
A written search result for this purpose would include a printout of a search result provided electronically.为此目的而进行的书面查询的结果将包括电子提供的查询结果打印件。
Section F.F节.
Errors and post-registration changes差错和登记后更改
Article 24.第24条.
Registrant errors in required information登记人在所需信息上的差错
237.237.
Article 24 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 58 and 64-66 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 66-74, and 82-97) and 29 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 205-220).《登记处指南》第24条基于《担保交易指南》建议58和建议64-66(见第四章,第66-74段和第82-97段)及《登记处指南》建议29(见第205-220段)。
Its overall aim is to provide guidance on when the effectiveness of a registration may be challenged owing to errors committed by registrants in entering the information in notices submitted to the Registry.其总体目标是,就何时可因为登记人在把信息输入提交给登记处的通知上发生的差错而质疑登记效力提供指导。
238.238.
Paragraphs 1 and 2 address errors on the part of a registrant in entering the grantor identifier in a registered notice.第1款和第2款述及设保人在把设保人身份标识输入已登记通知上的差错问题。
Paragraph 1 provides that the effectiveness of the registration cannot be challenged if the information in the registered notice would be retrieved by a search of the public registry record using the grantor's correct identifier (determined under art. 9) as the search criterion (see option A of art. 23, and para. 221 above).第1款规定,如果使用设保人正确身份标识(根据第9条确定)作为查询标准(见第23条备选案文A和上文第221段)查询公共登记处记录可检索到已登记通知中信息的,则不得质疑登记的效力。
Paragraph 2, which appears in square brackets, should be adopted by enacting States that implement option B of article 23 under which search requests will also retrieve registered notices in which the grantor identifiers closely match the identifier entered by a searcher (see para. 222 above).执行第23条备选案文B的颁布国应当采纳置于方括号内的第2款,根据备选案文B,查询请求还可检索到设保人身份标识与查询人输入的身份标识近似匹配的已登记通知(见上文第222段)。
In enacting States that adopt this option, paragraph 2 provides that an error on the part of a registrant in entering the grantor identifier does not render the registration ineffective if the information in the notice would still be retrieved as a "close match" by a search using the grantor's correct identifier "unless the error would seriously mislead a reasonable searcher."在采纳该备选案文的颁布国,第2款规定,如果使用设保人正确的身份标识进行查询仍然可以检索到作为“近似匹配”的通知中信息,登记人在输入设保人身份标识上发生的差错不会造成登记无效,“除非该差错会严重误导合理行事的查询人。”
For example, suppose that the registered notice identifies the grantor as "Jack McDonald" and the correct name of the grantor is in fact "John Macdonald."举例说,假设已登记通知将设保人指明为“JackMcDonald”,而设保人的正确名称事实上是“JohnMacdonald”。
If the erroneous notice is retrieved as a "close match" on a search using the correct name, the degree of discrepancy between the correct name and the close match in this example may be found to constitute a seriously misleading error from the perspective of a reasonable searcher.如果在查询中使用正确的名称将错误的通知检索为“近似匹配”,在这一实例中正确名称和近似匹配之间的差异程度可被发现构成从合理行事的查询人角度来看的令人严重误导的差错。
Whether this is the case can only be decided on the facts of each case taking into account the local context including the logic of the registry close match software.是否如此只能根据考虑到包括登记处近似匹配软件逻辑在内的各种情况的事实来决定。
239.239.
Paragraph 4 deals with the impact of errors committed by registrants in entering the other items of information required to be set out in registered notices under article 8 such as errors in the description of the encumbered assets.第4款处理登记人在输入第8条要求在已登记通知中列明的其他各条信息上发生的差错所产生的影响的问题,例如在描述设保资产上发生的差错的影响。
It provides that an error does not make the registration ineffective unless it "would seriously mislead a reasonable searcher."它规定,差错如果没有“严重误导合理行事的查询人”则不会造成登记无效。
This language incorporates an objective test in the sense that a competing claimant who challenges the effectiveness of the registration need not show that it was actually misled by the error.这一措辞纳入了客观的检验标准,也就是说,质疑登记效力的相竞求偿人不需要证明其本人事实上受到该差错的误导。
It is sufficient to show that a hypothetical reasonable searcher would have been misled.凡证明假想中合理行事的查询人会受到误导便已足够。
This standard ensures that, for example, the grantor's insolvency representative will be entitled to challenge the effectiveness of a registration even if it cannot show that it was itself seriously misled by the error.该标准例如确保设保人的破产管理人将会有权质疑登记的效力,即便其无法证明其本身受该差错的严重误导。
240.240.
Paragraphs 3 and 5 incorporate the general principle of severability.第3和5款纳入了关于可分性的一般原则。
Thus, an error in entering the identifier of a particular grantor or the description of a particular encumbered asset that would render the registration ineffective under paragraph 1, 2 or 4 does not make the registration of the notice ineffective with respect to other grantors correctly identified or other encumbered assets correctly described in the registered notice.因此,在输入某一特定设保人的身份标识或对某一特定设保资产的描述上发生的在第1、2或4款下将造成登记无效的差错不会造成有关通知的登记对在已登记通知中正确指明的其他设保人或对在已登记通知中正确描述的其他设保资产无效。
241.241.
Paragraph 6, which appears within square brackets, addresses the scenario where the enacting State allows a registrant to select the period of effectiveness of the registration of a notice pursuant to article 14, option A or B (and art. 8, subpara. (d)).置于方括号内的第6款述及颁布国允许登记人依照第14条备选案文A或B(和第8条(d)项)选定通知登记有效期的情况。
In this scenario, an error in the entry of the period of effectiveness will render the registration ineffective only as against a competing claimant who can establish that it was in fact misled by the error (see Registry Guide, paras. 215 and 217-220).在这种情况下,在输入有效期上的差错造成登记只是对能证明其本人事实上受此差错误导的相竞求偿人无效(见《登记处指南》指南第215段和第217-220段)。
The application of this rule will rarely be triggered.很少会触发本条规则的适用。
When the error consists in entering a period that is longer than intended, third-party searchers would not generally be prejudiced, as they still would have been alerted to the fact that a security right might exist.如果差错在于输入了长于预期的时期,通常不会损害到第三方查询人,因为仍然会警示查询人担保权可能存在这一事实。
When the error consists in entering a period that is shorter than intended, the registration will lapse at the end of the specified period and the security right will no longer be effective against third parties, unless it was made effective prior to the lapse by some other method (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 46).如果差错在于输入了短于预期的时期,则登记会在规定时期期满时失效,担保权将不再具有对抗第三方的效力,除非采用某种其他方法使担保权在失效前具有效力(见《担保交易指南》建议46)。
242.242.
Paragraph 7, which appears within square brackets, addresses the scenario where an enacting State chooses to require a registrant to indicate the maximum amount for which a security right may be enforced pursuant to article 8, subparagraph (e).置于方括号内的第7款述及颁布国选择要求登记人注明可依照第8条(e)项强制执行担保权最高金额的情况。
It provides that while an error in the maximum amount stated in an initial or amendment notice does not render the registration ineffective, the priority of the security right is limited to the maximum amount stated in the notice or in the security agreement, whichever is lower.它规定,虽然在初始通知或修订通知所述最高数额上发生的差错不会导致登记无效,但担保权的优先权限定于通知或担保协议所述以较低数额为准的最高数额。
This rule is consistent with the rationale for requiring the maximum amount to be stated in the security agreement and disclosed in any related registered notice (see para. 163 above).这条规则与要求担保协议载述并在任何相关已登记通知中披露最高数额的理据是相一致的(见上文第163段)。
243.243.
As already observed (see paras. 174, and 218 above), some States provide for the entry of a serial number for specified classes of high-value assets that have a significant resale market.如同已经注意到的(见上文第174段和第218段),有些国家规定对于具有庞大转售市场的特定类别高价值资产应输入序列号。
In States that adopt this approach, entry of this identifier in its own designated field in a notice is required in the sense of being necessary to achieve the priority of the security right as against specified classes of competing claimants.在采纳这一做法的国家,需要在通知自行指定的栏目中输入该身份标识,也就是说,输入为实现担保权具有对抗特定类别相竞求偿人的优先权所必需的身份标识。
Enacting States that decide to adopt this approach will need to deal with the impact of errors in the serial number on the effectiveness of a registration for this purpose.决定采纳该做法的颁布国需要处理序列号上的差错对为此目的办理登记的有效性的影响问题。
In general, the same test should apply as for an error in the grantor's identifier.一般而言,相同的检验标准应适用于在设保人身份标识上发生的差错。
Accordingly, the registration would be ineffective against these classes of competing claimants if the information in the registered notice would not be retrieved by a search of the public registry record using the prescribed serial number.因此,如果使用规定的序列号查询公共登记处记录无法检索到已登记通知中的信息,登记即对这些类别的相竞求偿人无效。
However, enacting States implementing paragraph 2 ("the close match search logic") should not extend its application to searches against serial numbers as there is too great a risk that this may result in too lengthy a list of close matches.然而,执行第2段的颁布国(“近似匹配查询逻辑”)的适用不应延伸至按照查询号进行的查询,因为这很有可能造成近似匹配数目过多。
Article 25.第25条.
Post-registration change of grantor identifier对设保人身份标识的登记后更改
244.244.
Article 25 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 61 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 75-77; see also Registry Guide, paras. 226-228).《登记处指南》第25条基于《担保交易指南》建议61(见第四章第75-77段;还见《登记处指南》第226-228段)。
It addresses the impact of a post-registration change in the identifier of the grantor (i.e. its name under art. 9) on the effectiveness of the registration of a notice.它述及设保人身份标识(其在第9条下的姓名)登记后更改对通知登记有效性的影响。
Since the grantor's identifier is the principal search criterion (see art. 22, subpara. (a)), a search under the new identifier will not retrieve registered notices in which the grantor is identified by its old identifier.由于设保人的身份标识是主要的查询标准(见第22条(a)项),根据新的身份标识进行查询将无法检索到按照其原有身份标识确定设保人身份标识的已登记通知。
This poses a risk for third-party searchers that contemplate acquiring rights in the grantor's encumbered assets after the change of the grantor's identifier.这就给在设保人身份标识变更后考虑获取设保人设保资产上权利的第三方查询人造成风险。
245.245.
To address this risk, paragraphs 2 and 3 give the secured creditor a grace period to be specified by the enacting State after the change of identifier occurs to either register an amendment notice adding the new identifier of the grantor or make its security right effective against third parties by a method other than registration (on other methods, see arts. 18 and 25-27 of the Model Law).为述及这一风险,第2和3款给有担保债权人规定了在身份标识变更后要么对增设设保人新的身份标识的修订通知办理登记或要么采用非登记方法(关于其他方法,见《示范法》第18条和第25-27条)使其担保权具有对抗第三方的效力的拟由颁布国指明的宽限期。
A grace period of 60 to 90 days is suggested to give the secured creditor a reasonable period to monitor and find out about the change.建议宽限期为60天至90天以便让有担保债权人有监督和发现变更的合理时间。
If neither step is taken before the expiry of the grace period, the security right is subordinated to a competing security right that was made effective against third parties after the change (see para. 2 (a)), and a buyer who acquired its rights in the encumbered asset after the change will acquire them free of the security right (see para. 3 (a)).如果在宽限期期满前未采取这类步骤,担保权将从属于在变更后取得对抗第三方效力的相竞担保权(见第2款(a)项),在变更后取得其在设保资产上权利的买受人将获得其不连带担保权的权利(见第3款(a)项)。
246.246.
Under paragraphs 2 and 3, the secured creditor may still register an amendment notice or otherwise make its security right effective against third parties even after the expiry of the grace period.根据第2款和第3款,有担保债权人甚至在宽限期期满之后还仍可办理对修订通知的登记或以其他方式使其担保权具有对抗第三方的效力。
However, it loses the benefit of the grace period with the result that its security right will be subordinated to a competing security right that was made effective against third parties after the change but before the relevant step was taken, even if the competing security right was made effective against third parties before the expiry of the grace period (see para. 2 (b)).然而,它失去了宽限期的益处,结果造成其担保权将从属于在变更后但在采取相关步骤前取得对抗第三方效力的相竞担保权,即便该相竞担保权在宽限期期满前取得对抗第三方的效力(见第2款(b)项)。
A buyer to whom the encumbered assets is sold after the change but before the relevant step was taken likewise acquires its rights free of the security right even if the sale took place before the expiry of the grace period (see para. 3 (b)).在变更后但在采取相关步骤前对其出售设保资产的买受人同样获得其不连带担保权的权利,即便该出售发生在宽限期期满之前(见第3款(b)项)。
Under paragraph 4, paragraphs 2 and 3 do not apply if the information in the notice referred to in paragraph 1 would be retrieved by a search using the new identifier of the grantor as the search criterion.根据第4款,如果将设保人新的身份标识用作查询标准进行查询则可检索到第1款所述通知中信息,第2和3款将不予适用。
As indicated in the footnote to paragraph 4, this provision is necessary only if the enacting State adopts article 23, option B, paragraph 1, under which the registry system is designed to disclose on search results information in notices in which the identifier of the grantor closely matches the identifier of the grantor entered by the searcher.如同第4款脚注所示,只有在颁布国采纳第23条第1款的备选案文B的情况下,必需有此条文。根据该款的规定,登记处系统的设计可在查询结果上披露通知中设保人身份标识与查询人输入的设保人身份标识近似匹配的信息。
In a "close match" system, the search result might still retrieve the relevant notice if the subsequent change in the grantor identifier is relatively minor (for example, if Acme Co. changes its name to Acme & Co).如果设保人标识的后继更改相对较小(举例说,如果AcmeCo.将其名称改为Acme&Co),在“近似匹配”系统中,查询结果还可检索到相关通知。
247.247.
As against competing claimants other than a competing secured creditor and a buyer whose rights are specifically protected by paragraphs 2 and 3, paragraph 1 confirms that the third-party effectiveness and priority of a security right that was made effective against third parties by registration is not affected by a post-registration change in the identifier of a grantor.如同对抗非相竞有担保债权人和其权利得到第2和3款具体保护的买受人的相竞求偿人,第1款确认通过登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权的第三方效力及其优先权不受设保人身份标识上的登记后变更的影响。
Thus, even if the secured creditor does not register an amendment notice or make its security right effective against third parties by a method other than registration, it will still retain whatever priority it has under the Model Law against competing secured creditors and buyers whose rights arose before the change in the identifier of the grantor and as against other classes of competing claimants whether their rights arose before or after the change of the grantor's identifier (for example, the grantor's judgment creditors and insolvency representative).因此,即便有担保债权人不对修订通知办理登记,也没有采取登记以外的某种方法使其担保权取得对抗第三方的效力,它将仍然保留其在《示范法》下对抗相竞有担保债权人和其权利产生于设保人身份标识变更前的买受人以及对抗其他各类相竞求偿人的任何优先权,而不论其权利产生于设保人身份标识变更之前或之后(举例说,设保人的胜诉债权人和破产管理人)。
Article 26.第26条.
Post-registration transfer of an encumbered asset设保资产的登记后转让
248.248.
Article 26 of the Model Registry Provisions is inspired by recommendation 62 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 78-80). The Registry Guide discusses but does not make a recommendation with respect to this matter (see Registry Guide, paras. 229-232).《登记处指南》第26条受《担保交易指南》建议62的启发(见第四章第78-80段);《登记处指南》就此事项展开了讨论但未作出建议(《登记处指南》,第229-232段)。
It addresses the impact of a post-registration sale of an encumbered asset on the effectiveness of the registration of a notice in relation to a security right in that asset where the buyer acquires the asset subject to the security right under article 34, paragraph 1, of the Model Law.它述及设保资产的登记后出售对有关该资产担保权的通知的登记有效性的影响。在此情况下,买受人根据《示范法》第34条第1款获得附带担保权的资产。
This creates a risk for third parties that acquire rights in the encumbered asset from the buyer since a search of the public registry record under the identifier of the buyer will not retrieve registered notices in which the grantor identifier is the name of the seller/grantor.这就给从买受人那里取得其在设保资产上权利的第三方造成风险:因为根据买受人的身份标识查询公共登记处记录将无法检索到设保人身份标识是出卖人/设保人姓名的已登记通知。
This risk is analogous to that addressed in article 25 in relation to post-registration changes in the grantor identifier.这一风险类似于第25条所述有关设保人身份标识的登记后变更的风险。
Unlike article 25, article 26 does not provide a uniform rule. Rather, it gives enacting States the option to enact any one of three approaches.不同于第25条,第26条未提供一条统一规则,而是给颁布国提供了颁行三种做法中任何一种做法的选项。
249.249.
The approach in option A is identical to that set out in article 25 for post-registration changes in the grantor identifier.选项A中的做法类似于第25条所述关于设保人身份标识登记后更改的做法。
Paragraphs 2 and 3 give the secured creditor a grace period to be specified by the enacting State after the sale by the grantor to either register an amendment notice adding the buyer as a new grantor or otherwise make its security right effective against third parties in order to preserve its priority against secured creditors and subsequent buyers who acquire their rights in the encumbered assets from the grantor's buyer (see paras. 2 (a) and 3 (a)).第2和3款给有担保债权人规定了拟由颁布国指明的宽限期,据以在设保人出售后要么对增设买受人为新的设保人的修订通知办理登记,或要么使其担保权具有对抗第三方效力以保全其对抗有担保债权人和从设保人的买受人手上获取设保资产上权利的后继买受人的优先权(见第2款(a)项和第3款(a)项)。
As under article 25, a grace period of 60 to 90 days is suggested in order to give the secured creditor a reasonable period of time to monitor and find out about the sale by the grantor.如同第25条的规定,建议宽限期为60天至90天,以便让有担保债权人有监督和发现设保人出售的合理时间。
As under paragraph 1 of article 25, paragraph 1 of article 26 provides that the secured creditor's failure to take either of these steps before the expiry of the grace period, or at all, does not generally prejudice the third-party effectiveness and priority status of its security right.如同第25条第1款的规定,第26条第1款规定,有担保债权人未在宽限期期满前采取这类步骤中某一步骤或未采取任何这类步骤的,一般不会使其担保权的第三方效力及其优先权地位受到损害。
However, its security right will be subordinated to competing security rights created by the buyer from the grantor and made effective against third parties after the sale, and before the relevant step is taken (see para. 2 (b)).然而,其担保权将从属于由来自于设保人的买受人创设的并且在出售后和采取相关步骤前取得对抗第三方效力的相竞担保权(见第2款(b)项)。
A subsequent buyer to whom the buyer from the grantor sells the encumbered asset during this same period also acquires its rights free of the security right (see para. 3 (b)).来自于设保人的买受人在相同期间向其出售设保资产的后继买受人也获得其不连带担保权的权利(见第3款(b)项)。
250.250.
The approach in paragraphs 1-3 of option B is similar to the approach in paragraphs 1-3 of option A, with the important qualification that the grace period under paragraphs 2 and 3 to register the amendment notice or otherwise make the security right effective against third parties begins only when the secured creditor acquires knowledge: (a) that the grantor has sold the encumbered asset; and (b) of the identity of the buyer, and not simply when the sale takes place, as under paragraphs 2 and 3 of option A.备选案文B第1-3款所述做法类似于备选案文A第1-3款所述做法,但有一条重要的限定,即第2和3款规定的对修订通知办理登记或使用非登记方法使担保权具有对抗第三方效力的宽限期从有担保债权人了解以下情况时起算:(a)设保人已出售设保资产;及(b)买受人的身份标识,而不只是备选案文A第2和3款所述出售时间。
In view of this difference, a grace period of 15 to 30 days is suggested.鉴于该差异,建议宽限期为15至30天。
251.251.
If there are successive sales of an encumbered asset before the secured creditor acquires knowledge of the sale and the identity of the buyer, paragraph 4 of option B provides that it is sufficient, to protect its rights under paragraphs 2 and 3 against intervening secured creditors and buyers, if the secured creditor registers an amendment notice adding the identifier of the most recent buyer of whose identity it has knowledge.如果在有担保债权人了解出售和买受人身份标识之前相继出售设保资产,备选案文B第4款规定,如果有担保债权人对增设它所了解其身份的最新买受人身份标识的修订通知办理登记,保护其在第2和3款下对抗居间有担保债权人和买受人的权利便已足够。
252.252.
Paragraph 4 of option A and paragraph 5 of option B provide that a security right in intellectual property made effective against third parties by registration of a notice generally retains its third-party effectiveness and priority status including as against secured creditors and buyers who acquire their rights from a buyer to whom the grantor sold the intellectual property after the notice was registered.备选案文A第4款和备选案文B第5款规定,通过对通知办理登记取得对抗第三方效力的知识产权担保权一般将仍然保留其包括对抗有担保债权人和以下买受人的第三方效力和优先权地位,即从设保人在办理通知登记后向其出售知识产权的买受人手中获得其权利的买受人。
This approach reflects recommendation 244 of the Intellectual Property Supplement.该做法反映了《知识产权补编》建议244。
In the intellectual property context, it was thought that the risks posed for third-party searchers by the grantor's sale of intellectual property outweighed the burden that would be imposed on secured creditors if they were required to register an amendment notice each time intellectual property was sold (see Intellectual Property Supplement, rec. 244 and paras. 158-166).至于知识产权,据认为,设保人出售设保资产给第三方查询人造成的风险,远远为如果要求有担保债权人每次出售就必须对修订通知办理登记所给有担保债权人造成的负担所抵消(见《知识产权补编》,建议244和第158-166段)。
253.253.
Under option C, the third-party effectiveness and priority of a security right that is made effective against third parties by registration of a notice is not affected by a post-registration sale of an encumbered asset covered by the registered notice.根据备选案文C,通过对通知办理登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权的第三方效力和优先权不受在登记后出售为已登记通知所涵盖的设保资产的影响。
The secured creditor retains whatever priority it otherwise has under the Model Law against all competing claimants, whether their rights arise before or after the sale.有担保债权人保留其不然在《示范法》所享有的对抗所有相竞求偿人的任何优先权,而不论其权利产生于出售之前或之后。
This option extends the approach to the impact of post-registration sales of encumbered intellectual property in paragraph 4 of option A and paragraph 5 of option B to all types of encumbered asset.这一备选办法将针对备选案文A第4款和备选案文B第5款所述登记后出售设保知识产权的影响所持做法延伸至所有各类设保资产。
Under this approach, potential secured creditors and buyers are expected to inquire into the chain of ownership of the asset they are interested in and then conduct searches against the identifier of both the immediate owner and any predecessors in the chain of title.根据该做法,潜在有担保债权人和买受人预期将对它们所感兴趣的资产所有权链进行询问并然后将参照直接所有人和产权链中的任何先前所有人进行查询。
Section G.G节.
Organization of the Registry and the registry record对登记处和登记处记录的安排
Article 27.第27条.
The registrar登记官
254.254.
Article 27 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 2 of the Registry Guide (see para. 74; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第27条基于《登记处指南》建议2(见第74段;《担保交易指南》未含一则类似的建议)。
Recognizing that these matters may be dealt with differently in each State, article 27 leaves it to the enacting State to specify in the law, regulation or other act by which it implements the Model Registry Provisions the authority responsible for the appointment and dismissal of the registrar, and for determining the registrar's duties and monitoring their performance.由于认识到各国对这些事项的处理可能互不相同,第27条留待颁布国在法律、条例或据以执行《登记处示范条文》的其他法令中指明负责登记官任命和免职的主管机关,并确定登记官所持义务和监督其履行义务。
255.255.
While an enacting State may decide to have the day-to-day operations of the Registry carried out by either a private or public entity, the Registry and the registrar should always be subject to the ultimate direction of, and be accountable to, the authority designated by the enacting State.虽然颁布国可决定登记处日常运营由私营实体或公共实体开展,但登记处和登记官应当自始至终接受颁布国的最终指示并向由颁布国指定的主管机关负责。
Depending on local considerations, the public authority specified by the enacting State may be a governmental ministry responsible for the preparation of the secured transactions law, another public agency, or a department of a central bank (see Registry Guide, para. 77).根据当地的考虑,由颁布国指明的公共主管机关可以是负责编拟担保交易法的某一政府部委、另一公共机构或中央银行的某一部门(见《登记处指南》第77段)。
Article 28.第28条.
Organization of information in the registry record登记处记录中信息的编排
256.256.
Article 28 of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 15 and16 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 127-130; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第28条基于《登记处指南》建议15和16(见第127-130段;《担保交易指南》未含一则类似的建议)。
Paragraph 1 requires the Registry to assign a unique registration number to an initial notice and to associate all registered amendment and cancellation notices that contain that number with the initial notice in the registry record.第1款要求登记处给初始通知分配一个独一登记号,并且将含有该登记号的所有已登记修订通知和取消通知同登记处记录中的初始通知联系在一起。
These requirements ensure that information in all related notices is disclosed on a search result (see the definition of the term "registration number" in art. 1, subpara. (j), as well as arts. 17, 19 and 22, subpara. (b)).提出这些要求是为了确保,在查询结果中披露所有相关通知中的信息(见第1条(j)项中“登记号”一语的定义及第17和19条及第22条(b)项)。
257.257.
If paragraph 2 of option A is adopted, the enacting State must ensure that the registry system is designed so that search results will only retrieve information in registered notices that exactly match the grantor identifier entered by the searcher (see option A of art. 23, para. 1).如果采纳备选案文A第2款,颁布国必须确保其登记处系统的设计致使查询结果只能检索到已登记通知中与查询人输入的设保人身份标识严格匹配的信息(见第23条备选案文A第1款)。
If paragraph 2 of option B is adopted, the enacting State must ensure that the registry system is designed to also retrieve information in registered notices in which the grantor's identifier closely matches the identifier entered by the searcher (see art. 23, option B, para. 1).如果采纳备选案文B第2款,颁布国必须确保其登记处系统的设计还能检索到已登记通知中设保人身份标识与查询人输入的标识近似匹配的信息(见第23条备选案文B第1款)。
258.258.
Paragraph 3 of option A is intended for enacting States that permit a person to register a global amendment notice changing its identifier or address or both in all registered notices in which it is identified as the secured creditor (see option A of art. 18).备选案文A第3款是为允许一人对更改其被指明为有担保债权人的所有已登记通知中的身份标识或地址或对其一并更改的全面修订通知办理登记的颁布国设计的(见第18条备选案文A)。
Option B of paragraph 3 is intended for enacting States in which the global amendment must be effected by the Registry at the request of the secured creditor (see art. 18, option B).第3款备选案文B是为全面修订必须经有担保债权人请求而由登记处完成的颁布国设计的(见第18条备选案文B)。
259.259.
Paragraph 4 is intended to ensure that the entire registration record relating to an initial notice remains intact.第4款意在确保与初始通知有关的整个登记记录完好无缺。
It provides that the registry record must be organized in a manner that preserves the information in all registered notices, notwithstanding the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice that purports to change the information contained in previously registered notices.它规定尽管对修订通知或取消通知的登记意图更改先前已登记通知所载信息,但对登记处记录的编排必须保全所有已登记通知中的信息。
260.260.
As already noted (see paras. 155, and 189 above), article 5, paragraph 2 requires a person who submits an amendment or cancellation notice to satisfy the secure access requirements prescribed by the enacting State.如同已经指出的(见上文第155段和第189段),第5条第2款要求提交修订通知或取消通知的人必须满足由颁布国规定的安全访问要求。
The enacting State will also need to impose additional organizational obligations on the Registry should it decide to provide for: (a) registration and searching according to serial number (see paras. 174, and 218 above); or (b) registration and searching according to a grantor identifier other than the name of the grantor (see para. 162 above).颁布国如果决定作出以下规定则还需要给登记处规定更多的编排义务:(a)根据序列号进行登记和查询(见上文第174段和第218段);或(b)根据并非设保人姓名的设保人身份标识进行登记和查询(见上文第162段)。
Article 29.第29条.
Integrity of information in the registry record登记处记录中信息的完整性
261.261.
Article 29, paragraph 1, of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendation 17 (a), of the Registry Guide (see para. 136; the Secured Transactions Guide does not contain an equivalent recommendation).《登记处示范条文》第29条第1款基于《登记处指南》建议17(a)项(见第136段;《担保交易指南》未含一则类似的建议)。
It prohibits the Registry from amending or removing information in the registry record except as authorized in articles 30 and 31.除非得到第30条和31条的授权,则它禁止登记处单方面修订或删除登记处记录中的信息。
262.262.
Article 29, paragraph 2, of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 55 (f) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 54), and 17(b) of the Registry Guide (see para. 137).《登记处示范条文》第29条第2款基于《担保交易指南》建议55(f)项(见第四章,第54段)和《登记处指南》建议第17条(b)项(见第137段)。
It obligates the Registry to ensure that the information in the registry record is preserved and may be reconstructed in the event of loss or damage.它规定登记处有义务确保保全登记处记录中信息并在发生灭失或损害时可加以重建。
In practice, this obligation requires the Registry to create and maintain a backup copy of the registry record.在实务中该义务要求登记处创设并保留登记处记录的备份。
Article 30.第30条.
Removal of information from the public registry record and archival删除公共登记处记录中信息并加以存档
263.263.
Article 30, option A, of the Model Registry Provisions is based on recommendations 74 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 109), as well as recommendations 20 and 21 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 151-152).《登记处示范条文》第30条备选案文A基于《担保交易指南》建议74(见第四章,第109段)及《登记处指南》建议20和21(见第151-152段)。
It requires the Registry to remove information in registered notices from the public registry record once the period of effectiveness of the notice expires or a cancellation notice is registered.它要求登记处在通知有效期期满时或对取消通知办理登记之时从公共登记处记录中删除已登记通知中信息。
The removed information will have to be archived in the (non-public) registry record.已取消的信息将存放在(非公开的)登记处记录中。
If the information in cancelled or expired notices were to remain publicly searchable, this might create legal uncertainty for third-party searchers, potentially impeding the ability of the grantor to grant a new security right in or deal with the assets described in the notice (see Registry Guide, para. 151).如果已取消或已期满通知中信息仍然可以公开查询,则就可能给第三方查询人造成法律上的不确定性,从而有可能损害设保人在通知所述资产上设定新的担保权或处理这类资产的能力(见《登记处指南》,第151段)。
Option A should be enacted by States that adopt option A or B of article 21 (see paras. 208-210 above).备选案文A应当由采纳第21条备选案文A或B的国家颁布(见上文第208-210段)。
264.264.
Article 30, option B, of the Model Registry Provisions should be enacted by States that adopt option C or D of article 21 (see paras. 211-214 above).《登记处示范条文》第30条备选案文B应当由采纳第21条备选案文C或D的国家颁布(见上文第211-214段)。
Paragraph 1 of option B requires the Registry to remove information in registered notices from the public registry record once the period of effectiveness of the registration of a notice expires.备选案文B第1款要求一旦对通知登记的有效期期满,登记处从公共登记处记录中删除已登记通知中的信息。
Unlike option A, paragraph 2 of option B requires the Registry to preserve all information in registered notices on the public registry record notwithstanding the registration of a cancellation notice.不同于备选案文A,备选案文B第2款要求尽管对取消通知办理了登记,但登记处仍在公共登记处记录中保留已登记通知中的所有信息。
This is necessary since the registration of an amendment or cancellation notice is wholly or partially ineffective under article 21, option C or D, if it is not authorized by the secured creditor of record.之所以有此必要,是因为对修订通知或取消通知的登记如果没有得到记录中的有担保债权人的授权,则在第21条备选案文C或D下即为完全无效或部分无效。
Since the factual question of whether the secured creditor of record authorized the registration of a cancellation notice can only be answered by conducting off-record inquiries, it is necessary to preserve the information in the cancellation notices and all related registered notices on the public registry record so that searchers have the information needed to conduct those inquiries.由于记录中的有担保债权人是否授权对取消通知办理登记这一实际问题只能通过开展不作记录的调查才能予以回答,因而有必要保全公共登记处记录中取消通知和所有相关已登记通知所载信息,以便查询人拥有开展这类调查所需信息。
265.265.
Paragraph 3 requires the Registry to archive the information in registered notices removed from the public registry record in a manner that enables the information to be retrieved in accordance with the search criteria set out in article 22.第3款要求登记处以使信息可以为登记处根据第22条所述查询标准加以检索的方式而对从公共登记处记录中删除的已登记通知中信息加以存档。
This is necessary since the information in notices removed from the public registry record may need to be retrieved in the future, for example, in order to determine the time of registration or the scope of the encumbered assets described in the notice for the purposes of a subsequent priority dispute between the secured creditor and a competing claimant (see Registry Guide, para. 151).这样做之所以有必要,是因为从公共登记处记录中删除的通知中信息今后仍可需要加以检索以便举例说就有担保债权人与相竞求偿人之间的后继优先权纠纷而确定登记时间或通知所述设保资产的范围(见《登记处指南》第151段)。
266.266.
As to the duration of the Registry's archival obligation, paragraph 3 leaves this decision to the enacting State (while cautioning that it should minimally be coextensive with the prescription period under local law for disputes arising in relation to a security agreement).关于登记处存档义务的持续期限,第3款将该决定留待颁布国作出(同时警告它至少应当同当地法律中有关因担保协议而起纠纷的时效期并存)。
Article 31.第31条.
Correction of errors made by the Registry由登记处更正差错
267.267.
Article 31 of the Model Registry Provisions addresses the effect of errors and omissions made by the Registry in two scenarios.《登记处示范条文》第31条述及登记处在两种情况下所犯差错的影响。
The first is where the Registry makes an error or omission in entering into the public registry record information contained in a notice submitted for registration.第一种情况是,登记处在将提交登记的通知所载信息输入公共登记处记录时发生差错或遗漏。
The need to address this scenario arises only if the registry system implemented by a State allows the submission of notices in paper form as opposed to requiring all registrants to transmit the information in notices directly to the registry via electronic means.唯有在某一国家执行的登记处系统允许以纸质形式提交通知而不是要求所有登记人通过电子通信手段直接向登记处传送通知中信息的前提下才会产生处理这一情形的需要。
The second scenario addressed by article 31 is where the Registry erroneously removes from the registry record information contained in a registered notice.第31条述及的第二种情况是,登记处错误地将已登记通知所载信息从登记处记录中删除。
The need to address this second scenario arises even in systems in which notices may only be submitted directly to the Registry via electronic means.甚至在只可以通过电子通信手段直接向登记处提交通知的系统中也会产生述及这第二种情况的需要。
268.268.
Paragraph 1 of article 31 requires the Registry to takes steps to correct the error or restore the erroneously removed information without delay after discovering the error.第31条第1款要求登记处在发现该差错后不加延迟地采取步骤更正该差错或恢复被错误删除的信息。
Under option A, the Registry is required to take the necessary corrective action and must then send to the secured creditor of record a copy of the notice it registered to correct the record.备选案文A要求登记处采取必要的更正行动并且必须随之将其为更正该记录而登记的通知副本发送给记录中的有担保债权人。
Under option B, the Registry is instead required to inform the secured creditor of record of the error to enable it to register the notice needed to correct the record.而备选案文B要求登记处将差错告知记录中的有担保债权人以使其办理更正记录所需通知的登记。
Nothing in this article precludes the secured creditor from registering an amendment notice to correct the error if it discovers it before the Registry does or before it receives notification from the Registry.本条概不妨碍有担保债权人在早于登记处发现该差错的情况下或在收到登记处通知之前办理对修订通知的登记以更正该差错。
269.269.
Paragraph 2 addresses the impact of the Registry's error on the third-party effectiveness and priority status of the security right affected by the error as against the right of a competing claimant which arose prior to the registration of the notice correcting the record referred to in paragraph 1.第2款述及登记处所犯差错对受此差错影响的担保权对抗第1款所述对更正该记录的通知办理登记之前产生的相竞求偿人权利第三方效力和优先权地位的影响。
It offers four options that parallel the four options in article 21 with respect to the effectiveness of the unauthorized registration of an amendment or cancellation notice.它提供了四种备选办法,类似于第21条中有关未获授权登记修订通知或取消通知的效力方面的四种备选办法。
The enacting State should adopt the option in article 31 that corresponds to the option it selects in article 21.颁布国应当采纳第31条中与它在第21条中选择的备选办法相一致的备选办法。
Accordingly, a State that adopts article 21, option A, should adopt article 31, option A and so on.因此,采纳第21条备选办法A的国家应当采纳第31条备选办法A,以此类推。
Article 32.第32条.
Limitation of liability of the Registry对登记处赔偿责任的限制
270.270.
Article 32 of the Model Registry Provisions is drawn from recommendation 56 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, paras. 55-64; see also the Registry Guide, paras. 141-144).《登记处示范条文》第32条摘自于《担保交易指南》建议56(见第四章第55-64段;还见《登记处指南》第141-144段)。
It offers three options to an enacting State in dealing with the potential liability of the Registry for loss or damage caused by its errors or omissions.它给颁布国处理登记处对由登记处所犯差错或遗漏而承担的潜在赔偿责任提供了三种备选办法。
It should be noted that especially in a fully electronic system in which registration and search information is submitted directly by users via electronic means, the risk of loss or error being caused by the Registry is extremely low.应当指出的是,尤其在登记和查询信息由用户通过电子手段直接提交的完全电子化系统中,由登记处造成的损失或差错的风险极小。
Nonetheless, the objective of all options is to limit the liability of the Registry and to thus avoid an increase in the cost of the registry services in the rare event where loss or damage can be attributed to acts or omissions of the Registry.然而,所有各备选办法的目的是限制登记处的赔偿责任,并从而避免在损失或损害可归诸于登记处作为或不作为的极端情况下登记处服务费用的增加。
The enacting State should coordinate article 32 with its relevant law on the liability of public authorities.颁布国应当使第32条与其有关公共机关赔偿责任的相关法律相协调。
271.271.
Option A leaves the issue of the liability of the Registry to other law of the enacting State.备选办法A把登记处所负赔偿责任问题交由颁布国其他法律处理。
If liability is foreseen by that other law, option A restricts any right of recovery to the types of errors or omissions listed in paragraph 1.如果该其他法律对赔偿责任已作规定,备选办法A则将该赔偿责任限定于第1款所列举的对各类差错或遗漏予以追偿的任何权利。
Thus, liability is limited to: (a) errors or omissions in a search result issued to a searcher (para. 1 (a)); (b) errors or omissions in a copy of information in a registered notice sent to a secured creditor under article 15 or the failure of the Registry to send a copy of a registered notice as required by that article or article 31 (para. 1 (a) and (c)); and (c) the provision of false or misleading information to a registrant or searcher (para. 1 (d)).因此,赔偿责任限定于:(a)发给查询人的查询结果上的差错或遗漏(第1款(a)项);(b)根据第15条发送给有担保债权人的已登记通知中信息副本上的差错或遗漏或登记处未按照该条的要求或第31条的要求发送已登记通知的副本(第1款(a)和(c)项);及(c)向登记人或查询人提供虚假的或令人误导的信息(第1款(d)项)。
272.272.
The first part of paragraph 1 (b) of option A appears within square brackets as it limits any liability that the Registry may have under other law for errors or omissions in registered notices to the situation where the Registry is responsible for entering into the registry record information that is submitted by a registrant in a paper notice.之所以将备选案文A第1款(b)项的第一部分置于方括号内,是因为它将登记处在其他法律下就已登记通知中的差错或遗漏而可能承担的任何赔偿责任限定于登记处负责把登记人以纸质通知提交的信息输入登记处记录的情形。
Accordingly, paragraph 1 (b) should only be adopted by an enacting State if its registry system permits the submission of notices to the Registry using paper forms.因此,第1款(b)项应当只能由其登记处系统允许使用纸质表格向登记处提交通知的颁布国予以采纳。
273.273.
To minimize the risk of Registry liability for providing misleading advice (see para. 1(d) of option A), the enacting State should ensure that registry staff are trained to restrict their advice to the technical aspects of using the registry system, and not the legal implications or effects of registration (see Registry Guide, para. 139).为尽量减少登记处对提供令人误导的咨询意见所负赔偿责任的风险(见备选案文A第1款(d)项),颁布国应确保向登记处工作人员提供培训以便将其咨询意见限定于使用登记处系统所涉技术方面,而不涉及登记所涉法律问题或影响(见《登记处指南》第139段)。
274.274.
Paragraph 2 of option A limits the liability of the Registry for loss or damage caused by the acts or omissions specified in paragraph 1 to the maximum monetary amount specified by the enacting State (regardless of the maximum value of the encumbered assets or the obligation secured by those assets).备选办法A第2款将登记处对第1款所述作为或不作为所造成的损失或损害的赔偿责任限定于颁布国指明的最高金额(而不论设保资产或这类资产的作保债务的最高价值如何)。
275.275.
Like option A, option B leaves to other law any liability that the Registry may have for loss or damage caused by an error or omission in the administration or operation of the Registry.如同备选办法A,备选办法B将登记处因在登记处管理或运营方面的差错或遗漏所造成的灭失或损害而可能承担的任何赔偿责任交由其他法律处理。
Unlike option A, option B does not restrict any right of recovery that a person may have under other law to specific types of errors or omissions.不同于备选办法A,备选办法B未将一人在其他法律下所可能享有的任何追偿权限定于特定类型的差错或遗漏。
However, if the registry system is designed to permit direct registration and searching by registry users without the intervention of registry personnel, what constitutes an error or omission should be generally limited to system malfunction.然而,如果登记处系统的设计允许登记处用户在登记处人员不加干预的情况下直接进行登记和查询,构成差错或遗漏的内容一般应限定于系统故障。
Like option A, option B limits the Registry's liability to the maximum amount specified by the enacting State.如同备选办法A,备选办法B将登记处所负赔偿责任限定于颁布国指明的最高数额。
276.276.
Option C simply excludes any liability of the Registry for an error or omission in the administration or operation of the Registry.备选案文C将登记处对在登记处管理或经营方面的差错或遗漏所造成的任何赔偿责任一概排除在外。
Article 33.第33条.
Registry fees登记处的收费
277.277.
Article 33 of the Model Registry Provisions is generally based on recommendations 54 (i) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IV, para. 37) and 36 of the Registry Guide (see paras. 274-280).《登记处示范条文》第33条基本上基于《担保交易指南》建议54(i)项(见第四章,第37段)和《登记处指南》建议36(见第274-280段)。
Article 33 presents two options.第33条提出了两种备选办法。
278.278.
Under paragraphs 1 and 3 of option A, fees may be charged for the provision of registry services in the amounts specified by the enacting State and the fee schedule must be publicized by the Registry.根据备选办法A第1款和第3款,可按照颁布国指明的数额就提供登记处服务收费,并且收费细目表必须由登记处公布。
Fees should be set at a cost-recovery level (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 54 (i)).费用应当确定在收回成本的水平上(见《担保交易指南》建议54(i)项)。
The requirement to set fees on a cost-recovery basis applies to all services provided by the registry, including the registration of all types of notice and all search services.关于收费设定在追回成本的基础上的要求适用于登记处提供的所有各项服务,包括对所有各类通知和所有查询服务办理登记。
If the registry system were instead used by the enacting State to generate profit, registrants and searchers might be discouraged from using the registry services.如果颁布国反而将登记处系统用于创收,就可能会阻碍登记人和查询人利用登记处的服务。
To ensure that these fees are based on cost recovery, paragraph 2 of option A entitles the authority responsible for the appointment of the registrar under article 27 to periodically modify the fee schedule.为确保这些收费以收回成本为基础,备选案文A第2款规定负责根据第27条任命登记官的主管机关有权定期修改收费细目表。
279.279.
If the registry system allows access both by electronic means and through the submission of written notices and search requests, the enacting State might decide to charge a lower fee to users who access the registry electronically because electronic registration and searching do not require the intercession of registry staff and therefore are less costly.如果登记处系统允许使用电子手段并通过提交书面通知和查询请求进行访问,颁布国则可决定向电子访问的用户收取较低的费用,其原因是,电子登记和电子查询不需要登记处工作人员的介入,因而花费较少。
This approach might also encourage users to shift to this more efficient method in preference to continuing to use paper forms.这一办法还可鼓励用户转向更高效率的办法,而不是继续使用纸质表格。
280.280.
To enhance the efficiency of the payment process for frequent users of registry services, paragraph 4 of option A authorizes the Registry to enter into an agreement with any person to establish a Registry user account for any purpose, including the payment of registry fees.为提高登记处服务经常用户缴费工作的效率,备选案文A第4款授权登记处可以同为任何目的包括为缴纳登记处费用而设立登记处用户账户的任何人订立协议。
This approach has the additional advantage of facilitating the identification of the registrant for the purposes of article 5 (see para. 154).这种做法的额外好处是,便利确定就第5条而言的登记人(见第154段)。
281.281.
A variant of option A would be to limit the charging of fees to registrations and allow searches to be made free of charge.备选案文A的变通办法是,将收费限定于登记,并且允许免费查询。
This variant would encourage and facilitate due diligence by potential secured creditors and buyers and thereby reduce risk and future disputes.这种变通做法将鼓励并便利潜在有担保债权人和买受人的尽职调查,并从而减少风险和未来的争议。
282.282.
Another variant of option A would be for the enacting State to decide not to charge any fee for the registration of the types of amendment and cancellation notices contemplated by article 20.备选案文A的另一种变通办法是,由颁布国决定对第20条所述各类修订通知和取消通知的登记不收取任何费用。
This variant would encourage the secured creditor to promptly register amendment and cancellation notices in the circumstances contemplated by article 20 and relieve grantors from the time and expense of having to initiate formal proceedings to force cancellations or amendments under that article.这种变通办法将能鼓励登记人在第20条所述情况下迅速办理修订通知和取消通知的登记,并且让设保人不必花费时间和费用根据该条启动强迫取消或修订的正式程序。
283.283.
For enacting States that enact option B or C of article 14 (allowing a registrant to select the duration of the registration of a notice), yet another variant of option A would be to charge fees on a sliding scale depending on the period selected by the registrant.对于颁布第14条备选案文B或C的颁布国而言(允许登记人选择对通知办理登记的持续期),备选案文A还有另一种变通办法是,取决于登记人选定的时期而可使用滑动收费办法收费。
This approach would have the advantage of discouraging registrants from selecting an inflated period of effectiveness of a registration out of an excess of caution (see Registry Guide, para. 277).这种做法的好处是,让登记人没有动力因过于谨慎而选择登记有效的虚增期限(见《登记处指南》,第277段)。
284.284.
Option B provides that the Registry may not charge any fees for its services.备选案文B规定,登记处可不收取任何服务费。
Under this approach, the cost of establishing and operating the Registry will be covered by general State revenues.在这种做法下,登记处设立和运营费用将由国家一般收入负担。
Option B may be attractive to enacting States that seek to encourage secured financing in general and the use of the Registry in particular.备选案文B对寻求鼓励普通担保融资和尤其是使用登记处的颁布国可能具有吸引力。
Like option A, option B could have several variants.如同备选案文A,备选案文B可以有几种变通办法。
For example, the enacting State may wish to consider offering free registration services for a limited start-up period only in order to facilitate acclimatization to and use of the registry system.举例说,颁布国不妨考虑只是在为时有限的启动期内提供免费登记服务以便利适应和使用登记处系统。
Chapter V.第五章.
Priority of a security right担保权的优先权
A.A.
General rules一般规则
Article 29.第29条.
Competing security rights created by the same grantor由同一设保人创设的相竞担保权
285.285.
Article 29 is based on recommendation 76 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 45-54).第29条基于《担保交易指南》建议76(见第五章,第45-54段)。
It addresses priority competitions between security rights created by the same grantor.它述及由同一设保人创设的担保权之间的优先权竞争。
Article 29 divides these priority competitions into three categories.第29条将这些优先权竞争分为三类。
Subparagraph (a) addresses priority competitions between security rights made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry.(a)项述及通过在登记处办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权之间的优先权竞争。
Subparagraph (b) addresses priority competitions between security rights made effective against third parties by a method other than registration of a notice in the Registry.(b)项述及通过并非在登记处办理通知登记的其他某种方法取得对抗第三方效力的担保权之间的优先权竞争。
Subparagraph (c) addresses priority competitions between a security right that is made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry and a security right that is made effective against third parties by another method (e.g. possession).(c)项述及通过在登记处办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权与通过另一种方法(例如占有)取得对抗第三方效力的担保权之间的优先权竞争。
The general priority rules of article 29 are, however, subject to certain exceptions (see arts. 33, 38, 39 and 41-43).然而,第29条的一般优先权规则必须遵守某些除外规定(见第33、38、39及41-43条)。
286.286.
Subparagraph (a) addresses the most common situation, that is, priority competitions between security rights all of which were made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry.(a)项述及最为常见的情形,即担保权之间的优先权竞争,所有这些担保权都是通过在登记处办理通知登记而取得对抗第三方的效力的。
In that situation, priority is determined by the order of registration, regardless of the order of creation (if the competing security rights have actually been created when the priority competition arises).在这类情形中,优先权按照登记先后次序确定,而不论创设的先后次序如何(先决条件是,优先权竞争发生之时即事实上创设了相竞担保权)。
Subparagraph (a) provides a simple and easy-to-apply priority rule.(a)项提供了一条简单易行的优先权规则。
287.287.
It should be noted that the first-to-register priority rule in subparagraph (a) applies even if one or more of the competing security rights had not been created at the time of registration (registration of a notice may precede creation of a security right; see art. 4 of the Model Registry Provisions) and, thus, was not effective against third parties at the time of registration (as a security right that has not yet been created cannot be effective against third parties).应当指出的是,即便在登记之时(通知的登记可先于担保权的创设;见《登记处示范条文》第4条)尚未创设一项或多项相竞担保权,并因而在登记之时尚未具备对抗第三方的效力(因为未曾创设的担保权无法具有对抗第三方的效力),(a)项中的先登记者优先的优先权规则仍将予以适用。
288.288.
The following example illustrates this aspect of the first-to-register priority rule in subparagraph (a).以下实例形象地说明了(a)项中先登记者优先的优先权规则的这一方面。
On Day 1, before entering into a security agreement and obtaining any credit, Grantor authorized SC 1 to register, and SC 1 registered, a notice listing Grantor as the grantor and describing the encumbered assets as "all present and future equipment of Grantor".第一天,在订立担保协议和取得任何信贷之前,设保人授权第1有担保债权人办理登记,第1有担保债权人办理了登记,在通知中将设保人(原文是“Grantor”)列作该特指设保人(原文是“thegrantor”),并将设保资产描述为“设保人的所有现在和未来设备”。
On Day 2, Grantor entered into a security agreement with SC 2 that created in favour of SC 2 a security right in the same assets (i.e. all of Grantor's present and future equipment) and obtained credit from SC 2, and SC 2 registered a notice with respect to that security right.第二天,设保人与第2有担保债权人订立了担保协议,在相同资产(即设保人的所有现在和未来设备)上给第2有担保债权人创设了担保权,从第2有担保债权人那里取得信贷,并且第2有担保债权人办理了有关该担保权的通知的登记。
On Day 3, Grantor concluded a security agreement with and borrowed money from SC 1 and created in favour of SC 1 a security right in all of Grantor's present and future equipment.第三天,设保人与第1有担保债权人订立了担保协议,并向其借款,并且给第1有担保债权人创设了在设保人所有现在和未来设备上的担保权。
In this case, the security right of SC 2 became effective against third parties before the security right of SC 1 (because SC 1's security right could not become effective against third parties until it was created).在此情况下,第2有担保债权人的担保权先于第1有担保债权人的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力(其原因是,第1有担保债权人的担保权在直到创设之前均不具有对抗第三方的效力)。
Yet, as a result of the first-to-register rule in subparagraph (a) the time of registration of SC 1's notice, rather than the later time on which SC 1's security right became effective against third parties, is used to determine priority.然而,由于(a)项中的先登记者优先的规则,在确定优先权时,将使用对第1有担保债权人的通知办理登记的时间,而并非使用第1有担保债权人取得对抗第三方效力的稍后时间。
Thus, the security right of SC 1 has priority over the security right of SC 2 because SC 1's notice was registered before SC 2's notice.因此,第1有担保债权人的担保权享有相对于第2有担保债权人担保权的优先权,因为对有关第1有担保债权人担保权的通知先于对第2有担保债权人的通知办理登记。
289.289.
Ordering priority according to the time of registration as opposed to the time of creation of a security right promotes efficiency and fairness for three reasons.按照登记时间而不是担保权创设时间来安排优先权次序由于以下三个原因而有助于提高效率和公平性。
First, the time of registration of each notice is recorded by the Registry and set out in the search result (see arts. 13, para. 3, and 23, para. 1, of the Model Registry Provisions, and paras. 191 and 234 above) and is therefore easily ascertainable by third-party searchers.首先,每份通知的登记时间由登记处记录,并且在查询结果中载明(见《登记处示范条文》第13条第3款和第23条第1款及上文第191段和第234段),并因而容易为第三方查询人确定。
In contrast, the time of creation of a security right depends on background facts that are not ascertainable by a search of the Registry, and are not otherwise publicly available.相形之下,担保权创设时间取决于在登记处进行查询所无法确定的背景事实,并且无法以其他方式公开提供。
290.290.
Second, the results that follow from the application of the rule in subparagraph (a) are consistent with the expectations of prudent secured creditors.其次,适用(a)项中的这条规则而产生的结果与谨慎行事的有担保债权人的期望是一致的。
For example, assume that SC 2 is considering extending credit to Grantor, secured by a security right in Grantor's equipment.举例说,假设第2有担保债权人考虑向设保人提供由设保人某项设备上担保权作保的信贷。
If SC 2 searches the records of the Registry and discovers that a notice has been registered that lists Grantor as the grantor and SC 1 as the secured creditor and that describes the encumbered asset as including Grantor's equipment, SC 2 would probably expect that the registered notice reflects an existing or contemplated security right in that equipment. Accordingly, if SC 2 decides to go forward with the transaction, it will do so on the understanding that its security right may be subordinate to that of SC 1 (unless SC 1 and SC 2 enter into a subordination agreement; see art. 43, and paras. 342 and 343 below).如果第2有担保债权人查询登记处记录并且发现已经办理了通知登记,在该通知中将设保人列作该特指设保人,将第1有担保债权人列作特定有担保债权人,并且将设保资产描述为包括了设保人的设备,第2有担保债权人将有可能期望已登记通知反映了在该设备上的现行或预期担保权,因而,如果第2有担保债权人决定执行该交易,则其所持的理解是,其担保权的排序将在第1有担保债权人之后(除非第一有担保债权人和第二有担保债权人订立了排序居次协议;见第43条及下文第342段和第343段)。
291.291.
Third, the rule in subparagraph (a) enables a prospective secured creditor to determine the priority of its security right over competing security rights with a level of certainty that promotes the extension of secured credit.第三,(a)项中的规则使得预期有担保债权人能够以有助于延长有担保信贷的某种确定性而确定其担保权相对于相竞担保权的优先权。
The reason is that, if the prospective secured creditor registers a notice with respect to its security right before it actually extends credit and there is no other notice registered in the Registry at the time that secured creditor does so, it can enter into a security agreement and extend credit knowing that its security right will have first priority (unless any of the exceptions to the first-to-register rule apply).其原因是,如果预期有担保债权人在实际延长信贷之前对其担保权办理通知登记,并且在有担保债权人办理登记之时登记处未曾办理过对任何其他通知的登记,则它能够订立担保协议并延长信贷,同时知悉其担保权将享有第一优先权(除非适用先登记者优先的规则的任何除外规定)。
292.292.
Subparagraph (b) addresses priority competitions in which the competing security rights have all been made effective against third parties by a method other than registration of a notice in the Registry.(b)项述及采用在登记处办理通知登记以外的其他某种方法使得所有相竞担保权均取得对抗第三方效力的优先权竞争。
This situation will not arise frequently as for most types of encumbered asset it will be very difficult that two different secured creditors make their security rights in the same asset effective against third parties by a method other than registration at the same time.这种情形并不十分常见,因为对于多数类型的设保资产来说,两个不同的有担保债权人同时采用非登记方法使其在相同资产上的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力将非常困难。
This is because the only other method of achieving third-party effectiveness for most types of encumbered asset will be by the secured creditor obtaining possession of the encumbered asset, and it would be unlikely that two different secured creditors can have possession of the same asset at the same time.这是因为,对于多数类型的设保资产来说,实现第三方效力的其他惟一的方法是,由有担保债权人占有设保资产,两个不同的有担保债权人将无法同时占有同一份资产。
It is, however, possible, as illustrated by the following example. On Day 1, Grantor grants to SC 1 a security right in a painting and the security right is made effective against third parties by delivering the possession of the painting to a depositary who agrees to hold the painting on behalf of SC 1.然而,如同下例所示,可以做到的是,第一天,让与人向第一有担保债权人让与在一幅画上的担保权,并通过将该幅画的占有权交付给同意代表第一有担保债权人持有该画作的保存机关而使担保权具有对抗第三方的效力。
On Day 2, Grantor grants to SC 2 a security right in the same painting.第二天,让与人将同一幅画作上的担保权让与给第二有担保债权人。
In order to make the security right of SC 2 effective against third parties, Grantor, SC 1, SC 2 and the depositary agree that the possession of the painting by the depositary will also be for the benefit of SC 2.为了使第二有担保债权人的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力,让与人、第一有担保债权人、第二有担保债权人和保存机关均同意,由保存机关占有该画作也有利于第二有担保债权人。
Should a competition arise between SC 1 and SC 2, SC 1 will have priority because its security right was made effective against third parties by possession through the depositary.如果在第一有担保债权人和第二有担保债权人之间发生竞争的话,第一有担保债权人将享有优先权,其原因是,其担保权经由保存机关的占有而具有对抗第三方的效力。
It is only on Day 2 that the depositary started to hold the painting also for the benefit of SC 2 (with the result that SC 2's security right became effective against third parties after that of SC 1).只是在第二天,保存机关方才也开始为第二有担保债权人的利益持有该画作(其结果是,第二有担保债权人的担保权继第一有担保债权人的担保权之后具有对抗第三方的效力)。
The asset-specific priority rules in this chapter provide for other situations where two secured creditors may achieve third-party effectiveness of their security rights in the same asset by a method other than registration.本章中的资产特定优先权规则适用于两个有担保债权人采用除登记外的其他某种方法值得其在相同资产上的担保权实现第三方效力的情形。
However, in most of these other situations, asset-specific priority rules are provided by the Model Law (see arts. 47, para. 4, and 51, para. 4, and paras, 353 and 365 below).然而,在多数其他这类情形中,《示范法》均规定了资产特定优先权规则(见第47条第4款和第51条第4款及下文第353和365段)。
293.293.
Subparagraph (c) addresses priority competitions between a security right that is made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry and a security right that is made effective against third parties by another method (e.g. by possession of the encumbered asset).(c)项述及通过在登记处办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权和通过另一种方法(例如占有设保资产)取得对抗第三方效力的担保权之间的优先权竞争。
In this situation, the time of registration of the security right that is made effective against third parties by registration is compared to the time of third-party effectiveness of the competing security right, and priority is determined according to the order of registration or third-party effectiveness.在这种情形中,将对通过登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权登记时间与相竞担保权实现第三方效力的时间进行比较,并将根据登记或第三方效力的先后次序确定优先权。
As in the case of the rule in subparagraph (a), the time of registration of a registered security right is used to determine priority even if the security right is not created until after the notice is registered (see paras. 286-288 above).如同(a)项中的规则,将利用对已登记担保权的登记时间来确定优先权,即便担保权只是在对通知办理登记后加以创设(见上文第286-288段)。
For example, assume that: (a) on Day 1, SC 1 registers a notice describing an asset (with Grantor's consent); (b) on Day 2, Grantor creates a security right in the asset to SC 2, and SC 2 takes possession of the asset; and (c) on Day 3, Grantor enters into a security agreement with SC 1 that creates a further security right in the asset in favour of SC 1.举例说,假设:(a)第一天,第一个有担保债权人办理对资产加以描述的通知的登记(在设保人同意下);(b)第二天,设保人给第二个有担保债权人创设了资产上的担保权,并且第二个有担保债权人占有了该资产;及(c)第三天,设保人与第一个有担保债权人订立了给第一个有担保债权人进一步创设但保权的担保协议。
Even though SC 2's security right was created first, SC 1 will have priority, because its notice was registered before SC 2 took possession.即便第二个有担保债权人的担保权是首先创设的,第一个有担保债权人仍然将享有优先权,因为其通知是在第二个有担保债权人取得占有权之前办理登记的。
294.294.
There may be cases where a secured creditor has used more than one method to make its security right effective against third parties.在有些情况下,有担保债权人可能使用不只一种方法使其担保权具有对抗第三方的效力。
For example, a secured creditor in possession of an encumbered asset may subsequently register a notice with respect to that security right in the Registry, or vice versa.举例说,占有设保资产的有担保债权人可能随后在登记处对该担保权办理通知登记,反之亦然。
In this situation, the earlier priority time (i.e. when the security right was first registered or made effective against third parties) continues to be used in applying the general priority rules in article 29, unless there is a "gap" during which the security right was neither effective against third parties nor the subject of a notice registered in the Registry (see art. 31, and para. 296 below).在这种情形中,在适用第29条中的一般优先权规则时,将继续使用较早的优先权时间(即首先办理担保权登记的时间或担保权首先取得对抗第三方效力的时间),除非在担保权既没有对抗第三方效力也并非是在登记处登记的通知标的的期间有一个“间隔期”(见第31条和下文第296段)。
Article 30.第30条.
Competing security rights created by different grantors由不同设保人创设的相竞担保权
295.295.
Article 30 addresses priority competitions between security rights created by different grantors in the same encumbered asset.第30条述及由不同设保人在相同设保资产上创设的担保权之间的优先权竞争。
This situation can occur, for example, if a grantor creates a security right in its equipment in favour of a secured creditor (SC 1 in the example given in para. 292 above) and then sells the equipment to a person that creates a security right in it in favour of a different secured creditor (SC 2).这种情况可能发生于如果设保人在其设备上给某一有担保债权人创设了担保权(上文第292段所提供的实例中的第1有担保债权人)并随后将设备出售给在设备上给另一个不同的有担保债权人(第二有担保债权人)创设担保权的人的实例。
Article 30 provides that the general priority rules in article 29 apply in this situation as well, except as provided in article 26 of the Model Registry Provisions (see paras. 248-253 above).第30条规定,在这类情形中也将适用第29条中的一般优先权规则,除非《登记处示范条文》第26条另有规定(见上文第248-253段)。
Under options A and B of article 26 of the Model Registry Provisions, SC 2 may have priority if SC 1 did not preserve the third-party effectiveness of its security right as against secured creditors in the position of SC 2 by taking the steps provided for in one of those options.根据《登记处示范条文》第26条选项A和B,如果第一有担保债权人没有采取其中某一选项所述步骤而保全其对抗处在第二有担保债权人位置的有担保债权人的第三方效力,则第二有担保债权人可能享有优先权。
Article 31.第31条.
Competing security rights in the case of a change in the method of third-party effectiveness实现第三方效力的方法发生变更情况下的相竞担保权
296.296.
Article 31 addresses situations in which there has been a change in the method of third-party effectiveness (which requires that a security right has been validly created under art. 6 and that one of the methods of third-party effectiveness, set out, for example, in art. 18, has been complied with).第31条述及实现第三方效力方法发生变更的情况(这要求根据第6条有效创设担保权并且举例说在18条中所述实现第三方效力的某一种方法得到遵守)。
This may happen, for example, where a secured creditor makes its security right effective against third parties by possession of the encumbered asset and subsequently registers a notice with respect to its security right.举例说,这可能发生于有担保债权人通过占有设保资产并随后就其担保权办理通知登记而使其担保权具有对抗第三方效力的情形。
In such a case, for the purposes of applying the general priority rules in article 29, the priority of the security right is determined by the time when it initially became effective against third parties so long as there was no time thereafter during which the security right was not effective against third parties.在这类情形中,就适用第29条中的一般优先权规则而言,只要其后担保权无时不具备对抗第三方的效力,担保权的优先权则将按照其最初具有对抗第三方效力的时间来确定。
So, if the secured creditor in this example registers before it returns possession of the encumbered asset to the grantor, its priority will date from the time when it obtained possession, not the time of the later registration.因此,如果该实例中的有担保债权人在将设保资产的占有权返还设保人之前先行办理登记,其优先权将从其获取占有权之时起算,而并非从后来登记之时起算。
Article 32.第32条.
Competing security rights in proceeds收益上的相竞担保权
297.297.
Article 32 is based on recommendation 100 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 144-150).第32条基于《担保交易指南》建议100(见第五章,第144-150段)。
It addresses priority competitions between security rights in assets that are proceeds (for the definition of the term "proceeds", see art. 2, subpara. (bb), and para. 59 above).它述及属于收益的资产上担保权(关于“收益”一语的定义,见第2条(bb)项和上文第59段)之间的优先权竞争。
Situations in which a secured creditor has a security right in proceeds are quite common, particularly when the original encumbered asset is inventory or a receivable, as a grantor will frequently sell inventory or collect a receivable before satisfaction of the obligation secured by that asset.有担保债权人对收益享有担保权的情形十分常见,尤其在原始设保资产是库存品或应收款的情况下,因为设保人经常在清偿由该资产作保的债务之前出售库存品或收取应收款。
In such a case, under article 10, the security right continues in the proceeds that are derived from the sale of the inventory or the collection of the receivable, and the security right in the proceeds is effective against third parties if the conditions in article 19 are satisfied (see paras. 125-128 above).在这类情形中,根据第10条,担保权继续存在于来自出售库存品或收取应收款的收益,如果满足第19条中的条件,收益上的担保权将具有对抗第三方的效力(见上文第125-128段)。
Article 32 then determines the priority of that security right as against another security right in the same asset, whether the other security right is over the asset as an original encumbered asset or as proceeds.第32条由此将确定该担保权对抗相同资产上另一项担保权的优先权,而不论其他担保权是优先于作为原始设保资产的还是作为收益的资产。
Article 32 provides that the priority of the security right in the proceeds is the same as the priority of the security right in the original encumbered asset.第32条规定,收益上担保权的优先权将如同原始设保资产上担保权的优先权。
298.298.
The following example illustrates the operation of article 32.以下实例形象地说明了第32条的适用情况。
On Day 1, Grantor creates in favour of SC 1 a security right in all of Grantor's present and future inventory and SC 1 registers a notice with respect to that security right.第一天,设保人给第1有担保债权人创设了设保人现有和未来所有库存品上的担保权,并且第1有担保债权人就该担保权办理了通知登记。
On Day 2, Grantor creates in favour of SC 2 a security right in all of Grantor's present and future receivables and SC 2 registers a notice with respect to that security right.第二天,设保人给第2有担保债权人创设了设保人现有和未来所有应收款上的担保权,并且第2有担保债权人就该担保权办理了通知登记。
On Day 3, Grantor sells some of its inventory on credit, generating a receivable.第三天,设保人赊账出售有些库存品,从而产生了一笔应收款。
SC 1 has a security right in that receivable under article 10 because it is proceeds of the inventory in which SC 1 had a security right and its security right in the receivable as proceeds is automatically effective against third parties under article 19.第1有担保债权人根据第10条对该应收款享有担保权,因为该应收款是第1有担保债权人享有担保权的库存品的收益,并且其在作为收益的应收款上的担保权根据第19条自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
SC 2 has a security right in that receivable as an original encumbered asset, because of its security right in all present and future receivables of Grantor.第二有担保债权人籍由设保人在现在和未来所有应收款上的担保权而享有对作为原始设保资产的该应收款的担保权。
Under the priority rules in article 29, SC 1's security right in the receivable has priority over SC 2's security right in the receivable because the priority of SC 1's security right in the receivable (as proceeds) is determined under article 32 by the time of registration of SC 1's notice with respect to its security right in the inventory (as original encumbered assets).根据第29条中的优先权规则,第一有担保债权人在应收款上的担保权享有相对于第二有担保债权人在应收款上担保权的优先权,因为第一有担保债权人在(作为收益的)应收款上担保权的优先权根据第32条将按照对第一有担保债权人有关库存品(作为原始设保资产)上担保权的通知办理登记的时间来确定。
Thus, SC 1's priority in the receivable dates from Day 1, while SC 2's priority in the receivable dates from Day 2 (for the priority of a security right in proceeds of inventory subject to an acquisition security right, see art. 41, and paras. 335-340 below).因此,第一有担保债权人在应收款上的优先权从第一天起算,而第二有担保债权人在应收款上的优先权从第二天起算(关于设定购置款担保权的库存品收益上担保权的优先权,见第41条和下文第335-340段)。
Article 33.第33条.
Competing security rights in tangible assets commingled in a mass or transformed into a product混合在混集物中或转变为制成物的有形资产上的相竞担保权
299.299.
Article 33 addresses priority competitions resulting from situations in which the original encumbered assets are commingled in a mass or transformed into a product (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V, paras. 117-124 and recs. 90 and 91).第33条述及原始设保资产混合于混集物或转变为制成物的情形所产生的优先权竞争(见《担保交易指南》第五章,第117-124段及建议90和91)。
Under article 11, a security right in the original encumbered assets automatically extends to the mass or product and, under article 20, the security right in the mass or product is automatically effective against third parties.根据第11条,原始设保资产上的担保权自动延伸至混集物或制成物,并且根据第20条,该混集物或制成物上的担保权将自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
300.300.
Paragraph 1 of article 33 addresses the situation in which the competing security rights that extended to the mass or product were originally in the same encumbered asset.第33条第1款述及延伸至混集物或制成物的相竞担保权最初是相同设保资产上担保权的情形。
In this situation, the order of priority of the security rights in the mass or product is the same as the order of priority of the security rights in the original encumbered asset.在这类情形中,混集物或制成物上担保权的优先权次序一如原始设保资产上担保权的优先权次序。
For example, if SC 1 has a first-ranking security right in 100,000 litres of oil and SC 2 has a second-ranking security right in the same 100,000 litres of oil and the oil is then commingled with another 100,000 litres of oil in the same tank so that the mass comprises 200,000 litres of oil, under paragraph 1 of article 33, the security right of SC 1 will continue to rank ahead of the security right of SC 2 in relation to the commingled mass.举例说,如果第一有担保债权人对100,000升的石油享有排序第一的担保权,第二有担保债权人对同样100,000升的石油享有排序第二的担保权,然后将该石油与同一个油库中100,000升的石油相混合,由此产生的混集物由200,000升的石油组成,则根据第33条第1款,就混合后的混集物而言,第一有担保债权人的担保权将继续排在第二有担保债权人的担保权之前。
Under article 11, paragraphs 1 and 2, however, the security rights of SC 1 and SC 2 are both limited to half of the oil in the tank (i.e. 100,000 litres).然而,根据第11条第1款和第2款,第一有担保债权人和第二有担保债权人的担保权均局限于该油库中一半数量的石油(即100,000升)。
301.301.
Paragraphs 2 and 3 address the situation in which competing security rights that extended to the mass or product were originally in different encumbered assets.第2款和第3款述及延伸至混集物或制成物的相竞担保权最初是在不同设保资产上的情况。
In this situation, paragraph 2 provides that the secured creditors share in the mass or product according to the ratio that the obligation secured by each of their security rights bears to the sum of the obligations secured by all those security rights.在这种情形中,第2款规定,有担保债权人根据由其每项担保权作保的债务与由所有这些担保权作保的债务总额之间的比例来确定其在混集物或制成物中的比例。
Paragraph 3 provides that the determination of the amount of the obligations secured by the competing security rights is subject to the limitation on the amount of the obligation that is set out in article 11, paragraphs 2 and 3.第3款规定,由相竞担保权作保的债务数额的确定不得违反第11条第2款和第3款所述对债务数额的限制。
302.302.
The following example illustrates the operation of the limitations in paragraphs 2 and 3.以下实例形象地说明了第2款和第3款中的限制是如何适用的。
SC 1 has a security right in flour worth €100 to secure a loan of €100 and SC 2 has a security right in yeast worth €20, also to secure a loan of €100.第一有担保债权人对价值为100欧元的面粉享有担保权,以便为100欧元的贷款作保,而第2有担保债权人对用于制作面包的价值为20欧元的酵母享有担保权。
The flour is mixed with the yeast to make bread.面粉与酵母混合以制作面包。
Paragraph 2 starts by providing that SC 1 and SC 2 would share in the value of the bread 50/50 (as they were both owed the same amount, i.e. €100).第2款一开始就规定,第一有担保债权人和第二有担保债权人将按照一半的比例分享面包的价值(因为其共同拥有相同的数量,即100欧元)。
Paragraph 3 overrides this, however, by capping the amount of SC 2's loan, for the purposes of this calculation, at the value of the yeast (i.e. €20), so that SC 2 will only be entitled to 1/6 of the value of the bread (20/120).然而,第3款推翻了该规定,它规定了第二有担保债权人贷款数目的最高限额,为便于计算,按照酵母的价值(即20欧元),第二有担保债权人只是应当有权享有面包价值的1/6(20/120)。
If the bread is worth €120 (or more), then this will not matter, as there will be sufficient value for SC 1 to recover its €100, and for SC 2 to recover its €20, in full.如果面包的价值为120欧元(或价值更高),那么这将无关紧要,因为将会有充分的价值让第一有担保债权人弥补其100欧元的价值,并且让第2有担保债权人全额弥补其20欧元。
If the value of the bread goes down to €60 (i.e. becomes insufficient to satisfy the secured claims in full), then SC 1 will be paid 5/6 of the value of the bread (i.e. €50) and SC 2 will be paid only 1/6 of the value of the bread (i.e. €10).如果面包的价值下降为60欧元(即不足以全额清偿有担保债权),将向第一有担保债权人支付面包5/6的价值(即50欧元)并且将只能向第二有担保债权人支付面包1/6的价值(即10欧元)。
Article 34.第34条.
Security rights competing with rights of buyers or other transferees, lessees or licensees of an encumbered asset与设保资产买受人或其他受让人、承租人或被许可人的权利相竞的担保权
303.303.
Article 34 is based on recommendations 79-82 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 60-89).第34条基于《担保交易指南》建议79-82(见第五章,第60-89段)。
It determines the rights of a buyer or other transferee, lessee or licensee of an encumbered asset vis-a-vis a security right.它确定了设保资产买受人或其他受让人、承租人或被许可人针对担保权的权利。
Paragraph 1 states the general rule that a security right in an encumbered asset that is effective against third parties continues to encumber the asset notwithstanding its sale or other transfer, lease or licence.第1款所述一般规则是,虽有对设保资产的出售或其他转让、租赁或许可,具有对抗第三方效力的设保资产上的担保权将继续为该资产作保。
Paragraphs 2-6 provide exceptions to this general rule.第2-6款规定了该条一般规则的除外情况。
304.304.
Paragraph 2 provides that, if the secured creditor authorizes the sale or other transfer of the encumbered asset free of the security right, the buyer or other transferee acquires its rights in the asset free of that security right.第2款规定,如果有担保债权人授权出售或以其他方式转让不连带担保权的设保资产,买受人或其他受让人取得其在该资产上的权利不连带该担保权。
This rule recognizes that a secured creditor is always free to voluntarily release its security right in an asset.这条规则承认,有担保债权人总是享有自动放弃其在资产上担保权的自由。
In practice, a secured creditor may be prepared to do this where: (a) the secured creditor and grantor have arranged for the proceeds of the sale or transfer to be remitted directly to the secured creditor in satisfaction of the secured obligation; or (b) the buyer or other transferee has agreed to assume the grantor's obligation to the secured creditor.在实务中,有担保债权人可在以下情况下准备照此行事:(a)有担保债权人和设保人已经安排把出售或转让的收益直接汇给有担保债权人以清偿有担保债务;或(b)买受人或其他受让人同意承担设保人对有担保债权人的债务。
305.305.
Paragraph 3 sets out a similar rule, for a situation where the secured creditor agrees that the grantor may lease or license the encumbered asset.第3款载有一条类似的规则,是针对有担保债权人同意设保人可租赁或许可设保资产的情形。
It is formulated differently from the rule in paragraph 2 (the rights of a lessee or licensee "are not affected by" the security right) because the secured creditor's authorization only entitles the lessee or licensee to enjoy undisturbed possession of the leased or licensed asset during the term of the lease or licence as opposed to acquiring ownership free of the security right as in the case of an authorized sale or other transfer.这条规则的表述之所以不同于第2款中的规则(承租人或被许可人的权利“不受担保权的影响”),是因为有担保债权人的授权只是让承租人或被许可人有权享有在租赁或许可期间对被租赁或被许可资产的不受干扰的占有,而不是如同在授权出售或其他转让情况下获取占有权而不连带担保权。
306.306.
Paragraph 4 provides that a buyer of a tangible asset that is sold in the ordinary course of business of the seller acquires its rights free of any security right created by the seller in that asset.第4款规定,在出卖人正常经营过程中出售的有形资产买受人获取其权利而不连带由出卖人在该资产上创设的任何担保权。
It should be noted that the term "tangible asset" for the purposes of this rule excludes money, negotiable instruments, negotiable documents and certificated non-intermediated securities (see art. 2, subpara. (ll)).应当指出的是,“有形资产”一语就本条规则而言,将货币、可转让票据、可转让单证和有凭证非中介证券排除在外(见第2条(ll)项)。
What constitutes a sale in the ordinary course of the seller's business requires a fact-specific analysis.在出卖人正常经营过程中构成出售的具体内容需要进行针对特定事实的分析。
Thus, for example, the sale by the grantor of some of its inventory in accordance with its usual business practices would satisfy this condition, but a one-time sale of a used item of equipment may not.因此,举例说,设保人根据其通常商业惯例出售其某些库存品将可满足这一条件,但一次性出售已经用过的某项设备可能无法满足该条件。
307.307.
It should be noted that this rule applies only to buyers, and not to other transferees.应当指出的是,这条规则仅适用于买受人,而不适用于其他受让人。
This means that it would not apply to a person that takes an encumbered asset as a gift, rather than by purchasing it (with respect to the question whether remote buyers, lessees and licensees, see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V paras. 84-88).这就意味着,它可能不适用于取得作为礼物而并非加以购置的设保资产的某一人(关于是否是遥远买受人、承租人和被许可人的问题,见《担保交易指南》第五章第84-88段)。
308.308.
A buyer may be protected by paragraph 4 even if the buyer knew of the existence of the security right, unless it also knew that the sale breached the secured creditor's rights under its security agreement with the grantor.除非其也知悉出售侵犯了有担保债权人在其同设保人之间的担保协议下所享有的权利,买受人可以为第4款所保护,即便买受人知悉担保权的存在。
If, for example, a buyer knows that the seller has entered into a security agreement that limits the grantor's authority to deal in its inventory, but does not know that the sale is in breach of that limitation, the buyer can acquire the asset free of the security right.举例说,如果买受人知悉,出卖人订立了限制设保人经营其库存品的权力的担保协议,但并不知悉该出售违反了这一限制,则买受人能够不连带担保权获取资产。
309.309.
Paragraphs 5 and 6 bring about similar results to those in paragraph 4 in the case of leases of tangible encumbered assets and non-exclusive licences of encumbered intellectual property that are in each case leased or licensed by the grantor in the ordinary course of its business.第5款和第6款所造成的结果类似于第4款在租赁有形设保资产和对设保知识产权的非排他性许可情况下所造成的结果,而设保知识产权在每种情况下都是由设保人在其正常经营中租赁或许可的。
The formulation of paragraphs 5 and 6 differs from the formulation of paragraph 4. The reason is that, in the case of a lease or licence concluded in the ordinary course of the grantor's business, the effect of the exception is to entitle the lessee or licensee to enjoy undisturbed use of the leased or licensed asset during the term of the lease or license and does not involve the transfer to it of the ownership of the asset.第5款和第6款的行文有别于第4款的行文,其原因是,对于在设保人正常经营过程中订立的租赁或许可,除外规定所产生的影响是,让承租人或被许可人有权享有在租赁或许可期间对被租赁或被许可资产不受干扰的使用,而不涉及向其转让资产的所有权。
310.310.
Paragraphs 7 and 8 state what is often referred to as the "shelter principle".第7款和第8款说明了经常称作“庇护原则”的原则。
Under this principle, once a buyer or other transferee, lessee, or licensee obtains rights in the encumbered asset free of (or unaffected by) a security right, subsequent buyers or other transferees also acquire their rights in the encumbered assets free of (or unaffected by) that security right.该原则规定,一旦买受人或其他受让人、承租人或被许可人不连带担保权(或不受担保权影响)获取其在设保资产上的权利,后继买受人或其他受让人也不连带该担保权(或不受该担保权影响)获取其在设保资产上的权利。
311.311.
Paragraph 9 protects a buyer or lessee of low-value consumer goods that are subject to an acquisition security right that was made effective against third parties automatically under article 24 (and not, for example, by registration).第9款向设定根据第24条(而并非例如通过登记)自动取得对抗第三方效力的购置款担保权的低值消费品买受人或承租人提供保护。
In this situation, the buyer or lessee acquires its rights free of or unaffected by the security right.在此情形下,买受人或承租人获取其权利不连带担保权或不受担保权的影响。
If a secured creditor wishes to avoid this risk, it should register a notice of its acquisition security right.如果有担保债权人希望避免这一风险,则应当对其购置款担保权的通知办理登记。
Article 35.第35条.
Impact of the grantor's insolvency on the priority of a security right设保人破产对担保权优先权的影响
312.312.
Under article 35, a security right that is effective against third parties remains effective against third parties. It also retains its priority as against competing claimants notwithstanding the commencement of insolvency proceedings with respect to the grantor. This is subject to the insolvency law of the enacting State, which may give superior priority to the rights of another claimant (e.g. the insolvency representative for the costs of the insolvency proceedings).根据第35条,尽管启动了针对设保人的破产程序,具有对抗第三方效力的担保权将仍然具有对抗第三方的效力,它还保留其对抗相竞求偿人的优先权,这以遵行颁布国破产法为前提,该法律可赋予另一求偿人(例如负责破产程序费用的破产管理人)的权利以超级优先权。
The rule in article 35 is extremely important in creating a legal environment that promotes the extension of secured credit, because a security right that is not recognized in insolvency proceedings, or that loses its priority because of the commencement of insolvency proceedings, is of little value to a prospective secured creditor.第35条中的规则极为重要,有助于创造一个促进延长有担保信贷的法律环境,其原因是,在破产程序中未获承认的担保权或因为破产程序的启动而丧失其优先权的担保权对预期有担保债权人价值不大。
Article 36.第36条.
Security rights competing with preferential claims与优先求偿权相竞的担保权
313.313.
Article 36 is based on recommendations 83, 85 and 86 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 90-93 and 103-109).第36条基于《担保交易指南》建议83、85和86(见第五章第90-93段和第103-109段)。
It provides a framework for the enacting State to implement the policy of these recommendations by requiring it to: (a) list in a clear and specific way any claims that will have priority over security rights; and (b) specify a cap on the amount of the claim given priority.它通过提出以下要求提供了让颁布国执行这些建议的政策的框架:(a)以明确具体的方式列举将享有相对于担保权的优先权的任何求偿权;及(b)列明规定获得优先权的求偿权数额的最大限额。
This requirement is intended to ensure that secured creditors are aware of the existence of any preferential claims and their maximum amounts, and thus can take them into account before lending.这项要求意在确保,有担保债权人意识到任何优先求偿权的存在及其最大数额,并且能够在放贷以前将其考虑在内。
For example, secured creditors may deduct the potential amount of the preferential claims from the amount that they are prepared to lend based on the value of the encumbered assets on which they are relying.举例说,有担保债权人可从准备基于其所依赖的设保资产价值进行放贷的数额中扣除优先求偿权的潜在数额。
In specifying the preferential claims that have priority over a security right, the enacting State should also indicate whether these claims are given priority generally or only if insolvency proceedings involving the grantor are commenced (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 239).在列明享有相对于担保权的优先权的优先求偿权时,颁布国还应指明是否通常将赋予这些求偿权以优先权,还是只有在启动涉及设保人的破产程序的前提下赋予其优先权(见《担保交易指南》建议239)。
314.314.
Examples of claims that some States have determined should have priority over a competing security right include: (a) short-term claims of unpaid suppliers of goods; (b) rights of retention of unpaid creditors who have rendered services such as repair services with respect to encumbered assets; (c) claims of the grantor's employees for employment benefits; and (d) tax claims.有些国家确定应当享有相对于相竞担保权优先权的求偿权的实例包括:(a)未获付款的货物供应商的短期求偿权;(b)已提供有关设保资产修理服务之类服务的未获付款的债权人的保有权;(c)设保人受雇人对就业津贴的求偿权;及(d)税款减免。
315.315.
It should be noted that secured creditors typically require grantors to disclose the existence of preferential claims.应当指出的是,有担保债权人通常要求设保人披露优先求偿权的存在。
However, if a grantor does not comply with this obligation the secured creditor has only an unsecured claim against the grantor for breach of contract, and a claimant listed by the enacting State in this article as having priority retains that priority to the extent stated in this article,.然而,如果设保人不遵守该义务,有担保债权人只是享有就违反合同对设保人提出的无担保求偿权,但颁布国在本条中所列举的享有优先权的求偿人仍然在本条规定的限度内保留其优先权。
316.316.
It should also be noted that, some States require a notice of preferential claims to be registered in the Registry.还应指出的是,有些国家要求在登记处办理对优先求偿权的通知的登记。
In some of those States, the priority of a registered preferential claim is subject to the general first-to-register priority rule.在其中有些国家,已登记优先求偿权的优先权必须遵守先登记者优先的一般优先权规则。
This approach is useful only if the registered notice states the maximum amount of the claim and the scope of the grantor's assets that are subject to that claim so as to enable potential secured creditors to make an informed decision about whether to extend credit and, if so, on what terms.该做法只是在已登记通知载有求偿权最高数额和不得违反该求偿权的设保资产范围的前提下方有助益,目的是让潜在有担保债权人就是否提供信贷以及如果提供信贷则以何种条件加以提供作出知情决定。
In other States, registered preferential claims have priority even over security rights that were previously registered or otherwise made effective against third parties.在其他一些国家,已登记优先求偿权甚至享有相对于先前登记的或在其他情况下取得对抗第三方的效力的担保权的优先权。
In those other States, requiring registration of preferential claims is of limited value to secured creditors (see Registry Guide, paras. 46 and 51).在这些其他国家,要求对优先求偿权办理登记对有担保债权人意义不大(见《登记处指南》第46和51段)。
Article 37.第37条.
Security rights competing with rights of judgment creditors与胜诉债权人权利相竞的担保权
317.317.
Article 37 is based on recommendation 84 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 94-102).第37条基于《担保交易指南》建议84(见第五章第94-102段)。
It determines priority as between a security right in an encumbered asset and the right of a judgment creditor that has taken whatever steps are necessary to acquire rights in the grantor's assets under other law of the enacting State.它决定了设保资产担保权与采取各类必要步骤以根据颁布国其他法律获取在设保人资产上权利的胜诉债权人权利之间的优先权。
Paragraph 1 gives priority to the right of the judgment creditor if the required steps are taken before the security right becomes effective against third parties.第1款赋予胜诉债权人权利以优先权,先决条件是,在担保权具有对抗第三方效力前采取所需步骤。
The enacting State should complete paragraph 1 by inserting the relevant steps, or a reference to the other law that specifies those steps.颁布国应当插入相关步骤的提法以使第1款内容完备,或应提及列明这些步骤的其他法律。
In some States, the relevant step may be registration of a notice of the judgment in the security rights registry.在有些国家,相关步骤可以是在担保权登记处办理胜诉通知的登记。
In other States, the relevant step may be seizure of the grantor's assets or service of a garnishment order on a person against whom the grantor has a claim for payment of money.在其他一些国家,相关步骤可以是没收设保人的资产或送达针对设保人对其提出缴款请求的人的扣押令。
318.318.
Paragraph 2 provides that the security right has priority over the right of the judgment creditor if the judgment creditor does not acquire rights in the encumbered asset before the security right becomes effective against third parties.第2款规定,如果胜诉债权人未在担保权具有对抗第三方效力之前获得其在设保资产上权利,则担保权享有相对于胜诉债权人权利的优先权。
The same rule applies in the rare situation in which the judgment creditor acquired its rights in the encumbered asset at the same time as the security right became effective against third parties (this may occur where the encumbered assets are future assets).相同规则适用于胜诉债权人在担保权具有对抗第三方效力的同时(这可能发生于设保资产是未来资产的情况下)胜诉债权人获得其在设保资产上权利的罕见情形。
This rule protects a secured creditor against the possibility that its security right might otherwise be subordinate to the right of a judgment creditor that did not exist at the time the secured creditor made its security right effective against third parties.这条规则向有担保债权人提供保护,使其免于其担保权不然就有可能从属于在有担保债权人使其担保权具有对抗第三方效力之时所不存在的胜诉债权人的权利。
319.319.
However, paragraph 2 limits the extent of the priority of the security right over the right of the judgment creditor to: (a) credit extended by the secured creditor before the expiry of a short period of time to be specified by the enacting State (e.g. 15 days) after the judgment creditor notifies the secured creditor that it has taken the steps described in paragraph 1; or (b) credit extended pursuant to an irrevocable commitment made before receipt of that notification to extend credit in a fixed amount or in an amount fixed pursuant to a specified formula.然而,第2款将担保权相对于胜诉债权人权利的优先权范围限定于:(a)有担保债权人在胜诉债权人通知有担保债权人其已采取第1款所述步骤后拟由颁布国指明的短暂时期(例如15天)期满前由有担保债权人提供的信贷;或(b)在收到关于提供固定数额信贷或依照指明公式提供固定数额信贷的通知前依照不可撤消的承诺提供信贷。
This rule prevents the secured creditor from using its priority status by increasing the secured obligation even after the secured creditor acquires actual knowledge of the rights of the judgment creditor, while giving the secured creditor a short time period to adjust to the existence of those rights.这条规则能防止有担保债权人通过即便在其实际知悉胜诉债权人权利存在之后仍然增加担保债务的数额而利用其优先权地位,同时让有担保债权人能够在短暂时期内适应这类权利的存在。
Article 38.第38条.
Acquisition security rights competing with non-acquisition security rights与非购置款担保权相竞的购置款担保权
320.320.
Article 38 is based on recommendation 180 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IX, paras. 131, 136, 137, 143 and 146) and recommendation 247 of the Intellectual Property Supplement (see paras. 259-263).第38条基于《担保交易指南》建议180(见第九章第131、136、137、143和146段)及《知识产权补编》建议247(见上文第259-263段)。
Two options are provided for the enacting State.给颁布国提供了两个选项。
Under both options, provided that the specified conditions are satisfied, an acquisition security right has priority over a competing non-acquisition security right in the same encumbered asset including a prior non-acquisition security right that otherwise would have had priority over the acquisition security right under the general priority rules in article 29 (see paras. 285-294 above).在这两个选项下,如果满足了具体指明的条件,购置款担保权将享有相对于相同设保资产上相竞非购置款担保权的优先权,包括在其他情况下根据第29条中的一般优先权规则而享有相对于购置款担保权的优先权的先前非购置款担保权(见上文第285-294段)。
321.321.
A "super-priority" rule for acquisition security rights is a feature of the law of most States.购置款担保权的“超级优先权”规则是多数国家法律的一个特征。
In some States, it is formulated as a specific priority rule as in the Model Law.在有些国家,它是在《示范法》中作为一项具体的优先权规则拟订的。
In other States, it is formulated as a necessary implication of ownership of the encumbered asset being retained by a seller or lessor under a retention-of-title sale or a financial lease agreement (under art. 2, subpara. (kk), a seller's or lessor's ownership rights under a retention-of-title sale or a financial lease agreement is a security right).在其他一些国家,它是作为由出卖人或租赁人根据保留产权的出售或金融租赁协议(根据第2条(kk)项,出卖人或租赁人在保留产权的出售或金融租赁协议下享有的所有权权利是一项担保权)而保留的设保资产所有权的一项必要内容拟订的。
Article 38 preserves this advantageous treatment of acquisition finance, extending it to credit supplied by bank lenders as well as sellers and lessors.第38条保留了这种有利于对待购置款融资的做法,将其延伸至由银行放贷人以及出卖人和租赁人所提供的信贷。
322.322.
Option A contains three "super-priority" rules.选项A载有三条“超级优先权”规则。
Which of the three rules applies will depend on the nature of the encumbered assets.这三条规则中究竟有哪一条予以适用将取决于设保资产的性质。
The rule in paragraph 1 applies if the encumbered assets are equipment or its intellectual property equivalent (that is, intellectual property or rights of a licensee under a licence of intellectual property that is primarily used or intended to be used by the grantor in the operation of its business; see art. 2, subpara. (l), and para. 46 above).如果设保资产是设备或其知识产权等同物(即知识产权或被许可人在设保人主要用于或意图用于其商业运营的知识产权许可下所享有的权利;见第2条(l)项和上文第46段),则将适用第1款中的规则。
The rule in paragraph 2 applies if the encumbered assets are either inventory or its intellectual property equivalent (that is, intellectual property or rights of a licensee under a licence of intellectual property held by the grantor for sale or licence in the ordinary course of the grantor's business; see art. 2, subpara. (q), and para. 50 above).如果设保资产是库存品或其知识产权等同物(见知识产权或被许可人根据由设保人在其商业日常运营中为出售或许可而持有的知识产权许可下所享有的权利;见第2条(q)项和上文第50段),则将适用第2款中的规则。
The rule in paragraph 3 applies if the encumbered assets are consumer goods or their intellectual property equivalent (that is, intellectual property or rights of a licensee under a licence of intellectual property used or intended to be used by the grantor primarily for personal, family or household purposes; see art. 2, subpara. (f), and para. 42 above).如果设保资产是消费品或其知识产权等同物(即知识产权或被许可人在由设保人主要为个人、家庭或家居目的而使用或意图使用的知识产权许可下所享有的权利;见第2条(f)项和上文第42段),则将适用第3条中的规则。
323.323.
Under the "super-priority" rule in paragraph 1 of option A, an acquisition security right in equipment or its intellectual property equivalent has priority over a competing non-acquisition security right created by the grantor. For this rule to apply, the secured creditor must have possession of the equipment or register a notice with respect to the acquisition security right in the Registry before the expiry of a short time period to be specified by the enacting State (e.g. 15-20 days).根据选项A第1款中的“超级优先权”规则,设备或其知识产权等同物上的购置款担保权享有相对于由设保人创设的相竞非购置款担保权的优先权,适用这条规则的先决条件是,有担保债权人必须占有该设备,或在由颁布国指明的短暂时期(例如15-20天)期满前在登记处办理对购置款担保权通知的登记。
This time period starts after either the grantor obtains possession of the equipment or the agreement for the lease or licence of the intellectual property is concluded.该短暂时期开始于设保人取得对设备占有权或订立有关租赁或许可知识产权的协议之后。
If these conditions are met, the acquisition security right will have super-priority over a competing non-acquisition security right.如果满足这些条件,该购置款担保权将享有相对于相竞非购置款担保权的超级优先权。
This would be the case even if notice of the non-acquisition security right had been registered or the nonacquisition security right had been made effective against third parties before the acquisition security right (this could happen, for example, where the prior security right covered future assets).即使办理了有关非购置款担保权通知的登记或非购置款担保权先于购置款担保权取得对抗第三方的效力(举例说,这可能发生于先前担保权涵盖未来资产的情况)也将如此。
Even though possession of the equipment by the secured creditor is an alternative to timely registration for the purposes of obtaining super priority, continued possession of the equipment by the secured creditor is unlikely to be used in practice as a basis for super-priority, as this would deprive the grantor of the use of the equipment in its business. It is likely that possession will be relied on in practice only during the gap between the conclusion of the security agreement and the time when the equipment is delivered to the grantor.即使有担保债权人占有该设备是为取得超级优先权而及时办理登记的一种备选做法,在实务中仍然不可能将有担保债权人继续占有该设备用作超级优先权的基础,因为这将剥夺设保人在其运营中对该设备的利用,但实务中,有可能只是在从订立担保协议到向设保人交付设备的间隔期间方可依赖于占有。
324.324.
Under the super-priority rule in paragraph 2 of option A, additional requirements must be satisfied for an acquisition security right in inventory or its intellectual property equivalent to have "super-priority" over a competing non-acquisition security right.根据选项A第2款中的超级优先权规则,库存品上的购置款担保权或其知识产权等同物享有相对于相竞非购置款担保权的“超级优先权”的前提是,必须满足其他一些额外要求。
The acquisition security right will have priority if the secured creditor has possession of the inventory, or if two conditions are met before the grantor takes possession (in the case of inventory) or the agreement for sale or licence has been concluded (in the case of the intellectual property equivalent).如果有担保债权人占有库存品,或如果在设保人取得占有权(在库存品情况下)之前或订立关于出售或许可的协议(在知识产权等同物情况下)之前满足了两项条件,购置款担保权则将享有优先权。
First, a notice with respect to the acquisition security right must be registered in the Registry.首先,必须在登记处办理有关购置款担保权通知的登记。
Second, a non-acquisition secured creditor that registered a notice with respect to encumbered assets of the same kind as the inventory (or its intellectual property equivalent) must have received a notice from the acquisition secured creditor.其次,在对库存品(或其知识产权等同物)同类设保资产的通知方面已经办理了登记的非购置款有担保债权人必须已经收到来自购置款有担保债权人的通知。
The notice must: (a) state that the acquisition secured creditor has or intends to acquire an acquisition security right; and (b) describe the relevant encumbered assets sufficiently to enable them to be reasonably identified.该通知必须:(a)说明购置款有担保债权人获取或意图获取购置款担保权;及(b)对相关设保资产作出充分地描述,以便能够合理确定这些资产的身份。
It should be noted that there is no grace period as in the case of equipment.应当指出的是,在设备方面并没有任何宽限期。
In addition, even though possession of inventory by the secured creditor is an alternative to the satisfaction of these two conditions for the purposes of obtaining super-priority, a secured creditor is unlikely to rely on its continued possession of inventory as a basis for superpriority, as this would deprive the grantor of the ability to sell the inventory in the course of its business.此外,即使有担保债权人对库存品的占有是满足取得超级优先权的这两项条件的一种备选做法,但有担保债权人不可能依赖于其对库存品的继续占有,将其作为超级优先权的基础,其原因是,这将剥夺设保人在其运营过程中出售库存品的能力。
It is likely that possession will be relied on in practice only during the gap between the conclusion of the security agreement and the time when the inventory is delivered to the grantor.在实务中,可能只是在从订立担保协议到向设保人交付库存品的间隔期内依赖于该占有。
325.325.
There are two reasons for the different requirements for super-priority in the case of inventory or its intellectual property equivalent as compared to the conditions for super-priority in the case of equipment and its intellectual property equivalent.较之于设备及其知识产权等同物情况下的超级优先权,库存品或其知识产权等同物情况下的超级优先权之所以有不同的要求有两个原因。
First, because inventory may "turn over" (i.e. be sold by the grantor) quickly and depreciate quickly, it would be inefficient for a financier extending credit that is intended to be secured by a non-acquisition security right in present and future inventory to have to wait for the expiry of a grace period before being certain that the grantor's inventory is not subject to an acquisition security right that will have super-priority.第一个原因是,库存品可能“流转”快(即通过设保人的出售)且贬值快,融资人意在以现在和未来库存品上的非购置款担保权作保提供信贷效率很低,因为它必须等待宽限期期满后方可确信设保人的库存品并没有设定将享有超级优先权的购置款担保权。
The requirement in paragraph 2 that the notice be registered before the grantor obtains possession of the encumbered asset addresses this concern.第2款中的在设保人取得对设保资产占有权之前必须首先办理通知登记的要求述及该关切。
Second, new inventory can often be difficult to distinguish from old inventory. Thus, even a secured creditor with a non-acquisition security right in future inventory that monitors the ongoing acquisition of inventory by the grantor will not always be able to determine easily that new inventory has replaced similar older inventory and may thus potentially be subject to an acquisition security right.其次,经常难以区分新的库存品和原有库存品,因此,即使密切关注设保人对库存品进行中购置情况的对未来库存品享有非购置款担保权的有担保债权人对新的库存品是否已取代原有库存品并从而有可能设定了购置款担保权也并非总能轻易作出判断。
The requirement that the acquisition secured creditor give advance notice to priorregistered non-acquisition secured creditors of its pending acquisition security right addresses this concern.要求购置款有担保债权人就其未决购置款担保权提前通知先前已登记非购置款有担保债权人即可述及该关切。
326.326.
To facilitate acquisition financing, paragraph 4 of option A contains two important clarifications about the advance notice to be sent to prior-registered non-acquisition secured creditors under paragraph 2 (b) (ii).为便利购置款融资,选项A第4款含有有关根据第2(b)㈡款拟发送给先前已登记费购置款有担保债权人的提前通知的两项重要说明。
First, the notice may cover acquisition security rights under multiple transactions between the same parties without the need to send a new notice in relation to each new transaction.首先,通知可涵盖相同当事人之间多项交易下的购置款担保权,而不需要就每项新的交易发送一份新的通知。
Thus, for example, where a seller or lender is planning to engage in an ongoing series of financing arrangements with the grantor, a single notice is sufficient, if it sufficiently describes the assets to be covered by these ongoing transactions to enable them to be reasonably identified.因此,举例说,出卖人或放贷人计划从事与设保人之间的一系列进行中融资安排的,单独一份通知便已足够,先决条件是,该通知对拟由这些进行中交易所涵盖的资产作了充分的描述,以便能够合理确定这些资产的身份。
Second, the notice, however, will be effective only in respect of encumbered assets that are acquired by the grantor before the expiry of a certain time period to be specified by the enacting State (e.g. five years), after that notice is received by the non-acquisition secured creditor.其次,该通知而只是对设保人在拟由颁布国指明的时期(例如五年)期满前所获取的设保资产来说是有效的,在所述时期之后该通知由非购置款有担保债权人接收。
As a result, an acquisition secured creditor will need to send a new notice before the expiry of the specified time period if it wants to continue thereafter to enjoy the super-priority for its acquisition financing to the grantor.因此,购置款有担保债权人如果希望其给设保人的购置款融资随后继续享有超级优先权则需要在指明时期期满前发送一份新的通知。
327.327.
Under the super-priority rule in paragraph 3 of option A, an acquisition security right in consumer goods or their intellectual property equivalent automatically has priority over a non-acquisition security right that is created by the grantor in the same encumbered asset even if the latter was made effective against third parties before the acquisition security right.根据选项A第3款中的超级优先权规则,消费品上的购置款担保权或其知识产权等同物将自动享有相对于由设保人在相同设保资产上创设并且即便后者在购置款担保权之前已经取得对抗第三方效力的非购置款担保权的优先权。
As with all the rules in article 38, it is implicit that the acquisition security right will only benefit from super-priority if it is effective against third parties.如同第38条中的所有规则,不言而喻的是,购置款担保权如果具有对抗第三方的效力,则将获益于超级优先权。
This means, for example, that a security right in consumer goods, other than low-value consumer goods, will need to be made effective against third parties by registration or possession (see arts. 18 and 24).举例说,这就意味着,除低值消费品之外的其他消费品上的担保权需要通过登记或占有的方式取得对抗第三方的效力(见第18条和第24条)。
Once it becomes effective against third parties, the acquisition security right will have priority.一旦其具有对抗第三方的效力,购置款担保权将会享有优先权。
A non-acquisition security right may have priority, however, if the acquisition secured creditor fails to register notice of its security right altogether (unless the low-value exemption in art. 24 applies; see para. 128 above).然而,如果购置款有担保债权人根本就没有对其担保权通知办理登记(除非适用第24条中对低值消费品的除外规定,见上文第128段),非购置款担保权也可以享有优先权。
328.328.
Option B contains only two "super-priority" rules.选项B只含有两项“超级优先权”规则。
The rule in paragraph 1 is identical to the rule in paragraph 1 of option A, except that, while paragraph 1 of option A applies only to acquisition security rights in equipment and its intellectual property equivalent, paragraph 1 of option B also applies to acquisition security rights in inventory and the intellectual property equivalent of inventory.第1款中的规则类似于选项A第1款中的规则,除非选项A第1款只适用于设备上及其知识产权等同物上的购置款担保权,选项B的第1款也将适用于库存品上以及库存品知识产权等同物上的购置款担保权。
The rule in paragraph 2 is identical to the rule in paragraph 3 of option A.第2款中的规则类似于选项A第3款中的规则。
Thus, the only difference between option A and option B relates to the steps that must be taken in order for an acquisition security right in inventory or in its intellectual property equivalent to have priority over a competing non-acquisition security right.因此,选项A和选项B之间的唯一区别在于库存品上或其知识产权上等同物的购置款担保权享有相对于相竞非购置款担保权的优先权所必须采取的一些步骤。
Under the approach in option B, a non-acquisition secured creditor with a security right in future inventory of the grantor or its intellectual property equivalent will need to monitor the registry record.根据选项B中的做法,对设保人未来库存品或其知识产权等同物享有担保权的非购置款有担保债权人需要时刻关注登记处的记录。
This will be important if that secured creditor wants to ensure, before extending new credit against new inventory or new intellectual property acquired by the grantor, that it is not the subject of an intervening acquisition security right, which, if registered before the expiry of the specified grace period, will have super-priority.这在以下情况下具有重要意义,即该有担保债权人希望确保在凭籍由设保人获取的新的库存品或新的知识产权提供新的信贷之前,该担保权并非是居间购置款担保权的标的,如果对其办理登记,则在规定宽限期期满前办理登记就可享有超级优先权。
The approach in option A relieves the prior non-acquisition secured creditor from this monitoring burden, but imposes a more onerous registration and notification burden on the acquisition secured creditor.选项A中的做法免除了先前非购置款有担保债权人这一予以时刻关注的负担,但却给购置款有担保债权人规定了更加艰巨的登记和通知负担。
329.329.
The reference to possession by the secured creditor in paragraphs 1 (a) and 2 (a) of option A and paragraph 1 (a) of option B refers to the situation where the secured creditor has possession of the encumbered asset at the outset of the acquisition financing transaction, such as where the secured creditor is a seller or lessor.选项A第1(a)款和第2(a)款中提及有担保债权人的占有指的是有担保债权人在购置款融资交易之初即对设保资产享有占有权的情形,例如有担保债权人是出卖人或租赁人的情形。
It does not refer to possession acquired by the secured creditor as a result of seizure in the context of enforcement upon the grantor's default.它并非指有担保债权人在设保人违约时通过强制执行予以没收而取得占有权的情况。
Thus, an acquisition secured creditor that failed to register in time after the grantor obtained possession of the encumbered asset cannot obtain super-priority under this article by subsequently taking possession of the encumbered asset in the context of enforcement or otherwise.因此,在设保人取得对设保资产占有权之后未及时办理登记的购置款有担保债权人根据本条无法通过随后在强制执行或其他情况下占有设保资产而取得超级优先权。
Otherwise, an acquisition secured creditor could change its priority by commencing enforcement, a result that would introduce great uncertainty.不然的话,购置款有担保债权人即可经由启动强制执行而变更其优先权,这一结果将会造成很大的不确定性。
Article 39.第39条.
Competing acquisition security rights相竞购置款担保权
330.330.
Article 39 is based on recommendation 182 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IX, paras. 173-178).第39条基于《担保交易指南》建议182(见第九章,第173-178段)。
It addresses priority competitions between acquisition security rights that are created by the same grantor in the same encumbered asset.它述及由相同设保人在相同设保资产上创设的购置款担保权之间的优先权竞争。
This type of priority competition could occur in two situations.这类优先权竞争可发生于两种情形下。
The first is where two lenders have each financed a part of the total acquisition price of the relevant asset.第一种情形是,两个放贷人各自对相关资产中总的购置价款中的一部分提供融资。
In this situation, priority is determined under paragraph 1 according to the general rule of priority in article 29 (see paras. 285-294 above).在这种情形中,优先权将在第1款下根据第29条中的一般优先权规则加以确定(见上文第285-294段)。
The second situation is where a lender advances part of the acquisition price of the encumbered asset (for example, by lending the money used by the grantor for an advance against the purchase price) with the balance of the acquisition price being financed by the supplier of the encumbered asset.第二种情形是,放贷人预先支付设保资产购置款的一部分(例如贷款给设保人以用于预支购置款),余下的购置款由设保资产供应商供资。
In this second situation, paragraph 2 gives priority to the acquisition security right of the supplier over that of the lender, as long as it is made effective against third parties before the expiry of the period specified in article 38, paragraph 1 (b) (see paras. 322 and 323 above).在这第二种情形中,只要在第38条第1(b)款所述时期期满前取得对抗第三方的效力,第2款则赋予供应商购置款担保权以相对于放贷人的优先权(见上文第322和323段)。
331.331.
Paragraph 2 protects the supplier over the lender because credit transactions between suppliers and their customers are often entered into on a same day basis without any practical opportunity for the supplier to first check the Registry to determine whether a competing acquisition security right has been registered against the asset.第2款之所以是对供应商而并非是对放贷人的保护,是因为供应商与其客户之间的信贷交易经常在同一天完成,而这就不会给供应商提供首先在登记处进行核对以确定是否已就该资产办理了相竞购置款担保权登记的任何实际机会。
Without being assured of super-priority for a limited period going forward, suppliers would be reluctant to extend secured credit to their customers and this in turn would mean that their customers would be denied access to this important alternative source of secured credit.如果无法确保在今后一段有限的时期内享有超级优先权,供应商就不会愿意向其客户提供有担保信贷,而这就意味着,其客户将无法得到这一重要的有担保信贷替代来源。
It should be noted that this rule applies even where the encumbered asset is inventory or its intellectual property equivalent. This is so notwithstanding that, under paragraph 2 of option A, the secured creditor must register and give notice to prior-registered non-acquisition secured creditors before the grantor obtains possession of inventory or the agreement for the sale or licence of the intellectual property equivalent of inventory is concluded in order to obtain super-priority against the holder of a prior nonacquisition security right in the encumbered asset.应当指出的是,即便在设保保资产是库存品或其知识产权等同物的情况下该项规则仍然适用,虽然根据选项A第2款,在设保人取得对库存品的占有权或订立有关出售或许可库存品知识产权等同物的协议之前有担保债权人必须首先办理登记并通知先前已登记非购置款有担保债权人,以便取得相对于设保资产上先前非购置款担保权持有人的超级优先权。
Article 40.第40条.
Acquisition security rights competing with the rights of judgment creditors与胜诉债权人权利相竞的购置款担保权
332.332.
Article 40 is based on recommendation 183 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IX, paras. 145-148).第40条基于《担保交易指南》建议183(见第九章,第145-148段)。
It provides that an acquisition security right that is made effective against third parties before the expiry of the period specified in article 38, subparagraph 1 (b) has priority over the rights of a judgment creditor that would otherwise have priority under article 37.该条规定,在第38条第1(b)项所述时期期满前取得对抗第三方效力的购置款担保权享有相对于以其他方式在第37条下享有优先权的胜诉债权人权利的优先权。
Where the enacting State adopts option B of article 38, article 40 ensures that acquisition secured creditors enjoy the same grace period to preserve priority over the rights of intervening judgment creditors as is available to them to establish priority over the rights of non-acquisition secured creditors.颁布国采纳第38条选项B的,第40条确保购置款担保权在保全相对于居间胜诉债权人权利的优先权方面的宽限期,一如其在确立相对于非购置款有担保债权人权利优先权方面所可利用的宽限期。
333.333.
By way of illustration, assume that Grantor acquires an item of equipment from Seller on credit on Day 1 and creates in favour of Seller an acquisition security right in the item of equipment to secure its obligation to pay the balance of the purchase price.为举例说明,假设设保人第一天从出卖人那里赊账获得某项设备,并且给出卖人创设了在该项设备上的购置款担保权,以便为其缴付购置款余下部分的义务作保。
On Day 5 Seller registers a notice.出卖人在第5天办理了通知登记。
In the meantime, on Day 3, Judgment Creditor obtains a judgment against Grantor and takes the steps specified in article 37, paragraph 1, to acquire rights in the item of equipment.与此同时,胜诉债权人第三天赢得了对设保人的胜诉判决,并采取第37条第1款所述步骤以获取在该项设备上的权利。
Under the rule in article 37, paragraph 1, Judgment Creditor's rights would have priority over Seller's security right because Judgment Creditor obtained its rights before Seller's security right was made effective against third parties by registration of a notice.根据第37条第1款中的规则,胜诉债权人的权利将享有相对于出卖人担保权的优先权,其原因是,胜诉债权人在出卖人通过办理通知登记使其担保权取得对抗第三方效力之前即已获得其权利。
As a result of the operation of article 40, however, Seller's security right has priority over the rights of Judgment Creditor.然而,经适用第40条,出卖人的担保权享有相对于胜诉债权人权利的优先权。
334.334.
Where the acquisition security right covers inventory and the enacting State adopts option A of article 38, the rationale for the rule in article 40 is necessarily different.购置款担保权涵盖库存品并且颁布国采纳第38条选项A的,第40条中规则的依据必然有所不同。
This is so because paragraph 2 of option A of article 38 requires the acquisition secured creditor to register before the grantor obtains possession of inventory (or the agreement for the sale or licence of the intellectual property equivalent of inventory is concluded) in order to obtain super-priority against the holder of a prior non-acquisition security right.其原因是,第38条选项A的第2款要求在设保人取得对库存品的占有权(或订立有关出售或许可知识产权等同物的协议)之前购置款有担保债权人必须首先办理登记,以便取得相对于先前非购置款担保权持有人的超级优先权。
The rationale for giving superior protection against judgment creditors in this situation is the same as that which informs the priority rule in article 39.在这种情形下赋予相对于胜诉债权人的优先保护所持理据与第39条中的优先权规则所持依据相同。
Acquisition financing is often provided by suppliers (as opposed to lenders), and supplier financing is often concluded on a same-day basis. Thus, article 40 ensures that suppliers are not prevented in practice from entering into inventory financing arrangements for fear that a judgment creditor may in the coming days take the steps necessary to acquire rights in the relevant inventory so as to obtain priority under article 37.购置款融资常常是由供应商而不是由放贷人提供的,并且供应商融资常常是在同一天完成的,由于这些原因,第40条确保在实务中不会妨碍供应商订立库存品融资安排,以免担心胜诉债权人日后采取获取相关库存品上权利的必要步骤以争取第37条下的优先权。
Article 41.第41条.
Competing security rights in proceeds of an asset subject to an acquisition security right设定购置款担保权的资产上收益的相竞保权
335.335.
Article 41 is based on recommendation 185 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. IX, paras. 158-172).第41条基于《担保交易指南》建议185(见第九章,第158-172段)。
Both option A and option B of article 38 provide that, if the specified conditions are satisfied, an acquisition security right has priority over a competing non-acquisition security right in the same encumbered asset even if the non-acquisition security right would have priority under the general priority rule in article 29.第38条选项A和选项B规定,如果满足规定条件,购置款担保权则享有相对于相同设保资产上相竞非购置款担保权的优先权,即便非购置款担保权根据第29条中的一般优先权规则将会享有优先权。
Article 41 determines whether that "superpriority" carries over to proceeds of the encumbered assets that are subject to the acquisition security right.将由第41条决定“超级优先权”是否可以延续至设定购置款担保权的设保资产上的收益。
336.336.
Under article 10, a secured creditor with a security right in an asset automatically has a security right in the identifiable proceeds of that asset; and, under article 19, that security right is effective against third parties if the conditions specified in that article are satisfied.根据第10条,对资产享有担保权的有担保债权人自动享有对该资产可识别受益的担保权;并且根据第19条,如果满足该条所述条件,该担保权即具有对抗第三方的效力。
Under article 32, the priority of a security right in proceeds that is effective against third parties under article 19 is the same as the priority of the security right in the original encumbered asset.根据第32条,根据第19条而具有对抗第三方效力的收益上担保权的优先权一如原始设保资产上担保权的优先权。
Under this rule, a security right in proceeds of assets subject to an acquisition security right would have the same "super-priority" as the security right in the original encumbered asset.根据该条规则,设定购置款担保权的资产收益上的担保权将具有相同的“超级优先权”,如同原始设保资产上的担保权。
Article 41, however, limits the application of article 32 by restricting the "super-priority" to the proceeds of only certain types of asset subject to an acquisition security right (option A) or by not extending the "super-priority" to the proceeds at all (option B).然而,第41条对第32条的适用作了限定,将“超级优先权”局限在仅设定购置款担保权的某些类型资产上的收益(选项A),或绝不将“超级优先权”延伸至任何收益(选项B)。
337.337.
Paragraph 1 of option A provides that the "super-priority" of an acquisition security right under article 38 generally carries over to the proceeds of those assets.选项A第1款规定,第38条下购置款担保权的“超级优先权”一般可延续至这些资产的收益。
This is subject, however, to the exception in paragraph 2 for proceeds of inventory or its intellectual property equivalent.然而,这不得违反第2款有关库存品或其知识产权等同物收益的除外规定。
Under subparagraph 2 (a), the "superpriority" does not carry over to proceeds of inventory or its intellectual property equivalent that is in the form of receivables, negotiable instruments or rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account.根据第2(a)项,“超级优先权”不得延续至形式为应收款、可转让票据或银行账户贷记款受付权的库存品或其知识产权等同物的收益。
If the proceeds take any other form, subparagraph 2 (b) provides that the acquisition security right in the proceeds will have "super-priority" if, before the proceeds arose, the non-acquisition secured creditor had previously registered a notice in the Registry with respect to a security right in an asset of the same kind as the proceeds and the non-acquisition secured creditor receives a notice from the acquisition secured creditor that states that it has or intends to obtain a security right in assets of that kind and that describes those assets sufficiently to enable them to be identified.如果收益采取任何其他形式,第2(b)项规定,如果在收益产生前非购置款有担保债权人此前已经在登记处办理了有关收益同类资产上担保权通知的登记,收益上的购置款担保权将享有“超级优先权”,并且非购置款有担保债权人将会收到购置款有担保债权人的这样一份通知,即规定它已获得或意图获得该类资产上担保权,并且对这类资产作了充分描述以便能确定资产的身份。
338.338.
The reason why subparagraph 2 (a) does not to extend "super-priority" to proceeds of inventory (and its intellectual property equivalent) that take the form of receivables, negotiable instruments or rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account relates to the difficulty that would otherwise be faced by prior nonacquisition secured creditors with security rights in these types of assets as original encumbered assets.第2(a)项之所以没有将“超级优先权”延伸至形式为应收款、可转让票据或银行账户贷记款受付权的库存品(及其知识产权等同物)的收益,是因为先前非购置款有担保债权人不然就有可能在对作为原始设保资产的这些类型资产享有担保权上遇到困难。
If the "super-priority" given to acquisition security rights were extended to those types of proceeds, potential secured creditors would be reluctant to extend credit on the basis of these types of assets as original encumbered assets for fear that their priority would be trumped by the security right of subsequent acquisition financiers in these types of assets as proceeds.如果将赋予购置款担保权的“超级优先权”延伸至这些类型的收益,潜在的有担保债权人则会不愿意基于作为原始设保资产的这些类型的资产而提供信贷,以免担心其优先权将受阻于对作为收益的这些类型资产的后继购置款融资人的担保权。
The reason why subparagraph 2 (b) requires the acquisition secured creditor to send a notice to priorregistered non-acquisition secured creditors with a security right in the same kind of assets as the proceeds where the proceeds take any other form is to alert them to the existence of its prior-ranking security right in this kind of assets as proceeds so that they can decide whether to extend further credit to the grantor on the security of those assets.第2(b)项之所以要求购置款有担保债权人向对作为收益(此处收益可采取任何其他形式)的同类资产享有担保权的先前已登记非购置款有担保债权人发送一份通知,是为了提请他们注意其对作为收益的这类资产排序在先的担保权的存在,以便其决定是否就这类资产的担保向设保人提供进一步信贷。
The decision not to provide "super-priority" with respect to these payment rights reflects a policy decision to promote receivables financing and other forms of financing based upon such payment rights.不向这些付款权提供“超级优先权”的决定反映了推动基于这类付款权的应收款融资及其他形式融资的政策性决定。
339.339.
Option B provides that the "super-priority" with respect to assets subject to an acquisition security right does not carry over to proceeds of those assets under any circumstances.选项B规定,有关设定购置款担保权的资产的“超级优先权”在任何情况下都不得延续至这些资产的收益。
Instead, the priority of the security right in the proceeds will be determined under the general priority rules in article 29.相反,收益上担保权的优先权将根据第29条的一般优先权规则加以确定。
Option B avoids the need to make the sort of distinctions between types of proceeds required to be made in option A.选项B避免了选项A所要求作出的对这些类型收益加以区分的需要。
340.340.
As already explained (see para. 296 above), article 35 provides that a security right that is effective against third parties remains effective against third parties and retains the priority it had against competing claimants notwithstanding the commencement of insolvency proceedings by or against the grantor except to the extent that the enacting State's insolvency law provides otherwise.如同已经解释的(见上文第296段),第35条规定,虽然由设保人启动或针对设保人启动了破产程序,但具有对抗第三方效力的担保权将仍然具有对抗第三方的效力,并且将保留其对抗相竞求偿人的优先权,除非颁布国破产法另有规定。
Article 35 applies equally to the special priority accorded to acquisition security rights (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 186).第35条同样适用于赋予购置款担保权的特别优先权(见《担保交易指南》建议186)。
Article 42.第42条.
Acquisition security rights extending to a mass or product competing with non-acquisition security rights in the mass or product延伸至与混集物或制成物非购置款担保权相竞的混集物或制成物的购置款担保权
341.341.
Article 42 preserves the super-priority of an acquisition security right in an asset that later becomes part of a mass or product in a way that allows the acquisition security right to extend to the mass or product under article 11 as against a competing non-acquisition security right in the mass or product as an original encumbered asset.第42条保全了在这样一类资产上的购置款担保权的超级优先权,该资产后来成为混集物或制成物的一部分,从而使得购置款担保权得以根据第11条延伸至与作为原始设保资产的混集物或制成物上非购置款担保权相竞的混集物或制成物。
Article 42 is subject to article 38, meaning that the superpriority of the acquisition security right is conditional on compliance with the conditions for super-priority set out in that article.第42条以遵守第38条为前提,这就意味着,购置款担保权的超级优先权以遵守该条所述超级优先权的先决条件为前提。
Article 43.第43条.
Subordination排序居次
342.342.
Article 43 is based on recommendation 94 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 128-131).第43条基于《担保交易指南》建议94(见第五章,第128-131段)。
Paragraph 1 allows a person to subordinate its security right to a competing claim over which it would otherwise have priority.第1款允许某一人将其担保权的排序排在其不然就享有优先权的相竞求偿权之后。
Such subordination may take the form of a bilateral agreement between the party agreeing to subordinate its security right and the competing claimant that will benefit from that subordination.这类排序居次可以采取同意将其担保权的排序靠后的当事人与可获益于该排序居次的相竞求偿人之间的双边协议的形式。
However, paragraph 1 provides that the beneficiary need not be a party to the subordination.然而,第1款规定,获益人不必是该排序居次的当事人。
Thus, the subordination may also take the form of a unilateral commitment (usually made to the grantor) by the party agreeing to a lower priority that it will not assert its priority against a specified competing claimant or a specified class of competing claimants.因此,排序居次也可采取由同意较低优先权的当事人作出的单方面承诺(通常向设保人作出)的形式,在这类承诺中,当事人不对某一指明的相竞求偿人或某些指明类别的相竞求偿人主张其优先权。
343.343.
Paragraph 2 makes it clear that subordination does not affect the rights of competing claimants other than the party agreeing to subordinate its priority and the beneficiary of that agreement.第2款明确指出,排序居次不影响约定将其优先权排序居次的当事人和该约定获益人以外的其他相竞求偿人的权利。
For example, assume that three secured creditors, SC 1, SC 2 and SC 3, have security rights in the same encumbered assets, securing claims of €50, €10 and €70, respectively.举例说,假设三个有担保债权人即第一有担保债权人、第二有担保债权人和第三有担保债权人对相同设保资产享有担保权,并分别为50欧元、10欧元和70欧元的求偿权作保。
Assume further that the order of priority (highest to lowest) is SC 1, SC 2 and SC 3, and that SC 1 subordinates its claim to that of SC 3.又假设优先权的先后次序(从最高至最低排列)是第一有担保债权人、第二有担保债权人和第三有担保债权人,并且第一有担保债权人将其求偿权排在第三有担保债权人之后。
Under the rule in paragraph 2, the effect of the subordination is that SC 3 will succeed to SC 1's priority status up to €50 and that SC 2's claim to the next €10 will not be affected.根据第2款中的规则,排序居次的影响是,第三有担保债权人的优先权地位将接在第一有担保债权人之后,其求偿权至多为50欧元,而第二有担保债权人对接下来10欧元的求偿权不受影响。
Article 44.第44条.
Future advances and future encumbered assets未来预付款和未来设保资产
344.344.
Article 44 is based on recommendations 97-99 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 135-143).第44条基于《担保交易指南》建议97-99(见第五章,第135-143段)。
It clarifies the operation of the priority rules in this chapter in relation to a security right that secures obligations arising after the conclusion of the security agreement (see art. 7) and in relation to encumbered assets that come into existence or are acquired by the grantor after the conclusion of the security agreement.它澄清了该章中优先权规则的适用情况,这些规则涉及为订立担保协议后产生的债务作保的担保权(见第7条)和在订立担保协议后产生或由设保人获取的设保资产。
345.345.
Paragraph 1 provides that the priority of a security right extends to all obligations it secures, regardless of when those obligations were incurred.第1款规定,担保权的优先权延伸至由其作保的所有债务,而不论这些债务是何时承担的。
Thus, a security right has the same priority over the right of a competing claimant whether the entire secured obligation was incurred at or before the creation of the security right or all or a portion of the secured obligation was incurred thereafter.因此,担保权享有相对于相竞求偿人权利的相同优先权,而不论整个有担保债务是在担保权创设之时或之前承担的,也不论有担保债务的一部分是在这之后承担的。
This rule is subject, however, to the rule in article 37, under which a judgment creditor may have priority for advances made by the secured creditor after it has knowledge that the judgment creditor has taken the steps necessary to acquire rights in the encumbered asset and has had a short period of time (set out in art. 37) to adjust.然而,该条规则受制于第37条中的规则,即胜诉债权人可据此对有担保债权人在知悉胜诉债权人已采取必要步骤以便获取在设保资产上权利并且享有短暂的因应调整时期(载于第37条)后所作的预先支付享有优先权。
This rule is also subject to the maximum sum specified in the registered notice should the enacting State decide to require a maximum sum to be set out in the security agreement and in the registered notice.如果颁布国决定要求在担保协议和已登记通知中载明最高金额,则该条规则也不得违反已登记通知所述最高金额。
346.346.
Paragraph 2 similarly provides that, when a security right has been made effective against third parties by the registration of a notice, the priority resulting from that registration under article 29 extends to all the encumbered assets described in the notice whether they were owned by the grantor at the time of registration or were acquired thereafter.第2款同样规定,通过对通知办理登记而使担保权取得对抗第三方效力的,第29条所规定的由该登记所产生的优先权延伸至通知所述所有设保资产,而不论这些资产是在登记之时由设保人所有或在其后由设保人获取。
Article 45.第45条.
Irrelevance of knowledge of the existence of a security right对担保权有否的知悉的无关联性
347.347.
Article 45 is based on recommendation 93 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 125-127).第45条基于《担保交易指南》建议93(见第五章,第125-127段)。
It confirms that a secured creditor's knowledge or lack of knowledge of the existence of a competing security right at the time it acquired its own security right is not relevant to the operation of the priority rules in this chapter.它确认了有担保债权人对在其获得自身担保权之时相竞担保权有否的知悉无关本章中优先权规则的适用。
The point is made explicit to emphasize that priority is determined only on the basis of those priority rules and that difficult-to-prove subjective states of knowledge are irrelevant.此处明确强调,优先权只是基于这些优先权规则加以确定,难以证明的主观知悉状态不具相关性。
Article 45 applies only to a secured creditor's knowledge of the existence of a competing security right.第45条只是适用于有担保债权人对相竞担保权有否的知悉。
Under the Model Law, however, knowledge of facts relating to the security right may be relevant in other contexts.然而,根据《示范法》,对担保权相关事实的知悉可能在其他情况下是有相关性的。
For example, a buyer of a tangible encumbered asset sold in the ordinary course of the grantor's business that has knowledge that the particular sale breaches the rights of the secured creditor under its security agreement with the grantor does not take free of the security right; on the other hand, mere knowledge of the existence of the security right does not disqualify the buyer from protection (see art. 34, para. 4).举例说,知悉某一特定出售侵犯了有担保债权人在其同设保人的担保协议下所享权利的在设保人日常经营中出售的有形设保资产的买受人,其取得该资产并非不连带担保权;另一方面,只是知悉担保权有否并不能剥夺买受人得到保护的资格(见第34条第4款)。
B.B.
Asset-specific rules资产特定规则
Article 46.第46条.
Negotiable instruments可转让票据
348.348.
Article 46 is based on recommendations 101 and 102 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 154-156).第46条基于《担保交易指南》建议101和102(见第五章,第154-156段)。
Differences between article 46 and recommendations 101 and 102 are of a drafting nature only. Paragraph 1 deals with the priority between competing security rights in the same negotiable instrument. Paragraph 2 addresses the rights of a secured creditor with a security right in a negotiable instrument as against a buyer or other consensual transferee of the negotiable instrument.第46条与建议101和102之间的区别只是措辞上的;第1款所处理的是相同可转让票据之间的相竞担保权的优先权,而第2款述及对可转让票据享有担保权的有担保债权人所享有的对抗买受人或可转让票据其他合意受让人的权利。
349.349.
Under paragraph 1, a security right in a negotiable instrument that is made effective against third parties by the secured creditor's possession of the negotiable instrument has priority over a security right in the same negotiable instrument that is made effective against third parties by registration of a notice, whether the secured creditor took possession before or after the notice was registered.根据第1款,通过有担保债权人占有可转让票据取得对抗第三方效力的可转让票据上的担保权享有相对于通过办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的相同可转让票据上担保权的优先权,而不论有担保债权人是在办理通知登记之前或之后取得占有权的。
This is consistent with the important role that possession plays in ensuring negotiability under the law relating to negotiable instruments.这与占有权在确保可转让票据相关法律所规定的可转让性方面所起重要作用是相一致的。
350.350.
Paragraph 2 provides similar protection to a buyer or other consensual transferee that obtains possession of a negotiable instrument as against a secured creditor with a security right in the instrument that was made effective against third parties by registration of a notice.第2款向具有以下特征的买受人或其他合意受让人提供了类似的保护,该类人士取得了针对享有通过办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的票据上担保权的有担保债权人的可转让票据的占有权。
First, under paragraph 2 (a), the buyer or other consensual transferee acquires its rights free of the security right if it qualifies as a protected holder or the like under the law relating to negotiable instruments (the enacting State should insert the appropriate term in para. 2 (a)).首先,根据第2(a)款,买受人或其他合意受让人如果有资格根据可转让票据相关法律作为受到保护的持有人或类似人士(颁布国应当在第2(a)款中插入相关术语),则可不连带担保权获取其权利。
Second, under paragraph 2 (b), a buyer or other transferee that takes possession of the instrument and gives value for it without knowledge that the sale or other transfer violates the rights of the secured creditor under the security agreement also acquires its right in the instrument free of that security right.其次,根据第2(b)款,买受人或其他受让人取得对票据的占有权并且在不知悉出售或其他转让侵犯了有担保债权人在担保协议所享有之权利的情况下给予其对价也获取其在票据上的权利而不连带担保权。
As with the rule in paragraph 1, this rule preserves the important role of possession in ensuring negotiability under the law relating to negotiable instruments.如同第1款中的规则,该条规则保留了占有权在确保可转让票据相关法律所规定的可转让性方面的重要作用。
351.351.
Knowledge of the existence of a security right does not prevent a buyer or other consensual transferee of a negotiable instrument from acquiring its rights in the instrument free of the security right under paragraph 2 (b) (although such knowledge may prevent the buyer or other transferee from qualifying as a protected holder or the like and, thus, may prevent the buyer or other transferee from taking free of the security right under paragraph 2 (a)).对担保权有否的知悉不妨碍可转让票据买受人或其他合意受让人根据第2(b)款不连带担保权获得其在票据上的权利(虽然这类知悉可能会妨碍买受人或其他受让人有资格作为受保护持有人或类似人士,并且应该可能会妨碍买受人或其他受让人根据第2(a)款不连带该担保权取得资产)。
Rather, only knowledge that the sale or other transfer violates the rights of the secured creditor under the security agreement prevents the buyer or other transferee from acquiring its rights in the instrument free of the security right under paragraph 2 (b).相反,只是知悉出售或其他转让侵犯了有担保债权人在担保协议下所享有之权利妨碍买受人或其他受让人根据第2(b)款不连带担保权获取其在票据上的权利。
"Knowledge", as defined in article 2, subparagraph (r), means "actual knowledge".第2条(r)项所界定的“知悉”是指“实际知悉”。
The reference to "good faith" that was included in recommendation 102 (b) of the Secured Transactions Guide has been deleted on the understanding that the absence of knowledge amounts essentially to good faith in this context (and because the concept of good faith is used in the Model Law only to reflect an objective standard of conduct).已列入《担保交易指南》建议102(b)的“善意”的提法已经予以删除,其所持的理解是,不知情在此背景下基本等同于善意(并且由于《示范法》使用善意这一概念只是为了反映某项客观的行为标准)。
Article 47.第47条.
Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account银行账户贷记款受付权
352.352.
Article 47 is based on recommendations 103-105 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 157-163).第47条基于《担保交易指南》建议103-105(见第五章,第157-163段)。
It determines priority between competing security rights in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account whether those rights to payment are original encumbered assets or are proceeds of a security right in other property.该条决定了银行账户贷记款受付权上相竞担保权之间的优先权,而不论这些受付权是原始设保资产,还是其他财产上担保权的收益。
In this respect, it should be noted that, according to article 19, paragraph 1, a security right in proceeds in the form of a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account is automatically effective against third parties if the security right in the original encumbered asset is effective against third parties.应当就此注意到,如果原始设保资产上的担保权具有对抗第三方的效力,则根据第19条第1款,形式为银行账户贷记款受付权的收益上的担保权自动具有对抗第三方的效力。
Article 47 provides for special priority rules because a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account may be made effective against third parties by methods other than registration (e.g. by control).第47条之所以订有特别优先权规则,是因为可以通过非登记的其他办法(例如控制权办法)让银行账户贷记款受付权上的担保权取得对抗第三方的效力。
Thus, there is a particular need to address priority competitions between security rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account made effective against third parties by different methods (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V, para. 157).因此,特别需要处理通过不同方法取得对抗第三方效力的银行账户贷记款受付权的担保权之间的优先权竞争问题(见《担保交易指南》,第五章,第157段)。
353.353.
Paragraphs 1-3, taken together, have the effect that a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account that is made effective against third parties by any of the methods provided for in article 25 has priority over a security right that is made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry under article 18.第1-3款所共同产生的影响是,采用第25条所述任何某种方法取得对抗第三方效力的银行账户贷记款受付权上的担保权享有相对于根据第18条通过在登记处办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的担保权的优先权。
Under paragraph 1, a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account that is made effective against third parties by the secured creditor becoming the account holder has priority over all competing security rights in the same asset.根据第1款,通过有担保债权人成为账户持有人取得对抗第三方效力的银行账户贷记款受付权上的担保权享有相对于相同资产上所有相竞担保权的优先权。
Next in the order of priority, under paragraphs 2 and 3 are: (a) a security right created in favour of the deposit-taking institution; and (b) a security right made effective against third parties by the conclusion of a control agreement between the secured creditor, the grantor and the deposit-taking institution (for the definition of the term "control agreement", see art. 2, subpara. (g) (ii)).根据第2和3款在优先权先后次序上接下来的排序是:(a)通过在有担保债权人、设保人和接收存款机构之间订立控制权协议取得对抗第三方效力的担保权(关于“控制权协议”一语的定义,见第2条(g)㈡项)。
Under paragraph 4, priority between competing security rights created in favour of secured creditors who have all concluded a control agreement is determined by the order of conclusion of the control agreements.根据第4款,给均已订立控制权协议的有担保债权人创设的相竞担保权之间的优先权将根据订立控制权协议的先后次序确定。
This approach facilitates secured transactions that rely specifically on rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account by relieving secured creditors that make their security rights effective against third parties under article 25 from the general obligation of searching the Registry and from the first-to-register priority rules in article 29 (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. V, para. 158).这种做法给专门依赖银行账户贷记款受付权的担保交易提供了方便,免除了根据第25条使其担保权具有对抗第三方效力的有担保债权人所承担的在登记处进行查询并遵守第29条中先登记者优先的优先权规则的普遍义务(见《担保交易指南》,第五章,第158段)。
354.354.
Under paragraph 5, except when the secured creditor has become the account holder, a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account is subordinate to the deposit-taking institution's right under other law to set off its claims against the grantor against its obligation to the grantor with respect to the grantor's right to payment of funds from the bank account.根据第5款,除非有担保债权人成为账户持有人,银行账户贷记款受付权上的担保权将在排序上从属于接收存款机构在其他法律下所享有的以其对设保人的求偿权抵消其就设保人银行账户贷记款受付权而对设保人所承担之义务的权利。
The effect of this rule is to preserve the right of a deposit-taking institution to exercise its right of set-off that it has under other law.该条规则的影响是,保全接收存款机构行使其在其他法律下所享有之抵消权的权利。
355.355.
Under paragraph 6, a transferee of funds from a bank account pursuant to a transfer initiated or authorized by the grantor acquires its rights free of a security right in the right to payment of funds credited to the bank account so long as the transferee does not have knowledge that the transfer violates the rights of the secured creditor under the security agreement.根据第6款,只要相关受让人并不知悉转让侵犯了有担保债权人在担保协议下所享有的权利,依照由设保人启动或授权的某项转让而进行的银行账户转账的受让人获得其权利而不连带在银行账户贷记款受付权上的担保权。
A "transfer of funds" includes transfers by a variety of mechanisms, including by cheque and electronic means.“转账”包括了由各种机制进行的转账,其中包括采用支票和电子手段。
The purpose of paragraph 6 is to preserve the free negotiability of funds.第6款的目的是保全资金的自由可转让性。
356.356.
Knowledge of the existence of a security right does not prevent a transferee of funds from a bank account from taking free of the security right.对担保权存在的知悉并不妨碍银行账户转账的受让人不连带担保权取得相关资金。
Rather, it is only knowledge that the transfer violates the rights of the secured creditor under the security agreement that prevents the transferee from taking free.只有对转账侵犯了有担保债权人在担保协议下所享有之权利的知悉才会妨碍受让人不连带担保权取得相关资金。
"Knowledge", as defined in article 2, paragraph (r), means "actual knowledge".第2条(r)款所界定的“知悉”是指“实际知悉”。
Paragraph 7 also preserves the rights of transferees of funds credited to a bank account under any other law specified by the enacting State.第7款还保全了银行账户贷记款受让人在由颁布国规定的任何其他法律下所享有之权利。
Article 48.第48条.
Money货币
357.357.
Article 48 is based on recommendation 106 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, para. 164).第48条基于《担保交易指南》建议106(见第五章第164段)。
Its purpose is to preserve the negotiability of money.其目的是保全货币的可转让性。
Thus, under paragraph 1, a transferee of encumbered money acquires its rights in the money free of the security right, unless it has knowledge that the transfer violates the rights of the secured creditor under the security agreement.因此,根据第1款,设保货币的受让人获得其在货币上的权利而不连带担保权,除非其知悉该转让侵犯了有担保债权人在担保协议下所享有之权利。
"Knowledge", as defined in article 2, paragraph (r), means "actual knowledge".第2条(r)款所界定的“知悉”是指“实际知悉”。
Paragraph 2 also preserves the rights of persons in possession of money under any other law specified by the enacting State.第2款还保全了货币占有权人在由颁布国规定的任何其他法律下所享有之权利。
Article 49.第49条.
Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents可转让单证及其涵盖的有形资产
358.358.
Article 49 is based on recommendations 108 and 109 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. V, paras. 167-169).第49条基于《担保交易指南》建议108和109(见第五章,第167-169段)。
It is intended to preserve the widely recognized practice under which rights to tangible assets that are covered (or represented) by a negotiable document are subsumed in the negotiable document with the result that persons that acquire rights in the document thereby also acquire rights in the assets covered by the document.它意在保全得到普遍承认的一种实践,据以将可转让单证所涵盖(或代表)的对有形资产的权利归在可转让单证的类别下,其结果是,获得在该单证上权利的人从而也就获得其在由该单证所涵盖之资产上的权利。
Accordingly, under paragraph 1, a security right in a tangible asset that is made effective against third parties by possession of the negotiable document covering that asset has priority over a competing security right in the tangible asset that is made effective against third parties by any other means.因此,根据第1款,通过占有涵盖该资产的可转让单证而具有对抗第三方效力的有形资产上的担保权享有相对于通过任何其他手段具有对抗第三方效力的有形资产上相竞担保权的优先权。
359.359.
Paragraph 2 states an exception to that general rule.第2款载有关于该条普遍规则的一条除外规定。
Except when the encumbered asset is inventory, it provides that the rule in paragraph 1 does not apply to a security right in a tangible asset that is made effective against third parties before the earlier of: (a) the time when that asset became covered by the negotiable document; or (b) the time of conclusion of the agreement between the grantor and the secured creditor in possession of the negotiable document so long as the asset actually became covered by the negotiable document before the expiry of a short period of time thereafter to be specified by the enacting State (e.g. seven days).该款规定,除非设保资产是库存品,第1款中的规则不适用于在以下较早时间前取得对抗第三方效力的有形资产上的担保权:(a)该资产为可转让单证所涵盖的时间;或(b)设保人与占有可转让单证的有担保债权人订立协议的时间,唯一条件是,该资产在其后由颁布国规定的短暂时期(例如七天)期满前实际为可转让单证所涵盖。
Article 50.第50条.
Intellectual property知识产权
360.360.
Article 50 is based on recommendation 245 of the Intellectual Property Supplement (see paras. 193-212).第50条基于《知识产权补编》建议245(见第193-212段)。
Its purpose is to clarify that the rule in article 34, paragraph 6, does not affect other rights of the secured creditor in its capacity as an owner or licensor of the intellectual property that is the subject of the licence under other law relating to intellectual property to be specified by the enacting State.其目的是澄清,第34条第6款中的规则并不影响有担保债权人以其作为系拟由颁布国规定的知识产权相关法律下许可标的的知识产权所有人或许可人资格而享有的其他权利。
For example, the Model Law does not affect any right that a licensor may have to terminate a licence agreement for non-compliance by the licensee (see Intellectual Property Supplement, paras. 23-25 and 196).举例说,《示范法》不影响许可人所可享有的因被许可人未予遵守而不得不终止许可协议的任何权利(见《知识产权补编》,第23-25段和第196段)。
This clarification is of particular importance because the concept of "ordinary course of business", used in article 34, paragraph 6, is a concept of commercial law and is not drawn from law relating to intellectual property and thus may create confusion in an intellectual property context.该澄清之所以尤为重要,是因为第34条第6款所用“正常经营过程”的概念是商法的一个概念,并非摘自于知识产权相关法律,因而可能会在知识产权方面造成困惑。
The concept of "ordinary course of business" is not germane to law relating to intellectual property, which instead focuses on whether a licence has been authorized.“正常经营过程”这一概念与知识产权相关法律无关,而后者侧重于许可是否得到授权的问题。
Like any other provision of the Model Law that deals with security rights in intellectual property, article 50 does not apply in so far as it is inconsistent with the law of the enacting State relating to intellectual property (see art. 1, para. 3 (b), and Intellectual Property Supplement, para. 203).如同述及知识产权担保权的《示范法》的任何其他条文,第50条在同颁布国有关知识产权的相关法律不相符合的情况下不予适用(见第1条第3款(b)项和《知识产权补编》第203段)。
361.361.
As a result, depending on the content of law relating to intellectual property, unless the secured creditor authorized the grantor to grant licences unaffected by the security right, the licensee may only take the licence subject to the security right, rather than free of it.因此,取决于知识产权相关法律的内容,除非有担保债权人授权设保人让不受担保权影响的许可,被许可人只可以取得设定担保权而并非不连带担保权的许可。
This would mean that, if the grantor defaults, the secured creditor would be able to enforce its security right in the licensed intellectual property and sell or license it free of the licence.这就意味着,如果设保人违约的话,有担保债权人能够对被许可知识产权强制执行其担保权,并且可不连带该许可而出售或许可知识产权。
As a consequence, a person obtaining a security right from the licensee will only obtain a security right of limited value, as the encumbered licensed intellectual property may cease to exist if the licensor's secured creditor enforces its security right (following default by the licensor under its security agreement with the secured creditor).因此,从被许可人那里得到担保权的某一人将只能得到价值有限的担保权,因为如果许可人的有担保债权人强制执行其担保权(在许可人根据其与有担保债权人的担保协议而违约的话),设保被许可知识产权可能不复存在。
Article 51.第51条.
Non-intermediated securities非中介证券
362.362.
Article 51 covers security rights in non-intermediated securities.第51条涵盖非中介证券上的担保权。
This is a type of encumbered asset not addressed in the Secured Transactions Guide, which excluded from its scope security rights in all types of securities (see rec. 4 (c)).这是《担保交易指南》未曾涉及的一类设保资产,该类资产将所有各类证券上的担保权排除在其范围之外(见建议4(c))。
Article 51 adjusts the general priority rules in article 29 in a manner similar to the special priority rules for security rights in negotiable instruments (for certificated securities) and rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account (for uncertificated securities).第51条以类似于可转让票据上担保权(针对有凭证证券)和银行账户贷记款受付权(针对无凭证证券)的特别优先权规则的方式对第29条中一般优先权规则作了调整。
363.363.
For certificated non-intermediated securities, paragraph 1 provides that a security right that is made effective against third parties by the secured creditor's possession of the certificate has priority over a competing security right created by the same grantor that is made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry.关于无凭证非中介证券,第1款规定,通过有担保债权人占有凭证而取得对抗第三方效力的担保权享有相对于相同设保人所创设的通过在登记处办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的相竞担保权的优先权。
This parallels the rule for negotiable instruments in article 46, paragraph 1 and similarly reflects the negotiable character of this type of encumbered asset (the term "certificated non-intermediated securities" is defined in art. 2, para. (d), in a manner that reflects its negotiable character).这类似于第46条第1款中有关可转让票据的规则,并且同样反映了这类设保资产的可转让性质(第2条(d)款以反映其可转让性质的方式对“有凭证非中介证券”一语作了界定)。
364.364.
For uncertificated non-intermediated securities, paragraph 2 provides that a security right that is made effective against third parties by an entry in the books maintained for that purpose by or on behalf of the issuer has priority over a security right in the same securities that is made effective against third parties by any other method (i.e. by registration of a notice in the Registry or by the conclusion of a control agreement).关于无凭证非中介证券,第2款规定,通过在由发行人或代替发行人保存的账簿中加以登入取得对抗第三方效力的担保权享有相对于通过任何其他方法(例如在登记处通过订立控制权协议而办理通知登记)取得对抗第三方效力的相同证券上担保权的优先权。
Depending on the law of the enacting State, the entry in the books of the issuer may take the form of a notation of the security right or an entry of the name of the secured creditor as the holder of the securities.取决于颁布国的法律,在发行人账簿上加以登入可以采取对担保权标注或将有担保债权人注明为证券持有人的形式。
The enacting State should specify the form of entry in the books of the issuer that best fits its law.颁布国应指明与其法律最为适合的在发行人账簿上加以登入的形式。
If that law provides for both forms of entry in the books of the issuer, both could be retained.如果法律对在发行人账簿上加以登入的两种形式均有规定,则可一并予以保留。
This priority rule is similar to the rule for rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account in article 47, paragraph 1.该优先权规则类似于第47条第1款中关于银行账户贷记款受付权的规则。
The rationale for this rule is that such entry in the books of the issuer fulfils a function similar to the secured creditor becoming the account holder of a bank account.该条规则的理据是,在发行人账簿中进行这类登入所起作用类似于有担保债权人成为银行账户的账户持有人。
365.365.
The priority rules in paragraphs 3 and 4 also apply only to uncertificated non-intermediated securities.第3款和第4款中的优先权规则也只是适用于无凭证非中介证券。
They parallel the rules for security rights in rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account in article 47, paragraphs 3 and 4.这些规则类似于第47条第3款和第4款中的银行账户贷记款受付权上担保权的规则。
Paragraph 3 gives priority to a security right that is made effective against third parties by the conclusion of a control agreement over a competing security right in the same securities made effective against third parties by registration of a notice in the Registry.第3款赋予通过订立控制权协议取得对抗第三方效力的担保权以相对于通过在登记处办理通知登记取得对抗第三方效力的相同证券上相竞担保权的优先权。
As between competing security rights made effective against third parties by the conclusion of a control agreement, paragraph 4 awards priority in the order in which the control agreements were concluded (for the definition of the term "control agreement, see art. 2, subpara. (g) (i)).如同在通过订立控制权协议取得对抗第三方效力的相竞担保权之间,第4款按照订立控制权协议的先后次序授予优先权(关于“控制权协议”一语的定义,见第2条(g)(i)项)。
366.366.
Unlike article 46, paragraph 2, article 47, paragraph 6, and article 49, paragraph 3, which provide a priority rule protecting transferees under other law, paragraph 5 does not include a priority rule but instead defers to the law relating to the transfer of securities to be specified by the enacting State.不同于规定了保护受让人的优先权规则的第46条第2款、第47条第6款和第49条第3款,第5款未列入一条优先权规则,而是遵从拟由颁布国规定的证券转让相关法律。
The reason for this approach is that national law diverges widely with respect to the protection of holders of non-intermediated securities and the matter does not lend itself to unification at the international level.采取这种做法的原因是,在保护非中介证券持有人方面,各国的法律差别很大,该事项无法在国际层面上求得统一。
It should be noted that, if the enacting State neither has nor is prepared to introduce a law relating to the transfer of securities, it may not need to implement paragraph 5.应当指出的是,如果颁布国既没有也不准备推出有关证券转让的法律,则可能就不需要执行第5款。
Chapter VI.第六章.
Rights and obligations of the parties and third-party obligors当事人及第三方承付人的权利和义务
367.367.
Section I of chapter VI deals with the mutual rights and obligations of the parties to the security agreement before or after default (while chapter VII deals with their post-default rights and obligations).第六章第一节处理担保协议当事方在违约前后的相互权利和义务(而第七章处理其违约后的权利和义务)。
Section II of chapter VI deals with the rights and obligations of third-party obligors.第六章第二节处理第三方承付人的权利和义务。
368.368.
With the exception of articles 53 and 54 which are mandatory rules, the provisions of section I of chapter VI are non-mandatory, and thus do not apply if the parties to the security agreement have agreed otherwise (see art. 3, para. 1, and para. 73 above).除了系强制性规则的第53条和54条外,第六章第一节的条文是非强制性的,因此如果担保协议当事方另有约定,则不予适用(见第3条第1款和上文第73段)。
The provisions of section II of chapter VI are also non-mandatory.第六章第二节的条文也是非强制性的。
However, an agreement between the grantor and the secured creditor to modify any of its provisions does not affect the rights and obligations of the debtor of the receivable or other third-party obligor, unless it consents.然而,除非其同意,设保人和有担保债权人之间关于修改其任何条文的协议不会影响应收款债务人或其他第三方承付人的权利和义务(见第3条第2款和上文第74段)。
It should also be noted that the creation of a security right does not change the rights and obligations of the debtor of the receivable, except as otherwise provided in the Model Law (see art. 61, para. 1, and para. 376 below).还应指出的是,除非《示范法》另有规定,担保权的创设不会影响应收款债权人的权利和义务(见第61条第3款和下文第376段)。
Section I.第一节.
Mutual rights and obligations of the parties to a security agreement担保协议当事人的相互权利和义务
A.A.
General rules一般规则
Article 52.第52条.
Sources of mutual rights and obligations of the parties当事人相互权利和义务的来源
369.369.
Article 52 is based on recommendation 110 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, paras. 14 and 15), which in turn is based on article 11 of the Assignment Convention.第52条基于《担保交易指南》建议110(见第六章,第14和15段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第11条。
Paragraph 1 is intended to reiterate the principle of party autonomy enshrined in article 3.第1款意在重申第3条所载当事人意思自治原则。
Paragraph 2 is intended to give legislative strength to trade usages and practices, which may not be generally recognized in all States.第2款意在使可能未获所有国家普遍承认的一些贸易惯例和做法具有法律效力。
Article 53.第53条.
Obligation of the party in possession to exercise reasonable care占有权人行使合理谨慎的义务
370.370.
Article 53 is based on recommendation 111 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, paras. 24-31).第53条基于《担保交易指南》建议111(见第六章,第24-31段)。
It sets out the mandatory rule (see para. 368 above) that a grantor or secured creditor in possession of a tangible asset (which under the definition in art. 2, subpara. (ll), includes money, negotiable instruments, negotiable documents and certificated non-intermediated securities) must exercise reasonable care to preserve the asset.它所提出的强制性规则(见上文第368段)是,占有有形资产(根据第2条(ll)项中的定义,包括金钱、可转让票据、可转让单证和有凭证非中介证券)的设保人或有担保债权人必须行使合理谨慎以保全该资产。
Whether a person other than the grantor and the secured creditor that is in possession of an encumbered asset is obliged to take reasonable care to preserve the encumbered asset is determined under other law.除占有设保资产的设保人和有担保债权人以外的其他人是否有义务行使适当谨慎以保全设保资产的问题将根据其他法律确定。
371.371.
What constitutes "reasonable care" in a given case depends upon the nature of an asset.在某一具体情况下,“合理谨慎”的具体内容取决于资产的性质。
Thus, it may mean something different with respect to equipment, inventory, crops or live animals.因此,适当谨慎的含义在设备、库存品、作物或牲畜方面可能并不相同。
For example, precious metals may have to be kept in a vault and inventory in a warehouse, a cow has to be milked, a valuable musical instrument has to be played and a racehorse has to exercise.举例说,贵金属必须存放在地下室,库存品必须存放在仓库,对母牛必须挤奶,比赛用马必须练习。
According to article 4, a person must exercise its rights and perform its obligations, including the obligation to preserve the value of the asset, in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner.根据第4条,一人必须以善意和商业合理方式行使其权利并履行其义务,包括保全资产价值的义务。
372.372.
Unlike recommendation 111 of the Secured Transactions Guide, on which it is based, article 53 refers only to the preservation of the asset, and not to the preservation of the asset's value.不同于它所基于的《担保交易指南》建议111,第53条只提及保全资产,而未提及保全资产的价值。
This does not reflect a change of policy but is, rather, due to the fact that: (a) in most cases, physical preservation of a tangible asset would have the effect of preserving the asset's value; and (b) in other cases, preservation of the asset's value may go beyond the physical preservation of the asset but should not impose an undue burden on the person in possession.这并不反映政策有变,而只是因为以下事实,即:(a)在多数情形下,有形资产的实体保全将具有保全资产价值的效力;及(b)在其他情况下,保全资产的价值可能不只是对资产的实体保全,而且不应给占有权人造成不应有的负担。
For example, a person in possession of certificated non-intermediated shares of a company may be required in particular circumstances to exercise certain rights attached to the shares (e.g. the right to collect dividends or the right to vote), but should not be obliged to participate in an increase of the capital of an enterprise to preserve the value of the encumbered shares.举例说,某一公司有凭证非中介证券的占有权人可能在特定情况下会被要求行使与所持股票有联系的某些权利(例如收取股息的权利或表决权),但却没有义务参与为保全设保股票的价值而增加企业的资本。
Article 54.第54条.
Obligation of the secured creditor to return an encumbered asset有担保债权人返还设保资产的义务
373.373.
Article 54 is based on recommendations 112 and 72 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, paras. 35-39).第54条基于《担保交易指南》建议112和72(见第六章,第35-39段)。
It sets out a mandatory rule (see para. 368 above) that, once a security right in an encumbered asset is extinguished, a secured creditor in possession of the asset must return it to the grantor or deliver it to a person designated by the grantor (in some jurisdictions, delivery to a person designated by the grantor may be viewed as a means of returning the asset to the grantor).它所提出的强制性法律规则(见上文第368段)是,一旦设保资产上的担保权消灭,占有该资产的有担保债权人必须将其返还设保人,或将其交付给由设保人指定的某人(在有些法域,交付给由设保人指定的一人可被视为将资产返还设保人的一种手段)。
Under article 4, the grantor would be obliged to exercise the right to designate another person in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner (e.g. by avoiding placing an undue burden on the secured creditor).根据第4条,设保人有义务以善意和商业合理方式行使其指定另一人的权利(例如通过避免给有担保债权人施加不应有负担)。
Any cost incurred by the secured creditor to return the asset is normally borne by the grantor in the same way as the costs of performance of the grantor's obligation under the security agreement are normally payable by the grantor.有担保债权人承担的返还资产的任何费用通常都必须由设保人负担,一如根据担保协议履行设保人债务的费用通常由设保人负担。
However, the allocation of costs is a matter of party autonomy and the parties may agree otherwise.然而,费用的分配属于当事人可另行约定的当事人意思自治事项。
374.374.
Where a security right in an encumbered asset is extinguished, and the security right had been made effective against third parties, not by possession, but by registration, the secured creditor is obliged to register an amendment or cancellation notice.设保资产上担保权消灭的,并且担保权取得对抗第三方的效力并非是通过占有而是通过登记的方式的,有担保债权人有义务对修订通知或取消通知办理登记。
This issue is addressed in article 20, paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of the Model Registry Provisions (see paras. 211-214 above).该问题在《登记处示范条文》第20条第1、2和3款中述及(见上文第211-214段)。
The question of when a security right is extinguished is addressed in article 12 of the Model Law (see paras. 107 and 108 above).担保权何时消灭的问题在《示范法》第12条中述及(见上文第107和108段)。
375.375.
Article 54 deals with a situation in which the secured creditor is in possession of an asset and therefore does not apply to receivables or other intangible assets because they cannot be the subject of physical possession (see art. 2, subpara. (z), and para. 56 above).第54条处理的情况是,有担保债权人占有某项资产的情况,因而不适用于无法成为实体占有的标的的应收款和其他无形资产(见第2条(z)项和上文第56段)。
It therefore does not address the obligation of a secured creditor to withdraw any notification that it has given to the debtor of the receivable.它因而不涉及有担保债权人撤回它向应收款债务人所发出的任何通知的义务。
However, the grantor is protected in this situation by article 59, paragraph 2, and article 79, paragraph 2 (b), which require the secured creditor to return to the grantor any surplus proceeds it receives (see paras. 390 and 451 below).然而,第59条第2款和第79条第2款(b)项就此向设保人提供保护,要求有担保债权人将其收到的任何剩余收益返还设保人(见下文第390段和451段)。
It should also be noted that the question of whether a secured creditor may agree with the grantor that the secured creditor has the right to dispose of encumbered non-intermediated securities and thus be obliged to return equivalent securities is a matter for other law.还应指出的是,有担保债权人是否同意设保人这样一种观点的问题属于由其他法律处理的事项,即有担保债权人有权处分设保的非中介证劵并因而返还类似的证券。
Article 55.第55条.
Right of the secured creditor to use and inspect an encumbered asset, and to be reimbursed for expenses有担保债权人使用和检查设保资产及获得费用补偿的权利
376.376.
Article 55 is based on recommendation 113 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, paras. 50-65) and sets out a rule, which the parties may vary or derogate from by agreement (see para. 368 above).第55条基于《担保交易指南》建议113(见第六章,第50-65段),并载有一条当事人可协议变更或减损的法律规则(见上文第368段)。
Under paragraph 1 (a), a secured creditor in possession of an encumbered asset has the right to be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred to preserve it in accordance with article 53.在第1款(a)项下,占有设保资产的有担保债权人享有其为保全该资产而承担的合理费用将根据第53条得到补偿的权利。
Under paragraph 1 (b), a secured creditor in possession of an encumbered asset may make reasonable use of it and apply any revenues generated from the use to the payment of the obligation secured by the asset.在第1款(b)项下,占有设保资产的有担保债权人可合理利用设保资产,并且将其从该利用中所得的任何收入用于偿付由该资产作保的债务。
377.377.
It should be noted that article 55 is consistent with laws relating to securities that permit a secured creditor to use securities in its possession if the security agreement so provides.应当指出的是,第55条与如果担保协议有此规定则允许有担保债权人使用其所占有的证券的相关证券法律是相吻合的。
378.378.
Finally, under paragraph 2, where an encumbered asset is in the possession of the grantor, the secured creditor has the right to inspect the asset.最后,在第2款下,设保资产由设保人占有的,有担保债权人有权查验该资产。
As this article is subject to the general standard of commercial reasonableness and good faith set out in article 4, the right to inspect may only be exercised at reasonable times and in a commercially reasonable manner.由于本条不得违反第4条所述关于商业合理性和善意的一般标准,只能在合理时间内以商业上合理的方式行使查验权。
The application of this standard depends upon the circumstances.该标准的适用取决于具体情况。
For example, in extreme cases, such as where the secured creditor has reason to believe that the physical condition of the collateral is in jeopardy or has been, or is about to be, removed from the State of its location, the secured creditor may be justified in demanding an immediate inspection.举例说,在极端情况下,例如在有担保债权人有理由相信抵押品实际状况处于危险之中或已经或将要移往所在国境外时,有担保债权人则可能有理由要求立即进行查验。
Article 56.第56条.
Right of the grantor to obtain information设保人获得信息的权利
379.379.
Article 56 is intended to provide the grantor with the right to obtain information from a secured creditor as to the amount of the secured obligation or as to the assets encumbered at a certain point of time.第56条意在规定设保人有权向有担保债权人了解在某一时间节点上有担保债务或设保资产的数额的情况。
This information may be necessary where the grantor is interested in obtaining credit against the security of assets that are already encumbered and the potential third-party creditor requests that information.如果设保人有兴趣以已作保资产作担保而且潜在第三方债权人请求提供相关信息的话,则可能必须提供该信息。
The parties may vary or derogate from the rule set out in article 56 (see para. 368 above).当事人可变更或减损第56条所述规则(见上文第368段)。
380.380.
Under paragraph 1, the secured creditor is obliged to provide this information within a short time period specified by the enacting State (e.g. 7 to 14 days) after receipt of the grantor's request.第1款规定有担保债权人有义务在由颁布国规定的收到设保人请求后的一段短暂时期(例如7天至14天)内提供该信息。
This obligation does not apply to an outright transfer of receivables by agreement, because in the case of an outright transfer there is no secured obligation.该义务不适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让,因为在彻底转让情况下,不存在任何有担保债务。
381.381.
Under paragraph 2, the grantor is entitled to one response free of charge during a short period of time specified by the enacting State (e.g. one year).第2款规定设保人有权在颁布国规定的一段短暂时期(例如一年)期间免费收到一次答复。
Under paragraph 3, the secured creditor is entitled to require payment of a nominal fee for any additional response.第3款规定有担保债权人有权要求就任何补充答复支付名义费用。
The grantor should exercise this right and the secured creditor should perform this obligation in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner (e.g. the grantor should avoid repeated and unnecessary requests, and the secured creditor should provide the information in a way that can be readily understood).设保人应当行使该项权利,有担保债权人应当以善意和商业合理方式履行该义务(例如设保人应当避免重复的并且不必要的请求,有担保债权人应当以容易理解的方式提供信息)。
Other matters, such as the legal consequences of the secured creditor's failure to comply with a request for information or to give accurate information are left to other law (in the same way as breach of any of other obligations in this chapter is left to other law).诸如有担保债权人未履行提供信息的请求或未提供准确信息所产生的法律后果这类其他事项应当留待其他法律处理(一如违反本章所述任何其他义务都将留待其他法律处理)。
The enacting State may wish to consider the question whether third-party creditors (e.g. judgment creditors) should also be given this right to information.颁布国不妨考虑是否也应向第三方债权人(例如胜诉债权人)提供该项知情权。
B.B.
Asset-specific rules资产特定规则
Article 57.第57条.
Representations of the grantor of a security right in a receivable设保人关于应收款担保权的说明
382.382.
Article 57 is based on recommendation 114 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, para. 73), which in turn is based on article 12 of the Assignment Convention.第57条基于《担保交易指南》建议114(见第六章,第73段),该建议又基于《转让公约》第12条。
It provides that, unless otherwise agreed (see para. 368 above), when a grantor grants a security right in a receivable, the grantor is deemed to make various representations to the secured creditor at the time the security agreement is concluded.它规定,除非另行约定(见上文第368段),设保人设定应收款担保权的,设保人则被视为在担保协议订立之时将会向有担保债权人作出各种说明。
In particular, under paragraph 1, the grantor represents that it has not previously created a security right in the receivable in favour of another secured creditor, and that the debtor of the receivable will not have any defences or rights of set-off with respect to the receivable (i.e. that the grantor will fully perform the contract giving rise to the receivable and any other contract it has entered into with the debtor of the receivable).尤其在第1款下,设保人说明其以前未曾在应收款上创设有利于另一个有担保债权人的担保权,并且应收款债务人将不会对应收款享有任何抗辩或抵消权(例如,设保人将充分履行产生应收款的合同和其与应收款债务人订立的任何其他合同)。
383.383.
Paragraph 2 reflects the generally accepted principle that, unless otherwise agreed (see para. 368 above), the grantor does not guarantee the solvency of the debtor of the receivable.第2款反映了这样一条普遍公认的原则,即除非另行约定(见上文第368段),设保人不能保证应收款债务人具有清偿能力。
As a result, the risk of debtor default is on the secured creditor, a fact that the secured creditor will take into account in determining whether to extend credit and on what conditions.因此,债务人违约的风险将由有担保债权人承担,有担保债权人在决定是否提供放贷并且以何种条件放贷之时将考虑到该事实。
However, the parties to financing transactions may agree on a different risk allocation.然而,融资交易当事人可约定与之不同的风险分配。
Such an agreement may refer to the solvency of the debtor of the receivable at the time when the security agreement is entered or at the time when the receivable will become payable.这类约定可以是指担保协议订立之时或应收款到期之时应收款债务人的清偿能力。
384.384.
The representation that the grantor has the right to create a security right was not carried over from recommendation 114 of the Secured Transactions Guide into article 57, to avoid giving the impression that it applies only to security rights in receivables.设保人有权创设担保权的提法并未从《担保交易指南》建议114搬用于第57条,目的是避免造成该条仅适用于在应收款上创设的担保权的印象。
As a result, the matter is left to general law.因而,该事项将留待一般法律处理。
It should be noted, however, that even where an anti-assignment clause is included in the contract giving rise to the receivable or other agreement between a grantor and the debtor of the receivable, the grantor still has rights in the receivable or the power to encumber it, and thus may create an effective security right in the receivable (see arts. 6, para. 1, and art. 13, para. 1, and paras. 83 and 109 above).但应该指出的是,即使把禁止转让条款列入了产生应收款的合同或设保人和应收款债务人之间的其他协议,设保人仍然对应收款享有权利,并有权对其设保,因而可以创设有效的应收款担保权(见第6条第1款和第13条第1款及上文第83段和第109段)。
Article 58.第58条.
Right of the grantor or the secured creditor to notify the debtor of the receivable设保人或有担保债权人通知应收款债务人的权利
385.385.
Article 58 is based on recommendation 115 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, paras. 74 and 75), which in turn is based on article 13 of the Assignment Convention.第58条基于《担保交易指南》建议115(见第六章,第74和75段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第13条。
It sets out a rule, which the parties may vary or derogate from by agreement (see para. 368 above).它提出了一条当事人可协议变更或减损的规则(见上文第1段)。
Paragraph 1 provides that, when a security right has been created in a receivable, either the grantor or the secured creditor has the right to notify the debtor of the receivable of the existence of the security right and send a payment instruction; however, once notification of the security right has been received by the debtor of the receivable, only the secured creditor may send a payment instruction.第1款规定,在创设应收款担保权之时,设保人或有担保债权人有权将担保权的有无通知应收款债务人并向其发送付款指示;然而,一旦应收款债务人收到担保权通知,唯有有担保债权人方可发送付款指示。
It should be noted that, under article 62, a notification or a payment instruction is effective only when received by the debtor of the receivable.应当指出的是,根据第62条,只有在应收款债务人收到通知或付款指示之时该通知或付款指示方才有效。
386.386.
While they may be included in the same document, a payment instruction is conceptually distinct from a notification.虽然可以被列入相同的文书,但付款指示在概念上有别于通知。
A payment instruction normally advises the debtor of the receivable how it is to make payment, and a notification typically informs the debtor of the receivable that it owes its obligations to a different person.付款指示通常是就如何付款向应收款债务人提供咨询意见,而通知通常是告知应收款债务人它有对另一人的欠债。
For example: (a) a notification may contain no payment instruction (e.g. because the secured creditor may have obtained control of the grantor's bank account to which debtors of receivables have been instructed by the grantor to make their payments); (b) the parties may have agreed that only a payment instruction will be given (e.g. because the transaction involved is a non-notification factoring or undisclosed invoice discounting transaction); and (c) the secured creditor may need to change its payment instructions and thus there may be more than one payment instruction.举例说:(a)通知可能不包含付款指示(例如,因为有担保债权人可能已经获得对设保人银行账户的控制权,并且设保人已指示应收款债务人向该账户付款);(b)当事人可能已约定只发送付款指示(例如,因为所涉交易是无通知型保理交易或隐名发票贴现交易);及(c)有担保债权人可能需要变更其付款指示,并从而可能有不止一份付款指示。
387.387.
Paragraph 2 provides that a notification sent in breach of an agreement between the grantor and the secured creditor is nevertheless effective for the purposes of article 63. This means that the debtor of the receivable that pays in accordance with that notification is discharged (see paras. 398-405 below).第2款规定,违反设保人和有担保债权人之间的约定而发送的指示,仍然对第63条有效,这就意味着,可解除根据该项通知付款的应收款债务人的义务(见下文第398-405段)。
However, article 58 does not affect any obligation or liability that the secured creditor may have under other law for sending a notification to the debtor of the receivable in breach of an agreement with the grantor.然而,第58条不影响有担保债权人在其他法律下所可能负有的向违反与设保人之间约定的应收款债务人发送一份通知的任何义务或赔偿责任。
Article 59.第59条.
Right of the secured creditor to payment of a receivable有担保债权人支付应收款的权利
388.388.
Article 59 is based upon recommendation 116 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VI, paras. 76-80), which in turn is based on article 14 of the Assignment Convention.第59条基于《担保交易指南》建议116(见第六章,第76-80段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第14条。
Changes made are intended to clarify the text, and not to change its policy.所作的任何修改都意在澄清该案文,而并非修改其政策。
Article 59, reiterates that a secured creditor with a security right in a receivable has (as against the grantor) the right to receive the proceeds of the encumbered receivable (see art. 10).第59条重申对应收款享有担保权的有担保债权人享有(对抗设保人)的接收设保应收款收益的权利(见第10条)。
The parties may vary or derogate from the rule set out in article 59 (see para. 368 above).当事人可变更或减损第59条所述规则(见上文第368段)。
389.389.
Paragraph 1 provides that, regardless of whether notification of the security right has been sent to the debtor of the receivable, the secured creditor is entitled to: (a) retain the proceeds of any full or partial payment of the receivable made to the secured creditor, as well as any tangible assets (such as inventory) returned to the secured creditor in respect of the receivable; (b) payment of the proceeds of any full or partial payment of any receivable made to the grantor (as well as any tangible assets returned to the grantor); and (c) payment of the proceeds of any full or partial payment of any receivable made to another person (as well as any tangible assets returned to that person) if the right of the secured creditor has priority over the right of that person.第1款规定,不论担保权通知是否已向应收款债务人发送,有担保债权人均有权:(a)保留就应收款给有担保债权人的任何全部或部分付款的收益以及就应收款而返还给有担保债权人的任何有形资产(如库存品);(b)支付就任何应收款向设保人所作的任何全部或部分付款的收益(及返还给设保人的任何有形资产);及(c)支付在有担保债权人权利优先于该人权利前提下就任何应收款向另一人所作的任何全部或部分付款的收益(及返还给该人的任何有形资产)。
390.390.
Paragraph 2 provides that, unless otherwise agreed (see para. 368 above), the secured creditor has the right to collect the full amount of the encumbered receivable, but has to account for and return to the grantor any surplus remaining after payment of the secured obligation (art. 79, para. 2, contains a similar rule).第2款规定,除非另行约定(见上文第368段),有担保债权人有权收取设保应收款的全部数额,但必须结清账目并向设保人返还在支付由担保债务后所剩下的任何余额(第79条第2款载有一条类似的规则)。
It should be noted that there cannot be any surplus in the case of an outright transfer of a receivable by agreement; the transferee may then retain the full amount collected, as that will be the "value" of its right in the receivable.应当指出的是,在经约定彻底转让应收款情况下不可能有任何盈余。受让人则可保留其所收取的全部款项,因为这将是其在应收款上的权利的“价值”。
Article 60.第60条.
Right of the secured creditor to preserve encumbered intellectual property有担保债权人保全所设保的知识产权的权利
391.391.
Article 60 is based on recommendation 246 of the Intellectual Property Supplement (paras. 223-226).第60条基于《知识产权补编》建议246(第223-226段)。
It parallels the rule in article 53 (which is based on rec. 111 of the Secured Transactions Guide and applies only to tangible assets).它类似于第53条中的规则(基于《担保交易指南》建议111并且只适用于有形资产)。
Under article 60, if so agreed with the grantor, the secured creditor would be entitled to exercise rights that are normally rights of the intellectual property right holder (e.g. to deal with authorities, renew registrations and pursue infringers, even before default, provided that it is not prohibited by law relating to intellectual property).根据第60条,如果与设保人有此约定,有担保债权人则有权行使通常属于知识产权持有人权利的相关权利(例如与主管机关打交道、延长登记并甚至在违约前追诉侵权者的权利,先决条件是,这不为知识产权相关法律所禁止)。
This is important, as, if the grantor (the intellectual property right holder) failed to exercise these rights in a timely fashion, the value of the encumbered intellectual property could diminish, and this could negatively affect the use of intellectual property as security for credit.该原则具有重要意义,其原因是,如果设保人(知识产权持有人)未以及时的方式行使这些权利,设保知识产权的价值就可能会降低,而这可能对知识产权作为信贷担保的效用产生消极影响。
Section II.第二节.
Rights and obligations of third-party obligors第三方承付人的权利和义务
A.A.
Receivables应收款
Article 61.第61条.
Protection of the debtor of the receivable保护应收款债务人
392.392.
Article 61 is derived from recommendation 117 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, para. 12), which in turn is based on article 15 of the Assignment Convention.第61条来自于《担保交易指南》建议117(见第七章,第12段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第15条。
Paragraph 1 sets out the general principle that the creation of a security right in a receivable does not affect the rights or obligations of the debtor of the receivable, unless the debtor of the receivable consents.第1款提出了除非应收款债务人同意否则应收款担保权的创设不影响应收款债务人的权利或义务的一般原则。
So, for example, without the consent of the debtor of the receivable, the creation of a security right cannot change the payment terms of a contract giving rise to a receivable (e.g. the amount or the time of payment), alter the defences or rights of set-off that the debtor of the receivable may raise under the contract giving rise to the receivable or increase expenses in connection with payment of the receivable.因此,举例说,如果没有应收款债务人的同意,担保权的创设不能改变产生应收款的合同的付款条件(例如付款金额或时间),不得变更应收款债务人在产生应收款的合同下所可能提出的抗辩或享有的抵消权,也不得增加与支付应收款有关的开支。
393.393.
Under paragraph 2, a payment instruction (whether given together with the notification or subsequently) may change the person, address or account to which the debtor of the receivable is required to make payment, as these changes do not affect the rights or obligations of the debtor of the receivable.根据第2款,付款指示(不论是否和通知一并提供还是随后提供)可更改应收款债务人必须向其付款的人、地址或账户,因为这些更改不影响应收款债务人的权利或义务。
However, a payment instruction may not change: (a) the currency in which the receivable is to be paid, as specified in the contract giving rise to the receivable; or (b) the State in which the payment is to be made, as specified in the contract giving rise to the receivable, to a State other than that in which the debtor of the receivable is located.然而,付款指示不得更改:(a)产生应收款的合同所述的支付应收款的币种;或(b)产生应收款的合同所述向并非应收款债务人所在国的另外一个国家付款的国家。
This is because these changes would affect the debtor's rights and obligations.其原因是,这些更改将会影响到债务人的权利和义务。
394.394.
It should be noted that, unlike the Assignment Convention that includes in article 5, subparagraph (h), a rule of interpretation as to the location of a person for the purposes of the Convention, the definition of "location" in article 90 of the Model Law applies only in the context of chapter VIII on conflict of laws.应当指出的是,不同于在其第5条(h)项中列入就《公约》目的而言的有关一人所在地解释性规则的《转让公约》,《示范法》第90条中“所在地”的定义只是在有关法律冲突的第八章情况下予以适用。
Thus, for example, the location of the debtor of the receivable referred to in article 61, paragraph 2 (b), should be understood in the light of other law of the enacting State.因此,举例说,应当根据颁布国其他法律的情况来理解第61条第2(b)款所述应收款债务人的所在地。
Article 62.第62条.
Notification of a security right in a receivable应收款担保权通知
395.395.
Article 62 is based on recommendation 118 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 13-16), which in turn is based on article 16 of the Assignment Convention.第62条基于《担保交易指南》建议118(见第七章,第13-16段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第16条。
It describes the requirements both for an effective notification of a security right in a receivable and for a payment instruction (which is conceptually distinct from a notification, see para. 386 above).它描述了有关应收款担保权的有效通知和付款指示(付款指示在概念上有别于通知,见上文第386段)的要求。
396.396.
Under paragraph 1, a notification or a payment instruction is effective from the time when it is received by the debtor of the receivable, if it reasonably identifies the receivable and the secured creditor, and is in a language reasonably expected to inform the debtor of its contents.在第1款下,通知或付款指示从由应收款债务人接收之时起生效。先决条件是它合理确定应收款和有担保债权人,并且有理由预期所用文字能够让债务人了解其内容。
On this latter point, paragraph 2 makes it clear that the language of the contract giving rise to the receivable is always sufficient.关于后一点,第2款明确指出,使用产生应收款的合同所用文字总是便已足够。
Under paragraph 3, a notification (which may include a payment instruction or not) may relate not only to receivables in existence at the time the notification is given, but also may relate to receivables arising thereafter.在第3款下,通知(可以包括或不包括付款指示)可能不仅关系到发出通知之时所存在的应收款,而且还可能关系到其后产生的应收款。
397.397.
Paragraph 4 addresses a scenario where a receivable is the subject of multiple successive security rights (under art. 2, subpara. (kk), the term "security right" includes outright transfers of receivables).第4款述及应收款是多项后继担保权标的(根据第2条(kk)项,“担保权”一语包括了应收款的彻底转让)。
The following example illustrates the operation of paragraph 4.以下实例形象地说明了第4款的适用情况。
A, to whom a receivable is owed, makes an outright transfer of the receivable to B. B then makes an outright transfer of the receivable to C. C then makes an outright transfer of the receivable to D.作为应收款所有人的A将应收款彻底转让给B,B又将应收款彻底转让给C,C然后又将应收款彻底转让给D。
Notification to the debtor of the receivable relating to the outright transfer to D will also constitute notification of the prior outright transfers to B and C.就向D的应收款彻底转让而给应收款债务人的通知也将构成给B和C的先前彻底转让的通知。
The same result would arise if A created a security right in the receivable in favour of B, B then created a security right in the receivable in favour of C, and C thereafter created a security right in the receivable in favour of D.如果A给B创设了应收款担保权,B然后给C创设了应收款担保权,C其后又给D创设了应收款担保权,则结果会是相同的。
Notification to the debtor of the receivable relating to the security right created by C in favour of D constitutes notification of the security rights created by A and B.就C为D创设的应收款担保权而给应收款债务人的通知构成就A和B创设的担保权的通知。
Article 63.第63条.
Discharge of the debtor of the receivable by payment通过付款解除应收款债务人的义务
398.398.
Article 63 is based on recommendation 119 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 17-20), which in turn is based on article 17 of the Assignment Convention.第63条基于《担保交易指南》建议119(见第七章,第17-20段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第17条。
It sets out the rules dealing with the discharge of the debtor of the receivable by payment.它提出了处理经付款解除应收款债务人义务的规则。
It should be noted that the debtor of the receivable is discharged by payment in accordance with this article, even if payment is not made to the secured creditor that has priority.应当指出的是,根据本条经付款解除应收款债务人的义务,即便该付款并非是向享有优先权的有担保债权人作出的。
It should also be noted that this article and all articles of the Model Law with the exception of articles 72-82 apply also to outright transfers of receivables by agreement (see art. 1, para. 2).还应指出的是,本条以及除第72-82条以外的《示范法》其他所有条款也将适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让(见第1条第2款)。
399.399.
Paragraph 1 embodies the basic principle that, until the debtor of the receivable receives notification of a security right in the receivable, it may be discharged by payment in accordance with the contract giving rise to the receivable.第1款所体现的基本原则是,直到应收款债务人收到应收款担保权通知之前,均可根据产生应收款的合同付款而解除义务。
For example, where the contract is a sales contract, this means payment to the seller.举例说,合同是销售合同的,则意味着向卖方付款。
However, under paragraph 2, once the debtor receives notification of a security right, it can only be discharged by paying either the secured creditor or another party, as instructed by the secured creditor in the notification or as subsequently instructed by the secured creditor in a written payment instruction received by the debtor.但在第2款下,一旦债务人收到担保权通知,则只能按照有担保债权人在通知中所作指示或有担保债权人随后在债务人收到的书面付款指示中所作指示,通过向有担保债权人或另一当事人付款而解除义务。
However, the rule in paragraph 2 is subject to a number of qualifications that are set out in paragraphs 3-8.但第2款的规则不得违反第3-8款所述若干限定条件。
400.400.
First, under paragraph 3, if the debtor of the receivable receives more than one payment instruction relating to a single security right (and, therefore, from the same secured creditor) in the same receivable created by the same grantor, it is discharged by paying in accordance with the last payment instruction received from the secured creditor before payment, as the last payment instruction will be the most recent (a payment instruction is conceptually distinct from notification; see para. 386 above).首先,在第3款下,应收款债务人就同一设保人在相同应收款上创设的单独一项担保权(并因而从同一个有担保债权人)收到不止一次付款指示的,应收款债务人可根据付款前收到的有担保债权人最后一次付款指示付款而解除义务,因为最后一次付款指示将是最新指示(付款指示在概念上有别于通知,见上文第386段)。
401.401.
Second, under paragraph 4, if the debtor of the receivable receives notification of more than one security right in the same receivable created by the same grantor, it is discharged by paying in accordance with the first notification received. In this way, the debtor of the receivable, having received one notification of a security right, need not inquire whether the grantor retained any right to create a second security right and, if so, which notification should be complied with.其次,在第4款下,应收款债务人收到同一设保人在同一笔应收款上创设的不止一项担保权通知的,应收款债务人根据所收到的第一次通知付款而解除义务,应收款债务人以此方式在收到有关担保权的一份通知后,不需要调查设保人是否保留创设第二份担保权的任何权利及如果予以保留则应当遵守哪一份通知的问题。
This rule also reflects the fact that it is likely that the security right covered by the first notification will have priority over the subsequent security right under the Model Law's priority rules.该条规则也反映了这样一个事实,即根据《示范法》的优先权规则,第一次通知所涵盖的担保权可能享有相对于后继担保权的优先权。
As already noted (see para. 381 above), the debtor of the receivable is discharged even if the first notification does not relate to the security right with priority, since the debtor cannot be required to determine which security right has priority.正如已经指出的(见上文第381段),即使第一次通知与优先担保权无关,也可解除应收款债务人的义务,因为不能要求由债务人来确定究竟哪一项担保权享有优先权。
In such a case, the secured creditor with a security right that has priority will have to claim the proceeds of payment from the creditor to whom the debtor made the payment.在这种情况下,拥有优先担保权的有担保债权人必须向收到债务人付款的债权人索取所得付款。
402.402.
Third, under paragraph 5, if the debtor of the receivable receives notification of one or more subsequent security rights in the same receivable, it is discharged by paying in accordance with the notification of the last of such subsequent security rights (under art. 2, subpara. (kk), the term "security right" includes outright transfers of receivables).第三,在第5款下,应收款债务人收到有关在同一笔应收款上创设的一项或多项后继担保权通知的,可根据这些后继担保权通知中的最后一次通知付款解除义务(根据第2条(kk)项,“担保权”一语包括了应收款的彻底转让)。
The following example illustrates the operation of paragraph 5.以下实例形象地说明了第5款的适用情况。
A.to whom a receivable is owed, makes an outright transfer of the receivable to B.作为应收款所有人的A将应收款彻底转让给B。
B makes an outright transfer of the receivable to C.B又将应收款彻底转让给给C。
If the debtor of the receivable receives a notification from each of B and C, it will be discharged by paying C.如果应收款债务人分别收到B和C的通知,其则可通过向C付款而解除义务。
The reason is that the last transferee in such a series of successive outright transfers is most likely to be the person entitled to payment.其原因是,该系列相继彻底转让中的最后一位受让人最有可能是有权接受付款的人。
One side effect of this rule, along with the rule in paragraph 4, is that the debtor of the receivable needs to be able to distinguish between multiple notifications relating to security rights granted by the same grantor (in which case the debtor of the receivable must pay in accordance with the first notification) and notifications of multiple subsequent security rights (in which case the debtor of the receivable must pay in accordance with the last notification).该条规则连同第4款中的规则的一项副作用是,应收款债务人需要能够分清由相同设保人让与的多项担保权相关通知(在此情况下应收款债务人必须根据第一份通知付款)和多项后继担保权的通知(在此情况下,应收款债务人必须根据最后一份通知付款)。
Paragraphs 8 and 9 provide ways for the debtor of the receivable to ensure that it will not make payment to the wrong person (see paras. 397 and 398 above).第8和9段规定了应收款债务人得以确保收款人不致有误的方式方法(见上文第397和398段)。
403.403.
Fourth, under paragraph 6, where the debtor of the receivable receives notification of a security right in a part of, or an undivided interest in, one or more receivables, the debtor has a choice.第四,在第6款下,应收款债务人收到关于一项或多项应收款上部分权益或未分割权益担保权通知的,债务人享有选择权。
It is discharged by paying either in accordance with the notification or in accordance with paragraph 1 as if the debtor had not received the notification.可以根据通知或根据第1款付款而解除义务,一如债务人未曾收到通知。
However, if the debtor chooses the first of these alternatives, under paragraph 7, it is discharged only to the extent of the part or undivided interest paid.然而,如果债务人选择这些备选做法中的第一种备选做法,则在第7款下,只能在所支付的部分权益或未分割权益的限度内解除义务。
404.404.
Finally, under paragraph 8, if the debtor of the receivable receives notification from a person claiming to have a security right in the receivable and wants to make sure that that person is a secured creditor to whom payment will discharge the debtor of the receivable, the debtor of the receivable may request that person to provide, within a reasonable time, adequate proof of the creation of the security right.最后,根据第8款,如果应收款债务人收到声称对应收款享有担保权的人的通知,并且希望弄清该人的确是经付款可解除应收款债务人义务的有担保债权人,应收款债务人则可请求该人在合理时间内提供有关担保权创设的充足证据。
If the asserted security right was created by an initial or subsequent secured creditor, the adequate proof must include proof of the initial and subsequent security rights.如果所声称的担保权是由初始或后继有担保债权人创设的,充足证据就必须包括有关初始和后继担保权的证据。
If the person claiming to have a security right fails to provide the required proof, the debtor may pay as if it had not received the notification sent by that person.如果声称享有担保权的人未提供所要求的证据,债务人可视同未曾收到由该人发送的通知而付款。
For this purpose, under paragraph 9, adequate proof includes any writing from the grantor that indicates that a security right has been created (e.g. a security agreement).为此目的,根据第9款,充足证据包括了由表示已创设担保权的设保人所提供的任何书面证据(例如担保协议)。
405.405.
Paragraph 10 is intended to preserve any other ground for discharge based on payment to the person entitled to payment, as well as payment to a competent judicial or other authority, or to a public fund, under other law.第10款意在保全根据对有权在其他法律下得到支付及有权得到主管司法机关或其他机关或公共基金支付的人所作的支付而解除义务的任何其他理由。
For example, under paragraph 10, the debtor of the receivable is discharged if it pays the right person pursuant to a notification conforming with the requirements of the other applicable law but not with the requirements of articles 2 (y), 62 and 63, paragraphs 1-9.举例说,根据第10款,应收款债务人如果依照符合其他适用法律要求但不符合第2(y)条、第62和63条第1-9款要求的通知向适当的人付款则可解除其义务。
Similarly, the debtor of the receivable is discharged by making payment to a competent judicial or other authority, or to a public fund if so provided by the applicable law (e.g. where the debtor of the receivable receives notifications by different secured creditors and is not certain whom to pay in order to be discharged).同样,应收款债务人向主管司法机关或其他主管机关或根据适用法律的规定(例如在应收款债务人收到由不同的有担保债权人发出的通知并且对为解除义务而应向谁付款并无把握的情况下)向公共基金付款,则可解除其义务。
Article 64.第64条.
Defences and rights of set-off of the debtor of the receivable应收款债务人的抗辩和抵销权
406.406.
Article 64 is based on recommendation 120 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, para. 21), which in turn is based on article 18 of the Assignment Convention.第64条基于《担保交易指南》建议120(见第七章,第21段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第18条。
Paragraph 1 (a) preserves, for the benefit of the debtor of the receivable, all defences and rights of set-off arising from the contract giving rise to the receivable, including any other contract that was part of the same transaction, as if the security right had never been created and the claim were made by the grantor.第1款(a)项保全应收款债务人因产生应收款的合同而产生的所有抗辩和抵消权,包括属于相同交易一部分的任何其他合同,一如担保权从来未曾创设并且诉权由设保人提出。
Paragraph 1 (b) ensures that the debtor of the receivable can assert against the secured creditor any other right of set-off that was available to the debtor at the time it received notification of the security right.第1款(b)项确保应收款债务人能够对有担保债权人主张在收到担保权通知之时债务人所可利用的任何其他抵消权。
This means, however, that the debtor may not assert a right of set-off other than that set out in paragraph 1 (a) that arises subsequent to such notification.但这意味着,债务人可能无法主张在这类通知后产生的除第1(a)款之外的其他抵消权。
Under article 65, however, the debtor may agree not to raise the above-mentioned defences and rights of set-off against the secured creditor.然而,根据第65条的规定,债务人可以同意不对有担保债权人提出上述抗辩和抵消权。
407.407.
Consistent with article 13, paragraph 2 of article 64 provides that paragraph 1 does not give the debtor of the receivable the right to raise against the secured creditor, as a defence or right of set-off, the breach of an agreement by the grantor that limits the grantor's right to create a security right in the receivable.如同第13条,第64条第2款规定,第1款并未让应收款债务人有权以设保人违反对设保人创设应收款担保权的权利加以限定的约定为由而提出对设保人的抗辩或抵消权。
Otherwise, the validation of a security right created notwithstanding such an agreement, as provided in article 13, would be meaningless.否则,虽有第13条规定的这类约定,但确认已创设的担保权仍然毫无意义。
Article 65.第65条.
Agreement not to raise defences or rights of set-off不提出抗辩或抵销权的协议
408.408.
Article 65 is based on recommendation 121 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, para. 22), which in turn is based on article 19 of the Assignment Convention.第65条基于《担保交易指南》建议121(见第七章,第22段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第19条。
Paragraph 1 provides that the debtor of the receivable may agree, in a signed written agreement with the grantor, not to raise against the secured creditor the defences and rights of set-off that it could otherwise raise against that secured creditor under article 64.第1款规定,应收款债务人在与设保人的一份有签名的书面协议中,约定不对有担保债权人提出第64条所述抗辩和抵消权。
The secured creditor is entitled to invoke the benefit of such an agreement even though it is not a party to it.有担保债权人即便不是这类协议的当事人,仍有权援引这类协议的益处。
409.409.
Under paragraph 2, any modification to such an agreement must also be in a written agreement between the grantor and the debtor of the receivable that is signed by the debtor of the receivable. The modification is effective as against the secured creditor only if the secured creditor consents or, in the case of a receivable that has not been earned yet by performance, a reasonable secured creditor would consent (see art. 66, para. 2, and para. 395 above).在第2款下,对这类协议还必须经由应收款债务人签署的设保人与应收款债务人之间的书面协议方可作出任何修改,并且该修改唯有在下列两种情况下方才具有对抗有担保债权人的效力:有担保债权人对此表示同意;或履约后未能得到全部应收款,合理行事的有担保债权人将会表示同意(见第66条第2款和上文第395段)。
410.410.
To avoid abuses, paragraph 3 provides that the debtor may not waive defences based on fraud committed by the secured creditor or on the debtor's incapacity.为避免滥权,第3款规定,债务人可以不放弃因有担保债权人一方的欺诈行为或债务人无行为能力而提出的抗辩。
Paragraph 3, however, does not prevent the debtor of the receivable (e.g. the buyer in a sales agreement) from waiving defences relating to fraud committed by the grantor (e.g. the seller).然而,第3款并不妨碍应收款债务人(例如销售协议中的买受人)放弃与由设保人(例如卖方)实施的欺诈有关的抗辩。
A waiver of such defences by the debtor of the receivable reduces the need for the secured creditor to conduct an investigation in this regard.如果应收款债务人放弃这类抗辩,有担保债权人则不太需要就此展开调查。
Article 66.第66条.
Modification of the contract giving rise to a receivable对产生应收款的合同的修改
411.411.
Article 66 is based on recommendation 122 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 23 and 24), which in turn is based on article 20 of the Assignment Convention.第66条基于《担保交易指南》建议122(见第七章,第23和24段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第20条。
It addresses the impact of an agreement between the grantor of a security right in a receivable and the debtor of the receivable that modifies the terms of the receivable.它述及应收款担保权设保人和应收款债务人之间关于修改应收款条件的协议所产生的影响。
The result depends on when the agreement is made.结果将取决于订立协议的时间。
Under paragraph 1, if the agreement is concluded before the debtor receives notification of a security right in the receivable, it is effective against the secured creditor, but the secured creditor also enjoys any benefits derived from the agreement.在第1款下,如果协议在债务人收到应收款担保权通知前订立,则具有对抗有担保债权人的效力,但是有担保债权人也享有该协议规定的任何益处。
412.412.
Under paragraph 2, even if the agreement is concluded after notification, it is also effective, even if it affects the secured creditor's rights provided that: (a) the secured creditor consents to it; or (b) the receivable has not been fully earned by performance and either the modification was provided for in the contract giving rise to the receivable or a reasonable secured creditor would consent to the modification.在第2款下,协议即使在通知后订立还将有效,即使它影响到有担保债权人的权利,但前提是:(a)有担保债权人对此表示同意;或(b)履约后未能得到全部应收款,要么在产生应收款的合同中规定可作修改,要么合理行事的有担保债权人同意作此修改。
If none of these conditions is met, an agreement concluded after notification of the security right is not effective against the secured creditor.如果这些条件无一得到满足,在担保权通知后订立的协议就不具有对抗第三方的效力。
Paragraph 3 provides that paragraphs 1 and 2 do not affect any right of the grantor or secured creditor for breach of an agreement between them (such as an agreement that the grantor would not agree to any modifications of the terms of the receivable).第3款规定,第1款和第2款不影响由于违反彼此之间的约定(例如设保人不同意对应收款条件所作任何修改的约定)而引起的设保人或有担保债权人的任何权利。
Article 67.第67条.
Recovery of payments付款的追回
413.413.
Article 67 is based on recommendation 123 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 25 and 26), which in turn is based on article 21 of the Assignment Convention.第67条基于《担保交易指南》建议123(见第七章,第25和26段),而该建议又基于《转让公约》第21条。
It addresses the situation in which the grantor of a security right in a receivable (including the transferor in an outright transfer of the receivable by agreement) fails to perform its obligations under the contract giving rise to the receivable.它述及应收款担保权设保人(包括经约定的应收款彻底转让的转让人)未履行产生应收款的合同所规定的义务的情况。
The article insulates the secured creditor from liability in this situation, by providing that the debtor of the receivable may not look to the secured creditor for recovery of any amount that it has paid to either the grantor or the secured creditor.该条规定,应收款债务人不得向有担保债权人追回应收款债务人已付给设保人或有担保债权人的任何款项,因而有担保债权人在这种情况下不承担责任。
As a result, the sole recourse of the debtor of the receivable in such a situation is against the grantor and the debtor of the receivable bears the risk of the grantor's insolvency.因此,其造成的结果是,应收款债务人在这类情况下只能向设保人提出追诉,并且将由应收款债务人承担设保人破产的风险。
B.B.
Negotiable instruments可转让票据
Article 68.第68条.
Rights as against the obligor under a negotiable instrument在可转让票据下对抗承付人的权利
414.414.
Article 68 is based on recommendation 124 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 27-31).第68条基于《担保交易指南》建议124(见第七章,第27-31段)。
It is intended to preserve the rights of parties under the law of the enacting State relating to negotiable instruments (to be specified by the enacting State in its enactment of this article).它意在保护颁布国(拟由颁布国在其对本条的颁布中指明)关于可转让票据的相关法律所规定的当事人权利。
For example, if the enacting State's law is substantively identical to the Bills and Notes Convention: (a) the maker of a note is obliged to pay the secured creditor with a security right in the note only if the secured creditor is a holder of the note; (b) the maker of a note is obliged to pay the secured creditor only when payment becomes due under the terms of the note; (c) if the secured creditor is a "protected holder" of a note, the defences that the maker of the note may raise against the secured creditor may be significantly limited.举例说,如果颁布国的法律与《汇票和本票公约》大体相同:(a)本票制作人有义务向对本票享有担保权的有担保债权人付款,唯一条件是,该有担保债权人是本票的持有人;(b)本票制作人只有在根据本票条款支付到期的情况下方有义务向有担保债权人付款;(c)如果有担保债权人是本票的“受保护持有人”,本票制作人可对有担保债权人提出的抗辩可能会受到很大的限制。
It should be noted that the reference in article 68 (as well as arts. 70 and 71) to other law relating to negotiable instruments to be specified by the enacting State will be the law of the enacting State only if that law is the applicable law under the conflict-of-laws rules of chapter VIII.应当指出的是,第68条(及第70条和第71条)所涉拟由颁布国指明的有关可转让票据的其他法律唯有在该项法律根据第八章法律冲突规则属于适用法律前提下方可是颁布国的法律。
C.C.
Rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account银行账户贷记款受付权
Article 69.第69条.
Rights as against the deposit-taking institution对抗接收存款机构的权利
415.415.
Article 69 is based on recommendations 125 and 126 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 32-37).第69条基于《担保交易指南》建议125和126(见第七章,第32-37段)。
It addresses the situation in which a security right is created in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account.它述及在银行账户贷记款受付权上创设担保权的情形。
416.416.
Paragraph 1 (a) provides that the rights and obligations of the deposit-taking institution are unaffected by the security right, unless the institution consents.第1款(a)项规定,除非接收存款机构同意,该机构的权利和义务不受担保权的影响。
The rationale for protecting deposit-taking institutions in this manner is that imposing duties on such an institution or changing the rights and duties of the institution without its consent may subject that institution to risks that it is not in a position to manage appropriately unless it knows in advance what those risks might be, and to the risk of having to violate obligations imposed by other law, such as sanctions law (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap.以此方式保护接收存款机构的理由是,未经接收存款机构同意而规定这类机构的义务,或变更其权利和义务,可能使该机构面临其无法适当管控的风险,除非它预先知道可能存在的是何种风险。
VII, para.33).这么做还可能使该机构面临不得不违反诸如制裁法律之类其他法律所规定义务的风险(见《担保交易指南》第七章,第33段)。
417.417.
To safeguard the confidentiality of the relationship of a deposit-taking institution and its client that is imposed by regulatory or other law, paragraph 1 (b) also provides that the deposit-taking institution has no obligation to respond to requests from third parties for information (e.g. about the balance in the account, whether a control agreement exists or whether the account holder retains the right to dispose of funds credited to its bank account).为保障监管法规或其他法律所规定的接收存款机构与其客户之间关系的保密性,第1款(b)项还规定,接收存款机构没有义务对第三方当事人提出的提供信息的请求(例如关于账户余额的信息,不论是否存在控制权协议,也不论账户持有人是否保留对其银行账户贷记款进行处分的权利)作出回应。
418.418.
Paragraph 2 addresses situations in which the deposit-taking institution has a security right in the right to payment of funds credited to a bank account maintained at that institution and also has a right of set-off against that right to payment of funds.第2款述及接收存款机构对在该机构开设的银行账户贷记款受付权享有担保权并且还对该贷记款受付权享有抵消权的情形。
The paragraph provides that the deposit-taking institution's right of set-off is not limited by the security right.该款规定,接收存款机构的抵消权不受担保权的限制。
Thus, if, under applicable set-off law, the set-off rights are broader than the rights of a secured creditor under the Model Law, the deposit-taking institution may avail itself of those broader rights law (see Secured Transactions, chap. VII, para. 34; for the rights of set-off of the debtor of the receivable, see art. 64, para. 1, and para. 389 above).因此,如果根据可适用抵消法律,抵消权的范围大于有担保债权人在《示范法》下所享有的权利,接收存款机构则可利用有关这些范围更宽的权利的法律(见《担保交易指南》,第七章,第34段;关于应收款债务人的抵消权,见第64条第1款和上文第389段)。
D.D.
Negotiable documents and tangible assets covered by negotiable documents可转让单证和由可转让单证涵盖的有形资产
Article 70.第70条.
Rights as against the issuer of a negotiable document对抗可转让单证签发人的权利
419.419.
Article 70 is based on recommendation 130 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, paras. 43-45).第70条基于《担保交易指南》建议130(见第七章,第43-45段)。
It provides that, when a secured creditor has a security right in a negotiable document, the rights of the secured creditor as against the issuer of the document or any person obliged on the document are determined by the law relating to negotiable documents of the enacting State (to be specified by the enacting State in its enactment of this article).它规定,如果有担保债权人在可转让单证上享有担保权,有担保债权人对单证签发人或单证任何其他承付人的权利将根据颁布国(拟由颁布国在其对本条的颁布中指明)关于可转让单证的相关法律确定。
E.E.
Non-intermediated securities非中介证券
Article 71.第71条.
Rights as against the issuer of a non-intermediated security对抗非中介证劵发行人的权利
420.420.
As already mentioned, the Secured Transactions Guide does not address security rights in any types of securities (see rec. 4 (c)).如同已经提到的,《担保交易指南》未述及任何类型的证券上的担保权(见建议4(c))。
Thus, article 71 has no antecedent in the Secured Transactions Guide.因此,第71条在《担保交易指南》中没有任何先例。
In line with articles 68-70, it provides that the rights of a secured creditor holding a security right in non-intermediated securities as against the issuer of the securities are determined by other law of the enacting State (to be specified by the enacting State in its enactment of this article).按照第68-70条,它规定,拥有非中介证券担保权的有担保债权人对证券发行人的权利将由颁布国的其他法律(拟由颁布国在其对本条的颁布中指明)确定。
Chapter VII.第七章.
Enforcement of a security right担保权的强制执行
A.A.
General rules一般规则
Article 72.第72条.
Post-default rights违约后权利
421.421.
Article 72 is based on recommendations 133, 139, 141, 143 and 144 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 10-12, 15-17, and 34 and 35).第72条基于《担保交易指南》建议133、139、141、143和144(见第八章,第10-12、15-17及34和35段)。
Paragraph 1 provides that, following the grantor's default, the grantor and the secured creditor may exercise any right they have under the provisions of chapter VII, other law or the security agreement, provided that, in the last two cases, that right is not inconsistent with the provisions of the Model Law.第1款规定,在设保人违约后,设保人和有担保债权人可行使其在第七章规定下以及在其他法律或担保协议下所可能享有的任何权利,前提是在后两种情况下,这种权利与《示范法》的条款不相矛盾。
In denying effect to any inconsistent terms of the security agreement, this proviso indirectly operates to limit party autonomy in relation to enforcement (for an additional limit to party autonomy, see para. 424 below).由于拒不赋予担保协议中任何不相一致的条款以效力,该附文间接起到了在强制执行方面限制当事人意思自治的作用(关于对当事人意思自治的额外限制,见下文第424段)。
422.422.
For the purposes of the Model Law, "default" is defined to mean the failure of the debtor to pay or otherwise perform the obligation secured by the security right and any other event agreed to by the parties in their security agreement as constituting "default" (see art. 2, subpara. (j), and para. 44 above).在《示范法》中,“违约”被界定为是指债务人未偿付或以其他方式履行由担保权作保的债务以及当事人在其担保协议中商定的任何其他事件即构成“违约”(见第2条(j)项和上文第44段)。
It should be noted that the only one of the secured creditor's rights provided in this chapter that may be exercised before default is the right to collect an encumbered receivable (see art. 82, para. 2, and 83).应当指出的是,本章规定的有担保债权人在违约前可行使的其中唯一一项权利是收取设保应收款的权利(见第82条第2款和第83条)。
423.423.
The Model Law adopts the policy that maximizing flexibility in enforcement is likely to increase the efficiency of the enforcement process (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 143 and chap. VIII, para. 34).《示范法》所采取的尽最大可能灵活执行的政策有可能提高执行过程的效率(见《担保交易指南》建议143和第八章第34段)。
Accordingly, paragraph 2 indicates that the exercise of one post-default right does not prevent the exercise of another post-default right, except if the exercise of one right makes it impossible to exercise of the other right.因此,第2款称,行使一项违约后权利并不妨碍行使另一项违约后权利,除非一项权利的行使造成无法行使另一项权利。
For example, a secured creditor that obtains possession of an encumbered asset under article 77 with the initial intention of disposing of it under article 78 may thereafter propose to acquire it in satisfaction of the secured obligation under article 80.举例说,最初意图是根据第78条处分资产的根据第77条取得设保资产占有权的有担保债权人可其后建议获取该资产以根据第80条清偿有担保债务。
Indeed, the secured creditor cannot make that proposal if it has already sold or agreed to sell the asset.实际上,有担保债权人如果已经出售或同意出售该资产,则就不得提出该建议。
424.424.
Paragraph 3 provides that, before default, neither the grantor nor the debtor (defined to include a secondary debtor such as a guarantor of the secured obligation; see art. 2, subpara. (h)) may waive unilaterally or vary by agreement its rights under this chapter.第3款规定,在违约前,设保人和债务人(被界定为包括了诸如有担保债务的设保人之类排序较低的债务人;见第2条(h)项)都不得单方面放弃或经由协议更改其在本章规定下享有的权利。
In the absence of this provision, a secured creditor with superior bargaining power could put pressure on them to waive or vary their rights before default in return for concessions in the security agreement (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, paras. 16 and 17).如果没有这项规定,享有优先议价权的有担保债权人可能在发生违约前对债务人施压,使其放弃或更改其权利,以换取在担保协议中作出让步(见《担保交易指南》,第八章,第16和17段)。
After default, this is no longer an issue and thus the grantor or the debtor may then waive or vary its rights under the provisions of this chapter.在违约后,该问题不复存在,因此,设保人或债务人可根据本章条文的规定放弃或变更其权利。
425.425.
With the exception of article 83, the provisions of this chapter do not apply to an outright transfer of receivables by agreement (see art. 1, para. 2, and para. 23 above).除第83条外,本章各项条文不适用于经约定的应收款彻底转让(见第1条第2款和上文第23段)。
Consequently, the terms "encumbered asset", "grantor", "secured creditor", "security agreement" and "security right" in articles 72-82 should be read with this exclusion in mind.因此,在解读第72-82条中“设保资产”、“设保人”、“有担保债权人”、“担保协议”和“担保权”的用语时应当将该除外规定考虑在内。
Article 73.第73条.
Methods of exercising post-default rights行使违约后权利的方法
426.426.
Article 73 is based on recommendation 142 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 18-20 and 29-33).第73条基于《担保交易指南》建议142(见第八章,第18-20段和第29-33段)。
Paragraph 1 provides that the secured creditor has a choice to exercise its post-default rights judicially (i.e. by application to a court or other authority vested with adjudicative power) or extrajudicially (i.e. without an application to a court or other authority).第1款规定,有担保债权人可选择以司法手段行使其违约后权利(即通过向法院或负有裁决权限的其他主管机关提出申请),也可选择以非司法手段行使其违约后权利(即不向法院或其他主管机关提出申请)。
It should be noted that public notaries, bailiffs, sheriffs or other court enforcement officers typically assist in enforcement by a court or other authority but do not have adjudicative powers to resolve disputes and issue decisions binding on all parties.应当注意到,公证机关、法庭事务官、行政司法官或其他法院执法官员通常会协助法院或其他主管机关的执法,但不享有解决争议和发布对所有当事人均有约束力的裁定的裁决权。
427.427.
A secured creditor may prefer to exercise its post-default rights by application to a court or other authority for various reasons.有担保债权人之所以可能更愿意通过向法院或其他主管机关提出申请来行使其违约后权利有各种原因。
For example: (a) judicial or similar proceedings may be efficient; (b) the secured creditor may wish to avoid having its extrajudicial actions subsequently challenged; (c) the secured creditor may anticipate that it will have to apply to a court or other authority anyway to recover an anticipated deficiency; or (d) the secured creditor may fear and wish to avoid a breach of public order (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, paras. 32 and 33).举例说:(a)司法程序或类似程序可能没有效率;(b)有担保债权人可能希望避免其非司法行动以后遭到挑战;(c)有担保债权人可能预期它无论如何都必须向法院或其他主管机关提出申请以追偿某一预期未获清偿的债务;或(d)有担保债权人可能担心并希望避免违反公共秩序(见《担保交易指南》第八章第32和33段)。
428.428.
A secured creditor may instead elect to exercise its post-default rights extrajudicially because, for example, it fears that judicial proceedings may be too slow and costly, or less likely to produce an appropriate amount upon the disposition of the encumbered assets (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, paras. 29 and 31).有担保债权人也可能会选择以非司法手段行使其违约后权利,其原因是,例如它担心司法程序可能过慢并且花费过大,或者经处分设保资产获得适当数额的可能性较低(见《担保交易指南》,第八章,第29和31段)。
In the event that a dispute arises in the course of the extra-judicial exercise of the secured creditor's rights, where other law permits, the parties to the dispute may agree to resolve it by an alternative dispute resolution mechanism (see art. 3, para. 3, and para. 75 above).如果在以非司法手段行使有担保债权人权利过程中发生争议,凡是其他法律允许的话,争议当事人即可商议以替代争议解决机制加以解决(见第3条第3款和上文第75段)。
429.429.
Under paragraph 2, the secured creditor's judicial exercise of its post-default rights is subject to the provisions of this chapter and to the provisions that are specified for this purpose by the enacting State.根据第2款,有担保债权人通过司法手段行使其违约后权利不得违反本章各项条文以及由颁布国为此目的而规定的条文。
As inefficient enforcement mechanisms are likely to have a negative impact on the availability and the cost of credit (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, para. 29), paragraph 2 also refers to expeditious enforcement proceedings.由于没有效率的强制执行机制有可能对信贷的供应和成本产生不利影响(见《担保交易指南》第八章第29段),第2款还提及加快强制执行程序。
For example, such proceedings may include proceedings involving only affidavit evidence, proceedings in which hearings are held, challenges are disposed of and decisions are rendered in as expeditious a manner as possible, and proceedings in which court decisions are enforced without an official seizure or sale of assets (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, para. 33).举例说,这类程序可包括只涉及宣誓书证据的程序、举行听审并以尽可能快捷的方式处理质疑事项和作出决定的程序,以及未经正式没收或出售资产即予强制执行的司法裁定的程序(见《担保交易指南》第八章第33段)。
430.430.
Under paragraph 3, the extrajudicial exercise by the secured creditor of its post-default rights is governed by the provisions of this chapter.根据第3款,有担保债权人以非司法手段行使其违约后权利受本章各项条文管辖。
These provisions incorporate advance notice and other procedural protections for the grantor, the debtor and third parties whose rights may be affected.这些条文纳入了针对设保人、债务人和其权利可能受到影响的第三方当事人的预先通知及其他程序性保护措施。
For example, under article 77, paragraph 2, the secured creditor may only exercise its extra-judicial right to possession of the encumbered asset if it has the grantor's advance written consent, notified the grantor and any person in possession of the debtor's default and of its intent to obtain possession, and the person in possession does not object (see further para. 441 below).举例说,根据第77条第2款,有担保债权人唯有在以下前提下方可行使其占有设保资产的非司法权利:得到设保人事先书面同意、将债务人违约及其取得占有权的意图告知设保人和任何占有权人并且占有权人未提出异议(另见下文第441段)。
431.431.
Moreover, a secured creditor's extrajudicial exercise of its post-default rights is subject to the overarching obligation in article 4 to exercise those rights in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner.而且,有担保债权人对其违约后权利的非司法行使不得违反第4条所述以善意和商业合理方式行使这些权利的首要义务。
In this respect, it should be noted that the Model Law does not preclude recourse to the assistance of a court or other authority at any time to resolve a dispute arising in relation to the extrajudicial exercise of a post-default right.应当就此注意到,《示范法》不排除随时求助于法院或其他主管机关的协助以解决在对违约后权利非司法行使方面出现的争议。
To the contrary, under article 74, if the secured creditor does not comply with its obligations under this chapter, the persons listed in option A or option B are entitled to apply for expeditious relief from the court or other authority specified by the enacting State.相反,根据第74条,如果有担保债权人未履行其在本章下承担的义务,选项A或选项B所列人士均有权向法院或颁布国规定的其他主管机关申请快捷救济。
Article 74.第74条.
Relief for non-compliance有关不履约的救济
432.432.
Article 74 is based on recommendation 137 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VII, para. 31).第74条基于《担保交易指南》建议137(见第七章,第31段)。
It addresses the availability of relief from a court or other specified authority in the case of a person's non-compliance with its obligations under the provisions of this chapter.它述及一人不履行本章规定之义务情况下,能否得到法院或其他规定的主管机关的救济问题。
It also requires the enacting State to specify the court or other authority to which the party seeking relief should apply and to provide also for expeditious forms of proceedings (see para. 429 above).它还要求颁布国指明寻求救济的当事人所应提出申请的法院或其他主管机关并且还就各种快捷程序作出规定(见上文第429段)。
433.433.
Two options are provided for the enacting State to choose between.给颁布国提供了可从中选择的两个选项。
The first option addresses non-compliance only by the secured creditor, and provides that relief may be sought by: (a) the grantor; (b) any other person with a right in the encumbered asset whose rights are affected by that non-compliance; or (c) the debtor.第一个选项述及只有有担保债权人不履约的情况,并且规定以下各方均可寻求救济:(a)设保人;(b)其权利受该不履约影响的对设保资产享有权利的任何其他人;或(c)债务人。
The second option is broader, addressing non-compliance by any person, and giving any person affected by that non-compliance the right to seek relief.第二个选项涉及的范围较广,述及任何人不履约的情况,并规定受该不履约影响的任何人都有权寻求救济。
It should be noted that a breach of the secured creditor's obligations under the provisions of this chapter would typically include a breach by persons acting on behalf of the secured creditor (such as representatives, employees or service providers).应当指出的是:(a)违反本章条文所规定的有担保债权人的义务通常包括了代表有担保债权人行事的人(例如代理人、受雇人或服务供应商)违反此类义务。
It should also be noted that the persons that may be affected include: (a) a competing claimant; (b) a guarantor of the secured obligation; or (c) a co-owner of an asset in which another co-owner has created a security right.应当指出的是,可能受到影响的人包括:(a)相竞求偿人;(b)有担保债务的设保人;或(c)由另一共同所有人创设担保权的资产的共同所有人。
Article 75.第75条.
Right of affected persons to terminate enforcement受影响的人终止强制执行的权利
434.434.
Article 75 is based on recommendation 140 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 22-24).第75条基于《担保交易指南》建议140(见第八章,第22-24段)。
Paragraph 1 entitles the grantor, any other person with a right in the encumbered asset or the debtor to terminate the enforcement process by paying or otherwise performing the secured obligation in full (which in some jurisdictions is known as the right to "redeem" the encumbered asset).第1款让设保人、对设保资产享有权利的任何其他人或债务人都有权通过付款或以其他方式全额清偿有担保债务而终止强制执行程序(在有些法域中它被称作为设保资产“赎回”权)。
In practice, this right is likely to be exercised when the value of the encumbered asset is significantly higher than the amount of the obligation secured by the security right of the enforcing secured creditor.在实务中,如果设保资产的价值远远大于由采取执行行动的有担保债权人的担保权作保的债务数额,则有可能行使该项权利。
It should be noted that, unlike recommendation 140 of the Secured Transactions Guide, article 75 does not address the extinguishment of a security right, because this matter is addressed in article 12 of the Model Law.应当指出的是,不同于《担保交易指南》建议140,第75条不述及担保权的消灭,因为该事项在《示范法》第12条中述及。
435.435.
Full payment, for the purposes of paragraph 1, includes payment of the reasonable cost of enforcement incurred by the secured creditor whose enforcement is sought to be terminated.就第1款而言,全额缴纳包括了支付寻求终止强制执行行动的由有担保债权人承担的强制执行合理费用。
If the party exercising the termination right challenges the reasonableness of the enforcing creditor's statement of its enforcement costs and enforcement was initiated by an application to a court or other authority, this dispute would be resolved by the relevant authority.如果行使终止权的当事人对采取强制执行行动的债权人所声称的强制执行费用是否合理提出质疑,并且强制执行是由向法院或其他主管机关提出申请的申请人所启动的,该争议将由相关主管机关解决。
In the case of extrajudicial enforcement, the party exercising the termination right may seek the assistance of a court or other authority specified in article 74 to determine whether the secured creditor's assertion that the cost of enforcement is reasonable.对于非司法强制执行,行使终止权的当事人可寻求法院或第74条所述其他主管机关协助确定有担保债权人对强制执行费用的说法是否合理。
436.436.
Under paragraph 2, the right to terminate enforcement is extinguished once the relevant enforcement process has been completed or a third party has entered into an agreement to acquire rights in the asset (see para. 438 below).根据第2款,一旦相关强制执行进程已经完成或第三方已经订立了获取资产上权利的协议,终止强制执行的权利即告消灭(见下文第438段)。
Thus, this right cannot be exercised once the secured creditor has sold or otherwise disposed of, acquired or collected the encumbered asset, or entered into an agreement for the sale or other disposition of the encumbered asset.因此,一旦有担保债权人出售或以其他方式处分、获取或收取设保资产或订立有关出售或以其他方式处分设保资产的协议,则将不得行使该项权利。
Otherwise, the finality of acquired rights would be undermined (see further paras. 460-463 below).不然的话,所获权利的终结性就将受到损害(另见下文第460-463段)。
Under paragraph 3, the right to terminate enforcement may still be exercised even after the secured creditor has enforced its security right by entering into a lease or licence agreement under article 78.根据第3款,即便在有担保债权人通过根据第78条订立租赁或许可协议而强制执行其担保权后,还仍然可以行使终止强制执行的权利。
However, the party exercising the termination right must respect the rights of the lessee or licensee under its agreement with the secured creditor whose enforcement has been terminated.然而,行使终止权的当事人必须尊重在其同终止强制执行的有担保债权人的协议下承租人或被许可人所享有的权利。
Article 76.第76条.
Right of a higher-ranking secured creditor to take over enforcement排序较高的有担保债权人接管强制执行过程的权利
437.437.
Article 76 is based on recommendation 145 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, para. 36).第76条基于《担保交易指南》建议145(见第八章,第36段)。
Paragraph 1 deals with a situation where a lowerranking secured creditor or a judgment creditor has commenced enforcement.第1款处理的是排序较低的有担保债权人或胜诉债权人启动强制执行的情形。
It entitles a secured creditor, whose security right has priority over that of the enforcing creditor ("higher-ranking secured creditor") to take over enforcement.它让其担保权优先于采取强制执行措施的债权人(“排序较高的有担保债权人”)有权接管强制执行程序。
The right of the higher-ranking secured creditor to take over enforcement, if it so wishes, is justified because of the potential impact of enforcement on its rights.排序较高的有担保债权人有权如果愿意则接管强制执行之所以有理由,是因为强制执行有可能影响其权利。
In particular, if a lower-ranking creditor exercises its right to dispose of the encumbered asset judicially, the security right of the higher-ranking secured creditor will usually be extinguished (see art. 81, para. 1, and para. 460 below) and replaced by a right to priority of payment out of the proceeds realized by the lower-ranking creditor (see art. 79, para. 1 and para. 451 below); it therefore has an interest in controlling the enforcement process.尤其是,如果排序较低的债权人以司法手段行使其处分设保资产的权利,排序较高的有担保债权人的担保权通常即告消灭(见第81条第1款和下文第460段)并且将由排序较低的债权人所实现的收益上优先受付权所取代(见第79条第1款和下文第451段);因此,它有兴趣主导强制执行进程。
If the lower-ranking creditor instead exercises its disposition right extrajudicially, the security right of the higher-ranking creditor will follow the asset into the hands of the transferee to whom the enforcing creditor disposes of the asset (see art. 81, para. 3, and para. 461 below), thereby potentially forcing the higher-ranking secured creditor to commence enforcement proceedings against that transferee.如果排序较低的债权人以非司法手段行使其处分权,排序较高的债权人的担保权将排在采取强制执行行动的债权人对其处分资产的受让人所掌握的资产之后(见第81条第3款和下文第461段),从而有可能迫使排序较高的有担保债权人对该受让人启动强制执行程序。
438.438.
As in the case of the right of termination in article 75, the right of the higher-ranking secured creditor to take over the enforcement process under this article must be exercised before the asset is sold or otherwise disposed of, acquired, or collected by the lower-ranking creditor or before the conclusion of an agreement by the lower-ranking creditor with a third party to dispose of the encumbered asset.如同第75条中的终止权,排序较高的有担保债权人根据本条接管强制执行程序的权利必须在排序较低的债权人出售或以其他方式处分、获取或收取资产前或在排序较低的债权人与第三方当事人订立处分设保资产的协议之前予以行使。
This is because, at this point of time, the enforcement process has advanced so far that it is no longer possible for the higher-ranking secured creditor to take over.其原因是,在这一时间节点上,强制执行迄今进展之快以致排序较高的有担保债权人已无法加以接管。
However, if the lower-ranking creditor has exercised its enforcement rights extrajudicially, the higher-ranking secured creditor is entitled to enforce its security right in the encumbered asset against the person that acquired the asset from the lowerranking secured creditor (see paras. 434 above and 460 below).然而,如果排序较低的债权人以非司法手段行使其强制执行权利,排序较高的有担保债权人有权对从排序较低的有担保债权人手中获取资产的人强制执行其在设保资产上的担保权(见上文第434段和下文第460段)。
439.439.
Under paragraph 2, the right of the higher-ranking secured creditor to take over the enforcement process includes the right to enforce by any of the methods provided in this chapter.根据第2款,排序较高的有担保债权人接管强制执行程序的权利包括了采用本章所述任何方法予以强制执行的权利。
This means that the higher-ranking secured creditor may elect to pursue a different enforcement right than that contemplated by the original enforcing creditor.这就意味着,排序较高的有担保债权人可选择争取不同于最初采取强制执行行动的债权人所设想的强制执行权利。
It should be noted, however, that the exercise of this right is subject to the standard in article 4.然而,应当指出的是,该项权利的行使不得违反第4条中的标准。
Accordingly, the secured creditor is obliged to act in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, so that it should, for example, avoid incurring unreasonable additional enforcement costs.因此,有担保债权人有义务以善意和商业合理方式行事,以便其例如能够避免承担不合理的额外强制执行费用。
Article 77.第77条.
Right of the secured creditor to obtain possession of an encumbered asset有担保债权人取得设保资产占有权的权利
440.440.
Article 77 is based on recommendations 146 and 147 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 37-48 and 51-56).第77条基于《担保交易指南》建议146和147(见第八章,第37-48段和第51-56段)。
It applies only to tangible assets, as only tangible assets may be the subject of possession (for the definitions of the terms "tangible asset" and "possession", see art. 2, subparas. (ll) and (z), and paras. 69 and 56).它只适用于有形资产,因为只有有形资产可以成为占有的标的(关于“有形资产”和“占有”的用语的定义,见第2条(ll)和(z)项及上文第69段和56段)。
Paragraph 1 provides a secured creditor with two options for obtaining possession of a tangible encumbered asset.第1款给有担保债权人提供了取得有形设保资产占有权的两种选项。
First, the secured creditor may obtain possession of an encumbered asset by application to a court or other authority.第一种选项是,有担保债权人可向法院或其他主管机关提出申请而取得设保资产占有权。
Alternatively, the secured creditor may obtain possession extrajudicially, provided that the conditions set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 are satisfied.不然的话,有担保债权人可采取非司法手段取得占有权,先决条件是,满足了第2和3款所述条件。
Regardless of whether it proceeds judicially or extrajudicially, the secured creditor's right to possession under paragraph 1 is subordinate to the right of a person that has a superior right to possession (e.g. a lessee or licensee whose rights are not affected by a security right under art. 34, para. 3 or para. 5).不论是采取司法或非司法手段,有担保债权人在第1款下享有的占有权均从属于享有优先占有权的人(例如其权利根据第34条第3款或第5款不受影响的承租人或被许可人)的权利。
441.441.
Under paragraph 2, the secured creditor's right to obtain possession extrajudicially is available only if all the conditions set out in that paragraph are met.在第2款下,只有满足该款所述所有条件,有担保债权人才有权以非司法手段取得占有权。
These conditions are designed to protect the public interest in a peaceful enforcement process and to ensure that that the interests of the grantor or other person in possession are not unduly prejudiced.设置这些条件是为了在和平的强制执行过程中保护公众利益并确保设保人和其他占有权人的利益不致受到不应有的损害。
First, the grantor must have consented in writing to the secured creditor obtaining possession without resort to a court or other authority (typically, the secured creditor will obtain the grantor's consent in the security agreement).首先,设保人必须以书面形式同意有担保债权人不诉诸法院或其他主管机关即争取占有权。(有担保债权人通常在担保协议中争取设保人的同意)。
Second, the secured creditor must give the grantor, and any person in possession of the encumbered asset, notice of default and of the secured creditor's intent to obtain possession (the enacting State may wish to specify how much advance notice must be given and select a period that would be in line with the good faith and commercial reasonableness standard in art. 4).其次,有担保债权人必须将违约和有担保债权人取得占有权的意图告知设保人和设保资产的任何占有权人(颁布国不妨指明如何发送预先通知并选定与第4条中的善意和商业合理标准相一致的期限)。
Third, and perhaps most important, the person in possession of the encumbered asset at the relevant time must not object to the secured creditor obtaining possession.第三并且或许最为重要的是,在相关时间段占有设保资产的人不得对有担保债权人取得占有权提出异议。
Thus, the secured creditor must obtain the assistance of a court or other authority if the person in possession objects, even if that person is the grantor and even if the grantor has previously agreed to allow the secured creditor to obtain possession extrajudicially.因此,如果占有权人提出异议,即便该人是设保人或即便设保人先前同意允许有担保债权人以非司法手段取得占有权,有担保债权人仍然必须取得法院或其他主管机关的协助。
442.442.
It should be noted, however, that a secured creditor is usually entitled to be reimbursed for its reasonable enforcement costs from the proceeds realized from a disposition of the encumbered asset.然而,应当指出的是,有担保债权人通常有权利用处分设保资产所得收益对其合理强制执行费用进行补偿。
It follows that, as a practical matter, the person in possession is unlikely to raise unfounded objections since this may expose that person to liability to pay the additional costs incurred by the secured creditor in having to seek judicial assistance.由此作为一则实际事项,占有权人无法提出没有根据的异议,因为这可能会让该人承担支付由必须寻求司法援助的有担保债权人所承担的额外费用的责任。
443.443.
Paragraph 3 recognizes that even a relatively short delay in giving the advance notice required by paragraph 2 can be economically wasteful if the encumbered assets are perishable or otherwise likely to decline speedily in value.第3款承认,如果设保资产是易腐资产或不然有可能迅速贬值的资产,在按照第2款要求发送预先通知上即便出现相对较小的拖延也可能造成经济上的浪费。
Accordingly, paragraph 3 dispenses with the advance notice requirement in those cases.因此,第3款免除了在这些情况下的预先通知要求。
444.444.
Under paragraph 4, a lower-ranking secured creditor is not entitled to obtain possession of an encumbered asset that is in the possession of a higher-ranking secured creditor, unless otherwise agreed.根据第4款,除非另行约定,不然排序较低的有担保债权人无权取得由排序较高的有担保债权人占有的设保资产占有权。
The purpose of this provision is twofold. First, to ensure that the lower-ranking secured creditor cannot interfere with the exercise of the enforcement rights of the higher-ranking secured creditor who has obtained possession for the purposes of enforcement.这条规定有两个目的,首先是确保排序较低的有担保债权人无法干预为强制执行的目的而获取占有权的排序较高的有担保债权人行使其强制执行的权利。
Second, to ensure that the security right of a higher-ranking secured creditor that was made effective against third parties by possession does not cease to be effective against third parties or lose its priority status achieved through possession being lost to the lower-ranking secured creditor.其次是确保通过占有取得对抗第三方效力的排序较高的有担保债权人的担保权不致失去对抗第三方的效力,也确保通过占有而实现的优先权地位不致丢失给排序较低的有担保债权人。
445.445.
It should be noted that the lower-ranking secured creditor may exercise its right to dispose of the encumbered asset under article 78 without obtaining possession, for example, by selling it extrajudicially.应当指出的是,排序较低的有担保债权人可根据第78条行使其处分设保资产的权利,而不会例如通过以非司法手段出售资产取得占有权。
The buyer in this situation will acquire its rights subject to the right of the higher-ranking secured creditor, but, as a practical matter, could obtain possession only by paying off the higher-ranking secured creditor (see art. 81, para. 3, and para. 461 below).这种情形中的买受人取得其权利将连带排序较高的有担保债权人的权利,但是作为一则实际事项,只能通过向排序较高的有担保债权人付款而取得占有权(见第81条第3款和下文第461段)。
If the lower-ranking secured creditor instead exercises its disposition right judicially, the security right of the higher-ranking secured creditor will be extinguished (in States that enact art. 81, para. 1 in accordance with para. 460 below), meaning that the buyer will be entitled to obtain possession.如果排序较低的有担保债权人以司法手段行使其处分权,排序较高的有担保债权人的担保权即告消灭(在根据下文第460段颁布了第81条第1款的国家),这就意味着买受人将有权取得占有权。
However, the higher-ranking secured creditor will be entitled to priority of payment out of the proceeds of the disposition (see art. 79).然而,排序较高的有担保债权人将有权享有处分收益的优先受付权(见第79条)。
It follows that the lower-ranking creditor is unlikely to initiate judicial disposition proceedings unless the proceeds to be realised from the disposition of the encumbered asset are likely to be sufficient to satisfy both its claim and the amount owed to the higher-ranking secured creditor.排序较低的债权人由此将无法启动司法处分程序,除非由处分设保资产所得收益有可能足以满足其求偿权和对排序较高的有担保债权人的欠款。
Article 78.第78条.
Right of the secured creditor to dispose of an encumbered asset有担保债权人处分设保资产的权利
446.446.
Article 78 is based on recommendations 148-151 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 48 and 57-60).第78条基于《担保交易指南》建议148-151(见第八章,第48段和第57-60段)。
Paragraph 1 provides that the secured creditor may sell or otherwise dispose of, lease or license an encumbered asset judicially or extrajudicially.第1款规定,有担保债权人可以采用司法或非司法手段出售设保资产或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可设保资产。
Paragraph 2 provides that, if the secured creditor elects the former option it must act in accordance with the rules specified by the enacting State that determine the method, manner, time, place and other aspects of the sale or other disposition, lease or licence.第2款规定,如果有担保债权人选择前一个选项,则必须根据拟由颁布国指明的据以确定出售或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可设保资产的方法、方式、时间、地点和其他方面的规则行事。
It should be noted that a secured creditor may exercise this right in relation to a tangible asset without necessarily obtaining possession and that the right could also be exercised when the encumbered asset was an intangible asset (see para. 440 above).应当指出的是,有担保债权人可就某项有形资产行使该项权利,而不一定需要获取占有权,在设保资产是无形资产时,也可行使该项权利(见上文第440段)。
447.447.
Paragraphs 3-8 deal with extrajudicial dispositions by the secured creditor.第3-8款处理有担保债权人的非司法处分问题。
Under paragraph 3, provided that its actions are in conformity with the overarching obligation to act in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner (see art. 4), the secured creditor is entitled to determine all aspects of the sale or other disposition, lease or licence, including: (a) the method, manner, time and place; and (b) whether to sell or otherwise dispose of, lease or license the encumbered assets individually, in groups or all together (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, paras. 71-73).第3款规定,如果其行动符合以善意和商业合理方式行事的首要义务(见第4条),有担保债权人有权确定出售或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可的所有各个方面,其中包括:(a)方法、方式、时间和地点;以及(b)是否个别、分类或一并出售或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可设保资产(见《担保交易指南》第八章,第71-73段)。
448.448.
Under paragraph 4, the secured creditor must give advance written notice of its intention to dispose of the encumbered assets extrajudicially to the grantor, the debtor, any person with a right in the encumbered asset that notifies the secured creditor in writing of those rights, any other secured creditor that registered a notice in the Registry and any other secured creditor in possession (see paras. 4 (a)-(d)).根据第4款,有担保债权人必须预先书面通知其以非司法手段将设保资产处分给设保人、债务人、对设保资产享有权利的任何人的意图,该通知将把这些权利书面通知债权人、在登记处办理通知登记的任何其他有担保债权人以及占有该设保资产的任何其他有担保债权人(见第4(a)-(d)款)。
In the case of other persons with rights in the encumbered asset that notified the enforcing secured creditor of their rights or secured creditors that registered a notice in the Registry (see paras. 4 (b) and (c)), the enforcing secured creditor has to give notice of its intention to those persons before the notice is sent to the grantor.至于将其权利通知采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人的对设保资产享有权利的其他人或在登记处办理通知登记的有担保债权人(见第4(b)和(c)款),采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人必须在向设保人发送通知之前向这些人送交其意图通知。
The enacting State will need to specify a short period of time which should exist before the notice is sent to the grantor (e.g. one to five days to allow those other secured creditors to exercise their rights, for example, to take over enforcement under article 76).颁布国需要指明在向设保人发送通知前至少应存在的短暂时期(例如一天至五天以便允许其他这些有担保债权人行使其例如根据第76条接管强制执行的权利)。
449.449.
Paragraph 5 sets out the specific information that must be included in the notice.第5款载有必须列入通知的具体信息。
The enacting State will need to specify the period of advance notice (e.g. 10 to 15 days, to give the grantor and other addressees of the notice sufficient time to consider whether to take any action, including whether to exercise their right under art. 75 to terminate the enforcement process).颁布国需要指明预先通知的时期(例如十天至十五天以便让设保人和其他通知收件人有充足的时间来考虑是否采取任何行动,包括是否行使其在第75条下的终止强制执行程序的权利)。
Paragraph 6 requires the notice to be in a language that is reasonably expected to inform the recipient about its content and paragraph 7 provides that the language of the security agreement is sufficient to meet this standard.第6款要求通知以有理由期望向收件人通报其内容的语文写成,第7款规定担保协议所用语言应足以符合该标准。
450.450.
Under paragraph 8, the notice need not be given if the encumbered asset is perishable, may decline in value speedily, or is of a kind sold on a recognized market.根据第8款,如果设保资产属于易腐资产、可能会迅速贬值的资产或者属于在获得承认的市场上出售的某类资产,则不需要发送通知。
"Recognized market" in this context means an organized market in which large volumes of similar assets are bought and sold between many different sellers and buyers, and accordingly one in which prices are set by the market and not negotiated between individual sellers and buyers.在此情况下的“获得承认的市场”是指在许多不同的卖方和买方之间买卖大量类似资产的有组织的市场,因而其价格将由市场决定,而并非由个别卖方和买方议定。
For example, a recognized market would include a commodity exchange through which commodities (e.g. coffee) may be bought and sold at publicly-quoted prices.举例说,得到承认的市场将包括以公开报价买卖商品(咖啡等)的商品交易市场。
Article 79.第79条.
Distribution of the proceeds of a disposition of an encumbered asset and debtor's liability for any deficiency设保资产处分收益的分配以及债务人对任何缺额的偿付责任
451.451.
Article 79 is based on recommendations 152-155 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 60-64).第79条基于《担保交易指南》建议152-155(见第八章第60-64段)。
It addresses the distribution of the proceeds of a sale or other disposition, lease or licence under article 78.它述及根据第78条出售或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可所得收益的分配。
If the secured creditor initiated the disposition by application to a court or other authority, paragraph 1 provides that distribution of the proceeds is determined by rules that must be specified by the enacting State, but the distribution must be in accordance with the priority provisions of the Model Law.如果有担保债权人通过向法院或其他主管机关提出申请而启动处分进程,第1款规定,收益的分配将根据由颁布国指明的规则确定,但分配必须符合《示范法》的优先权规定。
This requirement should be read in light of article 81, paragraphs 1 and 2.应当结合第81条第1和2款解读该项要求。
Article 79, paragraph 1, requires secured creditors to be paid from the proceeds of a court-supervised disposition in their order of priority. Thus, the enacting State should specify in article 81, paragraphs 1 and 2, that a transferee acquires its rights in the encumbered asset free of, and a lessee or licensee is entitled to the benefit of the lease or licence unaffected by, any security rights in the encumbered asset, including security rights having priority over the security right of the enforcing creditor (see para. 459 below).第79条第1款要求要求使用由法院监督的处分所得收益按优先次序向有担保债权人付款,因此,颁布国应当在第81条第1和2款中规定受让人在获得其在设保资产上权利时不连带设保资产上的任何担保权,包括对采取强制执行行动的债权人的担保权享有优先权的担保权,并且承租人或被许可人有权在不受此类担保权影响的情况下获得租赁或许可的惠益(见下文第459段)。
452.452.
Paragraph 2 addresses the distribution of the proceeds of an extrajudicial sale or other disposition, lease or licence that is carried out by a secured creditor.第2款述及由有担保债权人执行的非司法出售或以其他方式处分、租赁或许可所得收益的分配问题。
Under paragraph 2 (a), the enforcing secured creditor is entitled to apply the proceeds in satisfaction of the obligation secured by its security right after first reimbursing itself for its reasonable costs of enforcement.根据第2(a)款,采取强制执行的有担保债权人有权利用该收益以在首先扣除其强制执行合理费用后清偿由其担保权作保的债务。
Under paragraph 2 (b), any surplus must be paid to lower-ranking competing claimants that have notified the enforcing secured creditor of their claims, with any remaining balance then paid to the grantor.根据第2(b)款,必须把任何余额支付给向采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人通报其求偿权的排序较低的相竞求偿人,所剩下的任何余额然后将支付给设保人。
This is so because the rights of lower-ranking competing claimants in the encumbered asset are extinguished under article 81, paragraph 3.之所以这样做是因为,排序较低的相竞求偿人对设保资产的权利根据第81条第3款即告消灭。
Alternatively, in order to relieve the enforcing creditor of having to determine the order of priority of competing claimants, paragraph 2 (c) entitles the enforcing secured creditor to pay the surplus to the judicial or other authority or fund specified by the enacting State for distribution in accordance with the provisions of the Model Law on priority.不然的话,为了免除采取强制执行行动的债权人必须确定相竞求偿人优先权先后次序的义务,第2(c)款规定采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人有权将余额支付给司法机关或其他主管机关或由颁布国指明的基金,以便根据《示范法》有关优先权的规定进行分配。
It should be emphasized that paragraph 2 (c) does not entitle higher-ranking creditors to payment from the proceeds.应当强调的是,第2(c)款并没有赋予排序较高的债权人从收益中获得支付的权利。
This is because, under article 81, paragraphs 3 and 4, the security right of a higher-ranking secured creditor is not extinguished by an extrajudicial disposition made by a lower-ranking secured creditor.这是因为根据第81条第3和4款,排序较高的有担保债权人的担保权不会因为由排序较低的有担保债权人进行非司法处分而告消灭。
453.453.
If the net proceeds of disposition are insufficient to satisfy the obligation secured by the security right of the enforcing secured creditor, paragraph 3 confirms that the debtor remains personally obliged to pay the deficiency.如果处分的净收益不足以清偿由采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人的担保权作保的债务,第3款确认,债务人仍然承担支付缺额的个人义务。
The Model Law does not address the question of whether the debtor's obligation may be reduced or extinguished if the secured creditor failed to comply with the provisions of this chapter governing dispositions or failed to exercise its post-default rights in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner.《示范法》未述及如果有担保债权人未遵守本章有关处分的条文或未以善意和商业合理方式行使其违约后权利则债务人债务可否减少或消灭的问题。
Whether the debtor has a claim or counter-claim in these circumstances is a matter left to other law of the enacting State, including in particular its consumer protection law.债务人在这些情形下是否享有诉权或反诉权属于留待颁布国其他法律包括特别是其保护消费者法律处理的事项。
454.454.
For the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 to operate as intended, the secured creditor will need to provide an account of the disposition, specifying the amount of proceeds realized, how they were distributed and the amount of any surplus or deficiency.为了使第2和3款的条文发挥预期作用,有担保债权人需要详细说明处分情况,指明已实现收益的数量、处分方式及任何余额或缺额。
Article 80.第80条.
Right to propose the acquisition of an encumbered asset by the secured creditor有担保债权人提议获取设保资产的权利
455.455.
Article 80 is based on recommendations 156-159 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 65-70).第80条基于《担保交易指南》建议156-159(见第八章第65-70段)。
It applies to the enforcement of a security right in both tangible and intangible assets.它适用于有形资产和无形资产上担保权的强制执行。
Paragraph 1 entitles a secured creditor to make a proposal in writing to acquire one or more of the encumbered assets in total or partial satisfaction of the obligation secured by its security right.第1款让有担保债权人有权提出获取一种或多种设保资产以全部或部分清偿由其担保权作保的债务的书面建议。
Under paragraph 2, the secured creditor must send the proposal to the same categories of persons to whom advance notice of an intended extrajudicial disposition must be sent under article 78, paragraph 4 (see para. 448 above).根据第2款,有担保债权人必须向根据第78条第4款给其发送预期非司法处分预先通知的同一类人发送该建议(见上文第448段)。
In the case of other persons with rights in the encumbered asset that notified the enforcing secured creditor of their rights or secured creditors that registered a notice in the Registry (see paras. 2 (b) and (c)), the enforcing secured creditor has to give notice to those other secured creditors at least a short period of time specified by the enacting State (e.g. one to five days to allow those persons to exercise their rights before the proposal is sent) before the proposal is sent to the grantor.对于将其权利通知采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人的对设保资产享有权利的其他人或对于已在登记处办理通知登记的有担保债权人(见第2款(b)和(c)项),采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人必须至少在将建议发送给设保人之前的由颁布国指明的短暂时期内(例如一天至五天以便让这些人得以在发送建议前行使其权利)向这些其他有担保债权人发送通知。
456.456.
Paragraph 3 sets out the required content of the proposal.第3款载有建议的必需内容。
Whether a proposal that contains erroneous information or omits required information would result in the secured creditor failing to acquire the encumbered asset would depend (by analogy to article 81, paragraph 5) on whether the error or omission materially prejudiced the rights of the persons entitled to receive the proposal (e.g. a substantial misstatement of the amount of the secured obligation would typically be viewed as resulting in material prejudice).所含信息错误或遗漏所需信息的建议是否将导致有担保债权人无法获取设保资产将比照第81条第5款而取决于所涉差错或遗漏(例如对有担保债务数额的陈述严重失实通常被视为将会造成严重损害)是否严重损害有权收到建议的人的权利。
457.457.
In the case of a proposal for the acquisition of an encumbered asset in full satisfaction of the secured obligation, paragraph 4 provides that the secured creditor acquires the encumbered asset so long as none of the persons to whom the proposal must be sent under paragraph 2 objects before the expiry of the period specified by the enacting State after they receive the proposal (e.g. 10 to 15 days to allow these persons sufficient time to consider whether they should object).对于获取设保资产以全额清偿有担保债务的建议,第4款规定,只要根据第2款必须向其发送建议的收件人在收到建议后由颁布国指明的时期(例如10天至15天以便让这些人有充足时间考虑是否应当提出异议)期满前均未提出异议,有担保债权人即获取设保资产。
If a timely objection is made, the secured creditor may not proceed further and may only enforce its security right by disposition under article 78 (or collection under art. 82 where the encumbered asset is a right to payment).如果及时提出异议,有担保债权人则不得采取进一步行动,并且根据第78条只可以通过处分的手段强制执行其担保权(或在设保资产是受付权的情况下根据第82条享有收取权)。
458.458.
In the case of a proposal for the acquisition of an encumbered asset in partial satisfaction of the secured obligation, paragraph 5 provides that the secured creditor acquires the encumbered asset only if all of the persons to whom the proposal must be sent under paragraph 2 positively consent before the expiry of the period specified by the enacting State after they receive the proposal (e.g. 45 days to allow these persons sufficient time to consider whether they should accept).对于获取设保资产以部分清偿有担保债务的建议,第5款规定,只有在根据第2款必须向其发送建议的收件人均在收到建议后由颁布国指明的时期(例如45天以便让这些人有充足时间考虑是否予以接受)期满前表示积极同意的前提下,有担保债权人方可获取设保资产。
The requirement of positive consent in this paragraph is intended to protect the debtor, since, as the secured obligation is only partially satisfied, it would remain liable for the balance of the obligation.本款有关积极同意的要求意在保护债务人,因为由于有担保债务只是得到部分清偿,其仍然对债务余额负有偿付责任。
It is also to protect any lower-ranking claimant whose rights would be extinguished under article 81 paragraph 3 (see para. 461 below).这也是为了保护根据第81条第3款其权利将告消灭的任何排序较低的求偿人(见下文第461段)。
As in the case of an unsuccessful proposal under paragraph 3, if the secured creditor does not obtain positive consent, it may only enforce its security right by disposition under article 78 (or collection if the encumbered asset is one of the rights to payment set out in art. 82).如同第3款所述不成功的建议,如果有担保债权人未获积极同意,则根据第78条只可以采用处分手段强制执行其担保权(或如果设保资产属于第82条所述某一受付权则可享有收取权)。
459.459.
Paragraph 6 entitles the grantor to request the secured creditor to make a proposal under paragraph 1.第6款让设保人有权请求有担保债权人根据第1款提出建议。
If the secured creditor agrees, paragraphs 1-5 apply in the same manner as if the secured creditor had been the one to initiate the proposal process.如果有担保债权人同意的话,第1-5款则以相同方式予以适用,如同有担保债权人是启动建议进程的人。
In other words, this provision is merely facilitative in nature since the formal proposal process remains the same even where it is initially triggered by a request from the grantor to the secured creditor.换言之,该项条文仅提供一些方便,因为正式的建议进程即便最初经由设保人向有担保债权人提出请求而予启动也将不会有任何变化
Article 81.第81条.
Rights acquired in an encumbered asset在设保资产上获取的权利
460.460.
Article 81 is based on recommendations 160-163 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 74-81).第81条基于《担保交易指南》建议160-163(见第八章第74-81段)。
It addresses the rights acquired by a buyer or other transferee, or a lessee or licensee, pursuant to a disposition under article 78.它述及买受人或其他受让人或承租人或被许可人依照根据第78条进行的处分而获取的权利。
Paragraphs 1 and 2 address judicially-supervised dispositions and require the enacting State to specify: (a) in the case of a sale or other transfer, whether or not the transferee acquires the encumbered asset free of any rights; and (b) in the case of a lease or licence, whether or not the lessee or licensee remains entitled to use the encumbered asset during the term of the lease or licence.第1和2款述及由司法监督的处分,并且要求颁布国指明:(a)在出售或其他转让情况下,受让人是否不连带任何权利获取设保资产;及(b)在租赁或许可情况下,承租人或被许可人是否仍然有权在租赁或许可期间使用设保资产。
As already noted (see para. 451 above), article 79, paragraph 1, requires the distribution of the proceeds of a judicial sale or other disposition, lease or licence to be made in accordance with the priority rules of the Model Law.如同已经注意到的(见上文第451段),第79条第1款要求对司法出售或其他处分所得收益的分配、租赁或许可均根据《示范法》优先权规则进行。
This requirement means that all secured creditors are entitled to share in the proceeds in order of priority.该要求意味着,所有有担保债权人均有权按优先次序分享收益。
It follows that the enacting State should specify in paragraphs 1 and 2 that a buyer or other transferee acquires the encumbered asset free of, and a lessee or licensee is entitled to the benefit of the lease or licence unaffected by, any security rights (including security rights ranking higher in priority to that of the enforcing secured creditor).颁布国应由此在第1和2款中规定买受人或其他受让人获取设保资产不连带任何担保权(包括优先权排序高于采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人的担保权),并规定承租人或被许可人有权享有租赁或许可的益处,而不受任何担保权(包括优先权排序高于采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人的担保权)的影响。
461.461.
Paragraphs 3 and 4 take a different approach in the case of an extrajudicial sale or other disposition, lease or licence of an encumbered asset.第3和4款对于设保资产非司法出售或其他处分、租赁或许可采取了不同的做法。
Under paragraph 3, a buyer or other transferee acquires the grantor's right in the encumbered asset free of the security right of the enforcing creditor and the rights of any subordinate competing claimants, but subject to the rights of secured creditors that have priority over the rights of the enforcing secured creditor.根据第3款,买受人或其他受让人获取设保人在设保资产上的权利不连带采取强制执行行动的债权人的权利和任何排序较低的相竞求偿人的权利,但受制于享有相对于采取强制执行行动的有担保债权人权利优先权的有担保债权人权利。
The enacting State may wish to consider providing that the rule in article 81, paragraph 3, applies also in the case of the acquisition of an encumbered asset by the secured creditor (see Secured Transactions Guide, rec. 161, second sentence).颁布国不妨考虑规定,第81条第3款中的规则也适用于有担保债权人获取设保资产的情况(见《担保交易指南》建议161,第二句)。
462.462.
Paragraph 4 similarly provides that a lessee or licensee under a lease or licence granted by the enforcing creditor is entitled to the benefit of the lease or licence during its term except as against creditors that have priority over the rights of the enforcing creditor.第4款同样规定,承租人或被许可人在由负责强制执行的债权人准予的租赁或许可下有权享有租赁或许可期间的益处,除非该租赁或许可不利于享有相对于采取强制执行行动的债权人权利优先权的债权人。
The reason for the difference in approach is that higherranking secured creditors are not entitled to share in the proceeds of an extrajudicial enforcement initiated by a lower-ranking creditor (see art. 79, para. 2, and para. 452 above).做法有此不同的原因是,排序较高的有担保债权人无权分享由排序较低的债权人启动的非司法强制执行所得收益(见第79条第2款和上文第452段)。
It follows that a buyer or other transferee will discount the price it is willing to pay for the encumbered asset by the value of any prior-ranking security rights and a lessee or licensee will discount the amount of the rental payments it is willing to pay to address the risk that its right of use may be disrupted if the higher-ranking secured creditor elects to enforce its security right.买受人或其他受让人由此将愿意按照任何排序在先的担保权价值对其设保资产支付款提供折扣,租赁人或被许可人将对其愿意支付的租金数额提供折扣,以处理如果排序较高的有担保债权人选择强制执行其担保权则租赁人或被许可人的使用权可能受到影响的风险问题。
463.463.
Paragraph 5 provides that the rights acquired by a buyer or other transferee, or a lessee or licensee under paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article are affected by the enforcing creditor's failure to comply with the requirements of this chapter only if two conditions are satisfied.第5款规定,买受人或其他受让人或租赁人或被许可人根据本条第3和4款获取的权利只有在满足两个条件的情况下方才受到采取强制执行行动的债权人未遵守本章要求的影响。
First, they must have had knowledge of the violation, and second, the breach must have materially prejudiced their rights.第一个条件是,其必须对侵权知情;第二个条件是,该侵权必须严重损害其权利。
B.B.
Asset-specific rules资产特定规则
Article 82.第82条.
Collection of payment收取付款
464.464.
Article 82 is based on recommendations 169-171, 173 and 175 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 93-98, 102-108, 111 and 112).第82条基于《担保交易指南》建议169-171、173和175(见第八章第93-98段、第102-108段、第111和112段)。
It provides secured creditors with an additional enforcement right where the encumbered asset is a receivable, negotiable instrument, right to payment of funds credited to a bank account or non-intermediated security.它赋予有担保债权人在设保资产是应收款、可转让票据、银行账户贷记款受付权或非中介证券的情况下享有额外的强制执行权。
Paragraph 1 entitles the secured creditor to collect payment directly from the relevant obligor after default, as an alternative to selling or otherwise disposing of the encumbered asset under article 78.第1款让有担保债权人有权在发生违约后直接向相关承付人收取付款,以此作为根据第78条出售或以其他方式处分设保资产的一种替代办法。
Under paragraph 2, with the agreement of the grantor, the secured creditor may exercise its right to collect even before default.根据第2款,在设保人同意的情况下,有担保债权人甚至在发生违约前都可行使其收取权。
Under paragraph 3, a secured creditor that collects under paragraph 1 or 2 has the benefit of any personal or property right that secures or supports payment of the encumbered asset (such as a guarantee or a stand-by letter of credit; see art. 14).根据第3款,根据第1或2款享有收取权的有担保债权人享有给支付设保资产作保或提供支持的任何对人权或对财产权的益处(例如保证或备用信用证;见第14条)。
465.465.
Paragraph 4 limits the secured creditor's right of collection if the encumbered asset is a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account and the security right was made effective against third parties solely by registration.第4款对在设保资产是银行账户贷记款受付权并且纯粹通过登记办法让担保权取得对抗第三方效力前提下有担保债权人所享有的收取权作了限定。
In this situation, the secured creditor is entitled to collect (or otherwise enforce, for example, through a sale under art. 78 or through a proposal under art. 80) only if it obtains a court order or the deposit-taking institution consents.在此情况下,有担保债权人只是在得到法院命令或接收存款机构表示同意的前提下方可享有收取权(或不然例如可根据第78条通过出售办法或根据第80条通过提出建议的办法加以强制执行)。
Paragraph 4 does not limit a secured creditor's right of collection where its security right was made effective against third parties by a method other than registration; that is: (a) automatically by the security right being created in favour of the deposit-taking institution itself; (b) by the conclusion of a control agreement between the deposit-taking institution, the grantor (account holder) and the secured creditor; or (c) by the secured creditor becoming the account holder, a method that requires the consent of the institution (see art. 25).第4款对在通过非登记方法使其担保权取得对抗第三方效力前提下有担保债权人所享有的收取权未作限制;这些方法是:(a)通过给接收存款机构创设担保权自动取得对抗第三方效力;(b)通过在接收存款机构、设保人(账户持有人)和有担保债权人之间订立控制权协议;或(c)通过有担保债权人成为账户持有人,该方法要求取得该机构的同意(见第25条)。
The objective of this approach is to exempt deposittaking institutions from having to respond to a request for payment sent by a person that asserts to have a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to the grantor's account unless the institution has actively consented to the creation of that security right (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. VIII, para. 107).采取这种做法的目的是,以免接收存款机构除非主动同意创设担保权则不得不对声称拥有设保人账户贷记款受付权上担保权的人发送的付款请求作出回应(见《担保交易指南》,第八章,第107段)。
Article 83.第83条.
Collection of payment by an outright transferee of a receivable应收款彻底受让人收取付款
466.466.
Article 83 is based on recommendations 167-168 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. VIII, paras. 99-101).第83条基于《担保交易指南》建议167-168(见第八章,第99-101段)。
It provides that, in the case of an outright transfer of a receivable, the transferee is entitled to collect the receivable at any time provided that payment has become due.它规定,对于应收款的彻底转让,受让人有权在支付到期的前提下随时收取应收款。
It should be noted that the overarching obligation of good faith and commercial reasonableness in article 4 also extends to the collection of receivables by an outright transferee.应当指出的是,第4款所载善意和商业合理性的首要义务也延伸至彻底受让人收取应收款。
As a practical matter, where the receivable is transferred outright without recourse, the transferor cannot by definition be prejudiced by the failure of the transferee to act in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner in exercising its collection right.作为一则实际事项,在未经追索而彻底转让应收款的情况下,就其定义而言,转让人不会因受让人在行使其收取权时未以善意和商业合理方式行事而受到损害。
However, the standard in article 4 is a general one and would still apply to protect the obligor on the receivable as well as a prior-ranking creditor even in the case of an outright transfer without recourse.然而,第4款中的标准是一项一般标准,即便在未经追索彻底转让的情况下,也将仍然适用于对应收款债务人和排序在先的债权人的保护。
Chapter VIII.第八章.
Conflict of laws法律冲突
Introduction导言
467.467.
Chapter VIII of the Model Law states the rules for determining the State whose substantive law is applicable to the issues dealt with in the other chapters.《示范法》第八章阐述了确定对其他章节所述问题适用的国家的实体法规则。
These rules are generally referred to as the conflict-of-laws rules.这些规则通常称作法律冲突规则。
In a State that has enacted the Model Law, a court or other authority will use the conflict-of-laws rules of chapter VIII to determine which State's substantive law will govern issues such as the creation, effectiveness against third parties, priority and enforcement of a security right, as well as the mutual rights and obligations of the grantor and the secured creditor and the rights and obligations between third-party obligors and secured creditors.在颁布《示范法》的国家里,法院或其他主管机关使用第八章法律冲突规则来确定在本国实体法中究竟由哪一项法律来管辖担保权创设、对抗第三方效力、优先权和强制执行、设保人与有担保债权人之间相互权利和义务、第三方承付人与有担保债权人之间权利和义务之类问题。
The substantive law indicated by the conflict-of-laws rules may be that of the enacting State or the law of another State.法律冲突规则所指的实体法可以是颁布国的法律,也可以是另一国的法律。
468.468.
It should be noted that, in the event of judicial proceedings in a State, a court or other authority in that State will typically apply: (a) the substantive law of its own legal system to characterize a transaction (e.g. whether it is a secured transaction in a strict sense or a different kind of transaction such as a retentionof-title sale) or a related issue (e.g. whether it is a priority or enforcement issue) for the purpose of selecting the appropriate conflict-of-laws rule; (b) the conflictof-laws rules of its own legal system to determine which State's law is applicable to the substance of the dispute; and (c) the substantive law of the State whose law is applicable according to the conflict-of-laws rules of the forum State (for a more elaborate discussion of the role of conflict-of-laws rules, see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, paras. 1-13).应当指出,如一国开展司法程序,则其法院或其他主管机关通常将适用:(a)本国法律体系中的实体法来定性一项交易(例如,是一项严格意义上的担保交易,还是一种不同的交易,如保留所有权销售),或一个相关问题(例如,是优先权问题还是强制执行问题),以选择适当的法律冲突规则;(b)本国法律体系中的法律冲突规则来确定哪国的法律可适用于争议的实质内容;(c)其法律根据法院地国法律冲突规则可适用的国家的实体法(关于法律冲突规则更为详细的讨论,见《担保交易指南》第十章,第1-13段)。
For example, if a State enacts the Model Law and a court in that State characterizes a transaction as a secured transaction in accordance with the Model Law, it would use the rules in chapter VIII to determine which State's substantive law rules should apply, and then apply those rules.例如,如果一国颁布了《示范法》,且该国法院根据《示范法》把一项交易定性为担保交易,则它将用第八章规则来确定究竟适用本国哪些实体法规则,然后适用这些规则。
469.469.
The application of the conflict-of-laws rules in chapter VIII are not conditional on a prior determination that a particular case presents an international element.适用第八章法律冲突规则,不以事先确定特定案件具有国际要素为条件。
Thus, whenever a conflict-of-laws rule in this chapter refers to the law of a State, that reference should not be refused on the ground of the absence of true "internationally".因此,凡本章法律冲突规则提及某国法律时,不应以缺乏真正“国际性”为由拒绝该提及。
Otherwise, courts might disregard a conflict-of-laws rule in this chapter by deciding that the case is not sufficiently international on the basis of discretionary criteria that are not part of the conflict-of-laws rules.否则,法院就可能会无视本章法律冲突规则,而根据不属于法律冲突规则的自由裁量标准裁定有关案件国际性不足。
470.470.
The conflict-of-laws rules relating to the determination of the law applicable to the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority and enforcement of a security right, as well as to the effect of a security right on a third-party obligor are mandatory (see art. 3, para. 1, and para. 73 above).有关确定可适用于担保权创设、第三方效力、优先权和强制执行、也可适用于担保权对第三方承付人的影响的法律冲突规则是强制性规则(见第3条第1款和上文第73段)。
Therefore, with respect to those matters, the parties cannot be permitted by a choice-of-law clause to avoid the application of the substantive law of the State to which a conflict-of-laws rule refers.因此,关于这些事项,法律冲突规则无法允许当事人避免适用法律冲突规则所涉国家的实体法。
This is because security rights are property (in rem) rights and thus affect third parties (see art. 3, para. 2, and para. 74 above).这是因为,担保权属于财产权(对物权),因而影响到第三方(见第3条第2款和上文第74段)。
Allowing the parties to a security agreement to select the applicable conflict-of-laws rule where the selection has third-party effects would also defeat one of the main purposes of the conflict-oflaws rules, which is to identify the State whose substantive law is to apply in the event of a priority dispute among competing claimants.允许担保协议当事人选择影响第三方的可适用法律冲突规则,还无法实现法律冲突规则的一个主要目的,即确定在相竞求偿人之间出现优先权争议时适用哪个国家的实体法。
For example, if there is a priority dispute between secured creditor X and secured creditor Y, it would be impossible for third parties to ascertain the law applicable to the resolution of the dispute if each of X and Y were permitted to choose in their security agreement a different governing law for the ranking of their respective security rights.例如,如果允许有担保债权人X和有担保债权人Y在其担保协议中各自选择不同的管辖法律,对各自担保权进行排名,那么,在X与Y之间出现优先权争议时,就无法让第三方确定适用于解决争议的法律。
By contrast, article 84 expressly provides for the possibility of the choice of the applicable law by the parties with respect to their mutual rights and obligations arising from their security agreement.相形之下,第84条则明确规定对当事人之间的担保协议所产生的相互权利和义务当事人可以选择适用法律。
This is because their choice of law has no effect on the rights of third parties.这是因为其对法律的选择不影响第三方权利。
A.A.
General rules一般规则
Article 84.第84条.
Mutual rights and obligations of the grantor and the secured creditor设保人和有担保债权人的相互权利和义务
471.471.
Article 84 is based on recommendation 216 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, para. 61).第84条基于《担保交易指南》建议216(见第十章,第61段)。
Following the approach of international texts such as the Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts (the "Hague Principles"), article 84 states that the law chosen by the parties to a security agreement is the law applicable to their mutual rights and obligations arising from their agreement (subject only to the limitations set out in article 93).第84条沿用了《海牙国际商事合同法律选择原则》(“《海牙原则》”)等国际文书所用的做法,申明担保协议当事人选择的法律是可适用于依其协议而产生的相互权利和义务的法律(只须符合第93条所述的限制)。
As already mentioned (see para. 470 above), matters relating to the property aspects of secured transactions are outside the scope of article 84.前面已经提到(见上文第470段),有关担保交易财产方面的事项不属于第84条的范围。
The parties cannot select the law that is to govern these matters.当事人不能选择管辖这些事项的法律。
Other matters, such as the ability of the parties to choose different laws for different aspects of their contractual relationship or to modify their choice of law, are left to other conflict-of-laws rules of the enacting State (see, for example, art. 2 (2) and (3) of the Hague Principles).其他事项,如当事人为其合同关系的不同方面选择不同法律的能力或者修改其法律选择的能力,都留给颁布国其他法律冲突规则处理(例如见《海牙原则》第2条第2款和第3款)。
472.472.
In the absence of a choice of law by the parties, article 84 refers to the law governing the security agreement as determined by the conflict-of-laws rules generally applicable to contractual obligations.在当事人没有选择法律的情况下,第84条提到了法律冲突规则确定的可普遍适用于合同义务的担保协议规范法律。
For example, this law may be the law of the State: (a) which is most closely connected to the security agreement (e.g. the State in which a security agreement is entered into and performed, and in which both parties are located); (b) in which the characteristic performance of the agreement is to be made (e.g. the delivery of the goods in a sales agreement or the extension of credit in a credit agreement); or (c) in which the security agreement is entered into.举例说,法律可以是下述国家的法律:(a)与担保协议关系最密切的国家(例如担保协议订立和执行及双方当事人所在地国家);(b)将进行协议特种履行(比如销售协议中交付货物或信贷协议中信用展期)的国家;或者(c)订立担保协议所在地国。
Article 85.第85条.
Security rights in tangible assets有形资产担保权
473.473.
Article 85 is based on recommendations 203-207 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 28-38).第85条基于《担保交易指南》建议203-207(见第十章,第28-38段)。
It deals with the law applicable to the creation, effectiveness against third parties and priority of a security right in a tangible asset (for the law applicable to the enforcement of such a security right, see art. 88, subpara. (a), and para. 483 below).它涉及有形资产担保权创设、对抗第三方的效力和优先权的适用法律(关于可适用于强制执行此类担保权的法律,见第88条(a)项和下文第483段)。
The term "tangible asset" is defined to refer generally to all types of tangible movable asset and to include money, negotiable instruments, negotiable documents and certificated non-intermediated securities (see art. 2, subpara. (ll); see also Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, para. 26).“有形资产”一词一般系指所有类别的有形动产,包括金钱、可转让票据、可转让单证和有凭证非中介证券(见第2条(ll)项;另见《担保交易指南》第十章,第26段)。
474.474.
Paragraph 1 states the general rule that the law applicable to these issues is the law of the State in which the encumbered asset is located (the "lex situs" or the "lex rei sitae"; for the meaning of the term "location", see art. 90, and paras. 488 and 489 below; for the relevant time for determining location, see art. 91).第1款申明这些问题的适用法律是设保资产所在地国的法律(“所在地法”或“物所在地法”;关于“所在地”一词的涵义,见第90条及下文第488和489段;关于确定所在地的有关时间,见第91条)这项一般规则。
The lex situs rule for tangible assets is subject to five exceptions that are set out in articles 85, paragraphs 2 to 4, 98 and 100.有形资产所在地法规则有五种例外情况,第85条第2至4款、第98条及第100条对此作了阐述。
475.475.
The first exception provides that, if a tangible asset located in a State is covered by a negotiable document in the possession of a secured creditor in another State, the priority of the security right over the asset covered by that document as against the rights of competing claimants will be determined by the law of the State in which the document is located, and not by the law of the State in which the asset covered by that document is located (see art. 85, para. 2).第一种例外情况规定,如果位于一国境内的有形资产为另一国有担保债权人占有的可转让单证所涵盖,那么,该单证所涵盖资产上担保权对抗相竞求偿人的优先权将由单证所在地国的法律确定,而不是由单证所涵盖资产的所在地国法律确定(见第85条第2款)。
Unlike recommendation 206, on which paragraph 2 is based, which referred to priority as against "a competing security right", to cover all priority conflicts (e.g. as against a judgment creditor), paragraph 2 refers to priority "as against the right of a competing claimant".第2款基于建议206;建议206提及对抗“相竞担保权”的优先权以涵盖所有优先权冲突(例如对抗胜诉债权人),第2款则不同,而提及“对抗相竞求偿人权利”的优先权。
476.476.
The second exception points to the law of the State in which the grantor is located for an asset of a type that is ordinarily used in more than one State, that is, a "mobile asset" (see art. 85, para. 3).第二种例外情况指明,对于通常会在一个以上国家使用的某类资产,也就是“移动资产”,适用设保人所在地国的法律(见第85条第3款)。
This exception refers to the ordinary use of assets of this type and not to the actual use of any individual encumbered asset.这种例外情况提到了这种资产的通常使用,而不是任何个别设保资产的实际使用。
For example, as motor vehicles may cross national borders, the rule will apply to a particular motor vehicle even if it is actually used only in one single State.例如,由于机动车辆可以跨越国境,即使某特定机动车辆实际上只在一个国家里使用,也将适用该规则。
477.477.
The third exception deals with a tangible asset (other than a mobile asset) in transit or to be exported (see art. 85, para. 4).第三种例外情况涉及在途或拟出口有形资产(而非移动资产)(见第85条第4款)。
A security right in a tangible asset which is in transit or destined to be moved to another State may be created and made effective against third parties under the law of the State of its ultimate destination, if the asset reaches that destination within the period of time to be specified by the enacting State (e.g. within 45-60 days after the putative creation of the security right to allow sufficient time for the asset to reach its destination).在途或指定移往另一国的有形资产,如果在拟由颁布国明定的时期(例如在推定创设担保权之后容许该资产有充分时间到达其目的地的45-60天内)内到达最终目的地,就可根据最终目的地国的法律创设担保权,并使其取得对抗第三方的效力。
It should be noted that: (a) if the asset does not reach the intended destination within the period specified, the rule in paragraph 4 will not apply; and (b) under the rule in paragraph 1, a secured creditor may also take the necessary steps to create and make the security right effective against third parties under the law of the State in which the asset is actually located at the time such steps are taken.应当指出的是:(a)如果该资产未在明定时期内到达预期目的地,则不适用第4款中的规则;(b)根据第1款中的规则,有担保债权人还可采取必要步骤,根据在采取这类步骤时资产实际所在国的法律创设担保权并使其具有对抗第三方的效力。
It should also be noted that paragraph 4 is a conflict-of-laws rule of the enacting State only and whether the security right will be treated as validly created and made effective against third parties in the State of the ultimate destination of the asset depends on the law applicable under the conflict-of-laws rules of that State.还应当指出的是,第4款只是颁布国的法律冲突规则,担保权在相关资产最终目的地国可否被视为有效创设并取得对抗第三方的效力取决于该国法律冲突规则下的适用法律。
478.478.
The fourth exception is contained in article 98 and is only a partial exception.第四种例外情况载于第98条,而且只是一种部分例外情况。
It applies only to the third-party effectiveness of a security right by registration in certain types of tangible and intangible asset (see paras. 510 and 511 below).只适用通过对某几类有形资产和无形资产办理登记实现的第三方效力(见下文第510和511段。
However, it does not alter the law applicable to other matters under the primary rule in article 85; questions of priority as against competing claimants, for example, will continue to be determined by the law of the State in which the asset is located.不过,它没有改变第85条主要规则规定适用于其他事项的法律;例如,对抗相竞求偿人的优先权问题,将仍然由资产所在地国的法律决定。
479.479.
The fifth exception is contained in article 100. It refers matters relating to a security right in certificated securities to laws other than the law of the State in which the certificate is located (see paras. 515-524 below).第五种例外情况载于第100条,提及有凭证证券担保权所涉事项适用凭证所在地国法律以外的其他法律(见下文第515-524段)。
Article 86.第86条.
Security rights in intangible assets无形资产担保权
480.480.
Article 86 is based on recommendation 208 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 39-47). It states the general conflict-of-laws rule for the creation, effectiveness against third parties and priority of a security right in an intangible asset.第86条基于《担保交易指南》建议208(见第十章,第39-47段),它阐述无形资产担保权创设、对抗第三方的效力和优先权的一般性法律冲突规则。
The applicable law is that of the State in which the grantor is located (for the meaning of "location", see art. 90, and paras. 488 and 489 below; for the relevant time for determining location, see art. 91, and paras. 490-493 below).适用法律是设保人所在地国的法律(关于“所在地”的含义,见第90条及下文第488和489段;关于确定所在地的相关时间,见第91条及下文第490-493段)。
This rule is subject to several exceptions.这条规则也有几种例外情况。
481.481.
The first exception relates to the priority of a security right in a receivable arising from a sale or lease of, or secured by, immovable property (see art. 87, and para. 482 below).第一种例外情况涉及不动产出售、租赁或作保所产生的应收款担保权的优先权(见第87条和下文第482段)。
The other exceptions relate to a security right in rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account (see art. 97, and paras. 506-509 below), intellectual property (see art. 99, and paras. 512-514 below) and uncertificated non-intermediated securities (see art. 100, and paras. 515-524 below), as well as to the third-party effectiveness of a security right in certain types of asset by registration (art. 98, and paras. 510 and 511 below).其他例外情况事关银行账户贷记款受付权担保权(见第97条和下文第506-509段)、知识产权担保权(见第99条及下文第512-514段)和无凭证非中介证券担保权(见第100条及下文第515-524段)。以及某些类型上的担保权通过登记实现的第三方效力(见第98条及下文第510和511段)。
Article 87.第87条.
Security rights in receivables relating to immovable property不动产相关应收款担保权
482.482.
Article 87 is based on recommendation 209 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, para. 54). It deals with the priority of a security right in a receivable arising from a sale or lease of immovable property or secured by immovable property as against the rights of competing claimants.第87条基于《担保交易指南》建议209(见第十章,第54段),它述及不动产出售、租赁或不动产作保所产生的应收款担保权相对于相竞求偿人权利的优先权。
Article 87 is an exception to the general rule of article 86 and refers that matter to the law of the State under whose authority the immovable property registry is maintained.第87条是第86条所述一般规则的一种例外,并将该事项交由负责不动产登记的国家的法律处理。
However, article 87 applies only if the right of a competing claimant is registrable (but not necessarily registered) in the relevant immovable property registry.然而,只有相竞求偿人的权利可以在相关不动产登记处登记(但不一定要登记)时,才适用第87条。
This means that, for a person to be certain which State's law is applicable to the priority of a security right in a receivable, that person needs to determine whether the receivable arose from a sale or lease of, or is secured by, immovable property.这就是说,要让一个人确定对应收款担保权的优先权究竟应适用哪一个国家的法律,该人就需要确定应收款究竟是产生于不动产的出售或租赁还是由不动产作保。
If that person does not find that out that the receivable arose in the circumstances described in this article, the person may make an inaccurate determination of which law governs.如果该人未发现应收款产生于本条所述情况,该人对所应依据的法律就会做出不准确的决断。
Article 88.第88条.
Enforcement of security rights对担保权的强制执行
483.483.
Article 88 is based on recommendation 218 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 64-72).第88条基于《担保交易指南》建议218(见第十章,第64-72段)。
Subparagraph (a) deals with the law applicable to the enforcement of a security right in a tangible asset, as defined in article 2, subparagraph (ll).(a)项述及强制执行第2条(ll)项所定义的有形资产担保权的适用法律。
It refers to the law of the State in which the asset is located at the time of commencement of enforcement.它是指强制执行启动之时资产所在地国的法律。
The rule in subparagraph (a) is subject to one exception.(a)项规则有一种例外情况。
The enforcement of a security right in certificated non-intermediated securities is referred to the law indicated in article 100 (which applies to both certificated and uncertificated securities).强制执行有凭证非中介证券担保权,依照(适用于有凭证证券和无凭证证券的)第100条所述法律进行。
484.484.
It should be noted that enforcement may involve several distinct actions (e.g. notice of the secured creditor's intent to obtain possession of an encumbered asset without applying to a court or other authority, disposition of an encumbered asset, and distribution of the proceeds of disposition) and these actions may take place in different States.应当指出,强制执行可涉及若干独立行动(例如有担保债权人在不向法院或其他主管机关提出请求情况下取得设保资产占有权的意图通知、设保资产的处分以及处分收益的分配),且这些行为可能发生在不同国家。
For example, a secured creditor may take possession of the encumbered assets in one State, dispose of them in a second State, and distribute the proceeds of disposition in a third State.举例说,有担保债权人可在一国占有设保资产,在第二国处分这类资产,在第三国分配处分收益。
A similar issue arises in the less frequent case where enforcement takes place in different States because the asset has been moved to another State after commencement of enforcement.由于资产在强制执行启动后移往另一国导致强制执行发生于不同国家;在这种不太常见的情况下,也会产生类似的问题。
In each case, the applicable law will be the law of the State of the location of the relevant asset at the time the first enforcement action is taken.在每一种情况下,适用法律将是在首次强制执行行动发生之时相关资产所在国的法律。
485.485.
Under subparagraph (b), the law applicable to the enforcement of a security right in an intangible asset (with the exception of a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account, intellectual property and uncertificated nonintermediated securities; see arts. 97, 99 and 100, and paras. 506-509 and 512-524 below) is the law of the State whose law governs priority of the security right (see art. 86, and paras. 480 and 481 above).根据(b)项,可适用于强制执行无形资产(不包括银行账户贷记款受付权、知识产权和无凭证非中介证券,见第97条、第99条、第100条及下文第506-509段和第512-524段)担保权的法律,是其法律管辖担保权优先权的国家的法律(见第86条及上文第480和481段)。
The main advantage of this approach is that the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority and enforcement of a security right in an intangible asset are referred to one and the same law (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, para. 69).这种做法的主要好处是,无形资产担保权创设、第三方效力、优先权和强制执行交由同一项法律处理(见《担保交易指南》,第十章,第69段)。
Article 89.第89条.
Security rights in proceeds收益担保权
486.486.
Article 89 is based on recommendation 215 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 55-60).第89条基于《担保交易指南》建议215(见第十章,第55-60段)。
It refers the creation of a security right in proceeds to the law of the State whose law governs the creation of the security right in the original encumbered assets, and the third-party effectiveness and priority of a security right in proceeds to the law of the State whose law governs those matters in the case of a security right in original encumbered assets of the same kind as the proceeds.它指明,收益担保权的创设,依照其法律管辖原始设保资产担保权创设的国家的法律处理;收益担保权的第三方效力和优先权,依照其法律在与收益同属一类的原始设保资产担保权的情况下管辖这些事项的国家的法律处理。
The following example illustrates how article 89 operates.下述例子具体说明了第89条是如何运作的。
The original encumbered asset is inventory located in State A.原始设保资产是位于甲国的库存品。
The inventory is subsequently sold, and the purchase price is paid by a funds transfer to a bank account held with a deposit-taking institution in State B.该库存品随后出售,购置价款支付办法是把资金划拨到在乙国接受存款机构所开的银行账户中。
Under paragraph 1, the law applicable to the question of whether the secured creditor automatically acquires a security right in the right to payment of the funds credited to the bank account as proceeds of the original encumbered inventory will be the law of the location of the inventory at the time of the creation of the security right in the inventory (see art. 91, para. 1 (a), and para. 491 below).根据第1款规定,对有担保债权人是否自动获得作为原始设保库存品收益的银行账户贷记款受付权的担保权问题,适用的法律是库存品担保权创设之时库存品所在地的法律(见第91条第1款(a)项和下文第491段)。
Under paragraph 2, the law applicable to the third-party effectiveness and priority of the security right in the right to payment of the funds credited to the bank account as proceeds will be the law that would be applicable to a security right in the right to payment of the funds credited to the bank account as an original encumbered asset (see art. 97, and paras. 506-509 below).根据第2款规定,对作为收益的银行账户贷记款受付权的担保权的第三方效力和优先权,适用的法律是可适用于作为原始设保资产的银行账户贷记款受付权的担保权的法律(见第97条和下文第506-509段)。
487.487.
It should be noted that this type of bifurcated rule might lead to difficulties in cases where the law governing creation recognizes a broad-based right in proceeds (including, for example, civil and natural fruits; see art. 2, subpara. (bb), and para. 59 above) whereas the law governing third-party effectiveness and priority recognizes a narrower right in proceeds.应当指出的是,在管辖创设问题的法律承认基础广泛的收益权(例如,包括法定孳息和天然孳息;见第2条(bb)项)和上文第59段)而管辖第三方效力和优先权问题的法律承认较狭窄的收益权的情况下,这类两分式规则可能会造成种种困难。
It should also be noted that article 89 is dealing only with the law applicable to proceeds derived from the original encumbered assets as a result of a disposition by the grantor or other event prior to enforcement.还应指出的是,第89条只是述及由于设保人所作处分或强制执行前的其他活动而造成的来自原始设保资产的收益的适用法律。
Article 88 deals with the law applicable to the distribution of proceeds derived from a disposition of the encumbered assets pursuant to post-default enforcement proceedings.第88条述及依照违约后强制执行程序处分设保资产所得收益分配的适用法律。
Article 90.第90条.
Meaning of "location" of the grantor设保人“所在地”的含义
488.488.
Article 90 is based on recommendation 219 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 73 and 74).第90条基于《担保交易指南》建议219(见第十章,第73和74段)。
It provides that: (a) if a grantor has a place of business, it is located in that State; (b) if a grantor has a place of business in more than one State, it is located in the State in which the grantor's central administration is exercised; and (c) if a grantor does not have a place of business, the grantor is located in the State in which the grantor has his or her habitual residence.它规定:(a)如果设保人有营业地,所在地就位于该国;(b)如果设保人在一个以上国家设有营业地,所在地就是设保人行使中央管理所在的国家;(c)如果设保人未设有营业地,设保人就位于其惯常住所所在国家。
The term "place of business" is understood in a broad sense and refers to the place in which the grantor exercises its activities (not necessarily commercial activities).从广义上理解的“营业地”一词系指设保人开展活动(未必是商业活动)的地方。
Thus, a legal person without any commercial activities (e.g. a foundation) is located in the State in which it is exercising its activities.因此,没有商业活动的法人(例如一个基金会),位于其当前活动所在地国家。
It should be noted that, if an individual has a habitual residence in one State and a place of business in another State, that individual is located in the latter State even if the transaction pursuant to which the security right is created is for personal, family, or household purposes unrelated to the individual's commercial activities.应当指出的是,如果一个人的惯常住所在一个国家,营业地在另一个国家,则该人所在地为营业地国,即使创设担保权所依的交易是为了达到与该人的商业活动无关的个人、家人或家庭目的。
489.489.
It should also be noted that the State in which a grantor that is a legal person has its central administration is not necessarily the State in which that legal person has its statutory seat (or registered office).还应指出的是,设保人身为法人,其中央管理所在地国并不一定是其法定所在地(或注册办事处)。
Thus, if the grantor is a legal person formed under the law of State A with its statutory seat in that State but has in State B a place of business where its senior management is based, then the grantor is located in State B.因此,如果设保人是根据甲国法律而组建的法人,法人所在地也在甲国,但在乙国设有营业地,其高层管理总部也设在乙国,则设保人的所在地为乙国。
As a result of article 90, for example, the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority and enforcement of a security right in a receivable is referred to one single law that, as a matter of fact, is relatively easy to determine and is most likely to be the law of the State in which the main insolvency proceeding with respect to the grantor would take place (as insolvency proceedings are typically referred to the law of the State in which the insolvent person has the centre of its main interests and that State is generally interpreted to be the State in which that person has its central administration).例如,由于这种做法,应收款担保权的创设、第三方效力、优先权及其强制执行将交由单独一项法律处理,该项法律一般比较容易确定,并且最有可能是设保人主要破产程序发生地国的法律(因为破产程序通常依照破产人主要利益中心所在地国的法律办理,而按照一般解释该国是指破产人中央管理所在地国)。
This approach minimizes the risks of inconsistencies between the law governing the insolvency proceeding (lex fori concursus) and the substantive law applicable to a security right, as the two laws will be the law of one and the same State.这种做法最大限度地减少了破产程序管辖法律(诉讼地法竞合)和适用于担保权的实体法之间不相一致的风险,因为这两项法律将是同一个国家的法律。
Article 91.第91条.
Relevant time for determining location确定所在地的相关时间
490.490.
Article 91 is based on recommendation 220 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 75-78).第91条基于《担保交易指南》建议220(见第十章,第75-78段)。
It deals with the situation where the applicable law is determined by reference to the location of the asset or the grantor, and that location changes from one State (State A) to another (State B).它述及适用法律参照资产所在地或设保人所在地而确定,但所在地从一国(甲国)改为另一国(乙国)的情形。
In such a situation, the applicable law may change.在这种情况下,可能会更改适用法律。
It should be noted that, if the applicable law changes under article 91 to that of the enacting State, article 23 enables the secured creditor to preserve the third-party effectiveness of its security right (see paras. 132 and 133 above).应当指出的是,如果适用法律在第91条下改为颁布国的法律,第23条就允许有担保债权人保全其担保权的第三方效力(见上文第132和133段)。
491.491.
Paragraph 1 (a) establishes that the creation of a security right remains governed by the law of the location of the asset or of the grantor at the time of the creation of the security right even if there is subsequently a change of location.第1款(a)项规定,担保权的创设仍然受创设担保权之时资产或设保人所在地法律的管辖,即便所在地后来发生变更。
This means that, if the security right was validly created under the law of State A when the asset or the grantor was located there, the law of State A will continue to apply and, as a result, the security right will continue to be held to have been effectively created even after the move of the asset or the grantor to State B whether or not the creation requirements of the law of State B have been satisfied.这就是说,如果在资产或设保人位于甲国之时,根据甲国的法律有效创设了担保权,则甲国的法律将继续适用,因此,即使在资产或设保人移至乙国之后,不管是否已经满足了乙国法律的创设要求,都仍然认为担保已经有效创设。
However, for third-party effectiveness and priority issues, paragraph 1 (b) provides that the applicable law will be that of the location of the asset or the grantor "at the time when the issue arises".然而,对于第三方效力和优先权问题,第1款(b)项则规定,适用法律是“问题发生之时”资产或设保人所在地的法律。
This is the time of the occurrence of the event that creates the need to determine the law that would be applicable to third-party effectiveness or priority.该时间是导致必须确定第三方效力或优先权适用法律的事件的发生时间。
492.492.
For example, if an insolvency proceeding commences in State B in respect of the grantor that is located in State A at the time of the creation of a security right in a receivable, the law applicable to the effectiveness of the security right will be the law of State B if at the time of commencement of the insolvency proceeding the grantor is located in State B (see art. 86, and paras. 480 and 481 above).例如,如果乙国在应收款担保权创设之时对身在甲国的设保人启动破产程序,则适用于担保权效力的法律将是乙国的法律,即使在破产程序启动之时,设保人身在乙国(见第86条及上文第480和481段)。
As a result, for the security right to be effective against the insolvency representative (who is a "competing claimant" under art. 2, subpara. (e)) either in State A or in State B, the third-party effectiveness requirements of the law of State B must have been fulfilled prior to the commencement of the insolvency proceeding.因此,为了让担保权在甲国或乙国具有对抗破产管理人(该人是第2条(e)项下的“相竞求偿人”)的效力,就必须在启动破产程序之前满足乙国法律的第三方效力要求。
Another example is where a tangible asset is seized by a judgment creditor.另一个例子是有形资产为胜诉债权人所扣押的情况。
The question of the respective priority of the secured creditor and the judgment creditor arises at the time of the seizure (which will be "the time when the issue arises").扣押之时(将是“问题发生的时间”),会产生有担保债权人和胜诉债权人各自享有的优先权问题。
This is so in each example even if the security right had been made effective against third parties under the law of State A at the time the asset or the grantor was located in State A.即便在资产或设保人位于甲国之时,已根据甲国的法律使担保权具有对抗第三方的效力,各项实例也是如此。
493.493.
Paragraph 2 constitutes an exception to the general rules of paragraph 1.第2款构成了第1款一般规则的一种例外。
If the rights of all competing claimants have been created and made effective against third parties under the law of the State of the initial location, the priority dispute will be resolved under the law of that State (State A in the example).如果所有相竞求偿人的权利均根据初始所在地国的法律创设并取得对抗第三方的效力,优先权争议则将根据该国(实例中的甲国)法律解决。
Article 92.第92条.
Exclusion of renvoi排除反致
494.494.
Article 92 is based on recommendation 221 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, para. 14).第92条基于《担保交易指南》建议221(见第十章,第14段)。
Its purpose is to exclude the doctrine of renvoi and provide greater certainty with respect to the determination of the applicable law by avoiding the complications arising from this doctrine.其目的是摒弃反致理论,提高确定适用法律的确定性,避免由于这一理论所产生的复杂情况。
Under the doctrine of renvoi, when the conflict-of-laws rules of a State (State A) refer an issue to the law of another State (State B), that reference includes the private international law rules of State B.根据反致理论,一国(甲国)法律冲突规则将某一问题交由另一国(乙国)法律处理时,所涉法律将包括乙国的国际私法规则。
If, however, the conflict-of-laws rules of State B refer that issue to the law of another State (State C), under that doctrine, a court in State A would resolve the priority dispute by applying the law of State C (and not the law of State B).如果乙国的法律冲突规则可能把该问题交付另一国家(丙国)的法律处理。根据该理论,则甲国的法院应适用丙国的法律(而不是乙国的法律)解决优先权争议问题。
This could result in circularity, create uncertainty as to the applicable law and be contrary to the expectations of the parties.这可能导致兜圈子,造成适用法律的不确定,而且有悖于当事人的期望。
For those reasons, article 92 excludes renvoi (for an exception, see art. 95, and paras. 501-504 below).出于这些原因,第92条排除反致(关于例外情况,见第95条和下文第501-504段)。
Article 93.第93条.
Overriding mandatory rules and public policy (ordre public)压倒一切的强制性规则和公共政策(公共秩序)
495.495.
Article 93, which is based on recommendation 222 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, para. 79) and article 11 of the Hague Principles, states generally recognized principles of private international law.第93条基于《担保交易指南》建议222(见第十章,第79段)和《海牙原则》第11条,阐述了普遍公认的国际私法原则。
Under paragraphs 1 and 3, the forum court is not prevented from applying the overriding mandatory law provisions of the law of the forum State and may exclude the application of a provision of the law applicable under the provisions of this chapter if it is manifestly incompatible with fundamental notions of public policy of the forum State.第1款和第3款规定,不妨碍诉讼地法院适用诉讼地国法律的压倒一切的强制性法律规定;但如果适用本章各项条文规定适用的法律条文结果与诉讼地公共政策(公共秩序)基本概念明显不符,诉讼地法院则可排除适用这类条文。
496.496.
To illustrate how the rules in paragraphs 1 and 3 will operate, assume that the law of the forum (State A) prohibits dealings in certain types of asset (such as an asset which is the proceeds of criminal activities or is the subject of international sanctions) and that the law of the State whose law is applicable under the provisions of this chapter (State B) does not contain such a mandatory law prohibition.为了具体说明第1款和第3款中的规则是如何运作的,假设诉讼地(甲国)的法律禁止某些类别资产(例如属于犯罪活动所得或应受国际制裁的资产)的交易,而其法律根据本章规定可适用的国家(乙国)的法律不含此类禁令。
In such a case, a court in State A may refuse to recognize a security right created in such an asset under the law of State B even though the law of State B does not contain the same prohibition.在这种情况下,甲国法院可拒绝承认依据乙国法律而创设的这类资产担保权,即使乙国的法律不包含同样的禁令。
Similarly, even if there is no statutory prohibition in State B on the creation of a security right in a "cultural object", the forum court (State A) may set aside a provision of the law of State B that allows the creation of a security right in cultural objects as being manifestly incompatible with the public policy of State A.同样,即使在某“文物”创立担保权时乙国没有法律上的禁令,诉讼地法院(甲国)也可以不顾乙国法律明确有悖甲国公共政策而允许创设文物担保权的规定。
497.497.
Under paragraphs 2 and 4, if it is allowed to do so under its law, the forum court may refuse to recognize and enforce a security right that has been effectively created and made effective against third parties under the applicable law (even if the applicable law is the law of the forum itself). The forum court may do so, if the creation of the security right would be manifestly incompatible with the public policy of another State (e.g. a State that has a close connection with the situation).根据第2和4款,如果其法律允许的话,诉讼地法院可拒绝承认、拒绝强制执行根据适用法律(即使适用法律是诉讼地本身的法律)有效创设且取得了对抗第三方效力的担保权,如果创设这一担保权明显有悖于同另一国(例如与这一情况密切相关的国家)的公共政策,诉讼地法院可如此行事。
For example, a law firm located in the forum State (State A) may wish to assign receivables arising from its legal services and the law of State A allows this assignment.举例说,设在诉讼地国(甲国)的一家法律事务所不妨转让其法律服务所得的应收款,且甲国的法律也允许这一转让。
However, the client is located in another State (State B) and, for reasons of public policy (confidentiality of lawyer-client relationship), the law of State B prohibits the transfers by a law firm of its receivables arising from legal services.然而,客户位于另一国(乙国),并且出于公共政策的原因(对律师和客户的关系予以保密),乙国法律禁止法律事务所转让其由于法律服务所得的应收款。
In this case, the law of State A may allow a court in State A to take the public policy of State B into account in determining whether the assignment is valid.在此情况下,甲国法律可能允许甲国的法院在确定转让是否有效之时考虑到乙国的公共政策。
498.498.
Paragraph 5 is intended to make clear that the rules in paragraphs 1-4 may also be relied upon by an arbitral tribunal, although, unlike a court, it does not operate as part of the judicial infrastructure of a specific legal system.第5款意在说明,仲裁法庭虽然不似法院作为特定法律体系中司法基础设施的一部分运作,但也可适用第1至4款中的规则。
Under paragraph 5, an arbitral tribunal may be required to take into account the public policy and the overriding mandatory provisions of a State other than the State whose law is applicable (e.g. the State in which the arbitration takes place or the State in which enforcement of any award is likely to take place).根据第5款,仲裁庭可能需要考虑到其法律可适用的国家(例如仲裁发生地国家或可能强制执行任何仲裁的国家)以外的某个国家的公共政策和压倒一切的强制性规定。
Paragraph 5 also requires an arbitral tribunal to determine whether it is required or entitled to take into account the public policy or the overriding mandatory provisions of another law, having regard (in particular) to the agreement of the parties, the designated or deemed seat of the arbitration, any institutional rules applicable to the arbitration, and the potentially controlling influence of State courts applying local arbitration legislation (see commentary to art. 11 (5) of the Hague Principles).第5款还要求仲裁庭确定它是否需要或有权考虑到公共政策或另一项法律压倒一切的强制性规定,(尤其)要顾及当事方协议、所指定或所认为的仲裁地、仲裁可适用的任何体制性规则以及适用当地仲裁法规的国家的法院可能施加的控制性影响(见有关《海牙原则》第11条第5款的评注)。
499.499.
Under paragraph 6, the forum State may not displace the provisions of the law applicable to third-party effectiveness and priority of a security right and apply its own third-party effectiveness and priority provisions or those provisions of another State.根据第6款,诉讼地国不得替换担保权第三方效力和优先权适用法律的规定,而转而适用本国或另一国关于第三方效力和优先权的规定。
This approach is justified by the need to achieve certainty with respect to the law applicable to third-party effectiveness and priority.这种做法之所以正当,是因为需要在第三方效力和担保权的适用法律方面实现确定性。
The same approach is followed in article 23, paragraph 2, article 30, paragraph 2, and article 31 of the Assignment Convention, as well as in article 11, paragraph 3, of the Hague Securities Convention.《转让公约》第23条第2款、第30条第2款和第31条以及《海牙证券公约》第11条第3款都袭用了相同的做法。
Article 94.第94条.
Impact of commencement of insolvency proceedings on the law applicable to a security right启动破产程序对担保权适用法律的影响
500.500.
Article 94 is based on recommendation 223 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 80-82).第94条基于《担保交易指南》建议223(见第十章,第80-82段)。
It provides that an insolvency court in the enacting State must in principle respect the law applicable to security rights under its conflict-of-laws rules.它规定颁布国的破产法院原则上必须尊重根据其法律冲突规则可适用于担保权的法律。
However, nothing in article 94 restricts the application of the law of the State in which insolvency proceedings are commenced (lex fori concursus) to matters such as the avoidance of fraudulent or preferential transactions, the treatment of secured creditors, the ranking of claims and the distribution of proceeds (see rec. 31 of the Insolvency Guide).不过,对于避免欺诈性或特惠交易、有担保债权人的待遇、求偿权的排序和收益分配等事项,第94条在适用破产程序启动地国的法律(诉讼地法竞合)方面未作任何限制(见《破产指南》建议31)。
Article 95.第95条.
Multi-unit States多领土单位国家
501.501.
Article 95 is based on recommendations 224-227 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 83-87) and partly on article 37, first sentence, of the Assignment Convention.第95条基于《担保交易指南》建议224至227(见第十章,第83-87段),并部分基于《转让公约》第37条第一句。
Its purpose is to deal with the law applicable where the State whose law is applicable to an issue under the provisions of this chapter has two or more territorial units, each of which has its own substantive law, and possibly its own conflict-of-laws rules.其目的是处理下述情况下的适用法律问题:其法律根据本章规定可适用于某个问题的国家,有两个或两个以上领土单位,其中每个领土单位都自有其实体法,并且可能有其自己的法律冲突规则。
In such a case, subparagraph (a) provides that a reference to the law of a multi-unit State is in principle a reference to the law applicable in the relevant unit (as determined under the other provisions of this chapter).在这类情况下,(a)项规定,凡提及多领土单位国家的法律就是原则上提及在相关领土单位可适用的法律(根据本章的其他规定予以确定)。
For example, in the case of a security right in a receivable created by a grantor located (in the sense of having its central administration) in territorial unit A, the law applicable to that security right is in principle the law of territorial unit A (see arts. 86 and 90, and paras. 480, 481, 488 and 489 above).举例说,对由位于(也就是说其中央管理设于)领土单位A的设保人所创设的应收款担保权,适用的法律,从原则上讲,是领土单位A的法律(见第86条和第90条及上文第480、481、488和489段)。
502.502.
However, under subparagraph (b), if the internal conflict-of-laws rules of the multi-unit State or, in the absence of such rules, of the territorial unit to which subparagraph (a) points, refer security rights to the law in force in another territorial unit of that State, the substantive law of that other unit will apply.然而,根据(b)项,如果多领土单位国家的内部法律冲突规则,或在没有这类规则情况下(a)项所指领土单位的内部法律冲突规则,指明担保权按照该国另一领土单位有效的法律处理,则该另一领土单位的实体法将适用。
In the above mentioned example, if territorial unit A has a conflict-of-laws rule under which the law applicable is the law of the grantor's location defined as the place of the grantor's statutory seat and that place is in territorial unit B, the substantive law of territorial unit B will apply.在上述实例中,如果领土单位A有法律冲突规则,而该规则规定适用法律是设保人所在地(系指设保人法定所在地)的法律,且该地位于领土单位B,则适用领土单位B的实体法。
It should be noted that subparagraphs (a) and (b) also apply where the forum State is the State whose law is applicable under the provisions of this chapter.应当指出的是,如果诉讼地国是其法律根据本章规定可适用的国家,则同样适用(a)和(b)项。
503.503.
Thus, subparagraph (b) is a deviation from the general rule on the exclusion of renvoi (see art. 92, and para. 494 above).因此,(b)项背离了关于排除反致的一般规则(见第92条和上文第494段)。
The purpose of the deviation is to ensure that, where the applicable law is that of a unit of a multi-unit State, a forum court outside that multi-unit State will apply the substantive law of the same unit as a forum court in that multi-unit State would do under its internal conflict-of-laws rules.设置该例外的目的是确保,在适用法律是某多领土单位国家的一领土单位的法律时,该多领土单位国家以外的诉讼地法院将适用同一领土单位的实体法,一如该多领土单位国家的诉讼地法院根据其内部法律冲突规则所作所为的那样。
This deviation from the rule excluding renvoi is limited to internal renvoi and will not undermine the purposes of the general exclusion of renvoi in article 92 (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, para. 85).对排除反致仅限于内部反致规则的此类偏离不会损害第92条所述全面排除反致的目的(见《担保交易指南》第十章,第85段)。
504.504.
As a result, for example, where the conflict-of-laws rules of this chapter refer to the law of the location of the asset or the grantor, the forum court is required under the provisions of this chapter to examine the internal conflict-of-laws rules in effect in the territorial unit of the location of the grantor or the encumbered asset.因此,举例说,在本章法律冲突规则提及资产或设保人所在地法律的情况下,本章的规定要求诉讼地法院审查在设保人或设保资产所在地领土单位生效的内部法律冲突规则。
It should be noted in this regard that, the Assignment Convention allows a declaration by States as to the internal conflict-of-laws rule to be used in determining the applicable priority rule as between various territorial units (see art. 37 of the Assignment Convention).在这方面应当指出的是,《转让公约》允许国家就确定各领土单位间可适用优先权规则所应使用的内部法律冲突规则(见《转让公约》第37条)作出声明,然而,第95条未提供类似的选项。
However, article 95 does not provide for a similar option. Accordingly, a forum court will have to ascertain the conflict-of-laws rules in effect in the multi-unit State or, in the absence of such rules, in the territorial unit in order to determine the applicable law.因此,诉讼地法院必须弄清多领土单位有效的法律冲突规则,或在没有这类规则的情况下,必须弄清该领土单位的法律冲突规则以确定适用法律。
B.B.
Asset-specific rules资产特定规则
Article 96.第96条.
Rights and obligations between third-party obligors and secured creditors第三方承付人与有担保债权人之间的权利和义务
505.505.
Article 96 is based on recommendation 217 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 62 and 63) and article 29 of the Assignment Convention.第96条基于《担保交易指南》建议217(见第十章,第62段和第63段)和《转让公约》第29条。
Its purpose is twofold.其目的是双重的。
First, the conflict-of-laws rules dealing with the law applicable to the third-party effectiveness or enforcement of a security right do not apply to the effectiveness or enforcement of a security right against a debtor of a receivable, an obligor under a negotiable instrument or an issuer of a negotiable document; they are not considered "third parties" for the purposes of the rules on third-party effectiveness and priority of a security right, as they are not competing claimants.第一,关于担保权第三方效力或强制执行适用法律的法律冲突规则,不适用于针对应收款债务人、可转让票据下的承付人或可转让单证签发人的担保权之效力或强制执行;它们并非相竞求偿人,因此不被视为担保权第三方效力和优先权规则所指的“第三方”。
Second, the law applicable to these issues is the law governing the legal relationship between the grantor and the relevant debtor of the receivable, or the relevant obligor under the instrument or the issuer of the document; the same law also applies to the question of whether any of the latter may assert that their agreement with the grantor prohibits or limits the grantor's right to create a security right in the relevant receivable, instrument or document.第二,适用于这些问题的法律是管辖设保人与应收款的相关债务人或票据下的相关承付人或单证签发人之间法律关系的法律;同样的法律也适用于以下问题,即后三者中的任何一方是否可以主张其与设保人达成的协议禁止或限制设保人创设相关应收款、票据或单证担保权的权利。
For example, in the case of a receivable arising from a sales contract, the law chosen by the seller/grantor and the buyer/debtor of the receivable to govern the sales contract will apply to the matters covered by article 96.举例来说,对于因销售合同而产生的应收款,应收款卖方/设保人和买方/债务人选定的管辖销售合同的法律将适用于第96条所涵盖的事项。
Article 97.第97条.
Security rights in rights to payment of funds credited to a bank account银行账户贷记款受付权的担保权
506.506.
Article 97 is based on recommendation 210 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, paras. 49-51).第97条基于《担保交易指南》建议210(见第十章,第49至51段)。
While a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account is in the generic sense a receivable of the customer against the deposit-taking institution, article 97 departs from the general conflict-of-laws rule on the law applicable to intangible assets (see art. 86).虽然银行账户贷记款受付权从一般意义上讲是客户可要求接收存款机构偿付的一项应收款,但第97条偏离了无形资产适用法律的一般法律冲突规则(见第86条)。
Two options are offered to the enacting State for the law applicable to the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority and enforcement of a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account, as well as to the rights and obligations between the deposittaking institution and the secured creditor.在既适用于银行账户贷记款受付权担保权创设、第三方效力、优先权和强制执行,又适用于接收存款机构与有担保债权人之间权利和义务的法律方面,向颁布国提供了两个备选案文。
507.507.
Under option A, the applicable law is that of the State of the location of the branch (or office) of the deposit-taking institution with which the account is maintained.根据备选案文A,适用法律是接收存款机构管理账户的分行(或办事处)所在地国的法律。
A branch (or office) of a deposit-taking institution may be considered as being located in a particular jurisdiction irrespective of whether the institution offers its services through physical offices or only through an online connection accessible electronically by customers.可以认为接收存款机构的分行(或办事处)位于某个特定法域,不论该接收存款机构是通过其实体办事处提供服务,还是仅通过可供客户以电子手段使用的网上连接方式提供服务。
In this regard, it should be noted that a deposit-taking institution must generally have a physical presence or legal address in a jurisdiction in order to be allowed by the relevant regulatory authorities to maintain bank accounts in that jurisdiction.在这方面,应当指出的是,接收存款机构通常必须在某个法域拥有实际存在或法定地址,才能获得相关监管准许在该法域管理银行账户。
Under this approach, certainty and transparency with regard to the applicable law would be enhanced, as the location of the relevant branch could generally be determined easily in the context of a bilateral relationship between a deposit-taking institution and its client.按照这种方法,由于一般可以很容易在接收存款机构与客户的双边关系中确定相关分行的所在地,因此将会提高适用法律的确定性和透明度。
In addition, a State that selects option A is likely to do so because it considers that this option reflects the expectations of the parties to account agreements that the law of the State of the location of the relevant branch will apply.另外,选择选项A的国家之所以有可能做出此种选择,是因为它认为这一选项反映了账户协议当事人对于将适用相关分行所在地国法律所持的期望。
Moreover, this approach would result in the law governing a security right in a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account being the same as that applicable to regulatory matters (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, para. 49).而且,这种方法将会使管辖银行账户贷记款受付权担保权的法律与适用于监管事项的法律相同(见《担保交易指南》,第十章,第49段)。
508.508.
Under option B, the applicable law is the law designated in the account agreement as governing the issues that are the subject of article 97 or, in the absence of a designation of a law for these issues, the law designated by the parties to the account agreement as the law governing that agreement.根据备选案文B,适用法律是在账户协议中指定为管辖第97条所述问题的法律,或者,如果没有指定管辖这些问题的法律,适用法律则是账户协议当事方指定为管辖该账户协议的法律。
A State that selects option B is likely to do so because it considers that this option reflects the expectations of the parties that the law of the State that they chose in their account agreement will apply.选择选项B的国家之所以有可能做出此种选择,是因为它认为这一选项反映了当事人对其在账户协议中选择的国家的法律将予以适用所持的期望。
A potential lender would be able to ascertain the law provided in the account agreement, as the lender could require the grantor (the account holder) to supply information on the account agreement to obtain credit from the lender relying on the funds credited to the account (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. X, para. 50).潜在的借款人要能够确定账户协议中规定的法律,因为放贷人可能会要求设保人(账户持有人)提供关于账户协议的信息,以便依赖账户贷记款的借款人那里获得信贷(见《担保交易指南》,第十章,第50段)。
To be effective for conflict-of-laws purposes, a designation must refer to the law of a State in which the deposit-taking institution is regularly engaged in the business of maintaining bank accounts.为了有效管控法律冲突,指定法律时必须提及接收存款机构经常从事管理银行账户业务所在地国家的法律。
It should be noted that the State whose law is so designated may be different from the State in which the grantor's bank account is maintained.应当指出的是,其法律被如此指定的国家,可能不同于设保人银行账户管理所在地国家。
509.509.
If the applicable law cannot be determined as described in the preceding paragraph, option B provides for a series of rules along the lines of the default rules contained in article 5 of the Hague Securities Convention, which the enacting State may wish to insert in this article, if it decides to adopt option B of article 97.如果无法按照前段所述确定适用法律,备选案文B仿照《海牙证券公约》第5条所载违约问题规则规定了一系列规则,颁布国如果决定采用第97条的备选案文B,则不妨将其插入本条。
For example, the enacting State may wish to consider inserting the following text as paragraph 3 of option B: "If the applicable law is not determined pursuant to paragraph 1 or 2, the applicable law is to be determined pursuant to the following rules: (a) If it is expressly and unambiguously stated in a written bank account agreement that the relevant deposit-taking institution entered into through a particular office, the law applicable is the law of the State in which that office is located; (b) If the applicable law is not determined under subparagraph (a), the applicable law is the law of the State under whose law the relevant deposit-taking institution is incorporated or otherwise organized at the time the written bank account agreement is entered into or, if there is no such agreement, at the time the bank account was opened; and (c) If the applicable law is not determined under either subparagraph (a) or subparagraph (b), the applicable law is the law of the State in which the relevant deposit-taking institution has its place of business, or, if the relevant deposit-taking institution has more than one place of business, its principal place of business, at the time the written bank account agreement is entered into or, if there is no such agreement, at the time the bank account was opened".举例来说,颁布国不妨考虑加入下列案文,将其作为备选案文B的第3款:“如果未依照第1款或第2款确定适用法律,则应依照下列规则确定适用法律:(a)如果在相关接受存款机构通过某一办事处订立的书面银行账户协议中清楚明确地作出规定,则适用法律为该办事处所在地国的法律;(b)如果未根据(a)项确定适用法律,则在订立书面银行账户协议的时候,或者,如果没有订立该协议,在开立银行账户的时候,相关接受存款机构是依据某国法律成为法人团体或以其他方式组建成立,该国的法律即为适用法律;(c)如果未根据(a)项或(b)项确定适用法律,则在订立书面银行账户协议的时候,或者,如果没有订立该协议,在开立银行账户的时候,相关的接受存款机构在某国设有营业地,该国的法律即为适用法律;或者,如果相关的接受存款机构有多个营业地,其主要营业地所在国家的法律即为适用法律。”
Article 98.第98条.
Third-party effectiveness of a security right in certain types of asset by registration以登记方式实现某些类别资产担保权的第三方效力
510.510.
Article 98 is based on recommendation 211 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. X, para. 34).第98条基于《担保交易指南》建议211(见第十章,第34段)。
This article is an exception to the conflict-of-laws rules on the third-party effectiveness of a security right in a negotiable instrument, negotiable document, right to payment of funds credited to a bank account or certificated non-intermediated security (but article 98 does not apply to uncertificated non-intermediated securities).本条是关于可转让票据、可转让单证、银行账户贷记款受付权或有凭证非中介证券上担保权第三方效力的法律冲突规则的一个例外(但第98条不适用于无凭证非中介证券)。
Under articles 85, 97 and 100, the effectiveness against third parties of a security right in any of these assets is governed by the law of a State, which may be different from the State of the location of the grantor.根据第85条、第97条和第100条,在这些资产中任何资产上设定的担保权对抗第三方的效力均受可能不同于设保人所在国的另一国法律的管辖。
However, under article 98, if the State of the location of the grantor recognizes registration of a notice as a method of third-party effectiveness for a security right in the types of asset covered in article 98, then the law applicable to third-party effectiveness by registration is the law of the State in which the grantor is located.但是,根据第98条,如果设保人所在地国承认办理通知登记是在第98条所涵盖的这几类资产上设定担保权实现对抗第三方效力的一种方法,则设保人所在地国的法律即为可适用于以登记方式实现第三方效力的法律。
511.511.
Therefore, with respect to these types of asset, a secured creditor may rely on the law of the location of the grantor to make its security right effective against third parties by registration, even if for these types of asset the applicable law might be different under the other conflict-of-laws rules of this chapter.因此,对于这几类资产,有担保债权人可以凭借设保人所在地的法律使其担保权通过登记方式取得对抗第三方的效力,即使对这几类资产而言,根据本章的其他法律冲突规则,适用法律可能不同。
However, if the priority rules of the applicable law are based on the priority rules of the Model Law, achieving third-party effectiveness by registration would only yield a lowerranking priority in the case of a priority conflict with a competing secured creditor who achieved third-party effectiveness, for example, by possession in the case of a negotiable instrument (see art. 46, para. 1, and para. 349 above), by the secured creditor becoming the account holder in the case of a right to payment of funds credited to a bank account (see art. 47, para. 1, and para. 353 above) or by possession in the case of a negotiable document or a certificated non-intermediated security (see arts. 49, para. 1, and 51, para. 1, and paras. 359 and 363 above, respectively).但是,如果适用法律的优先权规则是以《示范法》的优先权规则为根据,相竞有担保债权人,举例来说,在可转让票据的情况下,通过占有实现了第三方效力(见第46条第1款和上文第349段),在银行账户贷记款受付权的情况下,通过有担保债权人成为账户持有人实现了第三方效力(见第47条第1款和上文第353段),或者在可转让单证或有凭证非中介证券的情况下,通过占有实现了第三方效力(分别见第49条第1款和第51条第1款及上文第359段和第363段),那么在与该相竞有担保债权人发生优先权冲突的情况下,以登记方式实现的第三方效力只能产生次序较低的优先权。
However, the security right with respect to which a notice was registered in the Registry under the law of the grantor's location would have priority over the right of: (a) the grantor's insolvency representative or the general body of creditors (subject to the applicable insolvency law; see arts. 35 and 36, and paras. 312-316 above); and (b) judgment creditors, if registration took place before a judgment creditor took the steps required to acquire a right in the encumbered assets (see art. 37, para. 1, and para. 317 above).然而,根据设保人所在地法律在登记处办理通知登记的该担保权将优先于以下人士所享有的权利:(a)设保人的破产管理人或全体债权人(受可适用的破产法律管辖;见第35条和第36条和上文第312-316段);以及(b)胜诉债权人,条件是在某一胜诉债权人采取必要措施取得设保资产权之前登记已经发生(见第37条第1款和上文第317段)。
Article 99.第99条.
Security rights in intellectual property知识产权担保权
512.512.
Article 99 is based on recommendation 248 of the Intellectual Property Supplement (see Intellectual Property Supplement, paras. 284-337).第99条基于《知识产权补编》建议248(见《知识产权补编》第284至337段)。
The effect of paragraph 1 is the following.第1款的效力如下。
If intellectual property is protected in a particular State, the law of that State will apply to the requirements to be met for the security right in that intellectual property to be considered as having been created and made effective against third parties, and as having priority over the rights of competing claimants.如果知识产权在某一特定国家受到保护,必须满足某些要求,才能视为该知识产权担保权得以创设、具有对抗第三方的效力而且优先于相竞求偿人的权利,那么该国的法律将适用于上述要求。
It should be noted that even with respect to intellectual property protected under an international convention, the lex protectionis is the law of the State party to the Convention under which the intellectual property is protected.应当指出的是,即使对于受国际公约保护的知识产权来说,保护法也是保护该知识产权的公约缔约国的法律。
For example, with respect to types of intellectual property that are subject to registration in a national, regional or international intellectual property registry (for example, patents and trademarks), the lex protectionis is the law of the State (including the rules promulgated by regional or international organizations) under whose authority the registry is maintained (see Intellectual Property Supplement, para. 297).举例来说,对于必须在国家、区域或国际知识产权登记机构办理登记的各类知识产权(例如专利和商标),保护法是授权开办该登记机构的国家的法律(包括由区域组织或国际组织颁布的规则)(见《知识产权补编》第297段)。
513.513.
Paragraph 2 provides for an alternative way to create and make effective against certain third parties a security right in intellectual property.第2款规定了创设知识产权担保权并使其取得对抗某些第三方效力的另一种方式。
Under paragraph 2, the secured creditor may also utilize for these purposes the law of the State in which the grantor is located.根据第2款,有担保债权人还可以为这些目的利用设保人所在国家的法律。
The principal benefit of paragraph 2 is that a security right in a portfolio of intellectual property rights protected under the laws of different States may be created and made effective against third parties under a single law.第2款的主要好处是,可以根据单独一项法律为受不同国家法律保护的知识产权组合创设担保权,并使其取得对抗第三方的效力。
An equally important benefit of paragraph 2 is that, if the security right has been made effective against the grantor's insolvency representative under the law of the State in which the grantor is located, an insolvency court in the enacting State will recognize the security right even if the third-party effectiveness requirements of all States in which the intellectual property is protected have not been fulfilled.第2款另一个同样重大的好处是,如果担保权已根据设保人所在国的法律取得对抗设保人破产管理人的效力,则颁布国的破产法院将认可该担保权,即使保护该知识产权的所有国的第三方效力要求尚未满足。
514.514.
Paragraph 3 refers enforcement issues to the law of the State in which the grantor is located.第3款将强制执行问题交由设保人所在国法律处理。
This rule allows for the same law to be applied to all enforcement steps, even if they take place in different States, because it is unlikely that the grantor's location (in particular the place of its central administration) would change between any of those steps.据这项规则,即便所有强制执行步骤发生在不同的国家里,也可以适用同样的法律,因为设保人的所在地(特别是其中央管理所在地)不太可能在采取其中任何这类步骤期间发生变化。
In the rare case where there would be such a change, it is assumed that a court would refer to the law of the State in which the grantor is located at the time of commencement of the enforcement (see art. 88, and paras. 483-485 above).若遇到发生这类变更的罕见情况,则假定法院将会参照在启动强制执行之时设保人所在国的法律(见第88条和上文第483-485段)。
Article 100.第100条.
Security rights in non-intermediated securities非中介证券担保权
515.515.
Article 100 introduces one general conflict-of-laws rule for security rights in equity securities and another for security rights in debt securities, without distinguishing between certificated and uncertificated or between traded and nontraded securities.第100条为股权证券担保权引入一项一般法律冲突规则,为债务证券担保权引入另一项一般法律冲突规则,不分有凭证和无凭证证券,不分交易和非交易证券。
Both of these rules refer all issues (i.e. the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority, enforcement and effectiveness against the issuer of a security right) to a single law.这两项规则都规定由一种法律处理所有的问题(例如担保权的创设、第三方效力、优先权、强制执行以及对抗签发人的效力)。
This approach provides greater certainty in the determination of the applicable law.这种方法提高了确定适用法律的确定性。
516.516.
For non-intermediated equity securities, paragraph 1 designates the law of the constitution of the issuer as the law applicable to all issues.对于非中介股权证券,第1款指定发行人组建法为适用于所有问题的法律。
The term "equity" is not defined in the Model Law but it should be understood as referring to participation rights in the capital of the issuer.《示范法》对“股权”一语未作界定,但应当将该用语理解为是指对发行人资本的参与权。
For a corporation or a similar legal person, equity securities consist of the shares in its capital.对于公司或类似的法人,股权证券由其资本中的股份构成。
Similarly, for an entity which is not a legal person under its constitutive law (such as a general partnership in many States), equity securities consist of the rights of the persons (e.g. the partners) who are entitled to receive upon the liquidation of the entity the residual value of its assets after payment of its liabilities.同样,对一个非其组建法所指法人的实体(例如许多国家中的普通合伙)而言,股权证券由实体清算时有权得到偿付实体债务后实体资产剩余价值的人(例如合伙人)的权利构成。
517.517.
The law of the constitution of the issuer is the law under which it has been formed.发行人组建法是指组建发行人所依据的法律。
For a corporation, this is relatively easy to ascertain; it is the law under which it has been incorporated.对于公司来说,该法比较容易确定,就是公司据以成立的法律。
For a partnership, it is the law under which the partnership has been created.对于合伙而言,该法是指据以创建该合伙的法律。
In federal States where the issuer may be constituted either under a federal law or a law of one of its territorial units, the Model Law does not provide specific criteria on the determination of the territorial unit which will be considered as the issuer's law where the issuer's law is a federal law and the law on secured transactions is that of a territorial unit.在发行人可以根据联邦法律或联邦某一个领土单位的法律组建的联邦制国家,若发行人法是联邦法律而担保交易法是某一领土单位的法律,《示范法》未就如何确定将被视为发行人法的领土单位规定具体标准。
However, applying by analogy article 95, the internal conflict-of-laws rules of the federal State (or of the territorial unit which is the forum) should determine the territorial unit's law to be applicable to the issues falling under article 100 where all or some of these issues are not dealt with by the federal law of the constitution of the issuer.然而,若联邦发行人组建法不涉及属于第100条范围内的全部或部分问题,则联邦制国家(或作为诉讼地的单位领土)的内部法律冲突规则,类推适用第95条,就应当确定领土单位的法律为可以适用于上述问题的法律。
518.518.
For non-intermediated debt securities, paragraph 2 refers all issues to the law governing the securities.关于非中介债务证券,第2款将所有问题交给管辖此类证券的法律处理。
The law governing debt securities is the law selected by the parties as the law governing their contractual rights and obligations arising from these securities.管辖债务证券的法律是指经当事各方选定,用于管辖因这些证券产生的当事各方合同权利和义务的法律。
In the absence of such a choice of law (which would be extremely rare for debt securities), the forum will determine the applicable law under its own conflict-of-laws rules.如果没有做出此类法律选择(对债务证券而言这种情况极为少见),诉讼地将根据自己的法律冲突规则确定适用法律。
The Model Law does not deal with the question of whether the parties may select a governing law that has no connection with the issuance of the securities.《示范法》对双方当事人可否选择与证券发行无关联的管辖法律问题未作规定。
This matter is left to the conflict-of-laws rules on contractual obligations of the forum State.该事项留待有关诉讼地国的合同义务法律冲突规则处理。
519.519.
The term "debt securities" is not defined in the Model Law.《示范法》对“债务证券”一语未作界定。
The notion of debt is however well understood in most legal systems and denotes a payment obligation.不过,债务的概念在大多数法律体系中均得到很好理解,系指偿付义务。
In the context of debt securities, the obligation is generally to make payment of a sum of money.在债务证券方面,该义务通常是偿付一笔金钱。
Bonds and debentures are debt securities, to the extent they come under the definition of securities in article 2, subparagraph (hh).凡符合第2条(hh)项中证券定义的债券和公司债券均属于债务证券。
520.520.
The distinction between equity and debt securities should be based on their characterization under corporate or enterprise law, and not under accounting or other law.区分股权证券和债务证券应当基于公司法或企业法对它们的定性,而非基于会计法或其他法律对它们的定性。
Thus, preferred shares (i.e. shares that entitle the holder to a fixed dividend, whose payment takes priority over that of common share dividends) are treated as equity securities if they are so considered under the corporate or enterprise law of the issuer's State even if under accounting or other rules of that State they are classified as liabilities.因此,即使根据发行人的国家的会计规则或其他规则,优先股(即让股东有权获得固定股息,而且该股息的支付优先于普通股股息的支付)被划归债务,但如果被该国的公司法或企业法视为股份证券,那么就将它们视为股份证券。
Likewise, subordinated debt securities (e.g. debt payable only after satisfaction of obligations owing to certain creditors) are treated as debt securities if they are so considered under the corporate or enterprise law of the issuer's State even if they are viewed as equity securities under accounting or other law.同样,即使根据会计法、监管法或其他法律,次级债务证券(例如,只有履行对某些债权人负担的义务以后方可偿还的债务)被认定为股份证券,但如果被发行人的国家的公司法或企业法视为债务证券,那么就将它们视为债务证券。
521.521.
The concept of "debt securities" raises the following two questions: (a) the characterization of convertible debt securities; and (b) the effect of that characterization on the law applicable to a security right in that type of security.“债务证券”的概念提出了以下两个问题:(a)对可转换债务证券的定性;及(b)该定性对适用于此类证券担保权的法律的影响。
Convertible debt securities are debt securities that are convertible into equity securities at the option of their holder or issuer or upon the occurrence of a specified event.可转换债务证券是由其持有人或发行人选择或在某一具体事件发生时可以转换成股权证券的债务证券。
522.522.
Convertible debt securities should be characterized as debt securities because they constitute payment obligations as long as they are not converted into equity.可转换债务证券之所以应当被定性为债务证券,是因为这类证券只要不被转换为股本即构成付款义务。
This means that upon their issuance and until conversion, the law governing these securities will be the law applicable to the creation, third-party effectiveness, priority, enforcement and effectiveness against the issuer of a security right in such securities.这意味着,一经发行,直至转换,管辖此类证券的法律就是适用于此类证券担保权的创设、第三方效力、优先权、强制执行及其对抗发行人的效力的法律。
The characterization of convertible debt securities for the purposes of article 100 may, however, change if and when they are converted into equity.然而,可转换债务证券如果并且转换成股本并且在转换成股本时,第100条所规定的对它们的定性可以发生改变。
The connecting factor then becomes the law of the constitution of the issuer.于是,发行人组建法就成为关联因素。
Therefore, upon being converted into equity, the law applicable to a security right in convertible debt securities will be the law of the State under which the issuer has been constituted.因此,可转换债务证券在转换成股本后,发行人据以组建地国家的法律将成为适用于这些可转换债务证券的担保权的法律。
523.523.
A consequence of the change from the law governing the securities to the issuer's law is that a security right in debt securities made effective against third parties under the law governing the securities might become ineffective against third parties after the change.从证券管辖法变为发行人法,其所产生的一个后果是,根据证券管辖法取得对抗第三方效力的债务证券担保权,在变更之后,可能失去对抗第三方的效力。
Article 23 addresses the impact of a change in the applicable law and article 91 addresses a change in the connecting factor.第23条述及可适用法律变更的影响,第91条述及关联因素的变更。
However, strictly speaking, article 23 is not applicable to a change in the nature of non-intermediated securities; and article 91 only deals with the situation where the connecting factor is the location of the asset or the grantor.然而,严格地说,第23条不适用于非中介证券性质的变更;第91条仅述及关联因素是资产所在地或设保人所在地的情况。
The enacting State may thus wish to draw from articles 23 and 91 and adopt rules dealing with the change on the basis of principles similar to those underlying articles 23 and 91 (see paras. 132, 133 and 490-493 above).因此,颁布国不妨借鉴第23条和第91条,根据类似于第23条和第91条基本原则的原则,制定处理此类变更的规章(见上文第132、133段和第490-493段)。
524.524.
With respect to certificated equity or debt non-intermediated securities, article 98 introduces an exception to the general conflict-of-laws rules of article 100.关于有凭证股权或债务非中介证券,第98条引入了第100条一般法律冲突规则的一种例外情况。
If the law of the State in which the grantor is located recognizes registration of a notice as a method for achieving effectiveness against third parties of a security right in certificated non-intermediated securities, the law of that State is also the law applicable to the third-party effectiveness of the security right in this type of asset by registration (see paras. 510 and 511 above).如果设保人所在国家的法律承认对通知办理登记是实现有凭证非中介证券担保权对抗第三方效力的一种方法,该国法律也是适用于经登记实现此类资产担保权的第三方效力的法律(见上文第510段和511段)。
Chapter IX.第九章.
Transition过渡
Introduction导言
525.525.
The introduction of any new law requires fair and efficient transition rules (see Secured Transactions Guide, chap. XI, paras. 1-3).任何新法律的实施都需要公允、有效的过渡规则(见《担保交易指南》,第十一章,第1至3段)。
This is the purpose of this chapter.这就是本章的目的。
First, it provides that the law formerly governing rights that fall within the scope of the new secured transactions law (the "prior law"; see art. 102, para. 1 (a)) is repealed (see art. 101).首先,本章规定:先前管辖属于新的担保交易法律范围内权利的法律(“先前法律”;见第102条第1款(a)项)将予以废止(见第101条)。
Second, it provides for the general application of the new law to all security rights (see art. 102, para. 2), including security rights that were created while the prior law was still in force ("prior security rights"; see art. 102, para. 1 (b)), but continue to exist after the new secured transactions law enters into force.第二,本章规定新的法律普遍适用于所有各项担保权利(见第102条第2款),包括在先前法律仍然有效时创设但在新的担保交易法生效后继续存在的担保权(“先前担保权”;见第102条第1款(b)项)。
Third, it preserves the exceptional application of prior law in circumstances where no new third-party rights are implicated (see arts. 103-105, and paras. 534-542 below).第三,在不涉及新的第三方权利的情况下,本章保留特殊适用先前法律(见第103至105条和下文第534-542段)。
Fourth, it provides a transition period for the holders of prior security rights to comply with the third-party effectiveness requirements of the new law (see art. 106, and paras. 544-546 below).第四,本章为先前担保权持有者遵守新法律的第三方效力要求规定了过渡期(见第106条和下文第544-546段)。
Finally, it sets a date (or the mode of setting the date) on which the new law goes into effect (see art. 107, and paras. 547 and 548 below).最后,本章确定了新法律生效的日期(或确定日期的方式)(见第107条及下文第547段和548段)。
Article 101.第101条.
Amendment and repeal of other laws修正和撤销其他法律
526.526.
The Model Law provides a comprehensive legal framework to govern security rights in the types of asset within its scope under article 1, replacing rather than merely supplementing the prior law.《示范法》规定了一个综合法律框架,用以管辖第1条之下该法范围内各类资产的担保权,意在取代先前法律,而不是对其加以补充。
Accordingly, paragraph 1 requires the enacting State to list the laws to be repealed upon entry into force of the new law under article 107.因此,第1款要求颁布国列明在新法律根据第107条生效之后应予撤销的法律。
The way in which the repeal is effectuated will depend on the form of the prior law.撤销方式将取决于先前法律的形式。
Where the prior law is set out in a free-standing statute or combination of statutes, it can be repealed in its entirety.若先前法律载入一部独立法规或若干法规的组合,则可以全部予以撤销。
Where the prior law is contained in statutes that also address other topics, the enacting State must specify which provisions are to be repealed and which are to be retained or amended.若先前法律记载于涉及其他专题的若干法规之中,则颁布国必须具体指明应当废除和保留或修正哪些条文。
Where all or part of the prior law is based on judicial opinions (as may be the case, for example, in common law systems), the effect of the new secured transactions law typically will be to override the rules derived from the prior case law without the need for the enacting State to take any explicit repealing measures.若先前法律全部或部分是以司法意见为根据(例如,在某些普通法系中可能有这样的情况),新的担保交易法的效力通常会将使来自于先前判例法的规则失效,颁布国无须采取任何明示的撤销措施。
527.527.
Secured transactions law interacts with many other laws (e.g. civil procedure, judgment enforcement, insolvency, property and taxation laws).担保交易法会与许多其他法律相互作用,例如民事诉讼程序法、判决执行法、破产法、财产法及税法。
These other laws may contain provisions that refer to or are premised on the enacting State's prior law.这些其他法律可能载有提及颁布国的先前法律或以先前法律为前提的条文。
Accordingly, paragraph 2 provides for the enacting State to amend these provisions to the extent needed to align them with the terminology and the provisions of its new law.因此,第2款规定颁布国应当对这些条文作必要的修正,使之与该国新法律的用语和条文保持一致。
528.528.
Like the other articles of the Model Law, article 101 takes effect only when the new law enacting the Model Law enters into force under article 107.如同《示范法》的其他条款,第101条只有在颁布《示范法》的新法律根据第107条生效之后方产生效力。
Accordingly, until that date, the provisions listed for repeal or amendment in this article remain in effect.因此,在新法律生效日之前,本条中被列明撤销或修正的条文仍然有效。
Article 102.第102条.
General applicability of this Law本法律的普遍可适用性
529.529.
Paragraph 1 of this article defines two terms used in this chapter.本条第1款界定了本章使用的两个用语。
Paragraph 1 (a) defines the term "prior law" to mean the law that applied to "prior security rights" (see para. 530 below) before the entry into force of the new law.第1款(a)项规定“先前法律”这个用语是指在新法律生效之前对“先前担保权”(见下文第530段)适用的法律。
This definition makes it clear that the term "prior law" refers to the law designated by the conflict-of-laws rules of the enacting State as those rules existed before the entry into force of the new law.这个定义清楚申明,“先前法律”一语是指颁布国法律冲突规则指定的法律,因为这些规则存在于新法律生效之前。
It follows that the prior law may be: (a) the law of the enacting State or of another State; and (b) a different law than that which would apply under the conflict-of-laws rules of the Model Law if the enacting State's prior conflict-of-laws regime used a different connecting factor.由此得出的结论是,先前法律可以是:(a)颁布国或另一国的法律;而且(b)假如颁布国的先前法律冲突制度使用了不同的关联因素,则适用法律可以是根据《示范法》的法律冲突规则将会适用的不同法律。
It should be noted that, even though it is expressed in the singular, the term "prior law" refers to all relevant sources of the applicable prior substantive law wherever they may be reflected (e.g. in a civil or commercial code, a special statute, case law or a combination of any of these sources).应当指出,即使“先前法律”这个用语以单数形式表述,它仍然指可适用的先前实体法的所有相关渊源,不论它们可能在哪里体现出来(例如,在一部民事或商事法典中,在一部特别法规、判例法或这些法律渊源的任何组合)。
530.530.
Paragraph 1 (b) defines "prior security right" (a term referred to in the definition of the term "prior law"; see para. 539 above) as a right created by an agreement entered into before the entry into force of the new law that the new law treats as a security right.第1款(b)项将“先前担保权”(“先前法律”的定义中提及过的一个术语;见上文第529段)界定为在新法律生效之前订立的协议所创设的一种权利,新法律将它视为担保权。
For example, a seller's or financial lessor's retention-of-title right would be a prior security right because it is characterized as such under the functional concept of security right adopted by the Model Law (see art. 2, subpara. (kk), and para. 68 above) even if prior law did not characterize it as a security right.例如,即使先前法律未将卖方或金融出租方的所有权保留权定性为担保权,但因为根据《示范法》所采用的担保权的功能性概念(见第2条(kk)项和上文第68段)把上述所有权保留权定性为先前担保权,所以该权利将是先前担保权。
531.531.
It should be noted that a security right in future assets acquired by the grantor after the new law enters into force would be a prior security right if it was provided for in an agreement entered into before the entry into force of the new law even though the creation requirements of the new law are not satisfied (see art. 104, para. 2).应当注意的是,设保人在新法律生效之后取得的未来资产的担保权,如果在新法律生效之前订立的协议中已有规定,即使未满足新法律规定的创设要求,也仍将属于先前担保权(见第104条第2款)。
This presupposes that prior law permitted the creation of a security right in future assets; if it did not, then no prior security right could exist in future assets.这是假定先前法律准许在未来的资产上创设担保权;如果不是这样,那么在未来资产上就不可能有先前担保权。
532.532.
Paragraph 2 is based on recommendation 228 (second sentence) of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. XI, paras. 7-12).第2款基于《担保交易指南》第228项建议(第二句)(见第十一章,第7至12段)。
It states that, upon its entry into force under article 107, the new law applies, as a general rule, to all security rights within its scope, including prior security rights.第2款规定,新法律在根据第107条生效后,一般来说,适用于属于它范围内的所有担保权,包括先前担保权。
This general rule ensures that the enacting State enjoys the economic benefits of the new law with immediate effect and avoids the complexity and conflict that would result from attempting to apply discrete laws to prior and new security rights.这项一般规则确保颁布国享受即时生效的新法律的经济利益,避免试图运用分立法律处理先前担保权和新担保权将会产生的复杂情况和冲突。
533.533.
The transition to any new legal regime requires that pre-existing rights are appropriately accommodated.向任何新法律制度过渡需要适当照顾到先前存在的权利。
Thus, paragraph 2 also provides that the general applicability of the new law to prior security rights is subject to the other provisions of this chapter.因此,第2款还规定新法律对先前担保权的普遍可适用性须受本章其他条文约束。
These other provisions preserve the exceptional application of prior law to prior security rights where no third-party rights are affected (see art. 104), or where the rights of a holder of a prior security right and competing claimants have already vested (see arts. 103 and 106); they also provide a transition period for the holders of prior security rights to conform to the third-party effectiveness requirements of the new law (see art. 105, and paras. 538-543 below).若第三方权利不受影响(见第104条),或者,若先前担保权持有人和相竞求偿人的权利已经属于既得权利(见第103条和第106条),上述其他条文保留对先前担保权特殊适用先前法律;它们还为先前担保权持有人遵守新法律的第三方效力要求规定了过渡期(见第105条和下文第538-543段)。
Article 103.第103条.
Applicability of prior law to matters that are the subject of proceedings commenced before the entry into force of this Law先前法律对在本法律生效之前启动的诉讼事由可适用性
534.534.
Article 103 is based on recommendation 229 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. XI, paras. 13-16).第103条基于《担保交易指南》建议229(见第十一章,第13至16段)。
It introduces two exceptions to the general rule in article 102, paragraph 2, that the new law applies to all security rights within its scope, including prior security rights.第102条第2款中的一般规则规定新法律适用于其范围内的所有担保权,包括先前担保权;第103条引入了两项例外情况。
Paragraph 1 provides for the continued application of prior law to a matter with respect to a prior security right that is the subject of judicial or arbitral proceedings that were commenced before the new law entered into force (except enforcement proceedings separately addressed in art. 103, para. 2), regardless of whether those proceedings involve the secured creditor and the grantor or the debtor, the secured creditor and a competing claimant, or the secured creditor and another third party.它的第1款规定,若与一项先前担保权有关的事项是在新法律生效之前启动的司法程序或仲裁程序(第103条第2款中另行述及的强制执行程序除外)的事由,则先前法律继续适用于该事项,而不论这些程序是否涉及有担保债权人和设保人或债务人或债务人、有担保债权人或相竞求偿人或有担保债权人和另一第三方当事人。
However, prior law applies only to the matter that is the subject of the prior proceedings.然而,先前法律只适用于属于先前程序标的的事项。
Under the general rule in article 102, paragraph 2, the new law will apply to a separate matter that is the subject of proceedings that are commenced after the new law enters into force even if it relates to the same security agreement.根据第102条第2款中的一般规则,新的法律将适用于属于在新的法律生效后启动的程序标的的某一单独事项,即便该事项事关相同的担保协议。
535.535.
Paragraph 2 provides that, if enforcement of a prior security right is commenced before the entry into force of the new law, the secured creditor may continue enforcement in accordance with prior law (what constitutes "enforcement" under prior law would need to be assessed by reference to prior law), or may choose to enforce its security right in accordance with the new law (what constitutes "enforcement" under the new law is addressed in chapter VII of the Model Law).第2款规定,如果在新法律生效之前开始强制执行一项先前担保权,有担保债权人可以按照先前法律继续强制执行(必须参照先前法律评估先前法律所规定的“强制执行”),或者可以选择按照新法律强制执行其担保权(《示范法》第七章阐述新法律所规定的“强制执行”)。
Paragraph 2 applies if "any step" has been taken to enforce a prior security right before the entry into force of the new law.如果在新法律生效之前,已经采取“任何措施”来强制执行一项先前担保权,则适用第2款的规定。
Thus, for example, if the secured creditor has already obtained possession of an encumbered asset in accordance with prior law when the new law enters into force, it may dispose of the encumbered asset and distribute its proceeds under the prior law or proceed as to those matters under the new law notwithstanding paragraph 1.因此,举例来说,如果新法律生效时,有担保债权人已经按照先前法律获得对一项设保资产的占有权,它可以根据先前法律处置设保资产并分配其收益,或者不论第1款作何规定,可以根据新法律继续处理这些事项。
Article 104.第104条.
Applicability of prior law to the creation of a prior security right先前法律对先前担保权创设的可适用性
536.536.
Article 104 is based on recommendation 230 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. XI, paras. 17-19).第104条基于《担保交易指南》建议230(见第11章,第17至19段)。
It sets out an exception to general applicability of the new law to prior security rights under article 102, paragraph 2.第102条第2款规定新法律普遍可适用于先前担保权,而第104条规定了一种例外情况。
Paragraph 1 provides that prior law determines whether a right that was created under an agreement entered into before the new law enters into force that would be a security right under the new law was created effectively.第104条第1款规定,根据新法生效之前订立的协议创设的权利,根据新法律将成为一项担保权,该权利是否确实有效创设由先前法律决定。
Paragraph 2 confirms that a prior security right that was effectively created under prior law remains effective between the parties after the new law enters into force even if the requirements for creation under the new law are not satisfied.第2款确认,根据先前法律有效创设的先前担保权,即使未满足新法律规定的创设要求,但新法律生效之后,在各方当事人之间仍然有效。
This approach avoids the retroactive invalidation of prior security rights that were created in conformity with the law applicable to them when they were created.这种方法避免了追溯废止遵照创设时适用法律创设的先前担保权。
It also dispenses with the need for the secured creditor to obtain the cooperation of the grantor to take whatever additional steps may be necessary to conform to the creation requirements of the new law.它也使有担保债权人无需获得设保人合作才能采取不论何种必要的额外步骤以便符合新法律的创设要求。
Such cooperation may not be forthcoming from a grantor that has already received all the credit intended to be secured by the prior security right.若设保人已经得到拟由先前担保权予以担保的所有信用,设保人就不太愿意提供此种合作。
537.537.
The creation requirements of the new law are relatively minimal (see art. 6).新法律的创设要求相对极少(见第6条)。
Consequently, it will rarely be the case that a security right created in conformity with prior law would not also satisfy the creation requirements of the new law.因此,很少出现这样的情况:遵照先前法律创设的一项担保权也无法满足新法律的创设要求。
An example of a possible exception would be a prior security right created in accordance with a rule of prior law that allowed the creation of a security right by an oral agreement even in the absence of possession of the encumbered asset by the secured creditor.例如,可能发生的例外情况就是按照先前法律的某项规则创设了先前担保权,而该规则允许通过口头协议创设担保权,即使有担保债权人并未占有设保资产。
In this example, paragraph 2 would preserve the effectiveness of the prior security right between the parties even though the new law requires a non-possessory security right to be created by a written security agreement signed by the grantor (see art. 6, para. 3).在这个事例中,第2款维护先前担保权在双方当事人之间的效力,即使新法律要求由经设保人签字的书面担保协议创设非占有式担保权(见第6条第3款)。
Article 105.第105条.
Transitional rules for determining the third-party effectiveness of a prior security right确定先前担保权第三方效力的过渡规则
538.538.
Article 105 is based on recommendation 231 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. XI, paras. 20-22).第105条基于《担保交易指南》建议231(见第十一章,第20至22段)。
It introduces a qualified exception to the general applicability of the third-party effectiveness requirements of the new law to prior security rights under article 102, paragraph 2.根据第102条第2款,新法律的第三方效力要求可普遍适用于先前担保权;第105条则引入了一种有保留的例外。
Under paragraph 1, a prior security right that was made effective against third parties under prior law remains effective against third parties for a transitional period specified by the enacting State after entry into force of the new law even if the conditions for third-party effectiveness under the new law have not been satisfied The transitional period expires at the earlier of the time when the third-party effectiveness of the security right would have ceased under prior law (see para.根据第105条第1款,一项先前担保权根据先前法律取得对抗第三方的效力,新法律生效之后,即使未满足新法律规定的第三方效力条件,在颁布国指明的过渡期内,仍然具有对抗第三方的效力。
1 (a)) or the time when the transitional period expires (see para.1 (b).过渡期届满的时间以下列较早者为准:当该担保权的第三方效力根据先前法律终止(见第1款(a)项)或者当过渡期届满(见第1款(b)项)。
The length of the transitional period should be sufficient to allow secured creditors to familiarize themselves with the new law and take the steps required by the new law to make their security rights effective against third parties (e.g. one to two years; for the preparatory steps to be taken into account in determining when the new law is to enter into force, see para. 548 below).过渡期的长短应足以让有担保债权人熟悉新法律并采取新法律要求的措施,使它们的担保权取得对抗第三方的效力(例如一至两年;关于确定新法律生效时间所应考虑的准备步骤,见下文第548段)。
539.539.
The following examples illustrate the operation of paragraph 1.下面的事例具体说明第1款的运作。
Suppose that a prior security right took effect against third parties under prior law on the conclusion of the security agreement without the need for the creditor to register or take any other additional step such as possession.在订立担保协议时,债权人无须办理登记或采取占有等任何其他额外措施,先前担保权即根据先前法律取得对抗第三方的效力。
The effect of paragraph 1 is to preserve the third-party effectiveness of the prior security right for the purposes of the new law after it comes into force until the expiration of the period specified in paragraph 1 (b) (e.g. one to two years).第1款所产生的影响是,在新法律生效之后直至第1款(b)项规定的过渡期届满(比如一到两年),就新的法律而言,先前担保权的第三方效力将保持不变。
Alternatively, suppose that the applicable prior law instead required public registration for third-party effectiveness, and the holder of the prior security right duly registered, but the registration period under prior law would have expired six months after the new law came into force. In this situation, paragraph 1 (a) would apply with the result that the thirdparty effectiveness of the prior security right would be preserved only for a period of six months after the new law entered into force.不然的话,假设可适用先前法律反而要求先前担保权公开登记才能取得第三方效力,且先前担保权的持有人也妥善办理了登记,但是先前法律规定的登记期间将在新法律生效之后六个月届满,则将适用第1款(a)项的规定,其结果是仅在新法律生效之后六个月内先前担保权的第三方效力保持不变。
540.540.
Under paragraph 2, the third-party effectiveness of a prior security right that would otherwise cease to be effective against third parties under paragraph 1 is preserved if the secured creditor takes the appropriate steps under the new law to achieve third-party effectiveness before the expiration of the relevant transition period in paragraph 1.根据第2款,如果有担保债权人在第1款规定的相关过渡期届满之前根据新法律采取适当的措施来实现第三方效力,则根据第1款本应丧失对抗第三方效力的先前担保权得以保持第三方效力。
In that event, the prior security right is treated as continuously effective against third parties from the time when it was first made effective against third parties under prior law.在这样的情况下,仍然认为该先前担保权自其根据先前法律首次取得对抗第三方效力之时起持续具有对抗第三方的效力。
It follows that the time of third-party effectiveness under prior law will be treated as the relevant time for determining the priority of the security right against competing claimants for the purposes of the priority rules of the new law that turn on the time of third-party effectiveness.由此可见,为了取决于第三方效力时间的新法律优先权规则,将把先前法律规定的第三方效力的时间视为确定担保权对抗相竞求偿人的优先权的相关时间。
541.541.
Paragraph 3 addresses the situation where the requirements of the new law for third-party effectiveness are not satisfied until after the expiration of the transition period in paragraph 1, leaving a gap between the expiration of third-party effectiveness under paragraph 1 and the achievement of third-party effectiveness under the new law.第3款涉及这样的情况:在第1款规定的过渡期届满以后,新法律关于第三方效力的要求才得到满足,这就在根据第1款第三方效力终止与根据新法律实现第三方效力之间出现间隙。
In this case, paragraph 3 provides that the security right is effective against third parties only from the time it is made effective against third parties under the new law.在这样的情况下,第3款规定,该担保权从它根据新法律取得对抗第三方的效力之时起才具有这样的效力。
It follows that the priority of the prior security right, for the purposes of the rules of the new law that determine priority by reference to the time of third-party effectiveness, will date only from that time.由此可见,就参照第三方效力的时间来确定优先权的新法律的规则而言,该先前担保权的优先权将只从这时起算。
542.542.
A prior security right typically will be made effective against third parties under the new law by registration of a notice in the Registry (see art. 18, and para. 123 above).先前担保权通常经在登记机构办理通知登记,根据新法律取得对抗第三方的效力(见第18条和上文第123段)。
The Model Law requires the grantor's authorization for registration but provides that the conclusion of a written security agreement automatically constitutes sufficient authorization for the registration of a notice covering the assets described in the agreement without the need for an express authorization clause (see art. 2 of the Model Registry Provisions, and paras. 151-157 above).《示范法》要求取得设保人授权才能办理登记,但又规定,无须明示授权条款,订立书面担保协议即自动构成对涵盖协议所述资产的通知办理登记的充分授权(见《登记处示范条文》第2条和下文第151-157条)。
In line with this rule, paragraph 4 confirms that a written agreement between a grantor and a secured creditor creating the prior security right constitutes sufficient authorization even if the agreement was concluded before the entry into force of the new law.按照这项规则,第4款确认,设保人与有担保债权人之间创设先前担保权的书面协议构成充分授权,即使订立该协议的时候,新法律尚未生效。
543.543.
Paragraph 5 makes explicit a point that is implicit in paragraph 2.第5款明确了第2款暗含的一个要点。
It provides that, if a prior security right that was made effective against third parties under prior law by registration remains continuously effective against third parties under paragraph 2, the priority rules of the new law that depend on the time of registration are to be applied using the time of registration under prior law.第5款规定,如果先前担保权经登记根据先前法律取得对抗第三方的效力,而且根据第2款规定持续具有对抗第三方的效力,则采用先前法律规定的登记时间,适用取决于登记时间的新法律的优先权规则。
Article 106.第106条.
Application of prior law to the priority of a prior security right as against the rights of competing claimants arising under prior law先前法律对先前担保权所享有的相对于在先前法律下产生的相竞求偿人权利优先权的适用
544.544.
Article 106 provides an exception to the general rule in article 102, paragraph 2, that the new law applies to all security rights, including prior security rights.第102条第2款的一般规则规定,新法律适用于所有担保权,包括先前担保权;第106条规定了一项例外情况。
In the circumstance described in article 106, the priority of a prior security right as against competing claimants is determined by application of prior law.在第106条描述的情况下,先前担保权对抗相竞求偿人的优先权将通过适用先前法律予以确定。
545.545.
Application of the priority rules of prior law appropriately respects the settled expectations of secured creditors and competing claimants provided that the priority competition does not involve the rights of new competing claimants that arose after the new law became effective.如果优先权竞争不涉及在新法律生效之后产生的新相竞求偿人的权利,则适用先前法律的优先权规则就适当顾及了有担保债权人和相竞求偿人已固定不移的期待。
Accordingly, paragraph 1 makes the application of prior law subject to the caveat that the priority status of the prior security right and the rights of competing claimants must not have changed since the entry into force of the new law.因此,第1款要求满足如下条件才能适用先前法律:自新法律生效以来,先前担保权的优先权地位及相竞求偿人的权利不得发生变化。
546.546.
Paragraph 2 provides guidance on when the priority status of a prior security right has changed within the meaning of paragraph 1 to require instead application of the priority rules of the new law in accordance with the general rule in article 102, paragraph 2.就何时先前担保权的优先权地位发生第1款所称变化以致要求按照第102条第2款的一般规则适用新法律的优先权规则,第2款提供了指导。
The effect of paragraph 2 is to make the priority rules of the new law applicable if the prior security right: (a) was created under prior law but was not made effective against third parties under prior law but only under the new law (see para. 2 (b)); or (b) it was made effective against third parties under prior law but continuity of third-party effectiveness was not preserved before the expiration of the transition period set out in article 105, paragraph 1 (see para. 2 (a)).第2款的效力是规定适用新法律的优先权规则的条件是:(a)先前担保权根据先前法律创设,但没有根据先前法律取得对抗第三方的效力,只是根据新法律才能取得这种效力(见第2款(b)项);或者(b)先前担保权根据先前法律取得对抗第三方的效力,但是在第105条第1款规定的过渡期届满之前没有保持这种效力的连续性(见第2款(a)项)。
Article 107.第107条.
Entry into force of this Law本法律的生效
547.547.
Article 107 is based on recommendation 228 of the Secured Transactions Guide (see chap. XI, paras. 4-6).第107条基于《担保交易指南》建议228(见第十一章,第4至6段)。
It requires the enacting State to specify the date when, or the mechanism according to which, the new law will enter into force.该条要求颁布国指明新法律生效的日期或者新法律生效的机制。
The Model Law does not recommend a particular approach, leaving this matter to the enacting State.《示范法》未就特定做法提出建议,而是将该事项留给颁布国处理。
For example, the new law might specify that it is to enter into force on a specified date or on a date to be specified by a separate decree.举例说,新的法律可具体规定,它将在某一明示日期或拟由一项单独法令规定的某一具体日期生效。
The placement of this article in the law of the law enacting State and its precise formulation will also depend on whether the new law is contained in a stand-alone statute or incorporated into a general civil or commercial code.该条在颁布国法律中的位置及其确切措辞,也将取决于新法律是被载入一部新的独立法规还是并入一部一般民事或商事法典。
548.548.
In determining when the new law will enter into force, careful consideration should be given both to obtaining the economic benefits of the new law as soon as possible and to minimizing disruptions that may be caused by significant changes in secured transactions practice resulting from the new law.确定新法律何时生效,既要仔细考虑尽快获得新法律的经济效益,也要仔细考虑尽可能减少新法律所致担保交易实践的重大变化可能造成的混乱。
Inasmuch as the new law will have been chosen because it is an improvement over the prior law, it should come into force as soon as is possible after the text of the new law is final and the registry system required to support it is operational.之所以选择新法律,乃是因为它比先前法律有所改进,在新法律的文本最终敲定并且为其提供支持所需登记处系统投入运行后该新法律应当切实尽快生效。
However, some lead time is necessary in order to, inter alia: (a) publicize the existence of the new law; (b) enable potential registry users to familiarize themselves with the operation of the Registry, including its registration and search requirements, and to undertake the necessary preparations to use the registry services; (c) educate participants in the secured transactions system about the effect of the new law and the transition from the prior to the new law and enable them to prepare for compliance with the new rules and to develop new forms of security agreements and other required documents; and (d) educate other affected constituents, for example, buyers, lessees, judgment creditors and insolvency representatives, on the impact of the new law on their rights.不过,为了(除其他外)下列目的,有必要安排一定的前置时间:(a)宣传新法律的存在;(b)促成登记处潜在用户熟悉登记处的运行,包括其登记和查询要求,并为使用登记处的服务做好必要的准备;(c)让担保交易体系的参与者了解新法律的效力以及从先前法律到新法律的过渡,使他们做好遵守新规则及开发有关担保协议和其他必要文件的新格式的准备;及(d)让其他受到影响的成员,比如买方、承租人、胜诉债权人和破产管理人,了解新法律对其权利的影响。
Annex I附件一
UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON SECURED TRANSACTIONS: DECISION OF THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW AND GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION 71/136贸易法委员会担保交易示范法:联合国国际贸易法委员会的决定和大会第71/136号决议
A.A.
Decision of the Commission贸法会的决定
At its 1032nd meeting on 1 July 2016, the Commission adopted the following decision: "The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, "Recalling General Assembly resolution 2205 (XXI) of 17 December 1966, which established the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law with the purpose of furthering the progressive harmonization and unification of the law of international trade in the interests of all peoples, in particular those of developing countries,在2016年7月1日第1032次会议上,贸法会通过了下述决定:“联合国国际贸易法委员会,“回顾大会1966年12月17日第2205(XXI)号决议设立联合国国际贸易法委员会,目的是为各国人民的利益,特别是为发展中国家人民的利益,促进国际贸易法的逐渐协调和统一,
"Recalling also General Assembly resolutions 56/81 of 12 December 2001, 63/121 of 11 December 2008, 65/23 of 6 December 2010 and 68/108 of 16 December 2013 in which the General Assembly recommended that States consider or continue to consider becoming parties to the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade (New York, 2001) and giving favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions (2007), the Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property and the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry, respectively,“还回顾大会2001年12月12日第56/81号、2008年12月11日第63/121号、2010年12月6日第65/23号和2013年12月16日第68/108号决议,大会在这些决议中分别建议各国考虑或继续考虑成为《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》(2001年,纽约)18的缔约国,并积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》(2007年)、19《知识产权担保权补编》20和《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》,
"Further recalling that, at its forty-sixth session, in 2013, it entrusted Working Group VI (Security Interests) with the preparation of a model law on secured transactions based on the recommendations of the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions (2007) and consistent with all texts prepared by UNCITRAL on secured transactions,“又回顾委员会2013年第四十六届会议委托第六工作组(担保权益)在《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》(2007年)建议的基础上,并按照委员会拟订的关于担保交易的所有案文,拟订一部担保交易示范法,
"Noting that the Working Group devoted six sessions, from 2013 to 2016, to the preparation of the draft model law on secured transactions (the 'draft Model Law'),“注意到工作组从2013年到2016年用六届会议拟订担保交易示范法草案(“示范法草案”),
"Further noting that, at its forty-eighth session, in 2015, the Commission approved the substance of the registry-related provisions of the draft Model Law,“又注意到委员会2015年第四十八届会议核准了示范法草案与登记处有关的条文的实质内容,
"Further noting with satisfaction that the draft Model Law is based on the recommendations of the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and consistent with all texts prepared by UNCITRAL on secured transactions, and with those texts thus provides comprehensive guidance to States with respect to legal and practical issues that need to be addressed when implementing a modern secured transactions regime,“还满意地注意到示范法草案以《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》为基础,并与贸易法委员会拟订的关于担保交易的所有案文相一致,因而以此就落实现代担保交易制度时需要处理的法律问题和实务问题向各国提供全面的指导,
"Recognizing that an efficient secured transactions regime with a publicly accessible security rights registry of the kind provided for in the draft Model Law is likely to increase access to affordable secured credit and thus promote economic growth, sustainable development, the rule of law and financial inclusion, as well as assist in combating poverty,“认识到建立起高效担保交易制度并配备示范法草案所规定的这类可供公众查询的担保权登记处,有可能增加获得费用可承受的担保信贷的机会,从而促进经济增长、可持续发展、法治和金融普惠,并有助于消除贫穷,
"Recognizing also that the harmonization of national secured transactions regimes and registries on the basis of the draft Model Law is likely to increase the availability of secured credit across national borders and thus facilitate the development of international trade, which, if achieved on the basis of equality and mutual benefit to all States, is an important element in promoting friendly relations among States,“还认识到在示范法草案的基础上协调统一各国担保交易制度和登记处,有可能增加跨国界信贷供应,从而促进国际贸易发展,如能在所有国家平等互利的基础上实现这种发展,则是促进国家间友好关系的一个重要因素,
" Recognizing further that secured transactions law reform could not be effectively implemented without the establishment of an efficient, publicly accessible security rights registry where information about the potential existence of a security right in movable assets may be registered, and that States urgently need guidance with respect to the establishment and operation of such registries,“又认识到不建立高效的可供公众查询的担保权登记处,以登记可能存在的动产担保权的相关信息,担保交易法改革便无法有效实施,各国迫切需要在这类登记处的设立和运作方面得到指导,
"Expressing its appreciation to international intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of secured transactions law reform for their participation in and support for the development of the draft Model Law,“表示感谢在担保交易法改革领域开展活动的国际政府间组织和非政府组织参与和支持拟订示范法草案,
"Having considered the draft Model Law at its forty-ninth session, in 2016, "Drawing attention to the fact that the text of the draft Model Law was circulated for comment before the forty-ninth session of the Commission to all Governments invited to attend sessions of the Commission and the Working Group as members and observers and that the comments received were before the Commission at its forty-ninth session,“已在委员会2016年第四十九届会议上审议示范法草案,“提请注意示范法草案的案文已在委员会第四十九届会议之前分发给所有作为成员和观察员应邀出席委员会和工作组届会的政府征求意见,收到的意见已提交委员会第四十九届会议,
"Considering that the draft Model Law has received sufficient consideration and has reached the level of maturity for it to be generally acceptable to States,“认为示范法草案已得到充分审议,并已达到可为各国广泛接受的成熟度,
"1.“1.
Adopts the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, consisting of the text contained in documents A/CN.9/884 and addenda 1-4, with amendments adopted by the Commission at its forty-ninth session, and authorizes the Secretariat to edit and finalize the text of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions pursuant to the deliberations of the Commission at that session;通过《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》,其案文由载于A/CN.9/884及增编1-4号文件并经委员会第四十九届会议修订的案文组成,同时授权秘书处根据委员会本届会议审议情况编辑《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》定本;
"2.“2.
Requests the Secretary-General to publish the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, including electronically and in the six official languages of the United Nations, and to disseminate it broadly to Governments and other interested bodies;请秘书长发布《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》,包括以电子方式、用联合国六种正式语文发布,并向各国政府及其他有关机构广泛传播;
"3.“3.
Recommends that all States give favourable consideration to the UNCITRARAL Model Law on Secured Transactions when revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions, and invites States that have used the Model Law to advise the Commission accordingly;建议各国在修订或通过与担保交易有关的立法时积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》,并请已使用《示范法》的国家向委员会通报相关事宜;
"4.“4.
Also recommends that, where necessary, States continue giving favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry when revising relevant legislation, administrative regulations or guidelines, and to the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and the Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property when revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions, and invites States that have used the guides to advise the Commission accordingly;还建议各国在修订相关立法、行政条例或准则时视需要继续积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》,并在修订或通过与担保交易有关的立法时积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》和《知识产权担保权补编》,同时请已使用这两份指南的国家向委员会通报相关事宜;
"5.“5.
Also recommends that all States continue to consider becoming parties to the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade, the principles of which are also reflected in the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, and the optional annex of which refers to the registration of notices with regard to assignments."还建议所有国家继续考虑成为《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》的缔约国,该《公约》的原则也反映在《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》中,该《公约》的备选附件提到转让通知的登记。”
B.B.
General Assembly resolution 71/136大会第71/136号决议
At its 62nd plenary meeting, on 13 December 2016, the General Assembly adopted on the basis of the report of the Sixth Committee (A/71/507), the following resolution:在其2016年12月13日第62次全体会议上,大会以第六委员会的报告(A/71/507)基础通过了下述决议:
The General Assembly,大会,
Recalling its resolution 2205 (XXI) of 17 December 1966, by which it established the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law with a mandate to further the progressive harmonization and unification of the law of international trade and in that respect to bear in mind the interests of all peoples, in particular those of developing countries, in the extensive development of international trade,回顾其1966年12月17日第2205(XXI)号决议设立联合国国际贸易法委员会,其任务是促进国际贸易法的逐渐协调和统一,并在这方面念及各国人民在国际贸易广泛发展中的利益,尤其是发展中国家人民在这方面的利益,
Recalling also its resolutions 56/81 of 12 December 2001, 63/121 of 11 December 2008, 65/23 of 6 December 2010 and 68/108 of 16 December 2013, in which it recommended that States consider or continue to consider becoming parties to the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade and giving favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions, the Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property and the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry, respectively,还回顾大会2001年12月12日第56/81号、2008年12月11日第63/121号、2010年12月6日第65/23号和2013年12月16日第68/108号决议,大会在这些决议中分别建议各国考虑或继续考虑成为《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》26的缔约国,并积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》、《知识产权担保权补编》和《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》,
Recalling further that, at its forty-sixth session, in 2013, the Commission entrusted Working Group VI (Security Interests) with the preparation of a model law on secured transactions based on the recommendations of the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and consistent with all texts prepared by the Commission on secured transactions,又回顾委员会2013年第四十六届会议委托第六工作组(担保权益)在《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》建议的基础上,并按照委员会拟订的关于担保交易的所有案文,拟订一部担保交易示范法,
Noting that Working Group VI devoted six sessions, from 2013 to 2016, to the preparation of the Model Law on Secured Transactions, Noting also that, at its forty-eighth session, in 2015, the Commission approved the substance of the registry-related provisions of the Model Law,注意到第六工作组自2013年至2016年用六届会议28拟订《担保交易示范法》,又注意到委员会2015年第四十八届会议核准了《示范法》与登记处有关的条文的实质内容,
Noting with satisfaction that the Model Law is based on the recommendations of the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and consistent with all texts prepared by the Commission on secured transactions, and with those texts thus provides comprehensive guidance to States with respect to legal and practical issues that need to be addressed when implementing a modern secured transactions regime,满意地注意到《示范法》以《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》的各项建议为基础,并与委员会拟订的关于担保交易的所有案文相一致,因而以这些案文就落实现代担保交易制度时需要处理的法律问题和实务问题向各国提供全面的指导,
Recognizing that an efficient secured transactions regime with a publicly accessible security rights registry of the kind provided for in the Model Law is likely to increase access to affordable secured credit and thus promote economic growth, sustainable development, the rule of law and financial inclusion, as well as assist in combating poverty,认识到建立起高效担保交易制度并配备《示范法》所规定的这类可供公众查询的担保权登记处,有可能增加获得费用可承受的担保信贷的机会,从而促进经济增长、可持续发展、法治和金融普惠,并有助于消除贫穷,
Recognizing also that the harmonization of national secured transactions regimes and registries on the basis of the Model Law is likely to increase the availability of secured credit across national borders and thus facilitate the development of international trade, which, if achieved on the basis of equality and mutual benefit to all States, is an important element in promoting friendly relations among States,又认识到在《示范法》的基础上协调统一各国担保交易制度和登记处,有可能增加跨国界担保信贷供应,从而促进国际贸易发展,如能在所有国家平等互利的基础上实现这种发展,则是促进国家间友好关系的一个重要因素,
Recognizing further that secured transactions law reform could not be effectively implemented without the establishment of an efficient, publicly accessible security rights registry where information about the potential existence of a security right in movable assets may be registered, and that States urgently need guidance with respect to the establishment and operation of such registries,还认识到不建立高效的可供公众查询的担保权登记处,以登记可能存在的动产担保权的相关信息,担保交易法改革便无法有效实施,各国迫切需要在这类登记处的设立和运作方面得到指导,
Convinced that the Model Law will contribute to greater legal certainty in the exercise of international commercial activities for the benefit of all States, particularly developing countries and States with economies in transition,深信《示范法》将有助于在开展国际商业活动方面提高法律确定性,让所有国家特别是发展中国家及经济转型国家受益,
Noting with appreciation that all States and interested international organizations were invited to participate in the preparation of the draft Model Law at all the sessions of the Working Group and at the forty-eighth and fortyninth sessions of the Commission, either as members or as observers, and that comments received after circulation of the text of the Model Law to all Governments were before the Commission at its forty-ninth session,赞赏地注意到在工作组所有届会以及在委员会第四十八届及第四十九届会议上所有国家和相关国际组织均受邀作为成员或观察员参加拟订《示范法》草案,而在向各国政府分发《示范法》案文后收到的意见已提供给委员会第四十九届会议,
Expressing its appreciation to international intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of secured transactions law reform for their participation in and support for the development of the Model Law,表示赞赏在担保交易法改革领域开展活动的国际政府间组织和非政府组织参与和支持拟订《示范法》,
1.1.
Expresses its appreciation to the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law for completing and adopting the Model Law on Secured Transactions;表示赞赏联合国国际贸易法委员会完成并通过《担保交易示范法》;31
2.2.
Requests the Secretary-General to publish the Model Law, including electronically, in the six official languages of the United Nations, and to disseminate it broadly to Governments and other interested bodies;请秘书长以联合国六种正式语文公布,包括以电子方式公布《示范法》,并向各国政府及其他有关机构广泛传播;
3.3.
Recommends that all States give favourable consideration to the Model Law when revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions, and invites States that have used the Model Law to advise the Commission accordingly;建议各国在修订或通过与担保交易有关的立法时积极考虑《示范法》,并邀请已使用《示范法》的国家向委员会通报相关事宜;
4.4.
Also recommends that, where necessary, States continue to give favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry when revising relevant legislation, administrative regulations or guidelines, and to the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and the Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property when revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions, and invites States that have used the guides to advise the Commission accordingly;还建议各国在修订相关立法、行政条例或准则时视需要继续积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》,并在修订或通过与担保交易有关的立法时积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》和《知识产权担保权补编》,同时邀请已使用这两份指南的国家向委员会通报相关事宜;
5.5.
Further recommends that all States continue to consider becoming parties to the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade, the principles of which are also reflected in the Model Law, and the optional annex to which refers to the registration of notices with regard to assignments.又建议所有国家继续考虑成为《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》的缔约国,该《公约》的原则也反映在《示范法》中,该《公约》的备选附件提到转让通知的登记。
Annex II附件二
Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions: Decision of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》颁布指南:联合国国际贸易法委员会的决定
At its 1067th meeting, on 20 July 2017, the Commission adopted the following decision: "The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law,贸法会在其2017年7月20日第1067次会议上通过了下述决定:“联合国国际贸易法委员会,
"Recalling General Assembly resolution 2205 (XXI) of 17 December 1966, which established the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law with the purpose of furthering the progressive harmonization and unification of the law of international trade in the interests of all peoples, in particular those of developing countries,“回顾大会1966年12月17日第2205(XXI)号决议设立了联合国国际贸易法委员会,目的是为各国人民的利益,特别是为发展中国家人民的利益,促进国际贸易法的逐渐协调和统一,
"Recalling also General Assembly resolutions 56/81 of 12 December 2001, 63/121 of 11 December 2008, 65/23 of 6 December 2010 and 68/108 of 16 December 2013, in which the General Assembly recommended that States consider or continue to consider becoming parties to the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade (New York, 2001) and giving favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions (2007), the Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property and the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry, respectively,“还回顾大会2001年12月12日第56/81号、2008年12月11日第63/121号、2010年12月6日第65/23号和2013年12月16日第68/108号决议,大会在这些决议中分别建议各国考虑或继续考虑成为《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》(2001年,纽约)32的缔约国,并积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》(2007年)、33《知识产权担保权补编》34和《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》,35
"Further recalling that, at its forty-ninth session, in 2016, the Commission adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions (the 'Model Law') and that the General Assembly, in its resolution 71/136, recommended the Model Law for use by States,“又回顾贸法会2016年第四十九届会议通过了《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》(《示范法》)36,大会第71/136号决议建议各国使用《示范法》,
"Being convinced that the overarching benefits of the Model Law include an increase in access to affordable credit, the facilitation of the development of international trade and greater legal certainty in the exercise of international commercial activities,“深信《示范法》的主要益处包括增加了获得可负担信贷的机会、便利发展国际贸易和提高了开展国际商业活动的法律确定性,
"Noting that a number of issues were referred to a draft guide to enactment of the Model Law (the 'draft Guide to Enactment') during the deliberations of the Model Law and that, at its forty-ninth session, in 2016, the Commission agreed to give Working Group VI (Security Interests) up to two sessions to complete its work on the draft Guide to Enactment and submit it to the Commission for final consideration and adoption at its fiftieth session, in 2017,“注意到在审议《示范法》期间已将若干问题交由《示范法》颁布指南草案(“颁布指南草案”)处理,并且贸法会2016年第四十九届会议商定给第六工作组(担保权益)最多两届会议以完成其有关颁布指南草案的工作,并将其提交贸法会2017年第五十届会议最后审议并通过37,
"Noting also that the Working Group devoted two sessions, in 2016 and 2107, to the preparation of the draft Guide to Enactment, and that, at its thirtyfirst session, in 2017, the Working Group approved the substance of the draft Guide to Enactment and decided to submit it to the Commission for final consideration and approval at its fiftieth session,“还注意到工作组利用其2016年和2017年两届会议集中编拟颁布指南草案38,并且工作组在其2017年第三十一届会议上核准了颁布指南草案的实质内容,并决定将其提交贸法会第五十届会议予以最后审议和核准,39
"Further noting with satisfaction that the draft Guide to Enactment provided background and explanatory information that could assist States in revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions on the basis of the Model Law, and thus a guide to enactment of the Model Law would be an extremely important text for the implementation and interpretation of the Model Law,“又满意地注意到,颁布指南草案提供了可协助各国以《示范法》为基础修订或通过担保交易相关法规的背景资料和解释性资料,40因而有关《示范法》的颁布指南是有关执行和解释《示范法》的一项极为重要的案文,41
"Expressing its appreciation to international intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of secured transactions law reform for their participation in and support for the development of the Model Law and the draft Guide to Enactment,“感谢在担保交易法改革领域开展活动的国际政府间组织和非政府组织参与并支持拟订《示范法》和颁布指南草案,
"Having considered the draft Guide to Enactment at its fiftieth session, in 2017, "Considering that the draft Guide to Enactment has received sufficient consideration and has reached the level of maturity for it to be generally acceptable to States,“经过贸法会2017年第五十届会议对颁布指南草案的审议,“认为颁布指南草案已得到充分审议,并已达到可为各国广泛接受的成熟度,
"1.“1.
Adopts the Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, consisting of the text contained in documents A/CN.9/914 and Addenda 1-6, with amendments adopted by the Commission at its fiftieth session, and authorizes the Secretariat to edit and finalize the text of the Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions pursuant to the deliberations of the Commission at that session;通过《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》,包括其载于A/CN.9/914和Add.1-6号文件的案文和经贸法会第五十届会议通过的修订案文,并授权秘书处根据贸法会该届会议审议情况编辑和最后审定《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》颁布指南的案文;
"2.“2.
Requests the Secretary-General to publish the Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, including electronically and in the six official languages of the United Nations, and to disseminate it broadly to Governments and other interested bodies;请秘书长发布《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》颁布指南,包括以电子方式和用联合国六种正式语文予以发布,并向各国政府及其他有关机构广泛传播;
"3.“3.
Recommends that all States give favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, taking also into account the information in the Guide to Enactment, when revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions, and invites States that have used the Model Law to advise the Commission accordingly;建议各国在修订或通过担保交易相关法规时积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》,并请已使用《示范法》的国家向贸法会通报相关事宜;
"4.“4.
Also recommends that, where necessary, States continue giving favourable consideration to the UNCITRAL Guide on the Implementation of a Security Rights Registry when revising relevant legislation, administrative regulations or guidelines, and to the UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and the Supplement on Security Rights in Intellectual Property when revising or adopting legislation relevant to secured transactions, and invites States that have used the guides to advise the Commission accordingly;还建议各国视需要在修订与《贸易法委员会担保权登记处落实指南》有关的立法、行政条例或准则时继续积极考虑该《指南》,并在修订或通过担保交易相关法规时积极考虑《贸易法委员会担保交易立法指南》和《知识产权担保权补编》,并邀请已使用这两份指南的国家向贸法会通报相关事宜;
"5.“5.
Also recommends that all States continue to consider becoming parties to the United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade, the principles of which are also reflected in the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions, and the optional annex of which refers to the registration of notices with regard to assignments."还建议所有国家继续考虑成为《联合国国际贸易应收款转让公约》的缔约国,该《公约》的原则也反映在《贸易法委员会担保交易示范法》中,其备选附件提及对转让通知的登记。”
11
Official Records of the General Assembly, Seventy-first Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/71/17), paras. 17-118.《大会正式记录,第七十一届会议,补编第 17 号》(A/71/17),第 17-118 段。
22
Ibid., paras.121 and 122.同上,第 121 和 122 段。
The draft Guide to Enactment before the Commission at its forty-ninth session is contained in documents A/CN.9/885 and Add.1-4.由贸法会第四十九届会议审议的颁布指南草案载于 A/CN.9/885 及 Add.1-4 号文件。
33
Official Records of the General Assembly, Seventy-second Session, Supplement No.17 (A/72/17), para.《大会正式记录,第七十二届会议,补编第 17 号》(A/72/17),第 216 段。
216.The draft Guide to Enactment before the Commission at its fiftieth session is contained in documents A/CN.9/914 and Add.1-6.由贸法会第五十届会 议审议的颁布指南草案载于 A/CN.9/914 及 Add.1-6 号文件。
44
ISBN: 978-92-1-133856-0ISBN:978-92-1-133856-0。
55
United Nations publication, Sales No. E.09.V.12.联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.09.V.12。
66
Official Records of the General Assembly, Seventieth Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/70/17), paras. 215 and 216.大会第 56/81 号决议,附件(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.04.V.14)。
77
General Assembly resolution 56/81, annex (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.04.V.14).联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.11.V.6。
88
United Nations publication, Sales No. E.11.V.6.联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.14.V.6。
99
United Nations publication, Sales No. E.14.V.6.《大会正式记录,第七十届会议,补编第 17 号》(A/70/17),第 215 和 216 段。
1010
Official Records of the General Assembly, Seventieth Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/70/17), para. 216.《大会正式记录,第七十届会议,补编第 17 号》(A/70/17),第 216 段。
1111
Official Records of the General Assembly, Seventy-first Session, Supplement No.17 (A/71/17), paras.《大会正式记录,第七十一届会议,补编第 17 号》(A/71/17),第 17-118 段。
17-118.United Nations Publication ISBN: 978-92-1-133856-0.联合国出版物,ISBN:978-92-1-133856-0。
1212
The reports of the Working Group are contained in documents A/CN.9/899 and A/CN.9/904.工作组的报 告载于 A/CN.9/899 和 A/CN.9/904 号 文 件 。
During these sessions, the Working Group considered documents A/CN.9/WG.VI/WP.71/Add.1-6 and A/CN.9/WG.VI/WP.73.在 这 些 会 议 期 间 , 工 作 组 审 议 了 A/CN.9/WG.VI/WP.71/Add.1-6 和 A/CN.9/WG.VI/WP.73 号 文 件 。