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Fifty-eighth session第五十八届会议
* A/58/150.* A/58/150。
Item 61 of the provisional agenda*临时议程* 项目61
Follow-up to the outcome of the Millennium Summit千年首脑会议成果的后续行动
Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration《联合国千年宣言》的执行情况
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
Contents目录
Paragraphs Page段次 页次
Introduction导言
1–4 21-4 3
Peace and security和平与安全
5–46 25-46 3
Development发展
47–72 847-72 10
Human rights, democracy and good governance人权、民主和善政
73–90 1373-90 16
Conclusion: reinforcing multilateral institutions结论:加强多边机构
91–99 1691-99 19
Annex附件
Millennium Development Goals: targets and indicators千年发展目标. 具体目标和指标
1821
I.一.
Introduction导言
1. A major disaster befell the United Nations on 19 August 2003, when 15 United Nations staff members and seven others were killed and well over 100 wounded in a bomb attack on our headquarters in Baghdad. That disaster deprived the international community of some of its most talented servants, including the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Sergio Vieira de Mello, who was serving as my Special Representative for Iraq. While the full implications of the attack have yet to be thought through, they clearly involve important issues relating to the kind of mandates entrusted to the United Nations by its Member States and our capacity to carry them out.1. 8月15日,联合国遭遇了一场重大灾难。这一天,联合国驻巴格达总部被炸,有15名联合国工作人员和7名其他人员遇难,100多人受伤。这场灾难使国际社会失去了一些最具才干的公务人员,其中包括人权事务高级专员兼我的伊拉克问题特别代表塞尔希奥 比埃拉 德梅洛。虽然灾难的全部影响尚待确定,但这些影响显然涉及联合国会员国赋予联合国的任务以及联合国履行这些任务的能力等重大问题。
2. The body of the present report was written before that event, and it is in any case not a report on the United Nations as such, but rather on the distance travelled by humanity as a whole towards — or away from — the objectives set for it by the world leaders who met in New York in September 2000. Nonetheless, I find it essential to begin by referring to the attack of 19 August, because I see it as a direct challenge to the vision of global solidarity and collective security rooted in the Charter of the United Nations and articulated in the Millennium Declaration. Its significance thus reaches beyond the tragedy that affects us personally, as individuals, or even institutionally, as an Organization. 3. Indeed, I see the attack as the latest in a series of events that led me to give this report a different form from that adopted last year. Even before the tragedy, I felt that a simple progress report could hardly do justice to what we had lived through in the last 12 months. In the area of peace and security, in particular, the consensus expressed or implied in the Declaration now looks less solid than it did three years ago. In the area of development, by contrast, a stronger consensus has been forged, but grave doubts remain as to whether Member States are sufficiently determined to act on it. And in the area of human rights and democracy there is a danger that we may retreat from some of the important gains made in the previous decade.2. 本报告的主要部分是在该次事件发生前编写的。这不是关于联合国本身的报告,而是要说明整个国际社会在实现2000年9月于纽约举行的世界首脑会议为人类社会确定的目标方面所取得的进展或遇到的挫折。尽管如此,我认为首先必须提到8月19日的袭击事件,因为我认为它是对源于《联合国宪章》并在《千年宣言》中得到体现的全球团结和集体安全构想的直接挑战。因此,这一事件的影响远远超过一场在个人层面影响到我们每个人、在组织层面影响到联合国的一场悲剧。
4. I think it necessary, therefore, under the three above-mentioned headings, to evaluate not only the progress made, or not made, but also the obstacles encountered, and to re-examine some of the underlying assumptions of the Declaration. We can no longer take it for granted that our multilateral institutions are strong enough to cope with all of the challenges facing them. I suggest in my conclusion that some of the institutions may be in need of radical reform.3. 实际上,我认为这次袭击是一系列事件中的最新事件。这些事件促使我采用与去年不同的形式来起草本报告。甚至在发生这一悲剧前,我就感到,一份简单的进展情况报告不足以充分反映我们在过去十二个月中经历的情况。特别是在和平与安全领域,宣言中表达或隐含的共识现在看来不象三年前那么坚定。相比之下,在发展领域形成了更稳固的共识,但对会员国是否有足够决心付诸行动,尚存重大疑虑。在人权和民主领域,我们有可能丧失在前十年取得的一些重要进展。
II.4.
Peace and security因此,我认为在这三个标题下,不仅有必要评价取得或尚未取得的进展,而且有必要评价遇到的阻碍;甚至重新审查宣言的一些基本假设。我们再不能想当然地以为,我们的多边机构都有足够能力来应付所有这些挑战。我在结论中提出,一些多边机构可能需要进行重大改革。
5. Since the Millennium Summit, the international community has had to deal with both new and old threats to international peace and security. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 shocked the world and were immediately condemned with unprecedented speed by the Security Council and the General Assembly. The United Nations moved swiftly to put extensive counter-terrorism measures in place, involving new obligations by States and the promotion of effective national policies to prevent terrorism and its financing. Following the downfall of the Taliban, Member States were also united in their support for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, providing encouragement to the new Transitional Administration as well as generous financial assistance.二. 和平与安全
6. This climate of cooperation and consensus was seriously eroded by the war against Iraq in the spring of 2003. While the Security Council agreed on the need to disarm Iraq of all weapons of mass destruction, it could not agree on the means to achieve this aim. The war exposed deep divisions in the international community, with accusations of double agendas. Although the Security Council has since been able to find common ground on the need to restore Iraqi sovereignty and reconstruct the country, divisions remain that will not be easily overcome. The war in Iraq brought to the fore a host of questions of principle and practice that challenge the United Nations and the international community as a whole. New and potentially more virulent forms of terrorism, the proliferation of non-conventional weapons, the spread of transnational criminal networks and the ways in which all these things may be coming together to reinforce one another are viewed in some parts of the world as the dominant threats to peace and security in our time. Questions are being raised about the adequacy and effectiveness of the rules and instruments at the disposal of the international community to confront this new array of challenges. The very relevance of current multilateral rules and institutions has come into question.5. 千年首脑会议以来,国际社会在国际和平与安全方面既要应付原有威胁,又要应付新出现的威胁。2001年9月11日的恐怖袭击震惊世界。安全理事会和大会以前所未有的速度立即予以谴责。联合国迅速采取行动,制订了广泛的反恐措施,给各国规定新义务,并促进各国采取有效政策,防止恐怖主义和阻止资助恐怖主义。塔利班政权倒台后,会员国还一致支持阿富汗重建工作,鼓励新成立的过渡行政当局并提供慷慨的财政援助。
7. At the same time, for many around the globe, poverty, deprivation and civil war remain the highest priority.6.
Civilians inevitably bear the cost of the complex and intractable conflicts that have led to the death or forced displacement of hundreds of thousands of people, and which can only be addressed by a more integrated collective approach to their deepening protection needs.2003年春季的伊拉克战争严重损害了这种合作与协商一致气氛。尽管安全理事会一致认为有必要解除伊拉克的所有大规模毁灭性武器,但它未能就实现该目标的手段达成一致。这场战争暴露了国际社会中的重大分歧,出现了关于有双重议程的指责。尽管安全理事会后来就伊拉克恢复主权和进行重建达成了共识,但分歧依旧存在,不会轻易消除。对伊战争突显了一系列涉及原则和实际做法的问题。给联合国和整个国际社会带来挑战。更具潜在破坏力的新形式恐怖主义、非常规武器的扩散、跨国犯罪网络的蔓延以及所有这些情况通过各种途径的彼此交织和相互助长,在世界一些地方被视为当代和平与安全面临的主要威胁。人们质疑国际社会是否有足够有效的规则和工具来应付这一系列新挑战。现行多边规则和机构的相关性受到审视。
8. Africa’s development, in particular, continues to be hampered by war. Many of the continent’s recent conflicts have been characterized by extreme acts of violence perpetrated against civilians, including brutal acts of torture, rape, mutilation, harassment and executions. Children are routinely subject to abduction and forced militarization, perpetuating a youth culture of alienation and violence. In the last year, progress achieved in Angola and the Sudan has been overshadowed by continued conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, armed violence in Côte d’Ivoire and bloody fighting in Liberia, leading to widespread terror, social upheaval and mass displacement. For the international community, these national emergencies have developed into broader “crises of protection”.7. 与此同时,对世界许多人而言,贫穷、丧失权利和内战仍是最首要的事项。在复杂棘手的冲突中,平民不可避免地首当其冲。已有数十万人丧生或被迫流亡。要解决这些冲突,只有集体采取更加统筹一致的办法,满足越来越多的保护平民需求。
9. Throughout its history, the United Nations has had to confront challenges such as intra-state war, terrorism and other man-made or natural disasters.8.
What is new is the fast evolving global context within which all these threats are now emerging and the opportunity, in our ever more interconnected world, for local crises and violence to quickly acquire global reach and consequence.非洲发展尤其受到战争的持续阻碍。在非洲大陆最近发生的许多冲突中,平民都受到极端暴力行为的侵害,其中包括酷刑、强奸、断肢、骚扰和处决等暴行。儿童常常遭到绑架,被迫充军,从而铸成一种疏离和暴力的青年文化。去年尽管在安哥拉和苏丹取得了进展,但刚果民主共和国的持续冲突、科特迪瓦的武装暴乱和利比里亚的血腥交战导致恐怖气氛到处蔓延,社会动荡和大批人口流离失所,使得这些进展黯然失色。对国际社会而言,这些国家的紧急情况已演变成范围更大的“保护危机。”
10. The performance of the international community in dealing with these threats and challenges is uneven. Notably, we continue to lack the needed political will, as well as a common vision of our responsibility in the face of massive violations of human rights and humanitarian catastrophes occasioned by conflict. In my statement delivered at the opening of the general debate at the fifty-fourth session of the General Assembly in 1999, I challenged Member States to address this vitally important problem. The results to date have not been encouraging. Although the international community has witnessed massacres of near genocidal proportions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Liberia, our response to them has been hesitant and tardy.9. 在它的整个历史中,联合国一直要应付内战、恐怖主义和其他人为灾难或自然灾害。与已往不同的是,所有这些威胁目前出现在迅速演变的全球背景之下,而且在我们这个日益相互联接在一起的世界中,地方冲突和暴力有可能迅速产生全球影响和后果。
11. It is hoped that the recently constituted International Criminal Court will punish the perpetrators of the most heinous of such crimes and thus help to deter them in future. But no legal order can function in isolation from the everyday protection of human life. Mass murder and crimes against humanity must be prevented and, when they take place, stopped by immediate effective action. As the recent report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty explained, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding and effective exercise of the responsibility to protect.10. 国际社会应对这些威胁和挑战的业绩好坏不一。特别是,在冲突导致大规模侵犯人权行为和人道主义灾难时,我们仍然缺乏所需的政治意愿,对于我们的责任也没有共同认识。我在大会1999年第五十四届会议一般性辩论开幕式上的讲话中,提请会员国处理这一至关重要的问题。迄今的结果并不令人鼓舞。尽管国际社会目睹了刚果民主共和国和利比里亚境内发生的近乎于种族灭绝的大屠杀,但我们所作的反应却犹豫迟缓。
12. It is vitally important that the international community not allow the differences of the past months to persist and that it find unity of purpose based on a common security agenda. This can only be achieved if States, in pursuing their national interests, show understanding and respect for global realities and the needs of others. The common security agenda should reflect a global consensus on the major threats to peace and security, be they old or new, and our common response. It should strengthen international solidarity based on the shared universal values enshrined in the Charter and should not shy away from the need to improve and, where necessary, change the structure and functions of the United Nations and other international institutions.11. 希望最近成立的国际刑事法院会惩治那些犯有最邪恶罪行的人,从而有助于震慑今后的犯罪者。但是,任何法律秩序的实行都离不开对人类生命的日常保护。必须防止大屠杀和危害人类罪,或者在这种罪行发生时,立即采取有效行动加以制止。正如干预和国家主权国际委员会最近的报告所述,目前需要全面理解提供保护的责任,并有效行使这一责任。
13. The great strength of the United Nations remains its legitimacy, founded on the bedrock principles of international law accepted by all States and expressed in the decisions of an Organization which represents the entire international community. In the international arena there is no substitute for such legitimacy. It is essential, therefore, that the actual conduct of international affairs be in conformity with these principles. The United Nations finds itself at a critical juncture: unless the Security Council regains the confidence of States and of world public opinion, individual States will increasingly resort exclusively to their own national perceptions of emerging threats and to their own judgement on how best to address them. To forestall such a development, the United Nations will have to demonstrate its ability to deal with the most difficult issues, and to do so effectively.12. 国际社会决不能让过去数月的分歧继续存在,必须根据一个共同安全议程找到共同目标。只有各国在谋求本国利益的同时表明对全球现实和他人需要的理解和尊重,才能做到这一点。共同安全议程应体现世界各国关于和平与安全在过去和现在受到的主要威胁和我们的共同对策的共识。议程应当加强国际社会在《联合国宪章》所体现的共同、普遍价值观基础上的团结。议程不应回避改进并在必要时改变联合国和其他国际机构的结构和职能的必要性。
14. Legitimacy and political will are necessary, but they alone are not enough. The international community must also have appropriate rules and tools in place to deal effectively with threats to peace and security. The Charter and the array of international conventions negotiated over the last several decades constitute a solid framework for international cooperation, a framework which has served us well. To ensure that the international security architecture continues to play this role effectively, it must be able to adapt to the needs of our time.13. 联合国的巨大优势仍在于其合法性。这种合法性建立在所有国家普遍接受的国际法各项基本原则基础上,表现在一个代表整个国际社会的组织所作的各项决定中。在国际领域,此种合法性无可替代。因此,国际事务的实际开展必须符合这些原则。目前,联合国正处于一个重要关头:除非安全理事会重新取得各国及世界舆论的信任,否则,个别国家将愈发完全依赖自己对新出现威胁的认识,并完全听凭自己的判断,以自认为最佳的方式处理这些威胁。为防范这种事态发展,联合国将必须表明它有能力处理最棘手问题,并能有效地处理这些问题。
15. In particular, the ability of the Security Council to garner the widest possible support for its decisions and its actions will be enhanced if it is perceived to be broadly representative of the international community as a whole as well as the geopolitical realities of the contemporary world.14.
I hope, therefore, that Member States will redouble their efforts to reach agreement on the enlargement of the Security Council.需要有合法性和政治意愿,但仅此还不够。国际社会还必须制订适当规则和工具,以便有效处理对和平与安全的威胁。《联合国宪章》和过去数十年中谈判达成的一系列国际公约构成国际合作的坚实框架。这一框架起到了很好的作用。国际安全架构要继续有效地发挥这种作用,就必须能够进行调整以适应当今的需要。
Weapons of mass destruction: the need to strengthen and complement existing regimes15. 特别是,如果人们认为安全理事会能广泛代表整个国际社会,并反映当今世界的地缘政治现实,安理会为其决定和行动争取最广泛支持的能力就会得到加强。因此,我希望会员国加倍努力,就增加安全理事会成员数目的问题达成一致。
16. Ridding the world of all nuclear, chemical and biological weapons is a long-standing aim of the United Nations. In recent years, however, the proliferation of such weapons, especially nuclear ones, has been of increasing concern. In addition, there is a growing fear that non-state actors may acquire and use chemical, biological or even nuclear weapons.大规模毁灭性武器:需要加强和补充现有制度
17. It was understood from the beginning that the nuclear non-proliferation regime by itself could not completely prevent these weapons from spreading, not even from spreading to States parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, if such States were absolutely determined to acquire them. The aim, rather, was to outlaw the spread of such weapons and to provide sufficient transparency to identify potential problem cases. To reinforce the non-proliferation regime, those countries with the technological capacity took steps over the years to tighten export controls, although a clandestine market continued to exist. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provided for more intrusive inspections via an additional protocol, although that protocol remains voluntary. Further improvements are required on both fronts if the existing regime is to be strengthened.16. 消除世界上所有的核生化武器是联合国长期的目标。但是,最近几年来,此类武器的扩散,特别是核武器的扩散越来越令许多人担忧。此外,人们越来越害怕非国家行为者可能获取和使用化学、生物甚或核武器。
18. Some States pursue nuclear weapons while others do not. It is estimated that as many as 40 countries that could have developed at least modest nuclear arsenals have chosen not to do so. This underlines the need to address the underlying conflicts and tensions that motivate those seeking to use such weapons. At the present juncture, renewed efforts are especially needed to develop viable subregional security arrangements in a number of areas in Asia, with the aim of diminishing and removing security threats that motivate the quest for nuclear weapons. It is also vital to ensure that the development of nuclear energy and of nuclear weapons remain separate from one another.17. 从一开始就知道,核不扩散制度本身不能完全防止这些武器的扩散,甚至不能防止这些武器向《不扩散核武器条约》缔约国扩散,如果这些国家下决心获取此类武器的话。该制度的目标是将此类武器的扩散列为非法,有足够的透明度来查明潜在扩散问题。为加强不扩散制度,那些拥有技术能力的国家多年来一直采取措施,加强出口控制,但仍然存在一个地下市场。此外,国际原子能机构(原子能机构)通过一项附加议定书更多地进行进入性视察,但该议定书仍然是自愿性质的。要加强现有制度,就需要在两方面作进一步改善。
19. At the same time, we must acknowledge the adverse consequences of applying a double standard. There can be no “good” or “bad” proliferation, since any act of proliferation can lead to greater instability in the future. Nuclear weapons States have, for their part, done too little to diminish the symbolic importance of these weapons and too little to fulfil their commitment to undertake good faith efforts at moving towards significant nuclear arms reductions and ultimate disarmament.18. 一些国家寻求核武器,而另一些国家则没有这样做。估计有40个国家至少可以拥有一个小核武库,但它们却没有这样做。这就突击表明需要消除那些促使各国寻求此类武器的冲突和紧张关系。目前,特别需要重新作出努力,在亚洲一些地区做出可行的分区域安全安排,以便减少和消除促使人们寻求核武器的安全威胁。还需要把发展核能与发展核武器区分开来。
20. A major weakness of all weapons of mass destruction regimes — nuclear, chemical and biological — is their weak enforcement provisions, which essentially leave the penalties for non-compliance unspecified.19.
This matter deserves review and possible action, some of which should be undertaken within the framework of the United Nations, including the Security Council.同时,我们必须承认采用双重标准的不利后果。不可能有任何“好的”或“坏的”扩散,因为任何扩散行为均会导致未来更大的不稳定。核武器国家并没有作出努力来减少这些武器的象征意义,也没有履行其承诺,真诚地努力争取大力削减核武器和最终实现核裁军。
21. At present, there are no multilateral means in place to deal with the threat posed by non-state actors seeking to wield nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction, the fear of which has been growing since the early 1990s.20.
Ultimately, the international community is a “self-help” system, not a suicide pact: if institutionalized rules and mechanisms do not exist, States will resort to other means to reduce or eliminate threats to their way of life — or to their very existence.所有大规模毁灭性武器(核生化武器)制度的主要弱点是其执行条款松软,基本上没有明确规定对不遵守情事的处罚。需要审查这一事项并采取可能的行动,其中一些行动应在包括安全理事会在内的联合国的框架内采取。
Small arms21. 目前,没有建立任何多边途径来处理那些企图获取核武器或其他大规模毁灭性武器的非国家行为者所造成的威胁,自1990年代初期以来,这方面的担忧与日俱增。归根结底,国际社会是一个“自助”系统,而不是一个自杀条约:如果没有制度化的规则和机制,各国将诉诸其他手段来减少或消除对其生活方式或自身生存的威胁。
22. While considering the major threats posed by weapons of mass destruction, we should not forget the very real dangers emanating from the use of more conventional weapons. It is small arms that keep on killing millions of people and are readily available at very low cost even in the most remote corners of the world. The difficulties we confront in trying to curb the illicit traffic of these weapons should not be underestimated. However, with the cooperation of all countries, it should be possible to tighten export controls and facilitate the identification of the sources of illicit weapons through the use of markings.小武器
Sanctions22. 在承认大规模毁灭性武器带来的主要威胁的同时,我们不应忘记更多使用常规武器造成的非常实际的危险。正是小武器让数以百万计的人民丧生,甚至在世界上最偏远的角落也很容易低价获取小武器。不应低估我们在努力遏制小武器非法贩运方面所面临的困难。但是,如果所有国家进行合作,应该可以加强出口控制并通过标识来协助查明非法武器的来源。
23. In dealing with violations of non-proliferation, human rights and other international regimes, the use of sanctions is sometimes necessary to modify the behaviour of the parties and to ensure the implementation of Security Council resolutions. However, neither innocent civilian populations nor neighbouring States should be required to bear the burden of international enforcement actions. It is both fairer and more productive to target sanctions at the individuals and political elites that are responsible for international aggression, egregious violations of human rights and other reprehensible acts. Important work in that direction has been done by the Security Council, as well as by individual Member States. This has resulted in a number of practical proposals concentrated on financial sanctions, arms embargoes and travel bans, as well as on the overall effectiveness of targeted sanctions. The results achieved within the Interlaken, Bonn-Berlin and Stockholm processes represent an important reserve of ideas upon which the Security Council can draw when designing future sanctions regimes.制裁
Terrorism23. 在处理违反不扩散、人权和其他国际制度的行为方面,有时需要通过进行制裁来改变当事方的行为,确保安全理事会各项决议得到执行。但是,不应要求无辜的平民或邻国承受国际执法行为的负担。对那些进行国际侵略、严重侵犯人权或有其他应受指责的行为的个人或政治精英进行制裁,既会增加公平,也会有更大的效果。安全理事会以及各会员国一直在这方面开展重要工作,提出了许多切合实际的提案,重点涉及经济制裁、武器禁运和旅行禁令,并涉及有针对性制裁的总体效果。因特拉肯、波恩-柏林以及斯德哥尔摩进程取得的结果汇集了一些意见和设想,安全理事会在制订未来的制裁制度时可以借鉴。
24. Terrorism is an issue the United Nations has been dealing with for a long time. Nor is “international” terrorism, in the sense of groups employing terrorist methods across international boundaries, a new phenomenon. What may be new is the greater integration and inter-connectedness of our world today, which may afford greater opportunity to groups considering the use of terrorist methods to learn or in other ways benefit from one another and to exploit the opportunities made possible by the erosion of State borders and the “looser” nature of international markets and mechanisms.恐怖主义
25. The United Nations has a long-standing involvement in efforts to combat terrorism. Traditionally, this was approached through establishing international norms that treated terrorism as a crime. In the 1990s, driven by the Lockerbie bombing and the attacks on United States embassies in Africa, the Organization began to consider terrorism as a serious threat to international peace and security and the Security Council began to impose sanctions against States sponsoring international terrorism.24. 联合国长期以来一直处理恐怖主义问题。“国际”恐怖主义,从一些团伙采用恐怖主义方式跨越国界开展活动这一意义上来说,也不是新情况。新的情况可能是我们当今的世界更加一体化,相互关联更加密切,这给那些想采用恐怖主义方法的团伙提供了更多的机会,它们可以相互学习或以其他方式相互获益,利用国家边界机能减弱以及国际市场与机制“更加松散”带来的机遇。
26. The attacks of 11 September 2001 triggered a more proactive approach, partly in response to the growing evidence of terrorist networks that were not linked to any specific State. Accordingly, Security Council resolution 1373 (2001) imposed binding obligations on all States to take steps to prevent terrorism and its financing, and established the Counter-Terrorism Committee, which has become the main vehicle for ensuring compliance. All 191 States Members of the United Nations have now submitted a first round report on the measures they have instituted, while more than 50 have submitted a second, and some even a third, report.25. 联合国长期以来一直参与打击恐怖主义的努力。以往是通过建立国际规范,将恐怖主义视为犯罪行为来处理这一问题。1990年代,由于发生洛克比炸机事件和对美国驻非洲使馆的攻击,联合国开始认为恐怖主义严重威胁国际和平与安全,安全理事会开始对资助国际恐怖主义的国家实行制裁。
27. The Counter-Terrorism Committee seeks to ensure that Member States have the necessary legislation and executive machinery in place to comply with the requirements of Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), including the capacity to counter the financing of terrorism. The work of the Committee also aims to improve the flow of information on international best practices, codes and standards in the area of counter-terrorism, as well as enhancing counter-terrorism assistance. All this should also help the international community to address more effectively the linkages between terrorism, money-laundering and organized crime, which are among the most serious challenges to stability and peace in our era.26. 2001年9月11日的攻击致使采取更注重预防的态度,这在一定程度上是对越来越多的证据表明恐怖网络并不限于某一特定国家作出的反应。因此,安全理事会第1373(2001)号决议为所有国家规定了有约束力的义务,规定它们要采取措施预防恐怖主义和防止为恐怖主义提供资助,并成立了反恐怖主义委员会。该委员会已成为确保该决议得到执行的主要工具。联合国所有191个会员国已提交了介绍它们已采取的措施的第一次报告,50多个国家已经提交第二次报告,有些甚至提交了第三次报告。
28. The strengthening of counter-terrorism carries with it new challenges, most notably the question of how to ensure respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and how to meet the requirements of international law as they apply to the protection of civilians. Terrorism itself is a violation of fundamental human rights and must be combated as such. Efforts at combating it must be pursued, however, in full compliance with established international norms. It would be tragic and counterproductive if counter-terrorism became synonymous with lack of sensitivity to human rights and the due process of law. The future development of counter-terrorism policies must have stronger human rights safeguards built-in, in accordance with the relevant international instruments. Moreover, while there is an unquestionable need to confront terrorist groups with determination, it is equally imperative to strengthen cultural and religious understanding in order to promote values of tolerance, respect and peaceful coexistence.27. 反恐怖主义委员会力求确保各会员国有必要的立法和执行机构,以遵守安全理事会第1373(2001)号决议的规定,其中包括有能力打击资助恐怖主义的行为。该委员会的工作还旨在改进反恐领域中的国际最佳方法、准则和标准以及加强反恐援助等方面的信息交流。所有这一切也应能帮助国际社会更加有效地处理恐怖主义、洗钱和有组织犯罪相互联系的问题,这些问题是我们这个时代的稳定与和平面临的最严重挑战。
Preventing violent conflict28. 加强反恐带来了新挑战,最明显的挑战是如何确保对人权和基本自由的尊重以及如何执行国际法关于保护平民的规定。恐怖主义本身是侵犯基本人权的行为,必须据此予以打击。但是,必须在完全遵守公认的国际规范的情况下打击恐怖主义。如果因反恐而漠然不顾人权和适当法律程序,那将是可悲的,会起相反作用。未来反恐政策的拟订必须要建立在按照有关国际文书进一步保障人权的基础之上。此外,尽管无疑需要坚决打击恐怖集团,但同样需要加强对文化和宗教的了解,促进容忍、尊重及和平共存的价值观。
29. As part of our efforts to better understand the challenges of our time and devise strategies to address them more effectively, we must make even greater efforts to prevent the outbreak of violence well before internal tensions and conflicts have eroded polities and economies to the point of collapse.预防暴力冲突
30. The United Nations system has engaged in a comprehensive exercise to implement my report on the prevention of armed conflict (A/55/985-S/2001/574), and to better carry out its obligations to the peoples of the world. A number of initiatives have been launched in support of regional, subregional and national efforts to develop preventive strategies. General Assembly resolution 57/337 on the prevention of armed conflict, adopted by the Assembly on 3 July 2003, gives the United Nations a strong mandate not only to continue but also to expand and intensify its conflict prevention activities. It represents an encouraging sign of a shift in attitudes among Member States towards the recognition of the value of early warning and prevention of armed conflict. I intend to report more systematically on my efforts to strengthen the capacity of the United Nations in this area in the comprehensive report on prevention I shall submit to the General Assembly at its fifty-ninth session.29. 作为我们努力更好地认识我们时代的挑战以及制订更有效地应付这些挑战的战略的一部分,我们必须作出更大的努力,在内部紧张关系和冲突致使政治和经济濒临崩溃之前,预防暴力的发生。
31. I would like to draw attention here to the need for effective measures to address the economic incentives that establish and maintain war economies. The Kimberley Process of diamond certification offers an example of how to reduce the scope of illicit transactions in precious stones and raw materials, which often fuel internal conflicts in resource-rich countries. We need further measures against money-laundering, which is often conducted through legal channels. The strategy of “naming and shaming” may in some cases be more effective than adopting resolutions or convening conferences. In addition, more efforts need to be made not only to punish actors involved in war economies but also to provide viable alternatives for economic activity. An effective international response will require addressing war economies at all stages of a peace process, from early warning and prevention to peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace-building. Globalization has provided new opportunities to those who do wrong, but there is no reason why it should not also be exploited by international institutions intent on setting things right.30. 联合国系统已全面开展工作,执行我关于预防武装冲突问题的报告(A/55/985-S/2001/574),更好地履行联合国对世界各国人民承担的义务。已经发起许多倡议,支助制定预防性战略的区域、分区和国家努力。大会最近通过的关于预防武装冲突的第57/337号决议赋予了联合国一个强有力的任务规定,不仅要继续而且要扩大和加强预防冲突的活动。这是一个令人鼓舞的迹象,表明会员国的态度在改变,承认早期预警和预防武装冲突的价值。我打算在我提交给第五十九届大会关于预防的综合报告中更加全面地报告我为加强联合国在这一领域的能力所作的努力。
32. Happily, it is only a small proportion of the earth’s population that is directly and immediately threatened by war or large-scale conflict — although no part of the world should consider itself immune from such risks.31.
The more immediate concern for most of our fellow human beings is with “soft threats” to their security, such as those posed by environmental problems, contagious diseases, economic dislocation, crime, domestic violence, oppressive or corrupt management at all levels (from the home and workplace to national institutions or multinational companies) and simple poverty, which makes people more vulnerable to threats of almost every kind.我愿在此提请注意,需要采取有效措施,处理那些有利于建立和维持战争经济的经济因素。金伯利进程钻石证书制度是一个如何缩小宝石和原材料非法交易范围的范例,这些非法交易通常加剧资源丰富国家的内部冲突。我们需要进一步的措施来打击经常是通过合法渠道进行的洗钱。在某些情况下,“指出其名使之感到羞耻”战略比通过决议或召开会议更加有效。此外,需要作出更多的努力,不仅要惩罚参与战争经济的人,而且要提供其他可行的经济活动。要作出有效的国际反应,就要在和平进程的各个阶段处理战争经济问题,从早期预警和预防冲突到建立和平、维持和平和建设和平。全球化给那些做坏事的人提供了新的机会;意在做好事的国际机构自然也要加以利用。
33. Such threats, and the remedies for them, are dealt with in more detail in the following two chapters. Among them are often found the root causes of armed conflict, and for that reason they also merit discussion and action under the heading of conflict prevention. For instance, recent years have seen the development of a number of cooperative arrangements for the management of resources shared by more than one State, such as water, arrangements which have contributed to the general objective of preventing violent conflict. The potential impact of issues such as climate change and HIV/AIDS on international peace and security is also increasingly being recognized. However, the implications of the scarcity of a number of natural resources, the mismanagement or depletion of such resources and unequal access to them should also be recognized as potential causes of conflict and should be more systematically addressed as such by the international community.32. 令人高兴的是,世界人口中仅有一小部分人直接紧迫受到战争或大规模冲突的威胁,尽管世界上任何地区都不能认为它可免于此种风险。我们多数同胞更直接关切的是他们安全面临的“软威胁”,例如以下方面的威胁:环境问题、传染疾病、经济失调、犯罪、家庭暴力、(从家庭和工作场所到国家机构或多国公司的)各级进行的管理具有压迫或腐败性质以及使人们更易于面临各种威胁的贫穷。
Peacekeeping and peace-building33. 在下面的两章中更详细地论述了这些威胁及消除威胁的办法。其中一些威胁通常是武装冲突的根源,因此,也要在预防冲突的标题下加以讨论,并采取行动。例如,近几年来,做出了一些管理一个以上国家共享的诸如水之类的资源的合作安排,这些安排促进实现避免暴力冲突的总体目标。也日益认识到气候变化和艾滋病/艾滋病毒等问题可能对国际和平与安全产生的影响。但是,国际社会还应认识到某些自然资源稀少、这些资源管理不善或枯竭以及获取这些资源机会不均可能引起冲突并应更有系统地加以处理。
34. In the area of peace operations, the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, better known as the Brahimi report (A/55/305-S/2000/809), has provided a comprehensive analysis of peacekeeping and post-conflict peace-building, which has enabled the United Nations and its Member States to improve their capacity in this field. Both the Security Council and the Secretariat are applying the lessons drawn from the experiences of the last decade. Better coordination and increased effectiveness have resulted in the successful implementation of complex mandates in Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Kosovo and many other locations around the world.维持和平和建设和平
35. Serious debate among Member States is required on the future of “robust” peacekeeping. There are certain instances where peace must first be established and the situation stabilized before a peacekeeping presence can be deployed. In such circumstances, the “Blue Helmets” are not the appropriate instrument. For these reasons I advised against their deployment in favour of multinational forces under the operational control of lead nations in Afghanistan, Côte d’Ivoire, Bunia, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and, most recently, Liberia.34. 在和平行动领域,通常被称为卜拉希米报告的联合国和平行动小组报告(A/55/305-S/2000/809)全面分析了维持和平和冲突后建设和平问题,使联合国及其会员国能够提高这方面的能力。安全理事会和秘书处正借鉴使用过去十年中取得的经验。通过协调和提高效率,在塞拉利昂、东帝汶、科索沃和世界其他许多地方成功地完成了复杂的任务。
36. Once a situation has stabilized, a robust United Nations peacekeeping mission can be a logical successor, provided that Member States with the capabilities required come forward to put their troops at the disposal of the Organization. It is unfortunate that those countries with strong military capacities that were most vocal in support of the recommendations of the Brahimi report have since been the most reluctant to contribute their forces to United Nations peacekeeping operations. The developing world has shouldered much of the burden in the interim, but it cannot do so indefinitely on its own. Perhaps the arrangements employed in the case of Timor-Leste (then East Timor) in 1999 may serve as a workable model for the foreseeable future. The fact that core elements of the Australian-led International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) remained in theatre and re-hatted as “Blue Helmets” enabled a smooth transition to a robust and credible United Nations force, with units provided by both the developed and the developing world.35. 会员国需要认真讨论“强力维和”的今后去向。在有些情况下,必须首先实现和平,稳定局势,然后再派驻维和人员。在这种情况下,不宜派遣“蓝盔”。这就是为什么我不主张在阿富汗、科特迪瓦、刚果民主共和国的布尼亚,以及最近在利比里亚,部署蓝盔,而赞成部署一支由牵头国指挥的多国部队。
37. Narrowing the commitment gap on the military front is not the only challenge facing United Nations peacekeeping. Creative and concerted effort is also required to narrow the expectations gap. For example, the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) was established with limited strength, for the purpose of protecting the political mission tasked with helping to find a solution to the conflict, as well as to conduct disarmament, demobilization and repatriation of foreign armed groups. The danger in such cases is that, amidst widespread violence, expectations outrun both the capacity and the mandate of the force deployed. It is welcome that this year a multinational force led by France could be deployed in Bunia, in the north-eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in an interim capacity until such time as the United Nations can deploy a fully equipped force to create a secure environment.36. 局势一俟稳定,实力强大的联合国维持和平特派团自然可以接手,但条件是那些拥有所需能力的国家将其军队交给联合国使用。遗憾的是,那些军力最强和口头上最支持卜拉希米报告建议的国家却是最不愿意为联合国维持和平行动提供部队的国家。现在暂时由发展中国家来承担大部分负担,但这些国家光靠自己无法长期这样做。1999年在东帝汶做出的安排或许是在可预见的未来可采用的一种做法。由澳大利亚牵头的东帝汶国际部队的核心人员留在当地,换戴了蓝盔,顺利过渡组建了一支强有力的联合国部队,发展中国家和发达国家都为其提供了部队。
38. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as in the majority of other conflict areas where United Nations peace operations are deployed, the constructive political and economic engagement of those countries with influence on the parties concerned is the element most critical to ensuring success.37.
Without such political and economic support, the net effect of the military contributions is greatly diminished.增加提供部队的承诺并不是联合国面临的唯一挑战。还需要协调做出积极努力,缩小期望值。例如,联合国组织刚果民主共和国特派团 (联刚特派团)的军力有限,设立它是为了保护负责协助寻找解决冲突办法的政治特派团,开展外国武装团伙解除武装、复员和重返社会的工作。而可能出现的情况是,由于暴力行为的肆行,人们的期望超出了所部署部队的能力和任务范围。因此,欢迎今年在刚果民主共和国东北部的布尼亚部临时署一支由法国主导的多国部队,直至联合国可以部署装备齐全的部队来创建一个安全的环境。
39. The United Nations has acquired considerable experience in assisting war-torn societies in their transition to peace. Timor-Leste has now taken its place among the States Members of the United Nations following the completion of the mandate of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), which has been succeeded by a small support mission. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), once a Mission in crisis, has been reconfigured and strengthened and has provided effective assistance to the holding of democratic elections and the extension of the Government’s authority throughout the country. The Mission is now in the process of winding down. The United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH), established to reform the police force, has been successfully concluded, including the smooth transition to a smaller European Union police mission. These examples show that United Nations peace operations not only can succeed, but can do so within a set period of time and with a clear exit strategy.38. 同联合国派驻和平行动人员的其他大多数冲突地区一样,在刚果民主共和国取得成功的最重要因素是促使那些对有关各方拥有影响力的国家在政治和经济上积极参与。没有这种政治和经济支持,提供军事支持的最终作用会大大减少。
40. When political breakthroughs occur, there is a need to act swiftly and surely to shore up nascent peace processes in the fragile transition from conflict. Collective action during such transition periods must be based on a clear adherence to the principles of restorative justice and civilian protection. In many cases, the United Nations assists in post-conflict peace-building in the absence of any military deployment. Through a range of efforts, often in partnership with other organizations, the United Nations provides good offices to keep peace processes on track, monitor elections, assist in the repatriation and reintegration of refugees and aid in the rehabilitation of war-torn economies. The main challenge always remains the establishment of new and durable state structures and the provision of external assistance in a way that allows local societies to move most rapidly and effectively towards a sustainable peace.39. 联合国在协助战患社会向和平过渡方面取得了丰富的经验。联合国东帝汶过渡行政当局 (东帝汶过渡当局)完成任务后,由一个规模不大的支助团接任,东帝汶现已经成为联合国会员国。在塞拉利昂,曾经面临危机的联合国塞拉利昂特派团(联塞特派团)进行了重组,得到加强,提供了有效的协助,以举行民主选举和扩大政府在全国的权力。该特派团目前正逐步结束其任务。为改革警察部队设立的联合国波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那特派团(波黑特派团)已成功地结束工作,包括顺利过渡到一个规模较小的欧洲联盟警察特派团。这些例子表明,联合国和平行动不仅可以取得成功,而且可以在规定的时间内完成,并有明确的撤出战略。
41. It is important to understand that all these efforts are now taking place within a more globalized world. For peace to be sustainable in the early twenty-first century, a State emerging from armed conflict has to be able to meet the challenges of globalization. This may present an immense challenge for a post-conflict State. Unless coordinated efforts by such a State itself and the international community are made to succeed, such a State may well see its society fall prey, to its own detriment and also to that of the wider world, to global networks of organized crime and a host of other contemporary ills.40. 在政治僵局被打破时,必须迅速采取明确的行动,在摆脱冲突这一脆弱阶段加强新生的和平进程。这一过渡阶段采取的集体行动必须明确信守恢复公正和保护平民的原则。在许多情况下,联合国在没有部署任何军事人员的情况下协助冲突后建设和平的工作。例如,通过通常与其他组织协同做出的各种努力,联合国为维持和平进程进行斡旋,监测选举,协助难民的遣返和重返社会,帮助受战争破坏的经济的恢复。主要挑战一直是建立新的持久的国家机构和提供外界援助,以便让地方社区最迅速和最有效地实现可持续和平。
42. Even when apparently successful in repairing war-torn States, the international community can ill-afford to declare “victory” prematurely. The precarious nature of the peace today in Afghanistan stands as a reminder of how crucial it may be to dedicate even greater attention and effort in the second year of an operation, in order to consolidate the gains achieved in the first. The recent eruption of violence in Liberia and the coup d’état earlier this year in the Central African Republic — both countries where United Nations peacekeeping operations have been deployed previously — also illustrate the fragile nature of post-conflict environments and the importance of the international community staying the course during the post-peacekeeping phase.41. 要知道,目前所有这些工作是在一个日益全球化的世界中进行的。一个摆脱武装冲突的国家要在21世纪初实现可持续和平,就必须能够应付全球化的挑战。这对一个冲突后的国家来说可能是一个重大挑战。除非这个国家和国际社会做出的协同努力取得成功,否则它的社会很可能被国际有组织犯罪网络控制,受当今许多弊病的侵害,不仅自己受到伤害,而且会使更多的国家受到伤害。
43. Successes, setbacks and ongoing challenges make it essential that we better understand: first, what has worked and what has not, in order to identify ways in which we might improve our performance in the future; second, the transition from the period focused on emergency relief and peacemaking to one focused on reconciliation, rebuilding of national institutions and participation of affected populations; and third, the relationship between all forms of external assistance and the emergence of new and viable state structures.42. 即便战患国家的重建看起来取得了成功,国际社会也不能过早宣布“大功告成”。今天,阿富汗的和平仍然岌岌可危,它提醒我们,需要在行动的第二年更加注意,做出更大努力,以巩固在第一年取得的成果。利比里亚最近发生的暴力行为和中非共和国今年早些时候发生的政变——联合国以前在这两个国家都开展了维持和平行动——也表明冲突后的局势仍然脆弱,国际社会需要自始至终在冲突后阶段开展工作。
Conclusion43. 成功、挫折和目前的挑战要求我们要更好地了解:第一,哪些做法是有效的,那些是无效的,以便确定我们今后如何改进我们的工作;第二,从注重紧急救济和建立和平过渡到注重和解、重建国家机构和有关民众的参与;第三,各种形式的外界援助与设立新的可生存下去的国家机构之间的关系。
44. Our collective record of achievement in implementing the commitments of the Millennium Declaration in the area of peace and security is decidedly mixed. If we are to do consistently better, we need to make greater efforts to produce innovative reforms, to be candid in evaluating existing mechanisms and working methods and to engage in meaningful dialogues on the principles and practices that should guide us in the years ahead.结论
45. Above all, we must be intensely aware of the changes in the international security environment. The challenges to peace and security today are predominantly global. While they are not necessarily or entirely new, they take place in a new context and have far-reaching effects. They require complex and collective responses, which are possible only if the web of multilateral institutions is adequately developed and properly used. Cooperation across the globe is needed more than ever. Legitimacy of action, which may include military action, is essential to ensuring durable solutions to the security needs of our time. The Charter remains the indispensable basis for legitimate international action.44. 总的来说,我们在实现《千年宣言》在和平与安全领域中的有关承诺方面的成果显然参差不一。如果我们要持续取得更好的成果,就需要做出更大努力,进行创新改革,实事求是审评现行机制和工作方法,开展有意义的对话来商定指导我们今后工作的原则和做法。
46. The world looks to the United Nations to address global security threats — irrespective of the part of the world from which they emanate or where their immediate impact is felt — with the global interest in mind. Therefore, we need a renewed commitment to work collectively, in accordance with the Charter. A collective security system built on fairness and consistency would be the best way to meet both old and new challenges.45. 首先,我们要深刻了解国际安全局势的变化。当前的和平与安全挑战大都是全球性的。虽然它们不一定是新的或完全是新的挑战,但它们在新的背景下产生,有深远的影响,需要有集体综合反应。而只有建立和恰当利用一个多边机构网络,才能做出这种反应。现在比以往任何时候都需要在全球开展合作。采取行动,包括采取军事行动,要有合法性,以便持久满足我们当今的安全需求。《联合国宪章》仍然是采取国际合法行动必不可缺的依据。
III.46.
Development全世界期待联合国铭记国际利益,消除国际安全方面的威胁,不管这些威胁来自世界何方,也不管这些威胁直接影响何地。因此,我们需要根据《联合国宪章》再次做出开展合作的承诺。在公正和一致的基础上建立一个集体安全体系是迎战新旧挑战的最佳途径。
47. “We believe that the central challenge we face today is to ensure that globalization becomes a positive force for all the world’s people”. So reads the statement of the heads of State and Government of the United Nations in the Millennium Declaration. The world leaders identified global poverty as the most daunting of all the problems facing the world in the new century, one that they resolved to tackle by creating “an environment — at the national and global levels alike — which is conducive to development and to the elimination of poverty”. To help drive this effort, they included a series of clear, time-bound, development targets in the Declaration, targets which were subsequently consolidated as the Millennium Development Goals. The first seven Goals range from stemming the spread of HIV/AIDS to providing universal primary education, with the overarching aim of halving extreme poverty, all by the deadline of 2015. The eighth — “a global partnership for development” — comprises a set of commitments by developed countries to support these efforts through increased aid, a non-discriminatory trading system and debt relief. 48. Three years on, the Millennium Development Goals have helped transform the framework for global development. As a set of measurable, shared objectives endorsed by all Member States, they have provided an unprecedented basis for partnership between developed and developing countries and have been embraced by other intergovernmental bodies, including the African Union and the Group of Eight. They have also allowed the United Nations system, the Bretton Woods institutions and other development partners to align their work around a common framework and to improve the coherence and effectiveness of all their efforts at country level. Within the United Nations system, we have also launched the “Millennium Development Goals campaign” to spread awareness and build global support for the Goals; a process of national reporting on progress towards the Goals, and the Millennium Project, which draws together hundreds of policy makers, practitioners and experts from across a wide range of institutions and countries to research how progress can be accelerated and sustained.三. 发展
49. Rapid advances in some areas have shown that the Millennium Development Goals, while ambitious, can be reached at the global level. They are still achievable at the national level for nearly every country, even though progress towards them is at present very uneven, with wide variations across regions and countries, and even within countries. Growing political and financial support over the past year for key priorities, in particular for the fight against HIV/AIDS, clearly shows that resources can be mobilized very rapidly to meet specific global challenges if there is the political will. Nevertheless, it is evident that, following current trends, some parts of the world risk falling well short of achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. With the global economy relatively weak, the scale of political and financial support for these less fortunate regions is currently well below the level needed to meet the Goals. Many developed countries are failing to meet key commitments, particularly in areas such as trade. There is therefore a clear need for political leaders to take urgent action over the coming year to avoid further setbacks and accelerate progress.47. 联合国各会员国国家元首和政府首脑在《千年宣言》中这样宣称,“我们深信,我们今天面临的主要挑战是确保全球化成为一股有利于全世界所有人民的积极力量。”这些世界领导人确认,世界进入新世纪之际所面临的所有问题中,最严峻的莫过于全面贫穷;他们决心“在国家一级及全球一级创造一种有助于发展和消除贫穷的环境。”为促进此项工作,他们在《宣言》中列入一系列清楚、有时限的发展目标,这些目标后来合并为千年发展目标。其中头七项目标的内容从制止艾滋病毒/艾滋病的蔓延到提供普及初等教育不等,根本目的是把极端贫穷人口减少一半,各项目标均须在2015年年底前实现。第八项——“全球合作促进发展”——包括发达国家作出一系列承诺,通过增加援助、建立非歧视性的贸易制度和减免债务来支持这些努力。
Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals48. 三年来,千年发展目标帮助改变全球发展的框架。它是得到所有会员国认同的一整套可计量的共同目标,为发达国家和发展中国家结成伙伴关系提供了前所未闻的基础,包括非洲联盟和八国集团在内的其它政府间机构都加以赞许。联合国系统、布雷顿森林机构和其它发展伙伴也因之能有一个共同框架来统筹工作,改进其在国家一级全部努力的连贯性和效力。在联合国系统内部,我们也发起了“千年发展目标运动”,提高认识,争取全球对目标的支持;国家实现目标进度报告进程;千年项目把众多机构和国家的数百名决策人、执行人员和专家集合起来,研究如何加速并维持进展。 49. 某些领域进展迅速,这点显示了千年发展目标虽然远大,但在全球一级是可以实现的。就每个国家而言,在国家一级仍是可以实现的,不过,目前实现目标的进度不一,各区域、国家之间,甚至在国家内部,差异迥然。过去一年间对重点优先项目、尤其是防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病的政治及金融资助增加,这点明确显示:只要有政治意愿,就可以很快调动资源,迎接具体的全球挑战。但从目前趋势来看,世界某些地区在2015年显然几无可能实现千年发展目标中的多数目标。由于全球经济相对较弱,对这些较不发达区域的政治及金融支助远达不到实现目标所需水平。许多发达国家未能实现重要承诺,尤其是在贸易等领域。因此,政治领导人在来年显然必须采取紧急行动,避免再遭挫折,加速进展。 实现千年发展目标方面的进展情况
50. The Millennium Development Goals are outcomes rather than inputs. The Millennium Declaration explicitly recognizes the importance of factors not mentioned in the Goals themselves — such as good governance, the role of the private sector and civil society and the importance of “decent and productive work”, especially for young people — in achieving broader development. Nevertheless, while the Goals may not by themselves constitute a comprehensive development vision, they are a measurable set of human development benchmarks that can provide clear indications of whether the world is managing to build the more “inclusive and equitable” globalization called for in the Declaration. As the detailed statistical annex to the present report shows, the answer to that question remains unclear. For every Goal, there are encouraging signs of progress in some areas alongside worrying evidence of stagnation and reversal in others. The annex also shows that the capacity of countries to provide reliable statistics for monitoring trends needs to be considerably strengthened in order to provide sound measurements of their needs and achievements.50. 千年发展目标是成果而不是投入。《千年宣言》明确承认各项目标内并未提及的因素之重要性,诸如:善政、私营部门和民间社会的作用,以及特别是让青年人找到“从事生产的正当工作”,在实现更广泛发展方面具有重大意义。各项目标本身可能尚不构成全面发展前景,但它们作为一套可以计量的、人的发展基准,却可以清楚表明世界是否在按照《宣言》的要求,争取使全球化做到更加“兼容并蓄,公平合理。”本报告详实的统计附件显示,此问题的答案尚不明朗。某些方面呈现进展迹象,令人鼓舞,其它方面则停滞不前、甚至倒退,令人担忧——每项目标都是如此。但附件也显示,必须大力加强各国提供可靠统计资料以监测趋势的能力,从而准确计量其需求和成就。
1.1.
Extreme poverty and hunger极端贫穷和饥饿
51. Progress towards most of the Millennium Development Goals depends heavily on equitable growth. A sustained and broad-based annual per capita income increase of 3 per cent is the minimum needed to lift people out of poverty at a rate sufficient to meet the Goal of reducing by half, by 2015, the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day. Global growth, however, has slipped since the Millennium Declaration was adopted, with developing countries bearing the brunt of the slowdown. Following an average increase of 2.8 per cent per annum in the 1990s, per capita output in the developing world rose only by 1.6 per cent annually in 2001-2003, with Latin America suffering an average decline of almost 1 per cent a year during the same period. In sub-Saharan Africa, the region where attaining the Goals presents the greatest challenge, annual average per capita growth of only 0.7 per cent was achieved in these three years. More encouragingly, however, the countries with economies in transition have reversed the decline they experienced in the 1990s. Most of them now seem likely to enjoy sound growth over the medium term.51. 朝向大多数千年发展目标的进展在很大程度上取决于公平增长。人均收入年增长率能广泛而持续地至少保持在3%,才能使人民迅速摆脱贫穷,实现在2015年年底前、使每日收入低于一美元的人口比率减半的目标。不过,自通过《千年宣言》以来,全球增长出现退步,发展中国家首当其冲。发展中世界1990年代年均增长率为2.8%,此后,2001-2003年人均产出每年仅增加1.6%,此期间拉丁美洲年均下降1%。撒南非洲是实现目标方面难度最大的地区,此三年间年人均增长率仅达0.7%。不过,转型期经济国家扭转了1990年代所经历的下降,尤为令人鼓舞。它们大多可能在中期呈稳定增长。
52. Given that two thirds of the 1.2 billion people who struggle to survive on the equivalent of less than a dollar a day live in Asia, the chances of halving extreme poverty worldwide are overwhelmingly determined by the progress of China and India, the world’s two most populous countries. With both countries broadly on track, the world has a good chance of meeting the 2015 deadline. At the national level, however, the picture is much more troubling, with 37 of the 67 countries for which data were available experiencing increased poverty rates in the 1990s. Nevertheless, it is still possible for most of these countries to meet the Goal. It is particularly encouraging that several sub-Saharan African nations, among them Cape Verde, Mauritius, Mozambique and Uganda, have been recording sustained growth above the 3 per cent per capita benchmark.52. 由于每日收入低于一美元的12亿人口中,有三分之二生活在亚洲,因此,在世界范围把极端贫穷人口减半的机率在极大程度上取决于中国和印度这两个世界人口最多的国家取得进展。中、印两国基本上都上了轨道,因此,世界在2015年前达标的可能性很大。可是在国家一级,情况就差得多:有数据可查的67个国家中,37个在1990年代贫穷率上升。尽管如此,多数这些国家还是可能实现目标的。尤为令人鼓舞的是,撒南非洲好几个国家,包括佛得角、毛里求斯、莫桑比克和乌干达,其持续增长率都高于人均3%的基准。
53. These regional and national variations are reflected in other targets as well. While most of the world made significant progress in the fight against hunger during the 1990s, it is unacceptable that during the same decade, in an era of global overproduction of food, the prevalence of underweight children remained high in parts of Asia, approaching 50 per cent in south-central Asia and sub-Saharan Africa — often as a result of structural causes such as long-term economic and agricultural policies, the low status of women, social inequities, poor governance and endemic conflict. With recent food shortages in southern and eastern Africa, those numbers are likely to have grown over the past year, although a full-scale humanitarian crisis has been averted through the efforts of the international community, led by the World Food Programme (WFP).53. 区域和国家间的这些差异在其它目标中也反映出来。世界大多数地区在1990年代反饥饿斗争中取得长足进展,但就在全球食品生产过剩的这一时期,亚洲某些地区和撒南非洲体重不足的儿童依然众多,在中南亚甚至接近50%——往往是由于长期经济及结构政策等结构原因、妇女地位低下、社会不平等、施政不当及局部冲突所致。非洲东部及南部地区最近食品短缺,因此,有关数字在过去一年间可能又有增加,不过,以世界粮食计划署(粮食计划署)为首的国际社会大力相助下,避免了一场严重的人道主义危机。
2.2.
Universal primary education普及初等教育
54. Progress towards the Goal of universal primary education has been made in almost all regions — although the continuous slippage since 1990 in the high enrolment ratio in eastern Asia is cause for concern, as is the negligible increase in the chronically low levels of enrolment in sub-Saharan Africa, which is likely to leave that region, as a whole, far short of the target. Once again many countries provide dramatic evidence of what can be achieved in very short periods of time when they make the issue a priority and match commitment with sound policies and real resources. In the 1990s, Benin increased its primary enrolment rate and Mali its primary completion rate by more than 20 percentage points. Mauritania raised the ratio of girls to boys in primary education from two thirds to over 90 per cent in a period of seven years. Malawi and Uganda also made considerable progress in the 1990s, as has Kenya in 2003. Region-wide progress on this scale would be a dramatic step in the right direction.54. 几乎所有区域在实现普及初等教育目标方面都有进展——不过,1990年以来,东亚高入学率持续下滑,令人堪忧;撒南非洲长期低迷的入学率稍有增长,但微不足道,此项目标可能仍令全区域望尘莫及。可是,很多国家的经历雄辩地证明:只要高度重视,下定决心,政策到位,落实资源,就能在短时间内大见成效。1990年代,贝宁和马里分别将其小学入学率和小学结业率提高20多个百分点,而毛里求斯则在七年间将小学女生与男生人数之比由三分之二增至90%以上。马拉维和乌干达在1990年代,肯尼亚于2003年,亦都有长足进展。全区域能以此进度发展,则是朝正确方向迈出了一大步。
3.3.
Gender equality and empowerment of women促进男女平等并赋予妇女权力
55. While trends in gender equality in education and work are generally moving in the right direction, the overall improvement on a very low baseline is unacceptably slow in the area of political empowerment.55.
These issues are examined in greater detail in chapter IV.教育和工作方面男女平等的方向一般是正确的,但赋予政治权力方面,在低基线上的总体改进,缓慢得无法令人接受;第四章具体讨论这些问题。
4.4.
Child mortality儿童死亡率
56. It is unacceptable that, in spite of broad advances in children’s health in developing regions since 1990, nearly 11 million children still die each year before reaching their fifth birthday, mostly from easily preventable or treatable causes.56.
In some regions there has been good progress towards the target of reducing this rate by two thirds by 2015, but in sub-Saharan Africa there was no significant progress between 1990 and 2001, and in south-central and western Asia, as in Oceania, progress is still too slow.1990年以来,发展中区域儿童保健取得广泛进展,但每年仍有1 100万儿童不满5周岁即夭折,其中大多数死于容易预防或治疗的疾病——这一点是无法接受的。有些区域争取在2015年年底前将儿童死亡率减少三分之二的工作颇有起色,但撒南非洲1990至2001年间进展甚微,在亚洲中南部和西部以及大洋洲,进展依然过于缓慢。
5.5.
Maternal health产妇保健
57. We cannot yet reliably measure trends in maternal mortality in developing countries over the last 15 years. What we can say is that in very few of those countries are there signs of progress sufficient to meet the target of reducing the rate by three quarters by 2015, and that differences between regions remain huge. Women are 175 times more likely to die in childbirth in sub-Saharan Africa, and 20 to 60 times more likely to suffer the same fate in Asia (except eastern Asia) and Oceania than in a developed country.57. 我们尚不能以可靠方式统计发展中国家过去15年来的产妇死亡率。但我们可以说,其中,有迹象显示其进度足以实现在2015年年底前将产妇死亡率减少四分之三目标的国家,寥寥无几;况且各区域间差异迥然。撒南非洲的产妇死亡率比发达国家高出175倍,亚洲(除东亚)和大洋洲的产妇死亡率比发达国家高出20至60倍。
6.6.
HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾和其它疾病
58. Perhaps the greatest cause for concern has been the lack of progress made to reverse the rate of the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. HIV/AIDS is now the deadliest pandemic in human history. As detailed in my report on progress towards the implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (A/58/184), it has already had a devastating social and economic impact in sub-Saharan Africa and, to a lesser extent, the Caribbean. Infection rates in most countries of south-central and south-eastern Asia are already at least comparable to those in most developed countries, where the pandemic started much earlier, and there are signs that the disease is breaking out of high-risk pockets into the general population. The incidence of malaria may also be rising, as increasing resistance of the infection to available drugs, and of mosquitoes to available pesticides, makes both treatment and prevention more difficult. The best estimates available also indicate that the incidence of tuberculosis is increasing.58. 引起人们关切的最主要原因也许就是在扭转艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾和肺结核的扩散率方面缺乏进展。艾滋病毒/艾滋病现在是人类历史上最致命的流行病。我的执行《关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题的承诺宣言》的进展情况的报告(A/58/184)中曾详细指出,该流行病在撒南非洲已经造成了毁灭性的社会和经济影响,在加勒比地区造成的影响略小。在中南亚和东南亚许多国家,艾滋病毒的感染率已经至少可以和艾滋病开始时间要早得多的许多发达国家的感染率相比,并且有迹象表明,艾滋病正在从高危人群急剧扩散到普通公众。疟疾病例可能也在增加,因为该病对现有药物以及蚊子对现有农药的抵抗力都已增加,使疟疾的治疗和预防都更加困难。目前最好的估计还表明,肺结核的病例也在增加。
59. Here again, however, rapid improvements are possible if we learn from and build on success stories. In Thailand, for example, a strong prevention campaign since 1990 has broadly contained the pandemic; Uganda reduced HIV/AIDS infection rates for eight consecutive years in the 1990s; and Zambia may soon become the second African country to reduce the rate of the spread of the disease from crisis levels. Senegal and Cambodia also succeeded in containing the spread of HIV. Moreover, countries have the chance to make sizeable inroads into the incidence of tuberculosis by adopting a relatively inexpensive but sustained programme of treatment.59. 然而这又一次表明,如果我们能够从成功经验中吸取教训并利用这些成功经验,快速实现改善是可能的。例如在泰国,1990年以来开展的有力预防运动已经广泛遏制住艾滋病。乌干达在1990年代连续八年降低艾滋病毒/艾滋病的感染率。赞比亚可能很快成为第二个扭转艾滋病扩散率危机的非洲国家。塞内加尔和柬埔寨也成功遏制了艾滋病毒的扩散。此外,各国通过采用相对便宜但可以持续的治疗方案,有机会在减少肺结核病例方面取得显著进展。
60. These efforts are now being supported by a major global mobilization, combining new commitments to advocacy and political action in many of the most affected countries and a new drive to raise international resources commensurate with the scale of the challenge. I have made this issue my highest personal priority and, as patron of the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, have been encouraged by the increase in support both for that body and for broader efforts by United Nations agencies, the World Bank and others. Private foundations are also increasingly providing support for research, treatment and prevention, while some pharmaceutical firms are now offering steeply discounted drug supplies and an increasing number of countries are able to provide inexpensive generic drugs to their populations. Nevertheless, with commitments for the Global Fund still significantly short of the $3 billion required in 2004 — let alone the $4.5 billion needed in 2005 — it is imperative that donors make a renewed effort to increase their support to address this unique challenge. If we take action now, we can still reasonably hope to meet the deadline of 2015 for halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. If we wait longer, the cost will continue to be counted in millions of lives.60. 这些努力现在由一个重要的全球性调动资源活动提供支持。这一活动将许多最受影响国家对宣传和政治行动的新承诺,与筹集和这一挑战的规模相适应的国际资源的新努力结合起来。这一问题已经定为我个人的最优先问题。我作为全球防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病、肺结核和疟疾基金的监管人,对该基金获得更多支持以及联合国机构、世界银行和其它机构做出更广泛的努力感到鼓舞。私人基金会也在为研究、治疗和预防提供更多支持,而一些制药公司也在提供大幅度削减价格的药品,使越来越多的国家能够向民众提供廉价的非专利药品。尽管如此,由于对全球基金的承付捐款离2004年所需的30亿美元仍然相距甚远(更不用说2005年的45亿美元),因此迫切需要捐助者再作努力,提供更多支助,以解决这一独特的挑战。如果我们现在采取行动,我们仍然能够有望实现目标:到2015年阻止并开始扭转艾滋病毒/艾滋病的扩散趋势以及疟疾和其它主要疾病的病例。如果我们再等待下去,代价将继续以数百万人的生命计算。
7.7.
Environmental sustainability环境可持续性
61. The goal of ensuring environmental sustainability has also seen both success and failure. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has demonstrated the effectiveness of concerted multilateral action, resulting in a large decrease in global consumption of chlorofluorocarbons, mostly in the developed countries (formerly the overwhelmingly dominant users of these gases). The consumption of these gases by developing countries has also declined by about half since 1995. In other areas, however, progress has been less encouraging. For example, one consequence of population growth, urbanization, farming and the strong demand for high quality hardwood has been the decline in the proportion of land area covered by forests. In developing regions, this proportion declined from 28.1 per cent in 1990 to 26.8 per cent in 2000. In response to such challenges, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002, had some success in refocusing global attention on these critical issues, while more clearly linking environmental sustainability to poverty reduction. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation explicitly commits the signatories to responsible and equitable management of the earth’s resources as part of the broader effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. It also highlights the critical role of the private sector and public-private partnerships in addressing key environmental challenges ranging from biodiversity protection to renewable energy. Many of these partnerships are now being put into practice, providing models for future action. In May 2003, the Commission on Sustainable Development agreed on structures and processes for fostering the implementation of the outcome of the World Summit and the partnerships under review. Progress towards Goal 8: building a global partnership for development61. 在确保环境可持续性方面目标也是成败参半。《关于消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书》显示出协调的多边行动的有效性,使得氯氟化碳的全球消耗量大幅度下降,其中主要是在发达国家(发达国家曾经是这些气体的最主要使用国)。发展中国家的这些气体消耗量自1995年以来也减少了大约一半。然而在其它地区,进展却不太令人鼓舞。例如,人口增长、城市化、农耕和对优质硬木的大量需求等方面所造成的一个后果,就是森林覆盖土地面积的比例下降。这一比例已经从发展中地区1990年的28.1%降至2000年的26.8%。面对这类挑战,2002年在南非约翰内斯堡举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议在一定程度上再次引起全球对这些关键问题的关注,同时更明确地将环境可持续性与减少贫穷联系起来。《约翰内斯堡执行计划》明确要求签约国承诺作为实现千年发展目标的更广泛努力的一部分,对地球资源进行负责任的公平管理。该计划还突出强调私营部门以及公私伙伴关系在处理从生物多样性保护到可再生能源等关键环境挑战方面发挥的关键作用。这些伙伴关系中有许多正在付诸实践,并为未来的行动提供榜样。2003年5月,可持续发展委员会就一些结构和过程达成协议,用于促进世界首脑会议成果的实施以及正在审查的伙伴关系。
62. The most important components of Goal 8 relate to trade, debt relief and aid. It is no exaggeration to state that the success or failure of all the Millennium Development Goals hinges on whether developed countries meet their commitments in these areas. They should be encouraged, working through the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) or other forums, to agree on time-bound deadlines for these pledges comparable to the 2015 target for the first seven Millennium Goals.实现目标8方面的进展:建立全球合作促进发展
63. On the issue of trade, a critical step towards the fulfilment of Goal 8 came in November 2001 with the agreements at the Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Doha, which placed the needs and interests of the developing countries at the heart of the WTO trade negotiations. There has been some progress on critical issues such as access to medicines and agriculture in the run-up to the WTO Ministerial Meeting in Cancún, Mexico, in September 2003. Agreement has been reached on a mechanism to give developing countries that cannot produce cheap, generic drugs the right to import them from countries that can. We must now ensure that the developing countries are given the support they need to make use of the mechanisms that have been agreed upon, so that the drugs can reach the millions who are suffering and dying.62. 目标8最重要的组成部分涉及到贸易、债务减免和援助。可以不夸张地说,所有千年发展目标的成败要看发达国家是否履行它们在这些领域作出的承诺。应该通过经济合作与发展组织(经合发组织)或其他论坛,鼓励它们就与前七个千年目标的2015年目标相类似的这些承诺的限时期限达成协议。
64. Moving the trade agenda forward and addressing key developing country concerns is an indispensable and urgently needed step towards more equitable globalization. In 2001 both the United States of America, with its Africa Growth and Opportunity Act, and the European Union, with its “Everything but Arms” initiative, recognized the importance of expanded trading opportunities for development in the poorest countries. However, a more comprehensive multilateral agreement is vitally needed. In particular, developed countries must agree to provide substantial improvements in market access by reducing or eliminating the high tariffs and non-tariff barriers they currently maintain on many developing-country exports, as well as phasing out the more than $300 billion a year they currently spend on agricultural subsidies, thereby denying farmers in poor countries a fair chance to compete, whether in world markets or at home.63. 在贸易问题方面,世界贸易组织(世贸组织)于2001年11月在多哈召开的一次部长级会议达成协议,将发展中国家的需求和利益置于世贸组织贸易谈判的核心,从而为实现目标8迈出了关键一步。到即将于2003年9月在墨西哥坎昆召开的世贸组织部长级会议期间,在医药和农业的准入等关键问题上取得了一些进展。已商定了一项机制,让无法制造廉价非专利药品的发展中国家有权从能够制造这些药品的国家进口这些药品。我们现在必须确保发展中国家得到它们利用这些商定机制所需的支助,以便能够向数百万生命垂危的病患者提供这些药品。
65.64.
Without such a comprehensive agreement, developing countries will have little chance of generating higher economic growth.将贸易日程向前推进以及解决发展中国家的主要关切问题,是为实现更加公平的全球化而迫切需要迈出的不可或缺的一步。2001年,不管是美国的《非洲增长和机会法》还是欧洲联盟的“军火以外均可出口”倡议,都认识到必须在最贫穷的国家拓展促进发展的贸易机遇。然而,最迫切需要的是一个更加全面的多边协议。发达国家尤其必须达成协议,在市场准入方面做出大幅度改善,减少或消除他们目前对发展中国家的许多出口产品维持的高关税壁垒和非关税壁垒,逐步取消他们目前每年用于农业补贴的3 000多亿美元,因为这样会使贫穷国家的农民失去在世界市场或国内市场进行公平竞争的机会。
66. Continued progress in the area of debt relief has been made over the past year. Twenty-six countries have now reached their decision point under the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. However, only eight countries had reached completion point by mid-2003, compared with a target of 19. The positive experience of Uganda in using debt relief proceeds to expand primary education, which has a direct, measurable impact on a country’s capacity to meet the Millennium Development Goals, shows how important it is to accelerate and widen this initiative. Unfortunately, steep declines in commodity prices have undercut progress in the field of HIPC in recent years, creating a need for extra “topping up”, that is, additional debt relief after completion point to keep debt-to-export ratios below 150 per cent. Further consideration also needs to be given to debt between heavily indebted poor countries, debt owed to non-Paris Club bilateral creditors and finding ways to resolve debt crises of countries not eligible for HIPC, so that the burden is more equitably shared between the debtor country and its creditors.65. 没有这样一个全面协议,发展中国家就没有什么机会实现较高的经济增长。
67. Finally, on the issue of finance and assistance for development, significant progress was made at the International Conference on Financing for Development, held at Monterrey, Mexico, in March 2002. The Monterrey Consensus adopted there built on the Millennium Declaration and explicitly laid out a new framework of mutual obligations and mutual accountability between developed and developing countries. It reaffirmed the developing countries’ full acceptance of their responsibility for their own development, while stressing the critical importance of support from the developed countries.66. 过去一年,在债务减免方面持续取得进展。根据增加优惠的重债穷国倡议,26个国家已经抵达了决定点。然而到2003年中期,抵达完成点的国家仅有8个,而目标是19个国家。乌干达在利用减免债务的收入扩展初级教育方面取得了积极经验,对该国实现千年发展目标的能力产生了可以衡量的直接影响。这表明加快、扩大这一倡议是如何重要。遗憾的是,商品价格的大幅度下降削弱了重债穷国最近几年取得的一些进展,产生了对额外“薪酬补贴”的需求,也就是在完成点以后需要额外债务减免,以便将债务与出口的比例保持在150%以下。此外还需要进一步考虑重债穷国之间的债务和拖欠非巴黎俱乐部双边债权国的债务,并设法解决不具有重债穷国资格的国家的债务危机,以便这一负担由债务国和债权国更加公平地承担。
68. As part of the commitments made at Monterrey, all parties agreed on the importance of the “ownership” of developing countries of their national development strategies. For the poorest countries these strategies include Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), which form the basis for assistance from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other donors, including the United Nations system. Tailored Millennium Development Goal targets can form the longer-term development objectives of such shorter-term action plans. Domestic resources will remain the primary driving force for development. Governments of developing countries and countries with economies in transition should therefore redouble their efforts to increase the resources spent on development and ensure that they are used effectively. To this end, many developing countries will need to improve their structures of governance and public administration.67. 最后,关于金融和援助促进发展的问题,在2002年3月墨西哥蒙特雷举行的发展筹资问题国际会议上取得了重大进展。在那次会议上达成的《蒙特雷共识》借鉴了《千年宣言》,明确提出了一个新的发达国家和发展中国家间相互义务和相互责任框架。这一共识重申发展中国家要完全接受对自身发展承担的责任,同时强调发达国家的支持至关重要。
69.68.
However, as the High-Level Panel on Financing for Development that I assembled under the leadership of the former President of Mexico, Ernesto Zedillo, concluded in its report (see A/55/1000, annex), even assuming developing countries adopt sound policies and maximize use of domestic resources, an additional $50 billion a year in aid is likely to be needed, as a minimum, in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals.作为蒙特雷承诺的一部分,所有各方都承认发展中国家必须对其国家发展战略拥有“所有权”。对最贫穷的国家来说,这些战略包括减贫战略文件,因为这一文件构成了世界银行、国际货币基金组织(货币基金组织)和包括联合国系统在内的其他捐助者的援助基础。特别制定的千年发展目标可以成为这类较短期行动计划的较长期发展目标。国内资源仍然是促进发展的主要驱动力。因此,发展中国家和转型期经济国家的政府应该加倍努力,增加用在发展上的资源,确保这些资源得到有效利用。为此目的,许多发展中国家需要改善施政和公共行政结构。
70. After the International Conference on Financing for Development, official development assistance (ODA) began to climb again in 2002, after nearly a decade of decline. OECD calculations show stated commitments of an additional $16 billion by 2006. In addition, some very promising proposals for raising the balance of the additional $50 billion have been put forward — notably the International Finance Facility, which deserves serious consideration. Sadly, the global economic slowdown and domestic budget pressures have already led some donor Governments to start backing away from their pledges, a shift which would be enormously damaging to prospects for meeting the Millennium Development Goals. Not only should donors make every effort to meet their existing commitments, but also those that have not yet done so should continue to increase aid until they reach the level of 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) reaffirmed, at both Monterrey and Johannesburg, as the desired level of international assistance for rich countries. Even doubling existing aid flows would only bring total donor assistance to a level around 0.44 per cent of GNI — roughly back to the level of the 1960s.69. 然而,由我召集并由墨西哥前总统埃内斯托 塞迪略负责领导的发展筹资问题高级别小组在报告中得出结论认为(见A/55/1000,附件),即使假设发展中国家采用了健全的政策,国内资源得到了最大限度地利用,每年还可能至少需要500亿美元援助,才能实现千年发展目标。
71. More broadly, success in all these efforts depends on progress in meeting the Declaration’s commitment to “good governance at the international level”. In this context, it remains a matter of serious concern that developing countries are not given sufficient say in the decision-making process of many key international organizations — not only the United Nations but also WTO, IMF and the World Bank. Unless developing countries enjoy — and are seen by the global public to enjoy — greater access to, and voice in, institutions whose policies have a profound impact on the lives of their citizens, the public hostility to globalization reflected in frequent international protests since the Ministerial Meeting of WTO in Seattle in November 1999 will continue to grow.70. 在发展筹资问题国际会议以后,官方发展援助在将近十年的下降之后于2002年开始回升。经合发组织的计算表明,各国已经声明在2006年之前再提供160亿美元。另外提出了一些前景光明的提案,筹集另外500亿美元的其余部分,尤其是国际融资机制,这值得认真考虑。但令人悲哀的是,全球经济增长减速和国内预算压力已经导致一些捐助国政府开始背弃自己的认捐。这对于实现千年发展目标的前景极其有害。不仅捐助者应该尽一切努力履行自己已做出的承诺,而且还没有这样做的国家也应该继续增加援助数额,达到在蒙特雷和约翰内斯堡确定的国民总收入0.7%的水平,这是富裕国家提供国际援助的理想水平。即使现有的援助翻一番,也只能使捐助者援助总金额达到国民总收入的0.44%左右的水平,基本上回到1960年代的水平。
Conclusion71. 从更广泛的方面看,所有这些努力是否成功,要依赖于在实现《宣言》提出的“国际一级善政”承诺方面是否取得进展。在这方面,发展中国家在许多关键国际组织的决策过程中还没有足够发言权仍然是一个令人严重关切的事项;这些组织不仅包括联合国,而且包括世贸组织、货币基金组织和世界银行。除非发展中国家能够更多进入其政策对本国公民的生活产生深远影响的机构,享受到并且全球公众都认为其享受到更多发言权,否则1999年11月世贸组织西雅图部长级会议以来频繁出现的国际抗议活动所反映出的对全球化的公开敌对情绪将继续增长。
72. For the first time in human history, we have the resources, the knowledge and the expertise to eradicate human poverty — and to do it within the lifetime of a child born at the time when the Millennium Declaration was adopted. Reaching the Millennium Development Goals, which are an essential part of the Declaration, would be a critical step towards achieving that end. The Goals are thus the best hope for the world’s poor. They can be reached if, during the 12 years we still have before 2015, we maintain and increase the momentum that has been generated during the first three years of the new century.结论
IV.72.
Human rights, democracy and good governance自从有人类历史以来,我们第一次拥有消除人类贫穷所需的资源、知识和专门技能,并在《千年宣言》通过时出生的一代人的有生之年完成这项工作。实现千年发展目标是《宣言》的关键部分,也是完成这项工作的一个关键步骤。因此,这些目标是全世界穷人的最大希望。如果我们在2015年到来之前的12年里能够维持并加强在新世纪的前三年创造的势头,这些目标是能够实现的。
73. None of the pledges dealt with in the previous chapters of this report are likely to be realized unless the effort to achieve them is firmly based, at both the national and the global levels, on the common values reaffirmed in the Millennium Declaration, namely: freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility.四.
This gives particular importance to the pledges made in chapter V of the Declaration, relating to human rights, democracy and good governance.人权、民主和善政
74. In these areas, too, the international climate has been significantly changed by the attacks of 11 September 2001 and their aftermath. On that day, thousands of human beings were brutally deprived of the most fundamental of all human rights, the right to life, by a premeditated act of terror, which many have called a crime against humanity. That abominable act expressed a state of mind in which human rights cease to have any meaning for those prepared to use any means, no matter how callous, cruel or destructive, to achieve their political objective.73. 除非在国家和全球两级为实现这些承诺作出的努力牢牢地扎根于《千年宣言》申明的共同价值上,即自由、平等、团结、容忍、尊重大自然和共同承担责任,不然,不可能实现本报告前几章中讨论的任何承诺。这点对于《宣言》第五章中关于人权、民主和善政的承诺特别重要。
75. The struggle against terrorism may also have a very important secondary effect: in fighting against it, we run the risk of sacrificing a great deal in terms of human rights, democracy and good governance. Tolerance is too often the first casualty of a “war on terror”, which is widely perceived, especially by Muslims, as a war against Islam. To go down that path would hand the terrorists a victory beyond their dreams.74. 2001年9月11日的袭击及其后果也大大改变了在这些领域的国际气氛。在这一天,一项有预谋的恐怖行动残暴地剥夺了数千人最基本的人权——生命权;很多人将这次行动称为危害人类罪行。对于那些不惜使用任何手段(不管多么冷酷、残忍或毁灭性)实现其政治目标的人来说,这种可鄙的行为表达的一种心态是:人权已失去任何意义。
76. Nothing can excuse terrorism, but it often feeds on alienation and despair. If human beings everywhere were given real hope of achieving self-respect and a decent life by peaceful methods, terrorists would become harder to recruit and would receive less sympathy and support from society at large. Greater respect for human rights, along with democracy and social justice, will, in the long term, be the most effective prophylactic against terror. Suppression of peaceful dissent is never an effective way for a State to strengthen itself, since truly strong States derive their strength from the freely given consent of the governed.75. 可是,反恐斗争也产生一项非常重大的附带后果:在反恐斗争中,我们在人权、民主和善政方面可能作出巨大牺牲。在“反恐战争”中,容忍往往首先遭殃,因为尤其是回教徒,他们普遍认为这是针对伊斯兰的战争。到了这个地步,这会拱手让恐怖分子赢得他们梦想不到的胜利。
International protection of human rights76. 恐怖主义是不可饶恕的,但是恐怖主义的温床往往是疏离和失望。如果使全人类获得真正的希望实现自尊和体面的生活,就会更难招募到恐怖分子,社会大众就会减少对他们的同情和支持。从长远来说,更加尊重人权以及实行民主和社会正义是防止恐怖行为的最有效预防剂。压制和平的反对意见绝非一个国家强化自身的有效方法,因为真正强大的国家的力量泉源来自被统治者自由表达的同意。
77. On the positive side, the last 12 months have seen accelerated progress towards universal ratification of the six major human rights treaties. The seventh treaty, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, has now entered into force — an important milestone for economic and social rights. In addition, the adoption of an optional protocol to the Convention against Torture, allowing prison inspections, reflects the international community’s continued determination to increase protections in this area. The inauguration of the judges and prosecutor of the International Criminal Court is another significant step towards the elimination of impunity for the gravest human rights violations. It is important to note that, thanks to the Rome Statute, which made this the first international court with specific rules for fair balance between women and men, seven of the judges are women.国际保护人权
78. Within the United Nations system, both the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights have intensified their assistance to States that request help in promoting good governance and strengthening their national human rights protection systems. The human rights components of United Nations peace missions have helped create a more favourable environment for peace and development efforts in societies emerging from conflict. Such actions have most recently started to be taken up in Iraq and Côte d’Ivoire. The Commission on Human Rights, for its part, has continued the process, begun in 1999, of reconsidering and strengthening its methods of work. It is to be hoped that this process will soon culminate in the adoption of concrete measures, aimed at reducing the level of politicization within the Commission. Such measures are sorely needed. In the past year divisions and disputes have weakened the Commission’s authority and its voice in the great debates about human rights has been muffled. Member States should appreciate that membership of the Commission implies responsibilities as well as privileges.77. 在积极方面,过去12个月为争取普及批准六项主要人权条约取得的进展加快。关于《保护所有移徙工人及其家属权利国际公约》的第七项条约现已生效;这是经济和社会权利方面的一项重大里程碑。此外,通过了《禁止酷刑公约》的一项任择议定书,允许视察监狱,这点说明国际社会继续决心增加这方面的保护。国际刑事法院法官和检察官就职是另一项重大措施,以设法消除最严重的侵犯人权的有罪不罚现象。必须指出的是,幸亏《罗马规约》使这个首要国际法院对男女之间公平的平衡定出具体规则,法院中有七名法官为妇女。
79.78.
Meanwhile, in the actual practice of promoting democracy and strengthening the rule of law, “as well as respect for all internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development”, to use the actual words of the Millennium Declaration, one is forced to admit that there are still enormous gaps to be filled.在联合国系统内部,联合国开发计划署(开发计划署)和联合国人权事务高级专员办事处均加紧向请求协助促进善政和加强其国家人权保护系统的国家提供援助。联合国和平特派团的人权部门为冲突后出现的社会进行的和平与发展活动创造更有利的环境。最近已在伊拉克和科特迪瓦开展这些行动。人权委员会本身继续1999年开展的进程,重新审议和加强其工作方法。希望这项进程不久能够以通过具体措施告终,以便减少委员会内部的政治色彩。亟需采取这些措施。过去一年,分裂和争端削弱了委员会的威信,使委员会在人权大辩论中的发言权受到压制。会员国应当认识到在委员会的成员资格除了特权外,也包括责任。
Women’s rights79. 同时,在促进民主和加强法治的实际行动中以及根据《千年宣言》的实际用语,在“尊重一切国际公认的人权和基本自由,包括发展权”方面,大家不得不承认仍然有巨大的空白有待填补。
80. Women, in particular, continue to face varying degrees of discrimination in almost all parts of the world. Virtually nowhere are their rights given the priority they deserve, with the result, inter alia, that women are unable to play their vital role in helping their societies to build peace and cope with hardship. The best one can say is that there is increased global awareness of issues affecting women’s rights, although at the country level, there is little progress and in many cases even the rights that have been achieved are under threat.妇女权利
81. Despite the now wide recognition of the impact of war and its aftermath on women and girls, particularly in relation to sexual violence, and of the need to include women in peace-building, rape and sexual violence continue to be used as weapons of war and women continue to be excluded from almost all peace negotiations. Indeed, in today’s conflicts, women and girls are more and more often directly targeted. Clearly, this differential impact of conflict on women and girls calls for more effective responses from the international community. Much more needs to be done to make those involved in conflicts aware of relevant international laws and to punish those who violate them. By the same token, human rights and gender equality need to be given greater emphasis in reconstruction and peace-building efforts, with a view to creating more equitable and sustainable societies.80. 尤其是妇女,几乎在世界各地继续面对不同程度的歧视。几乎没有任何地方对她们的权利给予应有的重视,结果除其他外,妇女无法发挥她们重要的作用,帮助自己的社会建设和平和克服困难。大家充其量只能说全球增加了对影响妇女权利的问题的认识。可是在国家一级没有多大进展,在很多国家,连既有的权利也受到威胁。
82. Another area of grave concern is the increasingly widespread practice of trafficking in women and girls, one of the fastest-growing types of organized crime. It has been estimated that more than 700,000 people are trafficked each year for sexual exploitation. Many of the victims are subjected to violence. This is clearly a major human rights challenge for the new millennium. Strategies to counter it need to address the many factors that at present foster a favourable environment for trafficking, including gender-based violence, cultural practices and social structures that promote the demand for and the commercialization of women’s and children’s bodies and the denial of equal status for women in access to property and the attainment of economic independence.81. 尽管目前广泛认识到战争及其后果对妇女和女孩造成的影响,尤其是在性暴力方面,以及广泛认识到必须让妇女参与建设和平,可是继续利用强奸和性暴力作为战争武器,几乎所有和平谈判都把妇女排除在外。事实上,在当前的冲突中,越来越经常地直接针对妇女和女孩。冲突对妇女和女孩这种差别影响显然需要国际社会采取更有效的对策。必须作出更大的努力,使那些参与冲突的人了解到相关的国际法并惩罚那些违反国际法的人。同样地,在重建和建设和平工作中,必须更加重视人权和两性平等,以建立更平等和可持续的社会。
83. A higher priority for such strategies would be one of many benefits humanity could derive from the full inclusion of women in political decision-making and governance. As things stand, women in many parts of the world continue to be excluded from decision-making at all levels of government, or are given only token representation. Currently there are only 12 women serving as elected heads of State or Government, five women Vice-Presidents and four women leaders of the main opposition in their countries. The proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments stands at 15.1 per cent, representing a small increase of 0.6 per cent since 2002 and an increase of just under 2 per cent since 1990. This aggregate figure masks wide regional and subregional variations — from 40 per cent in the Nordic countries to 5.6 per cent in Western Asia. There is little systematic data on women’s representation at lower levels of government and in economic decision-making bodies, but anecdotal evidence suggests that the situation there is not much better. At all levels, specific support is needed to ensure that women can participate effectively.82. 另一个令人严重关切的领域是贩卖妇女和女孩的作法日益普遍,这是一种发展最快的有组织犯罪。据估计,每年贩运70多万人进行性剥削。很多受害者遭受暴力对待。这点显然是对新千年的一项重大人权挑战。对付这种作法的战略必须正视目前为贩运制造有利环境的很多因素,包括基于性别的暴力行为;助长对妇女和儿童的肉体需求和买卖的文化习俗和社会结构;在取得财产和实现经济独立方面剥夺妇女的平等地位。
Democracy83. 对这些战略给予更高的优先次序,可以为人类带来很多利益,其中之一是使妇女全面纳入政治决策和施政。目前的情况是,世界上很多地区的妇女继续被排斥在各级政府决策之外或只获得象征性代表权。目前只有12名妇女担任当选的国家元首或政府首脑,5名妇女为副总统,4名妇女为其国家的主要反对派领导人。妇女在国家议会中掌握的席位比例为15.1%,比2002年略增0.6%,自1990年以来增加不到2%。这个总体数字掩盖了广泛的区域和分区域差别——从北欧国家的40%到西亚的5.6%。没有关于妇女在低级政府和经济决策机构代表权的系统性数据,可是一些有趣的证据表明,这方面的情况好不了多少。在各级需要具体的支助确保妇女能够有效参与。
84. Democracy and human rights, though distinct concepts, are closely interlinked. Democracy, as a human right in itself, is implied in article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but it only functions in its fullest sense when other human rights are respected. It is therefore hardly surprising that worldwide acceptance of democracy as a norm more or less kept pace with the wider acceptance of universal human rights standards during the decade that followed the end of the Cold War. In many countries, however, the transition to democracy has been accompanied by serious social and economic problems.民主
85. Recent experience in several countries shows that democratic processes can suffer setbacks when democracies fall short of their citizens’ expectations, particularly in delivering development and alleviating poverty. Such situations can create tensions, sometimes leading to armed conflicts. In addition, there are still countries where resistance to democracy is strong, even though the majority of the people clearly desire change. Zimbabwe and Myanmar are cases in point.84. 民主和人权虽然是两个不同的概念,但是息息相关。本身作为人权一部分的民主起码在《世界人权宣言》第21条中提出来,只有在尊重其他人权的情况下才能充分发挥民主作用。因此,在冷战结束后的十年期间,全世界在接受民主为准则的同时,总的来说还更广泛地接受普及人权标准,这点就不足为奇了。然而,很多国家在民主过渡时期遇到严重的社会、经济问题。
86. Although primarily home-grown, democracy can benefit from international help. The international community can respond to the special needs of democratization processes in post-conflict situations, where the United Nations has developed rich experience, and in other politically fragile circumstances. It can also provide electoral assistance, as the United Nations has done over the years in 89 countries and expects to do in others, including Afghanistan and Iraq.85. 几个国家最近的经验证明,当民主制未能达到其公民的期望时,特别是在实现发展和扶贫方面,民主进程就可能出现反复。这种情况可能造成紧张局势,有时候导致武装冲突。虽然大多数人民显然渴望变革,可是仍有一些国家坚决抗拒民主制。津巴布韦和缅甸就是恰当的例子。
Conclusion86. 虽然民主制基本上是土生土长,可是可以从国际援助中受益。国际社会可以对冲突后情况和其他政治上脆弱的环境下的民主化进程的特别需要作出响应,因为联合国在这方面累积了丰富的经验。一如联合国近年来已在89个国家提供了选举援助,并可能在包括阿富汗和伊拉克在内的其他国家提供选举援助,国际社会也能够提供这种援助。
87. Human rights are universal principles, but, inspiring as those principles are, none implement themselves. Good governance, effective institutions, adequate material resources and international support are usually what make the difference between noble aspirations and effective realization.结论
88. Many countries are failing to meet the challenges of poverty, conflict and HIV/AIDS for lack of robust and imaginative governance. Yet in some countries, especially in Africa, efforts to improve governance have been thwarted by the decimation of an entire generation through HIV/AIDS. Persistent gender inequality aggravates all these problems and restricts efforts to find solutions. The role of gender inequality in the continued spread of HIV is more and more widely acknowledged in global and national policy discussions, as is the importance of empowering women if efforts to reverse the spread are to succeed. Governments have yet to translate this recognition into the commitment of sufficient resources or effective implementation.87. 人权是普遍性原则;但即使这些原则令人鼓舞,却都不能自我执行。善政、有效机构、充足资源和国际支持往往导致崇高愿望与有效落实的差别。
89.88.
It is by now almost a truism that elections are not isolated events but part of a holistic process, and that sustainable democracy must be rooted in stable institutions and a strong civil society in which the rights of minorities as well as those of majorities are protected by the rule of law.许多国家由于缺乏有力而富有想象力的善政,无法应付贫穷、冲突和艾滋病毒/艾滋病的挑战。然而,在一些国家,特别是非洲国家,艾滋病毒/艾滋病对整整一代人的残害又使改进施政的努力受到挫折。持续不断的性别不平等加剧所有这些问题,并阻碍寻找解决办法的努力。性别不平等在艾滋病毒继续蔓延中的作用在全球和国家政策讨论中得到越来越广泛的承认。同样得到承认的是,要使制止蔓延的努力获得成功,就必须增强妇女的力量。各国政府尚未将这种认识变为充足资源或有效执行的承诺。 89.
Even ostensibly democratic political processes are often marred by limited public participation, restricted or manipulated information and controlled or censored media.现在几乎不言而喻的是,选举不是孤立的事件,而是一个整体过程的组成部分,而且可持续民主必须扎根于稳定的体制和强大的民间社会,少数人权利以及多数人权利在其中得到法治的保护。即使表面民主的政治进程也常常因公众参与有限、信息受限制或操纵、以及媒体受控制或检查而受到损害。
90. It should be no less obvious, although the situation in Iraq may now remind us, that to be both meaningful and effective, human rights, good governance and democracy must be embraced as their own by the people of the society concerned. It is within each country that they must be made to work. However, the United Nations and the international community can provide support and help create the conditions for success. In some cases, the role of such international contributions may be decisive.90. 应当同样显而易见的是(因这伊拉克的情况现在可能提醒我们),人权、善政和民主要既有意义又有效力,就必须为有关社会的人民作为自己的价值观念接受,必须使之在每一个国家内发挥作用。不过,联合国和国际社会可以提供支持,并帮助创造成功的条件。在一些情况下,这种国际贡献的作用也许是决定性的。
V. Conclusion: reinforcing multilateral institutions五. 结论:加强多边机构
91. Throughout this report, the leitmotiv has been the need for stronger international solidarity and responsibility, together with greater respect for decisions reached collectively and greater determination to put them into effect. The question that inevitably arises is whether it is sufficient to exhort States and individuals to more enlightened attitudes and greater efforts, or whether a radical reform of our international institutions is also needed. My own view is that Member States need at least to take a hard look at the existing “architecture” of international institutions and to ask themselves whether it is adequate for the tasks we have before us.91. 整份报告的中心思想是,需要更大的国际团结和责任,同时需要对集体作出的决定的更大尊重以及实施这些决定的更大决心。必然出现的问题是,劝说国家和个人采取更开明的态度和作出更大努力是否足够,或者是否还必须对我们的国际机构进行彻底改革。我个人的看法是,会员国至少应当认真审查国际机构的现有“建筑”,并问自己这种建筑是否足以完成我们面前的任务。
92. The General Assembly is well aware of the efforts that I have made since 1997 to make the United Nations more effective, as an Organization, in carrying out the mandates entrusted to it by its Members and to adapt its internal structures and its culture to new expectations and new challenges. Thanks to the support of Member States, I believe these reforms have not been without effect. The United Nations has been in the forefront of the battle to eradicate poverty and fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The implementation of the Brahimi report has improved our capacity to deploy and manage peacekeeping and peace-building operations and the Organization has responded well, by and large, to unexpected challenges in Kosovo, Timor-Leste, Sierra Leone and Afghanistan. Overall the system shows greater coherence and its disparate elements work better together. Fruitful partnerships have been built with a wide range of non-state actors. In short, the United Nations is evolving with the times. It is more efficient, more transparent and more creative.92. 大会十分清楚我本人自1997年以来作出了努力,以使联合国作为一个组织更有效地完成会员国托付的任务,并使其内部机构和文化适应新期望和新挑战。由于联合国会员国的支持,我相信这些改革不是没有效果的。联合国一直处于消除贫穷和制止艾滋病毒/艾滋病蔓延的战斗的前沿。卜拉希米报告的执行,改进了我们部署和管理维持和平及建设和平行动的能力,而且本组织基本上对科索沃、东帝汶、塞拉利昂和阿富汗境内的意外挑战采取了良好对策。总的来说,这个系统显示出更大的协调一致,其分散部分联合起来,工作效果更好,已经同广泛的非国家行动者建立了富有成果的伙伴关系。简言之,联合国在与时俱进。它更加有效率、更加透明、更具创造力。
93. Last year I placed a second set of reform proposals before the General Assembly, which gave them, I am glad to say, a general endorsement.93.
I believe that we now need to go beyond those useful but essentially managerial changes and to pose some more fundamental questions, not just about the way decisions are implemented, but about the adequacy or efficiency of the bodies whose task it is to take those decisions.去年,我将第二套改革提议摆在了大会面前。我高兴地说,大会表示了一般赞同。但我认为,我们现在必须超越这些有益但基本上是管理上的变革,提出一些更根本的问题——不仅涉及决定的执行方式,而且涉及其任务是作出这些决定的机构是否适当或有效。
94. There should be no shame or embarrassment about asking such questions. Our Organization, which began with 51 members, now has 191. It would be surprising if such an increase, welcome as it is, particularly in that it reflects the enfranchisement of the developing world, did not put a strain on the machinery and require us to think about ways to adapt and improve it.94. 不应该为提出这些问题而感到羞耻或尴尬。我们以51个成员开始的组织,现在有191个成员。如果这种增加——即使是可喜的,因为反映发展中世界恢复了权利——不给机制带来压力,才会令人吃惊。这要求我们考虑如何改造和改进它。
95. In the General Assembly, where all States are represented on a basis of sovereign equality, their sheer number has helped produce an agenda crowded with items that either overlap or are of interest to only a few States. Repetitive and sterile debates crowd out the items that really matter. Decisions can often be reached only on a lowest-common-denominator basis and, once reached, command little or no attention beyond the confines of the General Assembly Chamber.95. 在大会,这个所有国家都在主权平等的基础上派出代表的地方,国家众多促成了重叠或者只有少数国家感兴趣的项目充斥的议程。重复和空洞的辩论挤掉了真正重要的项目。决定常常只能在最低共同点的基础上达成,而且一旦达成,大会厅之外很少有人或无人注意。
96. In the Security Council and the international financial institutions, the problem is rather the opposite: decisions may be reached, and in some cases may have a decisive impact on events in the real world. Increasingly, however, those decisions lack legitimacy in the eyes of the developing world, which feels that its views and interests are insufficiently represented among the decision-takers. The composition of the Security Council — unchanged in its essentials since 1945 — seems at odds with the geopolitical realities of the twenty-first century.96. 在安全理事会和一些国际金融机构,问题正好相反:可以达成一些决定,而且在一些情况下,会对现实世界中的事件产生决定性影响。但这些决定在发展中世界的眼中越来越缺乏正当性,发展中世界感到决策者不能充分代表其看法和利益。安全理事会的组成——其要素自1945年以来没有变化过——好象与二十一世纪的地缘政治现实不相称。
97. I believe these challenges are not insuperable, but institutional reforms may well be needed if they are to be overcome. I have already appointed a high-level panel to review the whole range of relations between the United Nations and global civil society. The essential counterpart must be a review of the principal organs of the Organization itself — their effectiveness, their coherence, and the balance of roles and responsibilities between them. The General Assembly needs to be strengthened; the role of the Economic and Social Council — indeed the role of the United Nations as a whole in economic and social affairs, and its relationship to the Bretton Woods institutions — needs to be re-thought and reinvigorated; the role of the Trusteeship Council needs to be reviewed in the light of new kinds of responsibility given to the United Nations by its Member States in recent years; and the Security Council needs to be reformed in a way that will enable it to confront the changing nature of conflict and the new challenges to peace and security that I have described.97. 我认为,这些挑战不是不可克服的,但如果要克服,很可能需要进行体制改革。我已经任命了一个高级别小组来审查联合国与全球民间社会的整个关系。重要的对应工作必须是审查本组织本身的主要机构——它们的效力、它们的连贯性、以及它们之间角色和责任的平衡。大会必须予以加强;经济及社会理事会的作用——的确整个联合国在经济和社会事务中的作用及其与布雷顿森林机构的关系——必须予以重新思考和重振;托管理事会的作用要根据会员国近年来给予联合国的新式责任加以审查;安全理事会需要改革,以使其能够应对冲突性质的变化,以及我描述的和平与安全的新挑战。
98. Such reforms have been discussed for many years. I believe we can afford to delay them no longer. I suggest that every Member State should consider reaching swift agreement on them as a national interest of the highest order.98. 这种改革已经讨论了很多年。我认为我们不能再拖延了。我建议,每一个会员国都应当作为国家最高利益考虑就这些改革迅速达成协议。
99. I am glad that the General Assembly has decided to review, in 2005, the progress achieved in implementing all the commitments made in the Millennium Declaration, on the basis of a comprehensive report from the Secretary-General, and I particularly welcome its observation, in the final paragraph of its recently adopted resolution 57/270 B, that there is scope for making this review a “major event”.99.
Member States may wish to take that date as a deadline for reaching agreement on the changes that are needed in our international institutions if they are to meet the new challenges outlined in the present report.我高兴的是,大会已决定于2005年根据秘书长提出的一份全面报告审查在执行《千年宣言》所作各项承诺方面取得的进展;而且我特别欢迎最近通过的大会第57/270 B号决议最后一段中的看法,即有可能使这次审查成为“重大活动”。如果会员国要迎接本报告概述的新的挑战,不妨让这个日期成为就我们的国际机构所需要的变革达成协议的最后期限。
Annex附件
Millennium Development Goals: targets and indicators千年发展目标. 具体目标和指标 目标1. 消灭极端贫穷和饥饿 具体目标1. 在1990年和2015年之间将每日收入低于1美元的人口比率减半
Goal 1.1.
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger每日收入低于1美元(平价购买力)的人口a b
Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day(百分比)
1. Population below $1 purchasing power parity (PPP) per daya,b1990 1999
(Percentage)所有低收入和中等收入国家 29.6 23.2
1990 1999欧洲转型期国家 1.2 3.8
All low-income and middle-income countries 29.6 23.2北非 2.4 1.9 撒南非洲 47.4 49.0 拉丁美洲和加勒比 11.0 11.1
Transition countries in Europe 1.2 3.8东亚和大洋洲 32.9 17.8 中南亚 41.2 32.6
Northern Africa 2.4 1.9东南亚 23.6 11.0 西亚 2.2 7.5
Sub-Saharan Africa 47.4 49.02. 贫穷差距比
Latin America and the Caribbean 11.0 11.1秘书长上一次年度报告(A/57/270)附件载有世界银行根据当时的国家数据作出的估计。本报告对这些指标没有作出新的估计。 3. 最贫穷的五分之一人口在国民消费中所占份额 秘书长上一次年度报告(A/57/270)附件载有世界银行根据当时的国家数据作出的估计。本报告对这些指标没有作出新的估计。 具体目标2. 在1990年和2015年之间将挨饿的人口比例减半
Eastern Asia and Oceania 32.9 17.84. 5岁以下体重不足的儿童b
South-central Asia 41.2 32.6(百分比)
South-eastern Asia 23.6 11.01990 2000
Western Asia 2.2 7.5发展中国家 33 28
2. Poverty gap ratio北非 10 9
The annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270) presented World Bank estimates based on country data available at that time. No new estimates for these indicators are available for the present report.撒南非洲 30 31
3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption拉丁美洲和加勒比 11 8
The annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270) presented World Bank estimates based on country data available at that time. No new estimates for these indicators are available for the present report.东亚 19 11
Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger中南亚 53 47
4. Children under five years of age who are underweightb东南亚 38 29
(Percentage)西亚 14 18
1990 20005. 低于食物能量消耗最低水平的人口b
Developing regions 33 28(百分比)
Northern Africa 10 91990 2000
Sub-Saharan Africa 30 31北非 5 5
Latin America and the Caribbean 11 8撒南非洲 35 33
Eastern Asia 19 11拉丁美洲和加勒比 13 11
South-central Asia 53 47东亚 16 10
South-eastern Asia 38 29中南亚 25 24
Western Asia 14 18东南亚 27 12
5. Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumptionb西亚 7 10
(Percentage)大洋洲 25 27
1990 2000最不发达国家 37 38
Northern Africa 5 5发展中陆锁国 n.a. 33
Sub-Saharan Africa 35 33发展中岛屿国 25 25
Latin America and the Caribbean 13 11目标2. 普及初等教育
Eastern Asia 16 10 South-central Asia 25 24 South-eastern Asia 17 12 Western Asia 7 10 Oceania 25 27 Least developed countries 37 38 Landlocked developing countries n.a. 33 Small island developing States 25 25 Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 6. Net enrolment ratio in primary educationb (Primary-level enrolees per 100 children of enrolment age) 1990-1991 2000-2001 World 81.9 83.6 Developed regions 94.9 95.6具体目标3. 确保到2015年任何地方的儿童,不论女童或男童都能完成全部初等教育课程
Countries in transition 88.2 90.66. 初等教育净入学率b
Developing regions 79.8 82.1(每100名学龄儿童实际入学的人数)
Northern Africa 82.6 91.41990/1991 2000/2001
Sub-Saharan Africa 54.5 57.7世界 81.9 83.6
Latin America and the Caribbean 86.9 96.6发达地区 94.9 95.6
Eastern Asia 97.7 93.5转型期国家 88.2 90.6
South-central Asia 73.1 79.2发展中地区 79.8 82.1
South-eastern Asia 92.6 91.5北非 82.6 91.4
Western Asia 81.8 85.1撒南非洲 54.5 57.7
Oceania 76.0 82.9拉丁美洲和加勒比 86.9 96.6
Landlocked developing countries 53.6 60.5东亚 97.7 93.5
7. Pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5中南亚 73.1 79.2
Due to limited data availability at the country level, this series cannot reliably be estimated at the regional level.东南亚 92.6 91.5
8. Literacy rate of 15-24 year-oldsb西亚 81.8 85.1
(Percentage)大洋洲 76.0 82.9
1990 2000发展中陆锁国 53.6 60.5
World 84.2 86.87. 一年级学生读到五年级的比率
Developed regions 99.6 99.7由于国家级数据有限,这一部分无法在区域级作出可靠估计。
Developing regions 81.1 84.48. 15至24岁人口的识字率b
Northern Africa 66.3 76.1(百分比)
Sub-Saharan Africa 66.5 76.41990 2000
Latin America 93.4 95.7世界 84.2 86.8
Caribbean 86.1 87.1发达地区 99.6 99.7
Eastern Asia 95.4 97.7发展中国家 81.1 84.4
South-central Asia 63.0 70.8北非 66.3 76.1
South-eastern Asia 94.3 96.3撒南非洲 66.5 76.4
Western Asia 81.6 85.9拉丁美洲 93.4 95.7
Oceania 77.3 82.0加勒比 86.1 87.1
Least developed countries 54.4 63.6东亚 95.4 97.7
Landlocked developing countries 65.8 72.3中南亚 63.0 70.8
Small island developing States 85.0 85.6东南亚 94.3 96.3
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women西亚 81.6 85.9
Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015大洋洲 77.3 82.0
9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education最不发达国家 54.4 63.6
Primary levelb发展中陆锁国 65.8 72.3
(Ratio of girls to boys)发展中岛屿国 85.0 85.6
1990-1991 2000-2001目标3. 促进男女平等并赋予妇女权力
Developed regions 0.95 0.95 Developing regions 0.83 0.87 Northern Africa 0.79 0.88 Sub-Saharan Africa 0.82 0.87 Latin America and the Caribbean 0.95 0.94 Eastern Asia 0.86 0.92 South-central Asia 0.72 0.79 South-eastern Asia 0.94 0.94 Western Asia 0.82 0.85 Oceania 0.84 0.85 Secondary educationc (Ratio of girls to boys) 1990 1998 Developed regions 0.98 0.99 Developing regions 0.72 0.82 Northern Africa 0.76 0.90 Sub-Saharan Africa 0.75 0.82 Latin America and the Caribbean 1.06 1.06具体目标4. 最好到2005年在初等教育和中等教育中消除两性差距,至迟于2015年在各级教育中消除此种差距
Eastern Asia 0.73 0.829. 初等、中等和高等教育中男女的比例
South-central Asia 0.59 0.68初等教育b
South-eastern Asia 0.87 0.93(女生与男生之比)
Western Asia 0.69 0.741990/1991 2000/2001
Oceania 1.00 0.94发达地区 0.95 0.95
Tertiary educationc发展中地区 0.83 0.87
(Ratio of girls to boys)北非 0.79 0.88
1990 1998撒南非洲 0.82 0.87
Developed regions 1.05 1.12 Developing regions 0.66 0.75拉丁美洲和加勒比 0.95 0.94
Northern Africa 0.52 0.72东亚 0.86 0.92
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.47 0.63中南亚 0.72 0.79
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.94 1.02东南亚 0.94 0.94 西亚 0.82 0.85 大洋洲 0.84 0.85
Eastern Asia 0.49 0.51中等教育c 1990 1998
South-central Asia 0.54 0.58发达地区 0.98 0.99
South-eastern Asia 0.82 1.11 Western Asia 0.66 1.10发展中地区 0.72 0.82
Oceania 0.82 0.63北非 0.76 0.90
10. Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 year-olds撒南非洲 0.75 0.82 拉丁美洲和加勒比 1.06 1.06 东亚 0.73 0.82
(Female literacy rates as ratio to male literacy rates)中南亚 0.59 0.68
1990 2000东南亚 0.87 0.93 西亚 0.69 0.74 大洋洲 1.00 0.94 高等教育c 1990 1998
Developed regions 1.00 1.00 Developing regions 0.89 0.91发达地区 1.05 1.12 发展中地区 0.66 0.75
Northern Africa 0.73 0.84北非 0.52 0.72
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.79 0.88 Latin America and the Caribbean 1.00 1.01撒南非洲 0.47 0.63 拉丁美洲和加勒比 1.94 1.02
Eastern Asia 0.96 0.98东亚 0.49 0.51
South-central Asia 0.74 0.80中南亚 0.52 0.58
South-eastern Asia 0.97 0.99东南亚 0.82 1.11 西亚 0.66 1.10
Western Asia 0.83 0.88大洋洲 0.82 0.63
Oceania 0.90 0.9310. 15至24岁人口男女识字比例
Least developed countries 0.70 0.78(妇女识字率占男子识字率之比)
Landlocked developing countries 0.80 0.85 Small island developing States 0.99 0.991990 2000
11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sectorb,d发达地区 1.00 1.00 发展中地区 0.89 0.91
(Percentage)北非 0.73 0.84
1990 2000撒南非洲 0.79 0.88 拉丁美洲和加勒比 1.00 1.01 东亚 0.96 0.98 中南亚 0.74 0.80 东南亚 0.97 0.99 西亚 0.83 0.88 大洋洲 0.90 0.93 最不发达国家 0.70 0.78 发展中陆锁国 0.80 0.85 发展中岛屿国 0.99 0.99 11. 妇女在非农业部门挣工资者中所占份额b d (百分比) 1990 2001
Developed regions 41.6 44.0发达地区 41.6 44.0
Countries in transition 48.9 48.7转型期国家 48.9 48.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 18.9 28.6撒南非洲 18.8 28.6
Middle East and North Africa 25.1 21.2中东和北非 25.1 21.2
Latin America and the Caribbean 38.0 42.4拉丁美洲和加勒比 38.0 42.4
Asia and the Pacific 29.3 31.1亚洲和太平洋 29.3 31.1
12.12.
Seats held by women in national parliaments国家议会中妇女所占席位
(Percentage)(百分比)
1990 2000 20031990 2000 2003
World 13.2 13.5 15.1世界 13.2 13.5 15.1
Developed regions 16.2 16.7 18.6发达地区 16.2 16.7 18.6
Nordic countriese 33.9 38.9 39.9北欧国家 33.9 38.9 39.9
Countries in transition 24.8 9.5 12.5转型期国家 24.8 9.5 12.5
Developing regions 11.5 11.9 13.5发展中地区 11.5 11.9 13.5
Northern Africa 2.6 3.3 6.7北非 2.6 3.3 6.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 9.2 10.6 13.2撒南非洲 9.2 10.6 13.2
Latin America and the Caribbean 11.9 15.2 17.7拉丁美洲和加勒比 11.9 15.2 17.7
Eastern Asia 20.2 19.9 20.2东亚 20.2 19.9 20.2
South-central Asia 6.2 6.9 8.9中南亚 6.2 6.9 8.9
South-eastern Asia 10.4 14.6 15.0东南亚 10.4 14.6 15.0
Western Asia 10.1 5.3 5.6西亚 10.1 5.3 5.6
Oceania 1.2 3.9 2.6大洋洲 1.2 3.9 2.6
Least developed countries 8.0 7.5 11.1最不发达国家 8.0 7.5 11.1
Landlocked developing countries 14.7 7.8 11.4发展中陆锁国 14.7 7.8 11.4
Small island developing States 15.1 14.9 17.1发展中岛屿国 15.1 14.9 17.1
Goal 4.目标4.
Reduce child mortality降低儿童死亡率
Target 5.具体目标5.
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate在1990年至2015年之间将5岁以下儿童的死亡率降低三分之二
13.13.
Under-five mortality rateb5岁以下儿童死亡率b
(Deaths per 1,000 live births)(每一千名活产的死亡数字) 1990 2001
1990 2000世界 92 82
World 92 82发达地区 13 9
Developed regions 13 9发展中地区 102 90 北非 88 43
Developing regions 102 90撒南非洲 176 172 拉丁美洲和加勒比 54 36 东亚 44 36 中南亚 125 95 东南亚 77 51 西亚 70 62 大洋洲 85 76 14. 婴儿死亡率 秘书长上一次年度报告(A/57/270)附件所列为儿童基金会/卫生组织根据当时的国家数据作出的估计。本报告没有新的估计。 15. 接受麻诊免疫接种的1岁儿童b (百分比) 1990 2001 世界 73 72 发达地区 83 91 发展中地区 72 70 北非 85 93 撒南非洲 57 58 拉丁美洲和加勒比 77 91 东亚 98 79 中南亚 59 61 东南亚 72 73 西亚 80 90 大洋洲 69 64
Northern Africa 88 43目标5. 改善产妇保健
Sub-Saharan Africa 176 172具体目标6. 在1990年至2015年之间将产妇死亡率降低四分之三
Latin America and the Caribbean 54 3616. 产妇死亡率f
Eastern Asia 44 36(每10万名活产的产妇死亡率)
South-central Asia 125 952000
South-eastern Asia 77 51世界
Western Asia 70 62400
Oceania 85 76发达地区
14. Infant mortality rate20
The annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270) presented UNICEF/WHO estimates based on country data available at that time. No new estimates are available for the present report.发展中地区
15. 1-year-old children immunized against measlesb440
(Percentage)北非
1990 2001130
World 73 72撒南非洲
Developed regions 83 91920
Developing regions 72 70拉丁美洲和加勒比
Northern Africa 85 93190
Sub-Saharan Africa 57 58东亚
Latin America and the Caribbean 77 9155
Eastern Asia 98 79中南亚
South-central Asia 59 61520
South-eastern Asia 72 73东南亚
Western Asia 80 90210
Oceania 69 64西亚
Goal 5. Improve maternal health190
Target 6. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio大洋洲
16. Maternal mortality ratiof240
(Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births)17. 由熟练保健人员接生的比例b
2000(百分比)
World 4001990 2000
Developed regions 20发展中地区 42 52
Developing regions 440北非 39 64
Northern Africa 130撒南非洲 40 43
Sub-Saharan Africa 920拉丁美洲和加勒比 76 85
Latin America and the Caribbean 190东亚 53 72
Eastern Asia 55中南亚 27 35
South-central Asia 520东南亚 36 59
South-eastern Asia 210西亚 59 64
Western Asia 190目标6. 与艾滋病毒/艾滋病、虐疾和其他疾病作斗争
Oceania 240具体目标7. 到2015年制止并开始扭转艾滋病毒/艾滋病的蔓延
17.18.
Births attended by a skilled attendantb15至49岁艾滋病毒/艾滋病的成人人数,男女均包括在内g h
(Percentage)(百分比) 2002
1990 2000世界
Developing regions 42 521.2
Northern Africa 39 64发达地区
Sub-Saharan Africa 40 430.5
Latin America and the Caribbean 76 85发展中地区
Eastern Asia 53 721.4
South-central Asia 27 35北非
South-eastern Asia 36 59<0.1
Western Asia 59 64撒南非洲
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases8.5
Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS拉丁美洲
18. Adults aged 15-49 living with HIV/AIDS, both sexesg,h0.6
(Percentage)加勒比
20022.4
World 1.2东亚
Developed regions 0.50.2
Developing regions 1.4中南亚
Northern Africa <0.10.5
Sub-Saharan Africa 8.5东南亚
Latin America 0.60.5
Caribbean 2.4西亚
Eastern Asia 0.2<0.1
South-central Asia 0.5大洋洲
South-eastern Asia 0.50.6
Western Asia <0.119. 保险套的使用
Oceania 0.6(a) 15至24岁妇女在过去12个月期间与非固定伙伴交合时使用保险套者i
19. Condom use(百分比)
(a) Women 15-24 reporting the use of condom during sexual intercourse with a non-regular partner in the past 12 monthsi1996/2001i
(Percentage)撒南非洲
1996-2001j21
Sub-Saharan Africa 21拉丁美洲和加勒比
Latin America and the Caribbean 3636
South-central Asia 40中南亚
(b) Population aged 15-24 with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDSi40
Women 15-24 who know that a healthy looking person can be infected with HIV/AIDS Women 15-24 who know that a condom can prevent the transmission of HIV(b) 15至24岁人口对艾滋病毒/艾滋病具有全面较正确知识者i
(Percentage)15至24岁妇女对于表面健康的人也可能感染HIV/艾滋病有认识者 15至24岁妇女对于 保险套可防止HIV 传播有认识者
1996-2001j (Percentage) 1996-2001j(百分比) (百分比)
Sub-Saharan Africa 51 491996-2001i 1996-2001i
Latin America and the Caribbean 77 -撒南非洲 51 49
South-central Asia - 60拉丁美洲和加勒比 77 -
South-eastern Asia 47 38中南亚 - 60
20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14i东南亚 47 38
1996-2001j20. 10至14岁学童中孤儿对非孤儿的比例I
Africa (38 countries) 0.851996-2000i 非洲(38个国家)
Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases0.85
21.具体目标8.
Deaths associated with malariab,h到2015年制止并开始扭转虐疾和其他主要疾病的发病率
(Children 0-4 years per 100,000)21. 与虐疾有关的死亡率b h (4岁以下儿童每10万人) 2002
2000世界
World 148148
Developed regions 0发达地区
Developing regions 1660
Northern Africa 47发展中地区
Sub-Saharan Africa 791166 北非 47 撒南非洲 791 拉丁美洲和加勒比
Latin America and the Caribbean 11
Eastern Asia 0东亚
South-central Asia 60
South-eastern Asia 2中南亚
Western Asia 266
Oceania 2东南亚
22. Population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures2
(a) Prevention — children under 5 who sleep under insecticide-treated bednetsb,h西亚
(Percentage)26
2000大洋洲
Africa (countries with data available) 22
(b) Treatment — children under 5 with fever who are appropriately treated22. 虐疾风险区使用有效预防和治疗虐疾措施的人口
In the majority of African countries for which data are available, at least 50 per cent of children under five years with recent fever are treated with anti-malarial drugs.(a) 预防-5岁以下儿童睡在经过杀虫药处理的蚊帐内者b h
23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (Per 100,000 population)(百分比)
(a) Prevalenceb,h2000
2001非洲(有数据的国家)
World 1202
Developed regions 23(b) 治疗——5岁以下有热度的儿童得到适当治疗者
Countries in transition 66大多数有数据的非洲国家内,至少50%5岁以下儿童最近发烧时都经过抗虐疾的药物治疗。
Developing regions 14423. 肺结核的发病率和死亡率(每10万人中的人数)
Northern Africa 27(a) 发病率b h 2001
Sub-Saharan Africa 197世界
Latin America and the Caribbean 41120
Eastern Asia 184发达地区
South-central Asia 21823
South-eastern Asia 108转型期国家
Western Asia 4066
Oceania 215发展中地区
(b) Deathsb,h144
2001北非
World 2627 撒南非洲
Developed regions 5197
Countries in transition 16拉丁美洲和加勒比
Developing regions 3141
Northern Africa 5东亚
Sub-Saharan Africa 46184
Latin America and the Caribbean 9中南亚
Eastern Asia 40218
South-central Asia 47东南亚
South-eastern Asia 21108
Western Asia 9西亚
Oceania 3640
24. Tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS)大洋洲
(a) New cases detected under DOTSb,k215
(Percentage)(b) 死亡率b h
1995 20012001
World 11 33世界
(b) DOTS cases successfully treatedb,k26
(Percentage)发达地区
1995 20005
World 77 82转型期国家
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability16
Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources发展中地区
25. Proportion of land area covered by forest31
(Percentage)北非
1990 20005
World 30.4 29.7撒南非洲
Developed regions 34.2 34.446
Countries in transition 40.2 40.6拉丁美洲和加勒比
Developing regions 28.1 26.89
Northern Africa 1.0 1.0东亚
Sub-Saharan Africa 29.3 27.140
Latin America and the Caribbean 50.1 47.8中南亚
Eastern Asia 15.4 17.047
South-central Asia 10.0 10.2东南亚
South-eastern Asia 53.9 48.621
Western Asia 3.9 4.0西亚
Oceania 67.3 65.09 大洋洲 36 24. 短期直接观察治疗方案下查出和治愈的肺结核病例 (a) 新查出的病例b k
Least developed countries 29.4 27.2(百分比)
Landlocked developing countries 17.6 16.41995 2001
Small island developing States 50.7 49.2世界 11 33
26. Area protected to maintain biological diversity(b) 治愈的病例b k
(Percentage of surface area)1995 2000
1990 2003全世界 77 82
Developed regions 8.6 10.5目标7. 确保环境的可持续能力 具体目标9. 将可持续发展原则纳入国家政策和方案,并扭转环境资源的损失
Northern Africa 3.3 3.825. 森林覆盖地带所占比例 (百分比)
Sub-Saharan Africa 8.2 8.51990 2000 世界 30.4 29.7
Latin America and the Caribbean 7.2 9.9发达地区 34.2 34.4 转型期国家 40.2 40.6
Eastern Asia 6.3 7.6发展中地区 28.1 26.8 北非 1.0 1.0
South-central Asia 3.4 3.7撒南非洲 29.3 27.1 拉丁美洲和加勒比 50.1 47.8
South-eastern Asia 3.7 5.4东亚 15.4 17.0
Western Asia 3.4 16.5l中南亚 10.0 10.2 东南亚 53.9 48.6
Oceania 2.1 2.3西亚 3.9 4.0
27. Energy use (Consumption of kilogram oil equivalent per $1,000 gross domestic product (PPP))m大洋洲 67.3 65.0
1990 2000最不发达国家 29.4 27.2
High-income economies 265 204发展中陆锁国 17.6 16.4
Low and middle-income economies 325 249发展中岛屿国 50.7 49.2 26. 为保持生物多样性而加以保护的地带
Sub-Saharan Africa 401 341(占地表面积的百分比) 1990 2003
Middle East and Northern Africa 281 263发达地区 8.6 10.5 北非 3.3 3.8 撒南非洲 8.2 8.5 拉丁美洲和加勒比 7.2 9.9
Latin America and the Caribbean 203 164东亚 6.3 7.6 中南亚 3.4 3.7 东南亚 3.7 5.4 西亚 3.4 16.5l
Southern Asia 257 181大洋洲 2.1 2.3 27. 能源的使用
28. Carbon dioxide emissions and consumption of ozone-depleting chloroflourocarbons (CFCs)(国内总产值每一千美元(平价购买力)单位能耗(公斤石油当量))m
(a) Carbon dioxide emissionsk1990 2000
(Metric tons of carbon per capita)高收入国家 265 204
1990 1999低收入和中等收入国家 325 249
World 1.16 1.10撒南非洲 401 341 中东和北非 281 263
(b) Ozone-depleting CFCsk拉丁美洲放加勒比 203 164
(Thousands of metric tons of ozone- depleting potential (ODP))南亚 207 181
1990 199928. 二氧化碳排放量和臭氧层消耗——氯氟烃枯竭
World 1 063 120(a) 二氧化碳排放量k (人均公吨)
Developed regions 925 251990 1999 世界 1.16 1.10
Developing regions 138 120(b) 臭氧层消耗—氯氟烃枯竭k (千公吨臭氧枯竭的可能性)
29. Population using solid fuelsb,n1990 1999 世界 1 063 120
(Percentage of households)发达地区 925 25
1990 2000发展中地区 138 120 29. 使用固体燃料的人口b n
Developing regions 75 75(住户百分比)
Northern Africa and the Middle East 46 401990 2000 发展中地区 75 75
Sub-Saharan Africa 82 79北非和中东 46 40 撒南非洲 82 79
Asia 80 79亚洲 80 79
Target 10.具体目标10.
Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation到2015年将无法持续获得安全饮用水的人口比例减半
30.30.
Sustainable access to an improved water sourceb城市和乡村可以持续获得改良水源的人口b
(Percentage of population)(人口百分比)
1990 20001990 2000
Urban Rural Urban Rural城市 乡村 城市 乡村
World 94 64 95 71世界 94 64 95 71
Developed regions n.发达地区 n.
a.a.
n.n.
a.a.
100 94100 94
Developing regions 92 60 92 69发展中地区 92 60 92 69
Northern Africa 94 80 95 83北非 94 80 95 83
Sub-Saharan Africa 86 40 83 45撒南非洲 86 40 83 45
Latin America and the Caribbean 92 58 94 66拉丁美洲和加勒比 92 58 94 66
Eastern Asia 99 60 94 66东亚 99 60 94 66
South-central Asia 90 66 95 80中南亚 90 66 95 80
South-eastern Asia 91 64 91 71东南亚 91 64 91 71
Western Asia n.a. n.a. 88 71西亚 n.a n.a 88 71
Oceania 88 32 76 40大洋洲 88 32 76 40
31.31.
Access to improved sanitationb,o环境卫生条件获得改善的人口b o
(Percentage of population)(人口百分比)
1990 20001990 2000
Urban Rural Urban Rural城市 乡村 城市 乡村
World 81 28 85 40世界 81 28 85 40
Developed regions n.发达地区 n.
a.a.
n.n.
a.a.
100 93100 93
Developing regions 70 21 77 35发展中地区 70 21 77 35
Northern Africa 94 64 96 81北非 94 64 96 81
Sub-Saharan Africa 75 46 74 43撒南非洲 75 46 74 43
Latin America and the Caribbean 85 41 86 52拉丁美洲和加勒比 85 41 86 52
Eastern Asia 56 2 70 27东亚 56 2 70 27
South-central Asia 52 11 70 25中南亚 52 11 70 25
South-eastern Asia 73 44 80 55东南亚 73 44 80 55
Western Asia 95 58 97 61西亚 95 58 97 61
Oceania 92 80 87 71大洋洲 92 80 87 71
Target 11.具体目标11.
By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers到2020年使至少一亿贫民窟居民的生活明显改善
32.32.
Households with access to secure tenuref享有可靠房地产保有权的住户f
Urban slum population 2001都市贫民窟人口
(Millions) (Percentage)2001
World 924 31.6(百万) (百分比)
Developed regions 54 6.0世界 924 31.6
Developing regions 870 43.0发达地区 54 6.0
Northern Africa 21 28.2发展中地区 870 43.0
Sub-Saharan Africa 166 71.9北非 21 28.2
Latin America and the Caribbean 128 31.9撒南非洲 166 71.9
Eastern Asia 194 36.4拉丁美洲和加勒比 128 31.9
Eastern Asia excluding China 16 25.4东亚 194 36.4
South-central Asia 262 58.0中国以外的东亚 16 25.4
South-eastern Asia 57 28.0中南亚 262 58.0
Western Asia 41 33.1东南亚 57 28.0
Oceania 0 24.1西亚 41 33.1
Least developed countries 140 78.2大洋洲 0 24.1
Landlocked developing countries 47 56.5最不发达国家 140 78.2
Small island developing States 7 24.4发展中陆锁国 47 56.5
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development发展中岛屿国 7 24.4
Target 12.目标8.
Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system Includes: a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction — both nationally and internationally全球合作促进发展
Target 13. Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance (ODA) for countries committed to poverty reduction具体目标12.
Target 14. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)进一步发展开放的,遵循规则的、可预测的、非歧视性的贸易和金融体制
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term包括在国家和国际两级致力于善政、发展和减轻贫穷
33.具体目标13.
Net ODA, total and to least developed countries满足最不发达国家的特殊需要
(a) Annual total assistance包括:对最不发达国家出口免征关税、不实行配额;加强重债穷国的减债方案,注销官方双边债务;向致力于减贫的国家提供更为慷慨的官方发展援助
(US$ billions)具体目标14. (通过《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》和大会第二十二届特别会议成果)满足内陆国家和小岛屿发展中国家的特殊需要
1990 2001 2002 To all developing countries 53.0 52.3 57.0具体目标15. 通过国家和国际措施全面处理发展中国家的债务问题,以便使债务可以长期持续承受
To least developed countries 14.4 11.8 n.33.
a.官方发展援助净额,共计和给最不发达国家
(b) Share of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income(a) 年度总援助额
(Percentage)(10亿美元)
1990 2001 20021990 2001 2002
To all developing countries 0.33 0.22 0.23给所有发展中国家 53.0 52.3
To least developed countries 0.09 0.05 n.a.57.0
34.给最不发达国家 14.4 11.8 n.
Bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)ba.
(Percentage)(b) 在经合发组织/发援会捐助者国民总收入中所占份额
1996-1997 2000-2001(百分比)
9 151990 2001 2002
35. Untied bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donorsb给所有发展中国家 0.33 0.22 0.23
(Percentage) 1990 2001 67.6 79.1 36. ODA received by landlocked countriesb (Percentage of recipients’ GNIs) 1990 2001 6.0 6.4 37. ODA received by small island developing Statesb (Percentage of recipients’ GNIs) 1990 2001给最不发达国家 0.09 0.05 n.a.
2.6 0.934. 经合组织/发援会捐助国提供的双边、部门间可予分配的官方发展援助用于基本社会服务(基础教育、初级保健、营养、安全饮水和卫生)b
38. Developed country imports from developing countries admitted free of dutyb(百分比)
(Percentage of value)1996-1997 2000-2001
1996 2000 20019 15
(a) Excluding arms35. 经合组织/发援会提供不附带条件的双边官方发展援助b
Developing countries 54.8 62.8 65.7(百分比)
Least developed countries 71.5 75.4 75.31990 2001
(b) Excluding arms and oil67.6 79.1
Developing countries 56.8 65.1 66.036. 内陆国家收到的官方发展援助b
Least developed countries 81.1 70.5 69.1(占接受国国民总收入百分比)
39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countriesb1990 2001
(Percentage)6.0 6.4
1996 2000 200137. 小岛屿发展中国家收到的官方发展援助b
(a) Agriculture(占接受国国民总收入百分比)
Developing countries 10.5 10.6 10.11990 2001
Least developed countries 6.3 5.3 3.22.6 0.9
(b) Textile38. 发达国家从发展中国家免征关税的进口b
Developing countries 7.6 7.0 6.7(价值百分比)
Least developed countries 5.0 4.7 4.51996 2000 2001
(c) Clothing(a) 不包括军火
Developing countries 12.0 11.5 10.8发展中国家 54.8 62.8
Least developed countries 9.1 8.6 8.565.7
40. Support to domestic agriculture by developed countriesb最不发达国家 71.5 75.4 75.3
(Percentage of GDP)(b) 不包括军火和石油
1990 2002 1.9 1.2发展中国家 56.8 65.1 66.0
41. ODA to build trade capacity最不发达国家 81.1 70.5 69.1
(Percentage of recipients’ total ODA)39. 发达国家对来自发展中国家的农产品以及纺织品和布料平均征收的关税b
2001(百分比)
World 2.41996 2000 2001
Americas 2.0(a) 农业
Europe 1.7发展中国家 10.5 10.6 10.1
Africa 2.7最不发达国家 6.3 5.3 3.2
Asia 2.0(b) 纺织品
Oceania 0.2发展中国家 7.6 7.0 6.7
Global programmes 4.0最不发达国家 5.0 4.7 4.5
42. Countries that have reached their HIPC decision point and completion point(c) 布料
(Cumulative number)发展中国家 12.0 11.5 10.8
2000 2003p最不发达国家 9.1 8.6 8.5
Reached decision point 22 2640. 发达国家对国内农业的补贴b
Reached completion point 1 8(占国内总产值的百分比)
43. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative1990 2002
(US$ billions (cumulative))1.9 1.2
2000 2003p41. 为建立贸易能力而提供的官方发展援助
34 41(占接受国官方发展援助总额的百分比)
44. Debt service in relation to exports of goods and services of low and middle-income countries2001
The annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270) presented World Bank-IMF estimates based on country data available at that time. No new estimates are available for the present report.世界 2.4
Target 16. In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth美洲 2.0 欧洲 1.7 非洲 2.7
45. Unemployment rate of 15-24 year-oldsd亚洲 2.0 大洋洲 0.2 全球方案 4.0
(Percentage)42. 达到重债穷国决定点和完成点的国家
1995 1999(累积数目)
World 10.0 10.42000 2003 p
Developed regions 14.6 12.8达到决定点 22 26
Countries in transition 17.0 18.1达到完成点 1 8
Sub-Saharan Africa 7.6q 11.9q43. 按照重债穷国倡议所承诺减免的债务
Middle East and North Africa 25.7q 26.2q(10亿美元(累积))
Latin America and the Caribbean 12.1 15.22000 2003 p
Asia and the Pacific 9.9 10.4 Target 17. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries34 41
46.44.
Population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis低收入和中等收入国家还本付息占商品和劳务出口的百分比
The annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270) presented WHO estimates based on country data available at that time. No new estimates are available for the present report.秘书长上次年度报告(A/57/270)附件载有世界银行/货币基金组织根据当时可获得的国家数据而得出的估计数。本报告没有新的估计数。
Target 18.具体目标16.
In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications与发展中国家合作,拟订和实施为青年创造体面的生产性就业机会的战略
47.45.
Telephone lines and cellular phonesb15至24岁年龄人的失业率d
(Number per 100 population)(百分比)
1990 20021995 1999
World 10.1 36.8世界 10.0 10.4
Developed regions 38.1 103.4发达地区 14.6 12.8 转型期国家 17.0 18.1
Developing regions 2.4 20.8撒南非洲 7.6 q 11.9 q 中东和北非 25.7 q 26.2 q
Northern Africa 2.9 17.9拉丁美洲和加勒比 12.1 15.2
Sub-Saharan Africa 1.1 5.5亚洲和太平洋 9.9 10.4
Latin America and the Caribbean 6.4 36.4具体目标17. 与制药公司合作,在发展中国家提供负担得起的基本药物
Eastern Asia 2.4 37.846. 可以持续获得负担得起的基本药物的人口 秘书长上次年度报告(A/57/270)附件载有卫生组织根据当时可获得的国家数据而得出的估计数。本报告没有新的估计数。 具体目标18. 与私营部门合作,普及新技术、特别是信息和通讯的利益 47. 电话线和移动电话b (每100人) 1990 2002 世界 10.1 36.8 发达地区 38.1 103.4 发展中地区 2.4 20.8 北非 2.9 17.9
South-central Asia 1.0 5.8撒南非洲 1.1 5.5
South-eastern Asia 1.4 16.3拉丁美洲和加勒比 6.4 36.4 东亚 2.4 37.8 中南亚 1.0 5.8 东南亚 1.4 16.3
Western Asia 10.0 41.5西亚 10.0 41.5
Oceania 3.4 9.7大洋洲 3.4 9.7
48.48.
Personal computers and Internet users个人电脑和因特网用户
(a) Personal computersb(a) 个人电脑b
(Number per 100 population)(每100人)
1990 20021990 2002
World 2.5 9.9世界 2.5 9.9
Developed regions 8.9 36.4发达地区 8.9 36.4 发展中地区 0.3 3.2
Developing regions 0.3 3.2北非 0.1 1.7 撒南非洲 0.3 1.2
Northern Africa 0.1 1.7拉丁美洲和加勒比 0.6 6.9 东亚 0.3 5.0
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.3 1.2中南亚 0.0 1.0
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.6 6.9东南亚 0.0 2.6
Eastern Asia 0.3 5.0西亚 1.2 5.1
South-central Asia 0.0 1.0大洋洲 0.0 5.8
South-eastern Asia 0.0 2.6(b) 因特网用户b
Western Asia 1.2 5.1(每100人)
Oceania 0.0 5.81990 2002
(b) Internet usersb世界 0.3 9.8
(Number per 100 population)发达地区 0.3 33.4
1990 2002 World 0.3 9.8发展中地区 - 4.1 北非 - 1.7
Developed regions 0.3 33.4撒南非洲 - 1.1 拉丁美洲和加勒比 - 7.6
Developing regions - 4.1东亚 - 6.9 中南亚 - 0.8
Northern Africa - 1.7东南亚 - 5.6 西亚 - 6.3
Sub-Saharan Africa - 1.1大洋洲 - 3.2
Latin America and the Caribbean - 7.6
Eastern Asia - 6.9这里使用的区域的国家/地区组合及其他集团,见世界和区域表, http://unstats.un.org/ unsd/mi/mi_worldregn.asp
South-central Asia - 0.8“n.a.”指现无数据。
South-eastern Asia - 5.6 Western Asia - 6.3“-”指不到所使用的单位的一半。
Oceania - 3.2“经合发组织 /发援会捐助国” 系指经济合作与发展组织(经合发组织)和发展援助委员会(发援会)成员国。
Notesa 世界银行归类为低收入和中等收入国家的数据。高收入国家不包括在内。
For the country/area composition of regions and other groupings used here, see the annex to the world and regional table at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_worldregn.asp. “n.a.” indicates data not available. “-” indicates less than half of the unit employed. “OECD/DAC donors” refers to member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC).b 这几年的某些估计数不同于秘书长前一次年度报告(A/57/270)附件中的资料,该报告考虑到新获得的国家数据。
a Data relate to countries classified by the World Bank as low and middle-income. High-income countries are excluded from these estimates.c 这一指标1990-1998年系列与秘书长上一次年度报告(A/57/270)附件相同。由于1997年国际标准教育分类作了订正,教科文组织重新估计的时间系列为1990年至今。但各区域尚未有包括自1998年以来各年新的估计数。
b Some estimates for given years may differ from those presented in the annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270), where newly available country data have been taken into account.d 按照国际劳工组织分类的区域。
c The series shown here for this indicator, 1990-1998, are the same as those presented in last year’s annex to the Secretary-General’s annual report (A/57/270). Due to the introduction of the revised International Standard Classification of Education in 1997, time series are being re-estimated by UNESCO for 1990 to the present. These new estimates, including years since 1998, are not yet available for regions.e 丹麦、芬兰、冰岛、挪威和瑞典。
d Regions according to ILO classification.f 秘书长上一次年度报告(A/57/270)附件中的资料已根据最新数据重新估计。然而,时间趋势尚未能按照现有数据作出可靠估计。
e Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.g 指标18已扩大到包含15岁至49岁的全部人口。
f Estimates have been updated from the annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270) on the basis of the latest data available. However, time trends cannot reliably be estimated at present with currently available data.h 时间趋势尚不能根据现有数据作出可靠估计。
g Indicator 18 has been broadened to cover the total adult population aged 15-49.i 按照秘书长上一次年度报告(A/57/270,注h和i)增加的系列。
h Time trends cannot reliably be estimated at present with currently available data.j 数据来自1996-2001年期间各不同年份进行的调查。
i Series added pursuant to the annex to the Secretary-General’s previous annual report (A/57/270, notes h and i).k 由于国家级数据有限,这一系列不能在区域级作出可靠估计。
j Data refer to surveys carried out in various years within the period 1996-2001.l 包括1994年沙特阿拉伯划定的一个大保护区(640 000平方公里)。
k Due to limited data availability at the country level, this series cannot reliably be estimated at the regional level.m 世界银行分类。
l Includes one large protected area (640,000 km2) established in Saudi Arabia in 1994.n 世界卫生组织区域分类。
m World Bank classification.o 这一指标已按照《关于可持续发展的约翰内斯堡宣言》扩大到包含都市以及农村地区改善的环境卫生。
n WHO regional classification.p 截至2003年6月30日。
o This indicator has been broadened to cover improved sanitation in rural as well as urban areas, pursuant to the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development.q 估计数根据有限数据得出。
p As at 30 June 2003.4
q Estimates based on limited data.5
10 37 United Nations联合国
A/58/323A/58/323
General Assembly大 会
Distr.Distr.
: General: General
2 September 20032 September 2003
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
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