A_63_751_EC
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A/63/751 A_63_751-S_2009_135_e.doc (English)A/63/751 A_63_751-S_2009_135_c.doc (Chinese)
General Assembly大 会
Security Council安全理事会
Sixty-third session第六十三届会议
Sixty-fourth year第六十四年
Agenda item 17议程项目17
The situation in Afghanistan阿富汗局势
The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security阿富汗局势及其对国际和平与安全的影响
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
I.一.
Introduction导言
1. The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 63/18 and Security Council resolution 1806 (2008), by which the Council decided to extend the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) until 23 March 2009.1.
The report reviews the situation in Afghanistan and the activities of UNAMA since my report of 23 September 2008 (A/63/372-S/2008/617).本报告依照大会第63/18号决议和安全理事会第1806(2008)号决议提交,安理会在其决议中决定将联合国阿富汗援助团(联阿援助团)的任务期限延至2009年3月23日。本报告审查了自我2008年9月23日的报告(A/63/372-S/2008/617)以来的阿富汗局势和联阿援助团的活动。
II.二.
Overview概况
2. The Government, security forces and population of Afghanistan, along with its international partners, face a critical test in 2009. Security has continued to deteriorate. The results of Government and international aid efforts have fallen short of popular expectations as Afghans suffer the effects of drought and a global rise in food prices. The rule of law has remained insufficiently institutionalized, and respect for international humanitarian law, human rights and accounting for past abuses have continued to be treated as secondary matters. Transparency International, in its Global Corruption Report 2008, ranked Afghanistan among the worst countries in terms of governmental corruption.2. 2009年,阿富汗政府、安全部队和人民以及国际合作伙伴均面临严峻考验。安全状况继续恶化。政府和国际援助努力的结果没有达到人民的期望,阿富汗人遭受着旱灾和全球粮食价格上升的影响。法治仍然不够制度化,对国际人道主义法和人权的尊重以及追究过去虐待行为的责任仍然被视为次要问题。据透明国际《2008年全球腐败情况报告》所述,阿富汗是政府腐败最严重的国家之一。
3.3. 在未来6个月中,关键是通过可信的选举,使政府权力重新合法化,同时维护波恩进程形成的宪政秩序。 4.
At stake over the next six months is the relegitimization of the Government’s authority through credible elections, as well as the continuation of the constitutional order that emerged from the Bonn process.总统和省议会选举计划在2009年夏天举行。由于后勤、财政和安保方面的原因,独立选举委员会(独立选委)将选举日期定在2009年8月20日,即总统任期于2009年5月22日期满后三个月,但是这一日期造成了5月22日之后总统合法性在宪法上的不确定性。
4.5.
Elections for the presidency and provincial councils are planned for the summer of 2009.有一项基本共识是,政府反对派所造成的不安全不能单靠军事手段解决。和解必须是在选举以外一个包容各方的政治进程的一部分。这一进程应由阿富汗牵头,阿富汗和国际上主要利益攸关方之间应有广泛的共识,应尊重《宪法》,并应以军事和政治力量作为后盾。目前的宪政辩论造成难以在这些先决条件方面以及在制订全面和解战略上取得进展。 6.
The election date, which for logistical, financial and security reasons was set by the Independent Electoral Commission for 20 August 2009, three months after the expiration of the presidential term on 22 May 2009, has generated constitutional uncertainty over the President’s legitimacy after 22 May.政治和军事努力必须辅之以一个更强有力的承诺,即以更加协调的方式支持阿富汗的发展战略。阿富汗在近几个月中所获得的关注和资源激增值得欢迎。不过,我们在过去七年中所了解到的是,仅有关注和资源还不够。资源必须根据协调和全面的计划明智地加以利用,该计划的目标是使所有阿富汗人为其未来负起责任。这一计划的实质内容是在2008年6月的巴黎会议上商定的,并正在通过一系列努力在实地得到体现,这些努力包括提高援助实效,建设阿富汗的能力和机构,重点满足优先确定的阿富汗发展需要,改进对各省的援助交付,促进区域合作。
5. There is a general consensus that the insecurity caused by those who oppose the Government cannot be addressed by military means alone. Reconciliation needs to be part of an inclusive political process beyond elections. It should be Afghan-led, enjoy a broad consensus of key Afghan and international stakeholders, respect the Constitution and be pursued from a position of military and political strength. The current constitutional debate renders progress on these preconditions and the development of a comprehensive strategy for reconciliation problematic.7. 我的特别代表凯 艾德和联阿援助团工作人员在督促执行特派团的任务。在一些关键问题上,国际行动者和阿富汗政府积极响应这些努力。因此,一些长期存在的问题正得到解决。这方面例子包括阿富汗国防部和国际安全援助部队(安援部队)之间就对平民军事行动的不良后果达成的协议,加强关键部门,精简协调机制,禁毒方面的进展,以及改善区域经济合作所产生的一些切实利益。尽管如此,联阿援助团的作用能否有效发挥仍然取决于其他各方是否愿意接受协调。绝大多数国际资金仍然是在阿富汗政府或联合国渠道以外使用。同样,联阿援助团的军民协调任务的执行情况取决于41个安援部队的部队派遣国是否愿意与联合国合作。 三. 重要的政治动态 A. 选举 8. 即将举行的选举决定和主宰着阿富汗的政治环境。2009年1月28日,独立选委宣布,总统和省议会选举将于8月20日举行。独立选委提到必须确保“普遍性、公正性和透明度”,而在春天举行选举将危及这一点,因为在这个时间,由于地理和气候原因,相当一部分选民将无法投票。 9. 针对独立选委的决定,一些议员认为,根据《宪法》,总统任期将于5月22日结束,因此将选举日期定在8月20日,将造成一个为期3个月的行政权力真空。2月28日,卡尔扎伊总统颁布了一项法令,要求独立选委确保选举根据《宪法》所有有关条款进行。媒体的解释是这意味着选举应当在5月之前举行。3月4日,独立选委发表声明,重申其原先作出的关于将选举日期定在8月20日的决定。 10. 独立选委在技术上由联合国(通过开发计划署“为明天加强立法和选举能力”(开发署选举)项目)提供支持,在资金上由国际捐助者提供支持。选民登记于11月初开始,于2月20日结束。选民登记过程中没有出现安全事件,根据独立选委的数字,共登记选民4 419 275人(其中妇女占38%),包括最动荡的省份的546 533人。登记程序是为了给丢失登记卡、在该国境内流动或在2005年以后获得选民资格的选民更新登记。在2004年和2005年的选举中登记并仍然保留其登记卡的选民,将可以在即将举行的选举中使用登记卡。在2003年至2004年期间的首次登记中,大约1 100万人进行了登记,而2005年发放了170万选民登记卡。鉴于阿富汗尚未进行人口普查,有资格的选民人数没有准确的基线,使评估选民登记册的准确性十分困难,因而评估投票率也十分困难。 11. 在选民登记完成后,加快了选举进程规划。1月19日,独立选委向国际捐助者提交了约2.2亿美元的预算,包括2009年的选举费用。除了开发署选举项目提供的技术支持以外,联阿援助团还正在其政治支柱内建立一个股,以便同各政党、观察员、民间社会组织以及其他团体和机构开展合作,尽可能推动一个有利于自由和公正的选举的政治气候。 12. 在本报告所述期间,国民议会讨论了一些紧迫的国内问题,如持续的不安全、人道主义问题和选举日期。国民议会还继续行使其监督作用,基本支持改革进程和重视改革的各部部长。国民议会批准了卡尔扎伊总统提名的新的农业部长、教育部长和内政部长,但对被指控与据称控制食品和燃料价格的卡特尔有联系的前商业和工业部长行使了不信任权力。 B. 区域环境 13. 区域经济合作获得了更多的关注。2008年12月14日在巴黎,在一次非正式部长级会议上,阿富汗及其邻国和重要的国际利益攸关方同意及时为2009年4月在伊斯兰堡举行的区域经济合作会议确定具体的优先项目。在完成该国北部输电线路的铺设后,就电力供应与乌兹别克斯坦达成的协议,几乎完全恢复了喀布尔部分地区的电力供应。正在与阿富汗的北方邻国一道制订其他能源和水管理项目。 14. 区域内的政治合作,特别是与巴基斯坦的政治合作取得了一些进展。2009年1月9日,巴基斯坦总统阿西夫 阿里 扎尔达里首次访问阿富汗,并会见了卡尔扎伊总统,不过两位总统之前曾多次会面。两国外长发表了一项联合声明,呼吁两国关系翻开“有远见的新篇章”,并承诺在国际支持下,“制止和彻底消除该区域的尚武、极端主义和恐怖主义的威胁。”
6. Political and military efforts must be complemented by a more robust commitment to supporting Afghanistan’s development strategy in a more coordinated way. The surge in attention and resources that Afghanistan has received in recent months is welcome. However, what we have learned over the past seven years is that this alone is not enough. Resources must be used intelligently, according to a coordinated and comprehensive plan whose goal is to enable all Afghans to bear responsibility for their future. The essence of this plan was agreed at the Paris Conference in June 2008 and is being articulated on the ground through specific efforts to improve aid effectiveness, build Afghan capacity and institutions, focus on the prioritized definition of the country’s development needs, improve delivery of assistance to the provinces and promote regional cooperation.15. 这种重新建立的关系使得诸如支尔格和平进程等倡议得以恢复。巴基斯坦指定了其负责推动这一进程的阿富汗-巴基斯坦联合小组委员会——联合和平支尔格委员会的25个成员,联合和平支尔格委员会于2008年10月27日和28日在伊斯兰堡举行了会议,承认尚武和恐怖主义是共同的威胁,需要采取协调一致的反应,并强调有必要与两国的反对派团体进行对话。
7. My Special Representative, Kai Eide, and the staff of UNAMA have pressed on with the implementation of the Mission’s mandate. On key issues, the international actors and the Afghan Government responded positively to these efforts. As a result, some long-standing problems are now being addressed. Examples include the agreement between the Afghan Ministry of Defence and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to address the adverse consequences of military operations on civilians, the strengthening of key ministries, streamlined coordination mechanisms, progress on counter-narcotics and some tangible benefits derived from improved regional economic cooperation. Still, the effectiveness of the Mission’s role continues to depend on a willingness by others to be coordinated. The vast majority of international funds continue to be spent outside Afghan Government or United Nations channels. Similarly, the implementation of the Mission’s civil-military coordination mandate depends on the willingness of the 41 nations contributing to ISAF to work with the United Nations.16. 1月2日,巴基斯坦陆军参谋长Pervez Kayani将军出席了三方委员会第二十六次会议,该委员会是由阿富汗、巴基斯坦和安援部队代表参加的区域军事合作论坛。
III.C.
Key political developments综合办法
A. Elections17. 国际社会和阿富汗政府目前正在制订和试验一种综合办法,以确保更连贯和有效地利用民用和军事资源。该办法的基本思路是,全国各地不同的安全和管理条件需要不同的援助对策。在相对稳定的阿富汗北部和西部地区,无罂粟地区越来越多,但十分贫穷,那里主要重点必须放在经济发展上。在不安全的南部和东部地区,政府机构十分脆弱,面临的挑战是建设阿富汗安全部队的能力,将社区与政府联系起来。介于二者之间的还有一些地区安全已恶化,但在警务、司法和治理方面采取协调一致的干预行动,可以扭转这种恶化趋势。在所有领域,综合办法的基础是以下共同原则:必须真正由阿富汗政府来领导;阿富汗的不稳定不能单靠军事手段来解决;民用和军事资源必须用到其可以产生最大影响的地方。在军事资源用于人道主义援助时,必须以人道主义原则和商定准则为指导。 18. 2008年11月成立的综合办法工作组,将独立地方治理执行局、联阿援助团、安援部队和主要捐助者召集在一起,工作组已开始确定优先事项,并排定活动顺序。工作组确定了51个关键区,其中5个已被快速确定进行政治概况评估和联合评估。经与有关发展行为体协商,这些评估将有助于协调拟订方案和提供援助。 四. 安保 19. 根据联合国的统计资料,2008年是阿富汗自2001年以来暴力最严重的一年,暴力事件比2007年多31%。2008年下半年平均每月发生857起,而上半年每月平均625起。传统上冬季的敌对行动会减少,但温和的冬季提供了一个暴力行为频发的环境。具体来说,2008年12月发生的暴力事件比2007年12月多42%,2009年1月比2008年1月多75%。 20. 上次报告中确定的两种趋势中有所恶化:叛乱分子企图动摇原先稳定的地区;他们更多使用了更复杂的不对称攻击,并且越来越无视平民。
8. The upcoming elections have shaped and dominated the political environment in Afghanistan. On 28 January 2009, the Independent Electoral Commission announced that the presidential and provincial council elections would be held on 20 August. The Commission referred to the need to ensure “universality, fairness and transparency”, which would be jeopardized by holding elections in the spring, a time when large portions of the electorate would be inaccessible because of geography and climate. 9. Some members of parliament reacted to the Independent Electoral Commission’s decision by arguing that according to the Constitution the presidential term ends on 22 May, and that the 20 August election date would therefore create a three-month vacuum of executive authority. On 28 February, President Karzai issued a decree requesting the Commission to ensure that elections were held in accordance with all relevant articles of the Constitution. This was interpreted in the media as meaning that elections should be held before May. On 4 March, the Commission issued a statement reaffirming its previous decision to set 20 August as the election date.21. 这些袭击包括暗杀、恐吓、绑架、远程攻击、简易爆炸装置和自杀性袭击事件,越来越多地针对公务员、宗教学者、援助界和公路建设项目。去年下半年,这类事件的数目有所增加,并持续到2009年,包括2月11日在喀布尔发生针对多个政府部门的协调的武装袭击和自杀性袭击事件。 22. 叛乱分子继续直接以国际援助组织为目标,10月,一名女国际援助人员在喀布尔被暗杀,11月,也是在喀布尔,另一名国际援助人员被绑架。联合国也不能幸免这种情况,联合国在这一年里遭遇了一系列各类事件。
10. The Independent Electoral Commission is supported technically by the United Nations (through the United Nations Development Programme Enhancing Legal and Electoral Capacity for Tomorrow (UNDP-ELECT) project) and financially by international donors.23.
Voter registration began in early November and ended on 20 February.叛乱分子继续扩大其在以前稳定的地区的存在。西北部的巴德吉斯省和相邻的法利亚布省在整个冬季都成为了战场,叛乱行动显著增加,如11月在巴德吉斯省Bala Murghab县的伏击几乎完全摧毁了阿富汗一支军队和警察车队,其中40名阿富汗安全部队人员被打死,十几人被绑架。叛乱分子存在的增加严重阻碍了在以往可以通行地区的人道主义援助和发展项目。 24.
It proceeded with few security incidents, allowing, according to the Commission’s figures, the registration of 4,419,275 voters (38 per cent of whom were women), including 546,533 in the most volatile provinces.在整个报告所述期间,战斗的频发以及恐吓和暗杀行动的增加降低了非武装公务员的行动自由。截至2008年12月,阿富汗大约400个县中,有231个继续报告几乎完全可以通行无阻,10个被认为完全在政府控制以外,165个县的通行仍然很困难或有问题。尽管自2007年以来公务员几乎或完全无法进入的县的数目没有大的变化,但是有大约30个县有丧失通行的危险。联阿援助团正在与政府和安援部队一道在这些县推行综合办法。 25.
The registration process was an update aimed at voters who had lost their cards, moved within the country or become eligible to vote after 2005.目前没有任何迹象表明,2009年夏季之前安全状况将会有所改善,随着非对称攻击事件的增加,不安全状况可能继续增加。再加上武装冲突,援助人员的安全将会进一步恶化。导致这种情况的因素包括即将举行的选举,国际军事部队增加有可能增加袭击事件,据报告阿富汗的外国圣战战士增加,以及叛乱分子明确声明其目标是在全国各地继续拦截人道主义和发展方案同样在使用的政府和军队的后勤供应线。 五.
Voters who registered for the 2004 and 2005 elections and who still have their registration cards will be able to use them in the forthcoming elections.安全部门与法治 A.
During the first registration exercise, in 2003 and 2004, approximately 11 million were registered;阿富汗安全部队 26.
in 2005, 1.7 million voter registration cards were issued.阿富汗国民军目前由5支部队组成,每支部队有2至4个旅,都是地区指挥部,其指挥结构与安援部队的地区指挥结构相同。有10个省仍然没有常设驻军。2008年9月,协调和监察联合委员会批准,到2011年,军队从84 000人扩大到134 000人。阿富汗国民军已经改进了其规划、执行和领导战术作战行动的能力。在选民登记阶段,阿富汗国民军成功地进行了联合混成行动,自2008年8月28日以来,该部队已开始承担起喀布尔安全的领导责任,并越来越多地在各省承担起这一责任。 27.
Given that a census has not yet been conducted in Afghanistan, there is no accurate baseline for the number of eligible voters, rendering assessments of the accuracy of the voter registry, and consequently voter turnout, problematic.重点县发展项目是加强阿富汗国家警察的基石,该项目将县警察部队召集到喀布尔进行强化培训,然后重新派往所在县。自2008年10月以来,该项目涉及21个县,使警察部队已经过培训的县的总数达到52个。重点县发展项目受到缺少国际警察培训员和顾问的限制。
11. With the completion of the voter registration, planning for the electoral process accelerated. On 19 January, the Independent Electoral Commission presented to international donors a budget of approximately $220 million covering the costs of the 2009 elections. Apart from technical support provided by UNDP-ELECT, UNAMA is establishing a unit within its political pillar to work with political parties, observers, civil society organizations and other groups and institutions to promote as much as possible a political climate that is conducive to free and fair elections.28. 警务改革需要在内政部制定反腐败措施,并加强阿富汗国家警察的情报收集和调查能力。改善主要城市和公路沿线的安全,以及确保2009年选举以自由、公正和透明的方式进行,是新任内政部长的短期优先事项。国际警察协调局将监测各项目标的进展情况。普遍加薪和为在动荡地区服务的警察提供危险津贴的试点方案提高了对警官的金钱奖励。
12. During the reporting period, the National Assembly discussed pressing national issues, such as the ongoing insecurity, humanitarian issues and the electoral date. The Assembly also continued to exercise its oversight role, generally backing reform processes and reform-oriented ministers. It confirmed President Karzai’s nominees for new Ministers of Agriculture, Education and Interior, while exercising its no-confidence powers against the former Minister of Commerce and Industry, accused of connections with a cartel allegedly controlling food and fuel prices. B. Regional environmentB. 国际部队和军民协调
13. Regional economic cooperation received increased attention. On 14 December 2008, in Paris, at an informal meeting at the ministerial level, Afghanistan, its neighbours and key international stakeholders agreed to identify specific priority projects in time for the Regional Economic Cooperation Conference in Islamabad in April 2009. An agreement with Uzbekistan on the provision of electricity allowed the nearly full restoration of power to parts of Kabul following the completion of a transmission line across the north of the country. Additional energy and water-management projects with the northern neighbours of Afghanistan are being designed. 14. There was progress on political cooperation within the region, especially with Pakistan. On 9 January 2009, the President of Pakistan, Asif Ali Zardari, made his first visit to Afghanistan and met there with President Karzai, although the two Presidents had met several times before. Their two Foreign Ministers issued a joint declaration calling for a “new visionary chapter” in their relations and pledged, with international support, “to counter and completely eliminate the menaces of militancy, extremism and terrorism from the region”.29. 安援部队目前有来自26个北大西洋公约组织(北约组织)和15个非北约国家的大约55 000名士兵。由美国指挥的盟军相信约有14 000人。阿富汗安全部队过渡联合指挥部据报有包括平民合同培训员和顾问在内的7 000多成员,负责协助发展阿富汗国民军和阿富汗国家警察。 30. 2008年9月设立了一个美国驻阿富汗部队的指挥和控制总部——美国驻阿富汗部队总部,由安援部队麦基尔南将军指挥。有了这个统一指挥,安援部队内外的美国部队的协调预计将有所改善。 31. 除上文所述综合办法以外,在本报告所述期间,军民协调得到进一步改善。阿富汗政府担任省级重建队工作组及其执行指导委员会的主席。2007年6月以来的第一次指导委员会会议于2009年1月29日举行。联阿援助团被邀请参加北约军事人员部署前训练。我的特别代表及其工作人员以及联阿援助团的军事对口单位之间的定期会议继续提供一个高层次的沟通渠道。专门针对阿富汗拟订了人道主义行为体和军事行为体协调准则,但需要更好地传播和执行。 32. 另一个积极的事态发展是麦基尔南将军于2008年9月和12月签发了两项命令,以减少平民伤亡,并建立了一个平民伤亡跟踪单元,加强收集有关数据。此外,2009年2月13日,阿富汗国防部长阿卜杜勒 拉希姆 瓦尔达克和麦基尔南将军共同宣布了一项协调协议,根据协议,将在规划和执行行动,包括住宅搜查和逮捕方面赋予阿富汗安全部队更大的职责。 33. 尽管如此,进一步加强军民协调仍有一些障碍。对联合国来说,所面临的挑战是全面统筹的办法必须囊括其全部议程,包括人权、政治、发展、军事顾问和人道主义努力。在安援部队方面,军事人员的频繁更换、信息共享的保密限制、安援部队营地的限制进入和不同的规划方式等因素使问题变得复杂。 C. 法治 34. 司法部门改革的设计包含在国家司法部门战略中,拟通过国家司法方案予以实施,该方案建立了协助政府和捐助者在这些领域开展努力的机制。其中一个机制是方案监督委员会,负责监督由政府牵头并由世界银行经管的司法部门改革项目的执行。另一个机制是捐助者理事会,成立于2009年1月,协助政府将捐助者支助与国家司法方案联系起来,并向方案监督委员会提供战略咨询。 35. 在省一级,联合国牵头的省级司法协调机制完成了对阿富汗刑事司法系统的第一次法律评估,涵盖27个省。评估结果将有助于捐助资源的协调分配。 36. 最近成立的反腐败战略执行情况高级监督办公室开设了喀布尔总部,并开始与总统、最高法院院长、总检察长和司法部定期举行会议。为了有效地起诉贪污案件,总检察长办公室设立了一个反腐败股,并开始了反腐败运动。 37. 由于最高法院、总检察长办公室和司法部缺少资源,司法部门的进展受到阻碍。这些机构缺少合格和有经验的法官和检察官以及足够的基础设施。阿富汗的拘留中心和监狱严重失修。不过,这些机构的公务员制度改革已经开始,特别是司法部已经完成了行政改革的优先改革和改组阶段。 D. 地雷行动
15. This renewed relationship allowed the resumption of initiatives such as the Peace Jirga process. Pakistan named its 25 members to the Jirgagai, the joint Afghan-Pakistani subcommittee responsible for driving the process; the Jirgagai met in Islamabad on 27 and 28 October 2008, recognized militancy and terrorism as common threats requiring a coordinated response and emphasized the need for dialogue with opposition groups in both countries.38. 在政府和联合国的支持下,阿富汗地雷行动方案在实现《阿富汗契约》规定的目标方面继续取得进展。2008年下半年,销毁了超过4.2万枚杀伤人员地雷、500枚反坦克地雷和150万枚战争遗留爆炸物,数百个社区的土地已经摆脱了地雷的威胁。有800 000阿富汗人接受了地雷风险教育。有关地雷幸存者和其他残疾人士权利的宣传在继续进行。
16.39.
On 2 January, the Pakistani Army Chief of Staff, General Pervez Kayani, took part in the twenty-sixth meeting of the Tripartite Commission, a forum for regional military cooperation comprising Afghan, Pakistani and ISAF representatives.在赫尔曼德省、库纳尔省和乌鲁兹甘省开展社区排雷项目特别值得一提。这些针对基础设施或支持有限的边缘化社区的活动,目的是为该国南部和东部地区带来直接的社会经济和稳定红利。原先在从乌兹别克斯坦延伸过来的输电线路沿线完成的排雷活动,促进了2009年2月对喀布尔电力供应的大幅增加。
C.40.
Integrated approach尽管取得了这些成就,地雷仍然是对该国人民生命及和平与安全的重大威胁,估计阿富汗仍然有2 082个受污染的社区。这方面的进展继续受到资金短缺的制约,估计2009年需要5 300万美元的新增资金,以确保达到《阿富汗契约》基准。
17. An integrated approach is being designed and piloted by the international community and the Afghan Government to ensure a more coherent and effective use of civilian and military resources. The approach is premised on the fact that the varying security and governance conditions across the country demand different assistance responses. In the relatively stable north and west of Afghanistan, increasingly poppy-free, but poor, the main focus must be on economic development. In the insecure south and east, where Government agencies have a tenuous presence, the challenge is to build the capacity of Afghan security forces and link communities to the Government. In between, there are areas where security has deteriorated, but concerted interventions in the areas of policing, justice and governance can reverse this decline. In all areas, the integrated approach is underpinned by the following common principles: there must be a genuine Afghan Government lead; there is no purely military solution to the country’s instability; and civilian and military resources need to be committed where they can have the greatest impact. Where military resources are used for humanitarian assistance, they must be governed by humanitarian principles and agreed guidelines.E. 禁毒 41. 禁毒部和联合国毒品和犯罪问题办事处于2009年2月1日联合发布了《阿富汗鸦片冬季快速评估报告》。该调查预计2009年鸦片种植有可能进一步减少,原因是西南部和南部的主要罂粟种植区面积有所减少,并且无罂粟省有可能增至22个。鸦片种植主要限于南部和西南部最不稳定的省份:法拉省,赫尔曼德省,坎大哈省,尼姆鲁兹省,乌鲁兹甘省,戴孔迪省和扎布尔省。 42. 预计罂粟种植将减少,这是因为省级政府的有效行动,以及食品价格上升和累积库存造成鸦片价格有所下降这两方面因素共同作用的结果。为继续减少罂粟种植,有效的根除措施必须伴有替代生计方案、增加对无罂粟省份的良好治理的奖励、捣毁工场、制止官员和执法人员中的腐败行为以及起诉毒贩。 43. 2008年9月4日,中央反毒品法庭上诉庭庭长阿利姆 哈尼夫法官在喀布尔被暗杀。有明显迹象表明,哈尼夫法官被谋杀与他的禁毒职责有关。 44. 已经以区域办法完成了阿富汗境内的缉毒努力。联合国毒品和犯罪问题办事处的“彩虹战略”促进了一系列旨在减少区域内鸦片的供应、贩运和消费的措施。这一战略促成在伊朗伊斯兰共和国、巴基斯坦和吉尔吉斯斯坦大量缴获前体化学品,以支持联合国安全理事会第1817(2008)号决议。2008年底在德黑兰成立的联合规划小组,为阿富汗、伊朗伊斯兰共和国和巴基斯坦提供了一个在打击非法麻醉品的工作中制订联合行动和交换情报的机会。 六. 治理 45. 联合国的治理活动旨在巩固政府进程和机构,以满足社会需要。这些活动的重点是使高级任命透明化、廉正和前后一致,以打击腐败,改善政府机构的运作。去年10月,卡尔扎伊总统任命了领导主要部委的新部长,强化了目前为加强阿富汗政府机构作出的努力。这些人员于2008年年底开始有效地履行职责。总统办公厅在过去的4个月中,对新任命的高级官员予以全力支持。 46. 为了促进改善政府提供服务的能力,目前在5个部委(农业、农村复兴与发展、财政、教育和司法)以工资和评级为手段进行的改革正在取得进展。目前正在制定计划,于2009年3月开始对其他5个部委进行改革。 47. 国家以下一级尤其需要改善治理,因为提供服务和援助是影响地方对政府效率和合法性看法的一个因素。在该国的一些地方,限制准入是提供服务的一大障碍,另一个障碍是中央政府难以按照省级发展规划正常分配资金。 七. 阿富汗国家发展战略及协调和监察联合委员会 A. 援助协调和实效 48. 阿富汗国家发展战略和巴黎会议确定的优先事项依然是阿富汗和平建设和发展总纲领的蓝图。自从我提交上一次报告以来,联合国与阿富汗政府密切合作,加强协调和监察联合委员会,建立了分别负责安全,治理、法治和人权;经济和社会发展的3个常设委员会。这一新结构理顺了原先一连串复杂的常设咨询小组。阿富汗政府建立了计划建立的16个部际委员会中的12个,今后可在部际委员会开展各部门的技术协调。
18. The Integrated Approach Working Group, formed in November 2008 and bringing together the Independent Directorate for Local Governance, UNAMA, ISAF and key donors, has begun to set priorities and the sequencing of activities. It has identified 51 critical districts, of which 5 have been fast-tracked for political profiling and joint assessments. In consultation with relevant development actors, these assessments will lead to coordinated programming and delivery of assistance.49. 2008年11月30日,协调和监察联合委员会开会,重点讨论禁毒、阿富汗安全部队改革和治理问题。委员会还决定共同致力于阿富汗国家发展战略的5个关键部门:能源;农业;高等教育和职业培训;能力建设;私营部门发展。
IV.50.
Security根据阿富汗国家发展战略和巴黎会议确定的优先事项制定外部预算和核心预算依然是一大挑战。在2009年3月21日开始的第1 388个财政年度的预算中,农业、基础设施和能源这些优先事项的资金严重不足。
19. According to United Nations statistics, 2008 ended as the most violent year in Afghanistan since 2001, with 31 per cent more incidents than in 2007. The second half of 2008 saw an average of 857 incidents per month, against 625 per month during the first six months. A mild winter has provided an environment for high levels of violence at a time that traditionally sees a decrease in hostilities. Specifically, there were 42 per cent more incidents in December 2008 than in December 2007, and 75 per cent more in January 2009 than in January 2008.51. 对农业的投资依然严重不足。全国可耕地总共为790万公顷,但耕作面积不到一半,主要是因为缺乏灌溉条件。战前的灌溉系统已被破坏,使用效率只有25%左右,灌溉的面积只有战前的三分之一。如此糟糕的灌溉条件阻碍了发展阿富汗农业出口的可能性。
20.52.
Two trends identified in the previous report further worsened: attempts by insurgents to destabilize previously stable areas and increased use by insurgents of more sophisticated asymmetric attacks, with an increasing disregard for the lives of civilians.尽管存在这些挑战,仍有值得注意的新发展,尤其是在区域技术合作领域。其中最可喜的发展是,2009年2月,喀布尔西北部一些地区的电力供应几乎已经全部恢复,其他一些地区的供电已达到12-15小时,极大地改善了生活品质。最近与塔吉克斯坦签订的协定可望在2010年夏季之前进一步改善输电情况。
21. These attacks, including assassinations, intimidation, abductions, stand-off attacks, use of improvised explosive devices and suicide attacks, increasingly targeted civil servants, religious scholars, the aid community and road construction projects.53.
The numbers of each type of incident increased in the second half of 2008, and such incidents continued to occur into 2009, including the coordinated armed and suicide attacks against multiple Government ministries in Kabul on 11 February.国际社会对农村部门的投资大多通过全国团结方案进行,为当地社区确认和执行的项目提供财政支助。农业部新部长的任命为将社区项目与阿富汗国家发展战略的目标联系在一起创造了机会,包括建设规模更大的灌溉系统和其他旨在增加阿富汗农业产出的项目。新任部长已承诺在春种季节到来之前,在协调和监察联合委员会的下次会议上,提出一揽子提案。
22. The direct targeting of international aid organizations by insurgents continued, with the assassination of a female international aid worker in Kabul in October and the abduction of another international aid worker in November, also in Kabul.54.
The United Nations is not exempt, having suffered a number of incidents of various types during the year.此外还完成了许多大规模的基础设施项目。其中包括在赫尔曼德的卡贾基大坝安装了一个新的涡轮机,并完成了长达218公里的公路,将位于伊朗边界的扎兰季与阿富汗环路连接起来。在东南部,从加德兹到霍斯特的117公里长的公路可望在今年完成,连通巴基斯坦边界。这些项目是在叛乱分子激烈抵抗以及工程师、工人和安保人员牺牲生命的情况下进行的。其他重要的基础设施项目也是在存在类似威胁的情况下进行的,其中包括恢复卢格尔的一个铜矿、赫拉特的萨尔马大坝,以及铺筑法利亚布和巴德吉斯的环路路段。
23. Insurgents continued to expand their presence in previously stable areas. The north-western province of Badghis and the neighbouring province of Faryab became a battleground through the winter, with a significant increase in insurgent action. For example, in the ambush and near-total destruction of an Afghan military and police convoy in November in the district of Bala Murghab, in Badghis, 40 Afghan security forces personnel were killed and over a dozen abducted. This increase in insurgent presence severely hampered humanitarian and development efforts in previously accessible areas.55. 联阿援助团评估了阿富汗34个省的发展援助分配情况,并与捐助者一起,开发了一个单独的政府数据库,收集关于捐助者捐助情况的资料。在协调和监察联合委员会下次会议上将提出提案。
24. Throughout the reporting period, freedom of movement of unarmed civil servants was reduced by the intensified fighting and the increased campaign of intimidation and assassination. As of December 2008, 231 of the country’s approximately 400 districts continued to report near-total accessibility, while 10 were considered completely beyond the Government’s control and access to 165 remained difficult or problematic. While the number of districts that are nearly or completely inaccessible to civil servants did not change significantly since 2007, about 30 districts are in danger of losing accessibility. It is in such districts that UNAMA, together with the Government and ISAF, is pursuing the integrated approach.B. 联合国国家工作队
25. There are currently no indications that the security situation will improve before the summer of 2009. Insecurity will potentially continue to rise, and as asymmetric attacks increase, together with armed clashes, the safety of aid personnel will further deteriorate. Factors contributing to this include the forthcoming elections, a possible rise in incidents as a result of increased international military forces, reports of increased foreign jihadist fighters in Afghanistan and the stated aims of insurgents to continue to interdict Government and military logistic supply lines around the country, the same routes used by humanitarian and development programmes.56. 联合国国家工作队在必须同时执行发展和人道主义方案的环境下工作。尽管安保挑战越来越严重,国家工作队依然在这两条战线上取得了进展。国家工作队的31名成员在工作中配合阿富汗国家发展战略。联合国发展援助框架草案的优先领域(即治理、生计和基本服务),与巴黎议程的优先事项(即农业、能力建设、教育、创收和改善为所有阿富汗人提供的服务)密切相关。
V.57.
Security sector and rule of law国家工作队决定在三方面改变其提供的服务。国家工作队将更加注重在国以下一级提供服务;更加注重农业和收入机会;在需求与提供的援助特别不均衡的5或6个较为稳定的省份改善方案的连贯性。
A.58.
Afghan security forces驻地协调员办公室根据巴黎议程,对联合国18个机构的方案进行了一次审查。审查发现,联合国机构目前在阿富汗的方案总值达35亿美元,其中包括11亿美元用于加强体制和治理;3.5亿美元用于加强民主和支助选举;8.5亿美元用于粮食保障;1.5亿美元用于农业;6亿美元用于创造经济机会和帮助生计方案;各2亿美元用于教育和卫生部门,尤其注重能力建设。
26. The Afghan National Army currently consists of five corps of two to four brigades each, which serve as regional commands mirroring the ISAF Regional Command structure. Ten provinces remain without a permanent presence. In September 2008, the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board approved the expansion of the army from 84,000 to 134,000 troops by 2011. The Afghan National Army has improved its ability to plan, execute and lead tactical combat operations. It successfully performed joint and combined operations during the voter registration phases and, since 28 August 2008, has begun to assume lead responsibility for security in Kabul and increasingly in the provinces.八. 人权
27. The cornerstone of efforts to strengthen the Afghanistan National Police is the Focused District Development project, bringing district police forces for intensive training to Kabul and then reinserting them in their districts. Since October 2008, the programme has covered 21 districts, bringing the total number of districts whose police forces have been retrained to 52. The project is constrained by the lack of international police trainers and mentors.59. 阿富汗继续面临严重的人权挑战。这些挑战与长期存在的问题相关,诸如治理不力、根深蒂固的逍遥法外现象、不注意过渡时期的司法工作、极端贫穷,以及尤其针对妇女和女孩的歧视性法律和习俗等。武装冲突的加剧,使这些问题变得更为复杂。对言论自由的限制加剧,威胁着将阿富汗改造成一个和平、多元化的社会前景。
28. Police reform requires developing anti-corruption measures within the Ministry of Interior and reinforcing the intelligence and investigative capacities of the Afghan National Police. Improving security in principal cities and along highways and ensuring that the 2009 elections are conducted in a free, fair and transparent manner are the short-term priorities for the new Minister of Interior. Progress towards each objective will be monitored by the International Police Coordination Board. Financial incentives for police officers were increased, in the form of both a general pay raise and a pilot programme to provide hazard pay to police serving in volatile areas.60. 有权势者滥用权力的现象非常普遍,加上任意拘留和司法部门依然不尊重公正审判保障,也不以公正和独立的方式行事,使得逍遥法外的现象得以持续存在。
B.61.
International forces and civil-military coordination和平、和解与正义行动计划未能在其最初设想的时限内实现目标。振兴过渡时期的司法议程是迫在眉睫的挑战。政府和国际社会尤其有责任解决绝大多数阿富汗人关切的问题,阿富汗人民一再强调他们渴望得到公正和持久的和平。联合国正在审查保护指控罪行所涉物证的必要措施,包括关于破坏乱葬坑的指控。
29. ISAF now has approximately 55,000 troops from 26 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and 15 non-NATO countries. Coalition force personnel operating under United States command are believed to number approximately 14,000. The Combined Security Transition Command — Afghanistan, which reports having over 7,000 members, including contracted civilian trainers and mentors, is responsible for assisting the development of the National Army and the National Police.62. 言论自由依然得不到保障,关于记者受到国家和非国家行为体恐吓的报告继续不断。法院未能捍卫言论自由的权利。最高法院对上诉的两个令人瞩目的亵渎案件判以重刑就证明了这一点。2008年9月议会通过《媒体法》,其中包括可以用来阻止政治讨论的条文。在即将举行的总统选举和议会选举之前确保言论自由是一大挑战。
30. In September 2008, the United States Forces Afghanistan, a command and control headquarters for United States forces in the country, was established under the ISAF Commander, General McKiernan.63.
With this unification of command, coordination between United States elements, within and outside ISAF, is expected to improve.鉴于阿富汗显然缺乏适当法律程序和公正审判保障,因此恢复执行死刑令人不安。2008年11月和12月期间,至少有16名被判有罪的犯人被国家处决。据估计,死刑犯名单上还有110名犯人。目前没有适当的程序保障可以保护这些被指控犯有死罪的犯人的权利。因此,执行死刑有可能造成永久的冤案,而不能解决国家和公众安全方面的合理问题。
31. Along with the integrated approach described above, additional improvements in civil-military coordination were made during the reporting period. The Afghan Government assumed chairmanship of the Provincial Reconstruction Team Working Group and its Executive Steering Committee. The first Steering Committee meeting since June 2007 was held on 29 January 2009. UNAMA was invited to participate in NATO predeployment training for military staff. Regular meetings between my Special Representative, his staff and UNAMA military counterparts continued to provide a high-level communication channel. Afghanistan-specific guidelines on the coordination of humanitarian actors and military actors were developed and agreed to, but need to be better disseminated and implemented.A. 性别问题
32. Another positive development was the issuance by General McKiernan of two directives, in September and December 2008, aimed at reducing the number of civilian casualties and establishing a civilian casualties tracking cell to improve the collection of relevant data.64.
In addition, on 13 February 2009, Afghan Defence Minister Abdul Rahim Wardak and General McKiernan jointly announced a coordination agreement whereby Afghan forces would be given a greater role in the planning and execution of operations, including house searches and arrests.参与公共生活的妇女越来越频繁地受到威胁和恐吓。2008年9月,一名最著名的高级女警官在坎大哈遇害,表明了她们面临的巨大风险。妇女,得不到法律、医疗或心理社会等补救机制的帮助,尤其是受性暴力侵害的妇女。这种情况依然是解决这一问题的严重障碍。被强奸的妇女继续面临社会谴责,而且可能因所谓的非法性活动而受到起诉。因此,性暴力被掩盖了,得不到如实报告。
33. Still, there are obstacles to the further improvement of civil-military coordination. For the United Nations, the challenge is that a coherent, overarching approach has to encapsulate the entirety of its agendas, including human rights, political, development, military advisory and humanitarian efforts. On the ISAF side, the frequent turnover of military personnel, classification restrictions on the sharing of information, restricted access to ISAF compounds and differences in planning styles are complicating factors.65. 阿富汗政府在执行政策方面更为关注性别问题。其表现是,阿富汗政府按照阿富汗国家发展战略和阿富汗妇女问题国家行动计划,采取了若干主动行动,制定对性别问题有敏感认识的方案。但是,阿富汗依然是世界上妇女地位最低的一个国家,孕产妇死亡率是最高的国家之一,在农村一些地区,估计每100 000活产就有6 500多人死亡。2007年,上完小学的学生中只有25.7%是女孩,而且趋势表明,在校的女生比例在下降。就业的妇女,特别是女公务员人数,从2005年的25.9%减少到2007年的22%。阿富汗有可能在改善妇女和女孩福利与地位方面失去已经取得的进展。
C.B.
Rule of law保护平民
34. The design of justice sector reform is contained in the National Justice Sector Strategy, to be implemented through the National Justice Programme, which established mechanisms to facilitate the efforts of the Government and donors in these areas. One of these mechanisms is the Programme Oversight Committee, overseeing the implementation of the Justice Sector Reform Project, led by the Government and administered by the World Bank. Another mechanism, the Board of Donors, formed in January 2009, assists the Government in linking donor support with the National Justice Programme and provides the Programme Oversight Committee with strategic advice.66. 2008年9月至12月期间,联阿援助团记录到的伤亡平民为626人,当年的平民伤亡总人数达到2 118人,其中大多数在该国的南部、东南部和东部。2008年联阿援助团记录到的平民死亡人数比2007年增加40%。其中,55%的平民死亡人数是叛乱分子造成的,39%是国际和本国的阿富汗部队造成的(其余的6%不能归咎于任何冲突方)。自杀式袭击占2008年平民伤亡人数的34%。
35. At the provincial level, the United Nations-led Provincial Justice Coordination Mechanism completed the first legal assessment of the criminal justice system in Afghanistan, covering 27 provinces.67.
The results of this assessment will support the coordinated allocation of donor resources.反政府分子依然是造成平民最大伤亡的罪魁祸首,其战略战术表明他们根本无视平民的安全。反政府分子造成的平民死亡从2007年的700人增加到2008年的1 160人,增加了65%。在亲政府的部队方面,为了尽量减少安全行动对非战斗人员的影响而命令改变战术和采取其他措施的做法令人欢迎,但继续有平民伤亡的报告,据称是因亲政府部队的行动而死亡。2008年,在亲政府部队的行动造成的死亡中,仅空袭就占了68%。
36. The recently created High Office of Oversight for the Implementation of the Anti-Corruption Strategy opened its Kabul headquarters and began to hold regular meetings with the President, the Supreme Court, the Attorney-General and the Ministry of Justice.68.
In order to prosecute corruption cases effectively, the Office of the Attorney-General established an Anti-Corruption Unit and started an anticorruption campaign.除了武装敌对行动直接造成的死亡外,平民还受到伤害、威胁和恐吓,并失去生计,被迫流离失所,而且财产遭到破坏。
37. Progress on the justice sector is hampered by the lack of resources available to the Supreme Court, the Office of the Attorney-General and the Ministry of Justice. These institutions lack qualified and experienced judges and prosecutors as well as adequate infrastructure. Detention centres and prisons in Afghanistan are in a serious state of neglect. Reform of the civil service of these institutions, however, has begun. The Ministry of Justice, in particular, has completed the priority reform and restructuring phase of administrative reform.69. 联阿援助团继续按照安全理事会第1612(2005)号决议,在监测和报告严重侵犯儿童权利方面发挥核心作用。儿童继续是冲突加剧的受害者。据称,武装团体在南部、东南部和东部招募儿童。阿富汗执法机构和国际军事部队也在抓获、逮捕和拘留儿童,因指控他们与武装团体有关联。
D.70.
Mine action与前几年相比,攻击学校的事件增加,包括2008年11月发生的令人不安的事件。当时,塔利班好战分子对前去上学的一群儿童进行袭击,在他们脸上泼硫酸。2008年1月至11月期间,报告发生的袭击学校事件有275起,造成66人死亡,64人受伤,其中多数为儿童。
38. With Government and United Nations support, the Mine Action Programme for Afghanistan continued to make progress towards the goals outlined in the Afghanistan Compact. During the second half of 2008, over 42,000 anti-personnel mines, 500 anti-tank mines and 1.5 million explosive remnants of war were destroyed and hundreds of communities had their land freed from the threat of mines. Mine-risk education reached 800,000 Afghans. Advocacy for the rights of landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities continued. 39. The launching of community-based demining projects in Helmand, Kunar and Uruzgan has been particularly noteworthy. These activities, targeted at marginalized communities with limited infrastructure or support, are aimed at bringing direct socio-economic and stability dividends into areas in the south and east of the country. The impact of previously completed demining activities along the route of electricity transmission lines from Uzbekistan contributed to the significant increase in power supply to Kabul in February 2009. 40. Despite these achievements, mines remain a major threat to human life, peace and security in the country, with an estimated 2,082 contaminated communities still in Afghanistan. Progress continues to be hampered by a funding shortfall, with an estimated $53 million in additional funds required in 2009 to ensure reaching the Afghanistan Compact benchmarks. E. Counter-narcotics 41. The Ministry for Counter-Narcotics and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime jointly released the Afghanistan Opium Winter Rapid Assessment report on 1 February 2009. The survey projects a possible further decrease in opium cultivation in 2009, resulting from a decrease in the main poppy cultivation areas of the south-west and south, and a possible increase in the number of poppy-free provinces to 22. Opium cultivation is mainly confined to the most unstable provinces in the south and south-west: Farah, Helmand, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan, Daikundi and Zabul. 42. The forecasted decline in poppy cultivation is attributed to a combination of effective Government action at the provincial level, the rise of food prices and the decline of opium prices as a result of accumulated stockpiles. To sustain the decrease in poppy cultivation, effective eradication initiatives must be coupled with alternative livelihood programmes, increased incentives for good governance in poppy-free provinces, destruction of laboratories, countering corruption among officials and law enforcement officers, and prosecution of drug traffickers. 43. On 4 September 2008, Judge Alim Hanif, Head of the Appeals Court Division of the Central Narcotics Tribunal, was assassinated in Kabul. There are strong indications that the murder of Judge Hanif was related to his anti-narcotics role. 44. Anti-narcotics efforts within Afghanistan have been complemented by a regional approach. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime “rainbow strategy” promotes a series of measures to reduce the supply, trafficking, and consumption of opium within the region. It contributed to significant seizures of precursor chemicals in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan, in support of Security Council resolution 1817 (2008). The creation of a joint planning cell in Teheran at the end of 2008 provides an opportunity for Afghanistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan to design joint operations and exchange intelligence in the fight against illicit narcotics. VI. Governance 45. United Nations governance activities are aimed at consolidating governmental processes and institutions to meet societal needs. The focus of these activities has been on bringing transparency, integrity and consistency to senior appointments in order to combat corruption and improve the functioning of Government institutions. Ongoing efforts to strengthen Afghan Government institutions received a boost last October after President Karzai appointed new ministers to lead key ministries. In the past four months, the Office of the President has given full support to the new senior appointments panel, which began to function effectively at the end of 2008. 46. In an effort to create incentives to improve the capacity of the Government to deliver services, the implementation of reform through pay and grading is progressing in five Ministries (Agriculture, Rural Rehabilitation and Development, Finance, Education and Justice). Planning is under way to reform an additional five ministries beginning in March 2009. 47. Improvements to governance are particularly required at the subnational level, where the delivery of services and assistance is a factor in local perceptions of Government effectiveness and legitimacy. Access limitations are a major impediment to service delivery in some parts of the country, as is the difficulty encountered by the central Government in allocating funds in a regular manner, and in accordance with provincial development plans. VII. Afghanistan National Development Strategy and the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board A. Aid coordination and effectiveness 48. The Afghanistan National Development Strategy and the priorities set at the Paris Conference remain the blueprint for the overall peacebuilding and development agenda in Afghanistan. Since my last report, the United Nations has cooperated closely with the Afghan Government to strengthen the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board with the establishment of three Standing Committees, for security; governance, rule of law and human rights; and economic and social development. This new structure streamlines the previous complex array of permanent consultative groups. For its part, the Afghan Government has set up 12 of 16 planned inter-ministerial committees, where technical coordination in all sectors will take place. 49. The Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board met on 30 November 2008 and focused on counter-narcotics, Afghan security forces reform and governance. The Board also decided to focus joint efforts on five key sectors of the National Development Strategy: energy; agriculture; higher education and vocational training; capacity-building; and private sector development. 50. Alignment of the external and core budgets with the National Development Strategy and the Paris priorities remains a major challenge. In the budget for fiscal year 1388, starting on 21 March 2009, the priority sectors of agriculture, infrastructure and energy are severely underfunded. 51. There continues to be a significant underinvestment in agriculture. Of the country’s total 7.9 million arable hectares, less than half is cultivated, mostly owing to a lack of irrigation. Pre-war irrigation systems are damaged, operating at about 25 per cent efficiency and covering only one third of the pre-war irrigated areas. Poor irrigation impedes the development of the country’s agricultural export potential. 52. Despite these challenges, there were notable developments, particularly in the area of regional technical cooperation. Among the most positive was the February 2009 restoration of near-full power to parts of north-west Kabul and 12 to 15 hours of daily supply to other parts, dramatically improving the quality of life. A recent agreement with Tajikistan should result in further improvements in transmission by the summer of 2010. 53. Much of the international community’s investment in the rural sector came through the National Solidarity Programme, providing financial support to projects identified and implemented by local communities. The appointment of a new Minister of Agriculture created an opportunity to link community-based projects with the goals of the National Development Strategy, including larger-scale irrigation schemes and other projects intended to increase agricultural output. The new Minister has committed to presenting a package of proposals at the next Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board meeting, prior to the spring planting season. 54. A number of larger-scale infrastructure projects were also completed. These include the installation of a new turbine in the Kajaki dam in Helmand and the completion of the 218-kilometre road linking Zaranj, on the Iranian border, to the Afghanistan ring road. In the south-east, the 117-kilometre road from Gardez to Khost should be completed this year, connecting to the Pakistan border. These projects were or are being carried out in the face of fierce resistance from the insurgents and at the cost of the lives of engineers, workers and security guards. Other important infrastructure projects being implemented despite similar threats include the rehabilitation of a copper mine in Logar, the Salma dam in Herat and the paving of segments of the ring road in Faryab and Badghis. 55. UNAMA assessed the distribution of development assistance across the country’s 34 provinces and worked with donors to develop a single Government database for information on donor contributions. A proposal will be submitted to the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board at its next meeting. B. United Nations country team 56. The United Nations country team is operating in an environment where it has to run development and humanitarian programmes in parallel. Despite the increasingly difficult security challenges, progress has been made on both fronts. The 31 members of the country team are working in alignment with the Afghanistan National Development Strategy. The priority areas of the draft United Nations Development Assistance Framework — governance, livelihoods and basic services — relate closely to the Paris agenda priorities of agriculture, capacity-building, education, income generation and the improved delivery of services to all Afghans. 57. The country team decided to change its service delivery in three ways. It will concentrate more on delivery at the subnational level, focus more on agriculture and income opportunities and improve the coherence of programming in five to six of the more stable provinces, where the balance between needs and assistance provided is particularly uneven. 58. The Resident Coordinator’s Office conducted a review of the programmes of 18 United Nations agencies in the light of the Paris agenda. It found that the total value of United Nations agencies’ current programmes in Afghanistan amounts to $3.5 billion. This includes $1.1 billion for strengthening institutions and governance; $350 million for strengthening democracy and supporting elections; $850 million for food security; $150 million for agriculture; $600 million for programmes aimed at creating economic opportunities and supporting livelihoods, especially in rural areas; and $200 million each for the education and health sectors, focusing particularly on capacity-building. VIII. Human rights 59. Afghanistan continues to be confronted by serious human rights challenges linked to long-standing problems such as weak governance, entrenched impunity, lack of attention to transitional justice, extreme poverty and discriminatory laws and practices, in particular against women and girls. These problems are compounded by the intensifying armed conflict. The transformation of Afghanistan into a peaceful, pluralist society is threatened by growing restrictions on freedom of expression. 60. The widespread abuse of power by those in positions of authority, coupled with arbitrary detentions and the continued failure of the judiciary to respect fair trial guarantees or to operate in a just and independent manner, helps sustain the prevailing culture of impunity. 61. The Action Plan for Peace, Reconciliation and Justice failed to meet its objectives within the time frame initially envisaged. Reinvigorating the transitional justice agenda is an urgent challenge. The Government and the international community have particular responsibilities to address the concerns of a significant majority of Afghans, who have repeatedly underlined their desire for a just and sustainable peace. The United Nations is reviewing measures needed to safeguard material evidence pertinent to alleged crimes, including allegations of tampering with mass grave sites. 62. Freedom of expression remains precarious, with continued reports of intimidation of journalists by State and non-State actors. The courts are failing to uphold the right to freedom of expression, as evidenced by the heavy sentences handed down in two high-profile blasphemy cases on appeal to the Supreme Court. The Media Law, passed by the parliament in September 2008, contains ambiguous provisions that could be used to block political discussion. Ensuring freedom of expression during the upcoming presidential and parliamentary elections is a major challenge. 63. The resumption of the implementation of the death penalty is disquieting given manifest deficiencies in due process and fair trial guarantees. At least 16 prisoners convicted of criminal acts were executed by the State in November and December 2008. It is estimated that 110 prisoners remain on death row. Adequate procedural guarantees to protect the rights of those charged with capital offences are not in place; implementation of the death penalty therefore risks perpetuating injustice rather than addressing legitimate concerns about national and public security. A. Gender 64. Women in public life were increasingly subjected to threats and intimidation. The assassination of the most prominent female senior police officer in Kandahar in September 2008 illustrated the tremendous risks they face. The lack of access for women, in particular victims of sexual violence, to redress mechanisms, legal, medical or psychosocial, remained a serious obstacle to addressing this problem. Female victims of rape continued to face social condemnation and risked prosecution for what is considered unlawful sexual activity. As a result, sexual violence is concealed and underreported. 65. The Afghan Government’s awareness of gender in policy implementation has improved, as demonstrated by several initiatives towards gender-sensitive programming, in line with the Afghanistan National Development Strategy and the National Action Plan for Women in Afghanistan. However, the status of women in Afghanistan remains one of the lowest in the world; the maternal mortality rate is one of the highest, in some rural areas estimated to be more than 6,500 per 100,000 live births. In 2007, only 25.7 per cent of pupils who completed primary education were girls, and trends show that the proportion of girls in school is declining. The participation of women in employment, especially in the civil service, declined from 25.9 per cent in 2005 to 22 per cent in 2007. Afghanistan is in danger of reversing the gains that have been made to improve the well-being and status of women and girls. B. Protection of civilians 66. UNAMA recorded 626 civilian casualties between September and December 2008, making a total of 2,118 civilian casualties for the year, mostly in the south, south-east and east of the country. This represents an increase of 40 per cent over the figures for 2007. Some 55 per cent of civilian deaths in 2008 were caused by the insurgents and 39 per cent by international and national Afghan forces (the remaining 6 per cent could not be attributed to any of the parties to conflict). Suicide attacks accounted for 34 per cent of all civilian casualties in 2008. 67. Anti-Government elements remain responsible for the largest proportion of civilian casualties, demonstrating in their tactics a disregard for the lives of civilians. Civilian deaths caused by anti-Government elements rose from 700 in 2007 to 1,160 in 2008 — an increase of over 65 per cent. On the side of proGovernment forces, changed tactical directives and other measures to minimize the impact of security operations on non-combatants are welcome. However, civilian casualties continue to be reported, occurring allegedly as a result of operations conducted by pro-Government forces, with air strikes alone accounting for an estimated 68 per cent of such fatalities. 68. In addition to fatalities as a direct result of armed hostilities, civilians suffered from injury, threats and intimidation, as well as loss of livelihoods, forced displacement and destruction of property. 69. UNAMA continues to play a central role in the monitoring and reporting of grave child-rights violations, pursuant to Security Council resolution 1612 (2005). Children continue to be victims of the escalating conflict. There are allegations of recruitment of children by armed groups in the south, south-east and east. Children were also captured, arrested and detained by Afghan law enforcement agencies and international military forces because of their alleged association with armed groups. 70. There was an increase in attacks on schools from previous years, including a disturbing incident in November 2008, when Taliban militants attacked a group of girls en route to school by throwing acid in their faces. Between January and November 2008, 275 attacks against schools were reported, resulting in the deaths of 66 people and injuries to 64 others, mostly children. IX. Humanitarian situation 71. The impact of conflict reduced access to essential services and affected livelihoods and coping mechanisms; it also intensified the challenge for the humanitarian agencies to address the needs of the population. Geographic areas that were once accessible are now largely out of reach for most humanitarian organizations. In September 2008, I decided to establish an office of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in Afghanistan in view of the worsening humanitarian situation. The new office is part of the United Nations country team and reports to my Special Representative through my Deputy Special Representative, who also serves as the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator. The dedicated humanitarian coordination capacity of an office of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs will facilitate the humanitarian response of the United Nations to the challenges in the country, building on the existing humanitarian coordination structures. 72. The most immediate priority for the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs office has been to facilitate the development of the Humanitarian Action Plan, the first since 2002, which was completed and presented to donors in January. The Plan includes $604 million in submitted projects, a large number of them from non-United Nations partners. In July 2008, the $404 million Afghanistan joint emergency appeal to address high food prices and the drought crisis was launched by the Government and the United Nations to assist nearly 2 million people. That appeal, which was, unfortunately, only about 50 per cent funded, has now been superseded by the Humanitarian Action Plan. 73. Owing to poor rainfall, the year’s cereal harvest was the smallest since 2002, and more than 5 million people are in need of immediate food assistance. Approximately 1.2 million children under the age of five and 550,000 pregnant or lactating mothers in 22 provinces remain at high risk of severe malnutrition. Water shortages may also lead to the displacement of vulnerable populations. United Nations agencies constructed over 800 watering points in returnee and drought-affected areas. Winterization efforts continued through pre-positioning and delivery of foodstuffs and non-food items. By January 2009, the World Food Programme had pre-positioned 98 per cent of its planned assistance for 963,000 beneficiaries in 24 provinces, and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) provided non-food items to 212,000 vulnerable returnees and internally displaced persons. 74. In 2008, some 278,000 registered refugees had returned to Afghanistan and been assisted by UNHCR; 98.5 per cent of them returned from Pakistan. Some 10 per cent of returnees were unable to return to their place of origin due to insecurity, socio-economic hardships and land disputes. The Afghanistan National Development Strategy sector strategy on refugee returns and internally displaced persons, launched jointly by the Government and UNHCR in November 2008, called for increased investment to support returnee reintegration over the next five years to stabilize population movements. 75. Following the completion of the first national profile of internally displaced persons in December 2008, a national strategy will need to be developed to support solutions for the over 230,000 internally displaced persons identified. Some 600 families returned to their place of origin in 2008. The inter-agency contingency planning for increased displacement in the context of a deteriorating security situation will be important in 2009. 76. The World Health Organization (WHO)-supported Disease Early Warning System identified and responded to serious diseases, including Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and cholera, resulting in very low case-fatality rates. The United Nations Children’s Fund has been able to scale up programmes in the area of child survival and health and assist millions of children through local partners as well as Government counterparts. Vaccination campaigns continued. Yet, in spite of repeated rounds of national and subnational polio immunization days, polio remained endemic in the country because of insecurity and limited access to some communities. Innovative approaches were devised to allow vaccination in insecure areas. Coordination with ISAF provided opportunities in conflict areas to vaccinate children during relatively calm periods. WHO increasingly uses local partners to implement vaccination campaigns. 77. Children are frequently caught between opposing sides in the ongoing conflict in the southern and eastern regions and caught up in asymmetric attacks in the north-east, west and central regions. Children’s education, particularly that of girls, is seen as anti-Islamic by the Taliban, turning children into targets. In September 2008, insurgents burned over 100,000 textbooks being transported to Kandahar. The education community also continued to suffer extreme violence. From June to December 2008, there were 202 incidents, resulting in 83 deaths and 164 injuries. X. Mission operations and support 78. As a result of the expanded and sharpened UNAMA mandate, the General Assembly agreed to a 91.5 per cent increase in the Mission’s 2009 budget, which includes an increase in the number of international staff by 115, national Professionals by 57, national support staff by 249 and United Nations Volunteers by 16. The budget also provides for the opening of four additional provincial offices in 2009 (in Ghazni, Sar-e-Pul, Helmand and Farah). One new provincial office, in Baghlan, was opened in 2008. The Uruzgan office, previously forecast to open in 2008, is scheduled to open shortly. By the end of 2009, therefore, UNAMA should have 15 provincial offices in addition to its 8 regional offices. The Mission will continue to use its liaison offices in Islamabad and Teheran to support activities of a regional dimension; the 2009 budget allows for strengthening the UNAMA liaison offices. 79. All regional and provincial offices must be self-sufficient, particularly with regard to power generation, water accessibility, communications and information technology, vehicles and provision of fuel. Establishing these new offices in the first part of the year will be a major focus of the UNAMA support services. The expansion of the Mission’s geographic coverage will also require the deployment of additional administrative and technical staff to provide on-site support in the areas of engineering, transportation, security, communications, information technology and cash flow. 80. The planned expansion resulted in the need for more air assets for the Mission for 2009 to facilitate increased air support required by the field offices, given the reduction in road missions as a result of the security situation and the need to gain access to certain locations quickly in the event of medical evacuation and/or relocation of staff. 81. Finally, the increase in staff places a significant burden on the Mission’s recruitment capacity. In late 2008, the Department of Field Support sent a team to UNAMA for three months to assist in recruitment. Between April and December 2008, by making recruitment a priority and obtaining delegated authority, UNAMA was able to reduce its staff vacancy rate from approximately 30 per cent to 10 per cent. The end-of-year attrition rate also appeared to be lower than in previous years; this can be attributed partly to the Afghanistan special allowance obtained in June 2008 for international staff serving there. XI. Observations 82. As I wrote in my report issued following the Paris Conference in Support of Afghanistan in June (S/2008/434), I believe that the mandate of UNAMA contains all the formal elements required for it to play a central coordinating role in Afghanistan. The 2009 budget adopted by the General Assembly increases the Mission’s capacity to implement its mandate. Therefore, I recommend that the current mandate, which was renewed by the Security Council in its resolution 1806 (2008) until 23 March 2009, be extended for a further 12 months. It is clear that support for the electoral process is particularly relevant over the coming months. In addition to the provision of technical support and the coordination of donors, the 2009 UNAMA budget provides for a political-electoral unit to work with political parties, civil society, candidates and other political actors to verify the exercise of political rights, provide mediation and good offices on electoral issues and host forums for coordination among political party leaders and candidates. In carrying out such activities, UNAMA will continue to act in an impartial manner, leading the efforts of the international community, with the goal of ensuring a fair, transparent and credible process. 83. When I visited Kabul in February, I stated that 2009 would be a critical year for Afghanistan. Electoral politics would test the country’s still fragile political consensus, and insecurity, according to almost every expert, would get worse before it got better. This remains my view. I reassured President Karzai of the support of the international community in working with Afghans to improve the country’s security and more fully develop its economic and political institutions.九. 人道主义局势
84. I have confidence in the overall strategy elaborated by Afghans and their international partners, endorsed by the Afghan Government and nearly 90 donors in Paris in June 2008. This strategy is, in a few words, to prioritize, rationalize and “Afghanize”. The agriculture, energy and infrastructure sectors have been identified as priorities. The principles of aid effectiveness, including reporting on how money is spent and stronger anti-corruption measures, serve to ensure that assistance resources are spent rationally. Finally, the emphasis on capacity-building and the use of the Afghan budget as a programming mechanism will secure Afghan ownership of the process. This strategy is also being pursued by the new integrated approach advanced by my Special Representative, based on the reality that different regions of Afghanistan have different conditions of governance, aid absorption and access, and therefore require different approaches by different actors.71. 冲突的影响使人们更难得到基本服务,并且也影响了生计和应对机制;冲突也使人道主义机构更难满足民众的需要。原先可以到达的地区,现在基本上已不对多数人道主义组织开放。2008年9月,我决定在阿富汗建立联合国人道主义事务协调厅办事处,以处理人道主义局势恶化的问题。新的办事处是联合国国家工作队的一部分,通过秘书长副特别代表兼人道主义协调员向秘书长特别代表报告。为人道协调厅办事处配备专门的人道主义协调能力,将有助于联合国应对该国的人道主义挑战,发展现有的人道主义协调结构。
85.72.
I have been heartened that the various strategic reviews being undertaken by some Member States and organizations increasingly appear to be leading to policies and resource allocations that fit within the overall strategy described above.人道协调厅办事处的当务之急是协助制定人道主义行动计划。这是2002年以来的第一个计划,已在1月完成并提交捐助者。计划所包括的提交项目价值6.04亿美元,其中很大一部分来自非联合国伙伴。2008年7月,阿富汗政府和联合国发起应对高粮价和干旱危机的阿富汗联合紧急呼吁,以筹款4.04亿美元,援助将近200万人民。遗憾的是,呼吁只得到50%的款项,现已由人道主义行动计划所取代。
86.73. 由于雨量不足,今年的谷物收成是2002年来最糟糕的,有500多万人需要立即得到粮食援助。在22个省份中,大约有120万5岁以下的儿童,以及550 000名孕妇和哺乳妇女仍有严重营养不良的风险。缺水也会导致弱势人口流离失所。联合国机构在回归者地区和干旱地区建造了800多处供水点,并继续通过预先部署和运送食品和非食品物品进行御寒工作。到2009年1月,粮食计划署已经预先部署了98%的计划援助物资,可以让24个省份的963 000人受惠;难民署向212 000名易受伤害的回归者和境内流离失所者提供了非粮食物品。 74.
We should expect that the upcoming elections will be tightly contested.到2008年年底,大约有278 000名登记难民返回阿富汗,并得到难民署的帮助。其中有98.5%的难民是从巴基斯坦返回的。由于不安全、社会经济困难和土地纠纷,约有10%的难民无法返回家乡。阿富汗政府和难民署2008年11月联合推出的阿富汗国家发展战略难民回归和境内流离失所者部门战略要求增加投资,支助回归者在今后5年内重新融入社会,稳定人口流动。 75.
This, in itself, is a sign of progress, even as it tests the constitutional order of Afghanistan.2008年12月完成了境内流离失所者第一个国家概况的编写。之后,将需要制定一项国家战略,以支助解决已确认的230 000余名境内流离失所者的问题。2008年,大约有600个家庭返回家乡。2009年的一项重要工作是制定机构间应急计划,应付安全局势恶化造成的越来越多的流离失所问题。 76.
This test is most evident in the debate over the constitutional implications of the electoral date, a debate in which all sides have strong arguments.世界卫生组织(世卫组织)支助的疾病预警系统确认并应对严重疾病,包括克里米亚-刚果出血热和霍乱,该病的死亡率因此非常低。儿童基金会得以扩大儿童生存和保健领域的方案,并通过当地伙伴和政府对应机构,帮助数百万儿童。免疫接种运动仍在继续开展,但是,由于缺乏安全,一些社区的准入有限,因此,尽管举办了几次小儿麻痹症全国免疫日和国以下各级免疫日,小儿麻痹症依然在全国流行。为了在不安全的地区进行免疫接种,世卫组织采取了一些富有创意的做法,与国际安全援助部队协调,已经在相对平静时期为冲突地区的儿童进行免疫接种。世卫组织还越来越多地使用当地伙伴开展免疫接种运动。 77.
Every constitutional order eventually faces such dilemmas, and Constitutions are strengthened by overcoming them.在南部和东部地区,儿童经常夹在现有冲突敌对双方的中间,在东北部、西部和中部则夹在不对称攻击的中间。塔利班将儿童教育,尤其是女孩的教育,视为反伊斯兰教的行为,因此将其作为攻击对象。2008年9月,叛乱分子烧毁了运往坎大哈的100 000本教科书。教育界还继续受到极端暴力的攻击。2008年6月至12月期间,发生了202起事件,造成83人死亡,164人受伤。 十.
There is no higher responsibility in Afghanistan right now than that of the three branches of government to find a solution to the constitutional issue in a way that ensures the existence of a functioning Government between 22 May and the inauguration of the next presidential term.特派团行动和支助 78.
The country’s leaders must place the political stability of their country at the centre of their calculations, as they have done at crucial moments over the past seven years.联阿援助团扩大和加强了任务规定,因此,大会同意援助团2009年的预算增加91.5%,包括增加国际工作人员115名,本国专业人员57名,本国支助人员249名,联合国志愿人员16名。预算还提供经费,在2009年增设4个省办事处(加兹尼省、萨尔普勒省、赫尔曼德省和法拉省)。巴格兰的一个新的省办事处已于2008年开办。原先预告在2008年开办的乌鲁兹甘省办事处定于不久开办。因此,到2009年年底,除了8个区域办事处之外,联阿援助团将有15个省办事处。援助团将继续使用在伊斯兰堡和德黑兰的联络处,支助带有区域性质的活动;2009年的预算提供了加强联阿援助团联络处的经费。
87. Preparations for the 20 August 2009 elections will likely take place during a period of intensified fighting. For the first time, the Independent Electoral Commission has the primary responsibility for organizing the elections, with the financial and technical support of the international community. The fact that voter registration was concluded successfully and without major incidents, even in the more volatile areas of the country, is a positive development that must be built upon. There must be no doubt in the mind of any Afghan that elections will be held as scheduled. These elections must be held in as secure an environment as possible, where the freedoms of expression, media and assembly that democracy requires are guaranteed as much as possible.79. 所有的区域办事处和省办事处都必须自给自足,尤其是在发电、用水、通信和信息技术、车辆和燃料提供方面。2009年上半年,联阿援助团支助事务的主要重点将是建立这些新办事处。扩大援助团的地域覆盖面还将要求部署更多的行政和技术人员,就地提供工程、运输、安保、通信、信息技术和现金流动等领域的支助。
88. While there are many reasons to believe that security in Afghanistan will worsen in 2009, there are also reasons for medium-term optimism. A judicious deployment of additional international troops, with its primary goal being the security of the Afghan people, will be a welcome development. It can increase the number of trainers for Afghan security forces, help secure the electoral environment and enhance the strength of the Government so that it may conduct with confidence a dialogue aimed at bringing its opponents into a political process of reconciliation and a cessation of violence. I have noted and welcomed the agreement between the Afghan Minister of Defence and the Commander of ISAF, aimed at minimizing civilian casualties. Such practical steps constitute an emphatic recognition that the occurrence of civilian casualties has become too debilitating to ignore. My Special Representative has been active in both raising this issue and seeking solutions, and will continue to do so. On the other hand, it is clear that most civilian casualties are the result of insurgents whose attacks show an increasing disregard for the lives of civilians.80. 由于计划进行扩大,援助团在2009年将需要更多的航空资产,以帮助满足外地办事处越来越多的空中支援要求,因为安全局势的原因,将不得不减少陆路运输;而且在医疗后送和(或)调动工作人员时,需要迅速进入某些地方。
89. It is easy and tempting to overlook, in the reports of violence and instability, key areas of progress in Afghanistan, which provide a narrow window of opportunity that must not be missed. These developments over the past six months are the results of concerted efforts by the Government of Afghanistan and the international community to work together towards common goals. They are, in many ways, the results of a more diligent application of the strategy defined above. 90. First, in the security sector, the new Minister of Interior has begun an active reform of his Ministry and the police ranks. Afghan security ministers are now cooperating with each other more effectively, and have successfully uncovered terrorist networks and plans before they could be executed. This progress must be built on, in particular by supplying additional mentoring teams for the police. 91. Second, the prognosis for poppy production in 2009 indicates a possible further reduction of 20 to 30 per cent and a potential increase in the number of poppy-free provinces. In many provinces, the actions of provincial governors were decisive in bringing about these developments. The Good Performers Initiative for Governors, a mechanism that builds on these successes, is one of the most promising ways to reduce poppy production. Unfortunately, it is financed by only a few donors, and needs far greater support from others. Should the prognosis become a reality, 2009 would be the second year in a row of overall decline in poppy production, after five years of constant increases.81. 最后,需要增加工作人员给联阿援助团的招聘能力带来很大负担。2008年下半年,外勤支助部派遣了一个小组前往联阿援助团,协助招聘工作3个月。2008年4月至12月期间,联阿援助团将招聘工作作为优先事项,并得到上级授权,因此得以将其工作人员的空缺率从30%左右减少到将近10%。年终的损耗率似乎也低于上一年,部分原因是2008年6月得到了一笔给在阿富汗工作的国际工作人员的阿富汗特别津贴。
92. The new Minister of Agriculture is determined to increase agricultural production and to energize this neglected sector. We have seen in the health and education sectors how determined ministers, with international support, can deliver results in Afghanistan. With new Ministers of Agriculture, Commerce and Finance, I am also convinced that the Government’s economic team will work in a more effective and coherent way. That could enable more effective implementation of Afghan strategies, as well as economic growth.十一. 意见 82. 正如我在6月举行的援助阿富汗巴黎会议之后分发的报告(S/2008/434)所述,我认为,联阿援助团任务规定包含了该特派团能够在阿富汗发挥关键协调作用所需的所有正规的因素。大会通过的2009年预算加强了该特派团执行其任务规定的能力。因此,我建议,将安全理事会第1806(2008)号决议延长该特派团到2009年3月23日的现有任务期限再延长12个月。显然,对选举进程的援助在未来几个月里尤其重要。除了提供技术支助和协调捐助者之外,联阿援助团2009年预算规定成立一个政治选举股与各政党、民间社会团体、候选人及其他政治行为体合作,核查行使政治权利的情况,为选举问题提供调解和斡旋,并为各政党领袖与候选人之间的协调组织各种论坛。在开展这些活动时,联阿援助团将继续以公正的方式采取行动,在国际社会的努力中发挥主导作用,以便确保公正、透明和可信的进程。 83. 当我于2月份访问喀布尔时,曾经指出2009年对于阿富汗来说是一个关键的年份。政治选举将考验阿富汗在政治上所达成的仍然脆弱的共识。几乎所有的专家都认为,阿富汗的安全状况将会在好转之前恶化。这仍然是我的观点。我向卡尔扎伊总统保证,国际社会将提供支助,与阿富汗人民一道改善该国的安全状况,并且能够更充分地发展其经济和政治体制。 84. 我对于阿富汗与其国际合作伙伴制定的总体战略具有信心,2008年6月,阿富汗政府和将近90个捐助者在巴黎支持这项战略。该战略可以用几个字加以概括:确定优先顺序、合理化和阿富汗化。农业、能源和基础设施部门被确定为优先事项。援助实效的原则,包括报告如何使用款项以及更有力度的反腐措施,均有助于确保合理使用援助资源。最后,强调能力建设,以及将阿富汗预算作为一个拟定方案的机制,将能够确保阿富汗自己掌握该进程。该战略也正通过我的特别代表提出的新的综合方针加以实施,这项方针基于的现实情况是,阿富汗不同地区具有不同的治理、吸收援助和进入的条件,因此,需要不同行为体采取不同的方针。 85. 我感到高兴的是,一些会员国和机构正在进行的各种战略审查,越来越多地能够产生符合上述总体战略的政策和资源分配做法。 86. 我们应能估计到,这次选举将会竞争激烈。这本身是一种进步的表现,即使该选举是对阿富汗宪政秩序的考验。这种考验在关于选举日期对宪政影响的辩论中最为明显,在这场辩论中,各方都提出了强有力的论据。每一个宪政秩序最终都将面临这种两难状况,通过克服这种状况能够加强《宪法》。目前,阿富汗政府的三个分支机构最重要的责任是,要以某种方式需找到解决宪政问题的办法,以确保在5月22日与下一位总统任期开始之间,政府能够正常运作。正如阿富汗领导人在过去7年里的关键时刻已经做到一样,他们必须将该国的政治稳定作为其考量的关键因素。 87. 为2009年8月20日选举开展的筹备工作很可能将在战斗更加激烈的时期内进行。在国际社会的财政和技术的援助下,独立选举委员会首次担负着组织这次选举的首要责任。选民登记已圆满结束,甚至在阿富汗最为动荡的地区均没有发生重大事故,这是一个积极的动态,必须在该动态的基础之上继续努力。决不应当让任何阿富汗人怀疑该选举是否能如期举行。选举必须在一个尽可能安全的环境中举行,民主所需要的言论、媒体和集会自由应尽可能得到保障。 88. 尽管有许多理由能够认为,阿富汗的安全局势在2009年将会恶化,也有不少理由能够使我们对不久的将来抱有乐观的态度。为了阿富汗人民的安全审慎地部署更多国际部队,将是令人欢迎的动态。这些部队能够增加阿富汗安全部队培训人员,协助确保选举环境的安全,并加强政府的力量,以便它有信心进行对话,使政府的反对派能进入政治和解进程,阻止暴力行为。我已注意到并欣见,阿富汗国防部长与国际安全援助部队指挥官达成的旨在尽可能减少平民伤亡的协议。这种切实的步骤表明,他们深刻地认识到,平民的伤亡已经严重到了不容忽视的程度。我的特别代表在提出这项问题和寻找解决办法方面发挥了积极作用,并将继续发挥这种作用。另一方面,大部分平民伤亡显然是叛乱分子造成的结果,他们的袭击越来越忽视平民的生命。 89. 在关于暴力和不稳定的报告中,很容易忽视阿富汗境内已在一些关键领域取得进展,这种进展所提供的些微机会决不能丧失。在过去半年里的这些动态是阿富汗政府和国际社会致力于实现共同目标所作的一致努力的结果。从许多方面来看,这些动态也是更加积极实施上述战略的结果。 90. 首先,在安保部门,新的内政部长已开始积极改革该部门及各级警察部门。阿富汗安保执行人员目前正更有效地相互合作,而且已成功地发现一些恐怖主义网络和计划,使这些计划无法实施。必须在这些进展的基础上继续作出努力,尤其是通过为警察提供更多的辅导小组。 91. 其次,2009年的预报表明,罂粟生产可能进一步减少20%到30%,而且无罂粟省份有可能增加。在许多省份,省长所采取的行动在促成这些事态发展方面发挥决定性作用。促进省长取得良好绩效倡议是一个在这些成功基础上建立的机制,它是最有可能减少罂粟生产的办法之一。不幸的是,只有少数捐助者资助这项倡议,因此需要其他捐助者更多的支助。假如上述预报能够成为现实,2009年将是罂粟生产连续两年总体下降的年份,在此之前,罂粟生产曾经连续增长五年。 92. 新的农业部长决心扩大农业生产,并为这个被忽略的部门注入活力。我们已经看到卫生和教育部长在国际社会支助下,如何下决心在阿富汗的这两个部门取得的结果。在新的农业、商业和财政部长的努力下,我也深信,阿富汗政府的经济团队能够更有效地协作。这能够更有效地实施阿富汗的各项战略,并能够促进经济增长。
93. One must look beneath the relentless reports of the instability in Afghanistan’s south to see these positive developments, which are neither accidental nor negligible. They are, instead, the result of the convergence of thinking about Afghanistan that took concrete form at the Paris Conference, and then the diligent and often quiet pressure to implement the Paris commitments. These modest but definite results are the source of my confidence in our strategy.93. 人们必须从许多关于阿富汗南部不稳定状况的报告中看到这些积极的动态,这些动态既不是偶然的,也不是微不足道的。相反的,这是在巴黎会议上大家关于阿富汗的具体共识所产生的结果,也是后来积极施加常常是暗中的压力来履行巴黎的承诺所产生的结果。这些不显眼却是确凿的结果是我对上述战略具有信心的原因。
94. For the United Nations, the past year has been one of shaping UNAMA to better meet the expectations placed upon it. My Special Representative, as head of UNAMA, has reorganized the Mission to meet the needs of 2009. I am grateful to the General Assembly for its understanding that this required significantly greater resources.94. 就联合国来说,在过去一年里,联阿援助团不断改进,以便更好地满足对该特派团所抱有的期望。作为联阿援助团的团长,我的特别代表已经重新改组该特派团,以满足2009年的需求。我感谢大会理解这种改组需要大量增加资源。
95. The staff of UNAMA remain the key assets of the Mission. I commend them for their commitment and hard work. I should also like to thank all of the Mission’s partners, including the United Nations country team and other humanitarian agencies. Finally, I express my gratitude to my Special Representative, Kai Eide, for his dedication, perseverance and perspicacity, and to Member States and other international organizations for the support they continue to lend to his and the Mission’s work.95. 联阿援助团的工作人员仍然是该特派团的关键资源。我赞扬他们的决心和辛勤的工作,我也感谢援助团的所有合作伙伴,包括联合国国家工作队及其他人道主义机构。最后,我特别感谢我的特别代表凯 艾德的献身精神、不屈不挠和睿智敏锐。感谢会员国及其他国际组织向他及援助团的工作继续提供的支助。
A/63/751 S/2009/135A/63/751 S/2009/135
A/63/751 S/2009/135A/63/751 S/2009/135
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United Nations联合国
A/63/751–S/2009/135A/63/751–S/2009/135
General Assembly大 会
Security Council安全理事会
Distr.Distr.
: General: General
10 March 200910 March 2009
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
09-25604 (E) 12030909-25603 (C) 110309 120309
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