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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.11 V1502159.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.11 V1502158.doc (Chinese)
II. Executive summary二. 内容提要
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Israel in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面以色列的法律和体制框架概览
The Convention was signed on 29 November 2005 and ratified by Israel on 4 February 2009.以色列于2005年11月29日签署《公约》,并于2009年2月4日批准《公约》。
Treaties are not automatically incorporated into Israeli law upon ratification.条约并不是一经批准便被自动纳入以色列法律。
In order for a treaty to be implemented at the national level, appropriate adjustments are often necessary.为了在国家一级实施条约,通常需要进行适当修订。
For this reason, Israel ratifies international conventions after it is has been determined by the Government that Israel’s internal law is compliant.为此,只有在以色列政府确定国际公约符合国内法之后,以色列才会批准该公约。
This was the case for the Convention.《反腐败公约》也属于这种情况。
Israeli legislation sets out a comprehensive legal framework for the criminalization, prevention and eradication of corrupt practices.以色列立法规定了定罪、预防和根除腐败行为的全面法律框架。
Israel’s legal framework against corruption includes provisions from its Basic Laws (a set of basic laws containing constitutional elements, as Israel does not have a formal constitution), Penal Law, Criminal Procedure Law, Protection of Employees Law, Witness Protection Law, Rights of Victims of Crime Law, Public Service Law, Prohibition on Money Laundering Law (PMLL), International Legal Assistance Law, Extradition Law, and Encouragement of Ethical Conduct in the Public Service Law.以色列的反腐败法律框架包括其基本法(一套包含宪法要素的基本法,因为以色列没有正式的宪法),《刑法》、《刑事诉讼法》、《雇员保护法》、《证人保护法》、《犯罪受害者权利法》、《公务人员法》、《禁止洗钱法》、《国际司法协助法》、《引渡法》和《公务人员道德行为激励法》。
Israel’s law enforcement agencies engage in an intensive campaign to strengthen the rule of law and implement a zero tolerance approach towards corruption.以色列执法机构参与广泛的活动,以加强法治,对腐败实行零容忍。
The battle against corruption has been, and remains, a matter of high priority for the executive, legislative and judicial organs.反腐败斗争一直是,而且仍然是行政、立法和司法机关的高度优先事项。
Public officials and private actors engaging in corrupt practices are prosecuted without consideration of their position or identity.参与腐败的公职人员和私人受到起诉,不论其地位或身份。
Israel has a variety of agencies and authorities responsible for implementing anti-corruption measures that cooperate with each other on a daily basis.以色列有负责实施反腐败措施的各类机构和机关,并且日常互相合作。
Authorities involved in the fight against corruption include the Israel Police (IP), Office of the State Attorney, Israel Money Laundering and Terror Financing Prohibition Authority, Israel Securities Authority, Office of the State Comptroller and Ombudsman, State Control Committee (Knesset), Ethics Committee (Knesset), Government Companies Authority and the Civil Service Commission.参与反腐败斗争的当局包括以色列警察总局、国家检察长办公室、以色列反洗钱和反恐怖主义融资办公室、以色列安全管理局、国家主计长和监察员办公室、国家管理委员会(议会)、道德委员会(议会)、政府公司管理局和公务员委员会。
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review2.1. 关于所审议的条款实施情况的评述
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)
Active and passive bribery of public officials is comprehensively criminalized in Sections 290 and the accompanying sections of the Penal Law.《刑法》第290节和附加章节将公职人员主动和被动受贿定为犯罪。
The type of benefit offered — be it monetary or other — and whether it was given for an act or an omission, for suspending expediting or delaying an act, or for causing preferential or adverse treatment, are all irrelevant.非法所得利益的类型(金钱利益或其他)不是定罪的依据——无论这种利益是否因以下原因所致:作为或不作为、中止加快或推迟行动、导致得到优惠或不利待遇。
In addition, the law does not differentiate between cases where the bribe was given by the person himself or through another person; whether it was given directly to the person who took it or to a third party on behalf of him, whether it was given before or after the event, and whether the ultimate beneficiary was a public official or another person.此外,法律并未区分直接行贿或通过第三方行贿;贿赂是否直接提供给受贿者本人或是代表他的第三方,是否在事前或事后行贿,最终受益者是否是公职人员或是其他人。
There is no need for the bribe to have actually been received or even for consent to receive or give it to have been given, in order for a criminal offence to be completed.刑事罪成立并不需要实际收到贿赂或甚至同意受贿或向曾行贿对象行贿。
The definition of a public official in Israeli law is broad and includes, among others, State employees, employees of entities wholly or partially owned by the government and the holders of offices or functions under enactments, which include judicial and legislative officers.在以色列法律中,公职人员的定义很广,除其他外,包括国家工作人员、由政府全部或部分拥有的实体的雇员,以及根据法规设立的办公室或职能的负责人,其中包括司法和立法人员。
Under Section 293(7), the bribery offence covers both cases where bribes are given for the performance of acts that fall within or outside of the duties and functions of public officials.根据第293(7)节,受贿罪包括两种情况,也就是针对公职人员职责和职能以内或以外的行为表现予以贿赂的情况。
Section 291A of the Penal Law enacts the foreign bribery offence and includes all the acts described in article 16(1) of the United Nations Convention against Corruption.《刑法》第291 A节规定了外国贿赂罪行,涵盖了《联合国反腐败公约》第十六条第一款中描述的所有行为。
The elements of the offence are identical to those of domestic bribery, other than the purpose of the bribe and the definition of the term “foreign public official”, which is in line with the definitions of the terms “foreign public official” and “official of a public international organization” in the Convention.除了贿赂目的和对“国外公职人员”一词的定义外,该罪行的要素与国内贿赂罪的要素一致,“国外公职人员”一词的定义符合《公约》中对“公职人员”和“国际公共组织官员”的定义。
After consideration, and due to policy concerns, it was decided not to establish as a criminal offence the passive bribery of foreign public officials.经过审议,出于政治考虑,以色列决定不将外国公职人员被动受贿定为刑事犯罪。
The provisions of article 18 are implemented through various provisions of the Law that deal with criminal liability for bribery.通过处理贿赂刑事责任的多项法律条款落实第十八条的规定。
Israel has chosen not to extend the bribery offence to the private sector.以色列选择不将受贿罪的范围扩大至私营部门。
However, private entities that provide a public service are included in the definition of “public official” for the purposes of bribery offences.但是,就贿赂罪而言,对“公职人员”的定义涵盖了提供公共服务的私人实体。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)洗钱,窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)
Money-laundering is criminalized in the PMLL.《禁止洗钱法》将洗钱定为犯罪。
The elements of money-laundering and concealment set forth in articles 23 and 24 of the Convention against Corruption are almost all covered.其中几乎涵盖了《反腐败公约》第二十三和第二十四条规定的所有洗钱和窝赃要素。
Under Israeli law it is a criminal offence not only to convert and transfer prohibited property or to conceal the illicit origin of such property, but also to retain possession of or use such property in the knowledge that the property is prohibited.根据以色列法律,不仅兑换和转移被禁财产或窝藏来自非法来源的这类财产是刑事犯罪,在明知财产被禁止的情况下占有或使用这类财产也是刑事犯罪。
There are, however, restrictions regarding the definition of “prohibited property”.但是,对“被禁财产”的定义有限制。
Regarding predicate offences Israel uses a list-approach.至于上游犯罪,以色列使用了制订清单的办法。
The offence of money-laundering applies to a wide range of predicate offences, which may be deemed as such even if committed in another State, provided that they also constitute offences under the laws of that State.洗钱罪适用于广泛的上游犯罪,即使是在另一国犯下的罪行,只要该罪行依据该国法律构成犯罪,也被视为上游犯罪。
A comprehensive range of corruption-related offences is included, albeit not all offences established in accordance with the Convention.上游犯罪包括了范围全面的腐败相关罪行,但并非所有罪行都是依据《公约》确立的。
The prosecution of self-laundering is possible.可以起诉自洗钱行为。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)贪污,滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条)
Under section 390 of the Penal Law, any public official who steals an asset of the State or an asset which came into his possession by virtue of his official position is criminally liable if the value of the stolen asset exceeds 1,000 new sheqalim (approximately $264).《刑法》第390节规定,对于盗窃国家资产或凭借公职占有资产的任何公职人员,如果被盗窃资产的价值超过1,000新谢克尔(约264美元),将承担刑事责任。
Although the Convention establishes no minimum value, given that the value indicated is small, that provision may be regarded as complying with the relevant requirements of the Convention.虽然《公约》未规定最低价值,鉴于《刑法》规定的价值很低,该条款可以视为符合《公约》的相关要求。
Additionally, the offence of theft and some counts of theft with aggravated circumstances are not limited by a minimum value.此外,盗窃罪行和一些具有加重情节的盗窃罪行不受最低价值的限制。
Section 390 states that stolen objects, i.e. the property in question, must pass into the public official’s possession, which equates to such forms of theft as misappropriation.第390节规定,公职人员盗窃归自己掌握的物品也即所涉财产的,等同于挪用。
The definition of theft in Section 383 applies to Section 390.第383节规定的盗窃定义适用于第390节。
With regard to other elements of embezzlement by public officials, it is possible to apply other provisions, such as Section 284 (fraud and breach of trust).关于公职人员贪污行为的其他要素,可以适用其他条款,例如第284节(欺诈和背信)。
Embezzlement in the private sector is covered by a range of offences in the Penal Law such as Deceit and Breach of Trust in Body Corporate (Section 425), Theft by an Employee (Section 391), Theft by a Director (Section 392) and Theft by an Agent (Section 393), whereby similar considerations as with embezzlement in the public sector regarding the minimum value of the stolen asset apply.《刑法》中的一系列罪行涵盖了私营部门内的贪污行为,例如法人团体中的欺骗和背信(第425节),雇员盗窃(第391节),主管盗窃(第392节),代理人盗窃(第393节)。此类行为适用公共部门贪污行为关于被盗窃资产最低价值的类似考虑因素。
As noted above, the offence of theft is not limited by a minimum value.如上所述,盗窃罪行不受最低价值的限制。
The abuse of functions is incriminated through sections 278, 280 and 284 PL.通过《刑法》第278、第280和第284节将滥用职权行为规定为犯罪。
Section 284, in particular, does not require the obtaining of an undue advantage by the public official or for another, and any breach of the public trust without these elements is considered an offence.特别是,《刑法》第284节规定,公职人员获得不当利益或为其他人谋取不当利益不是定罪的必要条件,任何违背公共信任的行为,尽管不具备这些要素,也视为犯罪。
Israel has considered the criminalization of illicit enrichment but decided against it, because it was felt to be contrary to the presumption of innocence as a fundamental principle of criminal law.以色列曾考虑将资产非法增加定为犯罪,但决定不这样做,因为以色列认为这违反了作为刑法基本原则的无罪推定。
There is a system of asset declarations for certain public officials, members of government, heads of municipal authorities and their deputies, and members of the Knesset in place, as well as a prohibition on public officials from accepting gifts presented to them in their capacity as public servants.针对某些公职人员、政府成员、市政当局负责人及其副手以及议会在位议员实行了资产申报制度,并禁止公职人员接受因其公务员职位而获赠的礼物。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)妨害司法(第二十五条)
The Penal Law has various provisions to address attempts on influencing the legal process.《刑法》多项条款涉及影响法律程序的企图。
Sections 244 (Obstruction of justice), 245 (Subornation in connection with an investigation), 246 (Subornation of testimony), 249 (Harassment of witness), 250 (Improper influence) and 382A (Assault of a public official) are particularly relevant.第244节(妨害司法)、第245节(与调查有关的收买)、第246节(收买证词)、第249节(骚扰证人)、第250节(不当影响)和第382A节(袭击公职人员)特别具有相关性。
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)法人责任(第二十六条)
According to section 23 of the Penal Law, a legal person is criminally liable for any offence when certain conditions set out in the provisions of that section are met.根据《刑法》第23节,当符合其中规定的制裁条件时,法人应对任何罪行承担刑事责任。
Corruption offences by legal persons are mainly punishable with criminal sanctions, although civil and administrative liability is also possible.法人犯下的腐败罪行主要受刑事制裁的惩罚,但也可以承担民事和行政责任。
The result of criminal proceedings against either a corporation or the person who committed the offence does not prevent or influence the institution of criminal proceedings and a finding of criminal liability against the other party.对犯罪的企业或个人提起的刑事诉讼的结果,不得妨碍或影响刑事诉讼机构和针对其他方的刑事责任裁决。
The criminal sanctions that can be imposed on a legal person for corruption offences are fines.对犯下贪污罪行的法人,可判处罚金作为刑事制裁。
Moreover, section 261 of the Companies Law enables the Attorney General to file for the dissolution of a company where such operates illegally.此外,根据《公司法》第261节,总检察长可在公司从事非法业务时提出解散该公司的申请。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)参与和未遂(第二十七条)
Participation in the commission of corruption-related offences is covered by Sections 29 (Perpetrator), 30 (Enticement), and 31 (Accessory) of the Penal Law.《刑法》第29节(实行犯)、第30节(教唆犯)和第31节(从犯)涵盖了参与腐败相关罪行的行为。
Attempt is covered by Sections 25, 26 and 34D.第25、第26和第34D节针对犯罪意图作出了规定。
Relevant case law provides extensive clarification on the nature and elements of attempt and its prosecution.相关判例法详尽阐明了犯罪意图的性质和要素及相关起诉。
Since proposal is an element included in the bribery offences, and abetting is found in Section 31 of the Penal Law, and in light of the offences of provision of means for commission of felony and conspiracy, Israel has considered but decided not to further criminalize the mere preparation for an offence.由于犯意表示是贿赂罪行的要素之一,而且《刑法》第31节对教唆行为作出了规定,鉴于共谋实施严重罪行和提供相关犯罪手段都是犯罪,以色列曾经考虑将纯粹的犯罪预备规定为犯罪,但后来没有这样做。
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
The sanctions applicable to corruption-related offences are sufficiently dissuasive.适用于腐败相关罪行的制裁具有充分的劝诫性。
Formulation of the sentences is regulated in a detailed manner and there is a range of custodial, pecuniary and administrative sanctions.详细规定了判决的制定,并且有一系列监禁、罚款和行政制裁。
In determining sentences for offences under the Convention, the court will use its discretion, taking a variety of considerations into account, such as the circumstances of the offence as well as the offender’s personal circumstances.法院在判决《公约》规定的罪行时会使用自由裁量权,并且考虑到各种因素,例如犯罪情节和犯罪者的个人状况。
In relation to immunities from prosecution, the members of the national Parliament (Knesset) enjoy such protection regarding “offences within their duty”, which does not include corruption-related offences.关于免于起诉,在“职责内罪行”方面,国家议会(议会)成员享有免于起诉的保护,但不包括腐败相关罪行。
If the Attorney General determines that the offence was not performed within the MK’s duty and decides to prosecute, the concerned MK can invoke his/her immunity by applying to the Knesset, whose decision is subject to judicial review.如果总检察长认定所犯罪行不属于国会议员的职责范围,并决定提出起诉,则相关国会议员可以向议会提出豁免申请,议会将根据司法审议作出决定。
However, while the personal scope of immunity is fairly limited, certain intrusive investigative measures, such as wiretapping, cannot be undertaken in relation to the investigation of a corruption-related offence, until it is lifted.然而,虽然个人豁免范围十分有限,但在侦查腐败相关罪行时不可采用某些侵入式的侦查措施,诸如窃听,除非解除豁免。
Prosecution of criminal cases, including corruption-related offences, lies within the discretion of the State Attorney’s Office as representative of the Attorney General, whose decisions in the criminal area are subject to judicial review, by the High Court of Justice.是否起诉刑事案件(包括腐败相关案件),应由作为总检察长代表的国家检察长办公室自行决定,其在刑事领域的决定应接受高级法院的司法审议。
There is an array of restrictive measures that can be applied in order to ensure the presence of the defendant at criminal proceedings, including detention when there is no less harmful way to prevent the defendant from evading the proceedings.可以适用一系列限制性措施,以确保被告到场参与刑事诉讼,包括在没有伤害程度更小的方式时拘留被告以防止其逃避诉讼。
The minimum eligibility period for early release is considered high enough and should be deemed to take sufficiently into account the gravity of the offences concerned, especially since release is not mandatory after completion of two thirds of the prison term, but subject to other considerations regarding the individual features of the offence and the offender.提前释放的最低合格期限应足够长,并充分考虑所涉罪行的严重性,特别是,在服完三分之二的刑期后,并非必须予以释放,而是要考虑到与罪行和罪犯的个人特点有关的其他因素。
Besides criminal sanctions, an official facing charges of corruption is subject to an array of disciplinary measures escalating from warning and reprimand to a range of sanctions, the severest being dismissal and disqualification, temporary or permanent.除刑事制裁外,受到腐败指控的官员还要面对许多纪律处分,严厉程度从警告和通报批评升级到一系列制裁,最严厉的措施是临时或永久解职和剥夺资格。
Disciplinary sanctions can also be imposed by the Civil Service Disciplinary Tribunal.公务员惩戒法庭也可处以纪律处分。
To encourage cooperation of perpetrators in obtaining evidence against co-perpetrators, a variety of incentives are provided for, ranging from mitigated punishment to immunity from prosecution.在获得针对共犯的证据时,为鼓励犯罪者合作,规定了从减轻惩罚到免予起诉的各种激励措施。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)
The Witness Protection Law applies to anyone who reports corruption offences, as the law is not limited to a specific type of offence.《证人保护法》适用于举报腐败犯罪的任何人,该法不局限于具体的犯罪类型。
Israel’s Witness Protection Authority has been set up to protect witnesses who are subject to the highest threat levels.以色列已设立了证人保护管理局,以保护处于最高威胁等级的证人。
It provides a unique protection programme which includes security, management and support, both in Israel and abroad, if needed.该局提供独特的保护方案,包括必要时在以色列国内外的安保、管理和支助。
The witnesses and their family members are accompanied by the Authority throughout the entire criminal process in order to provide them with the most independent and normal life possible.证人保护管理局将在整个刑事程序期间陪伴证人及其家人,以便为其提供尽可能最独立和正常的生活。
The definition of the term “witness” in the above-mentioned law includes victims of the offence.上述法律中“证人”一词的定义包括犯罪受害者。
As to the rights of victims in general, the Rights of Victims of Crime Law includes, inter alia, the right to review the indictment, to be informed of the proceedings and express opinions regarding various stages of the proceedings.至于受害者的一般权利,除其他外,《犯罪受害者权利法》涵盖了查阅控告书的权利、获知诉讼进程的权利和对诉讼各个阶段表达意见的权利。
A fairly comprehensive protective network is in place in terms of legislation, procedures and structures, dedicated to the protection of reporting persons, both in the private and public sectors.落实了关于立法、程序和结构的相当全面的保护网络,专门保护私营和公共部门的举报人。
In the framework of the latter, the Office of the State Comptroller cooperates with the Witness Protection Authority to enhance available means of protection.在后者的框架内,国家主计长办公室与证人保护管理局开展了合作,以加强可用的保护手段。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
Seizure and forfeiture provisions are mainly contained in the Criminal Procedure Ordinance (Arrest and Search) and PMLL.扣押和没收规定主要载于《刑事诉讼程序条例》(逮捕和搜索)和《禁止洗钱法》。
Value-based confiscation is possible for certain offences under the PMLL and Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.根据《禁止洗钱法》和《危险药物法令》,针对某些罪行可以实行基于价值的没收。
In addition, Section 22 of the PMLL provides for the confiscation of property in civil proceedings if the person suspected of committing the crime is not present in Israel on a regular basis, if he cannot be located, and therefore an indictment cannot be filed against him, or if the property was discovered after the conviction.此外,《禁止洗钱法》第22节规定,如果犯罪嫌疑人通常不在以色列,且因无法找到他而无法对其提出起诉,或者在定罪后发现财产的,民事诉讼可以判定没收财产。
The court may grant a provisional forfeiture order prior to filing an indictment or a request for forfeiture in civil proceedings, if it is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to assume that the property is likely to disappear or that actions are likely to prevent the subsequent forfeiture of such property.如果有合理理由认为财产可能消失,或可能出现阻止后续没收这类财产的行动,法院可在民事诉讼提出起诉或没收请求之前颁发临时没收令。
Israeli legislation provides extensive protection to bona fide third parties.以色列立法规定了对善意第三方的广泛保护。
Israel has considered the adoption of measures in accordance with article 31, paragraph 8, through the preparation of a draft bill which was under consultation at the time of review.以色列已考虑通过制定一部法令草案,依据第三十一条第八款采取措施,该法令目前正处于审查磋商阶段。
Israeli law allows investigative authorities to overcome confidentiality considerations and to obtain the requisite information from banks through a court order as provided in Section 43 of the Criminal Procedure Law.以色列法律允许侦查机关依据《刑事诉讼法》第43节规定的法院令,越过保密因素,从银行获取必要资料。
Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)
Israel has established a 10-year statute of limitations for most corruption offences in Section 9 (Prescription of offence) of the Criminal Procedure Law.在《刑事诉讼法》第9节中,以色列对大部分腐败罪行设定了十年的诉讼时效。
An investigation of an offence, an indictment or any other court proceeding suspends the statute of limitations for that offence.进行调查、起诉或其他任何法庭诉讼均会导致诉讼时效中止。
A court may suspend criminal proceedings if it would be impossible to bring the defendant to trial.如果被告无法出庭受审,法院可以中止刑事诉讼。
The police receive foreign criminal records and use them for intelligence purposes. For such records to be used as evidence, mutual legal assistance or INTERPOL channels are used.警察接收外国犯罪记录并用于情报目的,为利用这类记录作为证据,使用了司法互助或国际刑警组织渠道。
Relevant provisions are also found in Israel’s treaties.以色列的条约中也载有相关规定。
Jurisdiction (art. 42)管辖权(第四十二条)
Israeli legislation establishes jurisdiction over offences committed in whole or in part within the national territory and on board Israeli vessels and airplanes.以色列的立法确定了对完全或部分在以色列领土范围内犯下的罪行和在以色列船舶和飞机上犯下的罪行的管辖权。
Jurisdiction also applies to acts of preparation to commit crimes, attempts to commit crimes, attempts to influence or incite crimes, or conspiracy to commit crimes, even when committed outside of Israeli territory, where the intended crime was to have been committed in whole or in part in Israel.管辖权还适用于犯罪预备、企图犯罪、企图影响或煽动犯罪、或共谋犯罪,对于在以色列领土范围以外犯下的罪行,如果犯罪结果完全或部分在以色列领土范围内发生,以色列也拥有管辖权。
Israel can also apply extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction under certain circumstances.以色列在某些情况下可使用域外刑事管辖权。
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)
Common law principles of contract rescission and administrative law allow an existing contract or concession to be annulled, rescinded or withdrawn if it was awarded as a result of an act of corruption.如果因腐败行为导致授予合约或特许权,可依据普通法的合同解除原则和行政法废止、撤销或撤回该合约或特许权。
This is in addition to tendering procedures, which allow for debarments and disqualifications.除此之外,投标程序还允许取消资格和剥夺资格。
Remedies can be awarded to affected claimants, either in the framework of criminal proceedings or following civil suits.可以为受影响的索赔者提供补救,无论是在刑事诉讼或是接下来的民事诉讼框架内。
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)专职机关和机构间协调 (第三十六、三十八和三十九条)
There are several bodies and authorities with specialized tasks in the area of investigating and prosecuting corruption.在侦查和起诉腐败领域,有多个从事专门任务的机构和机关。
Within the Israeli police several fraud units operate, whereas the specialized, highly trained Lahav 433 unit within the IP’s Investigation and Intelligence Department incorporates five specialized prosecution and investigative subunits focusing on corruption and international asset recovery.以色列警察总局设有多个欺诈行为股,在以色列警察总局的侦查和情报部,设有专业化、训练有素的Lahav 433股,该股由五个专门的起诉和侦查分股组成,重点关注腐败和国际资产追回案件。
In the State Attorney’s Office, the Criminal Department and the Economic Crimes Department (as well as the District Attorneys and their prosecutors) are responsible for the prosecution of corruption offences.在国家检察长办公室,由刑事部和经济犯罪部(以及地区检察长及其检察官办公室)负责起诉腐败罪行。
In the State Comptroller’s Office, the Division for Special Functions is responsible for following up on allegations of corruption against public officials.在国家主计长办公室,由特殊职能司负责针对公职人员的腐败指控的后续行动。
If the findings of the investigation indicate a likelihood of a criminal offence, the case is then referred to the Attorney General.如果侦查结果表明可能存在刑事犯罪,则将案件移交给总检察长。
The different bodies combating corruption are coordinated by an inter-agency Implementation Committee, chaired by the Head of the Criminal Investigations Division of the IP, within a framework of a strong culture of cooperation.机构间执行委员会负责协调各个打击腐败的机构,该委员会由以色列警察总局刑事侦查司负责人担任主席,有着强有力的合作文化框架。
The same is evident in regard to cooperation between prosecuting or investigating authorities, on the one hand, and private sector entities, in the other.在起诉或侦查机构与私营部门实体的合作中,也明显存在这种协调框架。
2.2. Successes and good practices2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing Chapter III of the Convention are highlighted:总体来看,在实施《公约》第三章方面取得了下述成功经验和良好做法,着重说明如下:
The definition of bribery is constructed widely, with a view to avoiding potential loopholes.广泛制定了贿赂的定义,以期避免潜在漏洞。
A presumption of fact has developed in Israeli case law stating that when a public official is given a benefit by a person with whom he is in a professional relationship or has an official connection, such benefit would be considered to be given for an act related to his function as a public official.以色列判例法确立了事实推定原则,即,如官员收到与其有专业关系或官方联系的人提供的好处,这种好处将被视为是因其公职相关行为而给予的。
The Israeli legislature has introduced, specifically for bribery offences, the option of imposing fines based not only on the benefit obtained, but also on the intended benefit, as an effective deterrent against bribes in high value transactions.以色列立法特别针对贿赂罪作出规定,在选择处以罚金时,不仅要依据已得到的好处,还依据计划给予的好处,这是对高价值交易中的贿赂行为的有效震慑。
The existence of Guidelines for State Attorneys on sanctions for bribery offences, providing detailed instructions on the application of relevant penalties depending on gravity of corresponding offences, was positively noted as conducive to the implementation of article 30, paragraph 1.肯定地注意到,针对贿赂犯罪的相关制裁,《国家检察官准则》根据相应罪行的严重程度,就相关刑罚的适用问题提供了详细指导,有利于实施《公约》第三十条第一款。
The reviewers note the significant number of prosecutions and convictions of Ministers and Members of the Knesset during recent years and consider them as a success and an indication of the overall effectiveness of the system in combating political corruption.审议员注意到,近年有大量针对部长和议会成员的起诉和定罪,并认为这是一项成就,表明了该制度在打击政治腐败中的整体有效性。
Asset forfeiture in Israel can be considered as a prime example of successful policy that has been developed from the ground up.在以色列,没收资产可被视为是自下而上发展起来的一项成功政策实例。
There is extensive implementation involving significant assets, as a result, among others, of the effective cooperation of all relevant institutions.除其他外,在所有相关的机构切实合作下,广泛实施了涉及大量资产的没收行动。
Israel appears in general to promote and cultivate a strong culture of cooperation among its law enforcement and anti-corruption bodies.以色列大体上在其执法和反腐败机构中促进和培育了强有力的合作文化。
The Israeli Police, together with the tax and securities authorities, have developed a unique computerized process for the fast, efficient, and secure exchange of information between the police and the financial market.以色列警方连同税务和安保部门,制订了警方与金融市场快速、高效和安全交流情报的独特的计算机化流程。
2.3. Challenges in implementation2.3. 实施方面挑战
While noting that Israel has a robust criminal justice system and is in large part in compliance with the provisions of the Convention against Corruption, the reviewers identified a few challenges in implementation and/or grounds for further improvement (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant Convention requirements):审议员指出,以色列拥有强大的刑事司法体系,并且在很大程度上遵守了《反腐败公约》的规定。审议员还认定了一些实施方面的挑战和(或)一些需进一步改进的理由(取决于《公约》相关规定是强制性还是任择性):
To promote the goals of article 20, Israel could consider giving the State Comptroller, the legal advisor of the Knesset or some other appropriate body or person authority over the asset declarations of Members of the Knesset.为促进实现第二十条的目标,以色列可以考虑令国家主计长、议会法律顾问或其他适当的机构和个人负责议会成员的资产申报。
With respect to articles 23 and 24, it is recommended that Israel finalize the process of the adoption of the amendments to Schedule 2 of the PMLL, lowering the threshold for the price of the “prohibited property” and removing the differentiation between different kinds of such property.关于第二十三和第二十四条,建议以色列最终通过《禁止洗钱法》附则2的修正案,降低“被禁财产”的价格门槛,消除不同类别的此类财产之间的差异。
Consider including all Convention against Corruption offences as predicate offences for the purpose of money-laundering, including in particular Sections 244 (Obstruction of justice), 245 (Subornation in connection with an investigation), and 246 (Subornation of testimony) of the Penal Law.考虑将《反腐败公约》规定的所有罪行纳入为洗钱目的的上游犯罪,特别是包括《刑法》第244节(妨害司法)、第245节(与调查有关的收买)和第246节(收买证词)。
Israel is encouraged to proceed with the reform of the regime governing the criminal liability of legal persons, which appears to be conducive to further deterrence and prevention.鼓励以色列推进法人刑事责任制度改革,这似乎有利于促进震慑和预防。
It is recommended to pursue legislation of a bill aimed at including corruption among the offences that allow the use of special investigative techniques such as wiretapping against Members of the Knesset.建议推行一项法案,旨在将腐败纳入允许针对议会议员使用窃听等特殊侦查技术的罪行之列。
Israel might consider looking more closely into the matter of out-of-court settlements in regards to corruption offences related to securities, in order to ensure adequate predictability by establishing predetermined criteria.在与安保有关的腐败犯罪方面,以色列可以考虑更加密切关注庭外和解事项,以便建立预定标准,确保充分的可预测性。
Israel is encouraged to continue to strengthen measures to raise awareness of public sector reporting and protection mechanisms.鼓励以色列继续加强措施,提高公共部门对举报和保护机制的认识。
Israel may wish to consider entering into international agreements or arrangements concerning the potential provision of preferential treatment by the competent authorities of one State to a cooperating person located in another.以色列不妨考虑签订关于一国主管部门为位于另一国的合作人提供潜在最惠待遇的国际协定或安排。
Israel is encouraged to continue strengthening measures with a view to increasing reporting of corruption offences by private persons.鼓励以色列继续加强措施,以期促进私人举报刑事罪行。
3. Chapter IV: International cooperation3. 第四章:国际合作
3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review3.1. 关于所审议的条款实施情况的评述
Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47)引渡;被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、第四十五和第四十七条)
Extradition is governed by the Extradition Law, as well as multiple international treaties and conventions.引渡受《引渡法》和多边国际条约和公约的管辖。
Dual criminality is a condition for extradition, and the law provides for a minimum penalty requirement: an extraditable offence is defined as an offence which, had it been committed in Israel, would be punishable by imprisonment for at least one year.双重犯罪是引渡条件,法律规定了最低处罚要求,可引渡罪行被定义为在以色列实施的、可被判处至少一年监禁的罪行。
Nonetheless, to the extent that Israel has criminalized the offences covered by the Convention and has enacted penalties for them in excess of one year, Convention offences are extraditable offences under Israeli law.然而,鉴于以色列已将《公约》规定的罪行定为犯罪,并判处一年以上的刑罚,因此依据以色列法律,《公约》规定的罪行都是可引渡的犯罪。
Israel makes “accessory offences” extraditable, if the main offence satisfies the extradition requirements.以色列规定,如果主罪符合引渡要求,“从罪”也是可引渡的。
As regards “political offences”, a Convention-based offence would not be treated as such, in case the Convention were used as a basis for extradition.至于“政治犯罪”,不会将《公约》规定的罪行视为政治犯罪,以防《公约》被用作引渡的依据。
Israel indicated that it partially considers this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect of corruption-related offences.以色列表示,该国将《公约》视为就腐败相关犯罪进行引渡的部分法律依据。
With respect to States parties with which it does not have an extradition treaty, it has declared that it shall consider each request for extradition for an offence under the Convention with due seriousness and may elect to extradite in such cases pursuant to a special ad hoc agreement with the State party, upon a basis of reciprocity.对于未与以色列签订引渡条约的缔约国,以色列宣布将严肃审议对《公约》规定的犯罪提出引渡的申请,在这种情况下,可能选择在互惠基础上依据与缔约国的特殊临时协议予以引渡。
There are a number of provisions designed to enable the use of expedited extradition procedures, at the wanted person’s option, in appropriate cases.有一些规定旨在在适当情况下,根据被通缉者的选择,促使利用加快引渡程序。
The more time-consuming factor in extradition procedures is the preparation of materials related to the prima facie evidence that must be demonstrated under Section 9(a) of the Extradition Law.必须根据《引渡法》第9(a)节证明初步证据,因此准备与这些证据有关的材料导致引渡程序耗时长久。
Section 5 of the Extradition Law provides that where a petition for extradition has been submitted, the Jerusalem District Court may order the detention of the wanted person.《引渡法》第5节规定,在提交引渡请求后,耶路撒冷地区法院可下令拘留被通缉者。
The Extradition Law also permits provisional arrest of a wanted person in cases of urgency even before an extradition request is formally received.在紧急情况下,即使未正式收到引渡请求,《引渡法》也允许临时逮捕被通缉者。
Israel can extradite its nationals to another country to stand trial with respect to all extradition offences, including corruption offences.以色列可以引渡本国国民到另一个国家接受关于所有引渡罪行(包括腐败犯罪)的审判。
However, if the wanted person was both an Israeli citizen and resident at the time he allegedly committed the crime, he will be extradited only on condition that he be given the option of serving in Israel any sentence of imprisonment imposed upon him in the requesting State.但是,如果被通缉者在涉嫌犯罪之时同时为以色列公民和居民,在其被引渡前,可让其选择是否在以色列服完引渡申请国对其判处的任何监禁刑期。
The individual rights of persons wanted for extradition are protected both with respect to the procedural aspects of their extradition and the substantive circumstances under which they may be extradited.在引渡程序和实质性的引渡条件方面,被引渡人的个人权利都受到了保护。
A requested person shall not be extradited if there are grounds to suspect, among others, that the request for extradition was submitted for reasons of racial or religious discrimination against the wanted person; if it was submitted to prosecute or punish the wanted person for an offence of a political character; and if the wanted person would be extradited to a legal system which would not protect his or her basic human rights.除其他外,如果有理由怀疑提交引渡请求存在以下情况,可拒绝引渡所涉人员:对被通缉者实行种族或宗教歧视;旨在就政治罪行起诉或惩罚被通缉者;引渡地点的法律体系无法保护被通缉者的基本人权。
Extradition requests will not be refused for criminal offences on the ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.对于刑事犯罪而言,不得以该罪行也涉及金融事项为由拒绝引渡。
The transfer of sentenced prisoners is regulated in Israel’s Serving of a Prison Sentence in the Country of the Prisoners Nationality Law.以色列《在囚犯国籍国监狱服刑法》规定了与转移被判刑囚犯有关的事项。
The transfer can be either based on a convention or an ad hoc agreement.可依据公约或临时协定进行转移。
The transfer of criminal proceedings to another jurisdiction is also possible, as a matter of police or prosecutorial discretion.警方或检察机关可自行决定是否将刑事诉讼转移到另一管辖区。
Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)司法互助(第四十六条)
The International Legal Assistance Law allows Israel to offer full and effective cooperation to authorities in foreign States.《国际司法互助法》允许以色列向外国主管机关提供充分和有效的合作。
All listed forms of assistance under this Convention may be provided or requested with respect to criminal matters, including measures concerning the identification, tracing and freezing of proceeds of crime and the recovery of assets.在刑事事项方面,可以提供或要求提供《公约》列出的所有形式的援助,包括关于鉴定、追踪和冻结犯罪所得和追回资产的措施。
There are no restrictions regarding legal persons.没有任何关于法人的限制。
The existence of a treaty is not a prerequisite to provide mutual legal assistance (MLA).提供司法互助不以签订互助条约为前提。
However, Israel has entered into MLA treaties with a large number of States and has acceded to numerous relevant conventions.不过,以色列与许多国家签订了司法互助条约,并加入了多个相关公约。
The spontaneous transmission of information to competent authorities of other States is an inherent part of informal law enforcement cooperation.自发地向其他国家的主管机关传递信息是非正式执法合作的组成部分。
Dual criminality is not per se a requirement for MLA, with the exception of assistance concerning freezing, seizure and confiscation of assets.双重犯罪本身并不是提供司法协助的条件,但涉及冻结、扣押和没收资产的协助除外。
Israeli law also takes into account de minimis considerations.以色列法律还考虑到了最低限度因素。
The Department of International Affairs of the Office of the State Attorney is the Central Authority for purposes of assistance requests submitted under the Convention.国家检察长办公室国际事务部是依据《公约》提出协助请求的中央主管机关。
It is expected that requests will be submitted in writing.协助请求应以书面形式提出。
Urgent requests for MLA may be transmitted by fax.可以通过传真送交紧急的司法互助请求。
Requests must be submitted either in Hebrew or English.必须以希伯来文或英文提交请求。
A request for assistance will be performed in the manner in which an act of that kind is performed in Israel.提出协助请求时必须采取以色列规定的提出此类请求的方式。
Assistance shall be performed in the particular manner requested so long as this does not violate Israeli law.只要不违反以色列法律,应按照所请求的具体方式提供协助。
The rule is that Israel will preserve the confidentiality of MLA requests.相关规则规定,以色列将对司法互助请求保密。
Videoconference hearings, both in Israeli cases and on behalf of foreign authorities, are possible and have become increasingly common.在以色列的案件中和代表外国主管部门的情况下,都可以举行视频听证会,这已变得越来越普遍。
MLA requests will not be denied simply on general grounds of bank secrecy.不会仅以银行保密为由而拒绝司法互助请求。
There are a number of discretionary bases upon which the Minister of Justice is permitted to refuse assistance.司法部对是否拒绝提供协助拥有广泛的裁量权。
Israel would not refuse a request relating to a Convention offence simply because it involved fiscal elements.以色列不会仅因《公约》规定的某项罪行涉及金融因素而拒绝相关的司法互助请求。
Assistance may be postponed if it would interfere with an ongoing domestic criminal proceeding.如果将导致正在进行的国内刑事诉讼受到干扰,可能会推迟提供协助。
Israel will, through dialogue with requesting States, seek to resolve issues that could prevent the execution of requests for assistance, and in the rare cases where a request is denied, a letter is sent to the requesting State informing it of the reasons.以色列将与请求国进行对话,寻求解决可能阻止执行协助请求的问题,在拒绝协助请求的少数情况下,向请求国寄送了信件,告知了拒绝理由。
Israel will generally assume the ordinary expenses of executing MLA requests.以色列通常会承担执行司法互助请求的一般性费用。
Certain expenses, such as expert witness expenses, may be recognized as exceptions which are borne by the requesting State.某些费用,如专家证人费用,可被认定为额外费用,需由请求国承担。
Publically available records, documents and information are routinely provided.定期公开记录、文件和资料。
Non-publically available information held by a public authority may be provided if the information is of the kind that may, under Israeli law, be transmitted to another public authority in Israel.对于以色列公共机构持有的不公开资料,如果以色列的法律允许将这类资料传给以色列的另一家公共机构,则可以提供这些资料。
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50)执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
Israel has a modern and comprehensive regime for law enforcement cooperation.以色列拥有现代化和全面的执法合作制度。
The Ministry of Public Security has signed several bilateral agreements on cooperation in the fight against crime, and there are also other bilateral agreements and multilateral conventions providing bases for cooperation between Israeli and other law enforcement authorities.公共安全部已经签署了多项打击犯罪的双边合作协议,还签订了其他双边协议和多边公约,为以色列和其他执法主管机关之间的合作奠定了基础。
Requests are often received via informal and INTERPOL channels.通常通过非正式渠道和国际刑警组织渠道收到请求。
This Convention may be considered as the basis for mutual law enforcement cooperation, although Israel does not require the existence of a treaty.可将《公约》视为执法互助的基础,但以色列不要求必须签署条约。
Any form of assistance requested may be performed to the same extent and subject to the same safeguards as those that apply had the crime occurred in Israel.可提供所请求的任何形式的援助,其程度和需遵守的保障措施可与适用于在以色列发生的犯罪的援助相同。
There are contact points nominated to facilitate cooperation and the Israel Police has a number of representatives stationed in diplomatic missions abroad.提名了联络人,以便利开展合作,以色列警察总局也在驻外外交使团中派驻了一些代表。
Joint investigations are possible under existing legislation, international conventions or bilateral agreements.依据现行立法、国际公约或双边协议,可以开展联合侦查。
Sometimes a protocol is signed between the parties for the purpose of a specific investigation.有时,双方为了特殊侦查目的签署协议。
However, there have not been instances of joint investigations in corruption matters.但是,没有关于腐败事项的联合侦查的例子。
Israel does not require specific agreements to carry out special investigative techniques.以色列开展特殊侦查手段并不需要签订具体协议。
At the same time, Israel is party to several agreements that provide for techniques such as controlled delivery.与此同时,以色列加入的若干协议都对控制下交付等技术作出了规定。
Wiretapping will be also permitted under certain circumstances.在某些情况下也允许进行窃听。
3.2. Successes and good practices3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Israel has established a comprehensive and coherent legal framework on international cooperation in criminal matters.以色列在关于刑事事项的国际合作方面建立了全面和协调的法律框架。
In this context, the following successes and good practices in implementing Chapter IV of the Convention are highlighted:就此而言,在实施《联合国反腐败公约》第四章方面,着重指出所取得的以下成功经验和良好做法:
The Ministry of Justice (Office of the State Attorney) has recently issued guidelines on the consideration of requests for MLA concerning seizure and confiscation.司法部(国家检察长办公室)最近发布了关于审议涉及扣押和没收的司法互助请求的准则。
The application of these guidelines is expected to make international cooperation more effective.预计适用这些准则将使国际合作更加有效。
Israel is a provider of technical assistance in the form of expert knowledge to foreign law enforcement authorities, for example through the exchange of intelligence and legal information by the Israeli police and the FIU with international counterparts.以色列以专家知识的形式为外国执法机关提供技术援助,例如以色列警方和金融情报股向国际同行提供情报和法律资料。
3.3. Challenges in implementation3.3. 实施方面的挑战
The following points are brought to the attention of the Israeli authorities for their action or consideration (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant Convention requirements) with a view to enhancing international cooperation to combat offences covered by the Convention:提请以色列主管机关关注下列要点,以采取行动或加以考虑(取决于《公约》的相关规定是强制性还是任择性),以期增强国际合作,打击《公约》所涵盖的罪行:
It is recommended that Israel adapt its information system to allow it to collect data on the type of MLA and extradition requests, the time frame for providing responses to these requests, and the response provided, including any grounds for refusal.建议以色列修改其信息系统,以允许该系统收集关于司法互助和引渡请求、对这些请求作出回应的时限和作出的回应(包括任何拒绝理由)的数据。
Israel is encouraged to actively promote a policy of acceding to or concluding new bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements to carry out or enhance the effectiveness of extradition.鼓励以色列积极促进关于加入或缔结新的双边或多边协定或安排的政策,以执行或增强引渡的有效性。
Israel may wish to consider adopting more specific guidelines or regulations with regard to the procedure of transferring criminal proceedings among States parties.以色列不妨考虑通过与缔约国之间的刑事诉讼转移程序有关的更为具体的准则或规章。