A_AC_105_C_1_102_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/102 V1188274.doc (English)A/AC.105/C.1/102 V1188273.doc (Chinese)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Forty-ninth session第四十九届会议
Vienna, 6-17 February 20122012年2月6日至17日,维也纳
Item 13 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目13
International Space Weather Initiative国际空间气象举措
Reports on national and regional activities related to the International Space Weather Initiative与国际空间气象举措有关的国家和区域活动报告
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Contents目录
Page页次
1. Introduction1. 导言
22
2. Reports received from Member States2. 从会员国收到的报告
22
Japan日本
22
3. Reports received from international organizations3. 从国际组织收到的报告
66
Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization亚洲太平洋空间合作组织
66
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
6
7 International Astronomical Union国际天文学联合会 7
8 Secure World Foundation世界安全基金会 8
10
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization联合国教育、科学及文化组织
109
World Meteorological Organization世界气象组织
109
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.
In accordance with the three-year workplan under the agenda item “International Space Weather Initiative”, adopted by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its forty-sixth session (A/AC.105/933, annex I, para. 16), the Subcommittee will consider at its forty-ninth session reports by interested Member States, scientific organizations and the International Space Weather Initiative secretariat on regional and international plans to implement the Initiative.1. 按照科学和技术小组委员会第四十六届会议在“国际空间气象举措”这一议程项目下通过的三年期工作计划(A/AC.105/933,附件一,第16段),小组委员会第四十九届会议将审议相关会员国、科学组织和国际空间气象举措秘书处就落实该项举措的区域计划和国际计划提交的报告。
The Subcommittee will finalize a report on regional and international plans and will encourage both the continued operation of existing instrument arrays and the deployment of new instruments.小组委员会将最后完成关于区域计划和国际计划的报告,并鼓励继续运行现有的仪器阵列和部署新的仪器。
II. Reports received from Member States二. 从会员国收到的报告
Japan日本
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[31 October 2011][2011年10月31日]
In Japan, the Solar Terrestrial Physics Programme (STPP) subcommittee of the Science Council is participating in the International Space Weather Initiative as a follow-on programme of the International Heliophysical Year (2006-2009). The Chair (Kiyohumi Yumoto of Kyushu University) and other members of the subcommittee are moving forward with their instrument deployment plans and are constructing database systems for public access. The table shows a list of Japanese scientists who have deployed instrumentation overseas and will gradually make all acquired data available for public use (with some conditions attached). The leading instrument programmes (Flare-monitoring telescopes under the Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network (CHAIN), Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS), Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs), and South-East Asia Low-Latitude Ionosonde Network (SEALION)) have been actively expanding their operations since the beginning of 2010.在日本,科学委员会日地物理学项目小组委员会正在参与国际空间气象举措,作为国际太阳物理年(2006-2009年)的后续项目。该小组委员会的主席(九州大学的Kiyohumi Yumoto)和其他成员正在继续进行其仪器部署计划,并建设向公众开放的数据库系统。下文的表格显示了在海外部署仪器的日本科学家的名单,将逐步开放所获得的所有数据以便公众使用(附带某些条件)。自2010年初开始,主要的仪器计划(H–阿尔法连续成像网络下的耀斑监测望远镜、全球µ子探测器网络、磁数据采集系统、光学中间层热层成像仪、东南亚低纬度电离层探测仪网络)都在积极扩大工作。此外,国家信息与通信技术研究所也积极拓展了空间气象外联活动。应当指出的是,日地物理学项目小组委员会有更多成员正在准备加入仪器方案或建立数据库系统,或两者兼为之。
In addition, the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has actively expanded space weather outreach activities.
It should be noted that more members of the STPP subcommittee are preparing to join the instrument programme or establish database systems, or both.
To create awareness of the International Space Weather Initiative in Japan, the STPP subcommittee organized a meeting at Kyushu University in March 2010.
Soon after that, a session dedicated to the Initiative was held during the international symposium of the Japan Geoscience Union on 25 and 26 May.
In 2011, the STPP subcommittee organized another session on the Initiative during the international symposium of the Japan Geoscience Union on 25 May 2011. During the session, host scientists in charge of instruments and contributors who provide their own data to the Initiative presented their achievements and future plans. Several foreign researchers were invited to present their activities, with particular emphasis on international collaboration. The symposium was highly successful and will be held again in 2012, which will be the last time during the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012).为了在日本使人们了解国际空间气象举措,2010年3月,日地物理学项目小组委员会在九州大学组织了一次会议。之后不久,在5月25日和26日日本地球科学联盟国际讨论会期间,专门就该举措举行了一次会议。2011年,日地物理学项目小组委员会在2011年5月25日日本地球科学联盟国际讨论会期间又组织了一次关于国际空间气象举措的会议。在这次会议期间,负责仪器的托管站科学家以及该举措的数据提供方展示了他们的成果和未来计划。多位外国研究人员受邀介绍其活动情况,特别强调了国际合作。这次讨论会极为成功,2012年将再举办一次讨论会,即为国际空间气象举措期间(2010-2012年)的最后一次讨论会。
Outside Japan, three major International Space Weather Initiative workshops have been scheduled: in Egypt in 2010, in Nigeria in 2011 and in Ecuador in 2012. The 2010 International Space Weather Initiative United Nations/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) workshop was held on the campus of Helwan University, Egypt, from 6 to 10 November 2010.在日本以外,计划于2010年、2011年和2012年分别在埃及、尼日利亚和厄瓜多尔举办三期大型国际空间气象举措讲习班。2010年联合国、美国航空航天局和日本宇宙航空研究开发机构国际空间气象举措讲习班于2010年11月6日至10日在埃及阿勒旺大学校园内举行。
Several instrument array sessions were scheduled.计划召开多次仪器阵列会议。
Among them was the MAGDAS session, where 31 persons (MAGDAS hosts from all over the world, but mostly from Africa) delivered 20-minute presentations.其中一次是磁数据采集系统会议,在该会议上,有31人(来自世界各地的磁数据采集系统东道方,但主要来自非洲)各自作了20分钟的专题介绍。
The presentations are available from the website of the Space Environment Research Center of Kyushu University (www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp).这些专题介绍可在九州大学空间环境研究中心的网站 (www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp)查阅。
The general theme of the MAGDAS session was capacity-building, which consists of three phases: (a) development of instrument capacity, (b) development of data analysis capacity and (c) development of science capacity. Capacity-building is one of the major goals of the International Heliophysical Year and the International Space Weather Initiative, as specified by the organizers of those initiatives. All MAGDAS hosts are members and partners in the capacity-building that is undertaken as part of the MAGDAS project of the Space Environment Research Center at Kyushu University. Thanks to MAGDAS hosts, the Center is able to successfully operate ground observatories all over the world.磁数据采集系统会议的主题是能力建设,其中包括三个阶段:(a)发展仪器能力;(b)发展数据分析能力以及(c)发展科学能力。这些举措的组织方称,能力建设是国际太阳物理年和国际空间气象举措的主要目标之一。磁数据采集系统的所有托管站都是作为九州大学空间环境研究中心磁数据采集系统项目的一部分开展的能力建设的成员和合作伙伴。正是由于磁数据采集系统的托管站,空间环境研究中心才能够成功运作位于世界各地的地面观测站。这是国际空间气象举措运作的一个良好实例。
This is a good example of the International Space Weather Initiative in action.
In 2011, under the MAGDAS project and with Kiyohumi Yumoto as principal investigator, the first MAGDAS school in Africa, the International Space Weather Initiative/MAGDAS School on Litho-Space Weather, was launched. A 264-page textbook entitled Selected Papers of MAGDAS was published prior to the School, containing MAGDAS-related papers that had been published in peer-reviewed journals. That book enabled students of the School to grasp the real purpose of the MAGDAS project, which now has 57 real-time magnetometers operating around the globe. The School, located near Lagos, Nigeria, on the campus of Redeemer’s University, was highly successful.2011年,在磁数据采集系统项目下,由Kiyohumi Yumoto担任首席调研员,开办了非洲第一所磁数据采集系统学院——国际空间气象举措/磁数据采集系统岩石圈—空间气象学院。在学院开办之前出版了264页的题为《磁数据采集系统论文选》的教科书,其中载有在经同行审查的期刊上发表的与磁数据采集系统有关的论文。这本书有助于该学院的学生领会磁数据采集系统项目的真正目的(该项目目前有57个实时磁力计在全球各地运作)。这所学院位于尼日利亚拉各斯附近的Redeemer’s University 校园内,开办得十分成功。学院吸引了59名参加者,其中有8名教员,主要来自九州大学。其余的参加者有尼日利亚学生和非洲磁数据采集系统托管站的代表。
It attracted 59 participants, of whom eight were instructors, mainly from Kyushu University.
The remaining participants were Nigerian students and representatives of MAGDAS host stations in Africa. The United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on the International Space Weather Initiative was held from 17 to 21 October 2011 in Abuja. It attracted over 100 participants from 21 countries. Representatives of the CHAIN project of Kyoto University and the MAGDAS project of Kyushu University gave extensive reports on their capacity-building activities that were well received by the participants of the Workshop.2011年10月17日至21日在阿布贾举办了联合国/尼日利亚国际空间气象举措讲习班。这次讲习班吸引了来自21个国家的100多名参加者。京都大学H–阿尔法连续成像网络项目的代表和九州大学磁数据采集系统项目的代表就各自的能力建设活动作了内容丰富的报告,得到了讲习班参加者的欢迎。
During the Workshop, it was proposed that an international centre for space weather science and education should be established as a permanent institution to advance space weather research and education. The Space Environment Research Center of Kyushu University offered to host the centre. That offer was incorporated into the Abuja International Space Weather Initiative Resolution, which was approved after considerable discussion by all participants in the Workshop.在这次讲习班期间,建议设立一个国际空间气象科学和教育中心,作为永久性的高级空间气象研究和教育机构。九州大学空间环境研究中心提出主办该中心。这项提议列入了“阿布贾国际空间气象举措决议”,讲习班所有参加者经过大量讨论后核准了该决议。
Japanese International Space Weather Initiative officials日本国际空间气象举措官员
The International Space Weather Initiative bureau members in Japan are Kiyohumi Yumoto of Kyushu University and Hajime Hayakawa of JAXA. The International Space Weather Initiative Newsletter Office (on behalf of the United Nations) is led by Kiyohumi Yumoto of Kyushu University, Publisher, and George Maeda of Kyushu University, Editor. The National Coordinator for Japan is Takahiro Obara of JAXA.国际空间气象举措主席团中的日本成员有九州大学的Kiyohumi Yumoto和日本宇宙航空研究开发机构的Hajime Hayakawa。国际空间气象举措新闻办公室(代表联合国)由九州大学的Kiyohumi Yumoto(发布人)以及九州大学George Maeda(编辑)领导。日本的国家协调员是日本宇宙航空研究开发机构的Takahiro Obara。
Current Japanese instruments (as of February 2011)日本目前的仪器(截至2011年2月)
Instrument仪器
Lead scientist首席科学家
Country国家
Objective目标
Flare-monitoring telescopes under the Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network (CHAIN)H–阿尔法连续成像网络下的耀斑监测望远镜
S. Ueno, K. Shibata (Kyoto University)S. Ueno、K. Shibata,(京都大学)
Japan日本
Time variation and 3-D velocity field of solar activity, flares, filament eruptions and shock waves (Moreton waves) by using multi‑wavelength H-alpha images of the full-disk Sun使用太阳的多波长H–阿尔法全日面影像,显示太阳活动、耀斑、细丝喷发和冲击波(莫顿波)的时间变化和三维速度场
Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN)全球µ子探测器网络
K. Munakata (Shinshu University)K. Munakata (信州大学)
Japan日本
To identify the precursory decrease of cosmic ray intensity that takes place more than one day prior to the Earth-arrival of shock driven by an interplanetary coronal mass ejection确定行星际日冕物质抛射产生的冲击波到达地球前至少一天发生的宇宙射线强度的前兆性减弱
Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS)磁数据采集系统
K. Yumoto (Kyushu University)K. Yumoto (九州大学)
Japan日本
Study of dynamics of geospace plasma changes during magnetic storms and auroral substorms, the electromagnetic response of iono-magnetosphere to various solar wind changes, and the penetration and propagation mechanisms of DP2-ULF range disturbances研究磁暴和极光亚暴期间的地球空间等离子体的变化动态,电离—磁层对各种太阳风变化的电磁反应,以及DP2信道超低频范围扰动的渗透和传播机制
Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs)光学中间层热层成像仪
K. Shiokawa (Nagoya University)K. Shiokawa (名古屋大学)
Japan日本
Dynamics of the upper atmosphere through nocturnal airglow emissions高层大气在夜气辉放射过程中的变化动态
South-East Asia Low-Latitude Ionosonde Network (SEALION)东南亚低纬度电离层探测仪网络
T. Nagatsuma (NICT)T. Nagatsuma (国家信息与通信技术研究所)
Japan日本
Monitoring and study of ionospheric disturbances in the equatorial region by ionospheric and geomagnetic field observations通过电离层和地磁场观测,监测和研究赤道区的电离层扰动
Education and outreach activities on space weather空间气象教育和宣传活动
S. Watari (NICT)S. Watari(国家信息与通信技术研究所)
Japan日本
Education and outreach activities under the International Space Environment Service国际空间环境组织领导下的教育和宣传活动
Report on the status of five instrument arrays五个仪器阵列的状况报告
Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network project, Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University九州大学花山天文台和飞弹天文台的H–阿尔法连续成像网络项目
In March 2010, a Flare Monitoring Telescope (FMT) was installed at the San Luis Gonzaga Ica University in Peru under the CHAIN project to observe the full-disk Sun. FMT is beginning to achieve some observational results, such as the observation of important solar flares occurring during the night in Japan.2010年3月,在H–阿尔法连续成像网络项目下,在秘鲁San Luis Gonzaga Ica大学安装了一部耀斑监测望远镜,用于观测全日面。耀斑监测望远镜正在开始取得一些观测结果,如观测在日本的夜间出现的重要的太阳耀斑。
As part of that project, the Japan-Peru FMT Summer School and Data Analysis Workshop was held in Japan in July 2011. Peruvian, British, Egyptian and young Japanese researchers were among the attendees. Participants advanced data analysis and scientific investigation of the important aforementioned solar active phenomena and engaged in productive international academic exchanges.作为该项目的一部份,于2011年7月在日本举办了日本—秘鲁耀斑监测望远镜暑期班和数据分析讲习班,参加的人员有来自秘鲁、联合王国、埃及的研究人员以及日本的年轻研究人员。参加者们提出了对上述重要的太阳活动现象的数据分析和科学研究,并进行了富有成果的国际学术交流。
Although Kyoto University had also planned to install a new FMT in Algeria in collaboration with the Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Geophysique (Centre for Astronomical, Astrophysical and Geophysical Research), the plan had to be postponed owing to the current unfavourable financial situation in Japan. However, during 2010, some foreign institutes, such as the Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, the King Saud University and the King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia and the Bosscha Observatory in Indonesia offered to participate in the CHAIN project. As a result, the exchange of technical and scientific information with those institutes has begun in the framework of the CHAIN project.京都大学原本也计划与天文学、天体物理学和地球物理学研究中心合作,在阿尔及利亚安装一部新的耀斑监测望远镜,但由于日本目前的金融形势不佳,只得将计划推迟。但在2010年期间,一些外国机构,如蒙古科学院天文学和地球物理学中心、沙特阿拉伯的沙特国王大学和阿卜杜勒阿齐兹国王大学,以及印度尼西亚的Bosscha天文台,都表示愿意参加H–阿尔法连续成像网络项目。因此,已经开始在H–阿尔法连续成像网络项目的框架内,与这些机构展开科技信息交流。
Global Muon Detector Network, Shinshu University信州大学的全球µ子探测器网络
A gap that exists in the viewing directions of GMDN is going to be plugged by adding a new detector at Sierra Negra, Mexico, a high-altitude (4,600 metres above sea level) mountain.即将在墨西哥的高山Sierra Negra山(海拔4,600米)上增设一部新的探测器,这将填补全球µ子探测器网络目前在观测方向上存在的一个空白。
The detector will be installed in 2012 and will be used primarily for observing solar neutrons but also as a muon detector.该探测器将于2012年安装,主要用于观测太阳中子,但也用作µ子探测器。
The detector (SciBar), consisting of approximately 15,000 scintillator strips (2.5 × 1.3 × 300 cm^{3} each) viewed by approximately 250 multi-anode photomultipliers, is capable of precisely measuring particles produced by various interactions of primary cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei.该探测器(SciBar)由大约15,000个闪烁条带(每个条带为2.5x1.3 x 300 cm^{3})组成,使用大约250个多阳极光电倍增管观察,能够准确测量原始宇宙射线与大气核子之间的各种互动所产生的粒子。
Preliminary experiments using a small prototype detector are under way.正在使用小型的探测器样机进行初步实验。
Magnetic Data Acquisition System Project, Space Environment Research Center, Kyushu University九州大学空间环境研究中心的磁数据收集系统项目
The MAGDAS project now has 57 real-time magnetometers deployed throughout the world, which constitutes the largest real-time magnetometer array globally.
In the past 12 months, three new MAGDAS stations have been activated: ICA station in Ica, Peru, HVD station in Khovd, Mongolia, and CAN station in Canberra. The data from each MAGDAS station are transferred in real time via the Internet to the Search Environment Research Center at Kyushu University. At the Center, the data are processed, distributed and stored. Under the supervision of Kiyohumi Yumoto, five students from Egypt, Malaysia, the Philippines and the Sudan are participating in the MAGDAS project and working on their doctoral degrees.磁数据收集系统项目目前有部署在世界各地的57个实时磁力计,是全球最大的实时磁力计阵列。在过去的12个月内,启动了3个新的磁数据收集系统站点,分别是:秘鲁Ica的ICA站、蒙古科布多的HVD站和堪培拉的CAN站。来自磁数据收集系统每个站点的数据都通过互联网实时传送到九州大学的空间环境研究中心。该中心对数据进行处理、传播和储存。有来自埃及、马来西亚、菲律宾和苏丹的5名学生正在Kiyohumi Yumoto的指导下参与磁数据收集系统项目,并攻读博士学位。他们以这种方式学习仪表、如何进行数据分析,以及如何在空间科学领域完成世界级的研究。
In this way, they learn the instrumentation, how to do data analysis and how to achieve world-class research in the space science field. Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University名古屋大学日地环境实验室的光学中间层热层成像仪
The array started taking automated measurements of gravity waves, winds and temperatures in the upper atmosphere in Darwin, Australia, in March 2011, using an all-sky airglow imager and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Darwin is located at a geomagnetically conjugate point of Japan, giving an opportunity for new simultaneous measurements of hemispheric coupling of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere at middle latitudes. The automated measurements of the upper atmosphere, including the measurements at Darwin, were being carried out worldwide in 2011 by using 12 airglow imagers and 5 Fabry-Perot interferometers.2011年3月,这一阵列开始在澳大利亚达尔文,使用一部全天气辉成像仪和一部法布里—珀罗干涉仪,自动测量高层大气层的重力波、风和温度。达尔文处在日本的地磁共轭点上,因而提供了机会对南北半球中纬度高层大气和电离层的耦合进行新的同时测量。2011年使用12部气辉成像仪和5部法布里—珀罗干涉仪,在全球范围对高层大气进行了自动测量,其中包括在达尔文的测量。
South-East Asia Low-Latitude Ionosonde Network project, Space Weather and Environment Informatics Laboratory, Applied Electromagnetic Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology国家信息与通信技术研究所应用电磁研究所空间气象和环境信息学实验室的东南亚低纬度电离层探测仪网络项目
The SEALION project operates six ionosondes, four global positioning system (GPS) receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, two magnetometers and one all-sky airglow imager.
In addition, the project installed a meteor radar instrument on Biak Island, Indonesia, in June 2011 for monitoring lower thermospheric and mesospheric winds.
To expand the capability of monitoring ionospheric and thermospheric conditions in East Asia (which includes Japan and South-East Asia), there has been collaboration with various institutes in South-East Asia to share ionospheric total electron content data derived from GPS receiver networks operating in each country of the subregion.
For example, the King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand, developed the Thai GPS and Ionospheric Data Center, partly using support from the SEALION project. They are now collecting data from more than 20 GPS receivers in Thailand. In Indonesia, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space has collected data from more than 100 GPS receivers to produce two-dimensional GPS-total electron content maps throughout Indonesia. Those data acquisition activities are important not only for each country but also for the entire region of East Asia, including Japan, because severe ionospheric disturbances such as plasma bubbles are generated at low latitudes and often reach mid-latitudes during high solar activity.东南亚低纬度电离层探测仪网络项目运作着6部电离层探测仪、4部全球定位系统接收器、2部全球定位系统闪烁监测器、2个磁力计和1部全天气辉成像仪。此外,该项目还于2011年6月在印度尼西亚的Biak岛安装了一部流星雷达,用于监测低热层风和中间层的风。为了扩大监测东亚(包括日本和东南亚)电离层和热层状况的能力,与东南亚各研究所开展了合作,共享在这一次区域各国运作的全球定位系统接收器网络所产生的电离层电子总含量数据。例如,泰国拉卡邦先皇技术学院建立“泰国全球定位系统和电离层数据中心”时,其部分支助即源自低纬度电离层探测仪网络项目。他们目前正在收集来自泰国20多部全球定位系统接收器的数据。在印度尼西亚,国家航空航天研究所已经收集了来自100多部全球定位系统接收器的数据,用于制作全印度尼西亚的二维全球定位系统—电子总含量图。这些数据收集活动对于每个国家乃至包括日本在内的整个东亚区域,都有重要意义,因为严重的电离层扰动,如等离子磁泡,是在低纬度生成的,而且往往会在太阳活动活跃时抵达中纬度。
III. Reports received from international organizations三. 从国际组织收到的报告
Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization亚洲太平洋空间合作组织
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[24 October 2011][2011年10月24日]
The projects “Electromagnetic Satellite Payload for Earthquake Prediction” and “Research on Determining Precursor Ionospheric Signatures of Earthquakes by Ground Based Ionospheric Sounding” have recently been approved by the Council of the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO). APSCO is presently going through a phase of assessing the requirements of its member States. At the third APSCO Symposium, which was held in Beijing in September 2011, one of the topics discussed was the consolidation of requirements of APSCO member States and the completion of feasibility studies. After a preliminary assessment of requirements, detailed proposals will be invited from APSCO member States and discussed in an expert meeting planned for the second half of 2012.“电磁卫星有效载荷用于地震预测”项目和“使用地基电离层探测确定电离层地震前兆的研究”项目最近已经得到亚洲太平洋空间合作组织(亚太空间合作组织)的批准。亚太空间合作组织正在评估其成员国的要求,目前评估已经进行到一个阶段。2011年9月在北京举行的亚太空间合作组织第三次研讨会所讨论的议题之一是,综合亚太空间合作组织成员国的各项要求并完成可行性研究。对各项要求进行初步评估后,将请亚太空间合作组织成员国提出详细建议,并在计划于2012年下半年举行的专家会议上讨论这些建议。
Discrete technical proposals on the Electromagnetic Satellite Payload for Earthquake Prediction and Research on Determining Precursor Ionospheric Signatures of Earthquakes by Ground Based Ionospheric Sounding projects will be consolidated with a cost and benefit analysis and implementation plan. These will be presented to the APSCO Council by mid-2012 for approval. The research and implementation of these projects will focus on ionospheric signatures, thermal infrared activities, long-wave radiations, atmospheric changes etc., and will contribute to modelling space weather.就“电磁卫星有效载荷用于地震预测”项目和“使用地基电离层探测确定电离层地震前兆的研究”项目分别提出的技术建议将并入一份成本收益分析及执行计划,并在2012年年中之前提交亚太空间合作组织批准。这些项目的研究和执行将侧重于电离层征兆、热红外活动、长波辐射、大气层变化等,将有助于空间气象建模。
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[28 October 2011][2011年10月28日]
The central objectives of the International Space Weather Initiative focus on developing the scientific insight necessary to understand, reconstruct and forecast near-Earth space weather. In addition, strong focus will be put on education, training and public outreach.国际空间气象举措的中心目标集中于提高必要的科学洞察力,以了解、重建和预报近地空间气象。此外,还将着重强调教育、培训和公共宣传。
Through collaborative data analysis and modelling activities, the Initiative aims to extend current exploitation of existing data sets, both independently and in conjunction with freely available space-based data. The organization of a number of dedicated training schools provides additional scientific background to students and young scientists in support of these aims.该举措旨在通过合作进行的数据分析和建模活动,扩大目前对现有数据集的单独利用和与可自由获取的天基数据的结合利用。组织了若干专门的培训学校,为学生和年轻科学家提供了更多的科学经验,有助于实现这些目标。
One of the main focuses of the International Space Weather Initiative is deployment of instrumentation capable of making good-quality scientific measurements and involving scientists from the host institutes in data analysis and exploitation. While scientific research is the primary focus, a longer-term goal is to make such data available in a timely manner in support of space weather monitoring activities.国际空间气象举措的主要侧重点之一是,部署能够进行高质量科学测量的仪器并使仪器所在院所的科学家参与数据分析和利用。科学研究是主要重点,而长期目标是及时提供这类数据,支助空间气象监测活动。
The Panel on Space Weather of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) supports these goals and encourages coordination with the space weather applications community both for training and in order to identify key data products that, in future, could potentially be incorporated into existing and planned space weather monitoring data streams. An open data policy is also encouraged, as well as the development and establishment of standard data access protocols and tools.空间研究委员会的空间气象小组支持实现这些目标,并鼓励与空间气象应用界协调进行培训并确定有可能纳入现有和计划的空间气象监测数据流的主要数据产品。还鼓励采取公开数据政策,并鼓励开发并建立标准数据访问协议和工具。
Overall, the International Space Weather Initiative is of considerable interest to the Panel on Space Weather, as the Panel aims to support activities that improve its capability to provide expert knowledge on the space environment to society and also encourages the development of predictive techniques capable of forecasting changes in the space environment in a timely manner.总之,空间气象小组对国际空间气象举措有极大的兴趣,因为该小组的目标就是支助各项活动提高向社会提供空间环境专业知识的能力,也鼓励开发能够及时预报空间环境变化的预测技术。
The activities of the International Space Weather Initiative were discussed during the events of the Panel on Space Weather, held during the 38th COSPAR Assembly in Bremen, Germany, in 2010, and it is anticipated that progress made by the Initiative will be discussed during the Panel on Space Weather events scheduled for the 39th COSPAR Assembly in Mysore, India, in 2012, with a view to further cooperation.在2010年于德国不来梅举行的第38届空间研究委员会大会期间举办了空间气象小组的活动,其间讨论了国际空间气象举措的各项活动。预计将在2012年于印度迈索尔举行的第39届空间研究委员会大会上讨论该举措所取得的进展,以便进行进一步合作。
International Astronomical Union国际天文学联合会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[2 November 2011][2011年11月2日]
The International Space Weather Initiative, a programme affiliated with the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, is a follow-on programme to the International Heliophysical Year, which ran from February 2007 to February 2009. Activities of the International Heliophysical Year included the deployment of new instrument arrays, especially in developing countries, and an extensive education and public outreach component.国际空间气象举措是和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会下属的一项方案,也是2007年2月至2009年2月举办的国际太阳物理年的后续方案。国际太阳物理年的活动包括特别是在发展中国家部署新的仪器阵列,以及一个大规模的教育和公共宣传部分。
The objectives of the International Space Weather Initiative are to help to develop the scientific insight necessary to understand the physical relationships inherent in space weather, to reconstruct and forecast near-Earth space weather, and to communicate knowledge on these subjects to scientists and the general public. This is being accomplished by (a) continuing to deploy new instrumentation, (b) developing new data-analysis processes, (c) developing predictive models using International Space Weather Initiative data from the instrument arrays to improve scientific knowledge and to enable future space weather prediction services, and (d) continuing to promote knowledge of heliophysics through education and public outreach.国际空间气象举措的目标有:帮助提高必要的科学洞察力,以了解空间气象中固有的物理关系,重建并预报近地空间气象,以及向科学家和大众传递关于这些学科的知识。实现这一目标的办法有:(a)继续部署新仪器,(b)发展新的数据分析过程,(c)利用仪器阵列发送的国际空间气象举措数据开发预测模型,以增进科学知识并得以在将来提供空间气象预测服务,(d)继续通过教育和公众宣传增进人们的太阳物理知识。
The goals of the International Space Weather Initiative are achieved through:实现国际空间气象举措各项目标的途径有:
(a) Instrumentation (expanding and continuing the deployment of new and existing instrument arrays);(a) 仪器(扩大并继续部署新的和现有的仪器阵列);
(b) Data analysis (expanding data-analysis efforts for instrument arrays and existing databases);(b) 数据分析(为仪器阵列和现有数据库扩大数据分析工作);
(c) Coordinating data products to provide input for physical modelling (inputting instrument array data into physical models of heliospheric processes and developing data products that reconstruct past conditions to facilitate assessment of problems attributed to space weather effects);(c) 协调数据产品,为物理建模提供资料(将仪器阵列数据输入日光层过程的物理模型,并开发数据产品重建过去的状况以便于分析造成空间气象效应的问题);
(d) Coordinating data products to allow predictive relationships to be developed to allow predictive relationships that enable the forecasting of space weather to be established that can easily be assimilated into real-time or near real-time predictive models.(d) 协调数据产品以建立预测关系,从而建立能够预测空间气象且易于纳入实时或近实时预测模型的预测关系。
The education, training and public outreach aspects of the International Space Weather Initiative are achieved through universities and graduate schools (by encouraging and supporting space science courses and curricula in universities that provide instrument support) and public outreach (by developing public outreach materials unique to the International Space Weather Initiative and coordinating their distribution).实现国际空间气象举措教育、培训和公共宣传目标的途径有:大学和研究生院(在提供仪器支助的大学鼓励并支助开办空间科学课程)以及公共宣传(制作国际空间气象举措特有的公共宣传材料,并协调分发工作)。
The International Space Weather Initiative secretariat is directed by Joseph Davila and Nat Gopalswamy of the United States of America and Hans Haubold of the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. There are currently national coordinators in over 85 countries who help to coordinate International Space Weather Initiative activities in those countries. The International Space Weather Initiative is governed by a Steering Committee of 16 scientists from 13 countries. Within the International Astronomical Union (IAU), International Space Weather Initiative activities are coordinated by Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), in particular its Working Group on International Collaboration on Space Weather, which is chaired by David Webb.国际空间气象举措秘书处由美利坚合众国的Joseph Davila和Nat Gopalswamy以及联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅的Hans Haubold领导。目前有至少85个国家的国家协调员帮助协调这些国家的国际空间气象举措活动。国际空间气象举措由一个指导委员会管理,该委员会由来自13个国家的16名成员组成。在国际天文学联合会中,协调国际空间气象举措各项活动的是二司(太阳和日光层),特别是该司由David Webb担任主席的国际空间气象协作工作组。Webb先生曾担任国际天文学联合会的国际太阳物理年代表,目前担任联合会的国际空间气象举措代表。
Mr. Webb was the IAU representative for the International Heliophysical Year and is currently the representative for the International Space Weather Initiative.
The International Space Weather Initiative currently has 15 instrument array projects in deployment or under development.
These are located in 101 countries and coordinated by scientists from Armenia, France, Japan, Switzerland and the United States, as well as Africa. The benefits of the instrument deployment programme are: (a) by observing in new geographical regions, a more global picture of Earth’s response to solar wind inputs can be obtained; (b) the Sun can be constantly monitored at radio and H-alpha wavelengths; (c) instrument arrays provide 3-D information that can be used in tomographic reconstructions;国际空间气象举措目前有15个仪器阵列项目处于部署或制定阶段。这些仪器阵列位于101个国家,由来自亚美尼亚、法国、日本、瑞士、美国以及非洲的科学家进行协调。仪器阵列方案的益处有:(a) 通过观测新的地理区域,可以更全面地了解地球对太阳风的反应;(b) 可在无线电波长和H–阿尔法波长上对太阳进行持续监测;(c) 仪器阵列提供了三维信息,可用于进行层析重建;(d)从长远来说,这些阵列将为预报和“临近预报”提供十分宝贵的实时数据;(e) 通过建模项目可以更好地利用现有的数据集。
(d) long term, these arrays will provide real-time data valuable for forecasting and “nowcasting”;
and (e) modelling projects allow better exploitation of existing data sets. In response to the International Space Weather Initiative Steering Committee’s recommendation to increase its science activities, partly by creating a programme similar to the Coordinated Investigation Programme of the International Heliophysical Year, an International Space Weather Initiative Science Programme has been launched. The programme is led by David Webb, who will develop and maintain Internet communications among International Space Weather Initiative science representatives for the purpose of promoting and enhancing the science results that come from the data collected by International Space Weather Initiative instrumentation.国际空间气象举措指导委员会的建议,通过制定类似于国际太阳物理年协调调查方案的方案等办法,增加科学活动。按照这一建议,启动了国际空间气象举措科学方案。该方案由David Webb领导,他将建立并维持国际空间气象举措科学代表之间的互联网通信,目的是推广并改进国际空间气象举措仪器收集到的数据所得出的科学结果。
The second International Space Weather Initiative workshop was held in Abuja from 17 to 21 October 2011 for participants from Europe and Africa. The third workshop is planned for Ecuador in October 2012. A Solar Radio Workshop under the auspices of the International Space Weather Initiative will be held at the University of Pune, India, from 23 to 25 November 2011.2011年10月17日至21日在阿布贾为欧洲和非洲的参加者举办了第二期国际空间气象举措国际讲习班。计划于2012年10月为厄瓜多尔举办第三期讲习班。在国际空间气象举措的赞助下,将于2011年11月23日至25日在印度的浦那大学举办一期太阳射电讲习班。
Following the six highly successful space science schools operated during the International Heliophysical Year, a space science school programme is being promoted through the International Space Weather Initiative. In 2011, the International Space Weather Initiative sponsored the following schools: the second space science school in Abuja (in August), the third in Tatranska Lomnica, Slovakia (also in August), the fourth in Kinshasa (in September) and the fifth in Rabat (from 5 to 16 December).继国际太阳物理年期间举办的6所极为成功的空间科学学校之后,正在通过国际空间气象举措推动一项空间科学学校方案。2011年,国际空间气象举措赞助了下列学校:位于阿布贾的第二所空间科学学校(8月)、位于斯洛伐克Tatranska的第三所学校(也在8月)、位于金沙萨的第四所学校(9月)、位于拉巴特的第五所学校(12月5日至16日)。
Continuing projects for the International Space Weather Initiative include: (a) identifying appropriate sites for new instrument deployments, (b) identifying additional instruments for deployment and (c) utilizing these new instrument data sets in modelling and predictions and through the Science Programme.国际空间气象举措的后续项目包括:(a)为新的仪器部署确定适当的地点,(b)确定更多仪器用于部署,(c) 在建模和预测中以及通过科学方案使用这些新的仪器数据集。
Additional information on the International Space Weather Initiative can be found at http://iswi-secretariat.org and on Twitter: ISWINews.关于国际空间气象举措的其他信息可在http://iswi-secretariat.org和推特ISWINews查阅。
Secure World Foundation世界安全基金会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[31 August 2011][2011年8月31日]
Better knowledge of the potential for space weather events to disrupt orbital operations is an important component of safe and sustainable space operations. Hence, the Secure World Foundation considers that understanding and coping with this aspect of operating in space is of great importance. The Department of State of the United States has nominated the Foundation’s Executive Director, Ray Williamson, to serve as a member of the Expert Group on Space Weather in support of the Working Group on Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities. Mr. Williamson has also recently been appointed to the panel of the International Academy of Astronautics’ Cosmic Study on space weather.更多地了解空间气象活动干扰轨道运作的可能性,是安全而可持续的空间运作的一个重要部分。因此,世界安全基金会认为,了解并处理空间运作的这一方面具有重要意义。美国国务院已经任命本基金会执行主任Ray Williamson担任空间气象专家组成员,对外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组给予支助。Williamson先生最近还被任命为国际宇航科学院空间气象宇宙研究小组成员。
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization联合国教育、科学及文化组织
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[9 November 2011][2011年11月9日]
The work of the International Space Weather Initiative is related to research about near-Earth space weather. In the area of Earth weather, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) works in close cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). There is a long history of collaboration between the Commission and WMO, where oceanographers and meteorologists work together making extensive use of satellite data, which could be an area of cooperation with the International Space Weather Initiative.国际空间气象举措的工作涉及对近地空间气象的研究。联合国教育、科学及文化组织(教科文组织)的政府间海洋学委员会与世界气象组织在地球气象领域密切合作。该委员会与世界气象组织之间的合作由来已久,海洋学家和气象学家合作,广泛使用卫星数据,也可与国际空间气象举措在这一领域进行合作。
World Meteorological Organization世界气象组织
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[9 November 2011][2011年11月9日]
Background背景
At the sixteenth World Meteorological Congress, held from 16 May to 3 June 2011, the need was acknowledged for a coordinated effort by embers of WMO to address the observing and service requirements for protecting against the global hazards of space weather. The WMO Space Programme, through the Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather, was invited to develop near-term and long-term action plans, including education and training, and to work with the WMO regional associations to implement a coordinated strategy for space weather.2011年5月16日至6月3日举行的第十六届世界气象大会承认,需要世界气象组织成员协调努力,解决为防御空间气象的全球危害而在观测和服务方面的需要。通过空间气象方案间协调小组,世界气象组织空间方案受邀制定包括教育和培训在内的短期和长期行动计划,并与世界气象组织各区域协会合作,执行空间气象方面的一项协调战略。
The Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather, officially established in May 2010, includes members nominated by Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Ethiopia, Finland, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States, and by the following international organizations: the European Space Agency, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Space Environment Service, the International Telecommunication Union, the Office for Outer Space Affairs and WMO.空间气象方案间协调小组于2010年5月正式成立,其中包括澳大利亚、比利时、巴西、加拿大、中国、哥伦比亚、埃塞俄比亚、芬兰、日本、大韩民国、俄罗斯联邦、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国和美国任命的成员,以及以下国际组织任命的成员:欧洲空间局、国际民用航空组织、国际空间环境组织、国际电信联盟、外层空间事务厅和世界气象组织。
The overarching goal of the Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather is to facilitate international coordination and improvement of space weather observations, products and services, in an operational perspective, in accordance with the following terms of reference:空间气象方案间协调小组的总体目标是,按照下列职权范围,在业务方面促进空间气象观测、产品和服务的国际协调与改进:
(a) Standardization and enhancement of space weather data exchange and delivery through the WMO information system;(a) 通过世界气象组织信息系统对空间气象数据交换和提供实行标准化和改进;
(b) Harmonized definition of end products and services, including quality assurance guidelines and emergency warning procedures, in interaction with aviation and other major application sectors;(b) 与航空部门和其他主要应用部门互动,协调终端产品和服务的定义,包括质量保证准则和紧急警报程序;
(c) Integration of space weather observations, through the review of space- and surface-based observation requirements, harmonization of sensor specifications, monitoring plans for space weather observation;(c) 通过审查天基和地面观测要求,对空间气象观测结果进行整合,协调传感器的规格,并监测空间气象观测计划;
(d) Encouraging dialogue between the research and operational space weather communities.(d) 鼓励空间气象研究界和运营界之间进行对话。
Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather空间气象方案间协调小组
The current strategy pursued by the Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather is to increase global awareness of space weather impacts, advocate for improved observations, coordinate data exchange and operational services, foster partnerships to share responsibilities and encourage research to improve these services.空间气象方案间协调小组目前开展的战略是,提高全球对空间气象影响的认识,提倡改进观测工作,协调数据交换和操作服务,促进合作伙伴关系以共同承担责任,并鼓励进行研究以改进这些服务。
Advocating for improved observations提倡改进观测工作
A first version of space weather observing requirements was developed and made available online as part of the WMO Observing Requirements Database (available at www.wmo-sat.info/db), under the application area “Space Weather.”编写了空间气象观测要求第一版,并将其作为世界气象组织观测要求数据库的一部分在网上公布(可在www.wmo-sat.info/db查阅),放在应用栏“空间气象”之下。
Following on from that, an inventory of space weather observing capabilities and plans is being made, including both space-based and surface-based observation infrastructure.在此基础上,目前正在盘点空间气象观测能力和计划,包括天基和地面观测基础设施。
The Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather will conduct a first assessment of the unmet needs and develop a statement of guidance to address the highest-priority gaps in observations.空间气象方案间协调小组将首次评估未能满足的需要,并编写一份指导说明,以填补观测方面最优先需要填补的空白。
Raising awareness of space weather impacts提高人们对空间气象影响的认识
The impacts of space weather were brought to the attention of the World Meteorological Congress in 2011, which led to the recognition of space weather coordination as a new task of the WMO Space Programme (more information on the Programme is available from www.wmo.int/sat).2011年的世界气象大会注意到了空间气象的影响,因而与会者认可将空间气象协调作为世界气象组织空间方案的一项新任务(关于该方案的更多信息见www.wmo.int/sat)。
In October 2011, the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites also recognized the impact of space weather on Earth observation satellites, as well as the contribution that such satellites can provide to ongoing space weather observations.2011年10月,气象卫星协调小组也认识到空间气象对地球观测卫星的影响,还认识到这类卫星可对正在进行的空间气象观测作出的贡献。
A web-based space weather demonstration site is being developed, with the aim of enhancing the usage of a few specific products by providing easy access and product-specific training. The initial operating capability for the demonstration site is planned to include multilanguage training and access to global products that could serve a worldwide user base.正在制作一个空间气象展示网站,目的是通过提供简便的访问途径和针对具体产品的培训,增进对一些特定产品的使用。按照计划,该展示网站的初步运作能力将包括多语种培训和提供可服务于全世界用户群的全球产品。
Coordination of operational space weather products and services协调运营型空间气象产品和服务
As a first step, in order to enhance the visibility and usage of space weather products, a space weather product portal is being developed. The aim is to gather information on products that meet minimum requirements, providing convenient access to those products. Global and regional products are being identified according to impact and usage categories, such as ionospheric disturbances, geomagnetic disturbances, radiation environment and solar conditions. The Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather will strive to harmonize the definition of end products, including assessments of quality.第一步,为了提高空间气象产品的知名度和使用率,正在制作一个空间气象产品门户,其目的是收集满足最低要求的产品的有关信息,为使用这些产品提供便捷的途径。正在按照如电离层扰动、地磁扰动、辐射环境和日光条件等影响和使用上的分类,确定全球和区域产品。空间气象方案间协调小组将努力协调终端产品的定义,包括质量评估。
In addition, the Inter-programme Coordination Team on Space Weather will identify opportunities for coordinating services in response to high-priority needs, such as support for global aviation through the International Civil Aviation Organization. Beyond the definition of adequate products, this entails adopting standard practices among operational space weather centres around the globe, including operational procedures for producing and communicating both routine and warning information.此外,空间气象方案间协调小组还将按照优先需要寻找协调各项服务的机会,如通过国际民用航空组织支助全球航空。除了适当产品的定义之外,这还需要全球各地运营的空间气象中心采用标准做法,包括用于制作和交流日常信息和警报信息的操作程序。
Conclusion结论
It is recognized that vulnerability to space weather is increasing as we become more reliant on advanced technology. A framework of ground-based and space-based observations is already in place, and actions to improve space weather capabilities are being taken today by industries and Governments. The high-level coordination of satellite-based assets for space weather is encouraged to ensure that high-priority gaps are addressed in a cost-effective manner through shared capabilities.人们认识到,随着我们越来越多地依赖先进技术,也越来越容易受空间气象的影响。已经建立了地面和天基观测框架,目前业界和各国政府正在采取行动提高空间气象能力。鼓励卫星上的空间气象资产高度协调,从而确保通过共享能力,以符合成本效益的方式解决高度优先需要方面的欠缺。