A_AC_105_C_1_111_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/111 V1609404.docx (English)A/AC.105/C.1/111 V1609403.docx (Chinese)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Fifty-fourth session第五十四届会议
Vienna, 30 January-10 February 20172017年1月30日至2月10日,维也纳
Item 7 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目7
Space debris空间碎片
National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris各国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全及其与空间碎片碰撞 问题的研究
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I.一.
Introduction导言
1.1.
In its resolution 71/90, the General Assembly, deeply concerned about the fragility of the space environment and the challenges to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, in particular the impact of space debris, which was an issue of concern to all nations, considered it essential that States pay more attention to the problem of collisions of space objects, especially those with nuclear power sources, with space debris, and other aspects of space debris.大会在第71/90号决议中表示,深为关切空间环境的脆弱性和外层空间活动长期可持续性所面临的挑战,尤其是空间碎片的影响,这是一个事关所有国家的问题; 大会认为各国必须更加关注空间物体、特别是携载核动力源空间物体与空间碎片碰撞的问题,以及空间碎片问题的其他方面。
It called for the continuation of national research on that question, for the development of improved technology for the monitoring of space debris and for the compilation and dissemination of data on space debris.大会呼吁各国继续研究这个问题,开发更完善的技术来监测空间碎片,汇编和传播关于空间碎片的数据。
The Assembly also considered that, to the extent possible, information thereon should be provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and agreed that international cooperation was needed to expand appropriate and affordable strategies to minimize the impact of space debris on future space missions.大会还认为,应尽可能向和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会提供这方面的资料,并同意需要通过国际合作推广适当且负担得起的战略,以尽量减少空间碎片对未来空间任务的影响。
2.2.
At its fifty-third session, the Subcommittee agreed that Member States and international organizations with permanent observer status with the Committee should continue to be invited to provide reports on research on space debris, the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board, problems relating to the collision of such space objects with space debris and ways in which debris mitigation guidelines were being implemented (A/AC.105/1109, para. 113).在第五十三届会议上,小组委员会同意应继续邀请会员国以及享有和平利用外层空间委员会常驻观察员地位的国际组织提交报告,介绍关于空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全、此类空间物体与空间碎片碰撞问题、以及碎片减缓准则执行方法的研究(A/AC.105/1109,第113段)。
Accordingly, a communication dated 29 July 2016 was sent to Member States and international organizations with permanent observer status inviting them to provide the reports by 17 October 2016, so that the information could be made available to the Subcommittee at its fifty-fourth session.为此,小组委员会在2016年7月29日向会员国和享有常驻观察员地位的国际组织发出普通照会,请其在2016年10月17日之前提交报告,以便向小组委员会第五十四届会议提供资料。
3.3.
The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from four Member States, namely Japan, Mexico, Portugal and Spain, and from the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS) and the Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC).本文件由秘书处根据日本、墨西哥、葡萄牙和西班牙这四个会员国以及国际空间安全促进协会和航天新一代咨询理事会提交的资料编写。
Further information provided by Japan and SGAC, which includes pictures and figures related to space debris, will also be made available as a conference room paper at the fifty-fourth session of the Subcommittee.日本和航天新一代咨询理事会提供的更多资料,包括与空间碎片有关的图片和数据,还将作为小组委员会第五十四届会议的会议室文件提供。
II.二.
Replies received from Member States会员国提交的答复
Japan日本
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[28 October 2016][2016年10月28日]
Overview概述
The present report outlines the principal research on space debris conducted by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).本报告概述了日本宇宙航空研究开发机构围绕空间碎片问题开展的主要研究工作。
Major areas of research introduced in the next section are as follows:下文主要介绍了以下方面的研究:
(a)(a)
Conjunction assessment results and core technology for space situational awareness;交会评估结果和空间态势认知核心技术;
(b)(b)
Research on technology for observing objects in low-Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit and for determining the orbit of such objects;有关低地轨道物体和地球同步轨道物体观测以及此类物体轨道定位的技术的研究;
(c)(c)
In situ microdebris measurement system;实地微型碎片测量系统;
(d)(d)
Protection from the impact of microdebris;微型碎片撞击防护;
(e)(e)
Easy-to-demise propellant tank during re-entry;返回大气层过程中易解体的推进剂贮箱;
(f)(f)
Active debris removal.主动清除碎片。
Conjunction assessment results and core technology for space situational awareness交会评估结果和空间态势认知核心技术
Conjunction assessment results交会评估结果
JAXA receives conjunction notifications from the Joint Space Operations Center.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构收到了联合空间业务中心发出的交会通知。
In August 2016, the number of notifications received was 110, which exceeded the specific conjunction threshold value.2016年8月收到通知110次,超出了特定交会阈值。
From 2009 to August 2016, JAXA executed 19 collision avoidance manoeuvres for low-Earth-orbit spacecraft.2009年至2016年8月间,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构对低地轨道航天器执行了19次防碰撞规避操作。
Core technology for space situational awareness空间态势认知核心技术
JAXA determines the orbit of space objects by using observation data acquired from a radar in the Kamisaibara Spaceguard Center and telescopes in the Bisei Spaceguard Center, predicts close approaches using the latest orbit ephemerides of JAXA satellites and calculates the probability of collision using unique methods.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构利用上齐原空间防卫中心的雷达以及美星空间防卫中心的望远镜获得的观测数据,确定空间物体的轨道; 利用宇宙航空研究开发机构卫星的最新轨道星历,预测接近距离; 并使用独特方法计算碰撞概率。
JAXA also evaluates the criteria for conjunction assessment and collision avoidance manoeuvres based on its experience.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构还根据自身经验,评价交会评估和防碰撞规避操作的标准。
In those evaluations, the trends in each conjunction condition and prediction errors due to perturbations (e.g. uncertainty in air drag) are analysed.在这些评价中会逐一分析交会条件和扰动(例如空气阻力不稳定)造成的预测误差。
As a research topic, JAXA has studied re-entry analysis by changing the number of observational passes from the ground radar facilities.作为一项研究课题,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构通过改变地面雷达设施的观测路径数量开展返回大气层分析。
JAXA found that when the observation arc was longer than about 24 hours, the errors in re-entry prediction were small.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构发现,假如观测弧长于24小时,关于返回大气层的预测误差则会较小。
Research on technology for observing objects in low-Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit and for determining the orbits of such objects有关低地轨道物体和地球同步轨道物体观测以及此类物体轨道定位的技术的研究
Generally, the observation of low-Earth orbit objects is conducted mainly by a radar system, but JAXA attempts to apply an optical system to reduce the cost of system construction and operation of those operations.通常主要通过雷达系统观测低地轨道物体,但日本宇宙航空研究开发机构尝试采用光学系统以降低系统建造和运营成本。
Arrays of optical sensors are used to cover a large area of the sky.为覆盖广阔空域,使用了光学传感器阵列。
Objects of 15 cm or larger are detectable at an altitude of 1,000 km using a set of systems consisting of an 18-cm telescope and a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor, and 36 per cent of those objects are uncatalogued, according to survey observations.调查观测发现,使用由一架18厘米孔径望远镜一个互补式金属氧化物半导体传感器构成的系统,就可观测到1,000公里高度上直径15厘米及以上的物体,这些物体中有36%未列入目录。
Additionally, JAXA succeeded in detecting a polar orbiting passive atmospheric calibration sphere in the orbit, which was an aluminium sphere of 10-cm diameter.此外,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构成功探测到在轨的一颗极轨无源大气校正球,该铝制球体的直径为10厘米。
A CMOS sensor with low noise has also been developed.此外还开发了低噪互补式金属氧化物半导体传感器。
The sensor is able to observe objects five times wider and detect objects one order of magnitude fainter than the previous one.与此前的设备相比,新型传感器的观测范围扩大了五倍,能够探测到星等低一度的物体。
For geosynchronous Earth orbit observation, a new observation method uses the data of two nights for the initial orbital determination.关于地球同步轨道观测,新的观测方法采用两晚的数据来初步确定轨道。
The method reduces observation time by one third, which allows the observation of 1.5 times more objects.这种方法将观测时间缩短了三分之一,观测到的物体数量由此提高了一半。
In situ microdebris measurement system实地微型碎片测量系统
JAXA has developed an on-board detector for the in situ measurement system of submillimetre-class microdebris, which cannot be detected from the ground.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构开发了星载探测器,用于直径小于1毫米的微型碎片的实地微型碎片测量系统,从地面上探测不到这些碎片。
The sensor in this in situ measurement system, named space debris monitor (SDM), is the first to apply a sensing principle based on conductive (resistive) lines to detect debris.这种实地微型碎片测量系统中的传感器被称为空间碎片监测器,它是率先利用基于导(阻)线的传感原理来探测碎片的传感器。
If such sensors were installed on a large number of spacecraft, the acquired data could help to improve the debris environment model. The first SDM was launched with the Japanese cargo ship H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) on 19 August 2015.假如在众多航天器上安装这种传感器,则所获数据将有助于人们改进碎片环境预测模型。 2015年8月19日,利用日本货运飞船H-II号转移飞行器(HTV)发射了第一个空间碎片监测器,这是人们首次利用导(阻)线概念,在国际空间站开展微型碎片测量的演示实验。
That was the world’s first microdebris measurement demonstration experiment on the International Space Station using a conductive (resistive) strip lines concept for detection.
JAXA is currently analysing the acquired data.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构目前正在对所获数据进行分析。
Microdebris measurement systems are essential for risk assessment of the survivability of spacecraft against debris and for the design of cost-effective protection of spacecraft. However, limited measurement systems are available.微型碎片测量系统,对于开展有关航天器在碎片撞击下生存能力的风险评估以及为航天器设计成本效益高的保护装置,都是必不可少的,但现有的测量系统极少。
JAXA has provided two SDMs to the commercial satellite IDEA OSG 1, developed by a start-up company named ASTROSCALE.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构为IDEA OSG 1号商业卫星提供了两个空间碎片监测器,这是由一家名为ASTROSCALE的新兴公司开发设计的。
Space agencies are encouraged to launch their spacecraft with SDM, share their data and contribute to the improvement of debris and meteoroid models.鼓励空间机构在其航天器上安装空间碎片监测器,分享数据,并为改进碎片和流星模型作出贡献。
Protection from the impact of microdebris微型碎片撞击防护
The amount of submillimetre-class microdebris is increasing in low-Earth orbit.低地轨道上直径小于1毫米的微型碎片的数量不断增加。
The impact of microdebris can inflict critical damage on satellites because its impact velocity is, on average, 10 km per second.微型碎片的撞击速度平均可以达到10公里/秒,微型碎片的撞击会给卫星造成严重破坏。
To assess debris impact on a satellite, JAXA is conducting hypervelocity impact tests and numerical simulations for materials used for spacecraft components and bumper shields. JAXA has also started investigating the electrical failure of power harnesses caused by debris impact.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构为评估碎片撞击对于卫星的影响,正在对航天器的部件和防护罩材料进行超高速撞击测试和数值模拟试验,此外还开始调查碎片撞击造成的电力中断问题。
The results of that research are reflected in the “Space debris protection design manual” (JERG-2-144-HB), which was published in 2009 and revised in 2014.这项研究的结果体现在《空间碎片防护设计手册》(JERG-2-144-HB)中。 该手册于2009年出版,并于2014年修订。
Furthermore, JAXA has developed a debris impact risk assessment tool named TURANDOT.此外,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构研发了名为“图兰朵”的碎片撞击风险评估工具。
TURANDOT analyses debris impact risks against a three-dimensional model of a spacecraft.“图兰朵”利用航天器的三维模型,分析碎片撞击风险。
That tool is updated to apply the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) latest debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0).为应用美国国家航空和宇航局(美国航天局)最新碎片环境模型(ORDEM 3.0)而对“图兰朵”进行了更新。
Easy-to-demise propellant tank during re-entry返回大气层过程易解体推进剂贮箱
A propellant tank is usually made of titanium alloy.推进剂贮箱通常由钛合金制成。
Although the light weight and good chemical compatibility of titanium alloy with propellant are suitable characteristics for propellant tank material, its high melting point prevents a propellant tank from demising during re-entry, posing a risk of casualties on the ground.钛合金重量轻,并且与推进剂具有良好的化学兼容性,是适合用作推进剂贮箱的材料。 但由于钛合金的熔点高,在返回大气层时通常不会解体,因而存在造成地面伤亡的风险。
JAXA conducted research to develop an aluminium-lined tank, overwrapped with carbon composites, with a lower melting temperature.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构着手研发一种铝衬贮箱,外部裹有碳复合材料,这样就能降低贮箱的熔点。
As a feasibility study, JAXA conducted fundamental tests, including a liner material aluminium compatibility test with hydrazine propellant and an arc heating test.为开展可行性研究,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构进行了基本测试,包括一次确定铝衬材料与联氨推进剂兼容性的测试以及一次电弧加热测试。
JAXA tried manufacturing the first engineering model (EM) tank, which was smaller in size compared with a nominal tank.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构尝试生产出第一个小比例工程模型贮箱。
Using the first EM tank, a proof pressure test, an external leak test, a pressure cycle test and a burst pressure test were conducted, and all of them showed positive results.利用这个工程模型贮箱开展了一次耐压性测试、一次外部泄露测试、一次压力循环测试和一次暴冲压力测试,所有测试结果均合格。
Vibration tests were conducted on the propellant management device (PMD) to confirm its tolerance to the launch environment.对推进剂管理设备进行了振动测试,确认其对发射环境的耐受性。
Following the test of the first EM tank and PMD model, the second EM tank is now in the process of being manufactured.
The shape of the second EM tank is the same as the nominal tank, which includes a PMD.在对第一个工程模型贮箱和推进剂管理设备模型进行测试之后,目前正在制造第二个工程模型贮箱,其形状与正常贮箱保持一致,并包含推进剂管理设备。
The second EM tank will undergo proof pressure tests, external leak tests, pressure cycle tests, vibration tests (under wet and dry conditions) and burst pressure tests.
After the second EM tank, prototype model manufacturing and testing are planned.第二个工程模型贮箱将经受耐压性测试、外部泄漏测试、压力循环测试、振动测试(在干湿环境下进行)和暴冲压力测试。 在第二个工程模型贮箱之后,计划制造原始模型并进行测试。
In the future, it is expected that costs and manufacturing lead time will be less than that of previous titanium tanks.与此前的钛合金贮箱相比,今后贮箱的制造成本有望降低,制造时间也将缩短。
Active debris removal主动清除碎片
JAXA runs a research programme that is aimed at the realization of a low-cost active debris removal mission.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构正在开展一项研究方案,目的是实现低成本的主动清理碎片任务。
The programme consists of an active debris removal scenario study, research and development of key technology, and research and development of on-orbit service technology for robotic servicing in the near future.方案内容包括: 主动清理碎片情景分析; 研发关键技术; 以及,研发在轨作业技术,以便在不久的将来实现自动操作。
There are three themes for research and development of active debris removal key technology: non-cooperative rendezvous, capture technology for non-cooperative targets and de-orbiting technology to remove massive targets.关于主动清理碎片的关键技术,有三个研发课题: 非合作性交会; 非合作性目标的捕获技术; 以及,清理大型目标的脱离轨道技术。
An electrodynamic tether (EDT) system is promising as the active debris removal device, which allows for the de-orbiting of debris without any propellant and can be easily attached to the non-cooperative debris object.电动力缆绳系统作为主动清除碎片的装置,今后将大有可为,利用这项技术不必使用推进剂便可以让碎片脱离轨道,同时还可以轻易附着在非合作性碎片物体上。
A demonstration flight of the EDT system named KITE is planned for fiscal year 2016.计划在2016年财政年度由名为“风筝”的电动力缆绳系统进行飞行演示。
An illustration of the KITE mission is given in the conference room paper to be made available at the fifty-fourth session of the Subcommittee.关于此次任务的说明已写入拟提交小组委员会第五十四届会议的会议室文件。
An experimental EDT module will be installed on the HTV.
It will be activated just before re-entry of the HTV to Earth, and its function as a de-orbit device will be demonstrated.电动力缆绳系统试验模块将安装在H-II号转移飞行器上,在飞行器返回大气层的前一刻启动,其作为脱离轨道设备的作用将得以展示。
Mexico墨西哥
[Original: Spanish][原件:西班牙文]
[14 October 2016][2016年10月14日]
In the present report, the Mexican Space Agency (AEM), which has always been committed to undertaking study and research with a view to strengthening activities relating to innovative space technologies, presents the progress of its research on space debris, the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to the collision of such objects with space debris.墨西哥空间局历来致力于开展研究工作,以期强化与创新空间技术有关的活动。 在本报告中,墨西哥空间局介绍了关于空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全以及此类物体与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究进展情况。
With regard to the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board, Mexico participates actively in the work of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.关于携载核动力源空间物体的安全问题,墨西哥积极参与和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会以及法律小组委员会的工作。
Mexico adheres to the relevant principles concerning the use of nuclear power sources in outer space and is a State that promotes peace and is guided by international instruments such as the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco).墨西哥信守关于在外层空间使用核动力源的各项原则,致力于促进和平,以《拉丁美洲和加勒比禁止核武器条约》(《特拉特洛尔科条约》)等国际文书为指导。
In addition, Mexico is party to the Convention on Nuclear Safety, which approaches the issue of safety as a preventive and systematic endeavour and reflects the importance that the international community attaches to ensuring that the use of nuclear energy is safe, well regulated and environmentally sound.此外,墨西哥还是《核安全公约》的缔约国。 这部《公约》从预防角度有系统地处理核安全问题,体现了国际社会对于确保核能利用以安全有序并对环境友好型方式进行的重视。
Mexico considers it important to formalize and make progress in the analysis of the proposals to develop a universal and comprehensive convention that makes the principles relating to outer space binding and that supplements the provisions of the existing United Nations treaties on outer space.墨西哥认为,应敲定并进一步分析关于拟订一项综合性普遍公约的提议,这项公约将能使外层空间相关原则具有约束力,并可对现有联合国外空条约的相关规定加以补充。
Mexico is party to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies of 1967, in the first paragraph of article IV of which it is established that “States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.”墨西哥是1967年《关于各国探索和利用外层空间包括月球与其他天气活动所应遵守原则的条约》的缔约国,该《条约》第四条第一款规定:“本条约各缔约国承诺不在环绕地球的轨道上放置任何载有核武器或任何其他种类大规模毁灭性武器的物体,不在天体上装置这种武器,也不以任何其他方式在外层空间设置这种武器。”
Although there are binding and non-binding regulations, there are no sanctions in the case of a disaster caused by a space object carrying a nuclear load, other than what might be understood by “reparation in respect of the damage” under the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects.虽然规章条例既有约束性的也有非约束性的,但是对造成损害的携载核动力源的空间物体,除了在《空间物体造成损害的国际责任公约》下可被理解为“对损害的赔偿”之外,并不存在任何其他制裁。
Mexico collaborates with the Working Group on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities within the four expert groups:墨西哥在四个专家组内与外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组开展协作:
expert group A, on sustainable space utilization supporting sustainable development on Earth;关于支持全球可持续发展的可持续利用空间A专家组;
expert group B, on space debris, space operations and tools to support collaborative space situational awareness;关于空间碎片及支持协作型空间态势认知的空间作业和工具的B专家组;
expert group C, on space weather;关于空间天气的C专家组;
and expert group D, on regulatory regimes and guidance for actors in the space arena.关于空间领域行动方规范机制和指导的D专家组。
Mexico participated in the initiative of Canada, the Czech Republic and Germany to create a compendium of space debris mitigation standards, which was submitted to the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space at its fifty-third session.墨西哥参与了由加拿大、捷克共和国和德国提出的关于编制空间碎片减缓标准汇编的倡议,这项倡议是在和平利用外层空间委员会第五十三届会议上提交其法律小组委员会的。
Space activities in Mexico started in 1985, with the launch of the geostationary satellites Morelos I and Morelos II.墨西哥的空间活动始于1985年,当年发射了Morelos I号和Morelos II号对地静止卫星。
There are currently six satellites in operation.目前有六颗卫星正在运行。
In accordance with practice regarding the elimination of space debris, Mexican policy on the orbit of geostationary satellites has consisted in retaining enough fuel to ensure that, at the end of its lifespan, a satellite will automatically de-orbit.按照消除空间碎片的做法,墨西哥的对地静止卫星轨道政策包括留足燃料,确保卫星在使用寿命结束时能够自动脱离轨道。
That is the procedure used by Satmex.墨西哥卫星公司采用了这种程序。
All the procedures referred to above take into account the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the relevant regulations issued by various countries with influential space programmes.上述所有程序均考虑到《和平利用外层空间委员会空间碎片减缓准则》以及开展重要空间方案的国家颁布的相关规章条例。
In accordance with the Outer Space Treaty, Mexico has maintained its position in favour of the non-militarization of outer space and the peaceful uses of outer space.根据《外层空间条约》,墨西哥坚持外层空间非军事化以及和平利用外层空间的立场。
Portugal葡萄牙
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[28 October 2016][2016年10月28日]
Space debris activities in Portugal葡萄牙的空间碎片活动
The main space debris-related activities in Portugal are briefly described below.下文将简要介绍葡萄牙围绕空间碎片问题开展的主要活动。
Space debris from spacecraft degradation products航天器降解物产生的空间碎片
This activity is carried out under a European Space Agency contract by the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL) as the prime contractor and Onera (France) and the Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany) as subcontractors.这项活动按照欧洲空间局的一份合同进行,里斯本大学自然科学系是主要的承包商,法国国家航空和航天研究局及德国布伦瑞克技术大学是分包商。
The activity is aimed at assessing the amount and characteristics of space debris objects resulting from the exposure of spacecraft exteriors to their operational environment in space.这项活动旨在评估因航天器外层暴露在太空作业环境中而产生的空间碎片物体的数量及其特点。
Emphasis is on multilayer insulation and paint flakes, which are both surface degradation products.研究重点是多层绝缘材料和油漆碎片,这二者均属于表层降解物。
Understanding, characterizing and quantifying the debris generation processes is crucial for modelling the space environment.了解这些碎片形成的过程,分析其特点,并确定其数量,对于空间环境建模工作至关重要。
Here, experimental degradation studies are performed under realistic or accelerated space environment conditions.在实际和加速空间环境条件下开展了降解研究实验。
Portuguese space surveillance and tracking system葡萄牙空间监视和追踪系统
This is an activity carried out by a consortium of national industry actors with the participation of academic partners. It is being developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Science.这项活动由本国行业各行动方集体开展,学术合作伙伴也参与其中,目前正在与国防部及科学部合作制定计划。
The consortium is composed of Software Services and Development Company (EDISOFT) (leader), Deimos Engenharia (DEIMOS), GMV, Electronics Research and Development Company (EID), the Institute of Telecommunications, the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Porto and the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Lisbon.成员包括:软件服务与开发(EDISOFT)公司(领导者)、Deimos Engenharia(DEIMOS)公司、GMV公司、电子学研究与开发(EID)公司、电子通信研究所、波尔图大学自然科学系以及里斯本大学自然科学系。
Currently, it is in the proposal phase.
Several meetings of all stakeholders (companies and ministries) have already taken place.目前正处在提议阶段,所有利益攸关方(公司和部委)已经召开了数次会议。
The aims are diverse and can be summarized as follows: exploring the potential deployment of a Portuguese space surveillance and tracking system and submitting a Portuguese application to the space surveillance and tracking (SST) system support programme of the European Union.活动具有多项目标,可简要总结如下:探索可否部署葡萄牙空间监视和追踪系统,向欧洲联盟空间监视和追踪系统支持方案提出申请。
This system would allow the collection of information on objects orbiting the Earth, including space debris, and on foreign satellite passes and activities, thus being a geostrategic asset valued by other nations.有了这一系统,将可以收集包括空间碎片在内的在绕地轨道上运行的物体信息以及外国卫星的轨道和活动信息,从而成为受到其他国家重视的地缘战略资产。
Having direct and autonomous access to such information through its SST system would enable Portugal to leverage its political weight.通过本国空间监视和追踪系统自动直接获取相关信息,将提升葡萄牙的政治影响力。
The footprint of the Portuguese infrastructures that can be adapted for the SST system includes Azores and Madeira.作出调整以适应空间监视和追踪系统的葡萄牙基础设施的覆盖范围包括了亚速尔群岛和马德拉群岛。
The installation and maintenance of those infrastructures will boost the local economy, thereby creating jobs and economic growth.安装和维护这些基础设施将促进当地经济发展,创造就业机会和拉动经济增长。
Spain西班牙
[Original: Spanish][原件:西班牙文]
[18 October 2016][2016年10月18日]
Over the past decade, Spain has built up extensive experience in the area of space debris.近十年来,西班牙在空间碎片领域积累了广泛经验。
Spanish research and industrial bodies have developed a large number of systems and tools to identify and predict the orbit of space objects.西班牙研究机构和工业实体开发了大量系统和工具,用于确定和预测空间物体的轨道。
Furthermore, the Government has established a national space surveillance system and has joined international projects to improve space surveillance and reduce on-orbit collision risks.此外,西班牙政府还建立了国家空间监视系统,并加入了关于改进空间监视和减少在轨碰撞风险的国际项目。
Those activities have been accompanied by significant research and development.在开展这些活动的同时,还进行了重要的研发工作。
Astronomical telescopes have been adapted in order to detect objects in Earth orbit.调试了天文望远镜,以便探测地球轨道上的物体。
The first observation campaigns have yielded very positive results, enabling many objects to be detected and providing a considerably better understanding of the on-orbit collision risks posed by space debris.初期观测活动取得了相当积极的成果,探测到了很多物体,并且让人们得以深入了解空间碎片造成的在轨碰撞风险。
At the same time, new systems are being developed specifically to detect and monitor space objects.另一方面,正在开发专门用于探测和监测空间物体的新系统。
Those systems will significantly enhance the ability to monitor Earth orbits and, on the basis of the information collected, study their behaviour and reduce the risk of collisions.这些系统将极大提高地球轨道监测能力和依据已收集信息研究空间物体行为并减少其碰撞风险的能力。
Spain has also joined the European Union space surveillance and tracking (SST) support framework, a programme that is aimed not only at providing SST services but also at conducting research to improve the state of the art of such technology.西班牙还加入了欧洲联盟空间监视和追踪支持框架,这个方案不仅旨在提供空间监视和追踪服务,还意在开展研究以提高相关技术现有水平。
That research was scheduled to begin in 2016 and will continue until at least 2020.研究工作计划在2016年开始,至少将持续到2020年。
It will enable significant progress to be made in understanding the situation with regard to space debris in Earth orbit.人们对于地球轨道上空间碎片状况的认识将由此取得重要进展。
Furthermore, those activities will enable on-orbit collision risks to be reduced.此外,这些活动还将减少在轨碰撞风险。
Within the European Space Agency, Spain has played a key role in the space situational awareness programme, which includes space surveillance.在欧洲空间局内部,西班牙在包括空间监视等空间态势认知方案上起到了重要作用。
Spain has been the largest contributor to the programme and has led many of its activities, thereby making a substantial contribution to improving understanding of the complex problem of space debris.西班牙是该方案的最大捐助方,并且牵头开展了多项方案活动,从而为推进人们深入了解空间碎片这一复杂问题作出了实质性贡献。
It should be noted that although none of those activities are specifically linked to objects with nuclear power sources, the resulting general reduction in collision risks will be of benefit to that field in particular.应该指出的是,虽然这些活动无一针对携载核动力源的空间物体,但由此可以普遍减少碰撞风险,这对于携载核动力源的空间物体尤为有利。
Therefore, those activities will have a positive effect on reducing the likelihood of a collision with an object with a nuclear power source.由此可见,这些活动将对减少物体与核动力源的碰撞风险产生积极影响。
III.三.
Replies received from international organizations国际组织提交的答复
International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety国际空间安全促进协会
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[23 October 2016][2016年10月23日]
Introduction导言
IAASS is a non-profit organization dedicated to furthering international cooperation and scientific advancement in the field of space systems safety.国际空间安全促进协会是一家非营利组织,致力于促进空间系统安全领域的国际合作与科学进步。
In 2004, IAASS became a member of the International Astronautical Federation and in 2010, it was granted observer status at the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.2004年,国际空间安全促进协会加盟国际宇宙航行联合会; 2010年,该协会获得了和平利用外层空间委员会观察员地位。
IAASS is the first and only organization worldwide offering a wide range of specialized events for continuing education and training in space safety.国际空间安全促进协会是全球第一个、也是唯一一个开展多种专门活动以促进就空间安全问题开展持续教育和培训的组织。
IAASS organizes workshops, seminars, conferences and hands-on courses.它组织开办各种讲习班、研讨会、会议和实践课程。
IAASS conferences are held every 18 months and are a unique opportunity to assess space safety and the space environment.国际空间安全促进协会的会议每18个月召开一次,为评估空间安全和空间环境提供了不可多得的机会。
During the 8th IAASS conference, held from 18 to 20 May 2016 in Melbourne, Florida, United States of America, a dedicated panel session was organized to analyse the impact of newcomers to space activity on the space environment.2016年5月18日至20日,在美利坚合众国佛罗里达州墨尔本市召开了国际空间安全促进协会第八次会议。 在这次会议上安排了一次专题小组会议,分析空间活动的后来者给空间环境造成的影响。
Thirty experts from several countries around the world participated in the discussions, addressing questions regarding the impact of CubeSats, chipsats and small-satellite constellations on the space environment.来自全球各地多个国家的三十名专家参加了讨论,探讨了立方体小卫星、芯片卫星和小型卫星星座对于空间环境的影响等问题。
The theme was chosen because of the emergence in recent years of new space projects conducted outside the traditional framework of space agencies, major satellite operators and traditional industry.之所以选择这个主题,是由于近年来在空间机构、主要卫星运营商和相关行业等传统框架之外涌现出一些新的空间项目。
That is the case with regard to CubeSat projects led by newcomers (new spacefaring countries, new manufacturers and new operators).由后来者(新兴航天国家、新兴制造商和新兴运营商)主导的立方体小卫星项目就属于这种情况。
It is also the case with megaconstellation projects that involve hundreds of satellites in low-Earth orbit that will be operated by new, powerful consortiums.包含数百颗低地轨道卫星的大型星座项目也属于这种情况,并将由实力强大的新兴联营集团运营。
Impact of newcomers, CubeSats, chipsats and small-satellite constellations on space debris risk后来者、立方体小卫星、芯片卫星和小型卫星星座对于空间碎片风险的影响
The arrival of newcomers, CubeSats and megaconstellations raises three important issues:后来者、立方体小卫星和大型星座的到来引发了三个重要问题:
(a)(a)
They will have a major impact on the orbital population in low-Earth orbit.将严重影响到低地轨道上的在轨物体数量。
Such a dramatic evolution will increase the collision risk and consequently require new efforts in the field of space surveillance;这种快速发展将增加碰撞风险,因而需要在空间监视领域开展更多工作。
(b)(b)
Many of the nanosatellites have no manoeuvre capacity and poor reliability and launch as a secondary passenger on an orbit optimized for the main payload;很多纳米卫星不具备机动能力,可靠性差,作为附带物进入了为主要有效载荷而优化的轨道。
(c)(c)
New actors are appearing (countries, manufacturers and operators) who continue to field unreliable, first-generation systems.正在出现的后来者(国家、制造商和运营商)继续部署不可靠的第一代系统。
A legal framework for space operations does not exist in most of the new spacefaring countries, and some new operators may have a limited knowledge of United Nations guidelines.大多数新兴航天国家尚未建立起规范空间作业的法律框架,某些新兴运营商对于联合国相关准则的了解有限。
The first concern relates to the evolution of the population of objects in orbit around the Earth.第一个问题涉及到绕地轨道空间物体数量的变迁。
New projects involve a large number of satellites.新的项目包含大量卫星。
In 2015, for example, more than 120 CubeSats were launched and, in the case of megaconstellations, hundreds of satellites could be injected into low-Earth orbit.例如,2015年发射了超过120颗立方体小卫星; 大型星座项目则会向低地轨道发射数百颗卫星。
The upper stages of launchers necessary to put them in space must also be taken into account.此外还必须考虑到将这些卫星送入空间所需的发射器的上级装置。
Additional satellites also have to be launched regularly to replace satellites that have failed or reached end of life in order to ensure continuity of service.此外,为确保服务不间断,还需要定期发射更多卫星来替换失灵或到期失效的卫星。
That situation could represent a problem if the small satellite orbit is above 650 km. During the first workshop, discussions focused on developments in low-Earth orbit population: how many satellites would there be in 10 years? How many CubeSats were expected to be launched in 2020? Should the commercial use of CubeSats be considered?假如小型卫星的轨迹距离地球650公里,这种情况就会出问题。 在第一次研讨会上,与会者讨论的重点是低地轨道空间物体的数量问题:10年后,这里将出现多少颗卫星?2020年预计将发射多少颗立方体小卫星?是否应考虑立方体小卫星的商业用途?
The increase in the number of objects may cause an increased risk of collision for other users of space if the satellites have no manoeuvre capability.假如卫星不具备任何机动能力,那么空间物体数量的增加可能会提高其他空间用户的碰撞风险。
Guideline 3 of the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space indicates that “if available orbital data indicate a potential collision, adjustment of the launch time or an on-orbit avoidance manoeuvre should be considered”.《和平利用外层空间委员会空间碎片减缓准则》的准则3规定:“如果现有的轨道数据表明可能会发生碰撞,则应考虑调整发射时间或者进行在轨避撞机动。”
Unfortunately, most CubeSats and some microsatellites have no propulsion or a very limited capacity when they have an electric propulsion system, and some of them might be unable to perform avoidance manoeuvres.但遗憾的是,大多数立方体小卫星和部分微型卫星没有配备推进器,或是配备了电子推进系统,但机动能力极为有限,部分卫星可能无法实现防碰撞规避操作。
Should it be accepted that half of the population in orbit does not comply with the regulations?
Although the collision probabilities and consequences are lower because of the size of the objects, the mathematical models used to simulate those events must be adapted to take such specificities into account.有半数在轨物体不遵守相关准则,对于这种情况能否听之任之?由于物体的体积较小,发生碰撞的几率偏低,后果也不会太严重,但必须调整用来模拟碰撞场景的数学模型,将这些具体特点考虑在内。
Further studies appear necessary.显然还需要进一步研究。
Finally, the tracking and identifying of CubeSats by space surveillance systems is difficult.最后,利用空间监视系统很难追踪和确定立方体小卫星。
There is a risk of confusing satellites in neighbouring orbits, which would represent an additional legal difficulty in case of damage on the ground or in space.有可能与在临近轨道上运行的卫星弄混,一旦在地面或空间造成损害,这种情况将增添法律上的难度。
Similarly, the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space should be applied consistently by all launching States, without exceptions for any kind of space objects.同样,凡发射空间物体的国家应一律适用《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》,任何类型的空间物体均不得例外。
The second concern deals with the technical characteristics of small satellites.第二个问题涉及到小型卫星的技术特点。
For instance, to comply with the “25-year rule”, satellites have to perform end-of-life manoeuvres if they are deployed above 650 km. Given the reliability of up-to-date space systems, compliance is achieved less than six times out of ten in low-Earth orbit.例如,要符合“25年期限规则”,距地面高度650公里的卫星必须在使用寿命结束时执行机动操作。 鉴于最新空间系统的可靠性,低地轨道物体遵守这项规则的比例还不到60%。
The reliability of small satellites could therefore be another important factor leading to a limited implementation of the guidelines: their design is simplified as much as possible in order to achieve the lowest possible cost.由此可见,小型卫星的可靠性是导致准则落实不力的另一个重要因素:小型卫星在设计上尽可能简化,目的是尽量降低成本。
That can lead to a reduction in the number of functionalities and overall reliability of the satellite, with the risk of having defunct satellites that have lost their ability to be controlled abandoned in space.这可能导致卫星的功能数量和整体可靠性被压缩,由此带来的风险是卫星失灵,变得无法控制,因而被弃置在太空。
That potential drop in reliability can have an impact on the long-term stability of the population in low-Earth orbit.可靠性的降低还可能影响到低地轨道物体数量的长期稳定性。
The mathematical models simulating the long-term evolution of the population take into account assumptions such as the annual number of satellites launched and the success rate of disposal operations.模拟物体数量长期发展变化情况的数学模型考虑到了每年发射升空的卫星数量和处理操作成功率等考虑因素。
Under a “business-as-usual” scenario, experts fear an exponential increase in the number of items in outer space.专家预测外空物体数量将增加。
今天看来,这种想法过于乐观了。
On the one hand, the number of objects put in orbit should increase sharply: for example, OneWeb plans to launch 900 satellites at an altitude of 1,200 km. On the other hand, the rate of compliance with end-of-life operations could decline owing to reduced reliability of small satellites.一方面,在轨物体数量将激增:例如,OneWeb公司计划发射900颗卫星进入距地1,200公里轨道; 而另一方面,由于小型卫星的可靠性降低,使用寿命终止规则的遵守比例将下降。
Finally, the third concern is compliance with the international recommendations or regulations relating to space debris, namely the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of IADC, the space debris mitigation requirements of the International Standardization Organization and the national laws of several countries.最后,第三个问题是遵守关于空间碎片问题的国际建议或规则,即,《和平利用外层空间委员会空间碎片减缓准则》、《机构间空间碎片协调委员会空间碎片减缓准则》、国际标准化组织空间碎片减缓要求、以及一些国家的相关法律。
A case in point is the so-called “25-year rule”, which limits the duration in low-Earth orbit after mission to 25 years.“25年期限规则”就是一例,这项规则规定空间物体进入低地轨道执行任务的期限为25年。
In practice, many small satellites have no manoeuvrability allowing them to change orbit at the end of their operational life.但实际上,很多小型卫星不具备机动能力,在使用寿命结束时无法变更轨道。
Without manoeuvre capability, they should be required to be injected only into low-altitude orbits providing natural re-entry within 25 years.对于这些不具备机动能力的卫星,应要求其只能进入低地轨道,且条件是在25年内自动返回大气层。
Unfortunately, small satellites do not usually choose their orbit, since they are launched as secondary passengers;但遗憾的是,由于小型卫星通常是作为附带物发射升空的,通常不会为小型卫星选择轨道;
the orbit is determined by the larger, more expensive satellites of the main payload.轨道是由作为主要有效荷载的体积更大、成本更高的卫星来决定的。
Their rideshare should drop them off at a maximum altitude of about 650 km and not higher.发射火箭至多将小型卫星带到距地650公里的高度,不会更高了。
The question that then arises is how to implement international recommendations.由此出现的问题是,如何落实国际建议。
Because of their low cost, small satellites (CubeSats, chipsats) become accessible to new operators: student projects at universities, for example.由于小型卫星(立方体小卫星和芯片卫星)的成本低,新兴运营商能够获得很多小型卫星,例如大学实验项目。
Those new operators may not be aware of the existence of guidelines agreed at the international level.这些运营商或许还不了解国际社会已然商定了相关准则。
In addition, not all countries have a legal system to enforce those guidelines.此外,并非所有国家都建立了法律制度来执行这些准则。
How is it possible to ensure that new countries will monitor the activities of their operators as requested by the various treaties?如何确保新兴国家根据多部条约的规定,监测本国运营商的活动?办法之一是要求发射运营商对照准则进行核查;
One option might be to ask launch operators to perform this check, the advantage being that launch operators are well known, limited in number and under State control.这种做法的优势在于,发射运营商比较出名,数量少,且在国家掌控之内。
Nevertheless, this option would require agreement by all operators to avoid distortion of competition.但这种做法必须获得所有运营商的认可,以避免出现竞争扭曲。
Another option would be the creation of a new international organization similar to the International Civil Aviation Organization to impose rules for the benefit of all commercial operators.另一种办法是创建类似于国际民用航空组织的新的国际组织,强制实行这些规则,以维护所有商业运营商的利益。
In summary, the development of low-cost small satellites such as CubeSats leads to the emergence of new projects and new operators.总的说来,立方体小卫星等低成本小型卫星的发展催生了新的项目和新的运营商。
Several important consequences were analysed during the panel organized by IAASS in May 2016:国际空间安全促进协会在2016年5月举办的小组会议分析了这些小型卫星引发的一些重要后果:
(a)(a)
Short-term increase of collision risk for active satellites and of the workload of space surveillance systems;有源卫星的碰撞风险和空间监视系统的工作量在短期内增加;
(b)(b)
Inability of some small satellites to perform collision avoidance and end-of-life manoeuvres, as a result of their simplified design;由于在设计上过于简化,部分小型卫星无法执行防碰撞规避操作以及使用寿命结束时的机动操作;
(c)(c)
Poor awareness of space debris guidelines by newcomers and lack of national regulatory framework for new spacefaring countries;后来者对《空间碎片准则》认识不足,新兴航天国家没有建立起本国的监管框架;
(d)(d)
Possible long-term exponential increase of object population in low-Earth orbit.低地轨道空间物体的数量有可能长期急剧增加。
Space Generation Advisory Council航天新一代咨询理事会
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[17 October 2016][2016年10月17日]
Introduction导言
The space debris issue is now at the forefront of discussions on the sustainability of outer space.空间碎片是外层空间可持续性讨论的核心问题。
Given the increased number of small satellites, it is unclear if current policies are enough to mitigate the risk of space debris.由于小型卫星数量增多,目前还不清楚现行政策是否足以减轻空间碎片造成的风险。
With increased interest in long-duration missions, the number of spacecraft launched with a nuclear power source on board is also increasing.随着长期任务备受关注,携载核动力源发射升空的航天器数量也在增加。
The collision between nuclear-powered spacecraft and space debris could lead to nuclear contamination of the Earth or the space environment, with dire consequences.核动力航天器与空间碎片发生碰撞,可能导致地球或空间环境受到核污染,其后果极为可怕。
That possibility calls for the implementation of new policies to maintain the safety of those spacecraft and to raise awareness of the threats to the sustainable use of outer space.这种可能性要求我们执行新的政策来维护航天器的安全,同时应提高对外层空间可持续发展所面临的种种威胁的认识。
Space debris problem空间碎片问题
Ever since the first satellite was launched, in 1957, Earth’s orbits have become more and more crowded.自1957年发射了第一颗卫星以来,地球轨道变得越来越拥挤。
Many nations and commercial enterprises have launched their own spacecraft into orbit around Earth, and many are still there.很多国家及商业企业发射航天器进入绕地轨道运行,而且很多航天器目前依然在轨。
Among all floating objects in space, an estimated 6 per cent are still operational, while almost 60 per cent of space objects are fragments produced by explosions and collisions.在空间漂浮物体当中,估计约有6%仍在运行,将近60%的空间物体是爆炸和碰撞产生的碎片。
More than 20,000 pieces of space debris the size of a tennis ball or larger orbit the Earth with a velocity of nearly 17,500 miles per hour.超过20,000块网球大小或更大一些的空间碎片在绕地轨道上运行,其速度高达每小时17,500英里。
Those uncontrolled fragments and other debris (such as discarded rocket bodies and retired satellites) can collide with each other and generate more debris, in a cycle popularly known as “Kessler syndrome”. Kessler syndrome in turn results in the exponential growth of orbital debris as time progresses, with an ever-increasing risk for operational bodies in orbit.这些失控的碎片和其他碎片(例如被弃置的火箭和退役的卫星)可能会相互碰撞,产生更多的碎片,这种循环往复的过程通常被称为“凯斯勒症候群”,随着时间的推移,这将导致轨道上的碎片数量成倍增加,给在轨运行物体造成的风险也不断增加。
In addition to their number, pieces of debris have enough energy to break the rigid wall of satellites, and to destroy satellites.除数量问题之外,一些碎片有足够的能力冲破卫星坚硬的外壁,摧毁卫星。
Moreover, the number of collisions recorded by the International Space Station and the number of times the Space Station has had to manoeuvre to avoid debris demonstrate the true impact of such objects on space operations.不仅如此,国际空间站记录下来的碰撞次数以及空间站为避开碎片而进行机动操作的次数也表明了这些物体给空间作业造成的实际影响。
Currently, the debris field in low-Earth orbit is unstable.低地轨道的碎片场目前很不稳定。
Simulations have shown that even without any future launches, the debris field will grow slowly.模拟实验表明,即便是今后不再发射任何卫星,碎片场仍将缓慢扩展。
With launches continuing at current rates and no mitigation measures, the quantity of debris in orbit is likely to grow exponentially.假如继续保持目前的发射数量,而且不采取任何减缓措施,在轨碎片数量将成倍增加。
Fragments generated from the anti-satellite test conducted by China in 2007 and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos-2251 in 2009 were major factors in the jump in the number of pieces of space debris.中国在2007年进行拦截卫星实验以及铱星33号和宇宙-2251号在2009年发生碰撞而产生的碎片是导致空间碎片数量激增的主要因素。
Research has concluded that 60 per cent of tracked fragments have been generated by explosions and collisions in space, mostly related to activities of the United States and Soviet Union in low-Earth orbit.研究发现,在追踪监测的碎片当中,有60%是空间爆炸和碰撞的产物,其中大多数与美国及苏联在低地轨道上开展的活动有关。
Every year, an average of 120 to 150 satellites are launched, resulting in an additional 300 to 500 fragments per year in outer space.平均每年大约发射120至150颗卫星,外层空间的碎片也因此每年会增加300至500片。
The rise in the number of small satellites being launched into orbit and plans for constellations of small satellites by several commercial entities clearly show that those numbers will grow even further.进入轨道的小型卫星数量增加以及一些商业实体构想的小型卫星星座计划清楚地表明,这些碎片数量还将进一步增加。
The probability of collision varies with altitude.在不同高度,发生碰撞的可能性也不一样。
The major risk of collision is in the orbital altitudes of 500 to 1,200 km and 1,400 to 1,600 km. Those orbit ranges are mostly used for scientific experiments or Earth observation.主要碰撞风险存在于距地500至1,200公里以及距地1,400至1,600公里的轨道上。 这些轨道主要用来开展科学实验或地球观测。
IADC developed a set of guidelines, including the “25-year rule”, now being followed by many stakeholders.机构间空间碎片协调委员会制定了一系列准则,其中包括“25年期限规则”,这些准则目前已经得到众多利益攸关方的遵守。
In addition, some States have developed their own space debris mitigation standards based on those guidelines.此外,一些国家还根据这些准则,制定了本国的空间碎片减缓标准。
Recent studies are inconclusive as to whether the “25-year rule” might be a suitable solution, highlighting the need for the revision of those guidelines based on recent developments in the sector.关于“25年期限规则”是否属于适当的解决方案,近年来的研究尚未形成定论,由此可见有必要根据这一领域近年来的发展修订上述准则。
Concrete actions taken by States who have adopted the IADC guidelines include:一些国家在采纳《机构间空间碎片协调委员会准则》的同时,采取了如下具体行动:
(a)(a)
The improvement of the design of launch vehicles and spacecraft;改进运载工具和航天器的设计;
(b)(b)
The de-orbiting of satellites;卫星脱离轨道;
(c)(c)
The development of specific software and models for space debris mitigation.为减缓空间碎片开发具体的软件和模型。
Many methods have been proposed for cleaning space debris, and the space sector is taking initiatives to tackle this problem.为清理空间碎片,人们提出了多种方法; 空间领域正在行动起来,努力解决这个问题。
On-orbit servicing, active debris removal and passive de-orbiting capabilities are all being studied to maintain a more stable space debris environment.为维护更加稳定的空间碎片环境,目前正在研究在轨服务、主动清除碎片和被动脱轨能力。
Nuclear power sources in space空间中的核动力源
Initial advancements in nuclear power technology led to engineers trying to integrate that new technology into different sectors, from planes to marine vehicles, and space was no exception.核动力技术的初步发展促使工程师将这种新技术引入飞机、远洋船舶等多个不同部门,空间领域也不例外。
Both the United States and the Soviet Union attempted to launch nuclear reactors into space: the United States launched SNAP-10A, while the Soviet Union ran the RORSAT programme.美国和苏联都试图将核反应堆发射进入太空:美国发射了SNAP-10A号太空核反应堆,苏联也启动了雷达海洋侦察卫星(RORSAT)方案。
Several disasters resulted, including:由此导致了多起灾难,其中包括:
(a)(a)
Launch failure and the reactor falling into the Pacific Ocean north of Japan (25 April 1973);发射失败,反应堆坠入日本以北的太平洋(1973年4月25日);
(b)(b)
Kosmos-954 experiencing re-entry over Canada owing to a boost failure, irradiating 124,000 square km of the North-Western Territories.由于助推系统失灵,宇宙-954号卫星在加拿大上空坠入大气层,给加拿大西北部124,000平方公里造成辐射污染。
The RORSAT programme was designed to eject its nuclear cores into orbit, some of which are still there, decaying.雷达海洋侦察卫星方案的设计初衷是将核反应堆的堆芯发射进入轨道,部分堆芯至今仍留在太空,正在衰败过程中。
The mishaps of those programmes led to a halt of nuclear activities in Earth orbit.由于这些方案导致灾难,各国终止了地球轨道上的核活动。
Traditional fission reactors are no longer used for space missions.传统裂变反应堆不再用于太空任务。
Instead, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are now used for exploration class missions, such as the Curiosity rover.“好奇号”探测器等探索类任务如今采用的是放射性同位素热电式发电机(RTG)。
Those systems rely on the heat generated by the decay of a radioactive sample for energy generation and are much simpler in design and safer than traditional reactors.这些系统仅仅依靠放射性样本衰变产生的热能作为能源,与传统反应堆相比,在设计上简化了很多,而且也更加安全。
Nonetheless, they do pose a risk of contamination if the fuel container leaks.但是,假如燃料箱发生泄露,依然会有污染风险。
The main concern in the use of RTGs in spacecraft is contamination owing to a launch failure or failure during operations in Earth orbit.人们对于在航天器上使用放射性同位素热电式发电机的主要顾虑是,一旦发射失败或在地球轨道上运行时出现失误,就会导致污染。
Risk assessment for previous missions has shown that the risk for such mishaps varies by phases of the mission, with the risk being as high as 1 in 10 for the Cassini-Huygens.对此前的任务进行风险评估,结果发现发生灾难的风险在任务的不同阶段而有所不同,卡西尼—惠更斯飞行任务的风险概率高达十分之一。
Previous mission failures leading to contamination — such as the 1964 United States Transit-5BN-3 launch failure, and the 1969 Russian Lunokhod launch failure — have led to intact re-entry requirements for RTGs, which reduces the likelihood of contamination.由于以往的任务失败导致发生污染,例如1964年美国Transit-5BN-3号导航卫星发射失败以及1969年苏联Lunokhod号月球车发射失败,人们要求放射性同位素热电式发电机在返回大气层时保持完好无损,由此可以减少污染风险。
That has reduced the impact of failures that came after those missions, including the Russian Mars 96 and the Apollo 13 lunar lander re-entry — with no contamination being recorded in those cases.此后的任务失败造成的影响也因此得以减轻,其中包括苏联火星96号探测器和阿波罗13号登月探测器,这些事故均未留下污染记录。
Despite those efforts, all spacecraft, including those with RTGs, are prone to collisions.尽管人们作出了种种努力,但所有航天器(包括装备放射性同位素热电式发电机的航天器)仍有可能发生碰撞。
If an RTG fuel container is damaged owing to a collision, contamination is unavoidable.假如放射性同位素热电式发电机的燃料箱因碰撞受损,将不可避免地发生污染。
Today, States are considering the implementation of the Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space.各国目前正在考虑落实《外层空间核动力源应用安全框架》。
The Safety Framework would facilitate the conduct of missions involving nuclear power sources on a bilateral or multilateral basis by States.这部《安全框架》将有助于各国在双边或多边基础上开展涉及核动力源的任务。
While the creation of the IADC guidelines seems to be a good first step, execution measures need to be implemented in order to fully benefit from those guidelines.机构间空间碎片协调委员会准则的制定是良好的第一步,但还需要落实执行措施,以便这些准则能够充分惠及各方。
For example, a mission launch authorization procedure needs to be put in place.例如,需要确定发射审批程序。
Need for a global vision需要树立全球视野
The peaceful use of outer space, in particular space orbits, is extremely important in providing communication services for the global population in the twenty-first century.和平利用外层空间,特别是空间轨道,对于在二十一世纪为全球居民提供通信服务至关重要,对于促进治理机制以应对多种全球问题而言同样必不可少,例如:
It is also integral in contributing to governance mechanisms to address a wide array of global problems, for example, monitoring climate change and providing early warnings for natural disasters through the use of satellite images, supporting local development by connecting communities to the Internet and providing the infrastructure necessary for development in the information technology industry.利用卫星图像监测气候变化和发布自然灾害预警; 为社区提供互联网接入服务,从而支持地方发展; 为信息技术行业的发展提供必要的基础设施。
As such, space debris mitigation is paramount in ensuring social progress and global development.由此可见,空间碎片减缓对于确保社会进步和全球发展具有至关重要的意义。
Nevertheless, the existing governance landscape regarding outer space remains comparatively underdeveloped.但是,关于外层空间的现行治理机制却相对落后。
While major international actors, including international organizations, States and non-governmental organizations, are devising concrete steps for the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals, the lack of an explicit reference to space sustainability leaves space sustainability initiatives outside of the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals.包括国际组织、国家和非政府组织在内的主要国际行动方正在着手制定具体措施,争取实现可持续发展目标,由于没有明确提及空间可持续性,这为可持续发展目标框架外的空间可持续性举措创造了机会。
Relevant stakeholders may consider the following steps to assert the importance of space sustainability and, subsequently, the relevance and potential of space debris mitigation:相关利益攸关方可以考虑采取如下步骤,肯定空间可持续性的重要性以及空间碎片减缓的意义和潜力:
(a)(a)
Discuss orbits as finite resources and a global resource;发起讨论,将轨道作为有限资源和全球资源;
(b)(b)
Assert the relevance and importance of debris mitigation, especially concerning space objects with nuclear power sources, in contributing to longer-term sustainable development through improved operations of space assets.肯定空间碎片减缓可以改善空间资产的运行情况,从而对于推动长期可持续发展具有相关性和重要性,特别是对携载核动力源的空间物体而言。
Conclusion结论
Today, the most challenging issue facing space operations is collision avoidance.空间物体运行如今面临的最大挑战是避免碰撞。
The space debris problem definitely requires common action by all stakeholders if it is to be rectified.要解决空间碎片问题,必然需要所有利益攸关方共同采取行动。
In that regard, the IADC guidelines are a starting point.在这个问题上,《机构间空间碎片协调委员会准则》为各方提供了出发点。
Further action to address the increasing space debris population seems to be the only solution in the long run to tackle this issue.采取进一步行动来应对空间碎片数量不断增多的问题,是唯一可行的长期解决办法。
Owing to the high risk of collisions in low-Earth orbit, the use of nuclear power sources should be limited to exploration class interplanetary missions.由于在低地轨道发生碰撞的风险高,核动力源应仅限于用在星际探索任务上。
Safety guidelines put forth by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency should be taken into account in such cases, along with planetary protection guidelines to make sure missions are undertaken safely and ethically.这些任务应考虑和平利用外层空间委员会以及国际原子能机构规定的安全准则以及行星保护准则,确保任务安全进行并符合伦理原则。
The SGAC Space Safety and Sustainability project group recommends the following:航天新一代咨询理事会的“空间安全和可持续性”项目提出了如下建议:
(a)(a)
Moving towards the implementation of the Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space by the designation of an international body for launch authorizations for nuclear-powered spacecraft;指定一家国际机构负责审批核动力航天器的发射,争取落实《外层空间核动力源应用安全框架》;
(b)(b)
Implementing the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines;执行《空间碎片减缓准则》;
(c)(c)
Monitoring the above guidelines and reporting regularly on the implementation thereof by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space;由和平利用外层空间委员会监测上述准则并定期报告其落实情况;
(d)(d)
Revising the guidelines every five years, to keep pace with technological advancements;每五年修订一次《准则》以便与技术发展保持同步;
(e)(e)
Recognizing the orbits and outer space as a global commons, and integrating space sustainability into the global development agenda, in particular in relation to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.认识到轨道和外层空间是全球共同资产,将空间可持续性纳入全球发展议程,特别是在实现《可持续发展目标》方面。
About the Space Generation Advisory Council in support of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications航天新一代咨询理事会支持联合国空间应用方案的情况
SGAC works at the international, national and local levels to connect university students and young professionals in the space sector in order to think creatively about international space policy issues and to inject the new generation’s point of view into international space policy.航天新一代咨询理事会在国际、国家和地方层面开展工作,致力于将大学生和空间部门的青年专业人员联系起来,以期通过创新方式思考国际空间政策问题,将年轻一代的观点纳入国际空间政策。
Having been created as a result of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III), its work with the United Nations, particularly the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, is of central importance to the mission of SGAC.创建航天新一代咨询理事会是作为第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)的一项成果而创建的,它同联合国特别是同和平利用外层空间委员会的合作对于完成其任务至关重要。
SGAC works to give regular input to the work of the Committee and its delegates and acts as a conduit for the opinions of its members and the outcomes of its projects.航天新一代咨询理事会定期向外空委及其代表提供咨询意见,传达外空委成员的意见,宣传其项目成果。
SGAC takes part in the work of a variety of United Nations action teams and working groups pertaining to space issues, and participates in the United Nations Programme on Space Applications.航天新一代咨询理事会参与了与空间问题有关的多个联合国行动小组及工作组的工作,并且参与了联合国空间应用方案。
No other space organization for young adults has a permanent observer status with the Committee and is as active or as engaged in the work of the United Nations as SGAC — a fact of which the Council feels very proud.除航天新一代咨询理事会之外,没有其他任何一家专注于青年人的空间组织在委员会享有常驻观察员地位并积极参与联合国的工作,理事会为此倍感自豪。
In addition to having permanent observer status within the Committee since 2001, SGAC has held consultative status within the Economic and Social Council since 2003.航天新一代咨询理事会从2001年开始在外空委享有常驻观察员地位,而且从2003年开始获得经济及社会理事会的咨商地位。
About the Space Generation Advisory Council Space Safety and Sustainability project group航天新一代咨询理事会空间安全和可持续性项目组的情况
The SGAC Space Safety and Sustainability project group was created with the aim of encouraging active participation by students and young professionals in space safety and sustainability-related debates and activities.设立航天新一代咨询理事会空间安全和可持续性项目组的目的是鼓励学生和青年专业人员积极参与关于空间安全和可持续性的辩论及活动。
Through this project group, SGAC has created an international space forum to showcase the perspectives of the next generation of space leaders on the safety and long-term sustainability of outer space activities.通过这个项目组,航天新一代咨询理事会创设了国际空间论坛,可以展现新一代空间领导人对于外层空间活动的安全与长期可持续性的看法。
The project group runs several projects during the year, focusing on the topics of space situational awareness, space weather and space debris. * A/AC.105/C.1/L.355.项目组今年开展了多个项目,重点是空间态势认知、空间气象和空间碎片等课题。 * A/AC.105/C.1/L.355。