A_CONF_206_6_EC
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A/CONF.206/6 A_CONF_206_6e.doc (English)A/CONF.206/6 A_CONF_206_6c.doc (Chinese)
United Nations A/CONF.206/6减少灾害问题世界会议报告
World Conference on Disaster Reduction日本兵库县神户市,2001年1月18日至22日
Kobe, Hyogo, Japan 18-22 January 2005 Distr.: General 16 March 2005目 录
Original: English Report of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 18-22 January 2005 Contents Page I. Resolutions adopted by the Conference 3 Resolution 1. Hyogo Declaration ..................................................................... 3 Resolution 2. Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters ......................................................... 6 Resolution 3. Report of the Credentials Committee ... ........................................... 28 II. Attendance and organization of work ......................................... 28 A. Date and place of the Conference .............................................................. 28 B. Attendance ....................................................................................... 28 C. Opening of the Conference ................................................................... 29 D. Election of the President and other officers ............................................... 30 E. Adoption of the rules of procedure ......................................................... 30 F. Adoption of the agenda ...................................................................... 30 G. Accreditation of relevant non-governmental organizations and other major groups 31 H. Accreditation of intergovernmental organizations ..................................... 31 I. Organization of work of the Conference, including the establishment of a Main Committee ........................................................................... 31 J. Appointment of members of the Credentials Committee 31 K. Documents .................................................................................. 31 III. General debate .......................................................................... 32 IV. Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future.. 33 V. Review of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World 34 VI. Report on the thematic segment 34 VII. Report on the public forum 35 VIII. Adoption of the programme outcome document and of the Conference Declaration 35 IX. Conclusion of the Conference .............................................. 35 Annexes I. List of documents for the Conference ................................................................. 37 II. Common statement of the Special Session on the Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future .................................. 39 Chapter I The World Conference on Disaster Reduction was held at Kobe City of Japan’s Hyogo Prefecture from 18 to 22 January 2005, in conformity with General Assembly resolution 58/214 of 23 December 2003. During that period the Conference adopted three resolutions. Resolutions Adopted by the Conference Resolution 1 Hyogo Declaration At its 9th plenary meeting, on 22 January 2005, the World Conference on Disaster Reduction adopted the Hyogo Declaration, which reads as follows: Hyogo Declaration We, delegates to the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, have gathered from 18 to 22 January 2005 in Kobe City of Japan’s Hyogo Prefecture, which has demonstrated a remarkable recovery from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 17 January 1995. We express our sincere condolences and sympathy to, and solidarity with, the people and communities adversely affected by disasters, particularly those devastated by the unprecedented earthquake and tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004. We commend the efforts made by them, their Governments and the international community to respond to and overcome this tragedy. In response to the Special Leaders’ Meeting of the Association of South-East Asian Nations on the Aftermath of Earthquake and Tsunami, held in Jakarta on 6 January 2005, we commit ourselves to assisting them, including with respect to appropriate measures pertinent to disaster reduction. We also believe that lessons learned from this disaster are relevant to other regions. In this connection, a special session on the recent earthquake and tsunami disaster, convened at the World Conference to review that disaster from a risk reduction perspective, delivered the Common Statement of the Special Session on Indian Ocean Disaster: Risk Reduction for a Safer Future as its outcome. We recognize that the international community has accumulated much experience with disaster risk reduction through the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the succeeding International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. In particular, by taking concrete measures in line with the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World, we have learned much, including about gaps and challenges since the 1994 Yokohama Conference. Nevertheless, we are deeply concerned that communities continue to experience excessive losses of precious human lives and valuable property as well as serious injuries and major displacements due to various disasters worldwide. We are convinced that disasters seriously undermine the results of development investments in a very short time, and therefore, remain a major impediment to sustainable development and poverty eradication. We are also cognizant that development investments that fail to appropriately consider disaster risks could increase vulnerability. Coping with and reducing disasters so as to enable and strengthen nations' sustainable development is, therefore, one of the most critical challenges facing the international community. We are determined to reduce disaster losses of lives and other social, economic and environmental assets worldwide, mindful of the importance of international cooperation, solidarity and partnership, as well as good governance at all levels. We reaffirm the vital role of the United Nations system in disaster risk reduction. Thus, we declare the following: 1. We will build upon relevant international commitments and frameworks, as well as internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, to strengthen global disaster reduction activities for the twenty-first century. Disasters have a tremendous detrimental impact on efforts at all levels to eradicate global poverty; the impact of disasters remains a significant challenge to sustainable development. 2. We recognize the intrinsic relationship between disaster reduction, sustainable development and poverty eradication, among others, and the importance of involving all stakeholders, including governments, regional and international organizations and financial institutions, civil society, including non-governmental organizations and volunteers, the private sector and the scientific community. We therefore welcome all the relevant events that took place and contributions made in the course of the Conference and its preparatory process. 3. We recognize as well that a culture of disaster prevention and resilience, and associated pre-disaster strategies, which are sound investments, must be fostered at all levels, ranging from the individual to the international levels. Human societies have to live with the risk of hazards posed by nature. However, we are far from powerless to prepare for and mitigate the impact of disasters. We can and must alleviate the suffering from hazards by reducing the vulnerability of societies. We can and must further build the resilience of nations and communities to disasters through people-centered early warning systems, risks assessments, education and other proactive, integrated, multi-hazard, and multi-sectoral approaches and activities in the context of the disaster reduction cycle, which consists of prevention, preparedness, and emergency response, as well as recovery and rehabilitation. Disaster risks, hazards, and their impacts pose a threat, but appropriate response to these can and should lead to actions to reduce risks and vulnerabilities in the future. 4. We affirm that States have the primary responsibility to protect the people and property on their territory from hazards, and thus, it is vital to give high priority to disaster risk reduction in national policy, consistent with their capacities and the resources available to them. We concur that strengthening community level capacities to reduce disaster risk at the local level is especially needed, considering that appropriate disaster reduction measures at that level enable the communities and individuals to reduce significantly their vulnerability to hazards. Disasters remain a major threat to the survival, dignity, livelihood and security of peoples and communities, in particular the poor. Therefore there is an urgent need to enhance the capacity of disaster- prone developing countries in particular, the least developed countries and small island developing States, to reduce the impact of disasters, through strengthened national efforts and enhanced bilateral, regional and international cooperation, including through technical and financial assistance. 5. We, therefore, adopt, the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters with its expected outcome, strategic goals, and priorities for action, as well as implementation strategies and associated follow-up, as a guiding framework for the next decade on disaster reduction. 6. We believe that it is critically important that the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters be translated into concrete actions at all levels and that achievements are followed up through the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, in order to reduce disaster risks and vulnerabilities. We also recognize the need to develop indicators to track progress on disaster risk reduction activities as appropriate to particular circumstances and capacities as part of the effort to realize the expected outcome and strategic goals set in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. We underscore the importance of strengthening cooperative and synergistic interactions among various stakeholders and promoting voluntary partnerships for disaster reduction. We also resolve to further develop information sharing mechanisms on programmes, initiatives, best practices, lessons learnt and technologies in support of disaster risk reduction so that the international community can share the results of and benefits from these efforts. 7. We now call for action from all stakeholders, seeking the contributions of those with relevant specific competences and experiences, aware that the realization of the outcomes of the World Conference depends on our unceasing and tireless collective efforts, and a strong political will, as well as a shared responsibility and investment, to make the world safer from the risk of disasters within the next decade for the benefit of the present and future generations. 8. We express our most profound appreciation to the Government and people of Japan for hosting the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, and thank particularly the people of Hyogo Prefecture for their hospitality. Resolution 2 Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters At its 9th plenary meeting, on 22 January 2005, the World Conference on Disaster Reduction adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, which reads as follows: Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters页 次
I. Preamble一、会议通过的决议
1. The World Conference on Disaster Reduction was held from 18 to 22 January 2005 in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, and adopted the present Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (here after referred to as the “Framework for Action”). The Conference provided a unique opportunity to promote a strategic and systematic approach to reducing vulnerabilities and risks to hazards. It underscored the need for and identified ways of building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters3
A.决议1.
Challenges posed by disasters兵库宣言
2. Disaster loss is on the rise with grave consequences for the survival, dignity and livelihood of individuals, particularly the poor, and hard-won development gains. Disaster risk is increasingly of global concern and its impact and actions in one region can have an impact on risks in another, and vice versa. This, compounded by increasing vulnerabilities related to changing demographic, technological and socio-economic conditions, unplanned urbanization, development within high-risk zones, under-development, environmental degradation, climate variability, climate change, geological hazards, competition for scarce resources, and the impact of epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, points to a future where disasters could increasingly threaten the world’s economy, and its population and the sustainable development of developing countries. In the past two decades, on average more than 200 million people have been affected every year by disasters.3
3. Disaster risk arises when hazards interact with physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Events of hydrometeorological origin constitute the large majority of disasters. Despite the growing understanding and acceptance of the importance of disaster risk reduction and increased disaster response capacities, disasters and in particular the management and reduction of risk continue to pose a global challenge.决议2. 2005-2015年兵库行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力
4. There is now international acknowledgement that efforts to reduce disaster risks must be systematically integrated into policies, plans and programmes for sustainable development and poverty reduction, and supported through bilateral, regional and international cooperation, including partnerships. Sustainable development, poverty reduction, good governance and disaster risk reduction are mutually supportive objectives, and in order to meet the challenges ahead, accelerated efforts must be made to build the necessary capacities at the community and national levels to manage and reduce risk. Such an approach is to be recognized as an important element for the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration.6
5.决议3.
The importance of promoting disaster risk reduction efforts on the international and regional levels as well as the national and local levels has been recognized in the past few years in a number of key multilateral frameworks and declarations.全权证书委员会的报告
B. The Yokohama Strategy: lessons learned and gaps identified 6. The Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of Action (“Yokohama Strategy”), adopted in 1994, provides landmark guidance on reducing disaster risk and the impacts of disasters. 7. The review of progress made in implementing the Yokohama Strategy identifies major challenges for the coming years in ensuring more systematic action to address disaster risks in the context of sustainable development and in building resilience through enhanced national and local capabilities to manage and reduce risk. 8. The review stresses the importance of disaster risk reduction being underpinned by a more pro-active approach to informing, motivating and involving people in all aspects of disaster risk reduction in their own local communities. It also highlights the scarcity of resources allocated specifically from development budgets for the realization of risk reduction objectives, either at the national or the regional level or through international cooperation and financial mechanisms, while noting the significant potential to better exploit existing resources and established practices for more effective disaster risk reduction. 9. Specific gaps and challenges are identified in the following five main areas: (a) Governance: organizational, legal and policy frameworks; (b) Risk identification, assessment, monitoring and early warning; (c) Knowledge management and education; (d) Reducing underlying risk factors; (e) Preparedness for effective response and recovery. These are the key areas for developing a relevant framework for action for the decade 2005–2015. II. World Conference on Disaster Reduction: objectives, expected outcome and strategic goals A. Objectives 10. The World Conference on Disaster Reduction was convened by decision of the General Assembly, with five specific objectives: (a) To conclude and report on the review of the Yokohama Strategy and its Plan of Action, with a view to updating the guiding framework on disaster reduction for the twenty-first century; (b) To identify specific activities aimed at ensuring the implementation of relevant provisions of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development on vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management; (c) To share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction within the context of attaining sustainable development, and to identify gaps and challenges; (d) To increase awareness of the importance of disaster reduction policies, thereby facilitating and promoting the implementation of those policies; (e) To increase the reliability and availability of appropriate disaster-related information to the public and disaster management agencies in all regions, as set out in relevant provisions of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. B. Expected outcome 11. Taking these objectives into account, and drawing on the conclusions of the review of the Yokohama Strategy, States and other actors participating at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (hereinafter referred to as “the Conference”) resolve to pursue the following expected outcome for the next 10 years: The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries. The realization of this outcome will require the full commitment and involvement of all actors concerned, including governments, regional and international organizations, civil society including volunteers, the private sector and the scientific community. C. Strategic goals 12. To attain this expected outcome, the Conference resolves to adopt the following strategic goals: (a) The more effective integration of disaster risk considerations into sustainable development policies, planning and programming at all levels, with a special emphasis on disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and vulnerability reduction; (b) The development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities at all levels, in particular at the community level, that can systematically contribute to building resilience to hazards; (c) The systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the design and implementation of emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes in the reconstruction of affected communities. III. Priorities for action 2005–2015 A. General considerations 13. In determining appropriate action to achieve the expected outcome and strategic goals, the Conference reaffirms that the following general considerations will be taken into account: (a) The Principles contained in the Yokohama Strategy retain their full relevance in the current context, which is characterized by increasing commitment to disaster reduction; (b) Taking into account the importance of international cooperation and partnerships, each State has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development and for taking effective measures to reduce disaster risk, including for the protection of people on its territory, infrastructure and other national assets from the impact of disasters. At the same time, in the context of increasing global interdependence, concerted international cooperation and an enabling international environment are required to stimulate and contribute to developing the knowledge, capacities and motivation needed for disaster risk reduction at all levels; (c) An integrated, multi-hazard approach to disaster risk reduction should be factored into policies, planning and programming related to sustainable development, relief, rehabilitation, and recovery activities in post-disaster and post-conflict situations in disaster-prone countries; (d) A gender perspective should be integrated into all disaster risk management policies, plans and decision-making processes, including those related to risk assessment, early warning, information management, and education and training; (e) Cultural diversity, age, and vulnerable groups should be taken into account when planning for disaster risk reduction, as appropriate; (f) Both communities and local authorities should be empowered to manage and reduce disaster risk by having access to the necessary information, resources and authority to implement actions for disaster risk reduction; (g) Disaster-prone developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States, warrant particular attention in view of their higher vulnerability and risk levels, which often greatly exceed their capacity to respond to and recover from disasters; (h) There is a need to enhance international and regional cooperation and assistance in the field of disaster risk reduction through, inter alia: The transfer of knowledge, technology and expertise to enhance capacity building for disaster risk reduction The sharing of research findings, lessons learned and best practices The compilation of information on disaster risk and impact for all scales of disasters in a way that can inform sustainable development and disaster risk reduction Appropriate support in order to enhance governance for disaster risk reduction, for awareness-raising initiatives and for capacity-development measures at all levels, in order to improve the disaster resilience of developing countries The full, speedy and effective implementation of the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, taking into account the impact of disasters on the debt sustainability of countries eligible for this programme Financial assistance to reduce existing risks and to avoid the generation of new risks (i) The promotion of a culture of prevention, including through the mobilization of adequate resources for disaster risk reduction, is an investment for the future with substantial returns. Risk assessment and early warning systems are essential investments that protect and save lives, property and livelihoods, contribute to the sustainability of development, and are far more cost-effective in strengthening coping mechanisms than is primary reliance on post-disaster response and recovery; (j) There is also a need for proactive measures, bearing in mind that the phases of relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction following a disaster are windows of opportunity for the rebuilding of livelihoods and for the planning and reconstruction of physical and socio-economic structures, in a way that will build community resilience and reduce vulnerability to future disaster risks; (k) Disaster risk reduction is a cross-cutting issue in the context of sustainable development and therefore an important element for the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration. In addition, every effort should be made to use humanitarian assistance in such a way that risks and future vulnerabilities will be lessened as much as possible. B. Priorities for action 14. Drawing on the conclusions of the review of the Yokohama Strategy, and on the basis of deliberations at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction and especially the agreed expected outcome and strategic goals, the Conference has adopted the following five priorities for action: 1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. 2. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning. 3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. 4. Reduce the underlying risk factors. 5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels. 15. In their approach to disaster risk reduction, States, regional and international organizations and other actors concerned should take into consideration the key activities listed under each of these five priorities and should implement them, as appropriate, to their own circumstances and capacities. 1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation 16. Countries that develop policy, legislative and institutional frameworks for disaster risk reduction and that are able to develop and track progress through specific and measurable indicators have greater capacity to manage risks and to achieve widespread consensus for, engagement in and compliance with disaster risk reduction measures across all sectors of society. Key activities: (i) National institutional and legislative frameworks (a) Support the creation and strengthening of national integrated disaster risk reduction mechanisms, such as multi sectoral national platforms, with designated responsibilities at the national through to the local levels to facilitate coordination across sectors. National platforms should also facilitate coordination across sectors, including by maintaining a broad based dialogue at national and regional levels for promoting awareness among the relevant sectors. (b) Integrate risk reduction, as appropriate, into development policies and planning at all levels of government, including in poverty reduction strategies and sectors and multi sector policies and plans. (c) Adopt, or modify where necessary, legislation to support disaster risk reduction, including regulations and mechanisms that encourage compliance and that promote incentives for undertaking risk reduction and mitigation activities. (d) Recognize the importance and specificity of local risk patterns and trends, decentralize responsibilities and resources for disaster risk reduction to relevant sub-national or local authorities, as appropriate.25
(ii) Resources二、出席情况和工作安排
(e) Assess existing human resource capacities for disaster risk reduction at all levels and develop capacity-building plans and programmes for meeting ongoing and future requirements.26 A. 会议日期和地点 26 B. 出席情况 26 C. 会议开幕 28 D. 选举主席和主席团其他成员 28 E. 通过议事规则 28 F. 通过议程 28 G.. 有关非政府组织和其他主要团体的资格认证 29 H. 政府间组织的资格认证 29 I. 安排会议工作,包括设立主要委员会 29 J. 任命全权证书委员会成员 30 K. 文件............ 30 三、一般性辩论........ 30 四、印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来 32 五、审查《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划》 33 六、关于专题部分的报告 33 七、关于公共论坛的报告 33 八、通过方案成果文件和会议宣言 33 九、会议闭幕...... 34 附 件 一、会议文件一览表 35 二、“印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”特别会议共同声明 37 第 一 章 减少灾害问题世界会议根据联合国大会2003年12月23日第58/214号决议于2005年1月18日至22日在日本兵库县横滨市举行。在此期间,会议通过了三项决议。 会议通过的决议 决议1 兵库宣言 在2005年1月22日第9次全体会议上,减少灾害问题世界会议通过了《兵库宣言》,全文如下: 兵库宣言 我们,出席减少灾害问题世界会议的代表们,于2005年1月18日至22日在日本兵库县神户市共聚一堂,该市展现了1995年1月17日阪神大地震以来所取得的令人瞩目的恢复。 我们向遭受自然灾害的人民和社区、特别是受2004年12月26日发生在印度洋的史无前例的大地震和海啸灾难蹂躏的人民和社区表示深切的哀悼和同情,并表示与他们团结一致共度难关。我们赞赏这些人民和社区、他们的政府和国际社会为应对和克服这场悲剧而做的努力。响应2005年1月6日在雅加达举行的东南亚国家联盟地震和海啸灾后问题领导人特别会议的呼吁,我们承诺为他们提供援助,包括减灾方面的适当措施。我们还相信,从这次灾难吸取的经验教训也可供其他区域借鉴。在这方面,本次世界会议期间为从减灾角度审视此次灾难而举行的最近地震和海啸灾难问题特别会议产生了一项成果,这就是《“印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”特别会议共同声明》。 我们确认,通过减少自然灾害国际十年以及继而实施的国际减灾战略,国际社会在减少灾害风险方面已积累了大量经验。特别是,1994年横滨会议以来,通过根据《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划》采取的具体措施,我们已经吸取了许多教训,包括所认识到的差距和挑战。但是,我们深切关注,世界各地发生的灾害仍在使各国社区宝贵的生命财产蒙受巨大损失,并且造成严重的伤害和大量人员的流离失所。 我们相信,灾害会在极短的时间内对发展投资的成果造成严重的破坏,因此,灾害依然是可持续发展和减贫的重大障碍。我们还确认,不能适当顾及灾害风险的发展投资可加剧脆弱性。因此,对付和减少灾害,使各国能够开展并加强可持续发展,就是国际社会面临的最关键的挑战之一。 考虑到国际合作、团结一致和伙伴关系以及各级善治的重要性,我们决心在世界范围内争取减少灾害对生命和其他社会、经济及环境资产造成的损失。我们重申联合国系统在减少灾害风险方面的至关重要的作用。 兹宣告如下: 1. 我们将依靠相关的国际承诺和框架,以及国际商定的发展目标,包括《千年宣言》中的目标,加强21世纪全球减灾活动。灾害对于各级减少全球贫困的努力会产生巨大的破坏性影响;灾害的影响依然是可持续发展的重大挑战之一。 2. 我们确认减灾、可持续发展以及消除贫困等事项之间的内在关系,并确认吸收一切利害关系方参与的重要意义,这些利害关系方有:政府、区域组织和国际组织以及金融机构、包括非政府组织和志愿人员在内的民间团体、私营部门和科学界。因此,我们对会议期间以及会议筹备过程中的各种有关活动和各方的贡献表示欢迎。 3. 我们还确认,必须在一切层面――从个人到国际一级――培养防灾抗灾的氛围,并推动制定与之相关的、属于必要投资性质的灾前战略。人类社会必然要与自然界的危害风险并存。然而,我们在备灾和缓解灾害影响方面远非无能为力。我们能够而且必须通过降低社会的脆弱度缓解各种危害带来的苦难。我们能够而且必须进一步加强国家和社区的抗灾能力,为此,应在不仅包括恢复和重建而且包括防灾、备灾和应急措施的减灾大循环背景下,建立以人为本的预警系统、开展风险评估、教育和采取其他主动积极的、综合全面的、顾及多种危害和吸收多部门参与的方针并开展这样的活动。灾害风险、危害及其影响确实构成威胁,但是,通过适当的应对就可以也必定能够采取行动,减少未来的风险和降低脆弱度。 4. 我们确认,国家负有保护境内人民和财产免遭各种危害影响的首要责任,因此,根据本国能力和具备的资源在国家政策中为减少灾害风险的工作安排高度优先地位至关重要。我们一致认为,考虑到地方一级适当的减灾措施能够帮助社区和个人大幅度降低灾害面前的脆弱度,因此,尤其需要加强社区在地方一级减少灾害风险的能力。灾害依然是对人民和社区、特别是对穷人生存、尊严、生计和保障的重大威胁之一,因此,迫切需要通过加强国家努力和增加双边、区域及国际合作,包括通过提供技术援助和资金援助,增强易受灾发展中国家、特别是最不发达国家和小岛屿发展中国家减少灾害影响的能力。 5. 因此,我们通过《2005-2015年兵库行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力》,包括预期成果、战略目标和行动重点,以及执行战略和相关后续措施,作为对今后十年减灾工作的指导框架。 6. 我们相信,目前至关重要的是,通过国际减灾战略机构间秘书处,将《兵库行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力》在各级转化成实际行动并贯彻落实全球成果,以减少灾害风险和降低脆弱度。我们还确认,需要制定指标,在努力争取实现《兵库行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力》的预期成果和战略目标的大范围内,联系具体情况和能力,追踪减少灾害风险方面的进展情况。我们强调必须加强各种利害关系方之间在减灾方面的合作关系和协同互动作用,并促进形成自愿伙伴关系。我们还决心为支持减少灾害风险而进一步发展有关各种方案和举措、最佳做法以及经验教训和技术的信息共享机制,使国际社会能够共享这些努力的成果和收益。 7. 我们现在呼吁所有利害关系方行动起来,希望具有相关具体任务和经验的各方作出贡献,因为我们认识到这次减灾会议要实现其成果,取决于我们不懈的集体努力、坚强有力的政治意愿,以及共同的责任和投资,在今后十年内为今世后代共创在灾害风险面前更为安全的世界。 8. 我们最衷心地感谢日本政府和人民承办本次减少灾害问题世界会议,并特别感谢兵库县人民的热情接待。 决议2 2005-2015年兵库行动纲领: 加强国家和社区的抗灾能力 在2005年1月22日第9次全体会议上,减少灾害问题世界会议通过了《2005-2015年兵库行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力》,全文如下: 2005-2015年兵库行动纲领: 加强国家和社区的抗灾能力 一、序 言 1. 减少灾害问题世界会议于2005年1月18日至22日在日本兵库县神户市举行,通过了本《2005-2015年行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力》(下称《行动纲领》)。会议为促进从战略上系统地处理减轻对危害 的脆弱性 和风险提供了一次独特的机会。它突出了加强国家和社区抗灾能力的必要性,并为此确定了各种途径。 A. 灾害造成的挑战 2. 灾害损失不断增多,对个人特别是穷人的生存、尊严和生计以及来之不易的发展成果造成严重后果。灾害风险日趋引起全球关注,一个区域的影响和行动可能影响另一个区域的风险,反之亦然。再加上变化的人口结构、技术和社会经济条件、无计划城市化、高风险地区的发展、发展不足、环境退化、气候变异性、气候变化、地质危害和对稀缺资源的竞争,以及艾滋病毒/艾滋病等流行病的影响等等问题使得脆弱程度加深,都表明将来的灾害可能会越来越危及全世界的经济及其人口和发展中国家的可持续发展。过去20年来,平均每年受灾害影响的有2亿多人。 3. 各种危害与自然、社会、经济和环境脆弱性相互作用,形成灾害风险。水文气象事件占灾害的大多数。尽管人们越来越认识到并承认减少灾害风险的重要性,而且灾害应付能力也在提高,但是灾害仍然是一个全球性挑战,就管理和减少风险而言尤其如此。 4. 现在,国际上开始认识到,减少灾害风险的努力必须系统地纳入可持续发展和减贫政策、计划和方案,并通过双边、区域和国际合作,包括伙伴关系给予支持。可持续发展、减贫、善治和灾害风险教育是相互支持的目标,要应对今后的挑战,就必须加紧努力,在社区和国家两级建立管理和减少风险所必要的能力。必须承认这种方法是实现国际议定的发展目标、包括《千年宣言》所载目标的一项重要内容。 5. 近年来,一些重要的多边框架和宣言 承认了在国家和地方两级以及在国际和区域两级促进减少灾害风险的努力的重要性。 B. 《横滨战略》:经验教训和查明的差距 6. 《建立一个更安全的世界的横滨战略:防灾、备灾和减轻自然灾害的指导方针及其行动计划》(“横滨战略”)于1994年通过,对减少灾害风险和灾害影响提供了具有里程碑意义的指导。 7. 对落实《横滨战略》的进展作的审查 确定了今后若干年在保证围绕可持续发展采取更系统的行动处理灾害风险以及通过加强国家和地方管理和减少风险的能力来建设抗灾能力方面的主要挑战。 8. 这次审查强调了开展关于减少灾害风险问题的教育十分重要,认为重点在于必须采取更积极主动的方法,宣传和动员人民,使他们参与当地社区各方面的减少灾害风险问题教育。审查还着重指出,发展预算为实现减少风险目标而专门拨出的资源稀缺,不管是在国家一级还是在区域一级,抑或是通过合作与金融机制,都是如此;同时也指出,尚有很大潜力,可以更好地利用现有资源和现成做法,以更有效地减少灾害风险。 9. 确定的具体差距和挑战有以下五大方面: (a) 治理:组织、法律和政策框架; (b) 风险确定、评估、监测和预警; (c) 知识管理和教育; (d) 减少所涉风险因素; (e) 做好有效应对和恢复的准备。 以上是制订有关的2005-2015十年期行动纲领的主要方面。 二、减灾会议:宗旨、预期成果和战略目标 A. 宗 旨 10. 减少灾害问题世界会议根据联合国大会的决定召开,有五个具体宗旨: (a) 完成对《横滨战略》及其《行动计划》的审查并提出报告,以期更新21世纪减灾指导框架; (b) 确定具体活动,以确保执行《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议约翰内斯堡执行计划》 中关于脆弱性、风险评估和灾害管理的有关规定; (c) 为实现可持续发展而交流促进减灾工作的最佳做法和经验教训,并确定存在的差距和挑战; (d) 增进对减少灾害政策的重要性的认识,从而便利和促进这些政策的执行; (e) 按照《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议约翰内斯堡执行计划》的有关规定,向各区域的民众和灾害管理机构提供更多与灾害有关的适当资料并提高这种资料的可靠性。 B. 预期成果 11. 考虑到上述宗旨,并根据《横滨战略》审查的结论,参加减少灾害问题世界会议(下称“会议”)的国家和其他行为者决心在今后十年努力取得以下预期成果: 在生命以及社区和国家的社会、经济和环境资产方面大幅度减少灾害损失。 要实现这一成果,政府、区域组织和国际组织、包括志愿人员在内的民间社会、私营部门和科学界等所有有关行为者,都必须作出充分的承诺和参与。 C. 战略目标 12. 为获得这一预期成果,会议决定通过以下战略目标: (a) 更有效地将灾害风险因素纳入各级的可持续发展政策、规划和方案,同时特别强调防灾、减灾、备灾和降低脆弱性; (b) 在各级特别是在社区一级发展和加强各种体制、机制和能力,以便系统地推动加强针对危害的抗灾能力 ; (c) 系统地将减少风险办法纳入受灾害影响的社区的应急准备、应对和恢复方案的设计和落实活动。 三、2005-2015年行动重点 A. 一般因素 13. 在为达到预期成果和战略目标而确定适当的行动时,会议重申将考虑以下一般因素: (a) 在当前减灾承诺越来越多的情况下,《横滨战略》所载原则保持其完全适用性; (b) 考虑到国际合作和伙伴关系的重要性,各国在自己的可持续发展和采取有效措施减少灾害风险方面负有首要责任,包括保护境内的人民、基础设施和其他国家财产不受灾害影响。同时,在全球日益相互依存的情况下,需要形成协调的国际合作和有利的国际环境,以刺激和推动发展各级减少灾害风险所需的知识、能力和积极性; (c) 易受害国家在可持续发展政策、规划和方案以及灾后和冲突后救济、重建和恢复活动中应考虑针对减少灾害风险的兼顾诸多危害的综合办法; (d) 应将性别观纳入所有灾害风险管理政策、计划和决策进程,包括与风险评估、预警、信息管理以及教育和培训有关的灾害风险管理政策、计划和决策进程; (e) 在制定减少灾害风险的计划时应适当考虑文化多样性、不同年龄组和弱势群体; (f) 社区和地方当局都应获得采取减少灾害风险的行动所必需的信息、资源和权力,从而有能力管理和减少灾害风险; (g) 易受灾害的发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家和小岛屿发展中国家,应受到特别的注意,因为它们的脆弱程度和风险程度较高,往往远超过它们应对灾害和从灾害中恢复的能力; (h) 在减少灾害风险方面,需要加强国际和区域合作和援助,特别是通过以下途径: 转让知识、技术和专门知识,以增强在减少灾害风险方面的能力建设。 交流研究结果、经验教训和最佳做法 汇编所有灾害等级的灾害风险和影响方面的资料,以便为可持续发展和减少灾害风险的工作提供信息 提供适当支持,以加强各级减少和管理灾害风险、提高认识活动和能力开发措施方面的治理,提高发展中国家的抗灾能力 充分、迅速和有效落实执行增加优惠的重债穷国倡议,同时考虑灾害对发展中国家造成债务难以持续承受的影响 提供资金援助,减少现有风险,避免产生新的风险 (i) 培养防范意识,包括通过为减少灾害风险充分调集资源,是一种有巨大回报的对将来的投资。风险评估和预警系统是非常重要的投资,能够保护和拯救生命、财产和生计,促进可持续发展;与主要依靠灾后应对和恢复相比,它们在加强处理机制方面的成本效益要高得多; (j) 还必须采取积极主动的措施,同时铭记:灾后救济、复原和重建的各阶段是重开生计以及规划和重建有形结构和社会经济结构的机会,使社区能建立起抗灾能力,降低对未来灾害风险的脆弱程度; (k) 减少灾害风险是可持续发展中贯穿各领域的问题,因此也是实现国际议定发展目标、包括实现《千年宣言》所载目标的一大要素。此外还应尽力利用人道主义援助,以尽量减少风险和未来的脆弱程度。 B. 行动重点 14. 根据对《横滨战略》审查的结论以及在减少灾害问题世界会议上的讨论情况,特别是议定的预期成果和战略目标,会议通过了以下五个行动重点: 1. 确保减少灾难风险成为国家和地方的优先事项并在落实方面具备牢固的体制基础。 2. 确定、评估和监测灾难风险并加强预警。 3. 利用知识、创新和教育在各级培养安全和抗灾意识 。 4. 减少潜在的风险因素。 5. 在各级为有效反应加强备灾。 15. 在处理减少灾害风险问题时,国家、区域组织和国际组织以及其他有关行为者应逐个考虑上述五个重点所列的主要活动,并应根据自己的情况和能力予以适当落实。 1. 确保减少灾害风险成为国家和地方的优先事项并在落实方面具备牢固的体制基础 16. 各国,凡制定减少灾害的政策、立法和体制框架,并能够通过可测量的具体指标推行发展和推动进展情况的,均有较强的能力管理风险,并在社会各阶层就减少灾害风险措施达成普遍共识、实现共同参与和按照这些措施的要求行事。 主要活动: (一) 国家机制和立法框架 (a) 支持建立和加强关于减少灾害风险的多部门的国家论坛 等国家综合机制,并为其规定从国家一级到地方各级促进跨部门协调的责任。国家论坛也应促进跨部门协调,包括在国家和区域两级保持基础广泛的对话,以提高有关部门的认识。 (b) 酌情将减少风险纳入各级政府的发展政策和规划,包括纳入减贫战略以及部门和多部门政策和计划。 (c) 通过或者必要时修订立法以支持减少灾害风险,包括鼓励遵守立法以及加强对开展减少和减缓风险活动的奖励的条例和机制。 (d) 认识地方风险形态和趋势的重要性和具体性,酌情将减少灾害风险的责任和资源下放到国家级以下部门或地方部门。 (二) 资 源 (e) 评估各级在减少灾害风险方面的现有人力资源能力,拟订旨在达到当前和将来的要求的能力建设计划和方案。
(f) Allocate resources for the development and the implementation of disaster risk management policies, programmes, laws and regulations on disaster risk reduction in all relevant sectors and authorities at all levels of administrative and budgets on the basis of clearly prioritized actions.(f) 按照行动的明确优先顺序,在所有有关部门和各级行政及预算中为制定和落实减少灾害风险方面的灾害风险管理政策、方案、法律和条例拨出资源。
(g) Governments should demonstrate the strong political determination required to promote and integrate disaster risk reduction into development programming.(g) 政府应表现出必要的坚定政治决心,促进减少灾害风险并将此项工作纳入发展规划。
(iii) Community participation(三) 社区参与
(h) Promote community participation in disaster risk reduction through the adoption of specific policies, the promotion of networking, the strategic management of volunteer resources, the attribution of roles and responsibilities, and the delegation and provision of the necessary authority and resources.(h) 采取具体政策、推广联网、对志愿资源实行战略管理、分明作用和责任、划定和提供必要的权力和资源,以推动社区参与减少灾害风险。
2.2.
Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning确定、评估和监测灾害风险并加强预警
17.17.
The starting point for reducing disaster risk and for promoting a culture of disaster resilience lies in the knowledge of the hazards and the physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities to disasters that most societies face, and of the ways in which hazards and vulnerabilities are changing in the short and long term, followed by action taken on the basis of that knowledge.减少灾害风险和培养抗灾意识的出发点是,了解各种危害以及在自然、社会、经济和环境方面大多数社会在灾害方面的脆弱性,了解危害和脆弱性的短期和长期变化方式,然后在这种了解的基础上采取行动。
Key activities:主要活动:
(i) National and local risk assessments(一) 国家和地方风险评估
(a) Develop, update periodically and widely disseminate risk maps and related information to decision-makers, the general public and communities at risk in an appropriate format(a) 以适当的格式编制和定期更新风险分布图和有关资料,并向决策者、公众和面临风险的社区广为散发。
(b) Develop systems of indicators of disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales that will enable decision-makers to assess the impact of disasters on social, economic and environmental conditions and disseminate the results to decision-makers, the public and populations at risk.(b) 制订以国家一级和国家以下各级为尺度的灾害风险和脆弱性指标体系,使决策者能够分析灾害对社会、经济和环境条件的影响,并向决策者、公众以及面临风险的群众传播结果。
(c) Record, analyse, summarize and disseminate statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses, on a regular bases through international, regional, national and local mechanisms.(c) 通过国际、区域、国家和地方机制,定期记录、分析、归纳并传播灾害发生率、影响和损失的统计资料。
(ii) Early warning(二) 预 警
(d) Develop early warning systems that are people centered, in particular systems whose warnings are timely and understandable to those at risk, which take into account the demographic, gender, cultural and livelihood characteristics of the target audiences, including guidance on how to act upon warnings, and that support effective operations by disaster managers and other decision makers.(d) 发展以人为本的预警系统,特别是报警及时、面临风险者易懂的系统,其中应考虑目标受众的人口结构、性别、文化和生计特点,包括在警报时如何行动的指导,同时又能支持灾害管理者和其他决策者的有效工作。
(e) Establish, periodically review, and maintain information systems as part of early warning systems with a view to ensuring that rapid and coordinated action is taken in cases of alert/emergency.(e) 作为预警系统的一部分,建立、定期审查并维持信息系统,以确保发生警报/紧急情况时采取迅速和协调的行动。
(f) Establish institutional capacities to ensure that early warning systems are well integrated into governmental policy and decision-making processes and emergency management systems at both the national and the local levels, and are subject to regular system testing and performance assessments.(f) 建立体制能力,确保将预警系统妥为纳入国家和地方各级政府的政策和决策进程以及应急管理系统,并作经常性的系统测试和性能评估。
(g) Implement the outcome of the Second International Conference on Early Warning held in Bonn, Germany, in 2003, including through the strengthening of coordination and cooperation among all relevant sectors and actors in the early warning chain in order to achieve fully effective early warning systems.(g) 落实2003年在德国波恩举行的第二次预警问题国际会议的成果 ,包括通过加强所有有关部门和行为者在预警链中的协调与合作,使预警系统充分有效。
(h) Implement the outcome of the Mauritius Strategy for the further implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the sustainable development of small island developing States, including by establishing and strengthening effective early warning systems as well as other mitigation and response measures.(h) 落实旨在进一步实施《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展的巴巴多斯行动纲领》的《毛里求斯战略》的成果,包括建立和加强有效的预警系统以及其他缓解和应对措施。
(iii) Capacity(三) 能 力
(i) Support the development and sustainability of the infrastructure and scientific, technological, technical and institutional capacities needed to research, observe, analyse, map and where possible forecast natural and related hazards, vulnerabilities and disaster impacts.(i) 为研究、观测、分析、绘图及可能情况下预报自然危害和有关危害、脆弱性和灾害影响方面所需基础设施及科学、工艺、技术、体制能力的发展和可持续性提供支持。
(j) Support the development and improvement of relevant databases and the promotion of full and open exchange and dissemination of data for assessment, monitoring and early warning purposes, as appropriate, at international, regional, national and local levels.(j) 酌情在国际、区域、国家和地方各级,为评估、监测和预警,支持开发和改进有关数据库,促进充分公开的交换和传播数据。
(k) Support the improvement of scientific and technical methods and capacities for risk assessment, monitoring and early warning, through research, partnerships, training and technical capacity- building. Promote the application of in situ and space-based earth observations, space technologies, remote sensing, geographic information systems, hazard modelling and prediction, weather and climate modelling and forecasting, communication tools and studies of the costs and benefits of risk assessment and early warning.(k) 通过研究、伙伴合作、培训和技术能力建设,支持改善风险评估、监测和预警的科技方法和能力。推广应用现场和天基对地观测、航天技术、遥感、地理信息系统、危害模拟和预测、气象和气候模拟和预报、通信工具、对风险评估和预警的成本和效益研究。
(l) Establish and strengthen the capacity to record, analyze, summarize, disseminate, and exchange statistical information and data on hazards mapping, disaster risks, impacts, and losses; support the development of common methodologies for risk assessment and monitoring.(l) 建立和加强记录、分析、归纳、传播和交换危害分布图绘制、灾害风险和损失统计资料和数据方面的能力;支持研订共同的风险评估和监测方法。
(iv) Regional and emerging risks(四) 区域风险和正在形成的风险
(m) Compile and standardize, as appropriate, statistical information and data on regional disaster risks, impacts and losses.(m) 对区域灾害风险、影响和损失的统计资料和数据酌情加以汇集和标准化。
(n) Cooperate regionally and internationally, as appropriate, to assess and monitor regional and trans-boundary hazards, and exchange information and provide early warnings through appropriate arrangements, such as, inter alia, those relating to the management of river basins.(n) 酌情开展区域和国际合作,通过与流域管理有关的安排等适当安排,评估和监测区域和跨界危害,并交换信息和提供预警。
(o) Research, analyse and report on long-term changes and emerging issues that might increase vulnerabilities and risks or the capacity of authorities and communities to respond to disasters.(o) 研究、分析并报告可能增加脆弱性和风险或提高主管部门和社区应对危害能力的长期变化和新出现的问题。
3.3.
Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels利用知识、创新和教育在各级培养安全和抗灾意识
18.18.
Disasters can be substantially reduced if people are well informed and motivated towards a culture of disaster prevention and resilience, which in turn requires the collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant knowledge and information on hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities.要大幅度减少灾害,人民就要充分知情,并积极培养防灾抗灾意识,这反过来需要收集、汇编和传播有关危害、脆弱性和能力的知识和信息。
Key activities:主要活动:
(i) Information management and exchange(一) 信息管理和交换
(a) Provide easily understandable information on disaster risks and protection options, especially to citizens in high-risk areas, to encourage and enable people to take action to reduce risks and build resilience. The information should incorporate relevant traditional and indigenous knowledge and culture heritage and be tailored to different target audiences, taking into account cultural and social factors.(a) 向各地区群众特别是向高风险地区群众提供关于灾害风险和各种防护办法的易懂信息,以鼓励和帮助人民采取行动,减少风险和加强抗灾能力。在这些信息中应包含有关的传统知识和土著知识及文化遗产,并适合于不同的目标受众,同时也考虑文化和社会因素。
(b) Strengthen networks among disaster experts, managers and planners across sectors and between regions, and create or strengthen procedures for using available expertise when agencies and other important actors develop local risk reduction plans.(b) 加强各部门之间和区域之间灾害专家、管理人员和规划者的网络;并在一些机构和其他重要行为者拟订当地的减少风险计划时,建立或加强利用现有专门知识的程序。
(c) Promote and improve dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities and practitioners working on disaster risk reduction, and encourage partnerships among stakeholders, including those working on the socioeconomic dimensions of disaster risk reduction.(c) 推动和改进科学界与实际从事减少灾害风险工作的人之间的对话与合作,鼓励利害关系方、包括从事减少灾害风险工作所涉社会经济事务的利害关系方之间发展伙伴关系。
(d) Promote the use, application and affordability of recent information, communication and space-based technologies and related services, as well as earth observations, to support disaster risk reduction, particularly for training and for the sharing and dissemination of information among different categories of users.(d) 促进使用和应用最新信息、通信和天基技术及相关服务和对地观测,并使这些技术和服务在价格上更为易于承受,以支持减少灾害风险,特别是在培训以及各类用户分享和传播信息方面。
(e) In the medium term, develop local, national, regional and international user-friendly directories, inventories and national information-sharing systems and services for the exchange of information on good practices, cost-effective and easy-to-use disaster risk reduction technologies, and lessons learned on policies, plans and measures for disaster risk reduction.(e) 在中期,制定使用便利的地方、国家、区域和国际目录、清单、国家信息分享系统和服务,以便在良好做法、成本效益和便于使用的灾害风险减少技术、灾害风险减少政策、计划和措施的经验教训方面交换信息。
(f) Institutions dealing with urban development should provide information to the public on disaster reduction options prior to constructions, land purchase or land sale.(f) 处理城市发展问题的机构应在建筑、土地购买和出售之前向公众提供减少灾害风险的各种方法方面的信息。
(g) Update and widely disseminate international standard terminology related to disaster risk reduction, at least in all official United Nations languages, for use in programme and institutional development, operations, research, training curricula and public information programmes.(g) 更新和广泛传播有关减少灾害风险的国际标准术语,至少是使用联合国所有正式语文的此类术语,以便用于方案编制和体制发展、业务工作、研究、培训课程和宣传方案中。
(ii) Education and training(二) 教育和培训
(h) Promote the inclusion of disaster risk reduction knowledge in relevant sections of school curricula at all levels and the use of other formal and informal channels to reach youth and children with information; promote the integration of disaster risk reduction as an intrinsic element of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2015).(h) 促进将减少灾害风险的知识列入各级学校课程的有关部分,利用其他正式和非正式渠道让青少年和儿童了解情况;促进将减少灾害风险列为联合国可持续发展教育十年(2005-2015年)的固有内容之一。
(i) Promote the implementation of local risk assessment and disaster preparedness programmes in schools and institutions of higher education.(i) 促进在高等院校落实地方风险管理和备灾课程。
(j) Promote the implementation of programmes and activities in schools for learning how to minimize the effects of hazards.(j) 促进在学校内落实各种课程和活动,学习如何尽量减少危害的影响。
(k) Develop training and learning programmes in disaster risk reduction targeted at specific sectors (development planners, emergency managers, local government officials, etc.).(k) 针对具体部门(发展规划者、应急管理者、地方政府官员等等)制订管理和减少灾害风险的培训和学习课程。
(l) Promote community-based training initiatives, considering the role of volunteers, as appropriate, to enhance local capacities to mitigate and cope with disasters.(l) 酌情考虑志愿人员的作用,推广以社区为基础的培训举措,提高当地缓解和应付灾害的能力。
(m) Ensure equal access to appropriate training and educational opportunities for women and vulnerable constituencies; promote gender and cultural sensitivity training as integral components of education and training for disaster risk reduction.(m) 确保妇女和弱势群体能平等利用适当的培训和教育机会。作为减少灾害风险教育和培训的一个组成部分推动对性别和文化敏感的培训。
(iii) Research(三) 研 究
(n) Develop improved methods for predictive multi-risk assessments and socioeconomic cost–benefit analysis of risk reduction actions at all levels; incorporate these methods into decision-making processes at regional, national and local levels.(n) 改善预测型多风险评估方法和各级减少风险行动的社会经济成本效益分析法;将这些方法纳入区域、国家和地方各级的决策进程。
(o) Strengthen the technical and scientific capacity to develop and apply methodologies, studies and models to assess vulnerabilities to and the impact of geological, weather, water and climate-related hazards, including the improvement of regional monitoring capacities and assessments.(o) 提高科技能力,以研订和应用各种方法、研究报告和模型,据以评估地质、气象、水和与气候有关的危害方面的脆弱性和这些危害的影响,包括改进区域监测能力和评估。
(iv) Public awareness(四) 公众意识
(p) Promote the engagement of the media in order to stimulate a culture of disaster resilience and strong community involvement in sustained public education campaigns and public consultations at all levels of society.(p) 促进媒体的参与,以推动形成抗灾意识以及社区积极参与社会各阶层持久的公众教育运动和公众协商。
4.4.
Reduce the underlying risk factors减少所涉风险因素
19.19.
Disaster risks related to changing social, economic, environmental conditions and land use, and the impact of hazards associated with geological events, weather, water, climate variability and climate change, are addressed in sector development planning and programmes as well as in post-disaster situations.社会、经济、环境情况和土地利用变化以及与地质事件、气象和水、气候变异性和气候变化有联系的危害所涉灾害风险,既要在灾后情况下加以处理,也要在部门发展规划和方案中加以处理。
Key activities:主要活动:
(i) Environmental and natural resource management(一) 环境和自然资源管理
(a) Encourage the sustainable use and management of ecosystems, including through better land-use planning and development activities to reduce risk and vulnerabilities.(a) 鼓励可持续利用和管理生态系统,包括通过改进土地利用规划和发展活动,以减少风险和脆弱性。
(b) Implement integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches that incorporate disaster risk reduction, including structural and non-structural measures, such as integrated flood management and appropriate management of fragile ecosystems.(b) 采取综合性的环境和自然资源管理方法,并纳入减少灾害风险,包括结构性措施和非结构性措施, 如综合性水灾管理和对脆弱生态系统的适当管理。
(c) Promote the integration of risk reduction associated with existing climate variability and future climate change into strategies for the reduction of disaster risk and adaptation to climate change, which would include the clear identification of climate-related disaster risks, the design of specific risk reduction measures and an improved and routine use of climate risk information by planners, engineers and other decision-makers.(c) 促进将旨在减少与现有气候变异性和未来气候变化相关的风险的事项纳入减少灾害风险战略和气候变化适应战略内。这将包括明确查明与气候有关的灾害风险、设计减少具体风险的措施,以及规划者、工程人员和其他决策者加强并例行利用气候风险信息。
(ii) Social and economic development practices(二) 社会和经济发展做法
(d) Promote food security as an important factor in ensuring the resilience of communities to hazards, particularly in areas prone to drought, flood, cyclones and other hazards that can weaken agriculture-based livelihoods.(d) 促进粮食安全,将其作为确保社区抗危害能力的一个重要因素,特别是在易旱、易涝、易遭飓风的地区和其他可削弱以农业为基础的生计的危害易发地区。
(e) Integrate disaster risk reduction planning into the health sector; promote the goal of “hospitals safe from disaster” by ensuring that all new hospitals are built with a level of resilience that strengthens their capacity to remain functional in disaster situations and implement mitigation measures to reinforce existing health facilities, particularly those providing primary health care.(e) 将减少灾害风险的规划纳入卫生部门。促进达到建立“能在灾害中保障安全的医院”的目标;为此要确保所有新建医院具备一定的抗灾水平,以提高在灾害情况下保持运作的能力,以及采取缓解措施加强已有卫生设施、特别是提供初级保健的卫生设施的能力。
(f) Protect and strengthen critical public facilities and physical infrastructure, particularly schools, clinics, hospitals, water and power plants, communications and transport lifelines, disaster warning and management centres, and culturally important lands and structures through proper design, retrofitting and re-building, in order to render them adequately resilient to hazards.(f) 通过适当设计、改造和改建,保护并加强关键的公共设施和有形基础设施、特别是学校、诊所、医院、水厂和发电厂、通信和交通生命线、灾害警报和管理中心以及有文化意义的土地和结构,使其能有充分的抗危害能力。
(g) Strengthen the implementation of social safety-net mechanisms to assist the poor, the elderly and the disabled, and other populations affected by disasters. Enhance recovery schemes including psycho-social training programmes in order to mitigate the psychological damage of vulnerable populations, particularly children, in the aftermath of disasters.(g) 加强落实社会保障网机制,援助受灾害影响的穷人、老年人、残疾人和其他人口。加强灾后复苏安排,包括心理社会培训方案,以缓解弱势群体尤其是儿童的心理伤害。
(h) Incorporate disaster risk reduction measures into post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes and use opportunities during the recovery phase to develop capacities that reduce disaster risk in the long term, including through the sharing of expertise, knowledge and lessons learned.(h) 将灾害风险减少措施纳入灾后复苏和复原进程,利用复苏阶段的机会发展减少灾害风险的长期能力,包括通过分享专门知识、知识和经验教训。
(i) Endeavour to ensure, as appropriate, that programmes for displaced persons do not increase risk and vulnerability to hazards.(i) 努力设法根据情况确保为国内流离失所者实施的方案不致增加受危害的风险和脆弱度。
(j) Promote diversified income options for populations in high-risk areas to reduce their vulnerability to hazards, and ensure that their income and assets are not undermined by development policy and processes that increase their vulnerability to disasters.(j) 向高风险地区的人口推广多样的创收途径,以减少他们对危害的脆弱性;确保他们的收入和资产不受致因可能增加他们对灾害脆弱性的发展政策和进程而受损害。
(k) Promote the development of financial risk-sharing mechanisms, particularly insurance and reinsurance against disasters.(k) 促进资金风险分担机制的发展,特别是对灾害的保险和再保险。
(l) Promote the establishment of public–private partnerships to better engage the private sector in disaster risk reduction activities; encourage the private sector to foster a culture of disaster prevention, putting greater emphasis on, and allocating resources to, pre-disaster activities such as risk assessments and early warning systems.(l) 促进建立公私伙伴关系,更好地吸收私营部门参与减少灾害风险活动;鼓励私营部门培养防灾意识,进一步重视灾害评估和预警系统等灾前活动,并为此拨出资源。
(m) Develop and promote alternative and innovative financial instruments for addressing disaster risk.(m) 为处理灾害风险发展和推广替代性的和创新的资金办法。
(iii) Land-use planning and other technical measures(三) 土地利用规划和其他技术措施
(n) Incorporate disaster risk assessments into the urban planning and management of disaster-prone human settlements, in particular highly populated areas and quickly urbanizing settlements. The issues of informal or non-permanent housing and the location of housing in high-risk areas should be addressed as priorities, including in the framework of urban poverty reduction and slum-upgrading programmes.(n) 将灾害风险评估纳入易受灾害的人类住区、特别是人口密集地区和快速城市化住区的城市规划和管理。高风险地区非正规或非永久性住房和建房地点的问题应作为重点处理,包括在城市减贫及平民窟改建方案的框架内予以处理。
(o) Mainstream disaster risk considerations into planning procedures for major infrastructure projects, including the criteria for design, approval and implementation of such projects and considerations based on social, economic and environmental impact assessments.(o) 将灾害风险因素纳入主要基础设施项目规划程序的主流,包括设计标准、这种项目的合作与落实以及根据社会经济和环境影响评估所考虑的因素。
(p) Develop, upgrade and encourage the use of guidelines and monitoring tools for the reduction of disaster risk in the context of land-use policy and planning.(p) 在土地利用政策和规划的范围内发展、改进和鼓励减少灾害风险的指南和监测手段。
(q) Incorporate disaster risk assessment into rural development planning and management, in particular with regard to mountain and coastal flood plain areas, including through the identification of land zones that are available and safe for human settlement.(q) 将灾害风险评估纳入农村发展规划和管理,特别是在山区和沿海洪泛平原地区,包括通过确定现有的、对人居安全的地区。
(r) Encourage the revision of existing or the development of new building codes, standards, rehabilitation and reconstruction practices at the national or local levels, as appropriate, with the aim of making them more applicable in the local context, particularly in informal and marginal human settlements, and reinforce the capacity to implement, monitor and enforce such codes, through a consensus-based approach, with a view to fostering disaster-resistant structures.(r) 酌情在国家或地方各级鼓励修订现行建筑规范、标准、恢复和重建做法或拟订新的建筑守则、标准、恢复和重建做法,使之更适用于当地情况,特别是适用于非正规和边缘化民居的情况;并通过以协商一致为基础的办法,鼓励提高落实、监测和执行这种规范的能力,以发展抵御灾害的结构。
5.5.
Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels在各级为有效反应加强备灾
20.20.
At times of disaster, impacts and losses can be substantially reduced if authorities, individuals and communities in hazard-prone areas are well prepared and ready to act and are equipped with the knowledge and capacities for effective disaster management.如果易受危害地区的主管部门、个人和社区准备充分,随时可采取行动,并具备有效的灾害管理的知识和能力,发生灾害时就能够大大减少影响和损失。
Key activities:主要活动:
(a) Strengthen policy, technical and institutional capacities in regional, national and local disaster management, including those related to technology, training, and human and material resources.(a) 加强区域、国家和地方灾害管理政策、技术和体制能力,包括与技术、培训以及人力和物力资源有关的能力。
(b) Promote and support dialogue, exchange of information and coordination among early warning, disaster risk reduction, disaster response, development and other relevant agencies and institutions at all levels, with the aim of fostering a holistic approach towards disaster risk reduction.(b) 推动和支持各级预警、灾害风险减少、灾害应对、发展和其他有关机关和机构之间的对话、信息交换和协调,以形成减少灾害风险的整体办法。
(c) Strengthen and when necessary develop coordinated regional approaches, and create or upgrade regional policies, operational mechanisms, plans and communication systems to prepare for and ensure rapid and effective disaster response in situations that exceed national coping capacities.(c) 加强并在必要时发展协调的区域办法,建立或更新区域政策、行动机制、计划和通信系统,以备和确保在国家处理能力所不及的情况下作出迅速有效的灾害反应。
(d) Prepare or review and periodically update disaster preparedness and contingency plans and policies at all levels, with a particular focus on the most vulnerable areas and groups. Promote regular disaster preparedness exercises, including evacuation drills, with a view to ensuring rapid and effective disaster response and access to essential food and non-food relief supplies, as appropriate, to local needs.(d) 准备或审查并定期更新各级的备灾及应急计划和政策,特别要着重于最脆弱的地区和群体。促进经常性的备灾活动,包括撤离演习,以便确保迅速有效的灾害反应,并获得适合当地需要的基本食物和非食物救济品。
(e) Promote the establishment of emergency funds, where and as appropriate, to support response, recovery and preparedness measures.(e) 酌情推动建立应急基金,以支持应对、恢复和备灾措施。
(f) Develop specific mechanisms to engage the active participation and ownership of relevant stakeholders, including communities, in disaster risk reduction, in particular building on the spirit of volunteerism.(f) 发展具体机制,吸收包括各社区在内的有关利害关系方积极参与和掌握减少灾害风险的工作,特别是在志愿精神的基础上。
IV. Implementation and follow-up四、落实和后续行动
A.A.
General considerations一般因素
21. The implementation of and follow-up to the strategic goals and priorities for action set out in this Framework for Action should be addressed by different stakeholders in a multi-sectoral approach, including the development sector. States and regional and international organizations, including the United Nations and international financial institutions, are called upon to integrate disaster risk reduction considerations into their sustainable development policy, planning and programming at all levels. Civil society, including volunteers and community-based organizations, the scientific community and the private sector are vital stakeholders in supporting the implementation of disaster risk reduction at all levels.21. 本《行动纲领》规定的战略目标和行动重点的落实与后续活动,应由各利害关系方采取包括发展部门在内的多部门办法予以处理。呼吁国家、区域组织和国际组织,包括联合国和国际金融机构,将减少灾害风险的考虑纳入它们各级的可持续发展政策、规划和方案。民间社会,包括志愿者和社区基层组织、科学界和私营部门是各级支持落实危害风险减少的关键利害关系方。
22. While each State has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, an enabling international environment is vital to stimulate and contribute to developing the knowledge, capacities and motivation needed to build disaster resilient nations and communities. States and regional and international organizations should foster greater strategic coordination among the United Nations, other international organizations, including international financial institutions, regional bodies, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged in disaster risk reduction, based on a strengthened International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. In the coming years, consideration should be given to ensuring the implementation and strengthening of relevant international legal instruments related to disaster risk reduction.22. 各国对自己的社会经济发展负有主要责任,但有利的国际环境也是至关重要的,它能刺激和促进增加知识、提高能力、激发积极性,这些都是建设有抗灾能力的国家和社区所需的。国家、区域组织和国际组织应根据增强的《国际减少灾害战略》,促进联合国、其他国际组织、包括国际金融机构、区域机构、捐助机构和从事灾害风险减少工作的非政府组织之间的战略协调。今后几年应考虑确保落实和加强与减少灾害风险有关的国际法律文书。
23.23.
States and regional and international organizations should also support the capacities of regional mechanisms and organizations to develop regional plans, policies and common practices, as appropriate, in support of networking advocacy, coordination, exchange of information and experience, scientific monitoring of hazards and vulnerability, and institutional capacity development and to deal with disaster risks.国家、区域组织和国际组织还应酌情支持区域机制和区域组织制订区域计划、政策和共同做法的能力,以支持联网、宣传、协调、交流信息和经验、对危害和脆弱性的科学监测、体制能力发展,并处理灾害风险。
24. All actors are encouraged to build multi-stakeholder partnerships, at all levels, as appropriate, and on a voluntary basis, to contribute to the implementation of this Framework for Action.24.
States and other actors are also encouraged to promote the strengthening or establishment of national, regional and international volunteer corps, which can be made available to countries and to the international community to contribute to addressing vulnerability and reducing disaster risk.鼓励所有行为者自愿在各级酌情建立多利害关系方伙伴关系,促进落实本《行动纲领》。还鼓励国家和其他行为者推动加强或建立国家、区域和国际志愿团,国家和国际社会可用以推动处理脆弱性和减少灾害风险。
25. The Mauritius Strategy for the further implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for Small Island Developing States underscores that small island developing States are located among the most vulnerable regions in the world in relation to the intensity and frequency of natural and environmental disasters and their increasing impact, and face disproportionately high economic, social and environmental consequences.25.
Small island developing States have undertaken to strengthen their respective national frameworks for more effective disaster management and are committed, with the necessary support of the international community, to improve national disaster mitigation, preparedness and early- warning capacity, increase public awareness about disaster reduction, stimulate interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral partnerships, mainstream risk management into their national planning process, address issues relating to insurance and reinsurance arrangements, and augment their capacity to predict and respond to emergency situations, including those affecting human settlements stemming from natural and environmental disasters.旨在进一步实施《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展的巴巴多斯行动纲领》的《毛里求斯战略》强调,从自然灾害和环境灾害及其不断加剧的影响来看,小岛屿发展中国家地处世界最脆弱区域,面临高于一般的经济、社会和环境后果。小岛屿发展中国家已承诺要为更有效的灾害管理而加强各自的国家网络,并且决心在国际社会的必要支持下提高国家的灾害缓解、备灾和预警能力,提高对减灾的公众意识,促成跨学科和跨部门的伙伴关系,将风险管理纳入国家规划进程,处理与保险和再保险安排有关的问题,以及增强预测和应对紧急情况的能力,包括增加预测和应对自然灾害和环境灾害所致影响人类住区的经济情况的能力。
26.26.
In view of the particular vulnerabilities and insufficient capacities of least developed countries to respond to and recover from disasters, support is needed by the least developed countries as a matter of priority, in executing substantive programmes and relevant institutional mechanisms for the implementation of the Framework for Action, including through financial and technical assistance for and capacity building in disaster risk reduction as an effective and sustainable means to prevent and respond to disasters.鉴于最不发达国家在灾害应对和恢复方面的脆弱性特别高、能力特别不足,应优先支持最不发达国家实施旨在落实本《行动纲领》的实质性方案和相关体制机制,包括通过有关减少灾害风险的资金援助和技术援助以及能力建设,以此作为预防和应对灾害的有效和可持续手段。
27. Disasters in Africa pose a major obstacle to the African continent’s efforts to achieve sustainable development, especially in view of the region’s insufficient capacities to predict, monitor, deal with and mitigate disasters.27.
Reducing the vulnerability of the African people to hazards is a necessary element of poverty reduction strategies, including efforts to protect past development gains.非洲的灾害对于非洲大陆争取实现可持续发展的努力是一种重大的障碍,考虑到该区域预测、监测、处理和缓解灾害的能力不足则尤其如此。降低非洲人民在危害面前的脆弱性是包括保护过去发展成果的努力在内的减贫战略的必要内容。需要通过资金援助和技术援助加强非洲国家的能力,包括观测和预警系统、评估、预防、备灾、应对和恢复。 28.
Financial and technical assistance is needed to strengthen the capacities of African countries, including observation and early warning systems, assessments, prevention, preparedness, response and recovery.减少灾害问题世界会议的后续行动要酌情确定为与其他有关减少灾害风险的主要会议后续工作的组成部分和协调部分。 这方面应包括具体联系减少灾害风险方面的进展,同时考虑到议定的发展目标,包括《千年宣言》中提出的目标。
28. The follow-up on the World Conference on Disaster Reduction will, as appropriate, be an integrated and coordinated part of the follow-up to other major conference in fields relevant to disaster risk reduction. This should include specific reference to progress on disaster risk reduction taking, into account agreed development goals, including those found in the Millennium Declaration. 29. The implementation of this Framework for Action for the period 2005-2015 will be appropriately reviewed.29. 将以适当方式审查2005-2015年时期内执行本《行动纲领》的情况。
B.B.
States国 家
30. All States should endeavour to undertake the following tasks at the national and local levels, with a strong sense of ownership and in collaboration with civil society and other stakeholders, within the bounds of their financial, human and material capacities, and taking into account their domestic legal requirements and existing international instruments related to disaster risk reduction.30.
States should also contribute actively in the context of regional and international cooperation, in line with paragraphs 33 and 34.所有国家应本着强烈的主人感,并与民间社会和其他利害关系方合作,在财力、人力和物力范围内,同时结合与减少灾害风险有关的本国法律要求和现行国际文书,在国家和地方各级努力完成以下任务。国家还应按照第33和第34段,在区域和国际合作中作出积极贡献。
(a) Prepare and publish national baseline assessments of the status of disaster risk reduction, according to the capabilities, needs and policies of each State, and, as appropriate, share this information with concerned regional and international bodies;(a) 根据本国的能力、需要和政策,准备并公布对减少灾害风险状况的国家基线评估;酌情与有关的区域和国际机构分享这一信息;
(b) Designate an appropriate national coordination mechanism for the implementation and follow up of this Framework for Action, and communicate the information to the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction;(b) 为执行和贯彻本《行动纲领》指定适当的国内协调机制,将情况通报给《国际减少灾害战略》秘书处;
(c) Publish and periodically update a summary of national programmes for disaster risk reduction related to this Framework for Action, including on international cooperation;(c) 公布并定期更新与本《行动纲领》有关的减少灾害风险的国家方案摘要,包括关于国际合作情况的摘要;
(d) Develop procedures for reviewing national progress against this Framework for Action, which should include systems for cost benefit analysis and ongoing monitoring and assessment of vulnerability and risk, in particular with regards to regions exposed to hydrometeorological and seismic hazards, as appropriate;(d) 制订对照本《行动纲领》审查国家所取得的进展情况的程序,其中应包括成本效益分析制度和对脆弱性和风险不断进行监测和评估,特别是酌情顾及易受水文气象和地震危害的地区;
(e) Include information on progress of disaster risk reduction in the reporting mechanisms of existing international and other frameworks concerning sustainable development, as appropriate;(e) 将减少灾害风险的进展情况酌情纳入关于可持续发展的现有国际框架和其他框架的报告机制。
(f) Consider, as appropriate, acceding to, approving or ratifying relevant international legal instruments relating to disaster reduction, and, for State parties to those instruments, take measures for their effective implementation;(f) 酌情考虑加入、核可或批准减灾方面的有关国际法律文书,而这些文书的缔约国则应采取措施加以有效执行;
(g) Promote the integration of risk reduction associated with existing climate variability and future climate change into strategies for the reduction of disaster risk and adaptation to climate change; ensure that the management of risks associated with geological hazards, such as earthquakes and landslides, are fully taken into account in disaster risk reduction programmes.(g) 促进将有关目前气候变异性和未来气候变化的减少风险工作纳入减少灾害风险战略和适应气候变化战略。确保减少灾害风险的方案中充分顾及与地震和山崩等地质危害有关的风险的管理。
C.C.
Regional organizations and institutions区域组织和机构
31.31.
Regional organizations with a role related to disaster risk reduction are called upon to undertake the following tasks within their mandates, priorities and resources:请在减少灾害风险方面发挥作用的区域组织根据它们的任务、优先事项和资源完成以下任务:
(a) Promote regional programmes, including programmes for technical cooperation, capacity development, the development of methodologies and standards for hazard and vulnerability monitoring and assessment, the sharing of information and effective mobilization of resources, in view of supporting national and regional efforts to achieve the objectives of this Framework for Action;(a) 推广区域方案,包括技术合作、能力开发、危害和脆弱性监测和评估的方法和标准的拟订、分享信息和有效调集资源等方面的方案,以支持国家和区域努力实现本《行动纲领》的目标;
(b) Undertake and publish regional and sub-regional baseline assessments of the disaster risk reduction status, according to the needs identified and in line with their mandates;(b) 根据按它们的任务确定的需要,开展并公布对减少灾害风险状况的区域和分区域基线评估;
(c) Coordinate and publish periodic reviews on progress in the region and on impediments and support needs, and assist countries, as requested, in the preparation of periodic national summaries of their programmes and progress;(c) 协调对区域进展情况以及障碍和所需支持的定期审查并公布审查结果,以及根据请求协助各国编写它们的方案和进展情况的国家定期概要;
(d) Establish or strengthen existing specialized regional collaborative centers, as appropriate, to undertake research, training, education and capacity building in the field of disaster risk reduction;(d) 酌情建立区域专门合作中心或加强现有此类中心,以开展减少风险灾害领域的研究、培训、教育和能力建设工作;
(e) Support the development of regional mechanisms and capacities for early warning to disasters, including for tsunami.(e) 支持发展针对包括海啸在内的灾害的区域预警机制和能力。
D.D.
International organizations国际组织
32.32.
International organizations, including organizations of the United Nations system and international financial institutions, are called upon to undertake the following tasks within their mandates, priorities and resources:呼吁国际组织,包括联合国系统的组织和国际金融机构,根据各自的权限、优先事项和资源完成以下任务。
(a) Engage fully in supporting and implementing the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and cooperate to advance integrated approaches to building disaster-resilient nations and communities, by encouraging stronger linkages, coherence and integration of disaster risk reduction elements into the humanitarian and sustainable development fields as set out in this Framework for Action;(a) 通过鼓励加强联系、一致并将减少灾害风险的内容纳入本《行动纲领》所列人道主义和可持续发展领域,充分开展支持和执行《国际减少灾害战略》的工作,合作促进加强国家和社区抗灾能力的综合办法;
(b) Strengthen the overall capacity of the United Nations system to assist disaster-prone developing countries in disaster risk reduction through appropriate means and coordination and define and implement appropriate measures for regular assessment of their progress towards the achievement of the goals and priorities set out in this Framework for Action, building on the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction;(b) 通过适当途径和协调,加强联合国系统援助易受灾发展中国家减少灾害风险的总体能力;以《国际减少灾害战略》为基础,确定并采取适当措施,定期评估它们在实现本《行动纲领》所载目标和优先事项方面的进展情况;
(c) Identify relevant actions to assist disaster-prone developing countries in the implementation of this Framework for Action; ensure that relevant actions are integrated, as appropriate, into each organization’s own scientific, humanitarian and development sectors, policies, programmes and practices and that adequate funding is allocated for their implementation;(c) 确定援助易受灾发展中国家执行本《行动纲领》的有关行动;确保酌情将有关行动纳入各组织自身的科学、人道主义和发展部门、政策、方案和做法,并为落实这一切拨出充分的资金;
(d) Assist disaster-prone developing countries to set up national strategies and plans of action and programmes for disaster risk reduction and to develop their institutional and technical capacities in the field of disaster risk reduction, as identified through the priorities in this Framework for Action;(d) 协助易受灾发展中国家为减少灾害风险制定国家战略及行动计划和方案,发展本《行动纲领》所定减少灾害风险方面的体制能力和技术能力;
(e) Integrate actions in support of the implementation of this Framework into relevant coordination mechanisms such as the United Nations Development Group and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (on humanitarian action), including at the national level and through the Resident Coordinator system and the United Nations Country teams. In addition, integrate disaster risk reduction considerations into development assistance frameworks, such as the Common Country Assessments, the United Nations Development Assistance Framework and poverty reduction strategies;(e) 将支持执行本《纲领》的行动纳入有关协调机制,诸如联合国发展集团和(人道主义行动)机构间常设委员会,包括在国家一级以及通过驻地协调员制度和联合国国家工作队。此外,在共同国家评估、联合国发展援助框架和减贫战略等发展援助框架内顾及减少灾害风险的因素;
(f) In close collaboration with existing networks and platforms, cooperate to support globally consistent data collection and forecasting on natural hazards, vulnerabilities and risks and disaster impacts at all scales. These initiatives should include the development of standards, the maintenance of databases, the development of indicators and indices, support to early warning systems, the full and open exchange of data and the use of in situ and remotely sensed observations;(f) 与现有网络和论坛密切配合,合作支持全球一致的数据收集以及预报所有级别的自然危害、脆弱性、风险和灾害影响。这些举措应包括制订标准、维持数据库、制订指标和指数、支持预警系统、充分公开地交换数据、利用现场和遥感观测;
(g) Support States with the provision of appropriate, timely and well coordinated international relief assistance, upon request of affected countries, and in accordance with agreed guiding principles for emergency relief assistance and coordination arrangements. Provide this assistance with a view to reducing risk and vulnerability, improving capacities and ensuring effective arrangements for international cooperation for urban search and rescue assistance. Ensure that arrangements for prompt international response to reach affected areas are being developed at national and local levels and that appropriate linkages to recovery efforts and risk reduction are strengthened;(g) 支持各国按受影响国家的要求并根据经济救济援助和协调安排的议定指导原则提供适当、及时和协调的国际救济援助。 提供这种援助的目的是减少风险和脆弱性、提高能力,确保对城市搜救援助的国际合作作出有效安排。 确保在国家和地方各级为迅速的国际反应能达到受影响地区作出安排,并加强与灾后恢复工作和减少风险的适当联系;
(h) Strengthen the international mechanisms with a view to supporting disaster stricken States in the transition phase towards sustainable physical, social and economic recovery and to reducing future risks. This should include support for risk reduction activities in post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes and sharing of good practices, knowledge and technical support with relevant countries, experts and United Nations organizations;(h) 加强国际机制,以支持受灾国向可持续的物质、社会和经济恢复过渡或并减少今后的风险。这应包括支持灾后恢复和复原过程中的减少风险活动,与有关国家、专家和联合国组织交流良好做法和知识,并向它们提供技术支持;
(i) Strengthen and adapt the existing inter-agency disaster management training programme based on a shared, inter-agency strategic vision and framework for disaster risk management that encompasses risk reduction, preparedness, response and recovery.(i) 在对包括风险的减少、准备、应对和恢复在内的灾害风险管理的一种机构间共同战略目光和框架的基础上,加强和调整现行机构间灾害管理培训方案。
E.E.
The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction《国际减少灾害战略》
33.33.
The partners in the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, in particular, the Inter-Agency Task Force on Disaster Reduction and its members, in collaboration with relevant national, regional, international and United Nations bodies and supported by the inter-agency secretariat for the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, are requested to assist in implementing this Framework for Action as follows, subject to the decisions taken upon completion of the review process of the current mechanism and institutional arrangements:请《国际减少灾害战略》的伙伴,特别是减灾问题机构间工作队及其成员与有关的国家机构、区域机构、国际机构和联合国机构合作,并在《国际减少灾害战略》机构间秘书处的支持下,参照当前机制和体制安排审查工作 完成后作出的决定,在下列方面协助执行本《行动纲领》;
(a) Develop a matrix of roles and initiatives in support of follow-up to this Framework for Action, involving individual members of the Task Force and other international partners;(a) 制订一个支持落实本《行动纲领》的作用和倡议的矩阵,有工作队成员和其他国际伙伴的参与;
(b) Facilitate the coordination of effective and integrated action within the organizations of the United Nations system and among other relevant international and regional entities, in accordance with their respective mandates, to support the implementation of this Framework for Action, identify gaps in implementation and facilitate consultative processes to develop guidelines and policy tools for each priority area, with relevant national, regional and international expertise;(b) 根据各自的任务,促进联合国系统各组织内以及其他有关的国际和区域实体之间有效和综合行动的协调,以便用有关的国家、区域和国际专门知识,支持执行本《行动纲领》,找出执行方面的差距,促进为各优先领域制订指南和政策工具的协商进程;
(c) Consult with relevant United Nations agencies and organizations, regional and multilateral organizations and technical and scientific institutions, as well as interested States and civil society, with the view to developing generic, realistic and measurable indicators, keeping in mind available resources of individual States. These indicators could assist States to assess their progress in the implementation of the Framework of Action. The indicators should be in conformity with the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration;(c) 征求有关联合国机构和组织、区域组织和多边组织、科技机构以及有关国家和民间团体的意见,铭记各国具备的资源,争取制订通用、现实和可计量的指标。这些指标可协助各国评估执行本《行动纲领》的进展。指标应符合国际议定的发展目标,包括《千年宣言》所载目标;
Once that first stage has been completed, States are encouraged to develop or refine indicators at the national level reflecting their individual disaster risk reduction priorities, drawing upon the generic indicators.鼓励各国在以上所述第一阶段完成后,参考通用指标,进而制订或完善反映各自减少灾害风险方面重点的国家指标;
(d) Ensure support to national platforms for disaster reduction, including through the clear articulation of their role and value added, as well as regional coordination, to support the different advocacy and policy needs and priorities set out in this Framework for Action, through coordinated regional facilities for disaster reduction, building on regional programmes and outreach advisors from relevant partners;(d) 通过协调的区域减灾设施,在区域方案和有关伙伴的外联顾问的基础上,确保支持减少灾害的国家论坛,包括通过区域协调及明确界定国家论坛的任务和增值作用,支持本《行动纲领》所列的各种倡导和政策需要及优先事项;
(e) Coordinate with the secretariat of the Commission on Sustainable Development to ensure that relevant partnerships contributing to implementation of the Framework for Action are registered in its sustainable development partnership database;(e) 与可持续发展委员会秘书处协调,确保它的可持续发展伙伴关系数据库记录促进执行《行动纲领》的有关伙伴关系; (f) 激励对最佳做法、经验教训、现有技术和方案的交换、整理、分析、归纳和传播,作为国际信息交换所,支持减少灾害风险。维持一个减少灾害风险的全球信息平台,并以万维网为基础维持一个由国家落实和通过区域和国际伙伴关系落实的减少灾害风险方案和倡议的登记册“总汇”;
(f) Stimulate the exchange, compilation, analysis, summary and dissemination of best practices, lessons learned, available technologies and programmes, to support disaster risk reduction in its capacity as an international information clearinghouse; maintain a global information platform on disaster risk reduction and a web-based register “portfolio” of disaster risk reduction programmes and initiatives implemented by States and through regional and international partnerships;(g) 定期编制对实现本《行动纲领》的目标和优先事项的进展情况的审查报告,联系按联合国大会授权对联合国各次会议和首脑会议的综合和协调的后续活动和落实进程, 并根据国家论坛、区域和国际组织以及其他利害关系方提供的信息,按要求或酌情向大会或联合国其他机构提交报告和概要,包括说明对预警问题第二次国际会议(2003年)的建议的落实情况。 F. 资源调集 34. 各国应在财政能力范围内,区域组织和国际组织应通过适当的多边、区域和双边协调和机制,执行以下任务,以调集必要的资源,支持本《行动纲领》的执行: (a) 调集有关国家、区域机构和国际机构、包括联合国系统的适当资源和能力; (b) 安排并通过双边和多边渠道支持,易受灾发展中国家执行本《行动纲领》,包括通过资金和技术援助、处理债务的可持续能力、技术转让和公私伙伴关系,并鼓励北南和南南合作。 (c) 将减少灾害风险的措施适当纳入多边和双边发展援助方案的主流,其中包括与减贫、自然资源管理、城市发展和气候变化适应有关的方案; (d) 向联合国减少灾害信托基金提供充分的捐款,以努力确保充分支持本《行动纲领》的后续活动。审查该基金当前使用情况及加以扩展的可行性,以便除其他外协助易受灾发展中国家制定减少灾害风险的国家战略; (e) 建立伙伴关系,以执行能够分散风险、减少保险费、扩大保险范围从而为灾后重建和恢复提供更多资金的各种办法,酌情包括通过公私方伙伴关系予以执行。酌情促进能鼓励发展中国家形成保险意识的环境。 附 件 与减少灾害风险有关的一些多边动态 以下是与本文件有关的部分多边框架和宣言: ﹣ 2005年1月在毛里求斯举行的审查《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》执行情况国际会议 呼吁作出更大的承诺,以降低小岛屿发展中国家由于灾害应对和恢复能力有限而存在的脆弱性。
(g) Prepare periodic reviews on progress towards achieving the objectives and priorities of this Framework for Action, within the context of the process of integrated and coordinated follow-up and implementation of United Nations conferences and summits as mandated by the General Assembly, and provide reports and summaries to the Assembly and other United Nations bodies, as requested or as appropriate, based on information from national platforms, regional and international organizations and other stakeholders, including on the follow-up to the implementation of the recommendations from the Second International Conference on Early Warning (2003).﹣ 红十字和红新月国际会议2003年12月通过的《人道主义行动议程》列入了“减少灾害风险和影响,加强准备和应对机制”的目标和行动。
F. Resource mobilization﹣ 2002年举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的《约翰内斯堡执行计划》 第37段在开头语下要求采取行动:“在21世纪,为了使世界更加安全,必须采取综合、对付多种危害和广泛包含的方法来处理脆弱性、风险评估和灾害管理的问题,包括预防、减轻、事先准备、应付和复原”,支持将《国际减少灾害战略》作为第一项行动。2014-2015年可持续发展委员会的多年工作方案作为整个方案的贯穿各领域的主题列入了“脆弱性、风险减少和灾害管理”这一主题。
34. States, within the bounds of their financial capabilities, regional and international organizations, through appropriate multilateral, regional and bilateral coordination mechanisms, should undertake the following tasks to mobilize the necessary resources to support implementation of this Framework for Action:﹣ 2001年通过的第三份《支援最不发达国家行动纲领》 要求发展伙伴采取行动,在执行《国际减少灾害战略》的实质方案和体制安排中优先注意这些国家。
(a) Mobilize the appropriate resources and capabilities of relevant national, regional and international bodies, including the United Nations system;﹣ 2000年9月《千年宣言》 确定了“保护脆弱者”和“保护我们的共同环境”的关键目标,决心“加紧合作,减少自然和认为灾害的数量和影响”。2005年7月将举行一次会议,综合审查《联合国千年宣言》所载所有承诺的履行进展情况。
(b) Provide for and support, through bilateral and multilateral channels, the implementation of this Framework for Action in disaster-prone developing countries, including through financial and technical assistance, addressing debt sustainability, technology transfer on mutually agreed terms, and public–private partnerships, and encourage North–South and South–South cooperation;﹣ 《国际减少灾害战略》于2000年由经济及社会理事会和联合国大会作为一个机构间的框架和机制(机构间减灾工作组和机构间秘书处)发起 ,以充当联合国系统内的一个联络点,其任务是:在《横滨战略和行动计划》的基础上,作为对国际减少自然灾害十年的后续行动,提高公众认识,加强公众承诺,扩大网络和伙伴关系,增加对灾害原因和各种减灾办法的认识。
(c) Mainstream disaster risk reduction measures appropriately into multilateral and bilateral development assistance programmes including those related to poverty reduction, natural resource management, urban development and adaptation to climate change;﹣ 2002年举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的《约翰内斯堡执行计划》 请政府间气候变化专门委员会“改进评估气候变化影响的技术和方法,并鼓励......继续评估这种不利的影响”。联合国大会 还鼓励《联合国气候变化框架公约》缔约方会议 及其《京都议定书》 (2005年2月生效)缔约方继续处理气候变化的不利影响,尤其是在特别脆弱的发展中国家。联合国大会 还鼓励政府间气候变化专门委员会继续处理气候变化对发展中国家社会经济体系和自然灾害减少体系的不利影响。
(d) Provide adequate voluntary financial contributions to the United Nations Trust Fund for Disaster Reduction, in the effort to ensure the adequate support for the follow-up activities to this Framework for Action. Review the current usage and feasibility for the expansion of this fund, inter alia, to assist disaster-prone developing countries to set up national strategies for disaster risk reduction.﹣ 《为减灾救灾提供电信资源的坦佩雷公约》(1998)于2005年1月8日生效。
(e) Develop partnerships to implement schemes that spread out risks, reduce insurance premiums, expand insurance coverage and thereby increase financing for post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation, including through public and private partnerships, as appropriate. Promote an environment that encourages a culture of insurance in developing countries, as appropriate.﹣ 减少灾害问题世界会议在国际减少自然灾害十年的中期审查的基础上通过了《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略:预防、防备和减轻自然灾害的指导方针及其行动计划》 (1994年)。
Annex Some multilateral developments related to disaster risk reduction Among the multi-lateral frameworks and declarations that are of relevance to this document there are the following: The International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in Mauritius in January 2005, calls for increased commitments to reducing the vulnerability of small island developing States, due to their limited capacity to respond to and recover from disasters.﹣ 《联合国关于在发生严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家、特别是在非洲防治荒漠化的公约》 于1994年通过,1996年生效。《联合国生物多样性公约》 于1992年通过,1993年生效。
The Agenda for Humanitarian Action adopted by the International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in December 2003 includes a goal and actions to “reduce the risk and impact of disasters and improve preparedness and response mechanisms”.﹣ 联合国大会 (1991年)要求加强联合国在复杂的紧急情况以及自然灾害情况下紧急援助和人道主义援助的协调工作。大会回顾了《国际减少自然灾害十年国际行动框架》(第44/236号决议,1989年),为人道主义救济、准备工作和预防以及从救济到恢复与发展的全过程提出了指导原则。
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in 2002, paragraph 37 requests actions under the chapeau: “An integrated, multi-hazard, inclusive approach to address vulnerability, risk, assessment and disaster management, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, is an essential element of a safer world in the 21st century”, supporting the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction as the first action. The theme of “vulnerability, risk reduction and disaster management” is included in the multi-year programme of work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in 2014-2015, and as a cross-cutting theme throughout the programme.决议3
The third Action Programme for Least Developed Countries, adopted in 2001, requests action by development partners in view of giving priority attention to these countries in the substantive programme and institutional arrangements for the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.全权证书委员会的报告
The Millennium Declaration of September 2000, identified key objectives of “Protecting the vulnerable” and “Protecting our common environment”, which resolve to “intensify cooperation to reduce the number and effects of natural and man-made disasters”. A comprehensive review of the progress made in the fulfillment of all the commitments contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration will be held in July 2005.在2005年1月22日第9次全体会议上,减少灾害问题世界会议根据全权证书委员会的建议通过了如下决议:
The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction was launched in 2000 by the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly as an inter-agency framework and mechanism (inter-agency task force on disaster reduction and an inter-agency secretariat) to serve as a focal point within the United Nations system with the mandate to promote public awareness and commitment, expand networks and partnerships, and improve knowledge about disaster causes and options for risk reduction, building on the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action and as follow-up to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.“减少灾害问题世界会议,
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in 2002, requested the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to “improve techniques and methodologies for assessing the effects of climate change, and encourage the continuing assessment of those adverse effects...”. In addition, the General Assembly has encouraged the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the parties to its Kyoto Protocol (entering into force in February 2005) to continue to address the adverse effects of climate change, especially in those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable. The United Nations General Assembly also encouraged the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to continue to assess the adverse effects of climate change on the socio-economic and natural disaster reduction systems of developing countries.“审议了全权证书委员会的报告 及其中所载的建议,
The Tampere Convention on the Provision of Telecommunication Resources for Disaster Mitigation and Relief Operations of 1998 entered into force on 8 January 2005.“核准全权证书委员会的报告。”
The Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of Action (1994), was adopted at the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, building on the mid-term review of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.第 二 章
The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, was adopted in 1994 and entered into force in 1996. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted in 1992 and entered into force in 1993.出席情况和工作安排
The General Assembly (1991) requested strengthening of the coordination of emergency and humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, in both complex emergencies natural disasters.A.
It recalled the International Framework of Action for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (resolution 44/236, 1989), and set out guiding principles for humanitarian relief, preparedness, prevention and on the continuum from relief to rehabilitation and development.会议日期和地点
Resolution 3 Report of the Credentials Committee At its 9th plenary meeting, on 22 January 2005, the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, on the recommendation of the Credentials Committee, adopted the following resolution: “The World Conference on Disaster Reduction, “Having considered the report of the Credentials Committee and the recommendation contained therein, “Approves the report of the Credentials Committee.” Chapter II Attendance and organization of work A. Date and place of the Conference 1. The World Conference on Disaster Reduction was held at Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, from 18 to 22 January 2005. During that period, the Conference held nine plenary meetings. B. Attendance 2. The following States were represented at the Conference: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Republic, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania and United States of America, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 3. The secretariats of the following regional commissions were represented: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 4. The following United Nations bodies and programmes were represented: Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Centre for Regional Development, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, United Nations Children’s Fund, World Food Programme, United Nations Institute for Training and Research, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, United Nations University, United Nations Volunteers.1. 减少灾害问题世界会议于2005年1月18日至22日在日本兵库县神户市举行。在此期间,世界会议共举行了九次全体会议。
5.B.
The secretariats of the following Conventions were represented:出席情况
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal.2. 下列国家派代表出席了会议:
6. The following specialized agencies and related organizations were represented:阿富汗、阿尔巴尼亚、阿尔及利亚、安哥拉、安提瓜和巴布达、阿根廷、亚美尼亚、澳大利亚、奥地利、孟加拉国、巴巴多斯、白俄罗斯、比利时、伯利兹、贝宁、不丹、玻利维亚、波斯尼亚-黑塞哥维那、博茨瓦纳、巴西、文莱达鲁萨兰国、保加利亚、布基那法索、布隆迪、柬埔寨、喀麦隆、加拿大、佛得角、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、科摩罗、中国、库克群岛、哥斯达黎加、哥伦比亚、古巴、捷克共和国、塞浦路斯、刚果民主共和国、丹麦、吉布提、多米尼加共和国、厄瓜多尔、埃及、萨尔瓦多、厄立特里亚、爱沙尼亚、埃塞俄比亚、斐济、芬兰、法国、加蓬、德国、加纳、希腊、格林纳达、危地马拉、教廷、洪都拉斯、匈牙利、冰岛、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、爱尔兰、以色列、意大利、牙买加、日本、约旦、哈萨克斯坦、肯尼亚、基里巴斯、吉尔吉斯斯坦、老挝人民民主共和国、黎巴嫩、莱索托、阿拉伯利比亚共和国、立陶宛、卢森堡、马达加斯加、马拉维、马来西亚、马尔代夫、马里、马绍尔群岛、毛里塔尼亚、墨西哥、密克罗尼西亚联邦、摩纳哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、莫桑比克、纳米比亚、尼泊尔、荷兰、新西兰、尼加拉瓜、尼日利亚、纽埃、挪威、阿曼、巴基斯坦、帕劳、巴拿马、巴布亚新几内亚、秘鲁、菲律宾、波兰、葡萄牙、大韩民国、罗马尼亚、俄罗斯联邦、圣卢西亚、圣文森特和格林纳丁斯、萨摩亚、塞内加尔、塞尔维亚和黑山、塞舌尔、新加坡、斯洛文尼亚、所罗门群岛、索马里、南非、西班牙、斯里兰卡、苏丹、斯威士兰、瑞典、瑞士、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、塔吉克斯坦、泰国、前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国、东帝汶、汤加、特立尼达和多巴哥、突尼斯、土耳其、图瓦卢、乌干达、乌克兰、阿拉伯联合酋长国、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、坦桑尼亚联合共和国、美利坚合众国、乌兹别克斯坦、委内瑞拉、越南、也门、赞比亚、津巴布韦。
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Labour Organization, International Maritime Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization.3. 下列区域委员会秘书处派代表出席了会议:
7. The following intergovernmental organizations were represented:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会。
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, Asian Committee on Disaster Management, Asian Development Bank, Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research, Association of Caribbean States, Caribbean Community Secretariat, Caribbean Development Bank, Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency , Council of Europe, Council of Europe Development Bank, European Commission, European Community, European Space Agency, Inter American Development Bank, Ibero-American Association for Civil Protection, Inter-American Committee on Natural Disaster Reduction/Organization of American States, Inter-American Bank, International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Secrétariat Intérimaire du Volet Environnement, South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission.4. 下列联合国机构和计(规)划署派代表出席了会议:
8. A large number of non-governmental organizations attended the Conference.最不发达国家、内陆发展中国家和小岛屿发展中国家问题高级代表办公室、人道主义事务协调厅、联合国区域发展中心、联合国经济及社会事务部、联合国开发计划署、联合国环境规划署、联合国难民事务高级专员办事处、联合国人类住区规划署、联合国儿童基金会、世界粮食计划署、联合国训练研究所、联合国外层空间事务司、联合国大学、联合国志愿人员。
9.5.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, having received a standing invitation, participated as an observer.下列公约的秘书处派代表出席了会议:
C. Opening of the Conference联合国气候变化框架公约、控制危险货物越境转移及其处置巴塞尔公约
10.6.
The World Conference on Disaster Reduction was opened on 18 January 2005 by the representative of the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs.下列专门机构和有关组织派代表出席了会议:
11. The Conference observed a minute of silence in the memory of the tens of thousands of people who lost their lives during the recent tragic Indian Ocean tsunami disaster.联合国粮食及农业组织、国际劳工组织、国际海事组织、国际移徙组织、国际电信联盟、联合国教育、科学及文化组织、世界卫生组织、世界气象组织。
12.7.
The Conference heard a video presentation by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.下列政府间组织派代表出席了会议:
13. The Conference heard an address by His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Japan. 14. The Conference also heard addresses by Mr. Yoshitaka Murata, Minister of State for Disaster Management, Government of Japan, and Mr. Toshizo Ido, Governor of the Prefecture of Hyogo, Japan. 15. At its 2nd plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference heard an address by His Excellency Mr. Junichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan. D. Election of the President and other officers非洲、加勒比和太平洋国家集团、亚洲灾害管理委员会、亚洲开发银行、亚洲――太平洋全球变化研究网络、加勒比国家联盟、加勒比共同体秘书处、加勒比开发银行、加勒比经济救灾机构、欧洲委员会、欧洲委员会开发银行、欧盟委员会、欧洲共同体、欧洲航天局、美洲开发银行、伊比利亚-美洲人民保护协会、美洲国家组织/美洲减少自然灾害委员会、美洲银行、国际文物保护和修复研究中心、经济合作与发展组织、环境问题临时秘书处、南太平洋应用地球科学委员会。
16. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference elected, by acclamation, as President of the Conference, Mr.8.
Yoshitaka Murata, Minister of State for Disaster Management, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan.许多非政府组织出席了会议。
17. At the same meeting, as decided by the Preparatory Committee at its first session, the Conference elected as Vice-Presidents those countries which served as officers of the Preparatory Committee. They were: Ecuador, Federal Republic of Germany, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Morocco, and Russian Federation. As at the Preparatory Committee, the representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran would serve as Vice-Chairman-cum-Rapporteur.9. 红十字会与红新月会国际联合会获长期邀请,以观察员身份参加了会议。
E.C.
Adoption of the rules of procedure会议开幕
18. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference considered the provisional rules of procedure (A/CONF.206/2).10.
As there was not yet an agreement on the adoption of the text, the Conference agreed to function on the basis of the provisional rules.减少灾害问题世界会议于2005年1月18日由秘书长代表、主管人道主义事务副秘书长宣布开幕。
F. Adoption of the agenda11. 会议默哀一分钟,悼念在近期印度洋海啸灾难中丧生的数万民众。 12. 会议听取了联合国秘书长的电视讲话。 13. 会议听取了日本天皇陛下的致辞。 14. 会议还听取了日本政府国家防灾担当大臣Yoshitaka Murata先生和日本兵库县知事Toshizo Ito先生的致辞。 15. 在2005年1月18日第2次全体会议上,世界会议听取了日本内阁总理大臣小泉纯一郎先生阁下的致辞。 D. 选举主席和主席团其他成员 16. 在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议以鼓掌方式选举日本政府内阁国家防灾担当大臣Yoshitaka Murata先生担任会议主席。 17. 在同次会议上,按照筹备委员会第一届会议的决定,世界会议选举筹备委员会主席团成员担任会议副主席,即:厄瓜多尔、德意志联邦共和国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、摩洛哥、俄罗斯联邦。如同筹备委员会的情况一样,伊朗伊斯兰共和国代表担任副主席兼报告员。 E. 通过议事规则 18. 在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议审议了暂行议事规则(A/CONF.206/2)。由于就通过案文事宜尚未达成一致,会议同意根据暂行议事规则行事。 F. 通过议程
19. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference considered the provisional agenda as recommended by the Preparatory Committee (A/CONF.206/1). The Conference decided to inscribe on its agenda an additional item entitled “Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future”. The agenda as adopted was as follows:19. 在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议审议了筹备委员会建议的临时议程(A/CONF.206/1)。会议决定在议程上再增加一个项目,题为“印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”。通过的议程如下:
1.1.
Opening of the Conference会议开幕
2.2.
Election of the President and other officers选举主席和主席团其他成员
3.3.
Adoption of the rules of procedure通过议事规则
4.4.
Adoption of the agenda通过议程
5.5.
Accreditation of relevant non-governmental organizations and other major groups有关非政府组织和其他主要团体的资格认证
6.6.
Organization of work of the Conference, including the establishment of a Main Committee安排会议工作,包括设立主要委员会
7.7.
General statements一般性发言
8.8.
Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来
9.9.
Report on the discussion of the thematic segment专题部分讨论情况报告
10.10.
Report on the public forum关于公共论坛的报告
11.11.
Review of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World审查《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划》
12.12.
Adoption of the programme outcome document通过方案成果文件
13.13.
Adoption of the Conference Declaration通过会议宣言
14.14.
Conclusion of the Conference会议闭幕
The agenda as adopted was issued as document A/CONF.206/4.通过的议程作为A/CONF.206/4号文件印发。
G.G.
Accreditation of relevant non-governmental organizations and other major groups有关非政府组织和其他主要团体的资格认证
20.20. 在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议核准了A/CONF.
At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference approved the accreditation of the non-governmental organizations listed in document A/CONF.206/3.206/3号文件所列非政府组织的资格认证。
H.H.
Accreditation of intergovernmental organizations政府间组织的资格认证
21. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference approved the accreditation of the intergovernmental organizations listed in document A/CONF.206/INF.4.21. 在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议核准了A/CONF.206/ INF.4号文件所列政府间组织的资格认证。
I.I.
Organization of work of the Conference, including the establishment of a Main Committee安排会议工作,包括设立主要委员会
22. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, the Conference approved its organization of work as outlined by the President. It decided, in accordance with rule 46 of the provisional rules of procedure, to establish a Main Committee, whose main responsibility would be to carry out the drafting of the programme outcome document and a declaration. The Conference agreed that the Main Committee could create subcommittees or working groups, as required, and elected Mr. Marco Ferrari (Switzerland) as Chairman of the Main Committee.22. 在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议核准了主席概要介绍的工作安排。按照暂行议事规则第46条,会议决定设立一个主要委员会,其主要责任是起草方案成果文件和一项宣言。会议同意主要委员会可视需要设立小组委员会或工作组,并且选举Marco Ferrari先生(瑞士)担任主要委员会主席。
J.J.
Appointment of members of the Credentials Committee任命全权证书委员会成员
23.23.
At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January 2005, in conformity with rule 4 of the provisional rules of procedure, the Conference decided to establish a Credentials Committee composed of Austria, Benin, Brazil, Bhutan, China, Ghana, the Russian Federation, Trinidad and Tobago and the United States of America.在2005年1月18日第1次全体会议上,按照暂行议事规则第4条,世界会议决定设立一个全权证书委员会,由奥地利、贝宁、巴西、不丹、中国、加纳、俄罗斯联邦、特立尼达和多巴哥以及美利坚合众国组成。
K.K.
Documents文 件
24.24.
The list of documents for the Conference is contained in annex I to the present report.会议文件一览表载于本报告附件一。
Chapter III第 三 章
General debate一般性辩论
25.25.
The general debate, which took place at the 1st to 7th plenary meetings, from 18 to 21 January 2005, covered the activities for disaster reduction (agenda item 7).2005年1月18日至21日第1次至第7次全体会议就减灾活动问题进行了一般性辩论(议程项目7)。
26. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 18 January, the Conference heard statements by the representatives of China, India, Luxembourg (on behalf of the European Union), Germany, Uganda and Kazakhstan. 27. At the 2nd plenary meeting, on 18 January, a high-level round-table was held, on the topic “Disaster risk: The next development challenge”. The facilitator was Ms. Yvette Stevens, Assistant Emergency Relief Coordinator and Director of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Office at Geneva. The panelists were Mrs. Sadako Ogata, President, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Mr. Gareth Thomas, International Cooperation Minister, Department for International Development, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Mr. Klaus Töpfer, Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme, Mr. Zephirin Diabre, Associate Administrator, United Nations Development Programme, Mr. Geert van der Linden, Vice-President, Asian Development Bank, and Dr. Bernd Hoffman, Director, German Agency for Technical Cooperation.26. 在1月18日第1次全体会议上,世界会议听取了中国代表、印度代表、卢森堡代表(以欧洲联盟名义)、德国代表、乌干达代表和哈萨克斯坦代表的发言。
28. Also at the 2nd plenary meeting, a second high-level round-table was held, on the topic “Learning to live with risk”. The facilitator was Mr. Peter Walker, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. The panelists were Mr. Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Mr. Toshizo Ido, Governor of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, Mr. Edgardo Calderon Paredes, President, Peruvian Red Cross, Professor Hans van Ginkel, Rector, United Nations University, and Ms. Corazon Alma G. de Leon, Former Chairperson, Civil Service Commission, the Philippines.27. 在1月18日第2次全体会议上,举行了一次高级别圆桌会议,议题是“灾害风险:发展方面的下一个挑战”。讨论主持人是联合国日内瓦办事处紧急救济助理协调员兼联合国人道主义协调处处长Yvette Stevens女士。主讲人是日本国际协力事业团总裁Sadako Ogata女士、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国国际发展部国际合作次官Gareth Thomas先生、联合国环境规划署执行主任Klaus Topfer先生、联合国开发计划署助理署长Zephirin Diabre先生、亚洲开发银行副总裁Geert van der Linden先生,以及德国技术合作署署长Bernd Hoffman博士。
29 At the 3rd plenary meeting, on 19 January, a third high-level round-table was held, on the topic “Emerging risks: What will tomorrow hold?” The facilitator was Mr. Salvano Briceno, Director, Inter-agency secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. The panelists were Dr. Keith Mitchell, Prime Minister of Grenada, Mr. Michel Jarraud, Secretary-General, World Meteorological Organization, Mr. Li Xueju, Minister of Civil Affairs of China, Mr. Ashok Kumar Rastogi, Secretary of the Government of India, Mr. Joseph Kwabena Odei, National Coordinator, National Disaster Management Organization of Ghana, and Mr. Daniel Biu, Deputy Director, United Nations Human Settlements Programme.28. 在第2次全体会议上,还举行了一次高级别圆桌会议,议题是“学会与风险并存”。主持人是美利坚合众国马萨诸塞州波士顿Tufts大学的Peter Walker先生。主讲人是联合国教育、科学及文化组织总干事Koichiro Matsuura先生、日本兵库县知事Toshizo Ido先生、秘鲁红十字会主席Edgardo Calderon Paredes先生、联合国大学校长Hans van Ginkel教授,以及菲律宾公务员委员会前任主席Corazon Alma G. de Leon女士。
30.29.
Also at its 3rd plenary meeting, in the context of the general debate, the Conference heard statements by the representatives of Poland, Thailand, Costa Rica, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Australia, Sudan (on behalf of the African Group of States), Ukraine, Madagascar, Japan and Romania.在1月19日第3次全体会议上,又举行了一次高级别圆桌会议,议题是“正在出现的风险:明天的前景如何?”主持人是《国际减灾战略》机构间秘书处主任Salvano Briceno, 先生。主讲人是格林纳达总理Keith Mitchell博士、世界气象组织秘书长Michel Jarraud先生、中国民政部部长李学举先生、印度政府秘书Ashok Kumar Rastogi, 先生、加纳国家灾害管理组织全国协调员Joseph Kwabena Odei先生、联合国人类住区规划署副署长Daniel Biu先生。
31. At the 4th plenary meeting, on 19 January, a special forum was held, with the participation of Mr. Ryutaro Hashimoto, Chairman of the Advisory Committee on Water and Sanitation, Government of Japan, and Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Secretary-General on Water and Sanitation, His Excellency Mr. J. Koonjul, Permanent Representative of Mauritius and Chairman of the Alliance of Small Island Developing States, Mr. Anwarul K. Chowdhury, Under-Secretary-General and High Representative of the Secretary-General for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, Ms. Joke Waller-Hunter, Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change, Mr. James Morris, Executive Director, World Food Programme, and Mr. Ad de Raad, Executive Coordinator, United Nations Volunteers.30. 在第3次全体会议上,世界会议还在一般性辩论中听取了波兰代表、泰国代表、哥斯达黎加代表、大韩民国代表、俄罗斯联邦代表、澳大利亚代表、苏丹代表(以非洲国家集团名义)、乌克兰代表、马达加斯加代表、日本代表和罗马尼亚代表的发言。
32. Also at its 4th plenary meeting, in the context of the general debate, the Conference heard statements by the representatives of Mexico, Sweden, Norway, the Philippines, Turkey, Indonesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Bangladesh, France, Jamaica, Ecuador, Niue, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Benin, Denmark, the Maldives, Egypt, the Czech Republic, Mongolia, Finland, Austria, Malaysia, South Africa, Cameroon, the Syrian Arab Republic, Singapore, Samoa, Ghana, the Sudan, Morocco, Serbia and Montenegro, Guatemala, Cape Verde, Portugal, Botswana and Viet Nam.31. 在1月19日第4次全体会议上,举行了一个特别论坛,参加者为:日本政府水和卫生问题咨询委员会主席、秘书长水和卫生咨询理事会主席Ryutaro Hashimoto先生;毛里求斯常驻代表、小岛屿发展中国家联盟主席J. Koonjul阁下;副秘书长、秘书长最不发达国家、内陆发展中国家和小岛屿发展中国家问题高级代表Anwarul K. Chowdhury先生;联合国气候变化框架公约执行秘书Joke Waller-Hunter女士、世界粮食计划署执行主任James Morris先生和联合国志愿人员执行协调员Ad de Raad先生。 32. 在第4次全体会议上,世界会议还在一般性辩论中听取了下列代表的发言:墨西哥、瑞典、挪威、菲律宾、土耳其、印度尼西亚、马绍尔群岛共和国、孟加拉国、法国、牙买加、厄瓜多尔、纽埃、基里巴斯、图瓦卢、贝宁、丹麦、马尔代夫、埃及、捷克共和国、蒙古、芬兰、奥地利、马来西亚、南非、喀麦隆、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、新加坡、萨摩亚、加纳、苏丹、摩洛哥、塞尔维亚和黑山、危地马拉、佛得角、葡萄牙、博茨瓦纳和越南。
33. At the 6th and 7th plenary meetings, on 20 and 21 January, the representatives of Switzerland, the United States of America, Nigeria, Tajikistan, Venezuela, Pakistan, Peru, Afghanistan, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Senegal, the Seychelles, New Zealand, Italy, Belgium, Canada, Yemen, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Algeria, Brazil, Spain, Nepal, Haiti, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Fiji, the Solomon Islands, Barbados, Gabon, Cambodia, Trinidad and Tobago, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Samoa, the Cook Islands, Greece, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Armenia and the Netherlands made statements. Statements were also made by the European Community and by the observers for the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group and the Council of Europe. The Conference also heard statements by representatives of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Office at Geneva, the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations Development Programme, the Vice-President of the Asociacion Iberoameriana de Organismos Gubernmentales de Defensa y Proteccion Civil, the Office of Outer Space Affairs, United Nations, the Council of Europe Development Bank, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Disaster Recovery Institute International, and by the Rector of the United Nations University.33. 在1月20日第6次全体会议和1月21日第7次全体会议上,下列国家代表发了言:瑞士、美利坚合众国,尼日利亚、塔吉克斯坦、委内瑞拉、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、阿富汗、赞比亚、斯威士兰、莫桑比克、塞内加尔、塞舌尔、新西兰、意大利、比利时、加拿大、也门、肯尼亚、吉尔吉斯斯坦、阿尔及利亚、巴西、西班牙、尼泊尔、海地、刚果民主共和国、斐济、所罗门群岛、巴巴多斯、柬埔寨、特立尼达和多巴哥、巴布亚新几内亚、汤加、萨摩亚、库克群岛、希腊、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、亚美尼亚、荷兰。欧洲共同体发了言,非洲、加勒比和太平洋国家集团和欧洲委员会观察员也发了言。会议还听取了下列人士的发言:人道主义事务协调厅代表、联合国日内瓦办事处代表、国际海事组织代表、联合国开发计划署代表、拉丁美洲捍卫和保护公民政府组织协会副主席、联合国外层空间事务处代表、欧洲委员会开发银行代表、世界气象组织代表、联合国训练研究所代表、联合国教育、科学及文化组织代表、国际灾难恢复协会代表以及联合国大学校长。
Chapter IV第 四 章
Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来
34. At its 5th plenary meeting, on 20 January, the Conference considered item 8 of its agenda, entitled “Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future” in a special session. After opening remarks by the President of the Conference, an introduction was given on early warning systems and preparedness by Mr Abdullahi Majeed, Deputy Minister of the Environment (Maldives), and Dr. K. Radhakrishnan, Director of the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Department of Ocean Development (India). The Under-Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs talked of the international emergency response, of lessons learned and of the importance of transition within a risk reduction framework. This was followed by a short review of country experiences and perspectives, through short presentations on main challenges confronting Indian Ocean countries in their response to the disaster, with a focus on lessons learned and future preparedness, mitigation and recovery activities, by Mr.Kamal Ibne Yousuf Chowdhury, Minister of Food and Disaster Management (Bangladesh); Mr. Adik Bantarso, Head of the Bureau for Cooperation, National Coordinating Board for Disaster Management and Refugees (Indonesia); Professor Tissa Vitharana, Minister of Science and Technology (Sri Lanka); Mr. Ashoka Kumar Rastogi, Secretary of the Government (India); Mr. Dave Mwangi, Permanent Secretary, Office of the President (Kenya); Mr. Suporn Ratanakakin, Foreign Relations Officer, Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Ministry of Interior (Thailand); and Mr. Ian Wilderspin, Head of Disaster Risk Management, Southeast Asia delegation, representing the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. A series of short presentations of initiatives towards a common outcome was made by Mr. Li Xieju, Minister of Civil Affairs (China), Mrs. Sadako Ogata, President of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (Japan), Mr. Hans-Joachim Daerr, Director-General in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Germany), Mr. Howard H. Baker, Jr., Ambassador of the United States of America in Japan, Mr. (Australia). Thereafter, the Conference heard statements by representatives of Australia, Luxembourg on behalf of the European Union, France, Denmark, Egypt, Sweden, Japan, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, South Africa, Morocco, Turkey, the Netherlands, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea. The Conference also heard statements by the observers for the European Commission, the World Meteorological Organization, the World Food Programme, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme, the Basel Convention, the United Nation’s Children’s Fund, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Union of Geodisy and Geophysics, the Abdus Salaam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, the ASEAN secretariat, the International Labour Office, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the European Space Agency.34. 在1月20日第5次全体会议上,世界会议举行特别会议审议了议程项目8, 题为“印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”。会议主席首先致辞,然后由(马尔代夫)环境部副部长Abdullahi Majeed先生和(印度)海洋开发部国家海洋信息服务中心主任K. Radhakrishnam博士就预警系统和备灾问题作了介绍性发言。负责人道主义事务的副秘书长发言谈到国际紧急应对、经验教训和过渡时期工作在减少灾害风险框架内的重要性。在此之后,一些人士通过简单介绍印度洋各国在应对灾害方面所面临的主要挑战扼要评述了国内经验和观点,侧重介绍了经验教训和未来的备灾、缓解灾害和恢复活动,这些人士是:(孟加拉国)粮食和灾害管理部部长Kamal Ibne Yousuf Chowdhury先生、(印度尼西亚)全国灾害管理和难民事务协调理事会合作局区长Adik Bantarso先生、(斯里兰卡)科学技术部部长Tissa Vitharana教授、(印度)政府秘书Ashoka Kumar Rastogi先生、(肯尼亚)总统办公厅常任秘书Dave Mwangi先生、(泰国)内务部灾害预防和缓解司外交关系干事Suporn Ratanakakin先生,以及代表国际红十字会和红新月会联合会的东南亚代表团灾害风险管理负责人Ian Wilderspin先生。一些人士简短发言介绍了为争取达成共同成果而采取的举措,这些人士是:(中国)民政部部长李学举先生、(日本)日本国际协力事业团总裁Sadako Ogata女士、(德国)外交部总干事Hans-Joachim Daerr先生、美利坚合众国驻日本大使Howard H. Baker, Jr. 先生、(澳大利亚)外交和贸易部部长Robert Owen-Jones先生。随后,会议听取了下列国家代表的发言:澳大利亚、卢森堡(代表欧洲联盟)、法国、丹麦、埃及、瑞典、日本、联合王国、瑞士、南非、摩洛哥、土耳其、荷兰、马来西亚、大韩民国。会议还听取了下列组织观察员的发言:欧盟委员会、世界气象组织、世界粮食计划署、全面禁止核试验条约组织、国际海事组织、联合国环境规划署、《巴塞尔公约》、联合国儿童基金会、联合国粮食及农业组织、国际大地测量与地球物理联合会、Abdus Salaam国际理论物理学中心、东盟秘书处、国际劳工局、联合国教育、科学及文化组织、欧洲航天局。
35.35.
At the conclusion of the special session, the Conference agreed to annex to its final report the “Common statement of the special session on the Indian Ocean disaster: risk reduction for a safer future”, that was delivered at the session and is shown in annex II to the present report.在特别会议结束时,世界会议商定将会上提出的《“印度洋灾难:降低风险,争取更安全的未来”特别会议共同声明》列为会议最后报告的附件,即本报告附件二。
Chapter V第 五 章
Review of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World审查《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划》
36.36.
At its 7th plenary meeting, on 21 January, the Conference considered item 11 of its agenda.在1月21日第7次全体会议上,世界会议审议了议程项目11。秘书处介绍了A/CONF.
Document A/CONF.206/L.1 was introduced by the secretariat.206/L.
There was no debate on the content of the Review of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World.1号文件。对于《审查〈建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划〉》的内容没有进行辩论。会议就秘书处所做的工作向秘书处表示感谢,并表示注意到上述文件,会议认为该文件是拟订下一个十年行动纲领的坚实基础。该文件仍然作为单独的文件(没有纳入本报告),文号仍然是A/CONF.
In thanking the secretariat for its work, the Conference took note of the document, which was seen as a solid basis for the formulation of a framework for action for the next decade.206/L.
It remains a separate document (not incorporated in this report) under the same reference A/CONF.206/L.1.1。
Chapter VI第 六 章
Report on the thematic segment关于专题部分的报告
37. At its 9th plenary meeting, on 22 January, the Conference considered item 9 of its agenda, with oral reports provided by the chairs of the thematic panels: Governance, institutional and policy frameworks for disaster reduction (South Africa), Risk identification, assessment, monitoring and early warning (United States of America), Knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience (Chile), Reducing the underlying risk factors (Romania), and Preparedness for effective response (Bangladesh). An oral report was also given on the regional session that took place within the thematic segment. The results of the very rich exchanges that took place in the many facets of the thematic segment, through the high-level round tables, the thematic panels, the thematic sessions, and the regional sessions, will be the subject of a thorough compilation and publication by the ISDR secretariat later in the year.37. 在1月22日第9次全体会议上,世界会议审议了议程项目9, 在专题讨论小组的主席作了口头报告:减灾方面的治理、体制框架和政策框架(南非)、风险的查明、评估、监测和预警(美利坚合众国)、培养安全意识和建立抗灾能力的知识、创新和教育(智利)、减少所涉风险因素(罗马尼亚)、做好有效应对的准备(孟加拉国)。此外还口头报告了专题部分的区域会议的情况。今年晚些时候,《减灾战略》秘书处将全面汇编并发表通过高级别圆桌会议、专题小组讨论、专题会议和区域会议在专题部分多方面进行极为丰富的交流所取得的成果。
Chapter VII第 七 章
Report on the public forum关于公共论坛的报告
38. At its 9th plenary meeting, on 22 January, the Conference also considered item 10 of its agenda, with an oral report from the secretariat. Over 40,000 visitors participated in a variety of activities, including workshops, exhibition booths, poster sessions, where they had opportunities to learn about disasters and measures aimed at establishing disaster-resilient societies. Under this item, a statement was also made by the representative of the non-governmental organization Center for Disaster Reduction, on behalf of those representatives of civil society present at the Conference.38. 在1月22日第9次全体会议上,世界会议还审议了议程项目10, 秘书处作了口头报告。40,000多名参观者参加了各项活动,包括研讨会、展览厅、海报展示,从而了解的有关灾害的情况,以及为建立有抗灾能力的社会而采取的措施。在这个项目之下,一个非政府组织―― 减少灾害中心―― 的代表以与会民间团体代表的名义也作了发言。
Chapter VIII第 八 章
Adoption of the programme outcome document and of the Conference Declaration通过方案成果文件和会议宣言
39. At its 9th plenary meeting, on 22 January, the Conference jointly considered items 12 and 13 of its agenda, since both were directly linked to the work of the Main Committee. The items were presented together by the Chairman of the Main Committee, Mr. Marco Ferrari (Switzerland). Both the programme outcome document, entitled Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005-2015: Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters, and the Hyogo Declaration were submitted with the consensus endorsement of the Main Committee. In support of the Hyogo Framework for Action and of the Hyogo Declaration, statements were made by representatives of Sudan on behalf of the African States Group, the Islamic Republic of Iran on behalf of the Asian States Group, Romania on behalf of the Eastern European States Group, Brazil on behalf of the Latin American and Caribbean States Group, Germany on behalf of the Western European and Other States Group. A statement was made also by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The Conference adopted the two documents as submitted by the Chairman of the Main Committee (see chap.I, resolutions 1 and 2).39. 在1月22日第9次全体会议上,世界会议合并审议了议程项目12和13, 因为这两个项目都与主要委员会的工作直接关联。主要委员会主席Marco Ferrari先生(瑞士)将两个项目结合在一起作了介绍。题为“2005-2015年兵库行动纲领:加强国家和社区的抗灾能力》的方案成果文件和《兵库宣言》都是经主要委员会协商一致赞同后提交的。为了表示对《兵库行动纲领》和《兵库宣言》的支持,一些国家的代表作了发言,这些国家是:苏丹,代表非洲国家集团;伊朗伊斯兰共和国,代表亚洲国家集团;罗马尼亚,代表东欧国家集团;巴西,代表拉丁美洲和加勒比国家集团;德国,代表西欧和其他国家集团。国际红十字和红新月会联合会的代表也发了言。会议通过了主要委员会主席提交的这两个文件(见第一章,决议1和2)。
Chapter IX第 九 章
Conclusion of the Conference会议闭幕
40. Finally, at its 9th plenary meeting and closing session on 22 January, the Conference considered item 14 of its agenda and adopted the Draft Report of the Conference (A/CONF.206/L.7) as submitted by the Rapporteur. In his concluding remarks, the United Nations Under-Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs referred to the Hyogo Framework of Action as a milestone for disaster reduction, setting out an ambitious agenda to substantially reduce the losses in lives and in social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries. He called on international cooperation, through existing and new partnerships, to reach the challenges taken on by the Conference. The texts adopted by the Conference were not legally binding, but represented a strong commitment by States and organizations to guide policies and actions in the next 10 years. The Under-Secretary-General confirmed his own strong engagement in providing the ISDR secretariat and all partners in the Inter-agency Task Force on Disaster Reduction and Member States with support to ensure that the United Nations system strengthens its disaster reduction actions.40. 最后,在1月22日第9次即闭幕全体会议上,世界会议审议了议程项目4, 并通过了报告员提交的会议报告草稿(A/CONF.206/L.7)。联合国主管人道主义事务的副秘书长在闭幕发言中表示认为,《兵库行动纲领》是减灾工作的里程碑,提出了一项雄心勃勃的议程,这就是争取大幅度减少各地社区和各国的生命损失以及社会、经济和环境财富损失。他呼吁通过现有的和新建立的伙伴关系进行国际合作,争取解决会议上讨论的各项挑战。会议通过的案文虽然没有法律约束力,但代表了各国和各组织指导今后十年政策和行动的坚强决心。副秘书长表示他本人全力以赴为《减灾战略》秘书处以及减灾问题机构间工作队中的所有伙伴和会员国提供支持,确保联合国系统加强减灾行动。
41. In closing the Conference, the President said the World Conference on Disaster Reduction had been a success not only for its high number and level of participants and not only because of its many interesting thematic sessions and events in the public forum, not only because important texts had been adopted, but also because disaster risk reduction had been put as a high priority on the international agenda. Referring to the tragic disasters the world had witnessed in the last few months of 2004, culminating with the terrible tsunami in the Indian Ocean, the President noted that this had brought home to many that it was high time to address disaster prevention, risk management, vulnerabilities as an unavoidable responsibility of States and of communities. While there will always be hazards, mankind has advanced enough in the past few decades to be able to protect itself from the tragic consequences that derive from the absence of preparedness. Having heard much about early warning during the Conference, particularly during the special session on the Indian Ocean disaster, and witnessing verbal commitments from many countries, the President called upon the Conference to ensure that the level of engagement would rapidly be translated into action. He called on participants to make a firm pledge that those five days in Kobe would make a real difference in the way the world looked at hazard, at risk and at vulnerability, to truly engage on the road for a safer world.41. 主席在闭幕发言中说,减少灾害问题世界会议是一次成功的会议,这不仅是因为与会者的人数很多、级别很高,不仅因为举行了多次很有意义的专题会议和公共论坛的活动,不仅因为通过了很重要的案文,而且还因为将减少灾害风险问题放在了国际议程的高度优先地位。主席提到2004年最后几个月所发生的一系列严重灾害,尤其是印度洋发生的可怕的海啸,指出,这一情况是许多人真正认识到,现在需要处理灾害预防、风险管理、脆弱性问题,这是各国和各社区不可推卸的责任。危害总是存在的,但人类在过去几十年里已取得了长足的进步,应该能够保护自己免遭备灾不足的灾难性后果。主席表示,会议期间,特别是在关于印度洋灾害的特别会议期间,听到了很多关于预警的意见,而且很多国家都作了口头承诺,他呼吁会议设法确保迅速将高度的关注转化为行动。他呼吁与会者作出坚决的保证,使得在神户度过的五天能够产生真正的作用,改变世界看待危害、风险和脆弱性的方式,真正走上建立更安全的世界的道路。
Annex I附 件 一
List of documents for the Conference会议文件一览表
Document symbol Title or description of contents文 号 标题或内容说明
A/CONF.206/1 Provisional agenda and annotationsA/CONF.206/1 临时议程和说明
A/CONF.206/2 Provisional rules of procedureA/CONF.206/2 暂行议事规则
A/CONF.206/3 Accreditation of relevant non-governmental organizations and other major groups to the ConferenceA/CONF.206/3 有关非政府组织和其他主要团体的与会资格认证
A/CONF.206/4 Agenda of the ConferenceA/CONF.206/4 会议议程
A/CONF.206/5 Report of the Credentials CommitteeA/CONF.206/5 全权证书委员会报告
A/CONF.206/L.1 Review of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer WorldA/CONF.206/L.1 审查《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划》
A/CONF.206/L.2 Draft Programme Outcome Document Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters: [Hyogo] Framework for action 2005-2015A/CONF.206/L.2 方案成果文件草案
A/CONF.206/L.2/REV.1 Draft programme outcome document building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters: Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015加强国家和社区的抗灾能力:2005-2015年[兵库]行动纲领 A/CONF.206/L.2/Rev.1 方案成果文件草案 加强国家和社区的抗灾能力:2005-2015年兵库行动纲领
A/CONF.206/L.3 Draft Hyogo DeclarationA/CONF.206/L.3 兵库宣言草案
A/CONF.206/L.3/REV.1 Draft Hyogo DeclarationA/CONF.206/L.3/Rev.1 兵库宣言草案
A/CONF.206/L.4 Establishing regional mechanisms on surveillance, prevention and assessment of severe natural disasters. Draft declaration submitted by ChinaA/CONF.206/L.4 建立应对重大自然灾害的监测、预防和评估区域机制 中国提出的宣言草案
A/CONF.206/L.5 Draft elements and considerations for a resolution on early warning for natural disasters. Draft resolution proposed by GermanyA/CONF.206/L.5 关于自然灾害预警问题的决议内容和要点草案 德国提出的决议草案
A/CONF.206/L.6 Draft common statement of the Special Session on the Indian Ocean Disaster: Risk Reduction for a Safer FutureA/CONF.206/L.6 “印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”特别会议共同声明草案
A/CONF.206/L.6/REV.1 Draft common statement of the Special Session on the Indian Ocean Disaster: Risk Reduction for a Safer FutureA/CONF.206/L.6/Rev.1 “印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”特别会议共同声明草案
A/CONF.206/L.7 Draft report of the ConferenceA/CONF.206/L.7 会议报告草稿
A/CONF.206/L.8 Draft report of the Main CommitteeA/CONF.206/L.8 主要委员会报告草稿
A/CONF.206/MISC.1 Provisional list of participantsA/CONF.206/Misc.1 暂定与会者名单
A/CONF.206/MC/CRP.1 Note from the secretariatA/CONF.206/MC/CRP.1 秘书处的说明
A/CONF.206/INF.1 Information Note for ParticipantsA/CONF.206/INF.1 与会者须知
A/CONF.206/INF.3 List of participantsA/CONF.206/INF.3 与会者名单
A/CONF.206/INF.4 Participation of intergovernmental organizations in the work of the ConferenceA/CONF.206/INF.4 政府间组织参加会议工作的情况
A/CONF.206/INF.5 Information paper submitted by the delegation of the United States of America entitled: “Development of a global tsunami warning system: U.S. next steps”A/CONF.206/INF.5 美利坚合众国代表团提交的资料文件,题为“开发全球海啸警报系统:美国将采取的步骤”
A/CONF.206/INF.6 Information paper submitted by the delegation of the Federal Republic of Germany entitled “Concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Establishment of a Tsunami Early- Warning System in the Disaster Region of the Indian Ocean”A/CONF.206/INF.6 德意志联邦共和国代表团提交的信息文件,题为“德意志联邦共和国关于在印度洋灾害地区建立海啸预警系统的构想”
Annex II附 件 二
Common statement of the Special Session on the Indian Ocean Disaster: risk reduction for a safer future“印度洋灾害:减少风险,共创更安全的未来”特别会议共同声明
The World Conference on Disaster Reduction,减少灾害问题世界会议,
Extending its deepest sympathies and condolences to the victims of the recent tsunami disaster and their families and to the people and Governments of those countries, and expressing our deepest concern over the negative economic, social, psychological, environmental and other consequences and impacts of the tsunami disaster,向最近海啸灾害受难者及其家属、并向这些国家的人民和政府表示最深切的同情和由衷的哀悼,我们表示极为深切地关注海啸灾害在经济、社会、心理、环境和其他方面的各种不利后果和影响,
Commending the national and international community’s prompt and generous support and contributions to the relief efforts, which truly reflect the spirit of solidarity and commitment to addressing challenges facing mankind in a collective and collaborative manner,赞扬各国和国际社会对救援努力的迅速支助和慷慨捐助,真正体现了团结一致的精神,体现了以集体合作的方式迎接人类所面临挑战的决心,
Recalling General Assembly resolutions 57/256 of 6 February 2003, 58/214 and 58/215 of 23 December 2003, and 59/231 and 59/233 of 22 December 2004 on natural disasters and vulnerability and the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction,回顾关于自然灾害与脆弱性和《国际减少灾害战略》的大会2003年2月6日第57/256号、2003年12月23日第58/215号、2004年12月22日第59/231和59/233号决议,
Recalling also that in its resolution 58/214 the Assembly recommended the implementation of the outcomes of the Second International Conference on Early Warning, held under the auspices of the United Nations at Bonn, Germany, from 16 to 18 October 2003,还回顾大会在第58/214号决议中建议落实2003年10月16日至18日在德国波恩举行的第二次预警系统国际会议的成果,
Recalling further the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World adopted at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction held in Yokohama, Japan, from 23 to 27 May 1994,进一步回顾1994年5月23日至27日在日本横滨举行的减少灾害问题世界会议通过的《建立更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划》,
Recognizing that severe natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, typhoons, cyclones, droughts and tsunamis respect no borders and remain major threats to all people, and hinder social and economic progress, in particular in the developing countries,认识到地震、洪水、台风、旋风、干旱和海啸等严重自然灾害不会止于任何边界,依然是对全体人民的严重威胁,妨碍社会和经济进步,对于发展中国家尤其如此,
Recognizing also the importance of national and local capacity building to effectively address the impact of disasters,还认识到在国家和地方为有效处理灾害影响而开展能力建设的重要性,
Emphasizing the importance of continued international and regional dialogue and discussion in order to build understanding, solidarity and commitment to improve early warning systems and to reduce disasters,强调必须持续开展国际和区域对话和讨论,以建立信任、团结并致力于改善预警系统和减少灾害,
Emphasizing the need to comprehensively assess all the lessons learnt from the tsunami disaster,强调需要全面评估从海啸灾害吸取的各种经验教训,
Emphasizing also the Special Leaders’ Meeting of the Association of South-East Asian Nations on the Aftermath of the Earthquake and Tsunamis, held in Jakarta on 6 January 2005, which agreed to establish a regional early warning system such as a Regional Tsunami Early Warning Centre on the Indian Ocean and the South-East Asia region,还强调2005年1月6日在雅加达举行的地震和海啸灾后问题东南亚国家联盟领导人特别会议,商定建立一个区域预警系统,如印度洋和东南亚地区区域海啸预警中心,
Taking note of the outcomes of the United Nations Conference to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in Mauritius from 10 to 14 January 2005, and in particular the support expressed at the Conference for a global early warning system,注意到2005年1月10日至14日在毛里求斯举行的联合国《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》执行情况审查会议的结果,特别是会议对全球预警系统表示的支持,
Responding to the request to launch a process to establish a regional early warning system, including for tsunami, by the resumed session of the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly,响应大会第五十九届会议续会关于启动一个进程以建立一个包括针对海啸的区域预警系统的要求,
Noting the proposals to expedite the development of a global tsunami early warning capability, to include the Indian Ocean, drawing on the experience of existing regional tsunami warning system in the Pacific Ocean.注意到提议借鉴太平洋现有区域海啸警报系统的经验,加速发展全球海啸预警能力,使之也涵盖印度洋,
Noting also the proposals for establishing tsunami early warning systems already under consideration as announced by individual countries of the Indian Ocean region,还注意到印度洋地区各国宣布已在考虑关于建立海啸预警系统的提议,
Taking note of the discussions and conclusions of the special session on the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster at this World Conference on Disaster Reduction and the need to coordinate and examine expeditiously the various proposals made in this context, taking into account the findings of the thematic sessions held during the Conference,注意到本次减少灾害问题世界会议中举行的印度洋海啸灾害问题特别会议的讨论和结论,以及需要迅速协调和审查这方面提出的各种提议,并考虑到世界会议期间各专题会议的结论,
Emphasizes the importance of regional cooperation and coordination in disaster reduction, including enhanced institutional arrangements, technical cooperation based on most effective technical equipment and capacity building to effectively address the impact of natural disasters;强调区域减灾合作与协调的重要性,包括加强的机构安排、基于最有效技术设备的技术合作及有效处理自然灾害影响的能力建设;
Recognizes the urgent need, as evidenced by the devastation caused by the earthquake and the tsunami in the Indian Ocean, to strengthen national systems and to expand existing mechanisms for sharing of information and best practices in disaster detection, early warning, prevention, and assessment of natural disasters and for disaster relief, post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction;认识到,正如印度洋地震和海啸灾害所证明,迫切需要加强国家系统,扩大现有机制,在灾害检测、预警、预防、自然灾害评估方面并为了救灾、灾后恢复和重建而分享信息和推广最佳做法;
Recommends that necessary regional disaster reduction mechanisms be established and strengthened as soon as possible for all relevant natural hazards, which should include, inter alia, specialized collaborative regional centres, networks for information exchange, early warning systems, establishment of databases and knowledge management, use of modern science and technology, and strategies to reduce disaster risks and to reduce impacts arising from natural disasters;建议尽快建立和加强针对所有相关自然灾害的必要的区域减灾机制,其中应包括专门的区域合作中心、信息交换网络、预警系统、建立数据库和知识管理、利用现代科学和技术以及减少灾害风险和减少自然灾害影响的战略;
Recognizes also that early warning systems consist of (a) prior knowledge of the risks faced by communities, (b) technical monitoring and warning service for these risks, (c) dissemination of understandable warnings to those at risk, and (d) knowledge, public awareness and preparedness to act;还认识到预警系统包括 (a) 以往有关各社区所面临风险的知识、(b) 针对这些风险的技术监测和警报服务、(c) 向面临风险的人发出易懂的警报,以及 (d) 知识、公众意识和行动准备;
Invites the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations funds and programmes, United Nations specialized organizations and other international organizations and institutions, to integrate regional disaster reduction strategies into their work programmes and to develop concrete initiatives to implement such strategies;请联合国人道主义事务协调厅、联合国各基金和计(规)划署、联合国各专门组织及其他国际组织和机构将区域减灾战略纳入工作方案,并制定实施此种方案的具体举措;
Emphasizes the need for the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction to identify, analyse and widely disseminate all the lessons learnt from the recent tsunami disaster;强调《国际减灾战略》需要找出、分析并广泛介绍最近海啸灾害的所有经验教训;
Requests the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction to prepare a report on regional mechanisms for disaster reduction, taking into consideration initiatives and ongoing discussion or arrangements in respective regions and sub-regions, if any, and to submit it to the 2005 substantive session of the Economic and Social Council and the sixtieth session of the General Assembly;请《国际减灾战略》秘书处就区域减灾机制编制一份报告,为此要考虑各区域和分区域的倡议和当前的任何讨论或安排,并将报告提交经济及社会理事会2005年实质性会议和大会第六十届会议;
Requests the Economic and Social Council to include regional disaster reduction mechanisms into the agenda of the humanitarian affairs segment of its 2005 substantive session;请经济及社会理事会将区域减灾机制纳入2005年实质性会议人道主义部分的议程;
Invites the Secretary-General to include regional mechanisms for disaster reduction in the agenda of the sixtieth session of the General Assembly and to submit a report thereon to the General Assembly;请秘书长将区域减灾机制纳入大会第六十届会议议程,并就此向大会提交一份报告;
Welcomes the priority to be placed on disaster reduction, including early warning, at the Third Earth Observation Summit at the Ministerial level, to be held in Brussels on 16 February 2005;欢迎2005年2月16日在布鲁塞尔举行的第三次部长级全球对地观测首脑会议优先重视减灾,包括预警问题;
Welcomes the proposed convening of a Ministerial Meeting on Regional Cooperation on Tsunami Early Warning Arrangements by the Government of Thailand, to be held at Phuket on 28 and 29 January 2005, which aims to lend further political impetus to the relevant outcomes of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction and to mobilize necessary resources for the establishment of tsunami early warning systems in the Indian Ocean;欢迎泰国政府提议2005年1月28日和29日在普吉举行海啸预警安排区域合作部长级会议,以进一步从政治上推动减灾问题世界会议的有关成果,并调集必要的资源,在印度洋建立海啸预警系统;
Welcomes the generous offer by Germany to host a United Nations conference on early warning in Bonn in early 2006 and invites Member States, all relevant United Nations organisations, funds and programmes and relevant international and regional organizations, supported by the Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning to participate, with the following objectives: (a) to implement the International Early Warning Programme, proposed at the Second International Conference on Early Warning, held at Bonn, Germany, from 16 to18 October 2003, and launched at the present World Conference, (b) to identify priority areas for the implementation of early warning systems, taking into account the vulnerabilities of countries to the different hazards, the current status of their warning systems, including the ongoing support, technical and institutional capacities, engagement of relevant actors, and shortcomings, gaps and barriers to implementation, and (c) to assess and monitor the implementation of early warning systems, including the development and use of guidelines, criteria and benchmarking for effective early warning systems;欢迎德国慷慨提出于2006年在波恩主办联合国预警问题会议,并请会员国、联合国所有有关组织、基金和计(规)划署以及有关的国际组织和区域组织在促进预警论坛的支持下参加会议,目标如下:(a) 落实2003年10月16日至18日在德国波恩举行的第二次预警问题国际会议上提议、在本次世界会议上发起的《国际预警方案》,(b) 确定落实预警系统的优先领域,为此要考虑各国在不同危害面前的脆弱性,它们的预警系统的现况,包括当前的支持、技术和体制能力,有关行为方参与的情况,以及落实方面的缺陷、差距和障碍,(c) 评估和监测预警系统的落实情况,包括拟订和采用有效的预警系统的准则、标准和基准;
Recognizes the need to use the experience of the existing Pacific Ocean tsunami early warning systems, making use of the existing coordination mechanisms of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and other relevant international and regional organisations, utilizing the planning process of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems under the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations, and including comprehensive actions such as the assessment of tsunami risks, including a range of advanced technical systems (for example satellite based, high precision dynamic sea level measurements and buoys that provide real time measurements of seismic and oceanographic parameters), as well as the detection and warning of hazardous events, the development of response plans, public education programmes, and resilient shelters, lifelines and protective infrastructure;认识到需要利用现有的太平洋海啸预警系统的经验,利用政府间海洋学委员会以及其他有关国际组织和区域组织的现有协调机制,利用政府间对地观测小组下各系统的全球对地观测系统规划进程,并在其中纳入评估海啸风险等综合行动,包括一系列先进技术系统(例如基于卫星的高精度动态海平面测量法和能提供地震和海洋参数实时测量数据的浮标),以及危害事件测报、拟定应对计划,公众教育方案,以及抗灾庇护所、生命线和保护性基础设施;
Calls for the establishment of an effective and durable tsunami early warning system for the Indian ocean;呼吁为印度洋建立有效耐用的海啸预警系统;
Emphasizes that a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean must be tailored to the specific circumstances of the Indian Ocean and the individual requirements of countries, under the coordination of the United Nations, and that those countries must be the ones to determine the shape and nature of the system;强调印度洋海啸预警系统必须在联合国协调下,适应于印度洋的具体情况和各国的要求,而且必须由这些国家决定该系统的形式和内容;
Recommends that elements of a forward strategy to establish an Indian Ocean tsunami early warning system can include a preparatory technical scoping meeting, assessment of needs in countries of the Indian Ocean, if requested by those countries, regional seminars and coordination meetings, as necessary, a regional planning conference, and the preparation and dissemination of public awareness and other appropriate material;建议关于建立印度洋海啸预警系统的预备战略的内容中,可包括安排一次筹备性的技术估测会议,应印度洋各国的请求评估它们的需要、并安排必要的区域研讨会和协调会议、区域规划会议,编制和传播宣传材料和其他适当材料;
Appreciates the steps taken or to be taken by countries of the Indian Ocean to provide for interim tsunami early warning in the Indian Ocean;赞赏印度洋各国为在印度洋安排临时海啸预警所采取或者将采取的步骤;
Commends the many generous offers of financial and technical assistance made by key countries across the globe to help establish a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean.赞扬全球的各个关键国家为帮助印度洋建立海啸预警系统而提供的许多慷慨的财政援助和技术援助。
--- Vulnerability is defined as: “The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards”. UN/ISDR. Geneva 2004. Hazard is defined as: “A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards can include latent conditions that may represent future threats and can have different origins: natural (geological, hydrometeorological and biological) or induced by human processes (environmental degradation and technological hazards)” UN/ISDR. Geneva 2004. The scope of this Framework for Action encompasses disasters caused by hazards of national origin and related environmental and technological hazards and risks. It thus reflects a holistic and multi- hazard approach to disaster risk management and the relationship, between them which can have a significant impact on social, economic, cultural and environmental systems, as stressed in the Yokohama Strategy (section I, part B, letter I, p. 8). Some of these frameworks and declarations are listed in the annex to this document. Review of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World (A/CONF.206/L.1). As per General Assembly resolution 58/214 of 23 December 2003. Resilience: “The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organising itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures.” UN/ISDR. Geneva 2004. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002, paragraphs 37 and 65. As reaffirmed at the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly on the topic “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”. The establishment of national platforms for disaster reduction was requested in Economic and Social Council resolution 1999/63 and in General Assembly resolutions 56/195, 58/214, and 58/215. The expression “national platform” is a generic term used for national mechanisms for coordination and policy guidance on disaster risk reduction that need to be multi-sectoral and inter-disciplinary in nature, with public, private and civil society participation involving all concerned entities within a country (including United Nations agencies present at the national level, as appropriate). National platforms represent the national mechanism for the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. See footnotes 1, 2 and 3 for the scope of this Framework for Action. See footnotes 1, 2 and 3. As recommended in General Assembly resolution 58/214.-- -- -- -- --
“Structural measures refer to any physical construction to reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards, which include engineering measures and construction of hazard-resistant and protective structures and infrastructure. Non-structural measures refer to policies, awareness, knowledge development, public commitment, and methods and operating practices, including participatory mechanisms and the provision of information, which can reduce risk and related impacts”, UN/ISDR Geneva, 2004.危害的定义是:“具有潜在破坏力的自然事件、现象或人类活动,它们可能造成人的伤亡、财产损害、社会经济混乱或环境退化。危害可包括将来可能产生威胁的各种隐患,其原因有各种各样,有自然的(地质、水文气象和生物),也有人类活动引起的(环境退化和技术危害)”。联合国/国际减少灾害战略机构间秘书处,日内瓦,2004年。
According to the principles contained in General Assembly resolution 46/182.脆弱性的定义是:“自然、社会、经济和环境因素或活动所决定的条件,由于这种条件,一个社区更容易受到危害的影响”。联合国/国际减少灾害战略机构间秘书处,日内瓦,2004年。
In compliance with General Assembly resolution 58/118 and OAS General Assembly resolution 2018 (xxxiv-0/04).本《行动纲领》的范围包括自然危害造成的灾害以及有关的环境和技术危害和风险。因此,它反映了从整体上和从多种危害的角度处理灾害风险管理的办法及相互关系,正如《横滨战略》(第一部分,B节,(i)段,第7页)强调的那样,这种危害和风险可能对社会、经济、文化和环境等系统造成严重的影响。
As identified in General Assembly resolution 57/270 B.一些这样的框架和宣言列于本文件附件。 《建立一个更安全的世界的横滨战略和行动计划审查》(A/CONF.206/L.1)。
Such as the Tampere Convention on the Provision of Telecommunication Resources for Disaster Mitigation and Relief Operations (1998), which entered into force 8 January 2005.按照联合国大会第58/214号决议。 抗灾能力:“可能受到危害的一个系统、社区或社会的适应能力,它通过抵御或变革,在职能和结构上达到或保持可接受的水平。其中起决定作用的是社会系统在何种程度上能够组织起来,通过从过去的灾害中获取经验而提高这种能力,改善将来的保护,加强减少风险的措施。” 联合国/国际减少灾害战略机构间秘书处,日内瓦,2004年。
The United Nations Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation established by the Secretary-General made an urgent appeal to halve loss of human life caused by major water related disasters, including tsunami, by 2015.2002年8月26日至9月4日南非约翰内斯堡可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《约翰内斯堡执行计划》,第37段和第65段。
Defined by General Assembly resolution 46/182.如联合国大会第二十三届特别会议所重申的,这次特别会议的标题是:“2000年妇女:二十一世纪两性平等、发展与和平”。
Work towards the consistent implementation of General Assembly resolution 57/150.联合国经济及社会理事会第1999/63号决议以及联合国大会第56/195号、第58/214号和第58/215号要求建立减少灾害问题国家论坛。“国家论坛”一词是一个通称,系指在减少灾害风险方面作协调和提供政策指导的国家机制,这种机制必须是多部门和多学科性的,有公共部门、私有部门和民间社会的参与,涉及一国的所有有关实体(酌情包括存在于国家一级的联合国机构)。国家论坛是《国际减少灾害战略》的国家机制。
A review process regarding the institutional arrangements within the United Nations pertaining to disaster reduction is currently being carried out and will be completed, following the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, with an evaluation of the role and performance of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.关于本纲领的范围,见脚注1、2和3。
To serve as a tool for sharing experience and methodologies on disaster reduction efforts. States and relevant organizations are invited to actively contribute to the knowledge-building process by registering their own effort on a voluntary basis in consideration of the global progress of the Conference outcomes.见脚注1、2和3。
General Assembly resolution 57/270B, follow-up to United Nations conferences, and the General Assembly resolutions on Implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, which request the Secretary-General to report to the second committee of the General Assembly under “Sustainable development” (54/219, 56/195, 57/256 58/214, 58/215, 59/231).根据联合国大会第58/214号决议的建议。
General Assembly resolution 58/214.“结构性措施系指为减少或避免危害可能带来的影响而构筑的任何有形建筑,包括工程措施以及建造抵御和防御危害的结构和基础设施。非结构性措施系指政策、认识、知识开发、公众承诺、方法和操作做法,包括参与型机制和提供信息,以减少风险和有关的影响”。联合国/国际减少灾害战略机构间秘书处,日内瓦,2004年。 根据联合国大会第46/182号决议所载的原则。 根据联合国大会第58/118号决议和美洲国家组织第2018(XXXIV-0/04)号决议。 如联合国大会第57/270B号决议所定。 诸如2005年1月8日生效的《为减灾救灾提供电信资源的坦佩雷公约》(1998)。 秘书长设立的联合国水和卫生咨询委员会已紧急呼吁争取在2015年以前将包括海啸在内的与水有关的重大灾害所致生命损失减少一半。 由联合国大会第46/182号决议确定。 努力一致执行联合国大会第57/150号决议。 目前正在对联合国系统减灾方面的体制安排进行审查,将于减少灾害问题世界会议之后完成,届时将提出关于《国际减少灾害战略》作用及业绩的评价意见。 用作分享减灾努力的经验和方法的工具。请国家和区域组织考虑会议成果在全球的进展情况,在自愿的基础上登记各自的努力,以积极促进增强知识的进程。 联合国大会第57/270B号决议、联合国各次会议的后续活动以及联大关于执行《国际减少灾害战略》的各项决议请秘书长在“可持续发展”下向大会第二委员会提交报告(54/219、56/195、57/256、58/214、58/215、C.2/59/L.7)。 联合国大会第58/214号决议。
For a more comprehensive listing of relevant frameworks and declarations, see information document: Extracts Relevant to Disaster Risk Reduction From International Policy Initiatives 1994-2003, Inter-Agency Task Force on Disaster Reduction, ninth meeting 4-5 May 2004.有关框架和宣言的进一步详细清单,见信息文件:《1994—2003年国际政策倡议中与减少灾害风险有关的内容摘录》,机构间减灾工作组第九次会议,2004年5月4日至5日。
General Assembly resolution 58/213. Further implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.联合国大会第58/213号决议。进一步执行《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》。
A/CONF.199/20.A/CONF.199/20。
A/CONF.191/11.A/CONF.191/11。
General Assembly resolution 55/2.联合国大会第55/2号决议。
General Assembly resolution 58/291.联合国大会第58/291号决议。
General Assembly resolution 58/291.联合国大会第58/291号决议。
A/CONF.199/20, paragraph 37 e).A/CONF.199/20,第37e)段。
General Assembly resolutions on natural disasters and vulnerability (59/233, and 58/215).联合国大会关于自然灾害和脆弱性的决议(59/233和58/215)。
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.《联合国条约集》,vol.
1771, No.1771, No.
30822.30822。
FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1, decision 1/CP.FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1,第1/CP.
3, annex.3号决定,附件。
General Assembly resolutions on natural disasters and vulnerability (59/233, and 58/215).联合国大会关于自然灾害和脆弱性的决议(59/233和58/215)。
A/CONF.172/9.A/CONF.172/9。
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.《联合国条约集》,vol.
1954, No.1954, No.
33480.33480。
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.《联合国条约集》,vol.
1760, No.1760, No.
30619.30619。
General Assembly resolution 46/182.联合国大会第46/182号决议。
A/CONF.206/5.A/CONF.206/5。
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