CAC_COSP_IRG_I_4_1_ADD_9_EC
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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.9 V1502104.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.9 V1502103.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9*CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
30 March 201530 March 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9
V.15-02104 (E) 090415 100415V.15-02103 (C)
*1502104**1502103*
<>V1502104<>实施情况审议组
<>CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.9<>第六届会议
<><>2015年6月1日至5日,维也纳
Implementation Review Group临时议程项目2
Sixth session Vienna, 1-5 June 2015 * Reissued for technical reasons on 20 April 2015. Item 2 of the provisional agenda ***
CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1.CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1。
Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption审议《联合国反腐败公约》实施情况
Executive summary提要
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Addendum增编
Contents目录
Page页次
Executive summary提要
22
Liechtenstein列支敦士登
22
II. Executive summary二. 提要
Liechtenstein列支敦士登
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Liechtenstein in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:列支敦士登在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和体制框架概述
The Principality of Liechtenstein signed the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 10 December 2003, ratified it on 16 December 2009 and deposited its instrument of ratification on 8 July 2010.列支敦士登公国于2003年12月10日签署了《联合国反腐败公约》,于2009年12月16日批准该《公约》,并于2010年7月8日交存其批准书。
Liechtenstein uses the incorporation system or monist system for the implementation of international treaties.列支敦士登使用合并制度或一元制实施国际条约。
Therefore, the Convention has become an integral part of Liechtenstein’s domestic law following its ratification and entry into force on 7 August 2010.因此,在该《公约》获得批准并于2010年8月7日生效后,其已经成为列支敦士登国内法的组成部分。
Within the hierarchy of norms, the Convention as an international treaty has at least the status of statutory law in the domestic legal order and takes precedence over earlier laws (lex posterior).在规范的等级体系中,该《公约》作为一项国际条约,在国内法律秩序中至少具有成文法的地位,并且优先于早先的法律(后法原则)。
Liechtenstein is a constitutional hereditary monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis.列支敦士登是建立在民主和议会基础上的世袭君主立宪制国家。
The power of the State is embodied in the Reigning Prince and the People.国家权力为在位的亲王和人民所有。
The Principality forms a monetary and customs union with Switzerland and therefore, a variety of Swiss laws apply in Liechtenstein as well.公国与瑞士结成货币和关税同盟,因此,各项瑞士法律也适用于列支敦士登。
The criminal law is largely based on Austrian law.刑法大体上依据奥地利法律。
This means it is a civil law system with an inquisitorial court procedure.这意味着其属于有纠问式庭审程序的大陆法系。
As a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), Liechtenstein is fully subjected to the European Union anti-money-laundering and counter-terrorist-financing (AML/CFT) framework.作为欧洲经济区(欧经区)的成员,列支敦士登完全遵循欧洲联盟反洗钱/打击为恐怖主义融资框架。
Additionally, Liechtenstein is party to international and multilateral organizations and agreements, including the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe (CoE).此外,列支敦士登是多个国际和多边组织和协定,包括欧洲安全与合作组织(欧安组织)和欧洲委员会的成员。
Liechtenstein has signed but not yet ratified the CoE Criminal Law Convention against Corruption.列支敦士登已经签署但尚未批准欧洲委员会《反腐败刑法公约》。
It is not a signatory to the CoE Civil Law Convention on Corruption nor to the OECD Foreign Bribery Convention.该国未签署欧洲委员会《反腐败民法公约》或经合组织《贿赂外国公职人员公约》。
The most important institutions in the fight against corruption are the National Police and the Office of the Public Prosecutor.该国最重要的反腐败机构是国家警察署和检察官办公室。
To bring Liechtenstein criminal law fully in line with the obligations of the Convention, the Government has published a white paper (Vernehmlassungsbericht) that outlines planned amendments to the Criminal Code and other laws (Korruptionsstrafrechtsrevision), which was discussed during the country visit.为了使列支敦士登刑法完全符合《公约》义务,该国政府发表了一份白皮书,概述了计划对《刑法》和其他法律作出的修正,已在国别访问期间讨论了这些修正。
A draft law is expected for autumn 2015.预计将在2015年秋天出台法律草案。
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)贿赂和影响力交易 (第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)
The provision on active bribery of officials is contained in § 307 of the Criminal Code (CC).《刑法》第307条载有关于向官员行贿的条款。
Liechtenstein law distinguishes between official acts contrary to duty (§ 307(1) CC) and acts not contrary to duty (§ 307(2) CC).列支敦士登法律区分了官员违背职责的行为(《刑法》第307(1)条)和未违背职责的行为(《刑法》第307(2)条)。
The definition of “public official” (Beamter) set out in § 74(4) CC applies to elected officials as well as public officials appointed to positions and persons holding a judicial office (professional judges, lay judges and all persons, who participate in the administration of justice).《刑法》第74(4)条载有“公职人员”的定义,适用于民选官员及受委派担任某一职位的公职人员和担任司法职位的人(专业法官、非专业法官和参与司法的所有人),不包括国会议员或市议会议员或公共企业的首席执行官。
It does not include Members of Parliament or of Municipal Councils or CEOs of public enterprises.然而,《刑法》第307(1)条涵盖了向上述后者行贿以使之作出违背职责行为的情况,因为该条款不仅明确包含国家和外国官员(《联合国反腐败公约》第十六条第一款),还包括国会议员等。
The active bribery of these latter persons for acts contrary to their duties is nevertheless covered by § 307(1) CC because this provision explicitly includes not only national and foreign officials (art. 16(1) of the United Nations Convention against Corruption) but also Members of Parliament, etc.但是,对于未违背职责的行为,《刑法》第307(2)条仅涵盖国家官员和公共企业的管理层职员。
However, for acts not contrary to their duties, § 307(2) CC only covers national officials and managing employees of a public enterprise.此外,《刑法》第307(2)条载有微量豁免,因为其仅将“不只是轻微”的好处定为犯罪。
Moreover, § 307(2) CC contains a de minimis exemption in that it criminalizes only advantages that are “not merely minor”.最后,如果这种好处意味着“加速”实施合法行为,可援引《刑法》第307(2)条结尾的豁免(“除非在当时的情况下不能因提议给予、许诺给予或实际给予该好处而指责行为人)。
Finally, an exemption at the end of § 307(2) CC (“unless the perpetrator cannot be faulted for offering, promising or granting that advantage under the circumstances”) can be invoked if the advantage was meant to “speed up” the performance of a lawful act.列支敦士登解释称,所有这些问题都将在计划开展的反腐败立法改革中得到解决。
Liechtenstein explained that all these issues would be addressed in the planned reform of the anti-corruption legislation.法律未定义“不正当好处”,但该用语的解释包括了所有物质和非物质的奖励和礼品。
The element of “undue advantage” is not defined in the law, but the interpretation of the term includes all material and immaterial rewards and gifts.法律明确提到了好处的第三方受益人,其中包括实体。
Third-party beneficiaries of the advantage are explicitly mentioned and include entities.《刑法》第304、305、306和306a条将国家官员受贿定为犯罪。
Passive bribery of national officials is criminalized in §§ 304, 305, 306 and 306a CC.列支敦士登没有实施《反腐败公约》第十六条第二款。
Liechtenstein has not implemented article 16(2) of the Convention against Corruption.列支敦士登在私营部门仅部分实施行贿条款(其程度相当于不正当竞争,《反不正当竞争法》第四条),在私营部门中未实施受贿条款。
Liechtenstein has only partially implemented active bribery in the private sector (to the extent that it amounts to unfair competition, § 4 of the Unfair Competition Act) and not implemented passive bribery in the private sector.《刑法》第308条将影响力交易部分地规定为犯罪,该条款涉及被动影响力交易的多个方面(《公约》第十八条第㈡项)。
Trading in influence is partially criminalized by § 308 CC, which concerns aspects of passive trading in influence (art. 18(b) of the Convention).但是,此条款设想的是两人关系,而《公约》第十八条涉及三人关系。
However, it envisages a two-person relationship, whereas article 18 of the Convention concerns a three-person relationship.洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)《刑法》第165(1)条将洗钱定为犯罪。
§ 165(1) CC criminalizes money-laundering.洗钱罪涉及各种财产,无论是通过犯罪直接获得或通过置换间接获得(“隐含”)。
The money-laundering offence relates to all kinds of property, either obtained directly from the offence or indirectly through substitution (“embodied”).根据判例法,间接收益(利息)也被包含在内。
Indirect proceeds (interest) are also covered according to case law.所有犯罪行为(可被判处无期徒刑或三年以上有期徒刑)和一系列指定的轻罪(三年以下有期徒刑)均是洗钱的上游犯罪。
Predicate offences to money-laundering are all crimes (punishable by life or more than three years imprisonment) and a series of designated misdemeanours (less than three years imprisonment).因此,除了小规模贪污外,《公约》规定的所有犯罪都是上游犯罪。
Therefore, all Convention offences are predicate offences, with the exception of small-scale embezzlement.《刑法》第15条规定,犯罪(包括洗钱)未遂(或参与犯罪未遂)构成犯罪。
Attempt (as well as any participation in an attempt) is criminalized for all offences by § 15 CC, including money-laundering.《刑法》第12条(将所有参与者作为罪犯对待)涵盖了协助、教唆、便利和参谋等行为。
§ 12 CC (Treatment of all participants as offenders) covers aiding and abetting, facilitating and counselling.只要列支敦士登因属地理由对洗钱活动本身拥有管辖权,且上游犯罪构成国内上游犯罪,那么,上游犯罪行为发生在何处无关紧要。
As long as Liechtenstein has jurisdiction over the money-laundering activity itself ratione loci, it is irrelevant where the predicate offences are committed, provided that the acts would constitute a domestic predicate offence.如果上游犯罪发生在列支敦士登,那么,即使缺少两国共认罪行,列支敦士登也可拥有对发生在另一国的洗钱行为的管辖权(《刑法》第64条第1和9款)。
Liechtenstein even assumes jurisdiction over the money-laundering conduct in another country if the predicate offence has been committed in Liechtenstein (§ 64, para.罪犯本身可能也是上游犯罪的犯罪者,因此,自洗钱也被定为犯罪。
1, 9 CC), even in the absence of dual criminality.处置失窃物品罪将窝赃定为犯罪(《刑法》第164条)。
The offender himself may also be the perpetrator of the predicate crime, thus self-laundering is also a criminalized conduct.贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条)
Concealment is criminalized by the offence of handling stolen goods (§ 164 CC).《刑法》载有将公共和私营部门内的贪污定为犯罪的各种刑事罪行,特别是《刑法》第133、153、302和313条。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)经由《刑法》第302条的规定实施《反腐败公约》第十九条。
The CC contains various criminal offences which criminalize embezzlement in both the public and private sectors, in particular §§ 133, 153, 302 and 313 CC.列支敦士登指出,由于宪法原则(无罪推定,颠倒举证责任),并没有将资产非法增加定为犯罪,但已经考虑纳入该罪行。
Article 19 of the Convention against Corruption is implemented through the provisions of § 302 CC.妨害司法(第二十五条)
Liechtenstein stated that due to constitutional principles (presumption of innocence, reversal of burden of proof), it has not criminalized illicit enrichment but has considered introducing the offence.妨害司法(《公约》第二十五条第㈠项)是违反司法制度的罪行(《刑法》第288和289条)或违反文件和证据可靠性的罪行(《刑法》第293和295条)。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)此外,这些行为还会被视为胁迫(《刑法》第105和106条)。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25(a) of the Convention) is an offence against the administration of justice (§§ 288 and 289 CC) or an offence against the reliability of documents and of evidence (§§ 293 and 295 CC).列出的条款未涉及给予“不正当好处,以诱使提供虚假证言等”。
In addition to that, such acts are also considered as coercion (§§ 105 and 106 CC).《刑法》第269条(阻碍国家主管机关)和《刑法》第270条(袭击官员)将妨害公职人员履行职责定为犯罪,但这些条款不包括恐吓。
The provisions listed do not address “undue advantage to induce false testimony, etc.”法人责任(第二十六条)
The obstruction of the exercise of duties by public officials is criminalized by § 269 CC (Resistance to State authorities) and § 270 CC (Assault of an official), although these provisions do not include intimidation.2010年对《刑法》进行修订,加入了关于法人责任的新章节(《刑法》第74a至74g条)。
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)除了按照《刑法》第74b条作出的刑事制裁外,还有针对犯下《公约》所规定罪行的法人的其他行政和民事救济(例如,解散公司,《公司准则》第971(1)条第5号[Personen- und Gesellschaftsrecht])。
The Criminal Code was revised in 2010 and a new section (§§ 74a to 74g CC) on the liability of legal persons was inserted.但是,没有取消资格或列入黑名单的程序。
Apart from the criminal sanctions pursuant to § 74b CC, other administrative and civil remedies are available for legal persons found guilty of committing a Convention offence (e.g. dissolution of the company, § 971(1) No. 5 of the Companies Code [Personen- und Gesellschaftsrecht]).针对同一行为,法人责任和管理人员或雇员责任并不相互排斥。
However, there is no debarment or blacklisting procedure.根据《刑法》第74b和74c条,负有责任的法人需接受制裁,包括金钱制裁。
The liability of the legal person and the liability of managers or employees for the same act do not exclude each other.最高罚款为270万瑞士法郎。
Legal persons held liable are subject to sanctions, including monetary sanctions according to §§ 74b and 74c CC.参与和未遂(第二十七条)
The maximum penalty is 2.7m CHF.《刑法》第12条涵盖协助及教唆、便利和参谋实施。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)该条指出,任何人教唆他人犯下罪行或以任何其他方式协助犯罪也构成刑事罪行。
§ 12 CC covers aiding and abetting, facilitating and counselling.《刑法》第15条将犯罪未遂(及参与犯罪未遂)定为犯罪。
It states that a criminal offence is committed also by anybody who abets another person to commit the offence or who contributes to its perpetration in any other way.仅仅准备实施腐败罪行未被定为犯罪。
Attempt (as well as any participation in an attempt) is criminalized for all offences by § 15 CC.起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
The mere preparation of a corruption offence is not criminalized.司法制度的特点是,检察官并未请法院作出具体判决,而是由法院行使自由裁量权。
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)法官可以酌情处以其认为在当时情况下最适宜的判决。
A peculiarity of the judicial system is that the prosecutor does not ask the court for a specific sentence but leaves this to the discretion of the court.腐败罪的惩罚范围,包括加重和减轻处罚情节,使其能够考虑到相关罪行的严重性。
Judges have the discretion to impose the sentence they deem most appropriate under the circumstances.根据列支敦士登《宪法》,在位的亲王享有豁免权。
The range of punishment for corruption crimes, including aggravating and mitigating circumstances, makes it possible to take into account the gravity of the relevant offences.官员或法官没有豁免权。
According to the Liechtenstein Constitution, the Reigning Prince enjoys immunity.国会议员只在国会发言和表决方面享有非常有限的豁免权。
No immunity is given to officials or judges.另外,只有在国会开会期间逮捕议员时才需要征得国会的同意。
MPs only enjoy the very limited immunity for statements and votes in Parliament.合法性原则适用于列支敦士登刑事程序,也就是说,检察官办公室原则上必须依职起诉所有犯罪行为。
Otherwise, only the arrest of an MP during the meeting period of Parliament requires consent of Parliament.列支敦士登《刑事诉讼法》第131(5)条、第138至140条和第142(4)条对保外候审作了规定。
The principle of legality applies in Liechtenstein criminal procedure, i.e.依据《刑法》第46条,在列支敦士登,从监禁中有条件获(早)释的时限基于判决确定的具体刑期。
the Office of the Public Prosecutor must in principle prosecute all criminal acts ex officio.有审前羁押的替代措施。
§§ 131(5), 138 to 140, and 142(4) of the Liechtenstein Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) govern release pending trial.经由《国家雇员法案》第54条、《司法服务法》(Richterdienstgesetz)第61至63条和《检察官法》(Staatsanwaltschaftsgesetz)第51条实施《公约》第三十条第六款,上述条款允许停职或者调职。
In accordance with § 46 CC, the time frame for conditional (early) release from imprisonment in Liechtenstein is based on the specific sentence determined in the judgement.根据《刑法》第27条,国内法院针对一名官员犯下的一起或多起故意罪行判处其一年或以上有期徒刑时,应剥夺其职务。
Alternatives to pretrial detention are available.惩戒法允许实行惩戒性程序,不论是否已提起刑事起诉。
Article 30(6) of the Convention is implemented through § 54 SEA (State Employees Act), §§ 61 to 63 RDG (Richterdienstgesetz) and § 51 StAG (Staatsanwaltschaftsgesetz), which allows suspension and reassignment.立法鼓励被定罪者重新融入社会。
Pursuant to § 27 CC, an official sentenced by a domestic court to an imprisonment of more than one year for one or more wilfully committed offences shall be stripped of his office.为了支持重新融入社会,可以下令实施缓刑援助(《刑事诉讼法》第50和51条)。
Disciplinary law permits disciplinary proceedings irrespective of criminal prosecution.虽然列支敦士登没有辩诉交易,根据《刑事诉讼法》第22a至22n条,检察机关可以放弃指控,例如,只处以罚金,以换取合作(转送)。
The legislation promotes the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences.列支敦士登还提供减刑,以鼓励犯罪行为人与执法部门合作(与《刑法》第34(1)(15)至34(1)(17)条结合的第41条)。
To support reintegration, probation assistance may be ordered (§§ 50 and 51 CPC).由于专门制定的合法性原则和平等对待要求,列支敦士登未提供完全豁免。
While there is no plea bargaining in Liechtenstein, according to § 22a to 22n CPC, the prosecution can drop charges and e.g. only impose a fine in return for cooperation (Diversion).保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)
Liechtenstein also encourages perpetrators of offences to cooperate with law enforcement by offering mitigation of sentences (§ 41 in conjunction with § 34(1)(15) to (17) CC).列支敦士登法律规定了对证人的司法保护,例如有权拒绝作证,采取措施在诉讼期间部分或完全保密证人身份(《刑事诉讼法》第119a条)以及使用通信技术(《刑事诉讼法》第115a(2)条)。
Full immunity is not provided for in Liechtenstein due to the specific design of the principle of legality and the requirement of equal treatment.此外,还有关于为证人提供法外保护的条款,例如,位于安全地点的临时屋,建立新身份,搬迁到新居住地(包括迁往国外),找到新工作,以及确保生计。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)最近在就证人保护问题对《国家警察法》进行修正后,证人保护也涵盖了证人的亲属及其他与其关系密切者。
Liechtenstein law provides judicial protection of witnesses like the right to refuse testimony, measures to keep the identity of witnesses partially or completely confidential in proceedings (§ 119a CPC) and the use of communication technologies (§ 115a(2) CPC).这些条款也适用于作为证人的受害者。
There are also provisions on the extrajudicial protection of witnesses, e.g. temporary housing at a secure location, the establishment of a new identity, relocation to a new place of residence (including relocation abroad), finding a new job, and securing a livelihood.受害者有权在刑事司法程序的任何阶段提出自己的意见和关切。
After a recent amendment of the National Police Act about witness protection, the witness protection also covers relatives and other persons close to the witness.根据欧洲委员会反贪污问题国家小组的建议,计划在《国家雇员法》中纳入“揭发人”条款,使公共部门的雇员有义务立即向其办公室主任报告涉嫌腐败和其他罪行的情况,并加强对举报人的保护以使其免遭不正当的报复措施。
The provisions also apply to victims insofar as they are witnesses.私营部门没有揭发人保护。
Victims have the right to present their views and concerns at any stage of criminal justice proceedings.冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
Pursuant to a recommendation by the Council of Europe Group of States against Corruption (GRECO), it is planned to introduce “whistle-blower” provisions in the State Employees Act, which entail an obligation for public sector employees to report suspicions of corruption and other offences immediately to the director of their office and enhance protection for reporting persons against unjustified retaliation measures.列支敦士登法律规定,有三种不同的最终剥夺财产的概念: = 1 \* GB4 ㈠剥夺得利(《刑法》第20条); = 2 \* GB4 ㈡没收(《刑法》第20b条);及 = 3 \* GB4 ㈢预防式工具没收(《刑法》第26条)。
There is no whistle-blower protection in the private sector.依据《刑法》第20条,当事人被判处支付等同于不法得利的一笔款项。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)《刑法》第20条规定,可以没收从其他人的犯罪行为中不法获利的任何人(包括法人)所获得的得益价值。
Under Liechtenstein law, there are three different concepts of final deprivation of property: (i) deprivation of enrichment (§ 20 CC); (ii) forfeiture (§ 20b CC); and (iii) preventive confiscation of instrumentalities (§ 26 CC).通过所谓的“净额原则”(扣除后原则)测量得利程度,这意味着要扣除为得益所花费的开支。
According to § 20 CC, the person concerned is sentenced to payment of an amount of money equal to the wrongful enrichment.根据《刑法》第20b条,应宣布没收犯罪组织(第278a条)或恐怖组织(第278b条)支配的资产或作为恐怖主义融资手段提供或收集的资产。
§ 20 CC provides for the possibility of confiscating the value of the gains from any person (including legal persons) who illegally profits from a criminal act of another person.涉及洗钱的资产也应被没收(《刑法》第20b(2)(1)条)。
The extent of the enrichment is measured by the so-called “Netto-Prinzip” (after-deduction principle), which means that the expenditures for gaining the proceeds are deducted.列支敦士登还采用基于财产的没收模式来没收工具。
According to § 20b CC, assets at the disposal of a criminal organization (§ 278a) or a terrorist group (§ 278b) or that have been made available or collected as a means of terrorist financing (§ 278d) shall be declared forfeited.然而,只有当工具危及人身安全、道德或公共秩序时,才会被没收(《刑法》第26条)。
Assets are also subject to forfeiture if they are involved in money-laundering (§ 20b (2)(1) CC).可以通过司法命令(《刑事诉讼法》第96条)扣押被没收的证据和实物(《刑法》第26条)。
Liechtenstein has also adopted a property-based confiscation model for confiscating instrumentalities.可根据《刑事诉讼法》第97a条,冻结根据《刑法》第20条被剥夺的或根据《刑法》第20b条被没收的得益资产,直到作出最终司法判决。
However, instrumentalities will be confiscated only if they endanger the safety of persons, morality or the public order (§ 26 CC).《刑事诉讼法》第253和253a条载有关于资产没收流程和被没收资产管理办法的法律规定。
Evidence and objects subject to confiscation (§ 26 CC) may be seized by judicial order (§ 96 CPC).资产混合并不妨碍依据《刑法》第20条剥夺得利。
Assets subject to deprivation of enrichment under § 20 CC or to forfeiture under § 20b CC may be frozen pursuant to § 97a CPC until a final judicial decision has been made.如果无法确定或只有付出巨大努力才能确定得利金额,法院可以行使自由裁量权,指定将被剥夺的金额。
There are legislative provisions for the process of asset forfeiture and the management of confiscated assets in §§ 253 and 253a CPC.依据《刑法》第20(2)和20(3)条,当资产与继续进行的犯罪活动或犯罪组织的成员有关,并且无法证明好处的合法来源时,允许剥夺资产。
Intermingling of assets does not prevent deprivation of enrichment pursuant to article 20 CC.《刑法》第20(4)条规定,只有在第三方直接、不正当得利的情况下,才可剥夺第三方的得利。
If the amount of enrichment cannot be determined or only with disproportionate effort, the court may specify the amount to be deprived at its discretion.涉及刑事诉讼时,维护银行保密的义务不适用于刑事法庭(《银行法》第14(2)条)。
§ 20(2) and (3) CC allow deprivation of assets where there is a connection with continued criminal activity or with membership in a criminal organization and the lawful origin of the advantage cannot be demonstrated.为了获得文件,必须要有法院命令。
§ 20(4) CC provides for deprivation of enrichment of a third party only if that person has been enriched directly and unjustly.然而,依据《银行法》第14(2)条,银行保密不是拒绝在刑事法庭作证的正当理由。
The obligation to maintain banking secrecy does not apply vis-à-vis the criminal court in connection with criminal proceedings (article 14(2) of the Banking Act).因此,听取银行雇员关于特定交易的证词无需取消银行保密。
In order to access documents, a court order is needed.时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)
However, according to § 14(2) Banking Act, banking secrecy is no valid ground to refuse testimony before a criminal court.罪行的时效期限交错,这取决于适用的惩罚(《刑法》第57(3)条)。
Therefore, no lifting of bank secrecy is needed to hear testimony of a bank employee on a specific transaction.对于腐败罪行,时效期限为三年或五年,这取决于违法行为。
Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)在可惩罚的活动结束或可处罚的行为终了后立即适用诉讼时效。
The limitation periods for offences are staggered depending on the applicable penalty (§ 57(3) CC).根据法律规定不可启动或继续诉讼的时期,或由于罪行,法院等待对犯罪者进行刑事审判的时期不被包括在时效期限内。
For corruption offences, they will be three or five years, depending on the offence.主管法院在判决时可以考虑列支敦士登或国外,甚至是欧洲联盟/欧洲经济区以外的任何过往定罪。
The statute of limitation applies as soon as the punishable activity is concluded or the punishable conduct has come to an end.管辖权(第四十二条)
The time during which prosecution cannot be initiated or continued according to a legal provision or during which criminal proceedings are pending in court against the perpetrator because of the offence are not included in the limitation period.列支敦士登确立了属地管辖权和船旗国管辖权(《刑法》第62、63条)。
Any previous conviction in Liechtenstein or abroad, even outside the European Union/European Economic Area, may be taken into account by the competent court when sentencing.列支敦士登适用主动属人管辖权原则,并部分适用被动属人管辖权原则(针对列支敦士登官员的行为;列支敦士登公民对列支敦士登公民的行为,《刑法》第64条)。
Jurisdiction (art. 42)此外,还针对洗钱和以起诉代替引渡建立了域外管辖权(刑法》第64和65条)。
Liechtenstein has established territorial jurisdiction and flag State jurisdiction (§ 62, 63 CC).腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)
Liechtenstein applies the active personality principle and it partially applies the passive personality principle (acts against Liechtenstein officials; acts by Liechtenstein citizens against Liechtenstein citizens, § 64 CC).依据《民法通则》第879(1)条,根据现行法律,实施腐败的合同或合同条款被认为是无效的,因为其违反了法律。
Extraterritorial jurisdiction has been established for money-laundering, as well as for prosecution in lieu of extradition, § 64, 65 CC.在公法中,《国家行政法》第106条允许宣布行政法案或法令无效。
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)没有取消资格或列入黑名单的程序,但投标人必须提交关于其犯罪记录的信息(自然人)。
According to § 879(1) of the General Civil Code (ABGB), contracts or contract clauses governing corrupt acts are considered under existing law to be null and void due to their violation of a law.所有因犯罪行为而受到损害的受害者有权提起法律诉讼以获得赔偿(《民法通则》第1295条)。
In public law, article 106 of the National Administration Act permits an administrative act or a decree to be declared null and void.专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条)
There is no debarment or blacklisting procedure but a bidder has to submit information on his criminal record (natural persons).列支敦士登没有专门的反腐败机构,而是由国家警察局负责调查腐败。
All victims who have suffered damage as a result of a crime have the right to initiate legal proceedings in order to obtain compensation (§ 1295 ABGB).不过,刑事警察中也有专门的腐败调查员。
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)专门的腐败调查员由刑事警察局局长、金融犯罪股股长及其副手组成,也负责对警务人员的内部调查。
Liechtenstein does not have a specialized anti-corruption agency.金融犯罪股是刑事调查司的一部分,该司有九名工作人员,受刑事警察局局长监管。
Instead, the national police is the authority responsible for investigating corruption.专门的腐败调查员定期参加在瑞士举行的关于该主题的业务活动,并与奥地利联邦反腐败局保持联系。
However, there are specialized corruption investigators within the criminal police.政府授权腐败调查员就腐败案件与检察官办公室直接沟通。
The specialized corruption investigators, who are also responsible for internal investigations against police officers, consist of the Chief of the Criminal Police, the Head of the Financial Crimes Unit and his deputy.他们不需要遵循普通的官方通信渠道。
The Financial Crimes Unit is part of the Crime Investigation Division (CID), which has nine staff members.《检察官办公室法》规定了检察官的地位。
They are supervised by the Chief of the Criminal Police.根据该法案,司法部不能命令检察官放弃起诉。
The specialized corruption investigators regularly take part in events on the topic in Switzerland and maintain contact with the Federal Bureau of Anti-Corruption (BAK) in Austria.检察官办公室由七名检察官组成。
The corruption investigators are authorized by the Government to communicate directly with the Office of the Public Prosecutor in corruption cases.没有专门的反腐败检察官。
They do not have to follow the usual official channels of communication.金融情报股是行政型的金融情报单位;不调查案件。
The status of prosecutors is laid down in the Act on the Office of the Public Prosecutor.它成立于2001年,是埃格蒙特小组的成员。
According to the Act, prosecutors cannot be instructed by the Ministry of Justice to drop prosecution.依据《恪尽职责法》,至多在收到金融情报股的可疑交易报告后的五个工作日结束前,应恪尽职责者应禁止从事可能阻碍或干扰法院任何命令的行为,除非金融请报股书面批准这种行为。
The Office of the Public Prosecutor comprises seven prosecutors.《刑事诉讼法》第53ff条管理国家当局和官员之间的合作。
There are no specialized anti-corruption prosecutors.《国家行政法》第25(1)条也载有行政当局和法院互相协助的义务。
The Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) is an administrative-type financial intelligence unit; it does not investigate cases.所有相关的金融组织每季度与金融市场管理局和金融情报股举行会议。
It was established in 2001 and is a member of the Egmont Group.按照计划,金融市场管理局将在不久之后运行一个揭发人网站。
Pursuant to the Due Diligence Act, persons subject to due diligence shall refrain from all actions that might obstruct or interfere with any order by the court at most until the conclusion of five business days from receipt by FIU of the suspicious transaction report, unless such actions have been approved in writing by FIU.公民没有举报义务,但有举报的权利(《刑事诉讼法》第55条)。
§ 53 ff CPC governs cooperation between domestic authorities and officials.2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Article 25(1) of the National Administration Act also sets out a mutual obligation of assistance for administrative authorities and courts.总体而言,强调了在实施《公约》第三章方面取得的下述成功经验和良好做法:
All relevant financial associations have quarterly meetings with the Financial Markets Authority (FMA) as well as FIU.如果上游犯罪行为发生在列支敦士登,那么,即使缺少两国共认罪行(《公约》第二十三条第二款第㈢项、第四十二条第二款第㈢项),列支敦士登也拥有对发生在另一国的洗钱行为的管辖权(《刑法》第64条第1和9款)。
It is planned that FMA will soon operate a whistle-blower website.列支敦士登授予的豁免范围有限《公约》第三十条第二款)。
There is no reporting obligation — but a reporting right — for citizens (§ 55 CPC).尽管该国面积小,但也在刑事警察内部设立了专门单位(《公约》第三十六条)。
2.2. Successes and good practices2.3. 实施方面的挑战
Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing chapter III of the Convention are highlighted:注意到列支敦士登在反腐败领域所做各项努力的同时,认明了实施方面的一些挑战和(或)一些需进一步改进的理由,并对列支敦士登提出了下述建议(取决于《反腐败公约》相关规定是强制性还是任择性):
Liechtenstein assumes jurisdiction over money-laundering conducted in another country if the predicate offence has been committed in Liechtenstein (§ 64, para.迅速通过和实施白皮书中设想的计划中对《刑法》和其他法律作出的修正;从这个意义上讲,特别建议有待编制的法案支持以下建议。
1, 9 CC), even in the absence of dual criminality (art. 23(2)(c), 42(2)(c) of the Convention).关于《公约》第十五、十六和二十一条:
The limited scope of immunities granted by Liechtenstein (art. 30(2) of the Convention).把向国会议员、市议会议员以及公共企业管理人员和工作人员行贿以使其作出不违背职责行为的情况定为犯罪。
The creation of a specialized unit within the criminal police despite the small size of the country (art. 36 of the Convention).把向外国官员和国际组织官员行贿以使其作出不违背职责行为的情况定为犯罪(“便利费”)。
2.3. Challenges in implementation考虑将外国官员和国际组织官员的受贿行为定为犯罪。
While noting Liechtenstein’s efforts in the field of anti-corruption, a number of challenges in implementation and/or grounds for further improvement were identified and it was recommended (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant requirements of the Convention against Corruption) that Liechtenstein:取消或显著降低微量豁免的价值。
Swiftly adopt and implement the planned amendments to the criminal code and other laws (Korruptionsstrafrechtsrevision) as envisaged in the white paper; in this sense, it is particularly recommended that the bill to be prepared endorses the recommendations below.取消《刑法》第307(2)条结尾的“无过错”豁免。
Concerning article 15, 16 and 21 of the Convention:考虑将私营部门内的受贿定为犯罪;充分考虑将私营部门内的行贿定为犯罪。
关于公约第十八条,综合考虑将主动和被动的影响力交易定为犯罪。
Criminalize active bribery of Members of Parliament, Members of a Municipal Council, and managing employees and staff members of a public enterprise also for acts not contrary to duty.考虑引入一项具体罪行,以全面实施《公约》第二十五条第㈠项中的强制定罪要求。
关于《公约》第二十六条,建议重新考虑现有的最高刑罚对大型企业和银行而言,是否是具有足够威慑力的劝诫性制裁。
Criminalize active bribery of foreign officials and officials of international organizations also for acts not contrary to duty (“facilitation payments”).关于《公约》第三十一条,建议:
根据白皮书修订法律,包括切换到所谓的“总额原则”,以使列支敦士登法律完全符合《公约》第三十一条第一款第㈠项。
Consider criminalizing passive bribery of foreign officials and officials of international organizations.根据《刑法》第19a条的设想修订法律,以使列支敦士登法律完全符合《公约》第三十一条第一款第㈡项。
关于《公约》第三十三条,鼓励列支敦士登考虑将揭发人保护引入私营部门。
Abolish or significantly lower the value of the de minimis exemptions.3. 第四章:国际合作
3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Abolish the “no fault” exemption at the end of Section 307 (2) CC.引渡;被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、四十五和四十七条)
列支敦士登可以直接适用《公约》的自动生效条款。
Consider criminalizing passive bribery in the private sector; consider fully criminalizing active bribery in the private sector.2000年9月15日的《司法协助法》第二章规定了关于引渡的规则。
Concerning article 18 of the Convention, consider comprehensively criminalizing active and passive trading in influence.可针对依据请求国法律可处以剥夺一年以上自由、依据列支敦士登法律可处以剥夺一年以上自由的行为的诉讼批准引渡。
Consider the introduction of a specific offence to fully implement the mandatory criminalization requirements of article 25(a) of the Convention.列支敦士登对两国共认罪行原则不设任何例外。
Concerning article 26 of the Convention, it was recommended to reconsider if the existing maximum penalty would be a sufficiently dissuasive deterrent sanction for larger enterprises and banks.《司法协助法》第11(3)条明确允许针对《反腐败公约》第四十四条第三款载列的相关罪行实行引渡。
Concerning article 31 of the Convention, it was recommended to:《公约》所规定犯罪不被视为政治犯罪。
列支敦士登不以订有条约作为引渡条件。
Amend the law according to the white paper, including a switch to the so-called “Brutto-Prinzip”, in order to bring Liechtenstein law fully in compliance with article 31(1)(a).可以在互惠基础上批准引渡。
对于来自《公约》缔约国或向缔约国提出的引渡请求,可以《公约》作为处理这种请求的法律基础。
Amend the law according to the envisaged § 19a CC, in order to bring Liechtenstein law fully in compliance with article 31(1)(b).除了小规模贪污案件外,《公约》规定的所有犯罪均满足《司法协助法》第11条规定的引渡的最低限度刑罚要求(一年监禁)。
Concerning article 33 of the Convention, Liechtenstein is encouraged to consider the introduction of whistle-blower protection in the private sector. 3. Chapter IV: International cooperation 3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47) Liechtenstein can directly apply self-executing provisions of the Convention. The rules on extradition are laid down in chapter II of the Mutual Legal Assistance Act of 15 September 2000 (MLAA). Extradition can be granted for the prosecution of acts that are punishable under the law of the requesting State by a deprivation of liberty of more than one year and that are subject to a deprivation of liberty of more than one year under Liechtenstein law. Liechtenstein does not make any exceptions to the principle of dual criminality. Article 11(3) MLAA explicitly allows extradition for connected offences as laid down in article 44(3) of the Convention against Corruption. Convention offences are not considered political offences. Liechtenstein does not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty. Extradition can also be granted on the basis of reciprocity. Concerning extradition requests to and from States parties to the Convention, the Convention can be used as the legal basis for dealing with such a request.依据《司法协助法》第32条,在当事人同意的情况下,可以使用简化引渡程序。
All Convention offenses fulfil the minimum penalty threshold for extradition stated in article 11 MLAA (one year imprisonment), except for small-scale cases of embezzlement.根据《刑事诉讼法》第127和129条及《司法协助法》第29条,引渡前可进行临时监管和拘押。
Simplified extradition procedures are possible according to article 32 MLAA in case of consent of the person.依据《司法协助法》第12条第1款,除非国民本人明确同意,不得引渡国民。
Provisional custody and detention pending extradition is possible under §§ 127, 129 CPC, article 29 MLAA.在这种情况下,引渡不以其返回列支敦士登服刑为条件。
Extradition of nationals is not admissible pursuant to article 12, para.《刑法》第65条第1款规定了不引渡即审判原则和对国民在国外犯下的罪行提起诉讼的管辖权。
1 MLAA, except if the person has given his/her express consent.《司法协助法》第64条为执行外国法院裁决提供了依据。
In that case, the extradition is not conditional on his/her return to serve the sentence in Liechtenstein.引渡进程期间适用所有程序性权利和保障(《司法协助法》第9条)。
The principle of aut dedere, aut judicare and jurisdiction to prosecute offences committed abroad by nationals is provided for in § 65 para.根据《司法协助法》第19(3)条,为以性别、种族、宗教、国籍、族裔或政治观点为由起诉或惩罚某人而提出的引渡请求不予准许。
1 CC.列支敦士登不会仅以犯罪也被视为涉及财税事项为由而拒绝引渡请求(《司法协助法》第15条)。
Article 64 MLAA provides the basis for the enforcement of foreign court decisions.列支敦士登的王室法院和负责引渡事务的主管机关经常使用拒绝引渡前的沟通机会。
All procedural rights and guarantees are applicable during the extradition process (art. 9 MLAA). According to article 19(3) MLAA, extradition is not permissible if the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s sex, race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political opinions.列支敦士登是《欧洲引渡公约》(《欧洲条约汇编》,第24号)及其附加议定书(《欧洲条约汇编》,第86号)的成员国。
Liechtenstein will not refuse a request for extradition on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters (art. 15 MLAA).该国与美利坚合众国(1936年)和比利时(1938年)等国缔结了多份引渡条约。
Opportunity to communicate before refusing extradition is used frequently both by the Princely Court and the authority responsible for extradition in Liechtenstein.列支敦士登已经批准欧洲委员会《被判刑者转移公约》(《欧洲条约汇编》,第112号)及其《附加议定书》(《欧洲条约汇编》,第167号)。
Liechtenstein is a Member State to the European Convention on Extradition (ETS No. 24) and its Additional Protocol (ETS No. 86).依据《司法协助法》第60和74条以及多边条约(《刑事事项诉讼转移欧洲公约》,《欧洲条约汇编》,第73号),可以移交诉讼。
It has concluded several treaties on extradition, including with the United States of America (1936) and Belgium (1938).司法协助(第四十六条)
Liechtenstein has ratified the Convention of the Council of Europe on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons (ETS No. 112) and its Additional Protocol (ETS No. 167).与引渡一样,司法协助事项由2000年9月15日《司法协助法》及多项双边和多边条约(包括1959年4月20日欧洲委员会《刑事事项互助公约》)加以规范。
Transfer of proceedings is possible according to article 60 and 74 MLAA and multilateral treaties (European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters, ETS No. 73).可针对法人犯下的罪行提供司法协助。
Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)根据《司法协助法》,列支敦士登能够提供《反腐败公约》第四十六条第三款列出的一切形式的司法协助。
Like extradition, mutual legal assistance (MLA) is regulated by the Mutual Legal Assistance Act of 15 September 2000 (MLAA) and bilateral and multilateral treaties, including the Council of Europe Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters of 20 April 1959.《司法协助法》第54a条对自发传递资料作了明确规定,这也被付诸实践。
MLA can be afforded in relation to offences committed by legal persons.在所提供资料可被用于证明被告无罪时,其保密性并不妨碍列支敦士登披露这些信息。
According to the MLAA, Liechtenstein can afford all the forms of legal assistance listed in article 46(3) of the Convention against Corruption.在刑事诉讼程序和刑事事项的司法协助案例中,银行保密不是拒绝作证或拒绝提供所需文件的理由。
Article 54a MLAA explicitly regulates spontaneous transmission of information, which is also used in practice.《刑事诉讼法》所载的相关规则也适用于司法协助。
The confidentiality of the information provided will not prevent Liechtenstein from disclosing it when such information is exculpatory for an accused person.《司法协助法》第51(1)条通常要求两国共认罪行。
In criminal procedures and in MLA cases in criminal matters, bank secrecy is not a ground for refusing testimony or refusing the provision of documents requested.然而,在符合本国法律制度基本概念的情况下,列支敦士登可提供司法协助。
The relevant rules set out in the CPC apply also to MLA.在这方面,若请求不涉及强制措施,《公约》将自动生效。
Article 51(1) MLAA normally requires dual criminality.不会仅以所涉事项微不足道为由而拒绝请求。
However, Liechtenstein can render MLA when it is consistent with the basic concepts of its legal system.根据《司法协助法》第53、54、59和73条、《刑法》第38条和欧洲委员会《被判刑者转移公约》,可以出于作证目的,转移被拘留或正在服刑的人。
In this respect the Convention is self-executing regarding requests not involving coercive measures.列支敦士登还允许以视频会议形式举行听证会。
Requests are not refused on the sole ground that they involve matters of a de minimis nature.列支敦士登司法部负责刑罚事项中的所有国际司法协助事宜的中央主管机关。
The transfer of a person being detained or serving a sentence for the purpose of testimony is possible according to articles 53, 54, 59, 73 MLAA, 38 CC and the CoE Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons.可以直接将司法协助请求和任何相关通信递交该中央机关。
Liechtenstein also permits hearings to take place by videoconference.接受通过国际刑警组织提出的请求。
The Ministry of Justice of Liechtenstein serves as the central authority with respect to all international mutual legal assistance in criminal matters.必须以德语或英语提交请求和相关文件。
MLA requests and any related communications can be directly transmitted to the central authority.法律不拒绝紧急情况下的口头请求。
Requests through INTERPOL are accepted.《司法协助法》第56条规定了司法请求的形式和内容。
Requests and the related documents have to be submitted in German or English.《司法协助法》第52(4)条载有特殊规则。
Nothing in the law excludes accepting requests made orally in urgent circumstances.可以秘密处理请求,但在向请求国发送实物或文件前,首先必须允许所有权人拥有公平的申诉机会(《司法协助法》第52(4)条)。
The form and contents of requests for MLA are governed by article 56 MLAA.如果请求违反了列支敦士登的公共秩序或其他基本利益,司法协助请求可能会被拒绝。
The rule of specialty is laid down in article 52(4) MLAA.拒绝就专门的金融犯罪提供司法协助(《司法协助法》第15条)。
Requests can be treated confidentially, but before sending objects or documents to the requesting State the entitled parties must first be granted a fair hearing (art. 52(4) MLAA).如果请求不仅涉及金融犯罪,还涉及非金融犯罪,可以准予司法协助。
MLA may be refused if the request violates the ordre public or other essential interests of Liechtenstein.如果未准予司法协助,将告知请求国并说明拒绝理由(《司法协助法》第57(1)条)。
MLA will be refused for exclusively fiscal offences (art. 15 MLAA).推迟司法协助的唯一原因是实物或文件需要用于未决的国内诉讼。
For requests that do not only involve fiscal matters but also non-fiscal offences, MLA can be granted.如果根据具体条款和条件有可能予以援助,将在拒绝请求或推迟实施援助之前,与提出请求的缔约国协商。
If MLA is not granted, the requesting State will be informed and grounds for refusal will be indicated (art. 57(1) MLAA).依据《司法协助法》第53条,准许安全行为。
The only reason for postponing MLA is the need of objects or documents for a pending domestic proceeding.通常情况下,所有的费用由列支敦士登承担(《司法协助法》第5条)。
If it is possible to grant assistance subject to concrete terms and conditions, the requesting State party will be consulted before refusing a request or postponing its execution.可根据请求提供公共领域的文件。
Safe conduct is granted on the basis of article 53 MLAA.如果满足《司法协助法》第52和第55(4)条规定的条件,可以向请求国提供保密文件或资料。
Normally, all costs are borne by Liechtenstein (art. 5 MLAA).执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
Documents in the public domain can be provided upon request.执法部门通过诸如国际刑警组织、欧洲刑警组织、申根信息系统/入境时补充信息请求机制等组织和网络以及追回被盗资产举措和国际刑警组织建立的全球联络点举措开展合作。
Confidential documents or information can be provided to the requesting State if the conditions of articles 52 and 55(4) MLAA are met.国家警察署也与不同的联络官(例如与联邦调查局和加拿大皇家骑警队)保持紧密和良好的合作。
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49, 50)列支敦士登的金融情报股是埃格蒙特小组的成员,通过埃格蒙特安全网与外国同行交流情报。
Law enforcement authorities cooperate through organizations and networks such as INTERPOL, Europol, Schengen Information System/SIRENE, and the Global Focal Point Initiative established by StAR and INTERPOL.金融情报股向外国同行提供其数据库中保存的所有情报。
The National Police have also a close and good cooperation with different liaison officers (e.g. with the FBI and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police).唯一需要注意的是,金融情报股(不是一个执法机构)只能在国际上分享其持有的国内情报。
Liechtenstein’s FIU is a member of the Egmont Group and exchanges information with its foreign counterparts through the Egmont Secure Web.只能通过司法协助渠道向外国机构提供金融情报股不持有的银行业和账户信息。
The FIU provides all information it keeps in its own databases to foreign counterparts.根据《司法协助法》第52条,可为调查和评价目的提供证据。
The only caveat is that the FIU (which is not a law enforcement agency) can share internationally only information that it holds domestically.国际刑警组织的紫色通报被用于交流罪犯所用作案手法、犯罪对象、设备或躲藏地点方面的情报。
Banking and account information that are not held by the FIU can only be provided to foreign authorities through the MLA channel.2014年初以来,列支敦士登已加入欧洲刑警组织及其联络官网络。
Evidence can be made available for investigation and evaluation purposes pursuant to article 52 MLAA.列支敦士登、瑞士和奥地利间的现行和新的(尚未生效)《三边合作条约》预见如有必要,也可交换联络官。
INTERPOL purple notices are used to exchange information on modi operandi, objects, devices and concealment methods used by criminals.列支敦士登可以在需要时,在国际刑警组织、欧洲刑警组织和(即将推出的)《三边合作条约》框架内,逐案开展联合调查。
Since the beginning of 2014 Liechtenstein has been part of Europol and its network of liaison officers.《刑事诉讼法》第103和104c条对特殊侦查方法(通信监视、观察、秘密调查、虚假交易/控制下交付)加以规范。
The current as well as the new (not yet in force) Trilateral Cooperation Treaty between Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Austria also foresees the possibility to exchange liaison officers if necessary.到目前为止,这些技术主要被用于贩毒或人口贩运案件。
Liechtenstein can establish joint investigations in the framework of INTERPOL, Europol and (soon) the Trilateral Cooperation Treaty, as well as on a case-by-case basis, when needed.《三边合作条约》设想了特殊侦查手段。
Special investigation methods are governed by §§ 103 to 104c CPC (surveillance of communication, observation, covert investigation, bogus transactions/controlled delivery).《警察法》第35和35a条允许在与和国家警察署有着相同职责范围的所有外国执法机关开展国际警务协助的框架内使用特殊侦查手段。
So far, these techniques have been used primarily in cases of drug trafficking or human trafficking.《刑事诉讼法》第104c(2)条对控制下交付作了规定。
The Trilateral Cooperation Treaty envisages special investigative techniques.3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Articles 35 and 35a of the Police Act allow special investigative methods within the framework of international police assistance with all foreign law enforcement authorities that have the same scope of responsibilities as the National Police.在刑事事项上展开国际合作的综合性协调法律框架,该框架对列支敦士登主管机关所用各种形式的国际合作作了详细的规定。
Controlled delivery is regulated in § 104c(2) CPC. 3.2. Successes and good practices如果列支敦士登主管机关不遵守另一国提出的司法协助请求,则禁止其提出相同请求,通过这一规定,《司法协助法》第3(2)条包含了对被请求国的隐性互惠保障,这可能有助于提供司法协助。
The comprehensive and coherent legal framework on international cooperation in criminal matters, which regulates in a detailed manner all forms of international cooperation used by the Liechtenstein authorities.3.3. 实施方面的挑战
By prohibiting Liechtenstein authorities from making an MLA request if they could not comply with an identical request made by another State, article 3(2) MLAA contains an implicit guarantee of reciprocity to the requested State, which might facilitate the rendering of MLA. 3.3. Challenges in implementation With regard to international cooperation, it is recommended that Liechtenstein:关于国际合作,建议列支敦士登:
Take appropriate measures to enable its competent law enforcement authorities to cooperate on the international level in conducting inquiries concerning the movement of proceeds of crime or property derived from the commission of offences covered by the Convention, when such proceeds are held in a banking institution.采取适当措施,使本国主管执法机关能够在就来自本《公约》涵盖罪行的犯罪所得或财产的去向(如果这类所得被保存在银行机构)进行调查时,在国际一级开展合作。