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Resolution adopted by the General Assembly大会决议
[on the report of the Third Committee (A/60/509/Add.1)][根据第三委员会的报告(A/60/509/Add.l)通过]
60/147.60/147.
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为 受害人获得补救和赔偿的权利基本原则和导则
The General Assembly,大会,
Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights, other relevant human rights instruments and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action,遵循《联合国宪章》、《世界人权宣言》、 国际人权公约、 其他相关人权文书及《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》,
Affirming the importance of addressing the question of remedies and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law in a systematic and thorough way at the national and international levels,申明必须在国家和国际一级有系统地彻底处理严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为受害人获得补救和赔偿的问题,
Recognizing that, in honouring the victims’ right to benefit from remedies and reparation, the international community keeps faith with the plight of victims, survivors and future human generations and reaffirms international law in the field,确认国际社会通过尊重受害人享有补救和赔偿的权利,信守其对受害人、幸存者及子孙后代的承诺,并重申这方面的国际法,
Recalling the adoption of the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law by the Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 2005/35 of 19 April 2005 and by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 2005/30 of 25 July 2005, in which the Council recommended to the General Assembly that it adopt the Basic Principles and Guidelines,回顾人权委员会2005年4月19日第2005/35号决议和经济及社会理事会2005年7月25日第2005/30号决议通过的《严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为受害人获得补救和赔偿的权利基本原则和导则》, 经社理事会在该项决议中建议大会通过《基本原则和导则》,
1.1.
Adopts the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law annexed to the present resolution;通过本决议所附《严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为受害人享有补救和赔偿的权利基本原则和导则》;
2.2.
Recommends that States take the Basic Principles and Guidelines into account, promote respect thereof and bring them to the attention of members of the executive bodies of government, in particular law enforcement officials and military and security forces, legislative bodies, the judiciary, victims and their representatives, human rights defenders and lawyers, the media and the public in general;建议各国考虑《基本原则和导则》,促进对《基本原则和导则》的尊重,并提请本国政府行政机关人员,尤其是执法官员及军队和安全部队注意,以及提请立法机关、司法机关、受害人及其代理人、人权捍卫者和律师、媒体和公众注意;
3.3.
Requests the Secretary-General to take steps to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the Basic Principles and Guidelines in all the official languages of the United Nations, including by transmitting them to Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and by including the Basic Principles and Guidelines in the United Nations publication entitled Human Rights: A Compilation of International Instruments.请秘书长采取步骤,确保以联合国所有正式语文尽量广为传播《基本原则和导则》,包括将《基本原则和导则》发送各国政府、政府间组织和非政府组织,并收入联合国出版物《人权:国际文件汇编》内。
64th plenary meeting 16 December 20052005年12月16日 第64次全体会议
Annex附件
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为受害人获得补救和赔偿的权利基本原则和导则
Preamble序言
The General Assembly,大会,
Recalling the provisions providing a right to a remedy for victims of violations of international human rights law found in numerous international instruments, in particular article 8 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1 article 2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,2 article 6 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, article 14 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and of international humanitarian law as found in article 3 of the Hague Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land of 18 October 1907 (Convention IV), article 91 of the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I) of 8 June 1977, and articles 68 and 75 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court,回顾许多国际文书中关于违反国际人权法行为受害人有权得到补救的规定,尤其是《世界人权宣言》1 第8条、《公民及政治权利国际公约》2 第2条、《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》 第6条、《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》 第14条和《儿童权利公约》 第39条,并回顾国际人道主义法,如1907年10月18日《关于陆战法规和习惯的海牙公约》(第四公约) 第3条、1977年6月8日《1949年8月12日日内瓦四公约关于保护国际性武装冲突受难者的附加议定书》(第一议定书) 第91条以及《国际刑事法院罗马规约》 第68条和第75条,
Recalling the provisions providing a right to a remedy for victims of violations of international human rights found in regional conventions, in particular article 7 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, article 25 of the American Convention on Human Rights, and article 13 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms,回顾各区域公约中关于违反国际人权行为受害人有权得到补救的规定,尤其是《非洲人权和人民权利宪章》 第7条、《美洲人权公约》 第25条和《保护人权与基本自由公约》 第13条,
Recalling the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power emanating from the deliberations of the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders and General Assembly resolution 40/34 of 29 November 1985 by which the Assembly adopted the text recommended by the Congress,回顾第七届联合国预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会审议通过的《为罪行和滥用权力行为受害者取得公理的基本原则宣言》以及联合国大会1985年11月29日第40/34号决议,大会在该项决议中通过了预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会建议的案文,
Reaffirming the principles enunciated in the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, including that victims should be treated with compassion and respect for their dignity, have their right to access to justice and redress mechanisms fully respected, and that the establishment, strengthening and expansion of national funds for compensation to victims should be encouraged, together with the expeditious development of appropriate rights and remedies for victims,重申《为罪行和滥用权力行为受害者取得公理的基本原则宣言》所载各项原则,其中包括应当同情受害人并尊重其尊严,充分尊重其获得司法救助和补救机制救助的权利,鼓励设立、加强和扩大各国的受害人补偿基金,并迅速拟订受害人的适当权利和补救措施,
Noting that the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court requires the establishment of “principles relating to reparations to, or in respect of, victims, including restitution, compensation and rehabilitation”, requires the Assembly of States Parties to establish a trust fund for the benefit of victims of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court, and of the families of such victims, and mandates the Court “to protect the safety, physical and psychological well-being, dignity and privacy of victims” and to permit the participation of victims at all “stages of the proceedings determined to be appropriate by the Court”,注意到《国际刑事法院罗马规约》要求制定“赔偿被害人或赔偿被害人方面的原则,包括恢复原状、补偿和康复”,并要求缔约国大会设立一个信托基金,用于援助该法院管辖权内的犯罪的被害人及其家属,授权该法院“保护被害人的安全、身心健康、尊严和隐私”,并准许被害人参与所有“本法院认为适当的诉讼阶段”,
Affirming that the Basic Principles and Guidelines contained herein are directed at gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law which, by their very grave nature, constitute an affront to human dignity,申明本文件所载基本原则和导则针对的是严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为,这些行为的严重性质本身就构成了对人的尊严的冒犯,
Emphasizing that the Basic Principles and Guidelines contained herein do not entail new international or domestic legal obligations but identify mechanisms, modalities, procedures and methods for the implementation of existing legal obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law which are complementary though different as to their norms,强调基本原则和导则不设定新的国际或国内法律义务,而是确定国际人权法和国际人道主义法规定的现有法律义务的各种履行机制、方式、程序和方法;国际人权法和国际人道主义法规范不同,但互为补充,
Recalling that international law contains the obligation to prosecute perpetrators of certain international crimes in accordance with international obligations of States and the requirements of national law or as provided for in the applicable statutes of international judicial organs, and that the duty to prosecute reinforces the international legal obligations to be carried out in accordance with national legal requirements and procedures and supports the concept of complementarity,回顾国际法规定国家有义务根据其国际义务并依照国内法律的要求或根据适用的国际司法机关规约起诉某些国际罪行的行为人,这一起诉义务加强了应当依照国内法律的要求和程序履行的国际法律义务并支持补充性原则的概念,
Noting that contemporary forms of victimization, while essentially directed against persons, may nevertheless also be directed against groups of persons who are targeted collectively,注意到当代形式的加害行为虽然基本上以个人为目标,但也可能以群体为集体目标,
Recognizing that, in honouring the victims’ right to benefit from remedies and reparation, the international community keeps faith with the plight of victims, survivors and future human generations and reaffirms the international legal principles of accountability, justice and the rule of law,确认国际社会通过尊重受害人得到补救和赔偿的权利,信守其对受害人、幸存者以及子孙后代所作的承诺,并重申问责、公正和法治的国际法律原则,
Convinced that, in adopting a victim-oriented perspective, the international community affirms its human solidarity with victims of violations of international law, including violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law, as well as with humanity at large, in accordance with the following Basic Principles and Guidelines,深信根据以下基本原则和导则,通过采取以受害人为中心的视角,国际社会对违反国际法包括违反国际人权法和国际人道主义法的行为的受害人以及全人类表示了声援,
Adopts the following Basic Principles and Guidelines:通过以下基本原则和导则:
I.一.
Obligation to respect, ensure respect for and implement international human rights law and international humanitarian law尊重、确保尊重和实施国际人权法和国际人道主义法的义务
1.1.
The obligation to respect, ensure respect for and implement international human rights law and international humanitarian law as provided for under the respective bodies of law emanates from:按相应法律体系的规定尊重、确保尊重和实施国际人权法和国际人道主义法的义务源于:
(a) Treaties to which a State is a party;(a) 本国为缔约方之一的条约;
(b) Customary international law;(b) 习惯国际法;
(c) The domestic law of each State.(c) 每一国的国内法。
2. If they have not already done so, States shall, as required under international law, ensure that their domestic law is consistent with their international legal obligations by: (a) Incorporating norms of international human rights law and international humanitarian law into their domestic law, or otherwise implementing them in their domestic legal system; (b) Adopting appropriate and effective legislative and administrative procedures and other appropriate measures that provide fair, effective and prompt access to justice; (c) Making available adequate, effective, prompt and appropriate remedies, including reparation, as defined below; (d) Ensuring that their domestic law provides at least the same level of protection for victims as that required by their international obligations. II. Scope of the obligation 3. The obligation to respect, ensure respect for and implement international human rights law and international humanitarian law as provided for under the respective bodies of law, includes, inter alia, the duty to: (a) Take appropriate legislative and administrative and other appropriate measures to prevent violations; (b) Investigate violations effectively, promptly, thoroughly and impartially and, where appropriate, take action against those allegedly responsible in accordance with domestic and international law; (c) Provide those who claim to be victims of a human rights or humanitarian law violation with equal and effective access to justice, as described below, irrespective of who may ultimately be the bearer of responsibility for the violation; and (d) Provide effective remedies to victims, including reparation, as described below. III. Gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law that constitute crimes under international law 4. In cases of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law constituting crimes under international law, States have the duty to investigate and, if there is sufficient evidence, the duty to submit to prosecution the person allegedly responsible for the violations and, if found guilty, the duty to punish her or him. Moreover, in these cases, States should, in accordance with international law, cooperate with one another and assist international judicial organs competent in the investigation and prosecution of these violations. 5. To that end, where so provided in an applicable treaty or under other international law obligations, States shall incorporate or otherwise implement within their domestic law appropriate provisions for universal jurisdiction. Moreover, where it is so provided for in an applicable treaty or other international legal obligations, States should facilitate extradition or surrender offenders to other States and to appropriate international judicial bodies and provide judicial assistance and other forms of cooperation in the pursuit of international justice, including assistance to, and protection of, victims and witnesses, consistent with international human rights legal standards and subject to international legal requirements such as those relating to the prohibition of torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. IV. Statutes of limitations 6. Where so provided for in an applicable treaty or contained in other international legal obligations, statutes of limitations shall not apply to gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law which constitute crimes under international law. 7. Domestic statutes of limitations for other types of violations that do not constitute crimes under international law, including those time limitations applicable to civil claims and other procedures, should not be unduly restrictive. V. Victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law 8. For purposes of the present document, victims are persons who individually or collectively suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that constitute gross violations of international human rights law, or serious violations of international humanitarian law. Where appropriate, and in accordance with domestic law, the term “victim” also includes the immediate family or dependants of the direct victim and persons who have suffered harm in intervening to assist victims in distress or to prevent victimization. 9. A person shall be considered a victim regardless of whether the perpetrator of the violation is identified, apprehended, prosecuted, or convicted and regardless of the familial relationship between the perpetrator and the victim. VI. Treatment of victims 10. Victims should be treated with humanity and respect for their dignity and human rights, and appropriate measures should be taken to ensure their safety, physical and psychological well-being and privacy, as well as those of their families. The State should ensure that its domestic laws, to the extent possible, provide that a victim who has suffered violence or trauma should benefit from special consideration and care to avoid his or her re-traumatization in the course of legal and administrative procedures designed to provide justice and reparation. VII. Victims’ right to remedies 11. Remedies for gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law include the victim’s right to the following as provided for under international law: (a) Equal and effective access to justice; (b) Adequate, effective and prompt reparation for harm suffered; (c) Access to relevant information concerning violations and reparation mechanisms. VIII. Access to justice 12. A victim of a gross violation of international human rights law or of a serious violation of international humanitarian law shall have equal access to an effective judicial remedy as provided for under international law. Other remedies available to the victim include access to administrative and other bodies, as well as mechanisms, modalities and proceedings conducted in accordance with domestic law. Obligations arising under international law to secure the right to access justice and fair and impartial proceedings shall be reflected in domestic laws. To that end, States should: (a) Disseminate, through public and private mechanisms, information about all available remedies for gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law; (b) Take measures to minimize the inconvenience to victims and their representatives, protect against unlawful interference with their privacy as appropriate and ensure their safety from intimidation and retaliation, as well as that of their families and witnesses, before, during and after judicial, administrative, or other proceedings that affect the interests of victims; (c) Provide proper assistance to victims seeking access to justice; (d) Make available all appropriate legal, diplomatic and consular means to ensure that victims can exercise their rights to remedy for gross violations of international human rights law or serious violations of international humanitarian law. 13. In addition to individual access to justice, States should endeavour to develop procedures to allow groups of victims to present claims for reparation and to receive reparation, as appropriate. 14. An adequate, effective and prompt remedy for gross violations of international human rights law or serious violations of international humanitarian law should include all available and appropriate international processes in which a person may have legal standing and should be without prejudice to any other domestic remedies. IX. Reparation for harm suffered 15. Adequate, effective and prompt reparation is intended to promote justice by redressing gross violations of international human rights law or serious violations of international humanitarian law. Reparation should be proportional to the gravity of the violations and the harm suffered. In accordance with its domestic laws and international legal obligations, a State shall provide reparation to victims for acts or omissions which can be attributed to the State and constitute gross violations of international human rights law or serious violations of international humanitarian law. In cases where a person, a legal person, or other entity is found liable for reparation to a victim, such party should provide reparation to the victim or compensate the State if the State has already provided reparation to the victim. 16. States should endeavour to establish national programmes for reparation and other assistance to victims in the event that the parties liable for the harm suffered are unable or unwilling to meet their obligations. 17. States shall, with respect to claims by victims, enforce domestic judgements for reparation against individuals or entities liable for the harm suffered and endeavour to enforce valid foreign legal judgements for reparation in accordance with domestic law and international legal obligations. To that end, States should provide under their domestic laws effective mechanisms for the enforcement of reparation judgements. 18. In accordance with domestic law and international law, and taking account of individual circumstances, victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law should, as appropriate and proportional to the gravity of the violation and the circumstances of each case, be provided with full and effective reparation, as laid out in principles 19 to 23, which include the following forms: restitution, compensation, rehabilitation, satisfaction and guarantees of non-repetition. 19. Restitution should, whenever possible, restore the victim to the original situation before the gross violations of international human rights law or serious violations of international humanitarian law occurred. Restitution includes, as appropriate: restoration of liberty, enjoyment of human rights, identity, family life and citizenship, return to one’s place of residence, restoration of employment and return of property. 20. Compensation should be provided for any economically assessable damage, as appropriate and proportional to the gravity of the violation and the circumstances of each case, resulting from gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law, such as:2. 国内法尚不符合其国际法律义务的国家应当按国际法的要求,通过以下方式确保其国内法符合其国际法律义务:
(a) Physical or mental harm;(a) 将国际人权法和国际人道主义法规范纳入其国内法,或以其他方式在国内法律制度中实施这些规范;
(b) Lost opportunities, including employment, education and social benefits;(b) 采取适当和有效的立法和行政程序以及其他适当措施,提供公正、有效、迅速的司法救助;
(c) Material damages and loss of earnings, including loss of earning potential;(c) 提供以下所界定的充分、有效、迅速和适当的补救,包括赔偿;
(d) Moral damage;(d) 确保其国内法对受害人的保护至少达到其国际义务所要求的程度。
(e) Costs required for legal or expert assistance, medicine and medical services, and psychological and social services.二. 义务的范围 3. 按相应法律体系的规定尊重、确保尊重和实施国际人权法和国际人道主义法的义务,除其他外,包括下列义务: (a) 采取适当的立法和行政措施及其他适当措施,防止违法行为发生;
21. Rehabilitation should include medical and psychological care as well as legal and social services.(b) 有效、迅速、彻底和公正地调查违法行为,并酌情根据国内法和国际法对被指控的责任人采取行动; (c) 向违反人权法或人道主义法行为的声称受害人提供下述平等和有效的司法救助,不论何人最终应当对违法行为负责;以及
22.(d) 向受害人提供下述有效补救,包括赔偿。 三.
Satisfaction should include, where applicable, any or all of the following:构成国际法规定的犯罪的严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法 行为
(a) Effective measures aimed at the cessation of continuing violations;4. 对于严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法的行为,构成国际法规定的犯罪的,国家有义务进行调查,如果证据充分,国家有义务将被指控的违法行为责任人移交起诉,如果该人被裁定有罪,国家有义务惩处该人。此外,对这些案件,国家应当按照国际法相互合作,并协助主管国际司法机构对这些违法行为进行调查和起诉。
(b) Verification of the facts and full and public disclosure of the truth to the extent that such disclosure does not cause further harm or threaten the safety and interests of the victim, the victim’s relatives, witnesses, or persons who have intervened to assist the victim or prevent the occurrence of further violations;5. 为此目的,如果适用的条约或其他国际法律义务有此规定,国家应当在其国内法中纳入或以其他方式在其国内法中实施适当的普遍管辖权规定。此外,如果适用的条约或其他国际法律义务有此规定,国家应当便利向其他国家和适当的国际司法机构引渡或移交罪犯,并为促进国际司法提供司法协助和其他形式的合作,包括协助并保护受害人和证人。这些程序应当符合国际人权法律标准并遵守国际法律要求,诸如禁止酷刑或其他形式的残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚的要求。
(c) The search for the whereabouts of the disappeared, for the identities of the children abducted, and for the bodies of those killed, and assistance in the recovery, identification and reburial of the bodies in accordance with the expressed or presumed wish of the victims, or the cultural practices of the families and communities;四. 时效
(d) An official declaration or a judicial decision restoring the dignity, the reputation and the rights of the victim and of persons closely connected with the victim;6. 如果适用的条约有此规定或其他国际法律义务有此要求,构成国际法规定的犯罪的严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为不适用时效规定。 7. 对于不构成国际法规定的犯罪的其他种类的违法行为,国内的时效规定,包括适用于民事请求和其他程序的时效规定,不应当具有过大的限制性。
(e) Public apology, including acknowledgement of the facts and acceptance of responsibility;五. 严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为的受害人
(f) Judicial and administrative sanctions against persons liable for the violations;8. 为本文件的目的,受害人是指由于构成严重违反国际人权法或严重违反国际人道主义法行为的作为或不作为而遭受损害,包括身心伤害、精神痛苦、经济损失或基本权利受到严重损害的个人或集体。适当时,根据国内法,“受害人”还包括直接受害人的直系亲属或受扶养人以及介入干预以帮助处于困境的受害人或阻止加害他人行为而遭受损害的人。
(g) Commemorations and tributes to the victims;9. 受害人的身份不取决于实施违法行为的人是否已被确认、逮捕、起诉或定罪,也不取决于行为人与受害人之间是否存在亲属关系。
(h) Inclusion of an accurate account of the violations that occurred in international human rights law and international humanitarian law training and in educational material at all levels.六. 受害人的待遇
23. Guarantees of non-repetition should include, where applicable, any or all of the following measures, which will also contribute to prevention:10. 应当仁慈对待受害人, 尊重其尊严和人权,并应当采取适当措施,以确保受害人及其家人的安全、身心健康和隐私。国家应当确保在国内法中尽可能规定,遭受暴力或创伤的受害人应当获得特殊考虑和照顾,以免在执行司法和赔偿的法律和行政程序中使受害人再次遭受创伤。 七. 受害人的补救权 11. 对严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为的补救包括国际法规定的下列受害人权利: (a) 获得平等和有效的司法救助; (b) 对所遭受的损害获得充分、有效和迅速的赔偿; (c) 获得与违法行为和赔偿机制相关的信息。 八. 司法救助 12. 严重违反国际人权法或严重违反国际人道主义法行为的受害人应当可根据国际法平等地获得有效的司法补救。受害人还可以获得其他形式的补救,包括行政和其他机构的补救以及根据国内法设立的机制、方式和程序的补救。国内法应当反映国家根据国际法有义务确保获得司法救助和公正公平程序的权利。为此目的,国家应当:
(a) Ensuring effective civilian control of military and security forces;(a) 通过公、私机制宣传可以就严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为采取的一切补救手段;
(b) Ensuring that all civilian and military proceedings abide by international standards of due process, fairness and impartiality;(b) 在关系到受害人利益的司法、行政或其他程序进行之前、期间和之后采取措施,尽量减少给受害人及其代理人带来的不便,适当保护其隐私不受非法干扰,并确保他们及其家人和证人的安全,使其免遭恐吓和报复;
(c) Strengthening the independence of the judiciary;(c) 向寻求司法救助的受害人提供适当援助;
(d) Protecting persons in the legal, medical and health-care professions, the media and other related professions, and human rights defenders;(d) 提供一切适当的法律、外交和领事途径,以确保严重违反国际人权法或严重违反国际人道主义法行为的受害人得以行使其补救权。
(e) Providing, on a priority and continued basis, human rights and international humanitarian law education to all sectors of society and training for law enforcement officials as well as military and security forces;13. 除了个人可寻求司法救助外,国家还应当努力制定相应程序,酌情允许受害人群体提出赔偿请求并获得赔偿。
(f) Promoting the observance of codes of conduct and ethical norms, in particular international standards, by public servants, including law enforcement, correctional, media, medical, psychological, social service and military personnel, as well as by economic enterprises;14. 对严重违反国际人权法或严重违反国际人道主义法行为的充分、有效和迅速补救,应当包括一切个人具有法律地位的现有和适当的国际程序,并且不应当妨碍任何其他国内补救。
(g) Promoting mechanisms for preventing and monitoring social conflicts and their resolution;九. 对损害的赔偿
(h) Reviewing and reforming laws contributing to or allowing gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law.15. 充分、有效和迅速赔偿的目的是通过补救严重违反国际人权法或严重违反国际人道主义法行为伸张正义。赔偿应当与违法行为和所受损害的严重程度相称。一国应当根据其国内法和国际法律义务,就可以归咎于该国的作为或不作为的严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为,向受害人提供赔偿。个人、法人或其他实体被裁定对受害人负有赔偿责任的,应当向受害人提供赔偿,如果国家已向受害人提供赔偿,则应当向国家提供补偿。
X.16.
Access to relevant information concerning violations and reparation mechanisms如果应当为所遭受的损害负赔偿责任的当事方无法或不愿履行其义务,国家应当努力制定国家赔偿方案并向受害人提供其他援助。
24. States should develop means of informing the general public and, in particular, victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law of the rights and remedies addressed by these Basic Principles and Guidelines and of all available legal, medical, psychological, social, administrative and all other services to which victims may have a right of access.17.
Moreover, victims and their representatives should be entitled to seek and obtain information on the causes leading to their victimization and on the causes and conditions pertaining to the gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law and to learn the truth in regard to these violations.对于受害人的赔偿请求,国家应当执行对所遭受的损害负赔偿责任的个人或实体作出的国内赔偿判决,并根据国内法和国际法律义务,努力执行有效的外国赔偿法律判决。为此,国家应当在其国内法中规定执行赔偿判决的有效机制。
XI.18.
Non-discrimination应当根据国内法和国际法,并考虑个人情况,按照违法行为的严重性和具体情节,根据原则19至原则23的规定,酌情向受害人提供充分和有效的赔偿。赔偿应当包括以下形式:恢复原状、补偿、康复、满足和保证不再发生。
25.19. 恢复原状应当尽可能将受害人恢复到发生严重违反国际人权法或严重违反国际人道主义法行为之前的原有状态。恢复原状视情况包括:恢复自由,享受人权、身份、家庭生活和公民地位,返回居住地,恢复职务和返还财产。 20.
The application and interpretation of these Basic Principles and Guidelines must be consistent with international human rights law and international humanitarian law and be without any discrimination of any kind or on any ground, without exception.应当按照违法行为的严重性和具体情节,对严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为所造成的任何经济上可以估量的损害提供适当和相称的补偿,此类损害除其他外包括:
XII. Non-derogation(a) 身心伤害;
26. Nothing in these Basic Principles and Guidelines shall be construed as restricting or derogating from any rights or obligations arising under domestic and international law. In particular, it is understood that the present Basic Principles and Guidelines are without prejudice to the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of all violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law. It is further understood that these Basic Principles and Guidelines are without prejudice to special rules of international law.(b) 失却机会,包括就业机会、教育机会和社会福利;
XIII. Rights of others(c) 物质损害和收入损失,包括收入潜力的损失; (d) 精神伤害; (e) 法律或专家援助费用、医药费用以及心理治疗与社会服务费用。 21. 康复应当包括医疗和心理护理以及法律和社会服务。 22. 满足在适用的情况下,应当包括下列任何或所有措施: (a) 终止持续违法行为的有效措施; (b) 核实事实并充分公开披露真相,但披露真相不得进一步伤害或威胁受害人、受害人亲属、证人或介入干预以帮助受害人或防止发生进一步违法行为的其他人的安全和利益; (c) 寻找失踪者的下落,查明被绑架儿童的身份, 寻找遇害者的尸体,并协助找回、辨认尸体并按受害人的明示或推定愿望或按家庭和社区文化习俗重新安葬; (d) 通过正式宣告或司法裁判,恢复受害人和与受害人密切相关的人的尊严、名誉和权利; (e) 公开道歉,包括承认事实和承担责任; (f) 对应当为违法行为负责的人实行司法和行政制裁; (g) 纪念和悼念受害人; (h) 在国际人权法和国际人道主义法的培训以及各级教材中准确叙述发生的违法行为。 23. 保证不再发生在适用的情况下,应当包括以下任何或所有同样有助于防止违法行为的措施: (a) 确保军队和安全部队受到文职政府的有效控制; (b) 保证所有民事和军事程序符合正当程序、公平和公正的国际标准; (c) 加强司法独立性; (d) 保护在法律、医卫专业,媒体和其他相关专业工作的人士以及人权捍卫者; (e) 优先和不间断地对社会各阶层开展人权和国际人道主义法教育,并向执法官员以及军队和安全部队提供培训; (f) 促进公职人员,包括执法、矫治、媒体、医疗、心理治疗、社会服务和军事人员以及企业遵守行为守则和道德规范,尤其是遵守国际标准; (g) 促进建立防止和监测并解决社会冲突的机制; (h) 审查并改革助长或允许严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为的法律。 十. 获得与违法行为和赔偿机制相关的信息 24. 国家应当设法使公众尤其是使严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为的受害人知悉本基本原则和导则所述的各项权利和补救手段,以及受害人可能有权得到的一切现有的法律、医疗、心理、社会、行政及一切其他服务。此外,受害人及其代理人应当有权寻求和获得信息,了解导致其受害的原因、致使实施严重违反国际人权法和严重违反国际人道主义法行为的原因和情况,并了解这些违法行为的真相。 十一.不歧视 25. 本基本原则和导则的适用和解释必须符合国际人权法和国际人道主义法,不得有任何形式或任何理由的歧视。 十二.不减损 26. 本基本原则和导则的任何内容不应当被解释为限制或减损根据国内法或国际法产生的任何权利或义务。具体而言,一项理解是,本基本原则和导则不影响所有违反国际人权法和国际人道主义法行为的受害人得到补救和赔偿的权利。另一项理解是,本基本原则和导则不影响国际法的特别规则。 十三. 其他人的权利
27.27.
Nothing in this document is to be construed as derogating from internationally or nationally protected rights of others, in particular the right of an accused person to benefit from applicable standards of due process.本文件的任何内容不应当被解释为减损其他人在国际上或在国内得到保护的权利,特别是被告人得到适用的正当程序标准待遇的权利。
Resolution 217 A (III).第217 A(III)号决议。
Resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.第2200 A(XXI)号决议,附件。
A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap.A/CONF.157/24(Part I)和Corr.
III.1,第三章。
See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2005, Supplement No. 3 and corrigendum (E/2005/23 and Corr.1), chap. II, sect. A.见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,2005年,补编第3号》(E/2005/23),第二章,A节。
Resolution 2106 A (XX), annex.第2106 A(XX)号决议,附件。
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1465, No. 24841.联合国,《条约汇编》,第1465卷,第24841号。
Ibid., vol. 1577, No. 27531.同上,第1577卷,第27531号。
See Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1915).见卡内基国际和平基金会,《海牙公约及1899年和1907年宣言》(1915年,纽约,牛津大学出版社)。
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1125, No. 17512.联合国,《条约汇编》,第1125卷,第17512号。
Official Records of the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, Rome, 15 June–17 July 1998, vol. I: Final documents (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.02.I.5), sect. A.《联合国设立国际刑事法院全权代表外交会议正式记录,1998年6月15日至7月17日,罗马》,第一卷:《最后文书》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:C.02.I.5),A节。
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1520, No. 26363.联合国,《条约汇编》,第1520卷, 第26363号。
Ibid., vol. 1144, No. 17955.同上,第1144卷,第17955号。
Ibid., vol. 213, No. 2889. --- 9 9同上,第213卷,第2889号。
United Nations A/RES/60/147A/RES/60/147
General Assembly Distr.A/RES/60/147 2 3 联 合 国 A/RES/60/147 大 会 Distr.
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Sixtieth session第六十届会议 议程项目 71(a)
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