A_AC_105_C_1_110_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/110 V1507611.docx (English)A/AC.105/C.1/110 V1507610.docx (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
A/AC.105/C.1/110A/AC.105/C.1/110
General Assembly大 会
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
2 November 20152 November 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
A/AC.105/C.1/110A/AC.105/C.1/110
A/AC.105/C.1/110A/AC.105/C.1/110
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Committee on the Peaceful和平利用外层空间委员会
Uses of Outer Space科学和技术小组委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee Fifty-third session第五十三届会议
Vienna, 15-26 February 20162016年2月15日至26日,维也纳
Item 8 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目8
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A/AC.105/C.1/L.336.A/AC.105/C.1/L.336。
Space debris空间碎片
National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris各国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全及其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一、
1. In its resolution 70/82, the General Assembly, deeply concerned about the fragility of the space environment and the challenges to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, in particular the impact of space debris, which was an issue of concern to all nations, considered it essential that States pay more attention to the problem of collisions of space objects, especially those with nuclear power sources, with space debris, and other aspects of space debris.导言
It called for the continuation of national research on that question, for the development of improved technology for the monitoring of space debris and for the compilation and dissemination of data on space debris.1. 大会在其第70/82号决议中,深为关切空间环境的脆弱性以及外层空间活动长期可持续性面临的挑战,尤其是空间碎片的影响,这个问题关系到所有国家,大会认为,各国必须更加重视空间物体特别是有核动力源的空间物体与空间碎片碰撞的问题,以及空间碎片问题的其他方面。 大会呼吁各国继续对这一问题进行研究,以开发更好的空间碎片监测技术,汇编和散发关于空间碎片的数据。
The Assembly also considered that, to the extent possible, information thereon should be provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and agreed that international cooperation was needed to expand appropriate and affordable strategies to minimize the impact of space debris on future space missions.大会还认为应当在可能的范围内向和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会提交有关信息,并同意需要开展国际合作,以便扩大适宜和负担得起的战略,最大程度地减少空间碎片对未来空间任务的影响。
2. At its fifty-second session, the Subcommittee agreed that Member States and international organizations with permanent observer status with the Committee should continue to be invited to provide reports on research on space debris, the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board, problems relating to the collision of such space objects with space debris and ways in which debris mitigation guidelines were being implemented (see A/AC.105/1088, para.2. 小组委员会在其第五十二届会议上,同意应继续邀请各会员国和具有外空委常设观察员地位的国际组织提供报告,介绍关于空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全、此类空间物体与空间碎片的碰撞问题以及碎片减缓准则执行方式的研究(见A/AC.105/1088,第113段)。
113), and on this basis an invitation was issued in a note verbale dated 27 July 2015 to provide the reports by 19 October 2015, so that the information could be made available to the Subcommittee at its fifty-third session.在此基础上,小组委员会在2015年7月27日的一份普通照会中发出邀请,要求在2015年10月19日之前提供报告,以便能够向小组委员会第五十三届会议提供资料。
3. The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from four Member States, namely Austria, Finland, Germany and Japan, and from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).3. 本文件由秘书处根据从奥地利、芬兰、德国和日本这四个会员国以及世界气象组织(气象组织)收到的资料编写。
The information provided by Japan, which includes pictures and figures related to space debris, will be made available as a conference room paper at the fifty-third session of the Subcommittee.日本提供的资料包括与空间碎片相关的图片和数字,将作为小组委员会第五十三届会议的会议室文件提供。
II. Replies received from Member States二、
Austria从会员国收到的答复
[Original: English]奥地利 [原件:英文]
[19 October 2015][2015年10月19日]
National research on space debris国家空间碎片研究
Since 1982, the Institute for Space Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has operated a satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at the Lustbühel Observatory in Graz.自1982年以来,奥地利科学院空间研究所在格拉茨Lustbühel天文台设有卫星激光测距台站。
Day and night, seven days a week, this station measures distances to more than 60 retro-reflector equipped satellites, such as geodetic satellites, global navigation satellite system satellites (such as GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, COMPASS), Earth observation satellites and various scientific and research satellites.该台站每周七天日夜工作,对60多个配备后向反光仪的卫星进行测距,这些卫星包括测地卫星、全球导航卫星系统(伽利略系统、全球定位系统、全球轨道导航卫星系统、北斗卫星导航系统等)的卫星、地球观测卫星及各种科学和研究卫星等。
The Graz SLR station is still considered one of the most accurate in the world.格拉茨卫星激光测距台站仍被认为是世界上最精确的台站之一。
In 2012, the Graz laser station started to test laser ranging of space debris objects.2012年,格拉茨激光台站开始测试空间碎片物体的激光测距 。
New specialized single-photon detectors were developed, and the laser ranging software for space debris tracking was adapted.开发了新型专业化的单一光子探测器,并且相应调整了用于空间碎片追踪的激光测距软件 。
For the first time, photons diffusely reflected by space debris objects were measured to determine the distance to those objects.首次对空间碎片物体的散漫反射光子进行了测量,以便确定这些物体的距离。
Although the accuracy of the measurements is not in the millimetre range, given that the selected debris objects are one to a few metres in size, this approach does allow for significantly better orbit determination.虽然测量准确幅度并非毫米级,但由于一些碎片物体的大小在一至数米之间,这种做法仍然大大改进了轨道的测定。
Additional improvements to orbit determination are possible if other SLR stations are able to detect the diffusely reflected Graz photons.如果其他卫星激光测距台站能够检测到散漫反射的格拉茨光子,则有可能进一步改进轨道的测定。
In 2012 the first such experiment was successful; photons emitted in Graz were diffusely reflected by the bodies of satellites and detected at the Zimmerwald SLR station in Switzerland, which for this purpose had been synchronized with the Graz station.2012年,这类实验第一次取得成功:格拉茨发射的光子被卫星的星体散漫反射,瑞士齐美尔瓦尔德卫星激光测距台站检测到这些光子,为此已经与格拉茨台站进行了同步。
This method can be extended without difficulty to several other receive-only stations.这一方法能够毫无困难地推广至其他几个单纯接收的台站。
Since 2013, the Graz laser station has been involved in the space situational awareness programme of the European Space Agency (ESA).自2013年以来,格拉茨激光台站参与了欧洲空间局(欧空局)的空间态势认知方案。
In the coming years cooperation will be increased at the European and international levels.今后几年将增加在欧洲和国际层面上的合作。
Since 2014, the station has also been involved in setting up an operational European space situational awareness programme network.自2014年以来,该台站还参与建立了欧洲空间态势认知方案业务网。
Space law空间法
In 2015, a regulation of the Federal Minister for Transport, Innovation and Technology for the implementation of the federal law on the authorization of space activities and the establishment of a national space registry entered into force.2015年,联邦交通、创新和技术部长关于执行联邦空间活动授权法和建立国家空间登记处的法规生效。
In order to prevent the generation of space debris, in accordance with article 5 of the law, operators must fulfil certain requirements.为防止产生空间碎片,依据该法第5条,运营商必须满足一定的要求。
A report on preventing the generation of space debris during the operation and preventing the breakup of the space object in orbit, in which the internationally accepted guidelines on space debris are taken into account (e.g. the maximum limit of 25 years in orbit), must be approved.必须批准一份关于防止在操作期间产生空间碎片并防止在轨空间物体解体的报告,报告中应考虑到国际公认的空间碎片准则(例如在轨最高期限为25年)。
The report must include a representation of the measures taken in outer space activities to avoid collisions with other space objects.报告中必须包括陈述在外层空间活动中为避免与其他空间物体碰撞而采取的措施。
Furthermore, appropriate documentation is needed to prove that the space object does not contain dangerous or harmful substances that can lead to the contamination of space or adverse environmental changes.此外,需要提供适当的文件以证明空间物体不含有可能导致空间污染或不利环境变化的危险或有害物质。
Finland芬兰
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[27 October 2015][2015年10月27日]
Research on space debris is carried out by: (a)以下机构开展空间碎片研究:
The Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of the National Land Survey;(a) 芬兰国土勘查局地球空间研究所;
(b) Oulu University, through the use of European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association radars.(b) 奥卢大学,使用欧洲非相干散射科学协会的雷达。
Finland is preparing the launch of its first satellite, Aalto-1, which is a 3-kg CubeSat.芬兰正准备发射芬兰第一颗卫星Aalto-1号,这是一颗重3千克的立方体卫星。
The satellite has a braking device based on the electric sail concept (see www.electric-sailing.fi) that could allow the satellite to be brought down much faster than would be possible without the brake.该卫星配备了基于电动帆概念(见网站www.electric-sailing.fi)的制动装置,与未安装该装置的情况相比,可以让该卫星下降得更快。
Germany德国
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[19 October 2015][2015年10月19日]
In Germany, research activities on issues related to space debris are being carried out in all relevant fields, such as space debris environment modelling, observation of space debris, studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact on spacecraft, and protection of space systems from the impact of micrometeoroids and space debris.在德国,正在所有相关领域开展关于空间碎片相关问题的研究活动,这些问题包括空间碎片环境建模、空间碎片观测、超高速撞击对航天器的影响研究、保护空间系统不受微流星和空间碎片的撞击等。
German experts actively participate in relevant international forums in the field of space debris research, including the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), and in international standardization activities in the field of space debris mitigation.德国专家积极参与包括机构间空间碎片协调委员会在内的空间碎片研究领域相关国际论坛,并积极参加空间碎片减缓领域的国际标准化活动。
For space projects sponsored by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), space debris mitigation requirements are a mandatory part of the product assurance and safety requirements for DLR space projects.对于德国航空航天中心(德国航天中心)主办的空间项目,空间碎片减缓要求是德国航天中心空间项目产品保证和安全要求的强制性组成部分。
These requirements ensure the implementation of internationally recognized mitigation measures, including those identified in the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of IADC and the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.这些要求确保了国际公认减缓措施的执行,包括空间碎片协委会《空间碎片减缓准则》及和平利用外层空间委员会《空间碎片减缓准则》中确认的那些措施。
The general objectives are to limit the creation of new space debris and thus to limit the risk to current and future space missions and the risk to human life.总的目标是限制产生新的空间碎片,从而限制对现有和今后的空间飞行任务以及对人类生命造成的风险。
The measures to be adopted in order to achieve these objectives include the conduct of a formal space debris mitigation assessment; the implementation of specific design measures to prevent the release of mission-related objects, fragmentations, malfunctioning and on-orbit collisions; and the adoption of measures pertaining to passivation, end-of-life disposal and re-entry safety.为实现这些目标而将要采取的措施包括:开展正式的空间碎片减缓评估;执行具体的规划措施以防止释放与飞行任务有关的物体和破片并防止出现故障和在轨碰撞;采取与钝化、报废处置和再入大气层安全有关的措施。
In order to establish a national space surveillance capability, a country must have the capabilities for generating and utilizing sensor data, for instance to establish a space object catalogue or to perform orbit determination.为建立国家太空监测能力,国家必须有能力产生和利用传感器数据,例如用来建立空间物体目录或进行轨道测定。
Such an object catalogue is the backbone of space situational awareness operations.这种空间物体目录是空间态势认知业务的基础。
The development of this end-to-end capability requires a coordinated programme of work, covering many different aspects.发展这种端对端能力需要有协调的工作方案,覆盖多个不同方面。 德国航天中心空间管理处已制定了一项此类方案,该方案的第一步就是于2015年对德国实验性空间监视和跟踪雷达(GESTRA)进行调试。
Such a programme was set up by the DLR Space Administration, and began with the commissioning of the German Experimental Space Surveillance and Tracking Radar (GESTRA) in 2015.GESTRA正由弗劳恩霍夫高频物理学和雷达技术研究所进行研发,它是一个旨在确定近地轨道上的轨道信息的实验性系统;预计该系统将于2017年底开始测试。
GESTRA, which is being developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques, is an experimental system to determine orbital information in low Earth orbit (LEO); testing is expected to start late in 2017.布伦瑞克工业大学的空间系统研究所正在研发模拟传感器测量数据的软件。
Software to simulate sensor measurement data is being developed at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the Technische Universität Braunschweig.根据这些模拟数据,可以执行物体相关性、轨道测定和物体数据库实施等关键功能。
On the basis of the simulated data, key functionalities, such as object correlation, orbit determination and implementation of an object database, are implemented.目前正在研究轨道测定和预报的补充方法,以确保在模拟空间监测系统处理链中可以使用快速和准确的方法。
Complementary methods for orbit determination and propagation are being investigated so as to ensure the availability of fast and accurate methods within the process chain of a simulated space surveillance system.正努力开发由德国航天中心德国空间活动中心与瑞士伯尔尼大学天文研究所密切合作设立的光学台站联络网。
Efforts are under way to develop a network of optical stations set up by the German Space Operations Centre (GSOC) at DLR in close cooperation with the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, Switzerland.该联络网计划连续监测对地静止轨道区和相关轨道,以便为避免碰撞和开展科学研究提供支持。
It is intended for continuous monitoring of the geostationary regions and related orbits to support collision avoidance and scientific research, and its telescopes are operated telerobotically by GSOC at DLR.该联络网的望远镜由德国航天中心德国空间活动中心的远程机器人操作。
The data captured will make it possible to track and predict the orbit of geostationary objects larger than approximately 50 cm. The Sutherland Observatory in South Africa has been chosen as the location for the first telescope station, to be set up early in 2016.可以基于捕获的数据跟踪和预测约50厘米以上的对地静止轨道物体的轨道。
Several test campaigns have been successful, resulting in a detectable object magnitude of better than 18 mag.已经选定南非萨瑟兰天文台作为拟在2016年设立的第一台望远镜的设立地点。
In a joint project between the Institute for Simulation and Software Technology and the Space Operations and Astronaut Training department, both at DLR, an orbital database for objects in Earth orbit is being developed.成功开展了若干测试,取得的成果是可以检测18星等以上的物体的大小。
The main research topics are object identification through different sensor observations, orbit determination and orbit propagation, including state vector and state uncertainty.在德国航天中心下属的仿真与软件技术研究所和空间活动与航天员培训部联合开展的一个项目中,正在开发关于地球轨道上物体的轨道数据库。
The optical telescope network will provide the first observation data to be processed through the database.主要研究课题是通过不同的传感器观测来确定物体、轨道测定和轨道预报,包括状态向量和状态不确定性。
At the Technische Universität Braunschweig, activities to analyse the long-term evolution of the space debris environment are ongoing.光学望远镜网络将提供拟通过该数据库进行处理的第一批观测数据。
One completed project focused on porting propagation methods to graphic processing units to achieve a drastically lower computation time.在布伦瑞克工业大学,正在对空间碎片环境的长期演变开展分析活动。
Furthermore, more detailed simulations of the evolution of the environment have been carried out to investigate the effects of mitigation measures and active debris removal, with a special focus on the associated costs.已经完成一个侧重于向图形处理单元移植传输方法从而大幅降低计算时间的项目。
Additionally, scenarios for the medium Earth orbit and geostationary orbit environment have been investigated.此外,还对环境演变进行了更为详细的模拟,以调查减缓措施和主动清除碎片的影响,并特别侧重于相关的费用。
A new activity builds on those achievements to utilize the decreased runtime of long-term simulations, investigate the uncertainties within those, partly within the framework of an IADC activity, analyse the impacts of current trends in space flight, such as the increase in CubeSats, and perform more detailed cost analyses.另外还研究了中地轨道和对地静止轨道环境场景。
Materials on the exterior of spacecraft are exposed to the harsh environment of space, which causes degradation.根据这些成果开展了一项新的活动,以利用缩短运行时间的长期模拟计算,调查这些模拟计算中的不确定性(有一部分是在机构间空间碎片协调委员会的框架下进行的),分析当前空间飞行趋势(例如立方体卫星增多)的影响以及开展更为详细的成本分析。
The main threats are charged particle radiation, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen in LEO, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling and impacts of micrometeoroids and debris.航天器外壳上使用的材料暴露于恶劣的空间环境会导致其降解。
The relative impact of the individual threats depends on the type of mission to be performed, the mission duration, the solar cycles, solar events and the orbit in which the spacecraft will be placed.主要的威胁包括带电粒子辐射、紫外线辐射、近地轨道原子氧、极端温度、热循环以及微流星体和碎片的撞击。
Sources of degradation particles are the paint applied to upper stages, and the multilayer insulation foil that is used on almost every spacecraft to maintain the operation temperature.各个威胁的相对影响取决于将要开展的飞行任务的类型、飞行任务的持续时间、太阳周期、太阳事件以及航天器将被放置的轨道。
The degradation process and the inherent release and generation of particles smaller than 1 mm are simulated on the basis of empirical modelling parameters.末级火箭上的涂料以及为维持运行温度在几乎所有航天器上使用的多层绝缘箔都是降解颗粒的来源。
Active removal of space debris is another area of research at IRS.在经验模型参数的基础上模拟了降解过程及小于1毫米的颗粒物的释放和产生。 主动清除空间碎片是空间系统研究所的另一个研究领域。
Different approaches using various technologies, such as robotic arms and tethers or nets, are under consideration, and the benefits and challenges of those approaches have been researched.正在审议运用了各种技术的不同办法,例如机械臂和拖网,并研究了这些办法带来的好处和挑战。
On that basis, last year, Airbus Defense and Space GmbH Bremen and IRS launched a joint project for research into tethered removal of large debris objects; objectives include the development of control algorithms and laws for the stabilization and secure deorbiting of a tethered space system constituting a chaser, a tether and an uncooperative target.在此基础上,空客防务与航天不莱梅有限公司和空间系统研究所联合启动了一个研究拖挂式清除大型碎片物体的联合项目;该项目的目标包括开发控制算法和制定关于空间拖网系统(由追踪器、拖网和不合作目标组成)的稳定性和安全脱轨的法律。
IRS determined the influence of orbital perturbations on tethered space systems using the Tether Orbital Perturbations Influence Determinator (TOPID) software tool it created.空间系统研究所确定了轨道摄动对使用其创建的系留轨道摄动影响测定仪(TOPID)软件工具的系留空间系统的影响。
Several German companies and research organizations are currently involved in ESA studies addressing the topic of space debris re-entry.若干德国公司和研究组织目前参与了欧空局与空间碎片再入大气层有关的专题研究。
The objective of the Characterization of Demisable Materials project is to increase knowledge about material behaviour and demise processes during re-entry in order to reduce the uncertainties of the simulation tools currently used for re-entry risk assessment.可消亡材料定性项目的目标是增加关于再入大气层期间的材料行为和消亡过程的知识,以减少目前使用的再入大气层风险评估模拟工具的不确定性。
The high-enthalpy-flow wind tunnels of DLR in Cologne are used in particular for this purpose.为此目的使用了德国航天中心在科隆的高焓流风洞。
The Rapid Assessment of Design Impact on Debris Generation activity is aimed at developing a new generation re-entry analysis tool with the capability to be used in concurrent engineering facilities and with automatic design optimization features.“设计对碎片的影响快速评估”活动旨在开发有能力用于并行工程设施并具有自动设计优化功能的新一代再入大气层分析工具。
Design-for-demise studies are focused on innovative engineering solutions for spacecraft components in order to achieve as much demise as possible during re-entry, consequently reducing the on-ground risk.消亡设计研究的重点是找到关于航天器部件的创新性工程解决方案,以便在再入大气层期间实现尽可能多的消亡,从而减少对地面的风险。
The new In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis tool will provide a long-term, six-degrees-of-freedom propagator, supporting future active debris removal missions with reliable predictions of the tumbling rates of the target objects.新的在轨翻滚分析工具将提供长期的六自由度预测模型,用可靠的目标对象翻滚率预测,为碎片清除任务提供支持。
Japan日本
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[23 October 2015][2015年10月23日]
1. Overview1. 概览
Further to the request from the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat, Japan submits the following information on its debris-related activities, conducted mainly by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).按照秘书处外层空间事务厅提出的要求,日本提交以下关于其空间碎片相关活动的信息,这些活动是日本宇宙航空研究开发机构(宇宙航空机构)实施的。
An overview of the JAXA strategic plan for space debris was included in the note by the Secretariat on national research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris (A/AC.105/C.1/107).宇宙航空机构的空间碎片战略计划概览列于秘书处关于“各国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全及其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究”的说明(A/AC.105/C.1/107)。
In the section below, major advances are presented in the following debris-related activities conducted by JAXA during 2015: (a)下节介绍宇宙航空机构2015年开展以下空间碎片相关活动取得的主要进展:
Research on conjunction assessment and on core technology for space situational awareness;(a) 关于会合评估和空间态势认知核心技术的研究;
(b) Research on technology for observing objects in LEO and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and for determining the orbits of such objects;(b) 关于观测近地轨道和地球同步轨道物体及测定此类物体轨道的技术的研究;
(c) In situ microdebris measurement system;(c) 现场微型碎片测量系统;
(d) Protection from the impact of microdebris;(d) 微型碎片撞击防护;
(e) Development of a propellant tank that easily disintegrates during re-entry;(e) 研发易于在再入大气层过程中解体的推进剂贮箱;
(f) Active debris removal.(f) 主动清除碎片。
2. Status2. 现状
2.1. Research on conjunction assessment and on core technology for space situational awareness2.1. 关于会合评估和空间态势认知核心技术的研究
JAXA regularly receives conjunction notifications from the Joint Space Operations Center.宇宙航空机构定期收到联合空间业务中心的会合通知。
For example, in September 2015, the number of notifications received was 64, which exceeded a specific conjunction threshold value.例如,2015年9月收到64次通知,超过了特定的会合阈值。
Between 2009 and 2015 (September), JAXA executed 15 collision avoidance manoeuvres for LEO spacecraft.2009年至2015年(9月)期间,宇宙航空机构为近地轨道航天器执行了15次防撞机动操作。
In parallel, JAXA determines the orbit of space objects by using radar and telescope observation data from the Kamisaibara and Bisei spaceguard centres of the Japan Space Forum, predicts close approaches using the latest orbit ephemerides of JAXA satellites, and calculates probability of collision using its in-house methods.另外,宇宙航空机构利用日本空间论坛的上斋原和美星太空防卫中心雷达和望远镜观测数据确定空间物体的轨道,利用宇宙航空机构卫星最新轨道星历预测近距离接近,并使用机构内测算法计算碰撞概率。
Also, JAXA evaluates the criteria for conjunction assessment and collision avoidance manoeuvres based on its experience.同样,宇宙航空机构根据自身经验评价会合评估和防撞机动操作的标准。
In its evaluations, the trends in conjunction conditions and prediction errors due to perturbations (e.g. uncertainty in air drag) are analysed.在评价中对会合条件趋势和扰动(例如空气阻力不稳定)造成的预测误差进行分析。
JAXA, through a simplified fragmentation model, succeeded in identifying the origin of GEO fragmentation debris by using the optical-observation data acquired by the Bisei spaceguard centre in its collaborative research with Kyushu University.通过简化的碎片生成模型,宇宙航空机构使用美星太空防卫中心与九州大学合作开展研究而获得的光学观测数据,成功识别地球同步轨道上碎裂碎片的来源。
2.2. Research on technology for observing objects in low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit and for determining the orbits of such objects2.2. 关于观测近地轨道和地球同步轨道物体及测定此类物体轨道的技术研究
Generally, the observation of LEO objects is conducted by radar, but JAXA has been trying to use optical systems instead to reduce the cost of both construction and operation.近地轨道物体一般通过雷达观测,但宇宙航空机构一直尝试代之以光学系统,以减少建造和运营成本。
Arrays of optical sensors are used to cover large regions of the sky.为了覆盖广阔的空域使用了光学传感器阵列。
Survey observations using an 18-cm telescope and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera showed that objects 30 cm or more in diameter were detectable at an altitude of 1,000 km and that 15 per cent of those were uncatalogued.用一架18厘米孔径望远镜和一架电荷耦合器件(CCD)摄像机进行观测调查表明,可观测到1,000公里高度上直径30厘米以上的物体,这些物体中有15%未列入目录。
For GEO observation, a field-programmable gate array board that can analyse 32 frames with a resolution of up to 4,096 x 4,096 pixels (commonly referred to as 4K x 4K) in 40 seconds confirmed that objects 14 cm in diameter were detectable by analysing CCD images taken with a one-metre telescope at the Bisei spaceguard centre.至于地球同步轨道观测,一组现场可编程逻辑门阵列可在40秒内分析32帧分辨率高达4,096 x 4,096(通常称为4Kx4K)像素图像,其结果证实,通过分析在美星太空防卫中心用1米孔径望远镜摄取的CCD图像,可测到直径14厘米的物体。
Compared with the current size limit for detecting objects in GEO, reported to be 1 metre, this result can be said to show that the technique is effective for detecting small fragments caused by break-ups in the GEO region.观测地球同步轨道物体目前的尺寸极限据报告为1米,与之相比,可以说这个结果表明这种技术可有效观测地球同步轨道区域物体解体产生的小块碎片。
2.3. In situ microdebris measurement system2.3. 现场微细碎片测量系统
For microdebris (less than 1 mm in diameter), which cannot be detected from the ground, JAXA is developing an on-board detector for in situ measurement.由于微细碎片(直径小于1毫米)无法从地面观测到,宇宙航空机构目前正在研发一种星载探测仪用于现场测量。
Its sensor, referred to as the space debris monitor, is the first to apply a sensing principle based on conductive (resistive) lines.这种探测仪上的传感器被称为空间碎片监测器,是最先应用以导(阻)线为基础的传感原理的传感器。
If such sensors were installed on a large number of spacecraft, the data acquired could help to improve the debris environment model.如果在大量航天器上安装这种传感器,获取的数据可帮助改进碎片环境预测模型。
The first such space debris monitor was launched with the H-II Transfer Vehicle Kounotori-5 (HTV-5) on 19 August 2015, for the first microdebris measurement experiment on the International Space Station using conductive (resistive) lines for detection.2015年8月19日用H-II东方白鹳号转移飞行器-5(HTV-5)发射了第一个此类空间碎片监测器,以便使用探测导(阻)线在国际空间站开展首次微细碎片测量实验。
JAXA is currently conducting an analysis of the data acquired.宇宙航空机构目前正在对获取的数据开展分析。
Currently, little is known about tiny debris and micrometeoroids in outer space, although having such knowledge is essential for impact risk assessment, for spacecraft survivability analysis and for designing cost-effective protection for spacecraft.关于外层空间的细小碎片和微流星,目前知之甚少,尽管掌握此类信息对碰撞风险评估、对航天器生存力分析和为航天器设计成本效益高的保护是不可或缺的。
It would be very welcome if the world’s space agencies launched such detectors on their spacecraft, shared the data collected and thus contributed to the improvement of the existing debris and meteoroid models.非常欢迎世界各国的空间机构发射装有此类探测器的航天器,并共享收集到的信息,从而为完善现有的碎片和流星模型做出贡献。
2.4. Protection from the impact of microdebris The amount of LEO microdebris (less than 1 mm in diameter) has increased. The impact of microdebris can inflict critical damage on satellites because its impact velocity is, on average, 10 km/s. To assess the effects of debris impact on satellites, JAXA is conducting hypervelocity impact tests and numerical simulations for structural panels and bumper shield materials. Internal damage to structure panels has also been investigated with the help of numerical simulations. The results of that research are reflected in the “Space debris protection design manual” (JAXA manual JERG-2-144-HB). The original version of the manual was published in 2009, and it was revised in 2014. JAXA has developed a debris impact risk assessment tool named Turandot. Turandot analyses debris impact risks using a three-dimensional model of a spacecraft. Turandot has been updated to apply the latest ESA debris environment model, MASTER-2009. 2.5. Development of a propellant tank that easily disintegrates during re-entry Propellant tanks are usually made of titanium alloys, which are superior because of their light weight and good chemical compatibility with the propellants used. However, their melting points are so high that they would generally not disintegrate during re-entry, and pose a risk of casualties on the ground. JAXA has conducted research to develop an aluminium-lined tank overwrapped with carbon composites, which will have a lower melting point. As a feasibility study, JAXA has conducted fundamental tests, including one to determine the compatibility of aluminium as a liner material with hydrazine propellant, and an arc heating test.2.4. 微细碎片撞击防护
JAXA has produced a prototype for a scale model named Trial 1. Vibration tests were conducted on a propellant management device to confirm its tolerance to the launch environment.近地轨道上的微细碎片(直径小于1毫米)数量增加。
The next step is trial production of the full-scale tank and a qualification test.微型碎片的撞击速度平均达到10公里/秒,其撞击会对卫星造成严重破坏。 宇宙航空机构为了评估碎片撞击对卫星的影响,正在对结构板和防护罩材料进行超高速撞击测试和数码模拟试验。
Once it has passed the qualification test, the tank will cost less and have a shorter manufacturing lead time than previous titanium tanks.另外还借助数码模拟对结构板受到的内部损伤进行检查。
2.6. Active debris removal这项研究的结果体现在《空间碎片防护设计手册》(宇宙航空机构手册JERG-2-144-HB)中。
JAXA is studying a cost-effective active debris removal system that can rendezvous with and capture non-cooperative debris objects in crowded orbits to de-orbit them.该手册的第一版于2009年出版,并于2014年修订。
Key technologies for realizing active debris removal have been studied, such as non-cooperative rendezvous using image sensors, and capture using extensible booms, harpoons and other approaches.宇宙航空机构研发了名为“图兰朵”的碎片撞击风险评估工具。
An electrodynamic tether system is promising not only because it can de-orbit debris without any propellant, but also because it is easy to attach to the debris object.“图兰朵”利用航天器的三维模型分析碎片撞击风险。
A flight demonstration of electrodynamic tethers is planned for the H-II Transfer Vehicle Kounotori-6 (HTV-6), and electrodynamic tether components are being manufactured and tested in 2015.为了应用欧空局最新的碎片环境模型MASTER-2009,对“图兰朵”进行了更新。
III. Replies received from international organizations2.5. 研发易于在再入大气层过程中解体的推进剂贮箱 推进剂贮箱通常用钛合金制造。
World Meteorological Organization钛合金重量轻,与使用的推进剂有良好的化学兼容性,因此是最适合的材料。
[Original: English]但是,由于钛合金的熔点极高,在再入大气层时一般不会解体,所以会对地面造成伤亡风险。 宇宙航空机构开展了研究,以研制一种铝衬贮箱,其外部裹有碳复合材料,这样就能降低贮箱的熔点。 作为一项可行性研究,宇宙航空机构进行了基本测试,包括一次确定铝衬材料与肼推进剂之间兼容性的测试和一次电弧加热测试。 宇宙航空机构生产了一种称为Trial 1的小比例模型原型。 对推进剂管理设备进行了振动试验,以确认其对发射环境的耐受性。 下一步是试产全比例燃料箱和进行合格测试。 一旦通过合格测试,燃料箱的成本将降低,交货所需的制造时间将少于从前的钛合金燃料箱。 2.6. 主动清除碎片 宇宙航空机构正在研究具有成本效益的主动清除碎片系统,该系统可在拥挤的轨道上会合并捕捉不合作的碎片物体以使其脱离轨道。 研究了实现主动清除碎片的关键技术,例如使用图像传感器会合不合作的碎片以及使用伸缩吊杆、叉杆和其他方法捕获碎片。 电动拖网系统前景光明,因为该系统不仅能使没有任何推进剂的碎片脱轨,还能轻易地缠绕住碎片物体。 计划对H-II东方白鹳号转移飞行器-5(HTV-6)进行一次电动拖网飞行演示,2015年正在制造和测试电动拖网组件。 三、 从国际组织收到的答复 世界气象组织 [原件:英文]
[10 August 2015][2015年8月10日]
WMO relies on the use of space-based assets for many essential activities, primarily for the observation of atmospheric and other environmental variables in support of weather prediction, climate monitoring, disaster risk reduction and other applications, as well as for telecommunications and satellite-based navigation.世界气象组织的多项关键活动都依靠使用空间资产,主要用于观测大气和其他环境变量,以辅助天气预报、气候监测、减少灾害风险和其他应用,以及用于电信和卫星导航。
Therefore, the safety and sustainability of the use of space-based systems is an important concern.因此,空间系统的使用安全和可持续性是一个重要的问题。
In this respect, WMO values the efforts of the Office for Outer Space Affairs to foster collaboration and progress on the mitigation of the risk related to space debris.在这方面,世界气象组织重视外空事务厅为促进减缓空间碎片相关风险方面的协作和进展而付出的努力。
WMO will bring this issue to the attention of the Expert Team on Satellite Systems of the Commission for Basic Systems.世界气象组织将提请基本系统委员会卫星系统专家组注意这个问题。