E_RES_2008_26_e_E_RES_2008_26_c_EC
Correct misalignment Change languages order
E_RES_2008_26_e.doc (english) E_RES_2008_26_c.doc (chinese)
2008/262008/26
Promoting sustainability and integrality in alternative development as an important part of drug control strategy in States where illicit crops are grown to produce drugs促进替代发展的可持续性和综合性,以此作为存在种植非法作物以生产毒品现象的国家的药物管制战略的一个重要部分
The Economic and Social Council,经济及社会理事会,
Bearing in mind the provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988,铭记1961年《麻醉品单一公约》、 经1972年议定书 修正的该公约、1971年《精神药物公约》 和1988年《联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》 的各项规定,
Recalling the Political Declaration adopted by the General Assembly at its twentieth special session, in which Member States recognized that action against the world drug problem was a common and shared responsibility,回顾大会第二十届特别会议通过的《政治宣言》,会员国在其中确认采取行动解决世界毒品问题是一项共同的集体责任,
Reaffirming the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in particular the Millennium Development Goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger and ensuring environmental sustainability,重申联合国《千年宣言》,特别是消除极端贫困和饥饿以及确保环境可持续性的千年发展目标,
Reaffirming also its resolutions 2003/37 of 22 July 2003 and 2006/33 of 27 July 2006 and Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolutions 45/14 of 15 March 2002 and 48/9 of 11 March 2005,还重申其2003年7月22日第2003/37号决议和2006年7月27日第2006/33号决议以及麻醉药品委员会2002年3月15日第45/14号 和2005年3月11日第48/9号决议,
Taking into consideration the report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2005 and the report entitled Alternative Development: a Global Thematic Evaluation: Final Synthesis Report, prepared by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,考虑到国际麻醉品管制局2005年报告 和联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室编写的题为“替代发展:全球专题评价:最后综合报告”的报告,
Convinced that, in the review of the progress achieved in meeting the goals and targets set in the Political Declaration adopted by the General Assembly at its twentieth special session,101 there is a genuine need for the international community to assess the way alternative development has been practised in the past and ensure that, overall, the approaches to alternative development are fully implemented,深信在审查实现大会第二十届特别会议通过的《政治宣言》101所列目标和指标方面取得的进展的过程中,国际社会确实需要评估过去实施替代发展的方法,并确保总体而言替代发展的做法得到充分实施,
Recognizing the significant achievements and efforts of countries in South-East Asia in recent decades towards eliminating illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis and recognizing also the commitment of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to making South-East Asia free of illicit drugs by 2015,承认东南亚国家最近几十年在根除罂粟和大麻非法种植方面取得的重大成就和作出的重大努力,并承认东南亚国家联盟作出的到2015年使东南亚成为无非法药物区的承诺,
Recognizing also the significant achievements of the Andean countries in the implementation of alternative development and preventive alternative development programmes, as presented in the fifth report of the Executive Director on the world drug problem, and noting that those achievements were attained in accordance with national specificities, with significant national resources and with the support of international cooperation,还承认正如执行主任关于世界毒品问题的第五次报告 中所述,安第斯国家在实施替代发展和预防性替代发展方案方面取得了重大成就,并注意到这些成就是在国际合作的支持下,利用大量国内资源并根据本国国情取得的,
Recognizing further the success of the long-term, holistic and integrated approach to solving the problem of opium poppy cultivation, including its correlation with poverty, that has been applied for forty years in national and international programmes in Thailand, which led the United Nations Development Programme in May 2006 to present the first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award to King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand as the initiator of that approach,又承认泰国四十年来为解决罂粟种植问题,包括其与贫困的相互关系而在国家和国际方案中采取的长期、全面、综合办法取得了成功,由于这一成功,联合国开发计划署在2006年5月向该办法的创始者、泰国国王普密蓬 阿杜德颁发了第一个人类发展终身成就奖,
Acknowledging that the success of alternative development and preventive alternative development, as appropriate, may be dependent upon, inter alia, the following essential elements:认识到酌情促进替代发展和预防性替代发展要想取得成功,除其他外,可能取决于下列基本要素:
(a) Long-term investments by Governments and international donors;(a) 国家政府和国际捐助方进行长期投资;
(b) The efficiency of national institutions responsible for drug control policies and of institutions related to the promotion of alternative development;(b) 负责药物管制政策的国家机构和与促进替代发展有关的机构效率较高;
(c) Synergy and trust among the Government, local administrations and communities in building local ownership;(c) 国家政府、地方行政机关和社区之间在增强当地自主精神方面相互信任,协同增效;
(d) An adequate response to human needs and dignity in the context of sustainable rural development and community self-reliance;(d) 在乡村可持续发展和社区自力更生情况下对人的需要给予充分满足;
(e) The creation of a value chain by utilizing local wisdom, capacity-building, marketing and entrepreneurship;(e) 利用当地智慧、能力建设、营销和创业技能建立价值链;
(f) Broader market access for alternative development products consistent with national and international obligations and consideration of measures to facilitate access and positioning in markets for alternative development products, taking into account applicable multilateral trade rules,(f) 对符合国家和国际义务的替代发展产品提供更广泛的市场准入,并考虑采取措施,便利替代发展产品进入市场和在市场上占有一席之地,同时顾及适用的多边贸易规则,
1.1.
Recalls the Action Plan on International Cooperation on the Eradication of Illicit Drug Crops and on Alternative Development, which continues to have practical relevance and in which it is stated that alternative development is an important component of a balanced and comprehensive illicit crop eradication strategy and is intended to promote lawful and sustainable socio-economic options for those communities and population groups that have resorted to illicit cultivation as their only viable means of obtaining a livelihood, contributing in an integrated way to the eradication of poverty;回顾《开展国际合作根除非法药用作物和促进替代发展行动计划》, 该计划仍具有切实意义,其中指出,替代发展是平衡兼顾的根除非法作物综合战略的一个重要组成部分,目的在于促进为那些以非法种植为唯一可行谋生手段的社区和人群提供各种合法的、可持续的社会和经济选择,从而以综合的方式协助消除贫困;
2.2.
Emphasizes that the problem of illicit production of narcotic drugs is often related to development problems, in particular poverty, poor health conditions and illiteracy, and that it must be tackled in a larger development context through a holistic and integrated approach;强调麻醉药品非法生产问题往往与发展问题,特别是与贫困、健康状况恶劣和文盲相关,因此必须采取全面、综合的办法,在更大的发展背景下解决这一问题;
3.3.
Agrees on the relevance of enhancing alternative development and preventive alternative development, as appropriate, in a manner focusing on the sustainability and integrality of uplifting people’s livelihood, and recommends that such elements be considered by relevant bodies in the United Nations system;同意以侧重可持续和综合地提高人民生活水平的方式酌情加强替代发展和预防性替代发展具有适切性,建议联合国系统各相关机构考虑这些要素;
4.4.
Recognizes the significant role played by developing countries with extensive expertise in alternative development and preventive alternative development and the importance of outreach activities aimed at promoting a set of best practices and lessons learned in that area and sharing those best practices and lessons learned with States affected by illicit crop cultivation, including those emerging from conflict, with a view to using them, where appropriate, in accordance with national specificities of each State;认识到在替代发展和预防性替代发展方面具有广泛专长的发展中国家发挥了重要作用,以及必须开展宣传活动,推广该领域的一套最佳做法和经验教训,并与受非法作物种植影响的国家,包括新近摆脱冲突的国家,分享这些最佳做法和经验教训,以便根据各国的具体国情酌情利用这些最佳做法和经验教训;
5.5.
Urges donor Governments, as well as multilateral, international and regional financial institutions, in conformity with the principle of shared responsibility and as a sign of their commitment to fighting illicit drugs in a comprehensive and balanced manner, to redouble their efforts to enhance international cooperation, especially trilateral cooperation aimed at utilizing the expertise of developing countries and the financial support of developed countries in assisting other developing countries in reducing illicit drug crops through alternative development and preventive alternative development, as appropriate, and to consider increasing their financial and material support and technical assistance and providing a flexible and sufficiently long-term commitment to States affected by illicit crop cultivation;敦促捐助国政府以及多边、国际和区域金融机构根据分担责任的原则,并作为它们致力于以全面均衡的方式打击非法药物的一个信号,进一步努力加强国际合作,特别是三边合作,以利用发展中国家的专长和发达国家的财务支助,通过替代发展和适当的预防性替代发展,减少非法麻醉品作物,并考虑增加它们的财务和物质支助以及技术援助,对受非法作物种植影响的国家作出灵活和足够长期的承诺;
6.6.
Commends the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime for its continued and progressive work on alternative development, described in its report entitled Alternative Development: A Global Thematic Evaluation: Final Synthesis Report,108 especially the lessons learned and the recommendations contained therein, and acknowledges the need to consider providing the Office with additional funding in that area;赞扬联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室在替代发展方面所作的持续和循序渐进的工作,如其题为“替代发展:全球专题评价:最后综合报告”的报告108所述,特别是该报告中所载的经验教训和建议,并承认需要考虑在这一领域向该办公室提供更多的资金;
7.7.
Calls upon Member States, consistent with their national and international obligations, and relevant international organizations to consider measures to enable products of alternative development to have easier access to markets, taking into account applicable multilateral trade rules;呼吁会员国(根据其国家和国际义务)及有关国际组织考虑采取措施,使替代发展产品能够更容易地进入市场,同时顾及可适用的多边贸易规则;
8.8.
Encourages Member States, in the context of the review of the progress achieved in meeting the goals and targets set in the Political Declaration adopted by the General Assembly at its twentieth special session,101 to consider developing a set of international guiding principles on alternative development, based on the sharing of best practices and lessons learned in different countries and regions, and acknowledging the best practices and lessons learned in sustainable alternative livelihood development of Thailand, annexed to the present resolution;鼓励会员国结合审查在实现大会第二十届特别会议通过的《政治宣言》101所列目标和指标方面取得的进展,在不同国家和区域交流最佳做法和经验教训的基础上,考虑拟定一套替代发展国际指导原则,并确认本决议所附的泰国可持续替代生计发展方面的最佳做法和经验教训;
9.9.
Requests the Secretary-General to transmit the text of the present resolution to multilateral, international and regional financial institutions and to all Governments for consideration and implementation;请秘书长将本决议案文转发多边、国际和区域金融机构,并转发各国政府供其考虑和实施;
10.10.
Requests the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to report to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its fifty-second session on the implementation of the present resolution.请联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室执行主任向麻醉药品委员会第五十二届会议报告本决议的执行情况。
Annex附件
Best practices and lessons learned in sustainable alternative livelihood development of Thailand泰国可持续替代生计发展方面的最佳做法和经验教训
1. First and foremost, alternative development, which in the context of the Thai experience is referred to as “sustainable alternative livelihood development”, must be people-centred. The Doi Tung development project in Thailand served as the model for the present set of best practices and lessons learned. The outlook, design and implementation were developed taking into account a fundamental question: how will people benefit from this project? That became the key performance indicator for the project.1. 首先,替代发展(在泰国的经验中称为”可持续替代生计发展”)必须以人为本。泰国的Doi Tung发展项目是目前一套最佳做法和经验教训的典范。这个项目的前景、设计和实施均考虑到一个基本的问题:项目如何让人民获益?在这个项目中,该问题已经成为关键的绩效指标。
2. The main objective of sustainable alternative livelihood development is to transform poor and vulnerable communities, especially in rural areas, from social and economic dependency or sub-sufficiency to full socio-economic sufficiency, in a participatory manner and at a pace appropriate to each stage, to allow the changes to be accepted and introduced by the communities.2.
Keeping in mind the goal of sustainability, development practitioners should see their role as facilitators of progress and should plan their exit strategy to enable the communities to continue the activities without external intervention.可持续替代生计发展的主要目标是,以适合每一阶段的速度,让贫困脆弱的社区,特别是农村地区的这类社区,共同参与摆脱社会和经济依赖或自给不足的状态,实现社会和经济的充分自足,这样就能让社区接受并实施变革。铭记可持续性这一目标,发展工作者应当将其所发挥的作用看作是为进步提供便利条件,因此,应当做好退场战略的计划,以便使各个社区在没有外来干预的情况下继续开展这类活动。
3. Sustainability in this context means that the communities have sufficient economic capacity in their factors of production and marketing and are able to maintain equitable social and cultural integrity and live in harmony with their natural environment (coexist with nature). With this definition in mind, sufficient health care must be made available because sick people cannot be economically productive. Ideally, an income-generating mechanism should be employed that allows people and a healthy natural environment to benefit greatly from one another. Continuous education will ensure that future generations will be able to pursue legitimate livelihoods, cope with the pressures of globalization and create for themselves opportunities for growth.3. 这一背景下的可持续性指的是,社区在其生产和营销要素上具有充分的经济能力,能够继续保证各自的社会和文化完好无损,与自然环境和谐相处(与自然共存)。考虑到这一定义,必须提供充足的医疗保健,因为患病的人是无法从事经济生产活动的。最好是有一种能够让人与健康的自然环境共生共荣的创收机制。坚持不懈地进行教育就能确保子孙后代均能够从事合法生计、应对全球化所造成的压力以及为自己创造增长的机遇。
4. When applying sustainable alternative livelihood development in the context of drug control, the eradication of illicit crops should not be the only immediate goal.4.
The progressive introduction of viable alternative livelihoods in the broader context of rural development is needed to tackle the root cause of illicit crop cultivation — poverty — without severely curtailing the only available means of survival of the people involved.如果从药物管制的角度来实施可持续替代生计发展,当务之急则并不仅是根除非法作物。而是需要从农村发展的大局出发,逐步推行实际可行的可持续生计活动,以解决贫困这一造成非法作物种植的根源问题,同时又不严重影响所涉人员的唯一谋生之道。
5. Activities that provide people with alternative cash income and/or produce immediate health or social benefits within the first few months or days (so-called quick hits) are vital to building trust and enabling an immediate transition from illegitimate to legitimate sources of income, which can begin to transform the economic prospects of a community.5.
Successful quick hits build confidence and strengthen cooperation among stakeholders at all levels, from people at the grass-roots level and local authorities to leaders at the national level.建立信任并从依赖非法收入立刻转为依赖合法收入,关键在于,在头几个月或头几天内就开展向人们提供替代现金收入和(或)给他们带来直接的健康或社会效益的活动(所谓快速疗法),这样就能使社区的经济前景出现起色。快速疗法如获成功,从普通民众、地方政府一直到国家一级领导人等各级利益攸关者便都能树立信心,加强彼此之间的合作。
6. Medium-term and long-term activities are introduced simultaneously in order to ensure that the economic and social benefits are long-lasting and that the areas concerned remain free of illicit drug cultivation for a long time.6.
Development activities must be based on continuity: each activity should lead into another, build on the success of previous initiatives and, over time, increase the hope and capabilities of the persons involved.将同时展开中期和长期活动,目的是确保,这些活动能够产生长期的经济和社会效益,而且有关地区能够长期摆脱非法药物的种植。发展活动必须具有连续性:各项活动逐个递进,将过往举措的成功经验作为前进的依托,从而逐步提高有关人员的希望和能力。
7. It is necessary to achieve a balance between a bottom-up and a top-down approach. Strong and committed leadership is required to ensure that development policies and activities are based on a true understanding of the needs and concerns of the target communities at the grass-roots level. Clear and constant communication is critical, especially at the beginning, for knowledge and experiences to be transferred not only from development practitioners but also to them.7. 必须兼顾自下而上和自上而下两种做法。为了确保发展政策和活动建立在真正了解基层目标社区的需要和关切的基础之上,领导必须既坚强有力,又具有献身精神。明确而不间断的交流至关重要,尤其在初期阶段,因为发展工作者不仅是知识和经验的传授方,而且也是接受方。
8. Viable livelihoods should be available to all members of the community: the young and the elderly; the fit and the infirm; and men and women alike. Having a variety of income-generating activities may serve as a safeguard against weakened interests in an individual product or activity. Livelihood diversification is in fact a major success factor in sustainable alternative livelihood development (single-crop solutions are rarely sustainable).8. 应当向社区所有成员提供实际可行的生计,不论是年轻人还是老人,健康者还是体弱者,男子还是妇女。创收活动繁多不一,即便对某一项产品或活动兴趣减退,也能保障生计。生计多样化事实上是确保可持续替代生计发展取得成功的一个主要因素(单个作物解决办法极少具有可持续性)。
9. Combining local wisdom and available resources with a market-driven product development approach and effective management will lead to the creation of a viable value chain at the local level. Revenue from value-added goods locally manufactured by such an enterprise must contribute to the social benefits of the target communities and society in general. Such social entrepreneurship — the practice of using business profits to generate social goods — can lead to real socio-economic sustainability.9. 结合当地的智慧和可利用的资源,采取面向市场开发产品的做法,并加以有效的管理,这样就能在地方一级建立起一种实际可行的价值链。这类企业在当地制造的增值产品所创造的收入必须提高目标社区和整个社会的社会效益。这类社会企业家做法——利用企业的利润创造社会物品的做法——能够形成真正的社会、经济可持续性。
10. To ensure that development objectives are realized as expected, mechanisms must be in place to allow frequent assessments and necessary adjustments, starting with comprehensive census baseline data captured through both qualitative and quantitative development indicators.10.
Project monitoring and evaluation hold development practitioners accountable for their action, and that is crucial, as people’s lives depend on the performance of those practitioners and imprudent and uncaring development often has adverse effects.为了确保如期实现发展目标,就必须建立能够加以经常评估和必要调整的一些机制,首先是通过定性和定量发展指标获得人口普查综合基线数据。项目监督与评估要求发展工作者对其行动负责,这一要求至为重要,因为人们的生计依赖于这些工作者的工作成绩,发展工作疏忽大意常常会造成不利的后果。
11. Ultimately, the key to sustainable alternative livelihood development is community ownership, where capacities and economic activities have been developed to such an extent that the communities can become owners in their ventures instead of serving only as contract farmers or employees.11.
Community ownership means not only physical ownership of the enterprises but also emotional ownership, on the part of the community, of its own development and future, from the very start.最后,实现可持续替代生计发展的关键是确保社区所有,也就是说,能力和经济活动得到充分发展,社区已经能够成为其企业的所有人,而不只是承包农民或雇员。社区所有不仅是指对企业的实际拥有,而且还是指社区一开始就从情感上将企业的发展与未来视同由自己主宰。
12.12.
Since the issue of sustainability envisages the long-term commitment of all parties involved, it also calls for longer-term and sufficiently flexible funding from a variety of sources, including Governments, international organizations, multilateral financial institutions and other donors and development partners.由于可持续性问题设想所涉各方将作出长期承诺,因此就需要各种来源,包括各国政府、国际组织、多边金融机构和其他捐助方与发展伙伴提供较长期且充分灵活的资金。
42nd plenary meeting 24 July 20082008年7月24日
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 520, No. 7515.第42次全体会议
Ibid., vol. 976, No. 14152.联合国,《条约汇编》,第520卷,第7515号。
Ibid., vol. 1019, No. 14956.同上,第976卷,第14152号。 同上,第1019卷,第14956号。
Ibid., vol. 1582, No. 27627.同上,第1582卷,第27627号。 大会S-20/2号决议,附件。
General Assembly resolution S-20/2, annex. Ibid., para. 2.同上,第2段。
See General Assembly resolution 55/2.见大会第55/2号决议。
See, inter alia, A/56/326, annex, and A/58/323, annex.除其他外,见A/56/326,附件,和A/58/323,附件。
See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2002, Supplement No. 8 and corrigenda (E/2002/28 and Corr.1 and 2), chap. I, sect. C.《经济及社会理事会,正式记录,2002年,补编第8号》和更正(E/2002/28及Corr.1和2),第一章,C节。
Ibid., 2005, Supplement No. 8 (E/2005/28/Rev.1), part one, chap. I, sect. D.同上,《2005年,补编第8号》(E/2005/28/Rev.1),第一部分,第一章,D节。
Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2005 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.06.XI.2).《国际麻醉品管制局2005年报告》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.06.XI.2)。
United Nations publication, Sales No. E.05.XI.13.联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.05.XI.13。
E/CN.7/2008/2 and Add.1-6.E/CN.7/2008/2和Add.1-6。
General Assembly resolution S-20/4E.大会S-20/4 E号决议。
Ibid., para. 17.同上,第17段。