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A/AC.105/C.1/111/ADD.1 V1610037.docx (English)A/AC.105/C.1/111/ADD.1 V1610036.docx (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
General Assembly大 会
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
24 November 201624 November 2016
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
V.16-10037 (E) 011216 021216V.16-10036 (C) 161216 161216
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Fifty-fourth session第五十四届会议
Vienna, 30 January-10 February 20172017年1月30日至2月10日,维也纳
Item 7 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目7
Space debris空间碎片
National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris各国对空间碎片、核动力源空间物体的安全以及这些物体与空间碎片的碰撞问题的研究
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Replies received from Member States从成员国收到的答复
Reply received from Member States从成员国收到的答复
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[24 November 2016][2016年11月24日]
Research activities on issues related to space debris are conducted in Germany in all relevant fields, including space debris environment modelling, observation of space debris, technology development for observations, studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact on spacecraft, and protection of space systems from impact of micrometeoroids and space debris. German experts actively participate in relevant international forums in the field of space debris research and space safety, inter alia, the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), and in international standardization activities in the field of space debris mitigation. German industry and academia are also involved in technology developments to serve the long-term sustainable use of outer space and protection of the Earth. For space projects of the Space Administration of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), space debris mitigation requirements are a mandatory part of the product assurance and safety requirements for DLR space projects. Those requirements ensure the implementation of internationally recognized mitigation measures, including those identified in the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of IADC and the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
The general objectives are to limit the creation of new space debris and thus to mitigate the risk to current and future space missions and the risk to human life.在德国,正在所有相关领域开展关于空间碎片相关问题的研究活动,包括空间碎片环境建模、空间碎片观测、超高速撞击对航天器的影响研究以及保护空间系统不受微流星和空间碎片的撞击等。
The measures to be adopted in order to achieve these objectives include the conduct of a formal space debris mitigation assessment;德国专家积极参加空间碎片研究和空间安全领域的相关国际论坛,尤其是机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)和空间碎片减缓领域的国际标准化活动。
specific design measures to prevent the release of mission-related objects, fragmentations, malfunctioning, and on-orbit collisions, as well as measures pertaining to passivation, end-of-life disposal and re-entry safety.德国工业界和学术界也参与有助于长期可持续利用外层空间和保护地球的技术开发。 对于德国航空航天中心(德国航天中心)空间管理处的空间项目而言,空间碎片减缓要求是德国航天中心空间项目产品保证和安全要求的强制性组成部分。
In order to establish a national space surveillance competence, capabilities for generating and utilizing sensor data are needed, e.g., to establish a space object catalogue or to perform orbit determination.这些要求确保国际公认的减缓措施得到实施,包括空间碎片协委会《空间碎片减缓准则》及和平利用外层空间委员会《空间碎片减缓准则》中确认的措施。
Such an object catalogue is the backbone of space situational awareness operations.总体目标是限制产生新的空间碎片,从而减缓对现有和今后的空间飞行任务以及对人类生命造成的风险。
The development of this end-to-end capability requires a coordinated programme of work, covering many different aspects.为实现这些目标应当采取的措施包括开展正式的空间碎片减缓评估;
Such a programme is running at the DLR Space Administration and began with the development and commissioning of the German Experimental Space Surveillance and Tracking Radar (GESTRA) in 2015.采取具体的设计措施,以防止释放与飞行任务有关的物体、碎片化、故障和在轨碰撞,以及与钝化、寿终处置和再入大气层安全有关的措施。
GESTRA, which is being developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques, is an experimental system to determine orbital information in low Earth orbit;为建立国家空间监测能力,国家必须有能力生成和利用传感器数据,目的包括建立空间物体目录或进行轨道测定。
testing is expected to start at the end of 2017.这种空间物体目录是空间态势认知业务的基础。
Novel concepts for space surveillance with radar are also being studied at the same institute.发展这种端对端能力需要协调一致、覆盖多个不同方面的工作方案。
Using a newly developed software tool at the Institute for Space Systems (IRS) at the Technical University of Braunschweig sensor measurements are being simulated.德国航天中心空间管理处正在实施这样一个方案,该方案的第一步就是于2015年对德国实验性空间监测和跟踪雷达(GESTRA)进行调试。
Based on the simulated data, key functionalities including object correlation, orbit determination and creation of an object database are implemented.GESTRA正由弗劳恩霍夫高频物理学和雷达技术研究所进行研发,它是一个旨在确定低地轨道上的轨道信息的实验性系统;
Complementary methods for orbit determination and propagation are being investigated so as to ensure the availability of fast and accurate methods available within the process chain of a simulated space surveillance system.预计该系统将于2017年底开始测试。 同一个研究所还正在研究用雷达监测空间的新的构想。 正在使用布伦瑞克技术大学空间系统研究所新开发的软件工具模拟传感器测量。
An optical telescope will be installed to observe space debris and support research activities.在模拟数据的基础上,实施了物体关联性、轨道测定和建立物体数据库等关键功能。
At the same institute, analyses of the long-term evolution of the space debris environment are being conducted using long-term propagations of that environment.目前正在研究关于轨道测定和预报的补充方法,以确保在模拟空间监测系统处理链范围内可以使用快速和准确的方法。
Such analyses are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures and are being used in studies by IADC.将安装一个光学望远镜,以观测空间碎片并为研究活动提供支持。 在同一个研究所,正在利用对空间碎片环境的长期预报来分析该环境的长期演变情况。
The studies take into account recently observed changes in the launch rate and mission types, i.e., the increasing number of small satellites and potential megaconstellations in low Earth orbit.这种分析是用来评估空间碎片减缓措施的有效性的重要工具,并被空间碎片协委会用于其各项研究中。 此类研究考虑到最近观察到的发射率和飞行任务类型的变化,即低地轨道上有越来越多的小型卫星以及可能的庞大星座。
Efforts are under way to develop a network of optical stations at DLR in close cooperation with the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, Switzerland.德国航天中心正与瑞士伯尔尼大学天文学研究所密切合作,努力建设一个光学台站网络。
It is intended for the monitoring of the geostationary regions and related orbits to support research on collision avoidance and other scientific topics.该网络计划用于监测对地静止轨道区和相关轨道,以便为避免碰撞和开展科学专题研究提供支持。
Telescopes will be operated remotely and data will encompass objects larger than approximately 50 cm in geostationary orbit.这些望远镜将被远程操作,数据将包括对地静止轨道上约50厘米以上的物体。
The first station will be set up at the Sutherland Observatory in South Africa in March 2017.第一个台站将于2017年3月在南非萨瑟兰观测站设立。
In successful test campaigns, objects fainter than magnitude 18 were detected and their positions measured.在成功的测试活动中,探测到了18星等以上的物体,并对其位置进行了测量。
The precision of the derived orbits was better than 200 m in all three dimensions, and clustered satellites were resolved unambiguously.所得到轨道的精确度在所有三个维度均优于200米,簇状卫星也得到清晰的分辨。
In a joint effort between the Simulation and Software Technology facility and the Space Operations and Astronaut Training facility, both at DLR, a software system for space surveillance is being developed.在德国航天中心下属的仿真与软件技术研究所和空间活动与航天员培训部联合开展的一个项目中,正在开发一个空间监测软件系统。
Central to the project is the Backbone Catalogue of Relational Debris Information, an orbital database for objects in Earth orbit.该项目的核心是关系型碎片信息基础目录,这是一个关于地球轨道上物体的轨道数据库。
The main research topics are object correlation using observations from different sensors, orbit determination and orbit propagation, including state vector and state uncertainty.主要研究课题是物体相关性(利用不同传感器的观测)、轨道测定和轨道预报,包括状态向量和状态不确定性。
The orbital database will be used primarily to predict close approaches for purposes of collision avoidance, but it can be expanded to include other uses.轨道数据库主要用于预测近距离接近,以避免碰撞,但可加以扩展以纳入其他用途。 研究课题包括比较不同轨道预报模型的准确性。
Research topics include comparison of the accuracy of different orbit propagators.德国航天中心和天文学研究所正在建设的光学望远镜网络将提供供该系统处理的第一批观测数据。
The optical telescope network being developed between DLR and the Astronomical Institute will provide the first observational data to be processed by the system.德国航天中心技术物理学研究所在运作一个空间碎片光学观测站以便为研究和开发活动服务。
An optical space debris observation station is operated by the DLR Institute of Technical Physics for research and development.该观测站配备了一个17英寸的达尔–奇克汉望远镜和各种高端照相机系统。
The station is equipped with a 17-inch Dall-Kirkham telescope and various high-end camera systems.它的飞行时间激光系统已投入运作,并成功地测量了距低地轨道上的物体的距离。
Its time-of-flight laser system is operational and has successfully measured the distance to objects in low Earth orbit.该系统结合被动式光学追踪,可实现在轨物体过站期间对在轨物体的三维追踪,其准确度达到几米。
In combination with passive optical tracking, this system can realize three-dimensional tracking of orbital objects during station passage to an accuracy of a few metres.此外,盯准追踪程序得到成功演示,它允许跟踪未编入目录的物体。 目前正在建设一个移动激光光学地面站,以便对空间碎片进行激光跟踪。
In addition, optical stare and chase procedures were demonstrated successfully, allowing for the tracking of uncatalogued objects.航天器外壳上使用的材料暴露于恶劣的空间环境会导致其降解。
A mobile laser-optical ground station for laser tracking of space debris is currently in development.主要的威胁包括带电粒子辐射、紫外线辐射、低地轨道原子氧、极端温度、热循环以及微流星体和碎片的撞击。
Materials on the exterior of spacecraft are exposed to the harsh environment of space, which causes degradation.各个威胁的相对影响取决于将要开展的飞行任务的类型、飞行任务的持续时间、太阳周期、太阳事件以及航天器将被放置的轨道。
The main threats are charged particle radiation, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling and the impact of micrometeoroids and debris.末级火箭上的涂料以及为维持运行温度在几乎所有航天器上使用的多层绝缘箔都是降解颗粒的来源。 在经验模型参数的基础上模拟了降解过程及小于1毫米的颗粒物的释放和产生。
The relative impact of the individual threats depends on the type of mission to be performed, the mission duration, the solar cycles, solar events and the orbit in which the spacecraft will be placed.主动清除空间碎片是德国各研究所的另一个研究领域。 研究活动涉及各种技术,包括传感器、捕获机制以及制导、导航和控制。
Sources of degradation particles are the paints applied on upper stages and multilayer insulation foils used on almost every spacecraft to maintain the operation temperature.弗劳恩霍夫高速动力学研究所即马赫研究所正在研究用来模拟航天器超高速撞击和随后的材料缺陷和碎裂过程的数字方法。
The degradation process and the inherent release and generation of particles smaller than 1 millimetre are simulated on the basis of empirical modelling parameters.将对小型模拟材料探头的撞击与在研究所高速撞击设施上进行的测试的结果进行了比较。
Active removal of space debris is an additional area of research at institutes in Germany.若干德国公司和研究组织参与了欧空局与空间碎片再入大气层有关的专题研究。
Research activities cover technologies including sensors, capture mechanisms, and guidance, navigation and control.可消亡材料定性项目的目标是增加关于再入大气层期间的材料特性和消亡过程的知识,以减少目前使用的再入大气层风险评估模拟工具的不确定性。
New numerical methods to simulate hypervelocity impacts on spacecraft and the subsequent material failure and fragmentation processes are being investigated at the Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut.为此目的使用了德国航天中心在科隆的高焓流风洞。 “设计对生成碎片的影响快速评估”活动的目的是开发新一代再入大气层分析工具,该工具将能够同时用于具有设计自动优化功能的各种工程设施。
Impacts on small, simulated material probes are compared with results from tests performed with the hypervelocity impact facilities of the institute.“消亡设计”研究的重点是找到关于航天器部件的创新性工程解决方案,以便在再入大气层期间实现尽可能多的消亡,从而减少地面风险。
Several German companies and research organizations are involved in European Space Agency studies addressing the topic of space debris re-entry.新的在轨翻滚分析工具将提供长期的六自由度预报模型,通过对目标物体翻滚率的可靠预测,为碎片清除任务提供支持。
The objectives of the Characterization of Demisable Materials (CHARDEM) project are to increase knowledge on material behaviour and demise processes during re-entry and reduce the uncertainties of the simulation tools currently used for re-entry risk assessment. The high-enthalpy-flow wind tunnels of DLR in Cologne, in particular, are used for this purpose. The Rapid Assessment of Design Impact on Debris Generation (RADID) activity is aimed at the development of a new generation re-entry analysis tool with the capability of being used concurrently in various engineering facilities with automatic design optimization features. “Design-for-Demise” (D4D) studies are focused on innovative engineering solutions for spacecraft components in order to achieve as much demise as possible during re-entry, consequently reducing the on-ground risk. The new In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis (ιOTA) tool will provide a long-term, six-degrees-of-freedom propagator, supporting future active debris removal missions with reliable predictions of the tumbling rates of the target object.