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Substantive session of 20092009年实质性会议
Geneva, 6-31 July 20092009年7月6日至31日,日内瓦
* E/2009/100.* E/2009/100。
Item 14 (d) of the provisional agenda*临时议程* 项目14(d)
Social and human rights questions: narcotic drugs社会和人权问题:麻醉药品
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 (New York, 8 August 1975)经《修正1961年麻醉品单一公约的议定书》修正的《1961年麻醉品单一公约》(1975年8月5日,纽约)
Proposal of amendments by Bolivia to article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e)玻利维亚对第四十九条第一项(3)款和第二项(5)款的修正提案
Note by the Secretary-General秘书长的说明
The Secretary-General has received a note verbale dated 12 March 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations, attached to which is a letter from the President of Bolivia, Evo Morales Ayma, dated 12 March 2009, in which the Government of Bolivia proposes to amend article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e), of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 (see annex).秘书长收到2009年3月12日玻利维亚常驻联合国代表团的普通照会。照会附有2009年3月12日玻利维亚总统埃沃 莫拉莱斯 艾玛的信。其中玻利维亚政府建议对经《修正1961年麻醉品单一公约的议定书》修正的《1961年麻醉品单一公约》第四十九条第一项(3)款和第二项(5)款进行修正(见附件)。
In accordance with article 47 (1) of the Convention, as amended, the Secretary-General, acting in his capacity as depositary, communicated to the Parties to the Convention the proposal of amendments and the reasons therefor received from Bolivia in a Depositary Notification dated 6 April 2009.根据经修正的《公约》第四十七条第㈠项,秘书长向经济及社会理事会转达玻利维亚提出的修正文本和理由。
Also in accordance with article 47 (1) of the Convention, as amended, the Secretary-General is hereby communicating to the Economic and Social Council the text of the amendments and the reasons therefor received from Bolivia.秘书长兹提及经修正的《公约》第四十七条第一项和第二项,其中规定:
The Secretary-General wishes to refer to article 47 (1) and (2) of the Convention, as amended, which provides that:一. 任何缔约国均得对本公约提出修正案。此项修正案连同理由书应送交秘书长转致各缔约国及理事会。理事会得决定采取下列程序之一:
1. Any Party may propose an amendment to this Convention. The text of any such amendment and the reasons therefor shall be communicated to the Secretary-General who shall communicate them to the Parties and to the Council. The Council may decide either: (a) That a conference shall be called in accordance with Article 62, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations to consider the proposed amendment; or (b) That the Parties shall be asked whether they accept the proposed amendment and also asked to submit to the Council any comments on the proposal.(1) 依联合国宪章第六十二条第四项的规定召集会议审议所提议的修正案;或
2. If a proposed amendment circulated under paragraph 1 (b) of this article has not been rejected by any Party within eighteen months after it has been circulated, it shall thereupon enter into force.(2) 查询各缔约国是否接受所提议之修正案,并请其向理事会提出关于此项提议的意见。 二.
If, however, a proposed amendment is rejected by any Party, the Council may decide, in the light of comments received from Parties, whether a conference shall be called to consider such amendment.依本条第一项(2)款所分发的修正案于分发之后十八个月内未受任何缔约国反对者,应随即发生效力。惟所提议的修正案如遭任何缔约国反对,理事会得参酌缔约国所提具的意见,决定应否召集会议审议此项修正案。
Note verbale dated 12 March 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General2009年3月12日玻利维亚常驻联合国代表团给秘书长的普通照会
[Original: Spanish][原件:西班牙文]
The Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Secretary-General and has the honour to transmit herewith a copy of the letter dated 12 March 2009 from the President of Bolivia, Evo Morales Ayma, addressed to the Secretary-General, relating to the deletion of article 49, paragraphs 2 (e) and 1 (c), of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (see enclosure).玻利维亚常驻联合国代表团向秘书长致意,谨随函转递2009年3月12日玻利维亚总统埃沃 莫拉莱斯 艾玛给秘书长的信,内容涉及删除《1961年麻醉品单一公约》第四十九条第二项(5)款和第一项(3)款(见附文)。
Letter dated 12 March 2009 from the President of Bolivia addressed to the Secretary-General2009年3月12日玻利维亚总统给秘书长的信
[Original: Spanish][原件:西班牙文]
I have the honour to address you on behalf of the Government of Bolivia to request that article 49, paragraphs 2 (e) and 1 (c), of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, be deleted in accordance with the procedures established in article 47 of the Convention.我谨代表玻利维亚政府向你提出请求,请求根据《1961年麻醉品单一公约》第四十七条的规定,删去《公约》第四十九条第二项(5)款和第一项(3)款。
Article 49, paragraph 2 (e), states that “coca leaf chewing must be abolished within twenty-five years from the coming into force of this Convention as provided in paragraph 1 of article 41”; paragraph 1 (c) states that a Party to the Convention may reserve the right to permit coca leaf chewing temporarily in any one of its territories, subject to the restrictions established in paragraph 2 (e), that is, for a period of no more than 25 years.第四十九条第二项(5)款规定,“咀嚼古柯叶须于本公约依第四十一条第一项的规定发生效力后二十五年内废除。”第一项(3)款规定,缔约国得保留权利暂准于其所辖任何领土内咀嚼古柯叶,且须受第二项(5)款限制,即在二十五年内废除。
Bolivia deposited its instrument of ratification of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 on 23 September 1976. Consequently, the Convention entered into force in Bolivia on 23 October 1976, and the period of 25 years referred to in article 49, paragraph 2 (e), elapsed in 2001.玻利维亚于1976年9月23日交存了《1961年麻醉品单一公约》批准书。因此,公约于1976年10月23日在玻利维亚生效,《公约》第四十九条第二项(5)款提及的25年到2001年截止。
Coca leaf chewing is a one-thousand-year-old ancestral practice of the Andean indigenous peoples that cannot and should not be prohibited.咀嚼古柯叶是安第斯土著人上千年的习惯,不能够也不应当被禁止。
The custom of chewing coca leaves in the Andean region of South America dates back to at least the year 3000 B.C. Historical evidence shows that the coca leaf has been used for thousands of years in Andean cultures (Incan and pre-Incan) and for centuries by Amazonian and Guarani cultures.在南美洲安第斯区域,咀嚼古柯叶的习俗至少可以追溯到公元前3000年。 历史证据显示,安第斯文化中,使用古柯叶已有数千年的历史(印加和印加时代之前),亚马逊和瓜拉尼咀嚼古柯叶的历史也达数百年之久。
Coca leaf chewing is one of the sociocultural practices and rituals of the Andean indigenous peoples. It is closely linked to our history and cultural identity.咀嚼古柯叶是安第斯土著人的一种社会文化习俗和仪式,与我们的历史和文化特性密不可分。
Today it is practised by millions of people in Bolivia, Peru, northern Argentina and Chile, Ecuador and Colombia. Its symbolic significance has ceremonial, religious and sociocultural connotations that transcend the sphere of indigenous cultures, extending also to mestizo groups.今天,玻利维亚、秘鲁、阿根廷北部、智利北部、厄瓜多尔和哥伦比亚仍有数百万人咀嚼古柯叶。它具有庆典、宗教和社会文化象征意义,早已超越了土著文化的界限,并延伸到混合人种。
Coca leaf chewing helps to relieve feelings of hunger, provides energy during long working days and improves metabolism at high altitude.咀嚼古柯叶有助于缓解饥饿感,长时间工作时可以补充能量,可以改善高纬度地区人的新陈代谢。
Coca leaf chewing does not harm human health in any way; nor does it give rise to any kind of complication or addiction. Chewing coca is not the same as consuming cocaine. The cocaine alkaloid that makes up less than 0.8 per cent of the coca leaf and is ingested orally through chewing is not stable in an acidic environment like the stomach and is hydrolyzed there.咀嚼古柯叶绝对不会损害人的健康,也不会造成任何并发症或成瘾。咀嚼古柯叶与吸食可卡因不同。古柯叶中,可卡因生物碱的含量不到0.8%,通过咀嚼摄入的含量在胃这样的酸性环境中呈不稳定状态,会被水解。
Bolivian society has provided abundant evidence that the use of the coca leaf is not harmful to health. At no time in Bolivia’s history has there been any clinical evidence of toxicity in patients or clinical reports of toxic effects among people who chew the coca leaf. In fact, no individuals have ever been admitted to drug dependency treatment centres for problems with addiction to coca leaf.玻利维亚社会提供了大量证据,说明使用古柯叶对健康无害。玻利维亚历史上,从来没有咀嚼古柯叶的病人中毒的临床证据或咀嚼古柯叶者有中毒反应的临床报告。事实上,没有任何人因咀嚼古柯叶成瘾而到戒毒治疗中心接受治疗。
Even the report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf of May 1950, which served as the basis for the 1961 Convention, states that “it does not ... appear that the chewing of the coca leaf can be regarded as a drug addiction in the medical sense”. The report considers coca leaf chewing to be a “habit”.甚至连古柯叶调查委员会1950年5月的报告都指出,“咀嚼古柯叶似乎不能......被认为是医学意义上的吸毒上瘾。” 这份报告是1961年《公约》的依据。该报告认为,咀嚼古柯叶只是一种“习惯”而已。
Nonetheless, the report, on the basis of erroneous non-scientific arguments that are loaded with sociocultural prejudices, proposes that coca leaf chewing should be “suppressed” because it supposedly “maintains, by a vicious circle, ... malnutrition”, “induces in the individual undesirable changes of an intellectual and moral character”, “certainly hinders the chewer’s chances of obtaining a higher social standard”, “reduces the economic yield of productive work, and therefore maintains a low economic standard of life”.尽管如此,报告依据充满社会文化偏见的非科学的错误论点,建议应当“制止”咀嚼古柯叶,因为据说它会“维持恶性循环,造成营养不良”,“使人的智力下降,道德败坏”,“肯定会妨碍咀嚼者获得更高的社会地位”,“降低生产劳动的经济效益,结果只能维持较低的经济生活水准。”
The objective of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is to control drug abuse, not to prohibit “habits” or sociocultural practices that do not harm human health. The restrictions on and prohibition of coca leaf chewing established in article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e), of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 constitute a violation of the rights of indigenous peoples set forth in, inter alia, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Convention No. 169 of the International Labour Organization, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions and the proclamation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the cosmovision of the Kallawaya people as a masterpiece of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity. Article 31 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples literally states: “indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions ... and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.” On 10 June 1990, when it deposited its instrument of ratification of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, the Republic of Bolivia formulated a reservation in which it stated that “the coca leaf is widely used and consumed in Bolivia, with the result that, if [the relevant interpretation of the paragraph in question] was accepted, a large part of Bolivia’s population could be considered criminals and punished as such; such an interpretation is therefore inapplicable”. The following recommendation from the Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2007 makes obvious the great misconception of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961:《1961年麻醉品单一公约》的目的是控制药物滥用,而不是禁止“习惯”或无损健康的社会文化习俗。
The Board calls upon the Governments of Bolivia and Peru to initiate action without delay with a view to eliminating uses of coca leaf, including coca leaf chewing, that are contrary to the 1961 Convention. The Governments of those countries and Colombia should strengthen their efforts against the illicit manufacture of and trafficking in cocaine. The Board calls on the international community to provide assistance to those countries towards achieving those objectives.《1961年麻醉品单一公约》第四十九条第一项(3)款和第二项(5)款构成侵犯土著人民的权利,特别是《联合国土著人民权利宣言》、《经济、社会、文化权利国际公约》、《国际劳工组织第169号公约》、《世界文化多样性宣言》、《保护和促进文化表现形式多样性公约》规定的土著人民的权利,以及联合国教育、科学和文化组织宣布卡拉瓦亚民族的宇宙信仰形式为人类口头和非物质遗产杰作时所确认的土著人民的权利。
In short, we request:《联合国土著人民权利宣言》第31条规定:
(a) That article 49, paragraph 1 (c), of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 be deleted, because the sociocultural practice of coca leaf chewing cannot be permitted temporarily as if it were doomed to disappear some day and as if it were an evil that should be permitted only for a transitional period; and“土著人民有权保持、掌管、保护和发展其文化遗产、传统知识和传统文化体现方式,以及其科学、技术和文化表现形式,包括人类和遗传资源、种子、医药、关于动植物群特性的知识、口述传统、......视觉和表演艺术。他们还有权保持、掌管、保护和发展自己对这些文化遗产、传统知识和传统文化体现方式的知识产权。” 1990年6月10日,玻利维亚共和国交存了对《联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》的批准书,但拟定了一项保留,其中指出:“玻利维亚广泛使用和消费古柯叶,因此,如果接收[所涉款项的相关解释],那么一大批玻利维亚民众将被视为罪犯并受到惩罚。因此,这种解释是不适用的”。
(b) That article 49, paragraph 2 (e), be deleted because it is a serious mistake to seek to abolish coca leaf chewing within 25 years.国际麻醉品管制局2007年报告的下列建议显然突出了《1961年麻醉品单一公约》中的重大误解: 麻管局呼吁玻利维亚和秘鲁政府,毫不拖延地着手开展行动,以消除使用古柯叶的现象,包括咀嚼古柯叶,因为这种做法与《1961年公约》背道而驰。这些国家和哥伦比亚政府应加强努力,打击可卡因的非法生产和贩运。麻管局呼吁国际社会协助这些国家实现这些目标。 简言之,我们请求:
I am certain that, with the support of the entire international community, we can rectify these two serious errors in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961.(a) 删除《1961年麻醉品单一公约》第四十九条第一项(3)款,因为对咀嚼古柯叶的社会文化习俗不能是暂时给予允许,而似乎迟早要予以取缔,似乎认为这是一种罪恶现象,只能在一个过渡时期内允许其存在;
(Signed) Evo Morales Ayma President of the Republic of Bolivia(b) 删除《1961年麻醉品单一公约》第四十九条第二项(5)款,因为在25年内废除咀嚼古柯叶根本就是错误的。
As amended by the Protocol of 25 March 1972.我相信,在整个国际社会的支持下,我们可以纠正《1961年麻醉品单一公约》中的这两个谬误。
Anthony Henman, in Mama Coca (1992:65), estimates that the custom of coca leaf chewing dates back 4,500 years.玻利维亚共和国总统
A study on legal uses of the coca leaf in Bolivia is currently being conducted with a view to determining how many people chew coca leaf in Bolivia.埃沃 莫拉莱斯 艾玛(签名)
Roderick E.经1972年3月25日《议定书》修正。 Anthony Henman在“Mama Coca (1992:65)”中估计,咀嚼古柯叶的习俗可以追溯到4500年前。 目前玻利维亚正在对合法咀嚼古柯叶的问题进行研究,以确定玻利维亚有多少人咀嚼古柯叶。 Roderick E.
Burchard and Nieschulz in the study “Coca sagrada o ilegal” (“Coca: sacred or illegal”).Burchard和Nieschulz的研究论文“Coca sagrada on ilegal”(“Coca:sacred or illegal”)。
Report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf (May 1950).古柯叶调查委员会的报告(1950年5月)。
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5 09-339385 09-33937 (C)
United Nations联合国
Economic and Social Council经济及社会理事会
: General: General
15 May 200915 May 2009
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
09-33938 (E) 19050909-33937 (C) 190509 190509
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