A_AC_105_C_1_100_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/100 V1187203.doc (English)A/AC.105/C.1/100 V1187202.doc (Chinese)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Forty-ninth session第四十九届会议
Vienna, 6-17 February 20122012年2月6日至17日,维也纳
Item 12 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目12
Near-Earth objects近地天体
Information on research in the field of near-Earth objects carried out by Member States, international organizations and other entities各会员国、国际组织和其他实体在近地天体领域开展研究的情况
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.
At its forty-eighth session, in 2011, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space endorsed the agreement of the Working Group on Near-Earth Objects to continue its multi-year workplan in 2012 and 2013 (A/AC.105/987, para. 165).1. 和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会在2011年第四十八届会议上核可了近体天体工作组在2012年和2013年继续执行其多年期工作计划的一致意见(A/AC.105/987,第165段)。
In accordance with the workplan, the Subcommittee will, at its forty-ninth session, in 2012, consider reports submitted in response to the annual request for information from member States, international organizations and other entities on their near-Earth object (NEO) activities (A/AC.105/987, annex III, para. 9).按照该工作计划,小组委员会将在2012年第四十九届会议上审议根据每年由各会员国、国际组织和其他实体提供近地天体活动相关信息的请求而提交的报告(A/AC.105/987,附件三,第9段)。
2.
The present document contains information received from Japan and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Committee on Space Research, the International Astronomical Union, the Secure World Foundation and the Space Generation Advisory Council.2. 本文件载有从日本和大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国以及空间研究委员会、国际天文学联盟、世界安全基金会和航天新一代咨询理事会收到的信息。
II. Replies received from Member States二. 从会员国收到的答复
Japan日本
[Original: English] [31 October 2011][原件:英文] [2011年10月31日]
Near-Earth objects project近地天体项目
Japanese NEO activities started with the establishment of the Japan Spaceguard Association (JSGA) in 1996.日本的近地天体活动是1996年日本空间护卫协会成立时开始的。
JSGA constructed a 1-metre-wide field telescope for NEO detection, which became operational in 2002 and was used mainly for follow-up observations.日本空间护卫协会建造了一台1米宽视场望远镜用于近地天体探测,该望远镜于2002年启用,主要用于跟踪观测。
JSGA improved the telescope in 2006, and it is now able to detect NEOs down to a magnitude of 20.5, which is comparable to detections by the Catalina Sky Survey and the Spacewatch programme in the United States of America.日本空间护卫协会于2006年对这座望远镜进行了改进,现在该望远镜能够探测到20.5星等的近地天体,与美利坚合众国的卡特琳娜巡天方案和太空观察方案的探测等级相当。
A list of NEO follow-up observations is shown in the table.下表列有近地天体跟踪观测清单。
Near-Earth object observations by the Japan Spaceguard Association (as at September 2011)日本空间护卫协会的近地天体观测 (截至2011年9月)
Near-Earth asteroid (NEA)近地小行星
Comets彗星
Year年份
Number of observed objects观察到的
天体数量
Number of position measurements位置测量次数
Sum of position measurements Number of observed objects位置测量总数
观测到的
天体数量
Sum of position measurements位置测量
总数
20002000
2323
205205
4 2404 240
2020
113113
20012001
2929
560560
5 9075 907
1616
275275
20022002
2424
243243
2 0182 018
1313
339339
20032003
5454
567567
4 9384 938
1818
165165
20042004
2323
233233
2 9082 908
44
2020
20052005
88
4242
2 4312 431
00
00
20062006
2525
297297
3 2243 224
55
6666
20072007
3434
408408
7 2197 219
1515
108108
20082008
3131
162162
4 5344 534
1414
110110
20092009
2626
138138
5 7965 796
77
3737
20102010
135135
924924
3 5453 545
1010
5050
20112011
196196
1 2801 280
2 6022 602
2121
186186
Total共计
608608
5 0595 059
49 36249 362
143143
1 4691 469
JSGA has performed various educational activities over the past 10 years.
For public outreach, it has produced an educational package on NEO detection in English, Japanese and Spanish and has published two books and a number of articles in journals and newspapers. On 12 June 2011, the first anniversary lecture was held to mark the return of the Hayabusa capsule to Earth. The lecture included a presentation of the light curve observations and multiband photometry for 107P/Wilson-Harrington, and the results have shown physical properties of candidate objects for future asteroid exploration. In 2011, JSGA organized lectures on the theme “Spaceguard 2011” in four different locations in Japan and published the fourth issue of its bulletin, Spaceguard Research.日本空间护卫协会在最近十年内开展了各种教育活动。为进行公众宣传,用英文、日文和西班牙文制作了一套介绍近地天体探测的教育材料,出版了两本书,并在杂志和报纸上发表了若干文章。2011年6月12日,举行了庆祝隼鸟太空舱返回地球一周年演讲。演讲包括107P/威尔逊-哈灵顿的光变曲线观测和多波段测光情况,其结果表明了将在今后进行小行星探测的候选天体的物理特征。2011年,日本空间护卫协会在日本四个不同地点举办了主题为“2011年空间护卫问题”的演讲,并出版了题为“空间护卫问题研究”的研究公报第四期。
Hayabusa mission隼鸟飞行任务
Another important NEO activity is the Hayabusa mission to the NEO Itokawa. The purpose of the mission is to gain information on the mysteries behind the genesis of the solar system and on possible evidence of life; to achieve this, technology to bring back samples of asteroids is essential. Hayabusa reached Itokawa in 2005 and collected many images and other scientific data;关于近地天体的另一项重要活动是向近地天体“丝川”派出的隼鸟飞行任务。这次飞行任务的目的是获得有关太阳系起源之迷和可能存在的生命证据的信息;为此,必须具备从小行星取样返回的技术。隼鸟于2005年抵达“丝川”,收集了大量图像和其他科学数据;还尝试着陆并收集表面材料。
it also attempted to touch down and collect surface material.
On 13 June 2010, the asteroid-sample capsule of the Hayabusa spacecraft returned to Earth containing the surface material of Itokawa.
The material was analyzed by the analysis team of the Hayabusa Science Team. The results of the mission are important not only for science but also for Spaceguard, as Itokawa is an asteroid of the type that may come close to the Earth, and this mission is the first to have studied such an asteroid. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is now considering another NEO sample return mission, Hayabusa-2, which, if successful, would provide information about another type of NEO. The Hayabusa-2 mission that started in May 2011 is planned for launch in 2014 or 2015 and is planned to arrive at the target asteroid in 2018.2010年6月13日,装有“丝川”表面材料的隼鸟航天器小行星样本舱返回地球。隼鸟科学小组的分析人员对材料进行了分析。这次飞行任务的结果不仅对于科学而且对于空间护卫有着重要意义,因为“丝川”是可能接近地球的小行星,而这次飞行任务是对此类小行星的首次研究。日本宇宙航空研究开发机构目前正在考虑再进行一次近地天体取样返回任务,即隼鸟-2号,这次任务如果成功,将会提供关于另一类近地天体的信息。隼鸟-2号飞行任务已于2011年5月启动,计划于2014或2015年发射,于2018年抵达目标小行星。
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
[Original: English] [2 November 2011][原件:英文] [2011年11月2日]
The United Kingdom Space Agency maintains an active role in addressing the NEO problem by encouraging coordination at the national, European and international levels to reach agreement on understanding and development of effective measures to address the threat posed by NEOs. This leadership role has been demonstrated by, among other things, the United Kingdom’s past chairing of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects and the Working Group on Near-Earth Objects of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.联合王国空间局继续积极致力于处理近地天体问题,鼓励在国家、欧洲和国际各级进行协调,以便就了解近地天体的威胁并制定有效措施对付这一威胁达成一致意见。除其他以外,这一领导作用的一个表现是,联合王国曾经担任和平利用外层空间委员会的近地天体行动小组主席和近地天体工作组主席。
The United Kingdom has strong NEO research capabilities in addition to its astronomy, planetary science and space surveillance capabilities, which the UK Space Agency regularly calls upon for impartial technical support and advice. During the past year, United Kingdom organizations have conducted a wide range of activities, a number of which are summarized below.联合王国除天文、行星科学和空间监视能力之外,还具备很强的近地天体研究能力,联合王国空间局经常利用这种能力公平地提供技术支助和建议。在过去一年里,联合王国的各个组织开展了广泛的活动,现将其中一些活动简要介绍如下。
Remote observation and measurement of the near-Earth object population对近地天体群体进行远程观测和测量
Astronomers at Queen’s University Belfast continue to obtain astrometry of NEOs that have been identified as presenting a small risk of hitting the Earth in the next 100 years, with the aim of improving their orbits.贝尔法斯特皇后大学的天文学家在继续获取关于已确定在今后100年内略有撞击地球风险的近地天体的天体测量数据,目的是更准确地计算这类天体的轨道。
The Open University continues to be engaged in research related to light curves of slowly rotating (mostly main belt) asteroids, using data from the Super-Wide Angle Search for Planets sky cameras, and continues to publish NEO observation results (thermal modelling and infrared spectroscopy).开放大学继续利用来自超级广角行星搜寻巡空照相机提供的数据,对缓慢旋转的(主要是主带)小行星的光变曲线展开研究,并继续发布近地天体观测结果(热建模和红外光谱)。
In situ observation and measurement of the near-Earth object population At the Open University, in addition to theoretical studies aimed at understanding the formation of smaller bodies in the solar system, a number of experimental programmes are also under way.对近地天体群进行实地观测和测量
Among them is the development of a penetrometry rig to simulate a high-mass, low-speed impact of a penetrometer fixed to a landing spacecraft. Penetrometers will be key to enabling in situ measurements of an NEO surface, which is likely to be delicate, in order to give the structural and mechanical information necessary for successful mitigation and negation of the body. More broadly, the Open University has an interest in instrumentation for the in situ physical and geochemical investigation of NEOs and other smaller solar system bodies. Open University research on NEOs also continues in the field of meteoritics and extraterrestrial sample analysis, using its world-class suite of geochemical laboratories, which forms part of the United Kingdom Cosmochemical Analysis Network (UKCAN).在开放大学,除了为认识太阳系内较小天体的形成而进行的理论研究之外,还正在进行一些实验方案。其中一项是研制一种硬度测量装置,以模拟固定在着陆航天器上的硬度计所产生的高质量、低速度撞击。近地天体表面可能比较脆弱,要成功减缓或抵消一个近地天体,需要在其表面进行实地测量以取得有关该天体的结构和力学方面的信息,而要进行实地测量,硬度计是关键的工具。更广泛地说,开放大学有意制作仪器,用于对近地天体和太阳系中其他较小天体进行实地物理研究和地质化学研究。开放大学还继续利用其属于联合王国宇宙化学分析网一部分的世界级成套地理化学实验室,在流星和地外取样分析领域展开有关近地天体的研究。
Risk assessment The Astronautics Research Group at the University of Southampton is conducting a significant amount of research into the effects of NEO impacts on the Earth. The NEO research programme at Southampton is aimed at assessing the global threat to Earth posed by small NEOs with a diameter of less than 1 kilometre.风险评估
An NEO impact can affect the Earth’s ecosystem and have serious consequences for the human population.
The primary challenge of the research is accounting for each impact-generated effect and developing an adequate model to simulate it.
To this end, the computer simulation tool under development has the capability of modelling small NEO impacts.
This tool tackles the hazard on both a local and a global scale, tracking the consequences of an impact on the human population.
Each of the impact-generated effects will affect the human population and infrastructure to varying degrees. Therefore, the analysis of mortality rates and infrastructure cost is the key feature of the simulation. Overall hazard assessment of an NEO impact event will be rated by the casualty figures and level of infrastructure damage. This work is complemented by research within the Department of Earth Science and Engineering at Imperial College London on characterization of the direct effects of NEO impacts.南安普敦大学的航天研究小组正在对近地天体撞击地球的结果进行大量研究。南安普敦大学的近地天体研究方案旨在评估直径在1公里以下的小型近地天体对地球造成的全面威胁。近地天体撞击可能影响到地球生态系统,并对人类造成严重影响。研究中的主要挑战是说明撞击产生的每一种影响,并研制适当的模型进行模拟。为此,正在研制的计算机模拟工具能够模拟小型近地天体的撞击。这一工具可用来研究局部和全球范围的危害,跟踪撞击对人类造成的影响。撞击产生的每种结果都会对人类和基础设施造成不同程度的影响。因此,模拟的主要部分是对死亡率和基础设施损失进行分析。将按照伤亡人数和基础设施毁坏程度评定近地天体撞击事件所造成的总体损害等级。伦敦帝国学院地球科学和工程系关于近地天体撞击直接影响的特点的研究是对上述工作的补充。该项研究部分由自然环境研究理事会支助。
This research is partly supported by the Natural Environment Research Council. Mitigation减缓
The objective of work conducted by the University of Glasgow is to develop fundamental optimal control theory and to apply it to the interception of hazardous NEOs. Different parameters, time, mass, orbital corrections, maximum deviation, and so forth, are optimized. A study of the robustness of the methods is also performed to take into account the uncertainties of both NEO dynamics and boundary conditions. A variety of propulsion methods, ranging from solar sails to nuclear propulsion, are considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are assessed.格拉斯哥大学开展的工作的目标是形成基本的最佳控制理论,将其应用于拦截危险的近地天体。将对时间、质量、轨道纠正、最大偏移等各种参数进行优化。还将研究各种办法的稳健性,以考虑到近地天体动力学和边界条件方面的不确定性。将考虑从太阳帆到核推进等各种推进办法,并评估每种办法的优缺点。将研制现实情景中的数字模拟,以研究这些办法的效果,为了评价最佳轨道和偏移方法,将把模拟数据制成动画。这项方案由工程和物理科学研究理事会资助。
Numerical simulations in a realistic scenario are developed in order to investigate the performance of such methods, and, in order to evaluate the optimal trajectories and deviation methodologies, the simulation data are animated.
This programme was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
Information dissemination信息传播
The United Kingdom continues to be home to two centres providing information on NEOs to the public and media. One is the Spaceguard Centre, located at the former Powys Observatory, near Knighton, Wales.联合王国仍有两个负责向公众和媒体提供近地天体信息的中心。
It represents the Spaceguard Foundation as the International Spaceguard Information Centre. It has set up the nationwide Comet and Asteroid Information Network and has a well-established outreach programme. It currently liaises with Spaceguard organizations in other countries and encourages the establishment of new ones. The Centre is also the primary science adviser for the Faulkes Telescope Asteroid Project and is developing a robotic NEO astrometry system (Spaceguard NEO Astrometry Project), deployed in Kenya and the United Kingdom.第一个中心是设在前波伊斯天文台的空间护卫中心,该中心位于威尔士的奈顿附近。该中心作为国际空间护卫信息中心代表着空间护卫基金会。该中心建立了全国彗星和小行星信息网,并且拥有一个完善的推广方案。它目前同其他国家的空间护卫组织建立了联系,并且鼓励建立新的空间护卫组织。该中心还担任霍基斯望远镜小行星项目的首席科学顾问,并且正在研制将部署在肯尼亚和联合王国的机器人近地天体测量系统(空间护卫近地天体测量项目)。
The other is the United Kingdom Near-Earth Object Information Centre, which was established in response to recommendations 13 and 14 of the report of the United Kingdom Government’s Task Force on Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Objects.另一个中心是联合王国近地天体信息中心,该中心是根据联合王国政府有潜在危险近地天体工作队报告中的建议13和14设立的。
The Information Centre is operated by a consortium led by the National Space Centre, under contract to the UK Space Agency.依据同联合王国空间局的合同,该信息中心由国家航天中心领导下的一个联合体运作。
The main centre is based at the National Space Science Centre in Leicester, which houses an NEO exhibition and provides a primary contact point for public and media enquiries.主要中心设在位于莱斯特的国家航天科学中心,里面有一个近地天体展览,并为公众和媒体问询提供了主要联络点。
The Centre is advised by a network of academic institutions active in the field of NEOs: Queen’s University Belfast, the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre in Edinburgh, the Natural History Museum in London, Queen Mary University of London, Imperial College London and the University of Leicester.在近地天体领域开展活动的以下学术机构组成的网络为该中心提供咨询:贝尔法斯特皇后大学、爱丁堡联合王国天文技术中心、伦敦国家自然历史博物馆、伦敦玛丽皇后学院、伦敦帝国学院和莱斯特大学。
In addition, there are three regional centres with linked exhibits and access to the Information Centre facilities.除此之外,还有三个区域中心,它们有在线展品,并且能使用信息中心的设施。
These are based in W5 in Belfast, the Natural History Museum in London and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh.这三个中心分别设在贝尔法斯特W5科学中心、伦敦国家自然历史博物馆和爱丁堡皇家天文台。
The website of the Information Centre (www.spacecentre.co.uk/Page.aspx/6/NEAR_EARTH_OBJECTS/) provides a virtual exhibition, a resources section (for educators and the media) and the latest NEO news, including answers to frequently asked questions.信息中心的网站(www.spacecentre.co.uk/Page.aspx/6/NEAR_EARTH_OBJECTS/)提供虚拟展览、资料区(供教育工作者和媒体使用)以及近地天体的最新消息,包括常见问题解答。
The site also allows access to the Task Force report.通过该网站,还可以查阅工作队的报告。
Policy approach政策方针
The underlying policy approach to NEOs in the United Kingdom is recognition that the threat they pose is real, but that, although potentially catastrophic, impact by an NEO is a low-probability occurrence. It also recognizes that such objects do not respect national boundaries and that the scale of their effect is such that the NEO hazard is a global issue and can be effectively addressed only through international cooperation and coordination.联合王国对近地天体的基本政策方针是,承认近地天体的确构成威胁,但也承认,近地天体撞击尽管有可能造成灾难,但发生的概率很低。该政策方针还承认,这类天体不受国界限制,就影响范围而言,近地天体的危险是一个全球性问题,只有开展国际合作与协调才能加以有效解决。
III. Replies received from international organizations and other entities三. 从国际组织和其他实体收到的答复
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
[Original: English] [7 November 2011][原件:英文] [2011年11月7日]
NEOs are objects orbiting the Earth at perihelion distances of less than 1.3 astronomical units.近地天体是环绕地球轨道运行的近日距离小于1.3个天文单位的天体。
The NEO population is constantly evolving and being replenished from the main asteroid belt and cometary reservoirs.近地天体群不断发生变化,主要小行星带和彗星库不断有天体加入其中。
It consists of objects with a variety of compositions and internal structures.近地天体群中的天体在成分和内部结构上各不相同。
As at 20 October 2011, 8,345 NEOs had been discovered.截至2011年10月28日,已经发现了8,345颗近地天体。
Among them, some 832 are asteroids with a diameter of approximately 1 kilometre or more, and 1,258 have been classified as potentially hazardous asteroids, indicating a possibility that they might threaten the Earth.其中约有832颗是直径约为1公里或以上的小行星,有1,258颗被归类为可能造成危险的小行星,表示有可能对地球造成威胁。
The number of NEOs discovered per year is shown in the original document submitted by the Committee on Space Research, which can be found on the website of the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat (www.unoosa.org).每年发现的近地天体数量见空间研究委员会提交的原始文件,该文件可在秘书处外层空间事务厅的网站上(www.unoosa.org)查阅。
Nowadays, NEOs are discovered through automated, ground-based observational programmes. The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is an astronomical survey that is continuously conducting astrometry and photometry of much of the sky to detect NEOs that could threaten the Earth.现在,近地天体是通过自动化地面观测方案发现的。全景巡天望远镜和迅速反应系统是一种天文测量方案,不断对天空中大片区域进行天文测量和光度测定,以探测有可能威胁地球的近地天体。
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), although designed primarily for astrophysics science objectives, is providing a large amount of data on small objects. The WISE all-sky survey is also detecting most of the known main belt asteroids, providing accurate radii and albedos for over 100,000 objects and detecting many new ones. The NEOWISE programme, which is a supplementary analysis programme, is also discovering and characterizing many new NEOs on a daily basis.美国国家航空航天局(美国航天局)的广域红外探测器主要是为天文物理科学目的设计的,但目前正在提供关于小型天体的大量数据。广域红外探测器的全天空巡测还正在探测大部分已知的主带小行星,提供100,000多个天体的准确半径和反照率,并探测到许多新天体。利用广域红外探测器探测近地天体的方案(NEOWISE)是一个补充性分析方案,每天都发现许多新的近地天体,并确定其性质。
Space missions involving near-Earth objects涉及近地天体的空间任务
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer project was among the three missions selected by NASA in 2010 for the second round of the next New Frontiers mission competition. It is designed to orbit a primitive near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and bring a sample back to Earth for study.起源光谱资源阐释安全风化层辨认探测器项目是2010年美国航天局选定的竞争参加下一次新疆域(New Frontier)任务第二轮的三个任务之一。其目的是环绕一个原始近地小行星的轨道运行,并将样本带回地球以供研究。
The MarcoPolo-R mission has been selected for the assessment phase for the third medium-class mission of the European Space Agency. The primary objective of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return a sample from a NEA. Potentially hazardous asteroids已选定MarcoPolo-R任务已入选欧空局第三次中级飞行任务的评估阶段。MarcoPolo-R任务的主要目标是从一个近地小行星取样返回。
可能造成危险的小行星
As of October 2011, two potentially hazardous asteroids, classified with level 1 (no unusual level of danger) under the Torino Impact Hazard Scale are known and are being monitored: 2011 AG5 and 2007 VK184.截至2011年10月,已知有两颗小行星可能造成危险,即2011 AG5和2007 VK184,根据杜林撞击危险指数将它们归类为1级(非不寻常危险级别),正在对它们进行监测。
International Astronomical Union国际天文学联盟
[Original: English] [5 October 2011][原件:英文] [2011年10月5日]
Activities of the International Astronomical Union Minor Planet Center国际天文学联盟小行星中心的活动
In 2011, there were many activities at the Minor Planet Center. The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project successfully completed routine operations searching for minor planets in the infrared spectrum. The optical ground-based NEO surveys continued their operations. At present, the discovery rate of NEOs is higher than in the past, with around 1,000 to 1,200 NEOs being discovered annually.2011年,小行星中心开展了许多活动。美国航天局的广域红外探测器项目成功地完成了在红外波段搜寻小行星的日常运作。对近地天体的地面光学巡察继续进行。目前,近地天体发现率高于以往,每年发现约1,000至1,200个近地天体。这主要是因为全景巡天望远镜和迅速反应系统观测项目发现的数目增多,由夏威夷大学领导的各个机构组成的联合体负责该项目的运作。
This is largely due to the increase in discoveries of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) survey project, which is operated by a consortium of institutions, led by the University of Hawaii. The main discovery team of NEOs is the Catalina Sky Survey programme which uses two telescopes in Arizona, finding approximately 600 to 800 NEOs annually, while the Pan-STARRS team finds approximately 250 to 300 of the expected 1,000 to 1,200 NEOs discovered in 2011. Both teams collaborate well by sharing their sky coverage to allow more efficient use of telescope time to cover areas not seen by other surveys.近地天体的主要发现小组是卡特里那巡天方案,该方案利用安装在亚利桑那州的两部望远镜,每年发现约600至800个近地天体,而全景巡天望远镜和迅速反应系统小组在2011年预计发现的1,000至1,200个近地天体中发现了大约250至300个。两个小组密切协调,共享巡天覆盖范围,以便更高效地利用望远镜时间观测其他观测项目观测不到的区域。
An example of how both surveys, the Catalina Sky Survey and Pan-STARRS, and the Minor Planet Center are handling the increase in near-miss objects is a small asteroid, 2011 MD, with a size of about 10 meters, which passed just about 12,000 km from the Earth surface in June 2011. This object was picked up a full two days before the closest approach and identified as a near-miss object by the computers of the Minor Planet Center soon after the discovery.两项观测即卡特里那巡天方案和全景巡天望远镜和迅速反应系统巡天观测项目以及小行星中心如何处理靠近地球而过的天体增多的情况,一个例子是小行星2011 MD,其直径大约10米,于2011年6月在距地球表面约12,000公里处通过。该天体只是在最接近地球之前两整天之时才发现的,发现之后不久,小行星中心的计算机即确定这是一个靠近地球而过的天体。
There is also vibrant ongoing cooperation worldwide among the follow-up observers in targeting NEOs that need orbital improvement. The Minor Planet Center has a blog that allows observers to post real-time information on their follow-up efforts, which contributes to better distribution of resources on the fly. In sum, each year more NEOs are being discovered, and each year, the NEO population is studied more closely, as well.全世界观测需要改进轨道的近地天体的跟踪观测者也一直在开展有力的合作。小行星中心有一个博客,允许观察者粘贴关于其跟踪观测的实时信息,从而为更好地实时传播资源作出了贡献。总之,每年都在发现更多的近地天体,每年也在对更多的近地天体进行更深入研究。
The International Astronomical Union website continues to have a page on NEAs, which includes past and future approaches of NEAs close to the Earth, milestones in NEA research and information on related conferences as well as scientific literature (see www.iau.org/public/nea/).国际天文学联盟网站仍然有一个近地小行星网页,其中包括近地小行星以前和未来接近地球的情况,近地小行星研究中的重大事件,以及关于相关会议和科学文献的信息(见www.iau.org/public/nea/)。
Secure World Foundation世界安全基金会
[Original: English] [30 August 2011][原件:英文] [2011年8月30日]
The Secure World Foundation (SWF) has been working to facilitate discussions on governance issues related to the deflection and mitigation of potentially threatening NEOs. In May, SWF sponsored the 2011 IAA Planetary Defense Conference in Bucharest. SWF Technical Advisor Brian Weeden co-chaired a session on the legal and policy frameworks for planetary defence. In August, SWF co-organized an Action Team on Near-Earth Objects workshop on international recommendations for NEO threat mitigation, which included discussion of a draft terms of reference for a mission planning and operations group, a key recommendation of the 2008 report of the Association of Space Explorers presented to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.世界安全基金会一直致力于促进就可能有威胁近地天体的偏移和减缓相关管理问题进行讨论。5月份,基金会在布加勒斯特主办了2011年国际宇航科学院行星护卫会议。基金会技术顾问Brian Weeden担任行星护卫法律和政策框架会议的共同主席。8月份,基金会共同举办了近地天体行动小组关于减缓近地天体威胁的国际建议的讲习班,其中包括讨论任务规划和操作小组职权范围草案,该职权范围草案是空间探索者协会提交和平利用外层空间委员会的2008年报告的一项关键建议。
Space Generation Advisory Council航天新一代咨询理事会
[Original: English] [2 November 2011][原件:英文] [2011年11月2日]
As a member of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects, the Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) recognizes the importance of the work of the Working Group on Near-Earth Objects and strongly supports its efforts. As outlined in the workplan of the Working Group for 2009, the International Year of Astronomy acted as a framework for raising awareness of NEO issues among the public, in particular among young people. Understanding that young people need to be made aware of these issues, SGAC continues to work on outreach programmes to increase their involvement beyond the International Year of Astronomy (2009). The SGAC NEO Working Group increased its team size in 2011 as several SGAC members expressed interest in the Group’s work and joined.作为近地天体行动小组的成员,航天新一代咨询理事会认识到近地天体工作组工作的重要性,并大力支持该工作组的工作。如工作组2009年工作计划所述,国际天文学年是提高公众特别是年轻人对近地天体问题的认识的框架。理事会理解需要增进年轻人对这类问题的认识,因此继续开展宣传推广方案,以便增进年轻人在国际天文年(2009年)之后的参与。理事会近地天体工作组的队伍在2011年有所扩大,因为理事会有几个成员对该工作组的工作感兴趣,因而加入了该工作组。
The “Move an Asteroid” technical paper competition, held annually since 2008 by SGAC, requires students and young professionals to send in novel proposals on how to either detect or deflect an asteroid, or establish a global impact warning system. The 2011 edition winner of the competition, Alison Gibbings, a PhD student from the United Kingdom, focused on an asteroid deflection technique and was interviewed on National Public Radio in the United States. The entries were reviewed by experts, and the winner of the competition was awarded a trip to present the paper at the SGAC annual congress, the Space Generation Congress, as well as at the International Astronautical Congress, both of which were held in Cape Town, South Africa. The Space Generation Congress is held in conjunction with the International Astronautical Congress and provides the winner with the opportunity to present the winning paper to a larger audience.理事会自2008年以来每年举办一次“移动小行星”竞赛,这项竞赛要求学生和青年专业人员就如何探测或偏移小行星或建立全球撞击警报系统提出新颖的建议。2011年该竞赛的优胜者是Alison Gibbings,是一名来自联合王国的博士生,侧重于小行星偏移技术,美国国家公共广播电台对该优胜者进行了采访。专家对提出的建议进行评审,竞赛优胜者有机会在理事会年度大会即航天新一代大会和国际宇航大会上宣读论文,两次大会都在南非开普敦举行。航天新一代大会与国际宇航大会同时举办,为优胜者提供了向更多听众宣读获奖论文的机会。年轻人通过该竞赛积极参与近地天体活动并分析相关的问题。
Through this competition, young people proactively participate in NEO activities and analyse the issues surrounding them.
SGAC was an official co-sponsor of the 2nd Planetary Defense Conference, which was held in May 2011 in Bucharest, and two SGAC members were on the organizing committee. The day before the Planetary Defense Conference, the SGAC NEO Working Group held a public outreach event, entitled “Future of planetary defense”, at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. About 150 students attended this public event, which was focused on four high-level speakers: Bill Ailor, Marius-Ioan Piso, Dumitru Prunariu and Rusty Schweickart. The event was well covered by local national media, and interviews were featured on several national Romanian television programmes.理事会是2011年5月在布加勒斯特举行的第二次行星护卫会议的正式共同赞助方,理事会有两名成员担任组委会成员。在行星护卫会议前一天,理事会近地天体工作组在布加勒斯特理工大学举办了一次公众宣传活动,主题是“行星护卫的未来”。约150名学生参加了这次公众活动,活动的重点是四名高级发言人的发言:Bill Ailor、Marius-Ioan Piso、Dumitru Prunariu和Rusty Schweickart。当地国家媒体对这次活动广加报道,罗马尼亚国家电视节目作了采访。活动期间还放映了理事会根据2009年第一次行星护卫会议期间进行的专家访谈制作的提高公众对近地天体认识纪录片。该纪录片可在理事会的YouTube频道上观看,每个月都有许多人观看。
The NEO public awareness documentary that SGAC created from expert interviews during the 1st Planetary Defense Conference in 2009 was also shown during the event. The documentary is available on the SGAC YouTube channel and continues to have many monthly views. SGAC intends to continue raising awareness and involving young people in the NEO field, as well as informing the public about current NEO issues, including the work of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects. SGAC is convinced that an informed public, specifically young people, can have a positive impact on finding solutions to the challenges presented by NEOs.理事会打算继续提高认识,促使年轻人参与近地天体领域的活动,并使公众了解当前的近地天体问题,包括近地天体行动小组的工作。理事会相信,了解情况的公众特别是年轻人可对找到办法解决近地天体造成的难题产生积极影响。