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A/CONF. 184/6 Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Vienna, 19-30 July 1999 UNITED NATIONS New York, 1999 NOTE Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontier or boundaries. A/CONF. 184/6 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.00.I.3 ISBN 92-1-100832-8 A7CONF.184/6 Abbreviations ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite AFRICOVER Digital Land Cover Database for Africa ALOS Advanced Land Observing Satellite ARTEMIS African Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Information System AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer CBERS China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite CEOS Committee on Earth Observation Satellites CLIRSEN Centre for Integrated Surveying of Natural Resources CNES Centre national d'etudes spatiales (France) COPINE cooperative information network linking scientists, educators, professionals and decisionmakers in Africa COSPAR Committee on Space Research COSPAS-SARSAT International Search and Rescue Satellite System DLR German Aerospace Center ECA Economic Commission for Africa ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EMS environmental information and modelling system EMPRES Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases ENRIN Environment and Natural Resource Information Networks EPIRB emerging position-indicating radio beacon ESA European Space Agency ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia EUMETSAT European Organization for me Exploitation ofMeteorological Satellites EURISY European Association for me International Space Year Eurocontrol European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation EUTELSAT European Telecommunications Satellite Organization FAME Forest Assessment and Monitoring Environment FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations GARS Geological Applications of Remote Sensing GCOS Global Climate Observing System GffiWS Global Information and Early Warning System Gn global information infrastructure GIS Geographic Information System GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System (Russian Federation) GMPCS global mobile personal communications by satellite GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GNSS global navigation satellite system GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOFC Global Observation of Forest Cover GOMS Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite GOOS Global Ocean Observing System 2 A/CONF. 184/6 GPS Global Positioning System GRID Global Resource Information Database GSO geostationary satellite orbit GTOS Global Terrestrial Observing System IAU International Astronomical Union ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICSU International Council for Science IGOS Integrated Global Observing Strategy IMO International Maritime Organization MSO International Mobile Satellite Organization INFOCLIMA World Climate Data Information Referral System INFOTERRA International Environment Information System INPE National Institute for Space Research (Brazil) INSAT Indian National Satellite INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization Intersputnik International Organization of Space Communications IOMAC Indian Ocean Marine Affairs Cooperation IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite ISO International Organization for Standardization ISRO Indian Space Research Organization ITU International Telecommunication Union JERS Japan Earth Resources Satellite Landsat Land Remote Sensing Satellite LEO low-Earth orbit MAB Man and the Biosphere MERCOSUR Southern Cone Common Market NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States of America) NASDA National Space Development Agency (Japan) NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admimstration (United States of America) POLDER Polarization of the Earth's Reflectances PRODES Brazilian Amazon Deforestation Survey Project ProMIS Programme Management Information System RAMSES Reconnaissance and Management System of the Environment of Schistocerca RAPIDE African Network for Integration and Development REIMP Regional Environmental Information Management Project RESAP Regional Space Applications Programme for Sustainable Development SeaWiFS Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor SOTER Global Soil and Terrain Database SPOT Satellite pour 1'observation de la Terre SPS Standard Positioning Service TCDC technical cooperation among developing countries TOPS technology outreach programme on space for university educators TREES Tropical Ecosystem Environment Observation by Satellite 3 A7CONF.184/6 TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring System UNDCP United Nations International Drug Control Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNISPACE 82 Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNISPACEin Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research VSAT very small aperture terminal WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization 4 A/CONF.184/6 Contents Paragraphs Chapter I. Resolutions adopted by the Conference Resolution 1. The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development Resolution 2. Expression of thanks to the people and Government of Austria Resolution 3. Credentials of representatives to the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space n. Background and recommendations of the Conference 1-410 2" A. Historical perspective 1-12 25 B. The United Nations and the peaceful uses of outer space 13-20 26 C. Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 21-27 27 D. Enabling environment for space exploration and utilization 28-47 28 E. Genesis of and preparations for the Conference 48-54 31 F. Purpose and objectives of the Conference 55-56 32 G. Harnessing the potential of space at the start of the new millennium 57-410 33 HI. Proceedings of the Conference 411-573 78 A. Attendance and organization of work 411-451 78 B. Summary of the general exchange of views 452-481 82 C. Report of Committee I 482-513 87 D. Report of Committee II 514-533 89 E. Report of the Technical Forum 534-555 90 F. Activities of the Space Generation Forum 556-558 92 G. Report of the Credentials Committee 559-568 93 H. Adoption of the report of the Conference 569-570 94 L Closure of the Conference 571-573 94 Page 6 6 19 19 Annexes I. List of documents II. Report of the Space Generation Forum IE. Conclusions and proposals emanating from the activities of the Technical Forum 5 A/CONF.184/6 I. Resolutions adopted by the Conference Resolution 1 The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development* The States participating in the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III), held in Vienna from 19 to 30 July 1999, I Reaffirming the aims and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the principles of international law and the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, Having in mind that humans have always gazed at the sky with wonder and that from such was born the curiosity that drove early astronomers to study the movements of celestial bodies, from which the foundations of modern space science and technology were laid, Recognizing the importance of space science and space applications for the fundamental knowledge of the universe, education, health, environmental monitoring, management of natural resources, disaster management, meteorological forecasting and climate modelling, satellite navigation and communications, and the major contribution that space science and technology make to the well-being of humanity and specifically to economic, social and cultural development, Considering that space transcends national boundaries and interests, permitting the development of global solutions to address common challenges and providing a vantage point from which to view planet Earth, Noting the positive developments in international relations since the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, held in Vienna from 9 to 21 August 1982,1 Reaffirming the common interest of all humanity in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and convinced of the need to prevent an arms race Adopted by the Conference at its 10th plsnary meeting, on 30 July 1999. in outer space as an essential condition for the promotion of international cooperation in this regard, Recognizing that outer space should be the province of all humankind, to be utilized for peaceful purposes and in the interests of mamtaining international peace and security, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations and as proclaimed in the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,2 Reaffirming General Assembly resolution 51/122 of 13 December 1996, entitled "Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries", Recognizing that the orderly conduct of space activities is beneficial to all countries, whether or not they have already become active in space research or have started to utilize space applications, and that active support for space activities is expressed in the observance by States and by international organizations of the provisions of the outer space treaties, Noting with satisfaction that the United Nations conferences on the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space were held in Vienna in 1968 and in 1982, leading to many new initiatives, including the creation of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and the establishment of regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, which are contributing to a better understanding of space technology and to capacity-building in the utilization of space technology at the local level for social and economic development, Noting the benefits and applications of space technologies in addressing the unprecedented challenges to sustainable development, and noting also the effectiveness of space instruments for dealing with the challenges posed by the pollution of the environment, depletion of natural resources, loss of biodiversity and the effects of natural and anthropogenic disasters, Recognizing that significant changes have occurred in the structure and content of world space activity, as reflected in the increasing number of participants in space activities at all levels and the growing contribution of the private sector to the promotion and implementation of space activities, 6 A/CONF.I84/6 Recognizing also that the use of space technology should be in accordance with the principles set out in Agenda 213 for the benefit of all nations and peoples and that its applications should be extended to developing countries, Recognizing further the role played in recent years in the field of space by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, as well as the role of States in the formulation of policies and implementation of international cooperation in that field, Realizing that the above-mentioned challenges can be met for the benefit of all humanity by considering the mutual interests of all parties, sharing space knowledge and resources, coordinating missions and projects between interested States and strengthening international cooperation in the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space, Convinced that efforts should be undertaken to facilitate substantive joint projects between "space-faring" and "nonspace-faring" countries, as well as among developing countries, which could result in the undertaking of projects that are beyond the means of individual countries, Taking note with satisfaction of the valuable contributions of participants of the Technical Forum and the Space Generation Forum to the work of UNISPACE HI, 1. Declare the following as the nucleus of a strategy to address global challenges in the future: (a) Protecting the Earth's environment and managing its resources: action should be taken: (i) To develop a comprehensive, worldwide, environmental monitoring strategy for long-term global observations by building on existing space and ground capabilities, through the coordination of the activities of various entities and organizations involved in such efforts; (ii) To improve the management of the Earth's natural resources by increasing and facilitating the research and operational use of remote sensing data, enhancing the coordination of remote sensing systems and increasing access to, and the affordability of, imagery; (iii) To develop and implement the Integrated Global Observing Strategy so as to enable access to and the use of space-based and other Earth observation data; (iv) To enhance weather and climate forecasting by expanding international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications; (v) To ensure, to the extent possible, that all space activities, in particular those which may have harmful effects on the local and global environment, are carried out in a manner that limits such effects and to take appropriate measures to achieve that objective; (b) Using space applications for human security, development and welfare: action should be taken: (i) To improve public health services by expanding and coordinating space-based services for telemedicine and for controlling infectious diseases; (ii) To implement an integrated, global system, especially through international cooperation, to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts, especially of an international nature, through Earth observation, communications and other space-based services, making maximum use of existing capabilities and filling gaps in worldwide satellite coverage; (iii) To promote literacy and enhance rural education by improving and coordinating educational programmes and satellite-related infrastructure; (iv) To improve knowledge-sharing by giving more importance to the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services and by devising efficient policies, infrastructure, standards and applications development projects; (v) To improve the efficiency and security of transport, search and rescue, geodesy and other activities by promoting the enhancement of, universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems; (vi) To assist States, especially developing countries, in applying the results of space research with a view to promoting the sustainable development of all peoples; (c) Advancing scientific knowledge of space and protecting the space environment: action should be taken: (i) To improve the scientific knowledge of near and outer space by promoting cooperative activities in such areas as astronomy, space biology and medicine, space physics, the study of near-Earth objects and planetary exploration; (ii) To improve the protection of the near-Earfh space and outer space environments through further research in and implementation of mitigation measures for space debris; (iii) To improve the international coordination of activities related to near-Earth objects, harmonizing the 7 A/CONF. 184/6 worldwide efforts directed at identification, follow-up observation and orbit prediction, while at me same time giving consideration to developing a common strategy that would include future activities related to near-Earth objects; (iv) To protect the near and outer space environments through further research on designs, safety measures and procedures associated with the use of nuclear power sources in outer space; (v) To ensure that all users of space consider the possible consequences of their activities, whether ongoing or planned, before further irreversible actions are taken affecting future utilization of near-Earth space or outer space, especially in areas such as astronomy, Earth observation and remote sensing, as well as global positioning and navigation systems, where unwanted emissions have become an issue of concern as they interfere with bands in the electromagnetic spectrum already used for those applications; (d) Enhancing education and training opportunities and ensuring public awareness of the importance of space activities: action should be taken: (i) To enhance capacity-building through the development of human and budgetary resources, the training and professional development of teachers, the exchange of teaching methods, materials and experience and the development of infrastructure and policy regulations; (ii) To increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of peaceful space activities for improving the common economic and social welfare of humanity; (iii) To establish and/or strengthen national mechanisms to coordinate the appropriate development of space activities and foster the participation of all the sectors concerned; (iv) To improve the sharing of information on and use of spin-offs from space activities, in particular between developed and developing countries, by making use of appropriate communications technologies; (v) To encourage all States to provide their children and youth, especially females, through appropriate educational programmes, with opportunities to learn more about space science and technology and their importance to human development and to participate fully in activities related to space science and technology, as an investment in the future; (vi) To create, within the framework of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, a consultative mechanism to facilitate the continued participation of young people from all over the world, especially young people from developing countries and young women, in cooperative space-related activities; (vii) To consider the creation of awards to recognize outstanding contributions in space activity, in particular for youth; (e) Strengthening and repositioning of space activities in the United Nations system: action should be taken: (i) To reaffirm the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its two subcommittees and its secretariat in leading global efforts for the exploration and peaceful use of outer space relating to significant global issues; (ii) To assist in the improvement of the capacitybuilding process in developing countries and countries with economies in transition by emphasizing the development and transfer of knowledge and skills, by ensuring sustainable funding mechanisms for the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, by enhancing support for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications through the provision of adequate resources, and by participating in the implementation of the new strategy of the Programme arising from UNISPACE HI; (iii) To encourage the increased use of space-related systems and services by the specialized agencies and programmes of the United Nations system and by the private sector around the world, where appropriate, in order to support United Nations efforts to promote the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space; (iv) To promote the efforts of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the development of space law by inviting States to ratify or accede to, and inviting intergovernmental organizations to declare acceptance of, the outer space treaties4 developed by the Committee and by considering the further development of space law to meet the needs of the international community, taking into particular account the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition; (v) To further consider the agenda structure and working methods of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its two subcommittees to 8 A/CONF.184/6 better reflect issues of global concern, including international cooperation in space activities, taking into particular account die needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as set out in the report of the Committee on its fortieth session;5 (vi) To strengthen the coordination of mutually beneficial activities between the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other United Nations entities; (f) Promoting international cooperation: action should be taken to follow up the decision by the States participating in UNISPACE EL: (i) To take note of the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences for Africa and the Middle East, for Asia and the Pacific, for eastern Europe and for Latin America and the Caribbean that are relevant to efforts made at the global and regional levels, as set forth in sections A and B, respectively, of the annex to the present Declaration, and to call upon the international community, to the extent feasible, to consider those recommendations in appropriate forums; (ii) To establish a special voluntary United Nations fund for the purpose of implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE HL, in particular the activities of the regional centres for space science and technology education, taking into account the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences. All States should be invited to support the fund financially or in kind in an annual letter from the Secretary-General that will, inter alia, identify priority project proposals for enhancing and assisting technical cooperation activities, in particular for human resource development. The Secretariat will provide annually to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space a report listing those States which have responded to the Secretary-General's invitation; (iii) To adopt measures aimed at identifying new and innovative sources of financing at the international level, including in the private sector, in order to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE HI in developing countries; (iv) To encourage all States and international organizations to strengthen their efforts in promoting the peaceful uses of outer space for the benefit and in the interest of all States, taking into particular account the interest of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, by facilitating programmes and activities between "space-faring" and "non-spacefaring" countries, as well as among developing countries, and involving civil society, including industry; 2. Recognize the tremendous achievements of space science and technology to date, look forward with confidence to achieving even greater progress in the future, and stress the vital importance of attaining the goals and executing the actions outlined above and described in detail in the report of UNISPACE HI; 3. Emphasize that the shared objective of sustainable development for all countries will require timely and effective action to achieve the stated goals and that such an endeavour will provide ample scope for space science and technology to play their proper role as major contributors to people's wellbeing; 4. Recommend to the General Assembly that it review and evaluate, within existing resources, the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE in after a period of five years, and thereafter as appropriate, and that the reviews be based on preparatory work carried out by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, open to the participation of representatives of all Member States, and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system and observers; 5. Recognize that the promotion of bilateral, regional and international cooperation in the field of outer space must be guided by General Assembly resolution 51/122; n Recalling that 4 October 1957 was the date of the launch into outer space of the first human-made Earth satellite, Sputnik I, thus opening the way for space exploration, Recalling also that 10 October 1967 was the date of the entry into force of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,6 Decide, in order to contribute to the achievement of the objectives of UNISPACE HI, in particular that of increasing awareness among decision makers and civil society of the benefits of the peaceful uses of space science and technology for sustainable development, to invite the General Assembly to declare, according to its procedures, "World Space Week" between 4 and 10 October for the yearly celebration at the international level of the contribution that space science and technology can make to the betterment of the human condition. 9 A/CONF. 184/6 Annex Rpreecpoamrmateonryd actoionnfesr oenf tchees rfoerg itohnea l Tthhei rEdx pUlnoirtaetdi oNna atinodn sP Ceaocneffeurle Uncsees o onf Outer Space 1. In accordance with General Assembly resolution 52/56, the regional preparatory conferences for the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) were convened in Kuala Lumpur from 18 to 22 May 1998, in Ccncepcion, Chile, from 12 to 16 October 1998, in Rabat from 26 to 30 October 1998 and in Bucharest from 25 to 29 January 1999, for the regions of Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa and western Asia, and eastern Europe, respectively. The regional preparatory conferences were designed to assist Member States in the regions concerned in formulating recommendations and action plans related to, inter alia: (a) enhancing understanding among Member States of the role and use of space technology in social and economic development; (b) problems associated with implementing space technology and space applications programmes; and (c) improving and facilitating regional and international collaboration. Through the discussions! on issues related to the agenda of UNISPACE III, the regional preparatory conferences also enabled Member States to become familiar with the objectives of UNISPACE IE and to identify issues of priority to each region in advance of the conference. 2. In accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee for UNISPACE III on the text and structure of the Vienna Declaration, the Secretariat classified the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences, as compiled in documents A/CONF.184/PC/L.5 and Add.l, into two major categories. Section A below contains the recommendations with global implications, and section B contains those with regional implications. The major headings under sections A and B below correspond to those of chapter II, section G, of the report of UNISPACE HI. A. Rimepcolimcamtieonnds ations with global 1. Protecting the environment Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 3. The following was recommended: (a) In order to give adequate consideration to environmental and resource management issues in the regions of Africa and the Middle East, there should be direct participation and active involvement of those regions in international activities and programmes related to Earth observation; (b) At present, there are four Earth observation ground receiving stations, located in Italy, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Spain, that are able to receive data on several African and Middle Eastern countries. The owners of those stations and the countries that are within their footprints should study the feasibility and desirability of operating the stations on a regional basis (South Africa is proposing to make its station available for such a regional operation); (c) Scientific and research institutions in both Africa and the Middle East should foster scientific collaboration with Earth observation satellite operators in order to ensure that future Earth observation remote sensing systems meet the specific and unique needs of the two regions; (d) There are numerous space-technology-related application projects, both in the operational phase and in the planning phase, that are funded by donor countries and international organizations, including United Nations entities. In order to maximize the beneficial impact of those projects, it is critical that the concerned donors, organizations and the countries benefiting from the projects coordinate and harmonize such development projects and programmes. The United Nations, as well as the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), should play a leading role in coordinating and harmonizing development projects; (e) The United Nations, in conformity with the Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space7 and other legal instruments governing space activities, should ensure that all countries enjoy equal access to data and other information from Earth observation satellites; (f) The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) should ensure that experimental frequencies are reserved specifically for the purposes for which they are used at present. The specific frequencies to be reserved include, but 10 A/CONF.184/6 are not limited to, the following: 18.6 and 18.8 GHz, used for the measurement of soil, moisture and vegetation; and the frequency band 174.8 and 191.8 GHz, centred on 183.3 GHz, used for vertical sounding of atmospheric properties, such as humidity. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Asia and the Pacific 4. The following was recommended: (a) In view of the contributions of remote sensing and related technologies towards the well-being of the global community, the promotion of international cooperation in the development and use of remote sensing technologies should be accorded priority in the agenda of UNISPACE HI; (b) The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites should give serious consideration to the standardization of spectral aspects of sensors, data formats and other characteristics of the ground segment, in order to contribute to the development of Earth observation systems, and especially to meet the emerging needs of countries in the region of Asia and the Pacific; (c) Member States should follow a unified approach to developing a standard format for the acquisition, processing and handling of remote sensing data; (d) Satellite operators should maintain reasonable continuity of their services. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean 5. Action should be taken: (a) To establish, during the decade 2000-2010, a comprehensive strategy for the use of space technology for risk evaluation and for prevention, mitigation and reduction activities in disaster management; (b) To promote the use of space technology for the purpose of achieving a global understanding of climatic phenomena, such as El Nino events, and of taking appropriate prevention measures. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Eastern Europe 6. The following was recommended: (a) Activities involving scientific research and practical applications in the field of remote sensing by satellite should be strengthened;-(b) Cooperation between the national space agencies in eastern Europe and the World Meteorological Organization should be enhanced in order to meet the need for data on global change and to participate actively in the definition of the future Earth observing mission concept; (c) National Earth observation programmes and existing cooperation mechanisms such as the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites and the Integrated Global Observing Strategy partnership should be strengthened. 2. Facilitating and utilizing communications Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 7. The following was recommended: (a) Member States should ensure that global telecommunications designers and operators take into consideration the interests and priorities of the local communities and the telecommunication authorities and relevant bodies of the countries where they operate; (b) In conformity with the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies8 and other related legal instruments, the United Nations and ITU should guarantee the equal rights of all countries in the access to and use of space. Geosynchronous orbital slots for countries and regions that do not yet have the capacity to use those slots should be reserved as a matter of right; (c) ITU should facilitate the coordination of orbital slots between countries in Africa and the Middle East and international organizations. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Asia and the Pacific 8. The following was recommended: (a) Satellite operators and service providers should reduce the cost of systems and services for space communications in developing countries in the region. In that effort, the private sector has an important role to play; (b) The international satellite organizations should take into account the needs and limitations of the countries in Asia and the Pacific in future space communications systems and applications. In that connection, entities such as the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) and other space communications entities should 11 A/CONF.184/6 provide communications satellite capacity with the aim of promoting regional space-based services. Recommendation of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Eastern Europe 9. In view of the existence of tables, identifying the purposes and characteristics of active satellites in the geostationary orbit and the services provided by those satellites, that information should be distributed as a background document at UNISPACE III. 3. Improving and using positioning and location capabilities Recommendation of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 10. The United Nations should ensure that there are no restrictions on the accuracy of data, information and technology of global positioning systems and other satellite navigation systems, or on the availability of such systems, in particular for use in civil aviation. 4. Furthering knowledge and building capacity Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Eastern Europe 11. The following was recommended: (a) International organizations should assist Member States in the region in acquiring methodologies for remote sensing by satellite, mcluding software packages; (b) The Office for Outer Spa.ce Affairs of the Secretariat should create a data bank on commercial space projects in general and on commercial telecornmumcation system projects in particular. The data bank could be used to maintain information on such activities as telecommunication systems in low, middle and geostationary orbits. Such a data bank would enable each State to leain about the latest developments and meet its needs in that area and to invest its resources more appropriately. 5. Enhancing education and trainiing opportunities for youth Recommendation of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 12. Member States should take advantage of the Space Generation Forum at UNISPACE HI. The Forum, to be organized by the alumni of the Internationail Space University, will provide the opportunity for aspiring, emerging and established "space-faring" countries to develop the necessary skills, knowledge and contacts among their young and promising space professionals for future advancement. 6. Spin-offs and commercial benefits from space activities: promoting technology development and exchange Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 13. The following was recommended: (a) The United Nations should ensure that no unnecessary restrictions are placed on Member States that are developing their own launch facilities, in particular when such facilities are in conformity with the criteria for the peaceful use of outer space; (b) Member States should request advanced countries to eliminate discriminatory measures in the licensing of space technology to the regions of Africa and the Middle East. 7. Promoting international cooperation Recommendation of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 14. The United Nations should establish, as a matter of urgency, a special fund within the Office for Outer Space Affairs to assist in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE in. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Asia and the Pacific 15. The following was recommended: (a) Member States should fully utilize existing mechanisms of regional and international cooperation such as the Regional Space Applications Programme for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. The coordination involving the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and ESCAP should be further strengthened; (b) Given the wide diversity among the countries in Asia and the Pacific, which include many developing countries, the United Nations should play a more active role in the coordination of space-related activities in the region, with a view to fostering international cooperation; (c) UNISPACE HI should affirm that space-based services for search and rescue, disaster monitoring and 12 A/CONF.184/6 management, and weather-related uses should be free of commercial considerations. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean 16. The States of Latin America and the Caribbean, meeting within the framework of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean: (a) Expressed their firm resolve to promote international cooperation in the field of space science and technology as a basic tool for achieving the sustainable development of the less developed countries; (b) Conscious of the need to meet the specific requirements of each region, emphasized the importance of orienting cooperation programmes on the basis of the harmonization of compatible objectives and contributions in accordance with the human and economic capacities available in each State; (c) Expressed their conviction that cooperation projects must assist in developing the potential of each State in terms of its human, technological and economic resources. 17. The following was recommended: (a) Action should be taken to give priority to specific cooperation projects in the field of space that would make an effective contribution to developing the potential of States in terms of human, technological, economic and training resources, in the interests of achieving the best possible results; (b) Action should be taken to facilitate the timely and effective use of the information obtained through space technology as a basic input into the decision-making process, in the public sector and in the private sector; (c) Action should be taken to increase the mterlinking of telecornmunications, remote sensing and space information systems in order to maximize the effectiveness of initiatives directed towards the sustainable development of States. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Eastern Europe 18. The following was recommended: (a) The United Nations should provide adequate resources for the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III; (b) Member States in eastern Europe should be encouraged to actively cooperate and participate in the international scientific and technological research programmes on the International Space Station, as their involvement could provide major economic and social benefits for the region; (c) Member States in the region should take advantage, through international cooperation, of the complementarity of satellite systems for increasing opportunities in space science, technology and applications; (d) With reference to the issue of space debris, the United Nations should ensure that a good balance is achieved between the necessity to preserve outer space for future space activities and the need to maintain conditions for current space activities. Both space agencies and the global scientific community should play an important role in helping the United Nations to achieve that goal; (e) UNISPACE III should discuss legal aspects of space activities, review and assess the current status of space law and promote its farther progressive development based on the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. In studying those and other issues, the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space should continue to cooperate with other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations dealing with space law. B. Recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences for UNISPACE III with regional and national implications 1. Protecting the environment Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Africa and the Middle East 19. The following was recommended: (a) The appropriate scientific and technical committees of EGA and ESCWA should cooperate closely to enhance capacity-building in remote sensing and mapping centres already in existence in the regions in the areas of human resources, infrastructure development, acquisition of equipment and policy regulations; (b) The regions of Africa and me Middle East are not totally covered by Earth observation ground receiving stations. The regional commissions of the Economic and Social Council that are responsible for the two regions (ECA and ESCWA) should work with affected countries to ensure that the coverage gap is closed; 13 A/CONF.184/6 (c) Member States are encouraged to put in place prospective, proactive and participatory science and technology policies and to implement space strategies, including the necessary annual budget allocations, in order to derive maximum benefit and to contribute towards enhancing the standard of living of their people; (d) Member States should facilitate and encourage the participation of the private sector in all aspects of space industry development and related applications; (e) ECA and ESCWA should work with Member States in the two regions to determine the ability of the Member States to participate effectively in Earth observation projects. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Asia and the Pacific 20. The following was recommended: (a) Member States should enhance consultations among themselves in planning future Earth observation programmes. They should also fully utilize and enhance research and information networking to promote the exchange of data and research results in the International Geosphere-Biosphere (Global Change) Programme and related Earth studies; (b) Policy and decision makers should be better informed about the immense potential of satellite remote sensing and related technologies for the effective management of resources and, in particular, for disaster prevention and mitigation; (c) Member States in the region should formulate appropriate space-related policies and strive to play an effective role in the delivery of value-added services; (d) In view of the existence of problems encountered in implementing regional cooperative efforts involving data exchange and technology transfer owing to differences in national policies and priorities, Member States should develop more workable and acceptable mechanisms to facilitate coordination and cooperation in that area; (e) Any regional programme should include the exchange of data and the sharing of information derived from data analysis. Recommendations of the Regional Preparatory Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean 21. Action should be taken: (a) To identify and establish, through the competent national authorities, focal points for the exchange of information and >fl*l*«£HtfeJlft4ti HOW TO OBTAIN UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATIONS United Nations publications may be obtained from bookstores and distributors throughout the world. Consult your bookstore or write to: United Nations, Sales Section, New York or Geneva. COMMENT SE PROCURER LES PUBLICATIONS DES NATIONS UNIES Les publications des Nations Unies sont en vente dans les librairies et les agences d£positaires du monde entier. Informez-vous aupres de votre libraire ou adressez-vous a : Nations Unies, Section des ventes, New York ou Geneve. KAK IIO.IY'HITb lOJAHMfl OPI Allll.tAUI1II OEIEJIIHEHHMX HAI1III1 M 3 j a H M f l 0 p r a H H 3 a u H M . OSicjMHemibix HauHfi MOAIIO Kyiwrb B KHHVKHUX wara-3Hnax H arenTCTBax BO Bcex paftotiax vmpa. HaBOjHTe cnpaBKM 06 M3jaimflx B BauieM KHHAHOM Mara3Mne M.TIM nmuHTe no ajpecy: OpraHM3auHH 06ieaHnennbix HauHH, CeKUMH no npojaxe M3jatiHH, Hbio-MopK MJIH XeHeBa. COMO CONSEGUIR PUBLICACIONES DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS Las publicaciones de las Naciones Unidas estan en venta en librerias y casas distribuidoras en todas partes del mundo. Consulte a su librero o dirijase a: Naciones Unidas, Secci6n de Ventas, Nueva York o Ginebra. Printed in Austria V.99-89551-November 1999-1,650 United Nations publication Sales No. E.00.I.3 ISBN 92-1-100832-8 A/CONF.184/6?D(">42"P4b ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 !/CONF.184/6 ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b Distr.: General 18 October 1999 Russian Original: English )@8:"* GD,H\,6 7@>L,D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN (%,>", 19-30 4`:b 1999 (@*")* * ="FH@bV46 *@8J<,>H BD,*FH"&:b,H F@$@6 BD,*&"D4H,:\>Z6 &"D4">H *@8:"*" 7@>L,D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN, BD@N@*4&T,6 & %,>, 19-30 4`:b 1999 (@*". 99-30176.RA/CONF.184/6 E@8D"V,>4b !%MCC JF@&,DT,>FH&@&">>Z6 D"*4@<,HD F @R,>\ &ZF@84< D"2D,T,>4,< !CG+;3E E4FH,<" 4>L@D<4D@&">4b & D,":\>@< <"FTH"$, &D,<,>4 @*">>ZN ^8@:@(4R,F8@(@<@>4H@D4>(" !LD484 !KC37?%+C #"2" P4LD@&ZN *">>ZN @D"FH4H,:\>@< B@8D@&, *:b !LD484 %;? %F,<4D>"b <,H,@D@:@(4R,F8"b @D(">42"P4b %?1 %F,<4D>"b @D(">42"P4b 2*D"&@@ND">,>4b '!CE BD4<,>,>4, *4FH">P4@>>@(@2@>*4D@&">4b & (,@:@(44 '33 (:@$":\>"b 4>L@D<"P4@>>"b 4>LD"FHDJ8HJD" '3E ',@(D"L4R,F8"b 4>L@D<"P4@>>"b F4FH,<" '9?=!EE ':@$":\>"b >"&4("P4@>>"b FBJH>48@&"b F4FH,<" (C@FF46F8"b K,*,D"P4b) ';AEE (:@$":\>"b <@$4:\>"b B,DF@>":\>"b FBJH>48@&"b F&b2\ '=9A ':@$":\>Z, >"$:`*,>4b 2" :,F>Z< B@8D@&@< '=EE (:@$":\>"b >"&4("P4@>>"b FBJH>48@&"b F4FH,<" 'C3) #"2" *">>ZN @<4D@&ZN D,FJDF"N 'E3?? 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C,2`<, @$V,(@@$<,>" <>,>4b<4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452-481 94 E. )@8:"* 7@<4H,H" I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482-513 100 D. )@8:"* 7@<4H,H" II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514-533 101 +. )@8:"* G,N>4R,F8@(@L@DJ<" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534-555 103 F. ;,D@BD4bH4b K@DJ<" BD,*FH"&4H,:,6 8@F<4R,F8@(@B@8@:,>4b . . . . . . . . 556-558 105 G. )@8:"* 7@<4H,H" B@BD@&,D8, B@:>@<@R46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559-568 106 H. IH&,D0*,>4, *@8:"*" 7@>L,D,>P44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569-570 107 I. 1"8DZH4, 7@>L,D,>P44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571-573 107 AD4:@0,>4b vA/CONF.184/6 I. 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EJ*b B@@$:48J <>@(4N B"48@& BD@T:@(@, >"FR4HZ&"`V4N HZFbR,:,H>`` 4FH@D4`, J &F,N P4&4:42"P46 L@D<4D@&":@F\ F&@, F@$-FH&,>>@, "8@F<@&4*,>4," B@* &:4b>4,< 4<,`V4NFb ,V, & H, &D,<,>" @$T4D>ZN >"JR>ZN 4 "FHD@>@<4-R,F84N 2>">46. 2. #:"(@*"Db 42@$D,H,>4` H,:,F8@B@& 4 *DJ(4N @BH4R,F84N 4>FHDJ<,>H@& R,:@&,R,FH&@FH":@D"FT4-DbH\ F&@4 B@2>">4b @BD4D@*, *&40,>4b B:">,H 4 F&@, B@>4<">4, %F,:,>>@6. 9`*4 FH":4 2"*J"* H,<, 8"8@, <,FH@@>4 2">4<"`H & @$V,6 FN,<, <4D@-2*">4b 4 D"2"* FHD@,>4,< 4 & 8@>,R>@< 4H@(, BD@4FN@0*,>4,< 4 $J*JV,6 FJ*\$@6 %F,:,>>@6. !FHD@>@<4b 8"8 >"J8" BD,&D"H4:"F\ & @*4> 42 >"4$@-:,, <@V>ZN 4>H,::,8HJ":\>ZN FH4" B@4F8 4FH4>Z 4 B@>4<">4b BD4D@*Z &,V,6. 3. EHD,<:,>4, R,:@&,8" 8 B@2>">4` %F,:,>>@6 F@-BD@&@0*":@F\ 0,:">4,< &ZD&"H\Fb 2" BD,*,:Z >"T,6 B:">,HZ 4 B,D,>,FH4F\ & @H8DZHZ6 8@F<@F. E B@b&-:,>4,< B@D@N" 4 B,H"D*, 8@H@DZ, $Z:4 42@$D,H,>Z & 74H", HZFbRJ :,H H@"2"*, R,:@&,R,FH&@FH":@B@FH,B,>>@&Z>"T4&"H\ 4*,` B@:,H@& & 8@F<@F >" D"8,H,. % 8@>P, XIX FH@:,H4b JR,>Z,, R,DB"b &*@N>@&:,>4, 42 BD@42&,*,>46 >"JR>@6 L">H"FH484 @8@F<4R,F84N BJH,T,FH&4bN, BD4FHJB4:4 8 F@2*">4` D"8,H>@6 H,N>484, <,RH"b F ,, B@<@V\` 4FF:,*@&"H\ 8@F<4R,F8@, BD@FHD">FH&@. 4. E@2*">4, D"8,H JF8@D4:@F\ & N@*, &H@D@6 <4D@-&@6 &@6>Z, 8@(*" FH@D@>Z FHD,<4:4F\ 2"B@:JR4H\ $@:,, ^LL,8H4&>@, @DJ04,. C"$@HZ B@BD@&,*,>4` >"JR>ZN 4FF:,*@&">46 4 @BZH>@-8@>FHDJ8H@DF84N D"2D"$@H@8 $Z:4 &@2:@0,>Z & @F>@&>@< >" &@,>>Z, &,*@"T,6 B:">,HZ, $Z:" BD4<,>,>" >, & &@,>>ZN P,:bN. E ,, B@<@V\` $Z: 2"BJV,> FBJH>48 *:b BD@&,*,>4b >"JR->ZN 4FF:,*@&">46 B@BD@(D"<<, ;,0*J>"D@*>@(@(,@L424R,F8@(@(@*", 8@H@DZ6 @H<,R":Fb & 1957-1958 (@*"N. IFB,T>Z6 2"BJF8 B,D&@(@FBJH>48" 1,<:4 & @8Hb$D, 1957 (@*" @2>"<,>@&": >"FHJB:,>4, 8@F-<4R,F8@6 ^DZ 4 >"R":@*,bH,:\>@FH4 R,:@&,8" B@4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN. 5. =" 2"D, 8@F<4R,F8@6 ^DZ 0,:">4, *@$4H\Fb JFB,N" & @F&@,>44 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" B@*@-(D,&":@F\ F@B,D>4R,FH&@< *&JN 8@F<4R,F84N *,D0"&, & D,2J:\H"H, 8@H@D@(@R,:@&,R,FH&@2" 8@D@H846 BD@<,-0JH@8 *@$4:@F\ P,:@6 F,D44 &Z*"`V4NFb *@FH40,>46 & @F&@,>44 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&". % "BD,:, 1961 (@*" _D46 '"("D4> FH": B,D&Z< R,:@&,8@<, F@&,DT4&T4< B@:,H &@8DJ( 1,<:4 >" 8@F<4R,F8@< 8@D"$:,. % 4`:, 1969 (@*" H"8 >"2Z&",<"b "(@>8" 2" B@8@D,>4, 9J>Z" 2"&,DT4:"F\ JFB,T>@6 &ZF"*8@6 >" ,, B@&,DN>@FH4 ^84B"0" 8@F<4R,F8@(@8@D"$:b "!B@::@>-11" 4 =4: !D( 4 ]*&4> ?:*D4> (B@BD@2&4VJ "#"2") $Z:4 B,D&Z<4, 8H@FHJB4: >" B@&,DN>@FH\ 9J>Z. ]H@F@B,D>4R,FH&@D"FT4D4:@&@2<@0>@FH4 R,:@&,8" & F@2*">44 F:@0>ZN 8@F<4R,-F84N F4FH,<, @$,FB,R4&"b >, H@:\8@BD@(D,FF & @$-:"FH4 >"J84 4 H,N>484, >@4 F@&,DT,>FH&@&">4, <,H@*@& JBD"&:,>4b H"84<4 F4FH,<"<4. 6. #ZFHDZ6 BD@(D,FF & D"2D"$@H8, >"JR>@-H,N>4-R,F84N F4FH,<, & H@< R4F:, & @$:"FH4 JBD"&:,>4b 8DJB>@<"FTH"$>Z<4 >"JR>Z<4 BD@,8H"<4, @$,FB,R4: &@2<@0>@FH4 *:b BD@&,*,>4b $@:,, F8DJBJ:,2>ZN >"$:`*,>46 2" B:">,H"<4 8"8 E@:>,R>@6 F4FH,,HZ E@:>,R>@6 F4FH,4,< A:JH@>", $Z:4 @FJV,FH&:,>Z 2"BJF84 8@F<4R,F84N "BB"D"H@&. ;,0*J>"D@*>"b "D<"*" >"JR>ZN 8@F<4R,F84N "BB"D"-H@& $Z:" >"BD"&:,>" H"80, *:b 42JR,>4b 8@<,HZ '"::,b &@&D,,*"&>,(@BD@N@0*,>4b R,D,2 E@:>,R>J` F4FH,@D"2 & 75 :,H. 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A@b&4-:4F\ H"84, 8@F<4R,F84, FH">P44, 8"8 "E":`H", ";4D" 4 "E8"6:^$", " H"80, B:"HL@D"JR>Z, 4FF:,*@&">4b >" @D$4H,. 1"BJF84 FBJH>48@& BD48:"*>@(@>"2>"R,>4b B@2&@:4:4 >":"*4H\ >"$:`*,>4, 1,<:4 42 8@F<@F" 4 FB@F@$FH&@&":4 D"2-&4H4` FD,*FH& H,:,8@<48"P46 &@&F,< <4D,, RH@4<,,H @(D@<>@, 2>"R,>4, *:b F@P4":\>@-^8@>@<4R,-F8@(@D"2&4H4b @$V,FH&". 8. % >"T 4>L@D<"P4@>>Z6 &,8 FBJH>484 F&b24 FB@F@$FH&J`H D"FT4D,>4` 8@<<,DR,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4, RH@B@2&@:b,H >"*,bH\Fb >" D"FT4D,>4, 26A/CONF.184/6 BD4<,>,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 & *DJ(4N @$:"FHbN. IF:J(4, F&b2">>Z, F 2"BJF8@< 8@F<4R,F84N "BB"D"H@&, &F, T4D, @$,FB,R4&"`HFb R"FH>Z< F,8H@D@<, FH4"BD"&:,>>Z, >" B@:JR,>4, *@FHJB" & @H8DZHZ6 8@F<@F BD4 $@:,, >4284N 2"HD"H"N. C"FH,H @$X,< 4 *4"B"2@> *">>ZN *4FH">P4@>>@(@2@>*4D@&"->4b 4 42@$D"0,>46 F &ZF@84< D"2D,T,>4,<, D"FBD@-FHD">b,48" 4 D"2:4R>Z, &4*Z ,, BD4-8:"*>@(@BD4<,>,>4b @$,FB,R4&"`H H"80, B@:JR,>4, F B@<@V\` FBJH>48@& >"$:`*,>4b 1,<:4 &"0>,6T4N >"JR>ZN *">>ZN, N"D"8H,D42J`V4N F@FH@b>4, >"T,6 B:">,HZ. ]H4 FBJH>484 BD42&">Z B@<@("H\ R,:@&,R,-FH&J @P,>4&"H\ B@F:,*FH&4b BD@>@6 *,bH,:\->@FH4 4 BD4>4<"H\ <,DZ B@4FBD"&:,>4` B@:@0,>4b 4 @$,FB,R,>4` 2"V4HZ >"T,6 NDJB8@6 B:">,HZ. 10. AD@&,*,>4, >"JR>ZN 4FF:,*@&">46 & 8@F<@F,, 4FB@:\2@&">4, @8@:@2,<>@(@BD@FHD">FH&" 4 >"$:`-*,>4, 1,<:4 2"FH"&4:4 R,:@&,R,FH&@(:J$0, @F@2>"H\ H,F>J` &2"4<@2"&4F4<@FH\ &F,N >"D@*@&, >"F,:b`V4N >"TJ B:">,HJ. ':@$":\>Z, F,H4 F&b24, F@2*">>Z, F B@<@V\` FBJH>48@&, F$:424:4 :`*,6 &F,(@<4D", BD,-*@FH"&4& 4< &@2<@0>@FH\ F&@$@*>@@$<,>4&"H\Fb 4*,b<4 4 2>"8@<4H\Fb F 8J:\HJD>Z<4 @F@$,>>@FHb<4 *DJ(4N >"D@*@&. )">>Z, 4 4>L@D<"P4b, B@:JR,>>Z, @(:@$":\>@6 @8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*,, >"(:b*>@BD@*,<@>FH-D4D@&":4 Jb2&4<@FH\ >"T,6 B:">,HZ @H *,bH,:\>@FH4 R,:@&,8" 4 B@<@(:4 (:J$0, @F@2>"H\ >,@$N@*4<@FH\ F@&<,FH>ZN JF4:46 B@@$,FB,R,>4` ,, F@ND">>@FH4 & 4>H,D,F"N $J*JV4N B@8@:,>46. 11. 3FF:,*@&">4, 4 4FB@:\2@&">4, 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN @$,FB,R4&"`H &2"4<@B@>4<">4, <,0*J >"D@*"<4 R,D,2 F@HDJ*->4R,FH&@& *,:, D,T,>4b (:@$":\>ZN BD@$:,< >" 1,<:, 4 BD@*&40,>4b R,:@&,R,F8@6 P4&4:42"P44 & 8@F<@F. ;,0*J>"D@*>@, F@HDJ*>4R,FH&@& @F&@,>44 8@F<@F" @2>"<,>@&":@F\ ,V, @*>4< *@FH40,>4,< & 1998 (@*J, 8@(*" >"R":@F\ F@@DJ0,>4, ;,0*J>"D@*>@6 8@F<4-R,F8@6 FH">P44, 8@H@D"b B@F:J04H ,V, @*>@6 FHJB,>\8@6 >" BJH4 D,":42"P44 2"&,H>@6 <,RHZ R,:@&,8" @$04H\ 8@F<@F 4 (:J$0, BD@>48>JH\ & 8@F<@F & F"<@< $:40"6T,< $J*JV,<. 12. #:"(@*"Db 8@F<4R,F84< 4FF:,*@&">4b< R,:@-&,R,FH&@BD@*@:04H B@4F84 F&4*,H,:\FH& BD@4FN@0*,->4b %F,:,>>@6 4 FD,*FH& @$,FB,R,>4b $J*JV,(@R,:@&,R,F8@6 P4&4:42"P44. #:"(@*"Db BD"8H4R,F8@,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484 R,:@&,R,-FH&@$J*,H FHD,<4H\Fb 8 J:JRT,>4` JF:@&46 042>4, F@ND">,>4` (:@$":\>@6 @8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*Z 4 @$,FB,-R,>4` &F,@$V,(@BD@P&,H">4b $J*JV4N B@8@:,>46. 27A/CONF.184/6 B. ?D(">42"P4b ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 4 4FB@:\2@&">4, 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@-FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN 13. ?D(">42"P4b ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 FH":" BD4>4-<"H\ JR"FH4, & 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 J0, >" 2"D, 8@F<4R,F8@6 ^DZ. % F"@6 &@6>Z & Db*"N <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@@$V,FH&" JF4:4:"F\ HD,&@(" B@B@&@*J H@(@, RH@8@F<@F <@0,H BD,&D"H4H\Fb & >@&J` "D,>J *:b @FHD@(@F@B,D>4R,FH&" F&,DN*,D0"& 4:4 $,2-D"2*,:\>@(@(@FB@*FH&" & >,< @(D">4R,>>@(@R4F:" FHD">, @$:"*"`V4N >,@$N@*4,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b JRD,*4:" EB,-P4":\>Z6 8@<4H,H B@4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN & F@FH"&, 18 R:,>@& *:b D"FF<@HD,>4b &@BD@F" @*,bH,:\>@FH4 4 D,FJDF"N ?D("->42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46, FB,P4":424D@&">>ZN JRD,0*,>46 4 *DJ(4N <,0*J>"D@*>ZN @D(">@& & F&b24 F 4FB@:\2@&">4,< 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN, &@BD@F" @$ @D(">42"P4@>>ZN <,N">42<"N F P,:\` F@*,6FH&4b <,0*J>"D@*>@4R,FH&J & ^H@6 @$:"FH4 & D"<8"N ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46, " H"80, BD"&@&ZN BD@$:,<, 8@H@DZ, <@(:4 $Z &@2>48>JH\ & N@*, @FJV,FH&:,>4b BD@(D"<< 4FF:,*@-&">4b 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&"12. 14. % 1959 (@*J & 8"R,FH&, B@FH@b>>@(@@D(">" $Z: JRD,0*,> 7@<4H,H B@4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN, & F@FH"& 8@H@D@(@&@T:4 24 (@FJ*"DFH&". % >"FH@bV,, &D,,< >"FR4HZ&"-,HFb 61 (@FJ*"DFH&@13. % <"DH, 1962 (@*" 7@<4H,H, BD@-&,*b 4>H,>F4&>Z, 8@>FJ:\H"P44 FD,*4 F&@4N R:,>@&, B@FH">@&4: D,T"H\ &F, &@BD@FZ H"84< @$D"2@<, RH@$Z *@$4&"H\Fb 8@>F,>FJF" $,2 BD@&,*,>4b (@:@F@&">4b. 15. E 1961 (@*" 7@<4H,H, *,6FH&Jb B@B@DJR,>4` ',>,D":\>@6 !FF"<$:,4, &ZFHJB",H & D@:4 P,>HD" B@@D(">42"P44 <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & @$:"FH4 4FF:,*@&">4b 4 4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">-FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN, B@**,D04&"b H,F>Z, 8 @> H " 8 H Z F B D " & 4 H , : \ F H & , > > Z < 4 4 >,BD"&4H,:\FH&,>>Z<4 @D(">4-2"P4b<4, 2">4<"`V4<4Fb 8@F<4R,F8@6 BD@$:,<"H48@6, @$,FB,R4&"b @$<,> 4>L@D<"P4,6, 8"F"`V,6Fb 8@F<4-R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4, 4 @8"2Z&"b F@*,6FH&4, & 42JR,>44 <,D, >"BD"&:,>>ZN >" D"2&4H4, <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*->4R,FH&" & ^H4N @$:"FHbN *,bH,:\>@FH414. A@<@V\ 7@<4H,HJ & ,(@D"$@H, @8"2Z&"`H *&" B@*8@<4H,H", " 4<,>>@="JR>@-H,N>4R,F846 B@*8@<4H,H 4 _D4*4R,F-846 B@*8@<4H,H, 8@H@DZ, $Z:4 JRD,0*,>Z 7@<4H,H@< & <"DH, 1962 (@*". 1" (@*Z F&@,6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 ^H4 @D(">Z 4FB@:\2@&":4 <,N">42< D"$@R4N (DJBB *:b 42J-R,>4b D"2:4R>ZN &@BD@F@&, 4<,&T4N BD4>P4B4":\>@, 2>"R,>4,. 28A/CONF.184/6 16. E JRD,0*,>4,< 7@<4H,H" 4 ,(@B@*8@<4H,H@& JFH">@&4:"F\ BD"8H48" F@ND">,>4b F@FH"&" *@:0>@-FH>ZN :4P 4 BD@&,*,>4b &Z$@D@& H@:\8@& @F@$ZN F:JR"bN, 8@(*" H@4:4 4>@, *@:0>@FH>@, :4P@>, <@(:@&ZB@:>bH\ F&@4 *@:0>@FH>Z, @$b2">>@FH4. %F, LJ>8-P44 $Z:4 D"FBD,*,:,>Z <,0*J BD,*FH"&4H,:b<4 'DJB-BZ 77, 'DJBBZ 2"B"*>@,&D@B,6F84N 4 *DJ(4N (@FJ*"DFH& 4 'DJBBZ &@FH@R>@,&D@B,6F84N (@FJ*"DFH&. % 1996 4 1997 (@*"N, 8@H@DZ, @2>"<,>@&":4F\ F,D\,2>Z<4 (,@B@-:4H4R,F84<4 42<,>,>4b<4 B@F:, @8@>R">4b N@:@*>@6 &@6>Z, 7@<4H,H B,D,F<@HD,: F&@4 <,H@*Z D"$@HZ, &8:`R"b F@FH"& F&@,(@$`D@. % D,2J:\H"H, 7@<4H,H BD4>b: D,T,>4, 4FB@:\2@&"H\ BD4>P4BZ FBD"&,*:4&@(@(,@(D"L4R,F8@(@BD,*FH"&4H,:\FH&" 4 D@H"P44 R:,>@& $`D@7@<4H,H" 4 ,(@B@*8@<4H,H@&, F@8D"H4: FD@84 BD@&,*,>4b F,FF46 ^H4N @D(">@& 4 J8D,B4: BD@P,FF D"2D"$@H84 B@&,FH84 *>b _D4*4R,F8@(@B@*8@<4H,H". % >"FH@bV,, &D,@FH,6 $`D@7@<4-H,H" 4 ,(@&FB@<@("H,:\>ZN @D(">@&15, FD@8 B@:>@<@R46 8@H@DZN F@FH"&:b,H HD4 (@*", D@H4DJ`HFb FD,*4 BbH4 D,(4@>":\>ZN (DJBB, BD4R,< B@@*>@4<",H 8"0*"b 42 F:,*J`V4N (DJBB (@FJ*"DFH&: !LD48", !24b 4 G4N@@8,">F846 D,(4@>, %@FH@R>"b +&D@B", 9"H4>F8"b !<,D48" 4 7"D4$F846 $"FF,6>, " H"80, 1"B"*>"b +&D@-B" 4 *DJ(4, (@FJ*"DFH&". 17. KJ>8P44 F,8D,H"D4"H" 7@<4H,H" 4 ,(@&FB@<@("-H,:\>ZN @D(">@& &ZB@:>b,H IBD"&:,>4, B@&@BD@F"< 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" E,8D,H"D4"H", & F@FH"& 8@H@D@(@&N@*bH *&, F,8P44: E,8P4b B@@$F:J04&">4` 7@<4H,H" 4 4FF:,*@&">4b< 4 E,8P4b B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. IBD"&:,>4, >,F,H H"80, @H&,HFH&,>>@FH\ 2" @FJV,FH&:,>4, AD@(D"<42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>48416. 18. =" @F>@&, @$FJ0*,>46 4 D,8@<,>*"P46 7@<4H,H" $Z:4 &ZD"$@H">Z 4 BD4>bHZ BbH\ <>@(@FH@D@>>4N *@-(@&@D@& 4 BbH\ *,8:"D"P46, " H"80, 8@*,8F@& BD"&@&ZN BD4>P4B@& (F<. BJ>8HZ 361-376 >40,). 7D@<, H@(@, D"$@H" 7@<4H,H" & 2>"R4H,:\>@6 FH,B,>4 FB@F@$-FH&@&":" >, H@:\8@BD@(D,FFJ & *,:, D"2D"$@H84 BD"&@&@(@D,04<", D,(J:4DJ`V,(@8@F<4R,F8J` *,bH,:\>@FH\, >@4 &>,F:" FJV,FH&,>>Z6 &8:"* & J(:J$:,>4, <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484. =":"*4& @$<,> 4>L@D<"P4,6 @*@FH40,>4bN & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4, 7@<4H,H @$,FB,R4: *:b (@FJ*"DFH&-R:,>@& &@2<@0>@FH4 @BD,*,:bH\ @$:"FH4 *:b *":\>,6T,(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&". 7@<4H,H &ZB@:>b,H H"80, &"0>J` LJ>8P4` B@@FJV,FH&:,>4` DJ8@&@*FH&" &ZB@:>,>4,< B@:@0,>46 AD@(D"<42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484, 8@H@D"b FB@F@$FH&J,H >"D"V4&">4` B@H,>P4":" D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD"> & @$:"FH4 4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 BD48:"*>ZN &4*@& ,, BD4<,>,>4b BJH,< @D(">42"P44 <,D@BD4bH46 & @$:"FH4 @$D"2@&">4b 4 B@*(@H@&84 8"*D@&, " H"80, >,D,*8@&ZB@:>b,H D@:\ 8@@D*4>"H@D" 4:4 B@FD,*>48" & >":"04&">44 F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" <,0*J D"2&4HZ<4 4 D"2&4&"`V4<4Fb FHD">"<4 BJH,< @8"2">4b H,N>4R,F84N 8@>FJ:\H"H4&>ZN JF:J(. 19. ),bH,:\>@FH\ 7@<4H,H" FZ(D":" H"80, &"0>J` D@:\ & F@2Z&, HD,N 8@>L,D,>P46 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4->,>>ZN ="P46. I0, & 1959 (@*J ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$-:,b B@FH">@&4:" F@2&"H\ B@* ^(4*@6 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 <,0*J>"D@*>J` 8@>L,D,>P4` *:b @$<,>" @BZH@< & @$:"FH4 4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4R,F-8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN 4 B@DJR4:" 7@-<4H,HJ D"2D"$@H"H\ BD,*:@0,>4b B@BD@&,*,>4` H"8@6 8@>L,D,>P4417. % B@F:,*J`V4, (@*Z 7@<4H,H 2"->4<":Fb B@*(@H@&4H,:\>@6 D"$@H@6, 4 14-27 "&(JFH" 1968 (@*" & %,>, $Z:" BD@&,*,>" 7@>L,D,>P4b B@4F-F:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">-FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN, B,D,* 8@H@D@6 FH@b:" 2"*"R" D"FF<@HD,H\ BD"8H4R,F84, &Z(@*Z @H *,bH,:\>@FH4 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 8@F<@F" 4 @F>@&>Z, >"JR>@-H,N>4R,F84, *@FH40,>4b, " H"80, &@2<@0>@FH4, 8@H@DZ, @H8DZ&"-`HFb *:b (@FJ*"DFH&, >, @$:"*"`V4N 8@F<4R,F84< B@H,>P4":@<, & @$:"FH4 <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*->4R,FH&", >"BD"&:,>>@(@>" @FJV,FH&:,>4, 8@F<4R,F-8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4, F J*,:,>4,< @F@$@(@&>4<">4b B@HD,$>@FHb< D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">18. 20. ?*>4< 42 D,2J:\H"H@& 7@>L,D,>P44 FH":@JRD,0*,>4, B@FH" ]8FB,DH" B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F-<4R,F8@6 H,N>484, 8@H@DZ6 @$b2"> &F,P,:@F@*,6-FH&@&"H\ BD"8H4R,F8@,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. ?*>" 42 B,D&ZN D,8@<,>*"P46 ]8FB,DH" B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 2"8:`R":"F\ & H@<, RH@$Z 7@<4H,H JRD,*4: AD@(D"<42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. =" F:,*J`V46 (@* ',>,D":\>@@&Z*,:4H\ FD,*FH&" & $`*0,H, >" @FJV,FH&:,>4, ^H@6 AD@(D"<L,D,>P4b ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@-FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN 21. % >@b$D, 1978 (@*" ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b JH&,D*4:" D,8@<,>*"P44 7@<4H,H", 8"F"`V4,Fb F@2Z&" &H@D@6 7@>L,D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 29A/CONF.184/6 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,-F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN19. =" 7@<4H,H $Z:4 &@2:@0,>Z LJ>8P44 A@*(@H@&4H,:\>@(@8@<4H,H" 7@>L,D,>P44, " >" ="JR>@-H,N>4R,F846 B@*8@<4H,H -LJ>8P44 7@>FJ:\H"H4&>@(@8@<4H,H" BD4 A@*(@H@&4-H,:\>@< 8@<4H,H,20. 22. =" &H@D@6 7@>L,D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@-&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN (_=3EA+5E-82), 8@H@D"b BD@N@*4:" & %,>, F 9 B@21 "&(JFH" 1982 (@*"21 4 & D"$@H, 8@H@D@6 BD4>b:4 JR"FH4, BD,*FH"&4H,:4 94 (@FJ*"DFH&-R:,>@& 4 45 <,0BD"&4H,:\FH&,>>ZN 4 >,BD"&4H,:\FH&,>>ZN @D(">42"P46, $Z:4 D"FF<@HD,>Z &@BD@FZ, 8"F"`V4,Fb JD@&>b D"2&4H4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484, &4*@& BD48:"*>@(@BD4<,>,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N->484, <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" 4 D@:4 ?D("->42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46. C,8@<,>*"P44 4 &Z&@*Z _=3EA+5E-82, BD4>bHZ, 8@>F,>FJF@<, F@-*,D0"HFb & *@8:"*, 7@>L,D,>P4422. 23. % *,8"$D, 1982 (@*"23 ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b @*@$D4:" D,8@<,>*"P44_=3EA+5E-82 & @H>@T,>44 <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & 4FF:,*@&">44 4 4FB@:\2@&">44 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN24, &"0>,6T4< 4H@(@< 8@H@DZN FH":@J8D,B:,>4, 4 D"FT4D,>4, AD@(D"<42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. !FF"<-$:,b B@FH">@&4:", RH@AD@(D"<<" *@:0>" F@*,6FH&@&"H\ D"FT4D,>4` @$<,>" BD"8H4R,F84< @BZH@< B@8@>8D,H->Z< &4*"< BD4<,>,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 J(:J$-:,>4` F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484 <,0*J D"2&4HZ<4 4 D"2&4&"`V4<4Fb FHD"->"<4, " H"80, <,0*J D"2&4&"`V4<4Fb FHD">"<4 4 FH4"P4@>":\>@(@B@H,>P4":" 4 F"<@FH@bH,:\>@6 H,N>4R,F8@6 $"2Z & @$:"FH4 8@F-<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 & D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">"N. ):b *@FH40,>4b ^H4N P,:,6 AD@(D"<<, $Z:@BD,*:@0,>@D"2D"$@H"H\ BD@(D"<4b FH4B,>*46 >" B@*-(@H@&8J &ZF@8@8&":4L4P4D@&">>ZN FB,P4":4FH@& & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 ,, BD48:"*>@(@BD4-<,>,>4b 4 @D(">42@&"H\ BD@&,*,>4, D,(J:bD>ZN F,<4->"D@& B@B,DFB,8H4&>Z< &4*"< BD4<,>,>4b 8@F<4-R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 D"2D"$@H8"< >@&ZN F4FH,< *:b <,>,*-0,D@& 4 DJ8@&@*4H,:,6 & @$:"FH4 BD4<,>,>4b 4 D"2-D"$@H84 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484, " H"80, *:b *DJ(4N B@:\2@&"H,:,6. AD@(D"<<, $Z:@B@DJR,>@H"80, D"F-BD@FHD">bH\ 4>L@D<"P4` @>@&ZN 4 B,DFB,8H4&>ZN H,N>@:@(4bN 4 &4*"N 4N BD48:"*>@(@BD4<,>,>4b & N@*, F@&,V">46 D"$@R4N (DJBB 4 F,<4>"D@&, " H"80, BD,*@-FH"&:bH\ H,N>4R,F84, 8@>FJ:\H"H4&>Z, JF:J(4 & D"<8"N BD@,8H@& BD4<,>,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. ):b @$:,(R,>4b *@FHJB" 8 $">8"< *">>ZN 4 4FH@R>48"< 4>L@D<"P44 $Z:" JRD,0*,>" H"80, ;,0*J>"D@*>"b F:J0$" 8@F<4R,F8@6 4>L@D<"P44. 24. %ZB@:>bb D,8@<,>*"P44 _=3EA+5E-82, AD@(-D"<<" ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,->,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 BD4FHJB4:" 8 D,":42"P44 @H*,:\>ZN ^:,<,>H@& F&@4N D"FT4D,>>ZN B@:>@<@R46 B@>":"04&">4` L"8H4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484, & R"FH>@FH4, & 4>H,D,F"N D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">. % B,D4@* 1971-1997 (@*@& AD@(D"<<" @D(">42@&":" 143 BD"8H48J<", JR,$>ZN 8JD-F@& 4 F@&,V">46 ^8FB,DH@&, & 8@H@DZN BD4>b:4 JR"FH4, @8@:@7 500 FB,P4":4FH@&. E:,*Jb D,8@<,>*"P4b< >,8@H@DZN BD"8H48J<@&, AD@(D"<<" F@FD,*@H@R4:" F&@, &>4<">4, >" <,D@BD4bH4bN & @$:"FH4 @$D"2@&">4b 4 B@*(@H@&84 8"*D@&, 4 & R"FH>@FH4 >" F@2*">44 D,(4@->":\>ZN JR,$>ZN P,>HD@& 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>4-84, "FF@P44D@&">>ZN F ?D(">42"P4,6 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46, & 8"0*@< 42 D,(4@>@&, @N&"R,>>ZN <,D@BD4b-H4b<4 D,(4@>":\>ZN 8@<4FF46. 25. % 1987 (@*J ="JR>@-H,N>4R,F84< B@*8@<4H,H@< $Z:" JRD,0*,>" C"$@R"b (DJBB" B@:>@(@F@FH"&" B@@P,>8, @FJV,FH&:,>4b D,8@<,>*"P46 &H@D@6 7@>L,-D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@-&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN. 1"*"R4 ^H@6 C"$@R,6 (DJBBZ 2"8:`R"-`HFb & H@<, RH@$Z F@&,DT,>FH&@&"H\ BD@P,FF @FJV,FH-&:,>4b <,D@BD4bH46, F&b2">>ZN F <,0*J>"D@*>Z< F@HDJ*>4R,FH&@<, & R"FH>@FH4 <,D@BD4bH46, &8:`R,>->ZN & AD@(D"<42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484, BD,*:"("H\ 8@>8D,H>Z, <,DZ B@D"FT4D,>4` H"8@(@F@HDJ*>4-R,FH&" 4 B@&ZT"H\ ^LL,8H4&>@FH\ H"8@(@F@HDJ*->4R,FH&". 26. % D,8@<,>*"P4bN, B@*(@H@&:,>>ZN C"$@R,6 (DJB-B@6 B@:>@(@F@FH"&" B@F:, 1987 (@*", @F>@&>@, &>4<"->4, <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" @$D"V",HFb >" Db* &@BD@F@&, 4<,`V4N &"0>@, 2>"R,>4, *:b D"FT4D,>4b *@FHJB" 8 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>48, 4 ,, 4FB@:\2@&">4b &F,<4 (@FJ*"DFH&"<4-R:,>"<4, & R"FH>@FH4, & 4>H,D,F"N D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">. =" F&@,6 F,FF44 1997 (@*" C"$@-R"b (DJBB", B@*&@*b 4H@(4 N@*" @FJV,FH&:,>4b D,8@<,>-*"P46 _=3EA+5E-82, @H<,H4:", RH@@>" JH@R>4:" 4:4 *@B@:>4:" >,8@H@DZ, 42 F&@4N D,8@<,>*"P46, F H,< RH@$Z F*,:"H\ 4N $@:,, 8@>8D,H>Z<4 4 @$:,(R4H\ 4N @FJV,FH&:,>4,. % D,2J:\H"H, $Z: *@FH4(>JH FJV,FH&,>->Z6 BD@(D,FF & B,D&J` @R,D,*\ & J(:J$:,>44 <,0*J>"-D@*>@(@4 D,(4@>":\>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & @$:"FH4 *":\>,6T,(@D"2&4H4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 & @$V,<4D@&@< <"FTH"$, 4 F@*,6FH&4b $@:,, T4D@8@J BD"8H4R,F84< 30A/CONF.184/6 @BZH@<. 7@>8D,H>Z, D,2J:\H"HZ $Z:4 *@FH4(>JHZ & F:,*J`V4N @$:"FHbN: @D(">42"P4b BD@(D"<*46 *:b B@*(@H@&84 &ZF@8@8&":4L4-P4D@&">>ZN FB,P4":4FH@& & N@*, BD@&,*,>4b JR,$>ZN 8JDF@& 4 BD"8H48J<@& B@B,DFB,8H4&>Z< &4*"< BD4<,->,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484; B@*(@H@&8" F,D44 H,N>4R,F84N 4FF:,*@&">46, 8"F"`V4NFb 8@>8D,H>ZN @$-:"FH,6 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84, 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 4N BD48:"*>@(@BD4<,>,>4b; 4 JRD,0*,>4, D,(4@>":\>ZN JR,$>ZN P,>HD@& 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484. ),bH,:\>@FH\ C"$@R,6 (DJBBZ FB@F@$FH&@&":" H"80, $@:,, D"P4@>":\>@4` FD,*FH& $`*0,H" ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 >" D"FT4D,>4, *,bH,:\>@FH4 & D"<8"N AD@(D"<42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@BD4<,>,>4` 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. M@Hb <>@(4, B@:@04H,:\>Z, <,DZ $Z:4 BD4>bHZ >" @F>@&">44 $@:,, R,< 200 D,8@<,>*"P46, F*,:">>ZN >" _=3EA+5E-82, F:@04:@F\ <>,>4,, RH@<>@(4, *DJ(4, D,8@<,>*"P44 >, $Z:4 JRH,>Z. #Z:@F@RH,>@, RH@H"8@, B@:@0,>4, >, FB@F@$FH&J,H 8@>FHDJ8H4&>@6 D"$@H, 7@<4H,H". 27. C"$@R"b (DJBB" B@:>@(@F@FH"&" FZ(D":" D,T"-`VJ` D@:\ & D"2D"$@H8, 8@>P,BP44 4 B:">4D@&">44 HD,H\,6 7@>L,D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="-P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN (_=3EA+5E-III) 4 ^LL,8H4&>@FB@F@$FH&@&":" B@*(@H@&8, B@*D@$>@6 BD@(D"<Z< &@BD@F"<, &8:`R"b P,:4, L@D4b, " H"80, F@FH"& JR"FH>48@&, BD,*&"D4H,:\>J` B@&,FH8J *>b, L4>">F@&Z, "FB,8HZ 4 *@B@:>4H,:\>Z, <,D@BD4bH4b 7@>L,D,>P44. D. #:"(@BD4bH>Z, JF:@&4b *:b 4FF:,*@&">4b 4 4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<@F" 1. %"0>@FH\ 4 B@&ZT,>4, 2>"R,>4b D@:4 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 28. 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A@b&:b`V4,Fb >@&Z, &4*Z JF:J( @$,FB,-R"H $@:,, ^LL,8H4&>Z, D,T,>4b -8"8 & D"2&4HZN, H"8 4 D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">"N -BD4 D"FF<@HD,>44 &@BD@F@&, 4<,`V4N D,(4@>":\>@, 4 (:@$":\>@, 2>"R,>4,, F&b-2">>ZN, >"BD4<,D, F D"FT4D,>4,< &@2<@0>@FH,6 & @$:"FH4 @$D"2@&">4b, @$,FB,R,>4,< *@FHJB" 8 >"*-:,0"V4< <,*4P4>F84< JF:J("< 4 B@&ZT,>4,< ^LL,8-H4&>@FH4 <,D@BD4bH46 B@BD,*JBD,0*,>4` :48&4*"P44 B@F:,*FH&46 FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46, " H"80, D"2D"$@H8@6 FHD"H,(46 *:b BD4FB@F@$:,>4b 8 42<,>,>4b< 8:4<"H" 4:4 F4b 4N B@F:,*FH&46. 33. % $J*JV,< $J*,H BD@4FN@*4H\ *":\>,6T,, D"2&4-H4, FBJH>48@&@6 F&b24 & 8"R,FH&, @*>@6 42 *&40JV4N F4: ^8@>@<484 8"8 D"2&4HZN, H"8 4 D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">. )"0, B@F"Z< @P,>8"<, @$V46 @$X,< <4D@&@(@DZ>8" H@:\8@B@2"BJF8"< 4 ^8FB:J"-H"P44 FBJH>48@& *:b @$,FB,R,>4b FH"P4@>"D>ZN F4FH,< F&b24 4 &,V">4b F@FH"&4H & 1997-2005 (@*"N @H 60 *@80 <:D*. *@::"D@& ES!. ?$X,< DZ>8" JF:J( >"2,<>ZN FH">P46 4 H,D<4>":\>ZN F4FH,<, " H"80, "$@>,>HF84N JF:J( H"84N FBJH>48@& *@FH4(>,H & H,R,>4, ^H@(@0, B,D4@*" BD4<,D>@200-300 <:D*. *@::"D@& ES!. % H@&D,48@& <@(JH B@2&@:4H\ F,$, :4T\ 8@F<4R,F84, (@FJ*"DFH&" 4 8DJB->Z, 8@44, & 4FB@:\2@&">44 >"2,<>@(@F,(<,>H" <@0,H JR"FH&@&"H\ 2>"R4H,:\>@$@:,, T4D@846 8DJ( 2"4>H,D,F@&">>ZN FH@D@>, &8:`R"b D"2&4&"`V4,Fb FHD">Z. 34. ;,H,@D@:@(4R,F84, FBJH>484 4 FBJH>484 >"$:`-*,>4b 1,<:4 @$D"2J`H B@4FH4>, <,0*J>"D@*>J` F,H\, 8@H@D"b @$,FB,R4&",H <@>4H@D4>( 1,<:4 >" B@FH@b>>@6 @F>@&,. G"84, FBJH>484 BD,*@FH"&:b`H *">>Z, *:b 8D"H8@FD@R>@(@4 FD,*>,FD@R>@(@BD@(>@24D@&">4b B@(@*Z (RH@B@2&@:b,H $@:,, ^LL,8H4&>@B:">4D@&"H\ FHD"H,(4R,F84 &"0>J` F,:\F8@N@2b6FH&,>>J` *,bH,:\->@FH\ 4 F"Z, B@&F,*>,&>Z, <,D@BD4bH4b), " B@:JR",4N 2"$:"(@&D,<,>>Z, BD,*JBD,0-*,>4b @>"*&4("`V4NFb JD"(">"N 4 H"6LJ>"N B@2&@:b`H 2>"R4H,:\>@J<,>\T4H\ JV,D$ 4>LD"FHDJ8HJD, 4 :`*-F84, B@H,D4 &@<>@(4N FHD">"N, B@*&,D0,>>ZN H"84< FH4N46>Z< $,*FH&4b<. 35. % >"FH@bV,, &D,48@&Z, F4FH,4b <,FH@B@:@0,>4b, H"84, 8"8 ':@$":\>"b F4FH,<" @BD,*,:,>4b <,FH@B@:@0,>4b (GPS) 4 ':@$":\>"b >"&4("P4@>>"b FBJH>48@&"b F4FH,<" ('9?=!EE), B,D&@>"R":\>@4FB@:\2@&"&T4,Fb & &@,>>@-FHD"H,(4-R,F84N P,:bN, BD,*@FH"&:b`H &@2<@0>@FH4 *:b $,F-B:"H>@6 B,D,*"R4 >,T4LD@&">>ZN F4(>":@& & (D"0-*">F84N P,:bN, & R"FH>@FH4, *:b @$,FB,R,>4b $,2@-B"F>@FH4 &@2*JT>@6, >"2,<>@6 4 <@DF8@6 >"&4("P44. AD4,<>484 GPS B@2&@:b`H B4:@H"<, &@*4H,:b< 4 *DJ(4< B@:\2@&"H,:b< @BD,*,:bH\ <,FH@B@:@0,>4, @$X,8H@& F H@R>@FH\` *@100 <,HD@&. AD4<,>,>4, B@:\2@&"H,:b<4 >"&4("P4@>>@(@@$@DJ*@&">4b, @F>"-V,>>@(@F@BDb0,>>Z<4 BD4,<>48"<4 GPS 4 '9?=!EE, B@2&@:b,H ,V, & $@:\T,6 FH,B,>4 B@&ZF4H\ >"*,0>@FH\ 4 H@R>@FH\ H"8@6 F4FH,44 *4LL,D,>P4D@&">>ZN (:@$":\>ZN <,H@*@& @BD,-*,:,>4b <,FH@B@:@0,>4b 8@@D*4>"HZ <@0>@JFH">@-&4H\ F H@R>@FH\` *@1 <,HD". I0, & >"FH@bV,, &D,,R>Z< B@:\2@&"H,:b< @$,-FB,R4H\ $@:,, &ZF@846 JD@&,>\ $,2@B"F>@FH4, F>424H\ D"FN@*Z 4 B@&ZF4H\ BD@42&@*4H,:\>@FH\. E@&@8JB>Z6 @$X,< *@N@*@& @H 4FB@:\2@&">4b F:J0$ 4 @$@DJ*@&"->4b GPS *:b P,:,6 8"DH4D@&">4b 4 BD@&,*,>4b "^D@L@-H@FX,<84, " H"80, & *DJ(4N @$:"FHbN F@FH"&4: & 1994 (@*J @8@:@500 <:>. *@::"D@& ES!. % >"FH@bV,, &D,4<"`HFb JF4:4b, >"BD"&:,>>Z, >" @$,FB,R,>4, *@FHJB" 8@>,R>ZN B@:\2@&"H,:,6 8 @$@DJ*@&">4` '9?=!EE R,D,2 DZ>@8 (:@$":\>ZN >"&4("P4@>>ZN JF:J(. ?04*",HFb, RH@& F:,*J`V,< *,FbH4:,H44 ^H4 @$:"FH4 BD4<,>,>4b 4 F&b2">>Z, F >4<4 &Z(@*Z $J*JH FHD,<4H,:\>@&@2D"FH"H\. 36. ':@$":\>"b 8@F<4R,F8"b 4>*JFHD4b, *@N@*Z 8@H@D@6 & 1996 (@*J F@FH"&4:4 @8@:@77 <:D*. *@::. ES! 4 & 8@H@D@6 2">bH@$@:,, 800 000 R,:@&,8, BD,-&D"H4:"F\ & 8DJB>,6TJ` @HD"F:\ <4D@&@6 ^8@>@<484. =" *@:` 8@<<,DR,F8@(@4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4R,F84N "BB"D"H@&, &8:`R"b H,:,8@<48"P4@>>Z, FD,*FH&", 32A/CONF.184/6 4 F@@DJ0,>4, ^:,<,>H@& 4>LD"FHDJ8HJDZ, & R"FH>@FH4 BD@42&@*FH&@D"8,H->@F4H,:,6, FBJH>48@& 4 >"2,<>@(@@$@DJ*@&">4b, & >"FH@bV,, &D,H" ^H@6 @HD"F:4, " @FH"&T"bFb R"FH\ L4>">F4DJ,HFb 42 (@FJ*"DFH&,>>ZN 4FH@R>48@&. % 1996 (@*J *@N@*Z @H 8@<<,DR,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 &B,D&Z, BD,&ZF4:4 @$X,< (@FJ*"DFH&,>>ZN D"FN@*@&. 37. ):b D,":42"P44 <"8F4<":\>ZN BD,4484 4 ,, 4FB@:\2@&">4b, & R"FH>@FH4 *:b D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">, >,@$N@*4<@JR4HZ&"H\ B@<,>\T,6 <,D, *&" &2"4<@F&b2">>ZN @$V4N &@BD@F", 8"F"`V4NFb BD4<,>,>4b B,D,*@&@6 H,N>@:@(44 & P,:bN F@P4":\>@-^8@>@<4R,F8@(@D"2&4H4b. 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IV,D$ @H ^8FHD,<":\>ZN 8:4<"H4R,F84N b&:,>46, >"-BD4<,D @H :,*b>ZN $JD\, >"&@*>,>46 4 2"FJN, <@0,H 4FR4F:bH\Fb <4::4"D*"<4 *@::"D@& ES! & (@*. +0,-(@*>@$@:,, <4::4"D*" :`*,6 &@&F,< <4D, FHD"*"`H @H HD">F<4FF4&>ZN $@:,2>,6. =,8@H@DZ, 42 H"84N 2"$@-:,&">46 <@(JH BD4&@*4H\ 8 ND@>4R,F84< FHD"*">4b< 4 4>&":4*>@FH4. ;>@(4, HD">F<4FF4&>Z, $@:,2>4 &@2->48"`H B@* &@2*,6FH&4,< 42<,>R4&@FH4 B@(@*>ZN JF:@-&46 4 (:@$":\>@(@42<,>,>4b 8:4<"H". IF@&,DT,>FH-&@&">>Z, <,H@*Z <@>4H@D4>(" "H<@FL,DZ, B@&,DN>@FH4 1,<:4, BD4$D,0>ZN 2@> 4 @8,">@& F B@<@V\` FBJH>4-8@& J0, *@8"2":4 F&@` ^LL,8H4&>@FH\ *:b BD@(>@24-D@&">4b &FBZT,8 <":bD44, N@:,DZ 4 *DJ(4N 2"$@:,-&">46. 43. AD@$:,48"`V4, & F&b24 F >,@$N@*4-<@FH\` @(D">4R4H\ @HD4P"H,:\>@, &@2*,6FH&4, R,:@-&,R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 >" F@FH@b>4, @8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*Z 4 F&,FH4 8 <4>4b,Z<4 $,*FH&4b<4, &@2>48"`H &@&F,N R"FHbN <4D". IFB,N4, *@FH4(>JHZ, & D"2&4H44 >"J84 4 H,N>484 & XX &,8,, B@&ZF4:4 FB@F@$>@FH\ :`*,6 BD,*BD4>4<"H\ 8@::,8H4&>Z, JF4:4b >" (:@$":\>@< JD@&>, 4 @$,FB,-R4H\ BD@P&,H">4, R,:@&,R,FH&" & XXI FH@:,H44. 44. 7@F<4R,F8"b >"J8" 4 H,N>48", " H"80, *@FH40,->4b & @$:"FH4 4>L@D<"P4@>>@6 H,N>@:@(44 @8"2Z&"`H FJV,FH&,>>@, &@2*,6FH&4, >" B@&F,*>,&>J` 042>\ 8"0-*@(@R,:@&,8". C"FFH@b>4b B@FH@b>>@F@8D"V"`HFb, 4 FBJH>48@&"b F&b2\ FB@F@$FH&J,H B@&ZT,>4` &2"4<@2"-&4F4<@FH4, & D"<8"N 8@H@D@6 D,R,&Z, 4 H,8FH@&Z, F@@$V,>4b, (D"L4R,F84, 42@$D"0,>4b 4 8@Z, 4>FHDJ8P44 <@(JH $ZH\ B,D,*">Z 42 @*>@(@<,FH" & *DJ(@, >" 2>"R4H,:\>@, D"FFH@b>4, & H,R,>4, <4>4-<":\>@&@2<@0>@(@&D,<,>4. ="JR>@-H,N>4R,F84, *@FH40,>4b & @$:"FH4 F&b24 42<,>4:4 N"D"8H,D &>JHD,>>4N 4 <,0*J>"D@*>ZN 8@<<,DR,F84N F*,:@8, BD4&,-:4 8 8@D,>>Z< 42<,>,>4b< & ^8@>@<48, 4 $">8@&F8@< *,:,, HD">FL@D<4D@&":4 4>*JFHD4` D"2&:,R,>46 4 B@&:4b:4 >" <>@(4, "FB,8HZ B@&F,*>,&>@6 042>4 :`*,6. 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AD@(>@24D@&">4, B@(@*Z 4 42<,->,>46 & 8:4<"H4R,F84N F4FH,<"N FB@F@$FH&J,H H"80, BD4<,>,>4` >"*:,0"V4N <,H@*@& &,*,>4b F,:\F8@(@N@2b6FH&", :48&4*"P44 B@F:,*FH&46 FH4N46>ZN $,*-FH&46, @(D">4R,>4` <"FTH"$@& JV,D$" 4 2"$:"(@&D,-<,>>@4` @8"H"FHD@L4R,F84N 8:4<"-H4R,F84N b&:,>4bN. 45. ?F>@&>"b 2"*"R" & >"FH@bV,, &D,44 <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" 4 @$<,->, H,N>@:@(4b<4 4 BD48:"*>Z<4 D"2D"$@H8"<4, RH@$J-*,H FB@F@$FH&@&"H\ <"8F4<":\>@^LL,8H4&>@4` &Z(@*, F&b2">>ZN F BD4<,>,>4,< 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484. ?*>@6 42 >"4$@:,, &"0>ZN FL,D <,0*J>"D@*->@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" b&:b,HFb 4FB@:\2@&">4, 8@F<4-R,F8@6 H,N>484 *:b <@>4H@D4>(" 4 @ND">Z @8DJ0"-`V,6 FD,*Z. % >"FH@bV,, &D,48H@& <4D, >, F@<->,&",HFb & F,D\,2>@FH4 BD@$:,< 2"(Db2>,>4b @8DJ0"-`V,6 FD,*Z, *,(D"*"P44 B@R& 4 @$,2:,F,>4b, " H"80, &@BD@F@&, F&b2">>ZN F (:@$":\>Z<4 42<,>,>4b<4 8:4-<"H". A@F:, BD4>bH4b & 1992 (@*J A@&,FH84 *>b >" XXI &,825 >" 7@>L,D,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@@8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*, 4 D"2&4H4`, F@FH@b&T,6Fb & C4@-*,-/">,6D@, #D"24:4b, & 1992 (@*J, >"R":"F\ D,"-:42"P4b Db*" 4>4P4"H4&, BD,*JF<"HD4&"`V4N 4FB@:\-2@&">4, 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484 *:b <@>4H@D4>(" @8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*Z. % <,0*J>"D@*>ZN >"JR>ZN @P,>-8"N, B@*(@H@&:,>>ZN ;,0BD"&4H,:\FH&,>>@6 (DJBB@6 B@8:4<"H4R,F84< 42<,>,>4b<, 4 & N@*, HD,H\,6 F,FF44 7@>L,D,>P44 EH@D@> C"<@R>@6 8@>&,>P44 ?D(">42"-P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 @$ 42<,>,>44 8:4<"H", BD@-N@*4&T,6 & 74@H@, aB@>4b, F 1 B@10 *,8"$Db 1997 (@*", @HD"0,>Z *,6FH&4b, 8@H@DZ, >"*:,04H BD,*BD4>bH\ & P,:bN &ZB@:>,>4b B@:@0,>46 C"<@R>@6 8@>&,>P44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 @$ 42<,->,>44 8:4<"H"26. 34A/CONF.184/6 46. C,2J:\H"HZ >"JR>@-H,N>4R,F8@(@BD@(D,FF", *@FH4(>JHZ, B@F:, 7@>L,D,>P44 _=3EA+5E-82, >@-&"b B@:4H4R,F8"b "H<@FL,D", F@8D"V,>4, (@FJ*"DFH-&,>>ZN "FF4(>@&">46 4 B@b&:,>4, $@:\T@(@R4F:" &>@FbV4N &,F@@&ZN JR"FH>48@&, &8:`R"b Db* D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD"> 4 R"FH>Z6 F,8H@D, HD,$J`H B@&ZT,>4b @F&,*@<:,>>@FH4 :4P, @H&,HFH&,>>ZN 2" D"2D"$@H8J B@:4H484 4 BD4>bH4, D,T,>46 & (@FJ*"DFH&,>>@< 4 R"FH>@< F,8H@D"N, & R"FH>@FH4 & D"2&4-&"`V4NFb FHD">"N, @H>@F4H,:\>@&"0>@FH4 BD4<,->,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 >" F@&D,<,>>@< ^H"B,. 7@F<4R,F8"b H,N>48" $J*,H 4<,H\ &"0>@, 2>"R,>4, *:b B@&ZT,>4b 8"R,FH&" 042>4 8"0*@(@R,:@&,8" 8"8 & ^8@>@<4R,F8@<, H"8 4 & F@P4":\>@< @H>@T,>44. ?H8D@`HFb T4D@84, &@2<@0>@FH4 *:b F@P4":\>@-^8@>@<4R,F8@(@D"2&4H4b, &ZH,8"`V4, 42 BD@(>@-24DJ,*,>P46 D@FH" 4 D"2&4H4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 4>*JFHD44. % XXI &,8, 8@F<4R,F8"b *,bH,:\>@FH\ FH">,H *&4("H,:,< <4D@&@6 ^8@>@<484 4 @H8D@,H <>@-(@R4F:,>>Z, &@2<@0>@FH4, & R"FH>@FH4, *:b D"2&4&"-`V4NFb FHD">. 7@F<4R,F8"b *,bH,:\>@FH\ <@0,H H"80, FB@F@$FH&@&"H\ F@8D"V,>4` D"2DZ&" <,0*J D"2&4HZ<4 4 D"2&4&"`V4<4Fb FHD">"<4. 47. A@*&@*b 4H@( &ZT,42:@0,>>@@@H<,-H4H\, RH@>@&Z, JF:@&4b F@2*"`H ^LL,8H4&>J` @F>@&J *:b >,BD,DZ&>@(@D"2&4H4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 *":\>,6T,(@D"FT4D,>4b ,, BD4<,>,>4b & HD"*4P4@>->ZN 4 >@&ZN @$:"FHbN. % H@0, &D,4, BD@P,FF" 8@<<,DP4":42"P44 4 BD4&"H42"P44 8@F<4R,-F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 &:,R,H 2" F@$@6 &@2>48>@&,>4, >@&ZN H,>*,>P46, >@&Z, 4>&,FH4P44 4 $@:,, (4$8@, D,"(4D@&">4, >" HD,$@&">4b DZ>8". ]H4 JF:@&4b FB@-F@$FH&J`H H"80, *":\>,6T,"D@*->@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & 8@F<4R,F8@6 @$:"FH4. G"84, JF:@&4b *@:0>Z JR4HZ&"H\Fb BD4 D"FF<@HD,>44 &@BD@-F@&, BD@&,*,>44 *4F8JFF46 4 D"2D"$@H8, D , 8 @< , > * " P 4 6 > " _ = 3 E A + 5 E-I I I . +. 3FH@D4b @D(">42"P44 4 B@*(@H@&8" 8 _=3EA+5E-III 48. =" F&@,6 F,FF44 & 1992 (@*J 7@<4H,H B@4FB@:\-2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN BD4>b: 8 F&,*,>4` BD,*:@0,>4, @H@<, RH@HD,H\` 7@>L,D,>P4` _=3EA+5E F:,*J,H @D(">42@&"H\ & 1995 (@*J, 0,:"H,:\>@& @*>@6 42 D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">. ]H@BD,*:@0,>4, $Z:@&Z*&4>JH@& P,:bN B@**,D0">4b H@(@4 & D,2J:\H"H, BD@&,*,>4b & H,R,>4, 1992 (@*" <,D@BD4bH46 B@F:JR"` ;,0*J>"D@*>@(@(@*" 8@F<@F", 4 *:b *":\>,6T,6 D"2-D"$@H84 B@F:,*J`V4N *,6FH&46 4 <,N">42<@& & P,:bN D"FT4D,>4b <"FTH"$@& <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH-&", " H"80, *:b FH44b $@:,, T4D@8@(@JR"F-H4b &F,N D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD"> & 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\->@FH4. =" @F>@&, D,8@<,>*"P46 7@<4H,H" ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b & F&@,6 D,2@:`P44 47/67 @H 14 *,8"$Db 1992 (@*" D,8@<,>*@&":" (@FJ*"DFH&"<-R:,>"< @$FJ*4H\ & N@*, F,FF44 7@<4H,H" & 1993 (@*J &@2<@0>@FH\ BD@&,-*,>4b HD,H\,6 7@>L,D,>P44 _=3EA+5E. 49. =" F&@,6 F,FF44 & 1993 (@*J ="JR>@-H,N>4R,F846 B@*8@<4H,H R,D,2 F&@` C"$@RJ` (DJBBJ B@:>@(@F@FH"&" BD4>b: 8 F&,*,>4` &ZT,JB@JHJ` D,8@<,>*"P4` ',->,D":\>@6 !FF"<$:,4. C"$@R"b (DJBB" @H<,H4:", RH@B@F:, 1982 (@*" *@FH4(>JHZ 2>"R4H,:\>Z, JFB,N4 4 BD@42@T:4 2>"R4H,:\>Z, 42<,>,>4b & @$:"FH4 8@F-<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 4 ,, BD4<,>,>4b, " H"80, <>@(@-R4F:,>>Z, 42<,>,>4b & (,@B@:4H4R,F8@6 4 ^8@>@<4R,-F8@6 F4HJ"P44, @8"2"&T4, &@2*,6FH&4, >" 8@F<4R,F84, BD@(D"<*"P4` @H@<, RH@, &@2<@0>@, $Z:@$Z P,:,F@@$D"2>@D"FF<@H-D,H\ B@H,>P4":\>J` &@2<@0>@FH\ BD@&,*,>4b HD,H\,6 7@>L,D,>P44 _=3EA+5E. % F&b24 F ^H4< C"$@R"b (DJBB" D,8@<,>*@&":" H"80,, RH@$Z BD4 @$FJ0*,>44 &@BD@F" @BD@&,*,>44 H"8@6 7@>L,D,>P44 & F@@H&,HFH&44 F D,8@<,>*"P4,6 ',>,D":\>@6 !FF"<$:,4 7@<4-H,H D"FF<@HD,: H"80, 2"*"R4 4 P,:4 7@>L,D,>P44 4 &@BD@FZ, 8"F"`V4,Fb @D(">42"P44 D"$@HZ, <,FH" 4 FD@8@& BD@&,*,>4b, " H"80, L4>">F@&Z, B@F:,*FH&4b 4 *DJ(4, "FB,8HZ. C"$@R"b (DJBB" BD4>b:" 8 F&,*,>4` BD,*:@0,>4, @H@<, RH@HD,H\` 7@>L,D,>P4` _=3EA+5E F:,*J,H BD@&,FH4 & @*>@6 42 D"2&4&"-`V4NFb FHD"> & $:40"6T,< $J*JV,<, RH@@>" <@0,H $ZH\ BD@&,*,>" & 1995 (@*J 4 RH@C"$@R"b (DJBB" <@(:" $Z &2bH\ >" F,$b &ZB@:>,>4, LJ>8P46 B@*(@H@&4H,:\->@(@8@<4H,H" 8 H"8@6 8@>L,D,>P44. 50. =" F&@,6 F,FF44 & 1993 (@*J 7@<4H,H B@4FB@:\-2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN @H<,H4:, RH@>"4$@:,, &"0>Z< T"(@< b&:b,HFb @BD,*,-:,>4, <"8F4<":\>@8@>8D,H>ZN 2"*"R H"8@6 8@>L,D,>-P44 4 RH@P,:4, B@FH"&:,>>Z, *:b H"8@6 8@>L,D,>P44, <@(JH $ZH\ H"80, *@FH4(>JHZ BD4 B@<@V4 *DJ(4N FD,*FH&, >"BD4<,D 2" FR,H "8H4&42"P44 D"$@HZ & D"<8"N 7@<4H,H". 51. % B@F:,*J`V4, (@*Z B@BD@F\$, 7@<4H,H" 4 ,(@&FB@<@("H,:\>ZN @D(">@& $Z:4 BD,*FH"&:,>Z D"2:4R->Z, 4*,4 4 BD,*:@0,>4b (@FJ*"DFH&"<4-R:,>"<4, AD,*-F,*"H,:,< 7@<4H,H", " H"80, ,(@F,8D,H"D4"H@<. ]H4 4*,4 4 BD,*:@0,>4b 8"F":4F\, & R"FH>@FH4, P,:,6 4 B@&,FH84 *>b 7@>L,D,>P44 _=3EA+5E-III 4 D"2:4R->ZN FD,*FH& *@FH40,>4b 2"*"R 7@>L,D,>P44, " H"80, 4N L4>">F@&ZN B@F:,*FH&46. 52. =" @F>@&, D,8@<,>*"P46 A@*8@<4H,H" 7@<4H,H >" F&@,6 F,FF44 & 1996 (@*J D,T4:, RH@FB,P4":\>J` F,FF4` 7@<4H,H" (_=3EA+5E-III), @H8DZHJ` *:b 35A/CONF.184/6 &F,N (@FJ*"DFH& -R:,>@& ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46, F:,*J,H BD@&,FH4 & ?H*,:,>44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4->,>>ZN ="P46 & %,>, & 1999 4:4 & 2000 (@*J. 7@<4H,H F@(:"F4:Fb F BD,*:@0,>4,< A@*8@<4H,H" @H>@F4H,:\>@8@bH\ &F, &@2<@0>Z, <,DZ *:b @(D">4R,>4b D"FN@*@& >" BD@&,*,>4, _=3EA+5E-III & D"<8"N 4<,`V4NFb J 7@<4H,H" 4 ,(@F,8D,H"D4"H" D,FJDF@& 2" FR,H F@8D"-V,>4b BD@*@:04H,:\>@FH4 F,FF46 7@<4H,H" 4 ,(@&FB@-<@("H,:\>ZN @D(">@& & H,R,>4, (@*" BD@&,*,>4b 7@>L,-D,>P44. ]H4 D,T,>4b 7@<4H,H" $Z:4 @*@$D,>Z ',>,-D":\>@6 !FF"<$:,,6 >" ,, BbH\*,FbH B,D&@6 F,FF44. =" @F>@&, D,8@<,>*"P46 7@<4H,H" ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b & F&@,6 D,2@:`P44 51/123 @H 13 *,8"$Db 1996 (@*" BD,*-:@04:" H"80, 7@<4H,HJ 4 ="JR>@-H,N>4R,F8@" F,$b LJ>8P44 F@@H&,HFH&,>>@A@*(@H@-&4H,:\>@(@8@<4H,H" 4 7@>FJ:\H"H4&>@(@8@<4H,H" _=3EA+5E-III, " IBD"&:,>4` B@&@BD@F"< 8@F<4R,-F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" -LJ>8P44 4FB@:>4H,:\>@(@F,8D,-H"D4"H". 53. A@F:, BD@&,*,>4b & D"<8"N C"$@R,6 (DJBBZ B@:->@(@F@FH"&" 4>H,>F4&>@6 D"$@HZ, 8@H@D"b $Z:" F&b2">" F BD@F\$@6 7@>FJ:\H"H4&>@(@8@<4H,H" @8"2"H\ B@<@V\ & ,(@D"$@H, >" F,FF44 1997 (@*", >" @F>@&, 8@>F,>FJF" $Z:@>"8@>,P *@FH4(>JH@F@(:"T,>4, & @H>@T,>44 B@&,FH84 *>b _=3EA+5EIII. =" ^H@6 F,FF44 7@>-FJ:\H"H4&>Z6 8@<4H,H F*,:": Db* *@B@:>4H,:\>ZN D,8@<,>*"P46, 8"F"`V4NFb FD@8@& BD@&,*,>4b, F@FH"&" JR"FH>48@&, *@B@:>4H,:\>ZN 8@,>H@& 4 L4>">F@-&ZN "FB,8H@& _=3EA+5E-III. =" F&@,6 F,FF44 & 1997 (@*J, @*@$D4& ^H4 D,8@<,>*"P44, A@*(@H@&4-H,:\>Z6 8@<4H,H F@(:"F@&": BD@P,*JDJ B@*(@H@&84 BD@,8H" *@8:"*" _=3EA+5E-III. 54. ' , > , D " : \ > " b !FF"<$:,b & F & @, 6 D,2@:`P44 52/56 @H 10 *,8"$Db 1997 (@*" B@FH">@&4:" F@2&"H\ HD,H\` 7@>L,D,>P4` ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 B@4FF:,*@&">4` 4 4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">-FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN (_=3EA+5E-III) & ?H*,:,>44 ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46 & %,>, 19-30 4`:b 1999 (@*" & 8"R,FH&, FB,P4":\>@6 F,FF44 7@<4H,H" B@4FB@:\2@&">4` 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & <4D>ZN P,:bN, @H8DZH@6 *:b &F,N (@FJ*"DFH& -R:,>@& ?D("->42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46. F. O,:4 4 2"*"R4 7@>L,D,>P44 55. O,:\ BD@&,*,>4b _=3EA+5E-III F@FH@b:" & @$2@D, 4 &Zb&:,>44 FJV,FH&,>>ZN *@FH40,>46 & 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J8, 4 H,N>48, B@F:, 1982 (@*" *:b F@*,6FH&4b D"FT4D,>4` 4N 4FB@:\2@&">4b, & R"FH>@FH4 D"2&4&"`V4<4Fb FHD">"<4, &@&F,N @$:"FHbN >"JR>@(@, ^8@>@<4R,F8@(@, F@P4":\>@(@4 8J:\HJD>@(@D"2&4H4b. % H@0, &D,L,D,>P4b @$,FB,R4:" J>48":\>Z6 L@DJ<, >" 8@H@D@< (@FJ*"DFH&" -R:,>Z ?D(">42"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46, @D(">42"P44 F4FH,4-2"P44 ?$X,*4>,>>ZN ="P46, <,0BD"&4H,:\FH&,>>Z, 4 >,BD"&4H,:\FH&,>>Z, @D(">42"P44, 2">4<"`V4,Fb 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH\`, " H"80, F&b2">>Z, F 8@F<@F@< BD,*BD4bH4b F<@(JH BD4FHJB4H\ 8 D"2D"$@H8, @D4,>H4D@&@R>ZN D"<@8 <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH-&" & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 >" B,D&Z, (@*Z XXI FH@:,H4b. _=3EA+5E-III B@2&@:4:" &B,D&Z, F@$D"H\ &<,FH, &F,N 2"4>H,D,F@&">>ZN JR"FH>48@& 4 F@@H&,HFH&J`V4, FH@D@>Z. 56. _=3EA+5E-III, 8@H@D"b $Z:" F@2&">" B@H,<, "7@F<@F >" F:J0$, R,:@&,R,FH&" & XXI &,8,", $Z:" >"-BD"&:,>" >" *@FH40,>4, F:,*J`V4N @F>@&>ZN P,:,6: F@*,6FH&4, 4FB@:\2@&">4` ^LL,8H4&>ZN FD,*FH& BD4-<,>,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 *:b @8"2">4b B@<@V4 & D,T,>44 BD@$:,< D,(4@>":\>@(@4:4 (:@$":\>@(@<"F-TH"$"; 4 J8D,B:,>4, B@H,>P4":" (@FJ*"DFH&-R:,>@&, @F@$,>>@D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD">, & @$:"FH4 4FB@:\2@-&">4b BD48:"*>ZN D,2J:\H"H@& 8@F<4R,F84N 4FF:,*@&"->46 *:b ^8@>@<4R,F8@(@, F@P4":\>@(@4 8J:\HJD>@(@D"2&4H4b. 7 R4F:J *DJ(4N P,:,6 _=3EA+5E-III @H->@F4:4F\ F:,*J`V4,: ") BD,*@FH"&:,>4, D"2&4&"`V4"< &@2<@0>@FH,6 *:b @BD,*,:,>4b 4N B@HD,$>@FH,6 & @$:"-FH4 BD4<,>,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 & P,:bN D"2&4-H4b; b) D"FF<@HD,>4, BJH,6 JF8@D,>4b BD@P,FF" &>,*D,>4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 (@FJ*"DFH&"<4-R:,>"<4 & P,:bN F@*,6FH&4b JFH@6R4&@4b $@:\T,(@R4F:" D"2&4&"`V4NFb FHD"> & @FJV,FH-&:,>4, H"84N <,0*J>"D@*>ZN BD@(D"<< 4FF:,*@&">46, 8"8 ;,0*J>"D@*>"b BD@(D"<<" B@(,@FL,D,-$4@FL,D, 4 %F,<4D>"b BD@(D"<<" 4FF:,*@&">4b 8:4<"H"; F) D"FF<@HD,>4, D"2:4R>ZN &@BD@F@&, 8"F"-`V4NFb @$D"2@&">4b, B@*(@H@&84 8"*D@& 4 H,N>4R,F8@6 B@<@V4 & @$:"FH4 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484 4 4N BD4<,>,>4b & P,:bN D"2&4H4b >"P4@>":\>@(@B@H,>P4"-:" &@&F,N (@FJ*"DFH&"N; d) @$,FB,R,>4, &"0>@(@L@DJ<" *:b 8D4H4-R,F8@6 @P,>84 8@F<4R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH4 4 B@&ZT,>4b @F&,*@<:,>>@FH4 >"F,:,>4b @&Z(@*"N 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484; ,) J8D,B:,>4, <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,-FH&" & @$:"FH4 D"2D"$@H84 4 4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4R,-F8@6 H,N>484, " H"80, ,, BD48:"*>@(@BD4<,>,>4b. 36A/CONF.184/6 G. !8H4&>@, 4FB@:\2@&">4, B@H,>P4":\>ZN &@2<@0>@FH,6 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & >"R":, >@&@(@HZFbR,:,H4b 1. ?ND">" @8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*Z ") ="JR>Z, 2>">4b @1,<:, 4 @8DJ0"`V,6 ,, FD,*, i) E@FH@b>4, D"2&4H4b >"J8 @$ @8DJ0"`V,6 FD,*, 4 1,<:, 57. 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A@:JR",48@& 42@$D"0,>4b *4FH">P4@>>@(@2@>*4D@&">4b & H,B:@&@< 4>LD"8D"F->@< FB,8HD, <@(JH &>@F4H\ &8:"* & 42JR,>4, F,6F<4R,F84N <,N">42<@&, FB@F@$FH&Jb H,< F"@24D@&">4` 2,<:,HDbF,>46. 108. % $@D\$, F@FH4N46>Z<4 $,*FH&4b<4 ^LL,8H4&>@4FB@:\2J`HFb <>@(4, <,H@*Z >" @F>@&, *">>ZN >"$:`-*,>4b 1,<:4, @*>"8@>,@$N@*4<@BD4:@04H\ $@:,, "8H4&>Z, JF4:4b *:b @$,FB,R,>4b D,":\>@(@BD@(>@-24D@&">4b FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46 4 D"2D"$@H84 B:">@& @H&,H>ZN <,D. 7D@<, H@(@, >,@$N@*4<@BD4:@04H\ 2>"R4H,:\>Z, F@&<,FH>Z, JF4:4b >" <,0*J>"D@*>@< JD@&>, & P,:bN 4FB@:\2@&">4b *">>ZN & @$:"FH4 *4FH">-P4@>>@(@2@>*4D@&">4b 4 4>L@D<"P44 42 *DJ(4N 4FH@R->48@& *:b @BD,*,:,>4b BD42>"8@& D"6@>@&, B@*&,D-0,>>ZN FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&4b<, 4 D"2D"$@H84 FHD"-H,(46/FP,>"D4,& @F:"$:,>4b 4N B@F:,*FH&46. =,@$-N@*4<@H"80, D"FT4D4H\ 4FF:,*@&">4b & P,:bN 4>H,(D"P44 >@&ZN 4FH@R>48@& *">>ZN 4 4N ^LL,8-H4&>@(@4FB@:\2@&">4b. 109. +V, @*>4< B,DFB,8H4&>Z< 4>FHDJ<,>H@< *:b BD@(>@24D@&">4b, BD,*JBD,0*,>4b 4 F4b B@F:,*-FH&46 FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46 b&:b`HFb FBJH>48@&Z, F4FH,"&4("P44 4 @BD,*,:,>4b <,FH@B@:@0,>4b. 3FB@:\2Jb >"2,<>Z, BD4,<>484 @BD,*,:,>4b <,FH@-B@:@0,>4b, <@0>@BJH,< <>@(@8D"H>ZN 42<,D,>46 @BD,*,:bH\ @H>@F4H,:\>@, *&40,>4, JR"FH8@& 2,<>@6 8@DZ F H@R>@FH\` *@>,F8@:\84N <4::4<,HD@&. 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G@>JV,, FJ*>@, B@H,DB,&T46 "&"D4` F"<@:,H 4:4 *"0, 2"H,Db&T46Fb & BJFHZ>, R,:@&,8 BD,*FH"&-:b`H F@$@6 D"2:4R>Z, &4*Z $,*FH&46. %@2>48"`H H"84, RD,2&ZR"6>Z, F4HJ"P44, 8@(*" 042>\ :`*,6 2"&4F4H @H >,<,*:,>>@(@@8"2">4b B@<@V4. ;,0*J>"-D@*>"b FBJH>48@&"b F4FH,<" B@4F8" 4 FB"F,>4b (7?EA!E-E!CE!G) BD,*FH"&:b,H F@$@6 <,0*J>"D@*->J` F4FH,4b >" @F>@&, 4F-B@:\2@&">4b BD4,<>48@&, JFH">@&:,>>ZN >" $@DHJ <,H,@D@:@(4R,F84N FBJH>48@&, 8@H@DZ, F B@<@V\` *"HR48@&, "8H4&4DJ,>ZN F4HJ"P4bN, B,D,*"`H F4(>":Z & F,H\ >"2,<>ZN FH">P46. ]H4 F4(>":Z @$D"$"HZ&"`HFb, RH@$Z @BD,*,:4H\ (,@-(D"L4R,F8@, <,FH@B@:@0,>4, *"HR48". 1" B,D4@* F 1982 (@*" F B@<@V\` 7?EA!E-E!CE!G J*":@F\ FB"FH4 042>\ $@:,, R,< 10 000 R,:@&,8 &@&F,< <4D,. 7@F<4R,F846 F,(<,>H ^H@6 F4FH,"2,<>"b B@**,D08" 8@H@D@(@@FJV,FH&:b,HFb <>@(4<4 FHD">"<4, @$,FB,R4&",HFb 3>*4,6, 7">"*@6, C@FF46F8@6 K,*,-D"P4,6, E@,*4>,>>Z<4 SH"H"<4 !<,D484 4 KD">P4,6. 111. AD42>"&"b >,@$N@*4<@FH\ (:@$":\>ZN *,6FH&46 B@F4` B@F:,*FH&46 FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46, <,0*J->"D@*>@, F@@$V,FH&@BD@&@2(:"F4:@F 1 b>&"Db 1990 (@*" ;,0*J>"D@*>@, *,FbH4:,H4, B@J<,>\T,>4` @B"F>@FH4 FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&4633. %B@F:,*FH&44 ',>,D":\>"b !FF"<$:,b ,0,(@*>@BD4>4<":" D,2@-:`P44 B@BD@$:,<, FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46, & R"FH>@FH4 D,2@:`P44 52/200 @H 18 *,8"$Db 1997 (@*" 4 53/185 @H 15 *,8"$Db 1998 (@*", >"BD"&:,>>Z, >" F4, B@F:,*FH&46 H"84N FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46, 8"8 b&:,>4, "]:\-=4>\@". % R4F:@*DJ(4N @N&"HZ&",ZN 8"H"FHD@L &N@*bH >"T,FH&4b F"D>R4, 8@H@DZ, 4<,`H, @F@$,>>@& !LD48,, F"Z, B@F:,*FH&4b *:b FHD">, B@*&,D0,>>ZN FH4N46>Z< $,*FH&4b<, 4 B@^H@4<4 F:,*J,H &,FH4 >" @F>@&, @BH4<":\>@(@4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4-R,F8@6 H,N>484 & D"<8"N <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*->4R,FH&". +FH\ @F>@&">4b B@:"("H\, RH@, 8@(*" ),FbH4:,H4, $J*,H 2"&,DT,>@, & $@D\$, F@FH4N46>Z<4 $,*FH&4b<4 &@&F,< <4D, $J*,H @$,FB,R,>@>"*,0>@, &2"4<@*,6FH&4, D"2:4R>ZN F:J0$. IBD"&:,>4, B@&@BD@F"< 8@F<4R,F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & F@HDJ*>4R,FH&, F +7! 4 F,8D,H"D4"H@< ),FbH4:,H4b BD@&,:@D,(4@>":\>Z, BD"8H48JL@D<4D@&">>@FH\ DJ8@&@*4H,:,6 *4D,8-H4&>ZN @D(">@& 4 @D(">@& (D"0*">F8@6 @$@D@>Z @P,:,F@@$D"2>@FH4 4FB@:\2@&">4b 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 & $@D\$, F@FH4N46>Z<4 $,*FH&4b<4. =" D,(4@>":\>ZN BD"8H48J<"N 4 ;,0*J>"D@*>@6 8@>L,D,>P44 B@F4F-H,<"< D">>,(@@B@&,V,>4b & P,:bN J<,>\T,>4b @B"F>@FH4 FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46, BD@N@*4&T,6 & A@HF*"<,, ',D<">4b, & 1998 (@*J, $Z:4 BD4>bHZ D,8@<,>*"P44 @>,@$N@*4<@FH4 BD,*JF<@HD,H\ 4FB@:\2@&">4, 8@F<4R,F8@6 H,N>484 & D"$@H, B@B:">4D@&">4` 4 @FJV,FH&:,>4` @B,D"H4&>ZN <,D@-BD4bH46 B@$@D\$, F@FH4N46>Z<4 $,*FH&4b<4. ):b *@FH40,>4b P,:,6 ),FbH4:,H4b 7@<4H,H B@;,0*J>"D@*>@\T,>4` @B"F>@FH4 FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46 ="JR>@-H,N>4R,F8@(@B@*8@<4H,H" @*@$D4: BD@,8H D"2D"$@H84 aB@>4,6 JF@&,DT,>FH&@&">>@(@FBJH>48" >"$:`*,>4b FJT4 (!LOS) & 8"R,FH&, <,0*J>"D@*>@(@4 D,(4@>":\>@(@BD@,8H" ),FbH4:,H4b, BD42&">>@(@FB@F@$FH&@&"H\ J8D,B:,>4` B@H,>P4":" @P,>84 D4F8" >" @F>@&, F@FH"&:,>4b 8"DH FH4N46>ZN $,*FH&46 %@FH@R>@6 !244. ?FJV,FH&:,>4, BD@,8H" ALOS >"R>,HFb & 2002 (@*J. 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AD@(D"<<" L@DJ<@& $J*,H D"2D"-$"HZ&"H\Fb IBD"&:,>4,< B@&@BD@F"< 8@F<4R,-F8@(@BD@FHD">FH&" & F@HDJ*>4R,FH&, F >,BD"&4-H,:\FH&,>>Z<4 @D(">42"P4b<4 4 2"4>H,D,F@&">->Z<4 8@F<4R,F84<4 "(,>HFH&"<4; ix) B@@VD,>4, JR"FH4b <@:@*,04 & <,D@BD4b-H4bN AD@(D"<H,D,F" 8 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J8, 4 H,N>48, J FHJ*,>H@&, " H"80, <@:@*ZN JR,>ZN 4 4>0,>,D@&; xi) >":"04&">4, F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" & @$:"FH4 D"2D"$@H84 &&@*>ZN JR,$>ZN BD@(D"<< B@&@BD@F"< 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484 *:b &8:`R,>4b & BD@(D"<"R":\>@(@4 FD,*>,(@T8@:\>@(@@$D"2@&">4b; xii) D"2D"$@H8", & F@HDJ*>4R,FH&, F !FF@-P4"P4,6 4FF:,*@&"H,:,6 8@F<@F", BD@(D"<"&H"<4, 8@F<@>"&H"<4, " H"80, F JR,>Z<4 4 4>0,>,D"<4, F&b2">>Z<4 F 8@F<4-R,F8@6 *,bH,:\>@FH\`, & P,:bN $@:,, (:J$@8@(@@2>"8@<:,>4b @$V,FH&,>>@FH4, & B,D&J` @R,D,*\ <@:@*,04, F <,D@BD4bH4b<4 & 8@F<4R,F8@6 @$:"FH4. 95A/CONF.184/6 410. C"2&4HZ< FHD">"< F:,*J,H F*,:"H\ &F, &@2<@0>@, *:b B,D,*"R4 D"2&4&"`V4"< -& D"<8"N <,0*J>"D@*>@(@F@HDJ*>4R,FH&" ->,@$N@*4">46 4 >"&Z8@& 4N (D"0*">"< B@D"2:4R>Z< "FB,8H"< 8@F<4R,F8@6 >"J84 4 H,N>484, & R"FH>@FH4 >" @F>@&, 4N JR"FH4b & 8@>FHDJ4D@&">44, D"2D"$@H8, 4 42(@H@&:,>44 <":@D"2<,D>ZN FBJH>48@&, & P,:bN L@D<4D@&">4b BD,*FH"&:,>4b @H"8@6 H,N>48, 4 B@F:,*J`V,(@4FB@:\2@&">4b <":@D"2<,D>ZN FBJH>48@& BD4 @FJ-V,FH&:,>44 D"2:4R>ZN <,D@BD4bH46 & F@P4":\>@-^8@>@<4R,F8@6 @$:"FH4. 96A/CONF.184/6 III. C"$@H" 8@>L,D,>P44 A. IR"FH>484 4 @D(">42"P4b D"$@HZ 1. 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