1961 Convention_EC
Correct misalignment Change languages order
1961 Convention 1961 Convention_e.pdf (English)1961 Convention 1961 Convention_c.pdf (Chinese)
convention_1961_en.pdf;Contents;Page;;Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961,;Article 1;Article 2;Article 3;Article 4;Article 6;Article 7;Article 8;Article 9;Article 10;Article 11;Article 12;Article 13;Article 14;Article 15;Article 16;Article 17;Article 18;Article 19;Article 20;Article 21;Article 22;Article 23;Article 24;Article 25;Article 26;Article 28;Article 29;Article 31;Article 32;Article 33;Article 35;Article 37;Article 38;Article 39;Article 42;Article 43;Article 44;Article 46;Article 48;Article 49;Article 51; SINGL E CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS , 1961 As amended by the 1972 Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, UNITE D NATI O NSFINAL ACT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE FOR THE ADOPTION OF A SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS 1. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, by resolution 689 J (XXVI) of 28 July 1958, decided to convene in accordance with Article 62, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations, and with the provisions of General Assembly resolution 366 (IV) of 3 December 1949, a plenipotentiary conference for the adoption of a single convention on narcotic drugs to replace by a single instrument the existing multilateral treaties in the field, to reduce the number of international treaty organs exclusively concerned with control of narcotic drugs, and to make provision for the control of the production of raw materials of narcotic drugs. 2. The United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs met at United Nations Headquarters from 24 January to 25 March 1961. 3. The following seventy-three States were represented by representatives at the Conference: Afghanistan Greece Pakistan Albania Guatemala Panama Argentina Haiti Paraguay Australia Holy See Peru Bolivia Hungary Philippines Brazil India Poland Bulgaria Indonesia Portugal Burma Iran Romania Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Iraq Senegal Cambodia Israel Spain Canada Italy Sweden Chad Japan Switzerland Chile Jordan Thailand China Korea, Republic of Tunisia Congo (Léopoldville) Lebanon Turkey Costa Rica Liberia Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Czechoslovakia Madagascar Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Dahomey Mexico United Arab Republic Denmark Monaco United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Dominican Republic Morocco United States of America El Salvador Netherlands Uruguay Finland New Zealand Venezuela France Nicaragua Yugoslavia Germany, Federal Republic of Nigeria Ghana Norway 4. The following State was represented by an observer at the Conference: Ceylon 5. The following specialized agency was represented at the Conference: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; International Civil Aviation Organization; International Labour Organisation; World Health Organization. 6. The following international bodies were represented at the Conference: Permanent Central Opium Board; Drug Supervisory Body. 7. The following non-governmental organizations were also represented at the Conference: International Conference of Catholic Charities; International Criminal Police Organization; International Federation of Women Lawyers. 8. General Safwat, Director of the Permanent Anti-Narcotics Bureau of the League of Arab States, at the invitation of the Conference, also attended in a personal capacity. 9. In accordance with the resolution of the Economic and Social Council referred to in paragraph 1 and with the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference, the observers and the representatives of the above-mentioned organizations and bodies participated in the work of the Conference without the right to vote. 10. The Conference elected Mr. Carl Schurmann (Netherlands) as President, and as VicePresidents the representatives of the following States: Afghanistan Iran Thailand Brazil Ghana Japan Turkey Dahomey Mexico United Arab Republic France Pakistan United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hungary Peru Union of Soviet Socialist Republics India Togo Switzerland United States of America 11. The Executive Secretary of the Conference was Mr. G. E. Yates, and the Deputy Executive Secretary was Mr. Adolf Lande. 12. The Conference had before it, in accordance with the resolution of the Economic and Social Council, the third draft of a single convention on narcotic drugs prepared by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the Council and a compilation of the comments thereon; it also had before it other documentation prepared by the Secretariat. 13. The Conference set up the following committees: General Committee Chairman: The President of the Conference Ad Hoc Committee on articles 2 and 3 of the Third Draft (Scope of the Convention and Method of Bringing Additional Substances under Control) Chairman: Mr. A. Tabibi (Afghanistan) Ad Hoc Committee on articles 25, 30 and 40-43 (National Control in General) Chairman: Mr. B. Banerji (India) Ad Hoc Committee on articles 31-34 (National Control of Opium Poppy and Poppy Straw) Chairman: Mr. L. Ignacio-Pinto (Dahomey) Vice-Chairman: Mr. J. Koch (Denmark) Ad Hoc Committee on articles 35-38 (National Control of Coca Leaf) Chairman: Mr. K. Chikaraishi (Japan) Ad Hoc Committee on article 39 (National Control of Cannabis) Chairman: Mr. B. Grinberg (Bulgaria) Ad Hoc Committee on articles 26, 27-29, 20-21, 4 (Information to be furnished by Governments; the system of estimates and statistics; obligations of Governments in general) Chairman: Mr. E. Rodriguez Fabregat (Uruguay) Vice-Chairman: Mr. J. Bertschinger (Switzerland) Ad Hoc Committee on article 22 (Measures exercisable by the Board in case of noncompliance) Chairman: Mr. A. Gurinovich (Byelorussian SSR) Ad Hoc Committee on articles 5-11, 13-19, 23 (Constitution, Functions and Secretariat of International Organs) Chairman: Mr. H. Blomstedt (Finland) Ad Hoc Committee on articles 44-46 (Direct Measures against the Illicit Traffic) Chairman: Mr. A. Bittencourt (Brazil) Technical Committee Chairman: Mr. A. Johnson (Australia) Vice-Chairman: Mr. A. Ismael (United Arab Republic) Drafting Committee Chairman: Mr. R. Curran (Canada) Vice-Chairman: Mr. D. Nikoli (Yugoslavia) Credentials Committee Chairman: Mr. G. Ortiz (Costa Rica) 14. As the result of its deliberations, as recorded in the summary records of the Plenary and the summary records and reports of the committees, the Conference adopted and opened for signature the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. In addition the Conference adopted the five resolutions annexed to this Final Act. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives have signed this Final Act. DONE at New York, this thirtieth day of March one thousand nine hundred and sixty-one, in a single copy in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equally authentic. The original texts shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. FINAL ACT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE TO CONSIDER AMENDMENTS TO THE SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961 1. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, noting that amendments had been proposed to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and bearing in mind article 47 of that Convention, decided by its resolution 1577 (L) of 21 May 1971 to call, in accordance with Article 62, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations a conference of plenipotentiaries to consider all amendments proposed to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. 2. The United Nations Conference to consider amendments to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, met at the United Nations Office at Geneva from 6 to 24 March 1972. 3. The following 97 States were represented by representatives at the Conference: Afghanistan Haiti Nigeria Algeria Holy See Norway Argentina Hungary Pakistan Australia India Panama Austria Indonesia Peru Belgium Iran Philippines Bolivia Iraq Poland Brazil Ireland Portugal Bulgaria Israel Republic of Korea Burma Italy Republic of Viet-Nam Burundi Ivory Coast Saudi Arabia Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Jamaica Senegal Canada Japan Sierra Leone Ceylon Jordan Singapore Chile Kenya South Africa Colombia Khmer Republic Spain Costa Rica Kuwait Sudan Cuba Laos Sweden Cyprus Lebanon Switzerland Czechoslovakia Liberia Thailand Dahomey Libyan Arab Republic Togo Denmark Liechtenstein Tunisia Ecuador Luxembourg Turkey Egypt Madagascar Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic El Salvador Malawi Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Federal Republic of Germany Mexico United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Finland Monaco United States of America France Mongolian People's Republic Uruguay Gabon Morocco Venezuela Gambia Netherlands Yugoslavia Ghana New Zealand Zaïre Greece Nicaragua Guatemala Niger 4. The following States were represented by observers at the Conference: Cameroon Malaysia Romania Dominican Republic Malta 5. The Economic and Social Council, by its resolution 1577 (L), requested the SecretaryGeneral to invite to the Conference the World Health Organization and other interested specialized agencies, the International Narcotics Control Board and the International Criminal Police Organization. The World Health Organization, the International Narcotics Control Board and the International Criminal Police Organization were represented at the Conference. 6. The Conference elected Mr. K. B. Asante (Ghana) as President of the Conference, Mr. D. Nikoli (Yugoslavia) as First Vice-President, and as the other Vice-Presidents the representatives of the following States: Argentina Lebanon United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Egypt Mexico United States of America France Turkey India Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 7. Mr. V. Winspeare-Guicciardi, Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva, was the representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Executive Secretary of the Conference was Dr. V. Kuševi, the Legal Adviser of the Conference was Mr. G. Wattles and the Deputy Executive Secretary and Deputy Legal Adviser was Mr. P. Raton. 8. The Conference had before it the amendments to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, which were proposed by States participating in the Conference. 9. The Conference set up the following committees: General Committee Chairman: The President of the Conference Committee IChairman: Dr. R. A. Chapman (Canada) Committee II Chairman: Dr. Béla Bölcs (Hungary) Drafting Committee Chairman: Mr. J-P, Bertschinger (Switzerland) Credentials Committee Chairman: Mr. J. W. Lennon (Ireland) 10. Committee 1 established a working group on article 14, the Chairman of which was Mr. A. C. Kirca (Turkey). 11. As a result of its deliberations, as recorded in the summary records of the Plenary and Committees 1 and 11, the Conference adopted and opened for signature the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 196 1. In addition, the Conference adopted three resolutions annexed to this Final Act. DONE at Geneva, this twenty-fifth day of March, one thousand nine hundred and seventytwo, in a single copy in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equally authentic. The original text shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives have signed this Final Act. RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE FOR THE ADOPTION OF A SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS Resolution I TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ON NARCOTIC DRUGS The Conference, Welcoming the establishment by General Assembly resolution 1395 (XIV) of special arrangements for technical assistance in the field of narcotics control, Noting that the United Nations and the specialized agencies concerned have already provided a limited amount of assistance under the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance and in their regular programmes, Welcoming also the co-operation of the International Criminal Police Organization in the execution of technical assistance projects, Expresses the hope that adequate resources will be made available to provide assistance in the fight against the illicit traffic, to those countries which desire and request it, particularly in the form of expert advisers and of training, including training courses for national officials. Resolution II TREATMENT OF DRUG ADDICTS The Conference, Recalling the provisions of article 38 of the Convention concerning the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts, 1. Declares that one of the most effective methods of treatment for addiction is treatment in a hospital institution having a drug free atmosphere; 2. Urges Parties having a serious drug addiction problem, and the economic means to do so, to provide such facilities. Resolution III ILLICIT TRAFFICKERS The Conference, 1. Calls attention to the importance of the technical records on international traffickers kept at present by the International Criminal Police Organization; 2. Recommends that these records be completed as far as possible by all parties and be widely used for the circulation of description of the traffickers by that Organization. Resolution IV MEMBERSHIP OF THE COMMISSION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS The Conference Invites the Economic and Social Council to examine at its thirty-second session the question of an increase in the membership of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, in the light of the terms of this Convention and of the views expressed on this question at this Conference. Resolution V INTERNATIONAL CONTROL MACHINERY The Conference, Considering the importance of facilitating the transitional arrangements provided for in article 45 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, Invites the Economic and Social Council to study the possibility of taking measures which would ensure the rapid and smooth carrying out of the simplification of the international control machinery. RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE TO CONSIDER AMENDMENTS TO THE SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961 Resolution I SECRETARIAT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD The Conference, Considering that the measures adopted by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1196 (XLII) of 16 May 1967 (1464th plenary meeting) met the wishes of the States Parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and to the earlier conventions still in force, Recommends the continuation of the system which was instituted by the Secretary-General of the United Nations and whose main provisions are as follows: 1. The International Narcotics Control Board (hereinafter referred to as the Board) has a secretariat distinct from the Division of Narcotic Drugs; 2. That secretariat is an integral part of the Secretariat of the United Nations; while under the full administrative control of the Secretary-General, it is bound to carry out the decisions of the Board; 3. The members of the secretariat are appointed or assigned by the Secretary-General; the head of that secretariat is appointed or assigned in consultation with the Board. Resolution II ASSISTANCE IN NARCOTICS CONTROL The Conference, Recalling that assistance to developing countries is a concrete manifestation of the will of the international community to honour the commitment contained in the United Nations Charter to promote the social and economic progress of all peoples, Recalling the special arrangements made by the United Nations General Assembly under its resolution 1395 (XIV) with a view to the provision of technical assistance for drug abuse control, Welcoming the establishment pursuant to United Nations General Assembly resolution 2719 (XXV), of a United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, Noting that the Conference has adopted a new article 14 bis concerning technical and financial assistance to promote more effective execution of the provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, 1. Declares that, to be more effective, the measures taken against drug abuse must be coordinated and universal; 2. Declares further that the fulfilment by the developing countries of their obligations under the Convention will be facilitated by adequate technical and financial assistance from the international community. Resolution III SOCIAL CONDITIONS AND PROTECTION AGAINST DRUG ADDICTION The Conference, Recalling that the Preamble to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, states that the Parties to the Convention are "concerned with the health and welfare of mankind" and are "conscious of their duty to prevent and combat" the evil of drug addiction, Considering that the discussions at the Conference have given evidence of the desire to take effective steps to prevent drug addiction, Considering that, while drug addiction leads to personal degradation and social disruption, it happens very often that the deplorable social and economic conditions in which certain individuals and certain groups are living predispose them to drug addiction, Recognizing that social factors have a certain and sometimes preponderant influence on the behaviour of individuals and groups, Recommends that the Parties: 1. Should bear in mind that drug addiction is often the result of an unwholesome social atmosphere in which those who are most exposed to the danger of drug abuse live; 2. Should do everything in their power to combat the spread of the illicit use of drugs; 3. Should develop leisure and other activities conducive to the sound physical and psychological health of young people. CONTENTS Page Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961......................1 Article 1 Definitions .................................................. .....................................1 Article 2 Substances under control .................................................. .................2 Article 3 Changes in the scope of control.................................................. .........3 Article 4 General obligations .................................................. .........................4 Article 5 The international control organs .................................................. ........4 Article 6 Expenses of the international control organs .........................................5 Article 7 Review of decisions and recommendations of the Commission .................5 Article 8 Functions of the Commission .................................................. ............5 Article 9 Composition and functions of the Board ...............................................5 Article 10 Terms of office and remuneration of Member of the Board ......................6 Article 11 Rules of procedure of the Board .................................................. ........6 Article 12 Administration of the estimate system .................................................6 Article 13 Administration of the statistical returns system .....................................7 Article 14 Measures by the Board to ensure the execution of provisions of the Convention .................................................. ....................................7 Article 14 bis Technical and financial assistance.................................................. ......8 Article 15 Reports of the Board .................................................. .......................8 Article 16 Secretariat .................................................. .....................................9 Article 17 Special administration .................................................. .....................9 Article 18 Information to be furnished by Parties to the Secretary-General ..............9 Article 19 Estimates of drug requirements .................................................. ........9 Article 20 Statistical returns to be furnished to the Board.................................... 10 Article 21 Limitation of manufacture and importation.......................................... 11 Article 21 bis Limitation of production of opium.................................................. .... 11 Article 22 Special provision applicable to cultivation ........................................... 12 Article 23 National opium agencies .................................................. ................ 12 Article 24 Limitation on production of opium for international trade ...................... 12 Article 25 Control of poppy straw.................................................. ................... 13 Article 26 The coca bush and coca leaves .................................................. ....... 14 Article 27 Additional provisions relating to coca leaves........................................ 14 Article 28 Control of cannabis .................................................. ....................... 14 Article 29 Manufacture.................................................. ................................. 14 Article 30 Trade and distribution.................................................. .................... 15 Article 31 Special provisions relating to international trade.................................. 15 Article 32 Special provisions concerning the carriage of drugs in first-aid kits of ships or aircraft engaged in international traffic ........................................... 17 Article 33 Possession of drugs .................................................. ....................... 17 Article 34 Measures of supervision and inspection .............................................. 17 Article 35 Action against the illicit traffic .................................................. ......... 18 Article 36 Penal provisions.................................................. ............................ 18 Article 37 Seizure and confiscation .................................................. ................ 19 Article 38 Measures against the abuse of drugs ................................................. 19 Article 38 bis Agreements on regional centres .................................................. ...... 19 Article 39 Application of stricter national control measures than those required by this Convention .................................................. .................................. 20 Article 40 Languages of the Convention and procedure for signature, ratification and accession.................................................. ..................................... 20 Article 41 Entry into force.................................................. ............................. 20 Article 42 Territorial application.................................................. ..................... 20 Article 43 Territories for the purposes of articles 19, 20, 21 and 31 ...................... 21 Article 44 Termination of previous international treaties...................................... 21 Article 45 Transitional provisions .................................................. ................... 22 Article 46 Denunciation .................................................. ................................ 22 Article 47 Amendments.................................................. ................................ 22 Article 48 Disputes .................................................. ...................................... 23 Article 49 Transitional reservations .................................................. ................ 23 Article 50 Other reservations .................................................. ........................ 24 Article 51 Notifications .................................................. ................................. 25 Schedules (Please see Yellow List among Controlled Substances, at: http://www.incb.org/e/index.htm) SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961, AS AMENDED BY THE 1972 PROTOCOL AMENDING THE SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961 PREAMBLE The Parties, Concerned with the health and welfare of mankind, Recognizing that the medical use of narcotic drugs continues to be indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering and that adequate provision must be made to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes, Recognizing that addiction to narcotic drugs constitutes a serious evil for the individual and is fraught with social and economic danger to mankind, Conscious of their duty to prevent and combat this evil, Considering that effective measures against abuse of narcotic drugs require co-ordinated and universal action, Understanding that such universal action calls for international co-operation guided by the same principles and aimed at common objectives, Acknowledging the competence of the United Nations in the field of narcotics control and desirous that the international organs concerned should be within the framework of that Organization, Desiring to conclude a generally acceptable international convention replacing existing treaties on narcotic drugs, limiting such drugs to medical and scientific use, and providing for continuous international co-operation and control for the achievement of such aims and objectives, Hereby agree as follows: 1 Article 1 DEFINITIONS 1. Except where otherwise expressly indicated or where the context otherwise requires, the following definitions shall apply throughout the Convention: a) “Board” means the International Narcotics Control Board, b) “Cannabis” means the flowering or fruiting tops of the cannabis plant (excluding the seeds and leaves when not accompanied by the tops) from which the resin has not been extracted, by whatever name they may be designated. c) “Cannabis plant” means any plant of the genus Cannabis, d) “Cannabis resin” means the separated resin, whether crude or purified, obtained from the cannabis plant. e) “Coca bush” means the plant of any species of the genus Erythroxylon. f) “Coca leaf” means the leaf of the coca bush except a leaf from which all ecgonine, cocaine and any other ecgonine alkaloids have been removed. g) “Commission” means the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the Council. h) “Council” means the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. i) “Cultivation” means the cultivation of the opium poppy, coca bush or cannabis plant. j) “Drug” means any of the substances in Schedules I and II, whether natural or synthetic. k) “General Assembly” means the General Assembly of the United Nations. 1 Note by the Secretariat: The Preamble to the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, reads as follows: “The Parties to the Present Protocol, “Considering the provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, done at New York on 30 March 1961 (hereinafter called the Single Convention), “Desiring to amend the Single Convention “Have agreed as follows:” - 1 - l) “Illicit traffic” means cultivation or trafficking in drugs contrary to the provisions of this Convention. m) “Import” and “export” mean in their respective connotations the physical transfer of drugs from one State to another State, or from one territory to another territory of the same State. n) “Manufacture” means all processes, other than production, by which drugs may be obtained and includes refining as well as the transformation of drugs into other drugs. o) “Medicinal opium” means opium which has undergone the processes necessary to adapt it for medicinal use. p) “Opium” means the coagulated juice of the opium poppy. q) “Opium poppy” means the plant of the species Papaver somniferum L. r) “Poppy straw” means all parts (except the seeds) of the opium poppy, after mowing. s) “Preparation” means a mixture, solid or liquid, containing a drug. t) “Production” means the separation of opium, coca leaves, cannabis and cannabis resin from the plants from which they are obtained. u) “Schedule I”, “Schedule II”, “Schedule III” and “Schedule IV” mean the correspondingly numbered list of drugs or preparations annexed to this Convention, as amended from time to time in accordance with article 3. v) “Secretary-General” means the Secretary-General of the United Nations. w) “Special stocks” means the amounts of drugs held in a country or territory by the Government of such country or territory for special government purposes and to meet exceptional circumstances; and the expression “special purposes” shall be construed accordingly. x) “Stocks” means the amounts of drugs held in a country or territory and intended for: i) Consumption in the country or territory for medical and scientific purposes, ii) Utilization in the country or territory for the manufacture of drugs and other substances, or iii) Export; but does not include the amounts of drugs held in the country or territory, iv) By retail pharmacists or other authorized retail distributors and by institutions or qualified persons in the duly authorized exercise of therapeutic or scientific functions, or v) As “special stocks”. y) Territory” means any part of a State which is treated as a separate entity for the application of the system of import certificates and export authorizations provided for in article 31. This definition shall not apply to the term “territory” as used in articles 42 and 46. 2. For the purposes of this Convention a drug shall be regarded as “consumed” when it has been supplied to any person or enterprise for retail distribution, medical use or scientific research; and “consumption” shall be construed accordingly. Article 2 SUBSTANCES UNDER CONTROL 1. Except as to measures of control which are limited to specified drugs, the drugs in Schedule I are subject to all measures of control applicable to drugs under this Convention and in particular to those prescribed in article 4 c), 19, 20, 21, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 37. 2. The drugs in Schedule II are subject to the same measures of control as drugs in Schedule I with the exception of the measures prescribed in article 30, paragraphs 2 and 5, in respect of the retail trade. 3. Preparations other than those in Schedule III are subject to the same measures of control as the drugs which they contain, but estimates (article 19) and statistics (article 20) distinct from those dealing with these drugs shall not be required in the case of such preparations, and article 29, paragraph 2 c) and article 30, paragraph 1 b) ii) need not apply. 4. Preparations in Schedule III are subject to the same measures of control as preparations containing drugs in Schedule II except that article 31, paragraphs 1 b) and 3 to 15 and, as regards their acquisition and retail distribution, article 34, paragraph b), need not apply, and that for the purpose of estimates (article 19) and statistics (article 20) the information required shall be restricted to the quantities of drugs used in the manufacture of such preparations. - 2 - 5. The drugs in Schedule IV shall also be included in Schedule I and subject to all measures of control applicable to drugs in the latter Schedule, and in addition thereto: a) A Party shall adopt any special measures of control which in its opinion are necessary having regard to the particularly dangerous properties of a drug so included; and b) A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party. 6. In addition to the measures of control applicable to all drugs in Schedule I, opium is subject to the provisions of article 19, paragraph 1, subparagraph f), and of articles 21 bis, 23 and 24, the coca leaf to those of articles 26 and 27 and cannabis to those of article 28. 7. The opium poppy, the coca bush, the cannabis plant, poppy straw and cannabis leaves are subject to the control measures prescribed in article 19, paragraph 1, subparagraph e), article 20, paragraph 1, subparagraph g), article 21 bis and in articles 22 to 24; 22, 26 and 27; 22 and 28; 25; and 28, respectively: 8. The Parties shall use their best endeavours to apply to substances which do not fall under this Convention, but which may be used in the illicit manufacture of drugs, such measures of supervision as may be practicable. 9. Parties are not required to apply the provisions of this Convention to drugs which are commonly used in industry for other than medical or scientific purposes, provided that: a) They ensure by appropriate methods of denaturing or by other means that the drugs so used are not liable to be abused or have ill effects (article 3, paragraph 3) and that the harmful substances cannot in practice be recovered; and b) They include in the statistical information (article 20) furnished by them the amount of each drug so used. Article 3 CHANGES IN THE SCOPE OF CONTROL 1. Where a Party or the World Health Organization has information which in its opinion may require an amendment to any of the Schedules, it shall notify the Secretary-General and furnish him with the information in support of the notification. 2. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to the Parties, to the Commission, and, where the notification is made by a Party, to the World Health Organization. 3. Where a notification relates to a substance not already in Schedule I or in Schedule II, i) The Parties shall examine in the light of the available information the possibility of the provisional application to the substance of all measures of control applicable to drugs in Schedule I; ii) Pending its decision as provided in subparagraph iii) of this paragraph, the Commission may decide that the Parties apply provisionally to that substance all measures of control applicable to drugs in Schedule I. The Parties shall apply such measures provisionally to the substance in question; iii) If the World Health Organization finds that the substance is liable to similar abuse and productive of similar ill effects as the drugs in Schedule I or Schedule II or is convertible into a drug, it shall communicate that finding to the Commission which may, in accordance with the recommendation of the World Health Organization, decide that the substance shall be added to Schedule I or Schedule II. - 3 - 4. If the World Health Organization finds that a preparation because of the substances which it contains is not liable to abuse and cannot produce ill effects (paragraph 3) and that the drug therein is not readily recoverable, the Commission may, in accordance with the recommendation of the World Health Organization, add that preparation to Schedule III. 5. If the World Health Organization finds that a drug in Schedule I is particularly liable to abuse and to produce ill effects (paragraph 3) and that such liability is not offset by substantial therapeutic advantages not possessed by substances other than drugs in Schedule IV, the Commission may, in accordance with the recommendation of the World Health Organization, place that drug in Schedule IV. 6. Where a notification relates to a drug already in Schedule I or Schedule II or to a preparation in Schedule III, the Commission, apart from the measure provided for in paragraph 5, may, in accordance with the recommendation of the World Health Organization, amend any of the Schedules by: a) Transferring a drug from Schedule I to Schedule II or from Schedule II to Schedule I; or b) Deleting a drug or a preparation as the case may be, from a Schedule. 7. Any decision of the Commission taken pursuant to this article shall be communicated by the Secretary-General to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the World Health Organization and to the Board. Such decision shall become effective with respect to each Party on the date of its receipt of such communication, and the Parties shall thereupon take such action as may be required under this Convention. 8. a) The decisions of the Commission amending any of the Schedules shall be subject to review by the Council upon the request of any Party filed within ninety days from receipt of notification of the decision. The request for review shall be sent to the Secretary-General together with all relevant information upon which the request for review is based; b) The Secretary-General shall transmit copies of the request for review and relevant information to the Commission, the World Health Organization and to all the Parties inviting them to submit comments within ninety days. All comments received shall be submitted to the Council for consideration; c) The Council may confirm, alter or reverse the decision of the Commission, and the decision of the Council shall be final. Notification of the Council's decision shall be transmitted to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the Commission, to the World Health Organization, and to the Board; d) During pendency of the review the original decision of the Commission shall remain in effect. 9. Decisions of the Commission taken in accordance with this article shall not be subject to the review procedure provided for in article 7. Article 4 GENERAL OBLIGATIONS The parties shall take such legislative and administrative measures as may be necessary: a) To give effect to and carry out the provisions of this Convention within their own territories; b) To co-operate with other States in the execution of the provisions of this Convention; and c) Subject to the provisions of this Convention, to limit exclusively to medical and scientific purposes the production, manufacture, export, import, distribution of, trade in, use and possession of drugs. Article 5 THE INTERNATIONAL CONTROL ORGANS The Parties, recognizing the competence of the United Nations with respect to the international control of drugs, agree to entrust to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the Economic and Social Council, and to the International Narcotics Control Board, the functions respectively assigned to them under this Convention. - 4 - Article 6 EXPENSES OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONTROL ORGANS The expenses of the Commission and the Board will be borne by the United Nations in such manner as shall be decided by the General Assembly. The Parties which are not Members of the United Nations shall contribute to these expenses such amounts as the General Assembly finds equitable and assess from time to time after consultation with the Governments of these Parties. Article 7 REVIEW OF DECISIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION Except for decisions under article 3, each decision or recommendation adopted by the Commission pursuant to the provisions of this Convention shall be subject to approval or modification by the Council or the General Assembly in the same way as other decisions or recommendations of the Commission. Article 8 FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION The Commission is authorized to consider all matters pertaining to the aims of this Convention, and in particular: a) To amend the Schedules in accordance with article 3; b) To call the attention of the Board to any matters which may be relevant to the functions of the Board; c) To make recommendations for the implementation of the aims and provisions of this Convention, including programmes of scientific research and the exchange of information of a scientific or technical nature; and d) To draw the attention of non-parties to decisions and recommendations which it adopts under this Convention, with a view to their considering taking action in accordance therewith. Article 9 COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE BOARD 1. The Board shall consist of thirteen members to be elected by the Council as follows: a) Three members with medical, pharmacological or pharmaceutical experience from a list of at least five persons nominated by the World Health Organization; and b) Ten members from a list of persons nominated by the Members of the United Nations and by Parties which are not Members of the United Nations. 2. Members of the Board shall be persons who, by their competence, impartiality and disinterestedness, will command general confidence. During their term of office they shall not hold any position or engage in any activity which would be liable to impair their impartiality in the exercise of their functions. The Council shall, in consultation with the Board, make all arrangements necessary to ensure the full technical independence of the Board in carrying out its functions. 3. The Council, with due regard to the principle of equitable geographic representation, shall give consideration to the importance of including on the Board, in equitable proportion, persons possessing a knowledge of the drug situation in the producing, manufacturing, and consuming countries, and connected with such countries. 4. The Board, in co-operation with Governments, and subject to the terms of this Convention, shall endeavour to limit the cultivation, production, manufacture and use of drugs to an adequate amount required for medical and scientific purposes, to ensure their availability for such purposes and to prevent illicit cultivation, production and manufacture of, and illicit trafficking in and use of, drugs. - 5 - 5. All measures taken by the Board under this Convention shall be those most consistent with the intent to further the co-operation of Governments with the Board and to provide the mechanism for a continuing dialogue between Governments and the Board which will lend assistance to and facilitate effective national action to attain the aims of this Convention. Article 10 TERMS OF OFFICE AND REMUNERATION OF MEMBERS OF THE BOARD 1. The members of the Board shall serve for a period of five years, and may be re-elected. 2. The term of office of each member of the Board shall end on the eve of the first meeting of the Board which his successor shall be entitled to attend. 3. A member of the Board who has failed to attend three consecutive sessions shall be deemed to have resigned. 4. The Council, on the recommendation of the Board, may dismiss a member of the Board who has ceased to fulfil the conditions required for membership by paragraph 2 of article 9. Such recommendation shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members of the Board. 5. Where a vacancy occurs on the Board during the term of office of a member, the Council shall fill such vacancy as soon as possible and in accordance with the applicable provisions of article 9, by electing another member for the remainder of the term. 6. The members of the Board shall receive an adequate remuneration as determined by the General Assembly. Article 11 RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE BOARD 1. The Board shall elect its own President and such other officers as it may consider necessary and shall adopt its rules of procedure. 2. The Board shall meet as often as, in its opinion, may be necessary for the proper discharge of its functions, but shall hold at least two sessions in each calendar year. 3. The quorum necessary at meetings of the Board shall consist of eight members. Article 12 ADMINISTRATION OF THE ESTIMATE SYSTEM 1. The Board shall fix the date or dates by which, and the manner in which, the estimates as provided in article 19 shall be furnished and shall prescribe the forms therefor. 2. The Board shall, in respect of countries and territories to which this Convention does not apply, request the Governments concerned to furnish estimates in accordance with he provisions of this Convention. 3. If any State fails to furnish estimates in respect of any of its territories by the date specified, the Board shall, as far as possible, establish the estimates. The Board in establishing such estimates shall to the extent practicable do so in co-operation with the Government concerned. 4. The Board shall examine the estimates, including supplementary estimates, and, except as regards requirements for special purposes, may require such information as it considers necessary in respect of any country or territory on behalf of which an estimate has been furnished, in order to complete the estimate or to explain any statement contained therein. - 6 - 5. The Board, with a view to limiting the use and distribution of drugs to an adequate amount required for medical and scientific purposes and to ensuring their availability for such purposes, shall as expeditiously as possible confirm the estimates, including supplementary estimates, or, with the consent of the Government concerned, may amend such estimates. In case of a disagreement between the Government and the Board, the latter shall have the right to establish, communicate, and publish its own estimates, including supplementary estimates. 6. In addition to the reports mentioned in article 15, the Board shall, at such times as it shall determine but at least annually, issue such information on the estimates as in its opinion will facilitate the carrying out of this Convention. Article 13 ADMINISTRATION OF THE STATISTICAL RETURNS SYSTEM 1. The Board shall determine the manner and form in which statistical returns shall be furnished as provided in article 20 and shall prescribe the forms therefor. 2. The Board shall examine the returns with a view to determining whether a Party or any other State has complied with the provisions of this Convention. 3. The Board may require such further information as it considers necessary to complete or explain the information contained in such statistical returns. 4. It shall not be within the competence of the Board to question or express an opinion on statistical information respecting drugs required for special purposes. Article 14 MEASURES BY THE BOARD TO ENSURE THE EXECUTION OF PROVISIONS OF THE CONVENTION 1. a) If, on the basis of its examination of information submitted by Governments to the Board under the provisions of this Convention, or of information communicated by United Nations organs or by specialized agencies or, provided that they are approved by the Commission on the Board’s recommendation, by either, other intergovernmental organizations or international non-governmental organizations which have direct competence in the subject matter and which are in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council under Article 71 of the Charter of the United Nations or which enjoy a similar status by special agreement with the Council, the Board has objective reasons to believe that the aims of this Convention are being seriously endangered by reason of the failure of any Party, country or territory to carry out the provisions of this Convention, the Board shall have the right to propose to the Government concerned the opening of consultations or to request it to furnish explanations. If, without any failure in implementing the provisions of the Convention, a Party or a country or territory has become, or if there exists evidence of a serious risk that it may become, an important centre of illicit cultivation, production or manufacture of, or traffic in or consumption of drugs, the Board has the right to propose to the Government concerned the opening of consultations. Subject to the right of the Board to call the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to the matter referred to in subparagraph d) below, the Board shall treat as confidential a request for information and an explanation by a Government or a proposal for consultations and the consultations held with a Government under this subparagraph. b) After taking action under subparagraph a) above, the Board, if satisfied that it is necessary to do so, may call upon the Government concerned to adopt such remedial measures as shall seem under the circumstances to be necessary for the execution of the provisions of this Convention. c) The Board may, if it thinks such action necessary, for the purpose of assessing a matter referred to in subparagraph a) of this paragraph, propose to the Government concerned that a study of the matter, be carried out in its territory by such means as the Government deems appropriate. If the Government concerned decides to undertake this study, it may request the Board to make available the expertise and the services of one or more persons with the requisite competence to assist the officials of the Government in the proposed study. The person or persons whom the Board intends to make available shall be subject to the approval of the Government. The modalities of this study and the time-limit within which the study has to be completed shall be determined by consultation between the - 7 - Government and the Board. The Government shall communicate to the Board the results of the study and shall indicate the remedial measures that it considers necessary to take. d) If the Board finds that the Government concerned has failed to give satisfactory explanations when called upon to do so under subparagraph a) above, or has failed, to adopt any remedial measures which it has been called upon to take under subparagraph b) above, or that there is a serious situation that needs co-operative action at the international level with a view to remedying it, it may call the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to the matter. The Board shall so act if the aims of this Convention are being seriously endangered and it has not been possible to resolve the matter satisfactorily in any other way. It shall also so act if it finds that there is a serious situation that needs cooperative action at the international level with a view to remedying it and that bringing such a situation to the notice of the Parties, the Council and the Commission is the most appropriate method of facilitating such co-operative action; after considering the reports of the Board, and of the Commission if available on the matter, the Council may draw the attention of the General Assembly to the matter. 2. The Board, when calling the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to a matter in accordance with paragraph 1 d) above, may, if it is satisfied that such a course is necessary, recommend to Parties that they stop the import of drugs, the export of drugs, or both, from or to the country or territory concerned, either for a designated period or until the Board shall be satisfied as to the situation in that country or territory. The State concerned may bring the matter before the Council. 3. The Board shall have the right to publish a report on any matter dealt with under the provisions of this article, and communicate it to the Council, which shall forward it to all Parties. If the Board publishes in this report a decision taken under this article or any information relating thereto, it shall also publish therein the views of the Government concerned if the latter so requests. 4. If in any case a decision of the Board which is published under this article is not unanimous, the views of the minority shall be stated. 5. Any State shall be invited to be represented at a meeting of the Board at which a question directly interesting it is considered under this article. 6. Decisions of the Board under this article shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the whole number of the Board. Article 14 bis TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE In cases which it considers appropriate and either in addition or as an alternative to measures set forth in article 14, paragraphs 1 and 2, the Board, with the agreement of the Government concerned, may recommend to the competent United Nations organs and to the specialized agencies that technical or financial assistance, or both, be provided to the Government in support of its efforts to carry out its obligations under this Convention, including those set out or referred to in articles 2, 35, 38 and 38 bis. Article 15 REPORTS OF THE BOARD 1. The Board shall prepare an annual report on its work and such additional reports as it considers necessary containing also an analysis of the estimates and statistical information at its disposal, and, in appropriate cases, an account of the explanations, if any, given by or required of Governments, together with any observations and recommendations which the Board desires to make. These reports shall be submitted to the Council through the Commission, which may make such comments as it sees fit. 2. The reports shall be communicated to the Parties and subsequently published by the SecretaryGeneral. The Parties shall permit their unrestricted distribution. - 8 - Article 16 SECRETARIAT The secretariat services of the Commission and the Board shall be furnished by the SecretaryGeneral. In particular, the Secretary of the Board shall be appointed by the Secretary-General in consultation with the Board. Article 17 SPECIAL ADMINISTRATION The Parties shall maintain a special administration for the purpose of applying the provisions of this Convention. Article 18 INFORMATION TO BE FURNISHED BY PARTIES TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL 1. The Parties shall furnish to the Secretary-General such information as the Commission may request as being necessary for the performance of its functions, and in particular: a) An annual report on the working of the Convention within each of their territories; b) The text of all laws and regulations from time to time promulgated in order to give effect to this Convention; c) Such particulars as the Commission shall determine concerning cases of illicit traffic, including particulars of each case of illicit traffic discovered which may be of importance, because of the light thrown on the source from which drugs are obtained for the illicit traffic, or because of quantities involved or the method employed by illicit traffickers; and d) The, names and addresses of the governmental authorities empowered to issue export and import authorizations or certificates. 2. Parties shall furnish the information referred to in the preceding paragraph in such manner and by such dates and use such forms as the Commission may request. Article 19 ESTIMATES OF DRUG REQUIREMENTS 1. The Parties shall furnish to the Board each year for each of their territories, in the manner and form prescribed by the Board, estimates on forms supplied by it in respect of the following matters: a) Quantities of drugs to be consumed for medical and scientific purposes; b) Quantities of drugs to be utilized for the manufacture of other drugs, of preparations in Schedule III, and of substances not covered by this Convention; c) Stocks of drugs to be held as at 31 December of the year to which the estimates relate; d) Quantities of drugs necessary for addition to special stocks; e) The area (in hectares) and the geographical location of land to be used for the cultivation of the opium poppy; f) Approximate quantity of opium to be produced; g) The number of industrial establishments which will manufacture synthetic drugs; and h) The quantities of synthetic drugs to be manufactured by each of the establishments referred to in the preceding subparagraph. 2. a) Subject to the deductions referred to in paragraph 3 of article 21, the total of the estimates for each territory and each drug except opium and synthetic drugs shall consist of the sum of the amounts specified under subparagraphs a), b) and d) of paragraph 1 of this article, with the addition of any amount required to bring the actual stocks on hand at 31 December of the preceding year to the level estimated as provided in subparagraph (c) of paragraph 1; - 9 - b) Subject to the deductions referred to in paragraph 3 of article 21 regarding imports and in paragraph 2 of article 21 bis, the total of the estimates for opium for each territory shall consist either of the sum of the amounts specified under subparagraphs (a), (b) and (d) of paragraph 1 of this article, with the addition of any amount required to bring the actual stocks on hand at 31 December of the preceding year to the level estimated as provided in subparagraph c) of paragraph 1, or of the amount specified under subparagraph f) of paragraph 1 of this article, whichever is higher. c) Subject to the deductions referred to in paragraph 3 of article 21, the total of the estimates for each territory for each synthetic drug shall consist either of the sum of the amounts specified under subparagraphs a), b) and d) of paragraph 1 of this article, with the addition of any amount required to bring the actual stocks on hand at 31 December of the preceding year to the level estimated as provided in subparagraph c) of paragraph 1, or of the sum of the amounts specified under subparagraph h) of paragraph 1 of this article, whichever is higher. d) The estimates furnished under the preceding subparagraphs of this paragraph shall be appropriately modified to take into account any quantity seized and thereafter released for licit use as well as any quantity taken from special stocks for the requirements of the civilian population. 3. Any State may during the year furnish supplementary estimates with an explanation of the circumstances necessitating such estimates. 4. The Parties shall inform the Board of the method used for determining quantities shown in the estimates and of any changes in the said method. 5. Subject to the deductions referred to in paragraph 3 of article 21, and account being taken where appropriate of the provisions of article 21 bis, the estimates shall not be exceeded. Article 20 STATISTICAL RETURNS TO BE FURNISHED TO THE BOARD 1. The Parties shall furnish to the Board for each of their territories, in the manner and form prescribed by the Board, statistical returns on forms supplied by it in respect of the following matters: a) Production or manufacture of drugs; b) Utilization of drugs for the manufacture of other drugs, of preparations in Schedule III and of substances not covered by this Convention, and utilization of poppy straw for the manufacture of drugs; c) Consumption of drugs; d) Imports and exports of drugs and poppy straw; e) Seizures of drugs and disposal thereof; f) Stocks of drugs as at 31 December of the year to which the returns relate; and g) Ascertainable area of cultivation of the opium poppy. 2. a) The statistical returns in respect of the matters referred to in paragraph 1, except subparagraph d), shall be prepared annually and shall be furnished to the Board not later than 30 June following the year to which they relate. b) The statistical returns in respect to the matters referred to in subparagraph d) of paragraph I shall be prepared quarterly and shall be furnished to the Board within one month after the end of the quarter to which they relate. 3. The Parties are not required to furnish statistical returns respecting special stocks, but shall furnish separately returns respecting drugs imported into or procured within the country or territory for special purposes, as well as quantities of drugs withdrawn from special stocks to meet the requirements of the civilian population. - 10 - Article 21 LIMITATION OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPORTATION 1. The total of the quantities of each drug manufactured and imported by any country or territory in any one year shall not exceed the sum of the following: a) The quantity consumed, within the limit of the relevant estimate, for medical and scientific purposes; b) The quantity used, within the limit of the relevant estimate, for the manufacture of other drugs, of preparations in Schedule III, and of substances not covered by this Convention; c) The quantity exported; d) The quantity added to the stock for the purpose of bringing that stock up to the level specified in the relevant estimate; and e) The quantity acquired within the limit of the relevant estimate for special purposes. 2. From the sum of the quantities specified in paragraph 1 there shall be deducted any quantity that has been seized and released for licit use, as well as any quantity taken from special stocks for the requirements of the civilian population. 3. If the Board finds that the quantity manufactured and imported in any one year exceeds the sum of the quantities specified in paragraph l, less any deductions required under paragraph 2 of this article, any excess so established and remaining at the end of the year shall, in the following year, be deducted from the quantity to be manufactured or imported and from the total of the estimates as defined in paragraph 2 of article 19. 4. a) If it appears from the statistical returns on imports or exports (article 20) that the quantity exported to any country or territory exceeds the total of the estimates for that country or territory, as defined in paragraph 2 of article 19, with the addition of the amounts shown to have been exported, and after deduction of any excess as established in paragraph 3 of this article, the Board may notify this fact to States which, in the opinion of the Board, should be so informed; b) On receipt of such a notification, Parties shall not during the year in question authorize any further exports of the drug concerned to that country or territory, except: i) In the event of a supplementary estimate being furnished for that country or territory in respect both of any quantity over imported and of the additional quantity required, or ii) In exceptional cases where the export, in the opinion of the Government of the exporting country, is essential for the treatment of the sick. Article 21 bis LIMITATION OF PRODUCTION OF OPIUM 1. The production of opium by any country or territory shall be organized and controlled in such manner as to ensure that, as far as possible, the quantity produced in any one year shall not exceed the estimate of opium to be produced as established under paragraph 1 f) of article 19. 2. If the Board finds on the basis of information at its disposal in accordance with the provisions of this Convention that a Party which has submitted an estimate under paragraph l f) of article 19 has not limited opium produced within its borders to licit purposes in accordance with relevant estimates and that a significant amount of opium produced, whether licitly or illicitly, within the borders of such a Party, has been introduced into the illicit traffic, it may, after studying the explanations of the Party concerned, which shall be submitted to it within one month after notification of the finding in question, decide to deduct all, or a portion, of such an amount from the quantity to be produced and from the total of the estimates as defined in paragraph 2 b) of article 19 for the next year in which such a deduction can be technically accomplished, taking into account the season of the year and contractual commitments to export opium. This decision shall take effect ninety days after the Party concerned is notified thereof. 3. After notifying the Party concerned of the decision it has taken under paragraph 2 above with regard to a deduction, the Board shall consult with that Party in order to resolve the situation satisfactorily. - 11 - 4. If the situation is not satisfactorily resolved, the Board may utilize the provisions of article 14 where appropriate. 5. In taking its decision with regard to a deduction under paragraph 2 above, the Board shall take into account not only all relevant circumstances including those giving rise to the illicit traffic problem referred to in paragraph 2 above, but also any relevant new control measures which may have been adopted by the Party. Article 22 SPECIAL PROVISION APPLICABLE TO CULTIVATION 1. Whenever the prevailing conditions in the country or a territory of a Party render the prohibition of the cultivation of the opium poppy, the coca bush or the cannabis plant the most suitable measure, in its opinion, for protecting the public health and welfare and preventing the diversion of drugs into the illicit traffic, the Party concerned shall prohibit cultivation. 2. A Party prohibiting cultivation of the opium poppy or the cannabis plant shall take appropriate measures to seize any plants illicitly cultivated and to destroy them, except for small quantities required by the Party for scientific or research purposes. Article 23 NATIONAL OPIUM AGENCIES 1. A Party that permits the cultivation of the opium poppy for the production of opium shall establish, if it has not already done so, and maintain, one or more government agencies (hereafter in this article referred to as the Agency) to carry out the functions required under this article. 2. Each such Party shall apply the following provisions to the cultivation of the opium poppy for the production of opium and to opium: a) The Agency shall designate the areas in which, and the plots of land on which, cultivation of the opium poppy for the purpose of producing opium shall be permitted. b) Only cultivators licensed by the Agency shall be authorized to engage in such cultivation. c) Each licence shall specify the extent of the land on which the cultivation is permitted. d) All cultivators of the opium poppy shall be required to deliver their total crops of opium to the Agency. The Agency shall purchase and take physical possession of such crops as soon as possible, but not later than four months after the end of the harvest. e) The Agency shall, in respect of opium, have the exclusive right of importing, exporting, wholesale trading and maintaining stocks other than those held by manufacturers of opium alkaloids, medicinal opium or opium preparations. Parties need not extend this exclusive right to medicinal opium and opium preparations. 3. The governmental functions referred to in paragraph 2 shall be discharged by a single government agency if the constitution of the Party concerned permits it. Article 24 LIMITATION ON PRODUCTION OF OPIUM FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE 1. a) If any Party intends to initiate the production of opium or to increase existing production, it shall take account of the prevailing world need for opium in accordance with the estimates thereof published by the Board so that the production of opium by such Party does not result in overproduction of opium in the world. b) A Party shall not permit the production of opium or increase the existing production thereof if in its opinion such production or increased production in its territory may result in illicit traffic in opium. - 12 - 2. a) Subject to paragraph 1, where a Party which as of 1 January 1961 was not producing opium for export desires to export opium which it produces, in amounts not exceeding five tons annually, it shall notify the Board, furnishing with such notification information regarding: i) The controls in force as required by this Convention respecting the opium to be produced and exported; and ii) The name of the country or countries to which it expects to export such opium; and the Board may either approve such notification or may recommend to the Party that it not engage in the production of opium for export. b) Where a Party other than a party referred to in paragraph 3 desires to produce opium, for export in amounts exceeding five tons annually, it shall notify the Council, furnishing with such notification relevant information including: i) The estimated amounts to be produced for export; ii) The controls existing or proposed respecting the opium to be produced; iii) The name of the country or countries to which it expects to export such opium; and the Council shall either approve the notification or may recommend to the Party that it not engage in the production of opium for export. 3. Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs a) and b) of paragraph 2, a Party that during ten years immediately prior to l January 1961 exported opium which such country produced may continue to export opium which it produces. 4. a) A Party shall not import opium from any country or territory except opium produced. in the territory of: i) A Party referred to in paragraph 3; ii) A Party that has notified the Board as provided in subparagraph a) of paragraph 2; or iii) A Party that has received the approval of the Council as provided in subparagraph b) of paragraph 2. b) Notwithstanding subparagraph a) of this paragraph, a Party may import opium produced by any country which produced and exported opium during the ten years prior to 1 January 1961 if such country has established and maintains a national control organ or agency for the purposes set out in article 23 and has in force an effective means of ensuring that the opium it produces is not diverted into the illicit traffic. 5. The provisions of this article do not prevent a Party: a) From producing opium sufficient for its own requirements; or b) From exporting opium seized in the illicit traffic, to another Party in accordance with the requirements of this Convention. Article 25 CONTROL OF POPPY STRAW 1. A Party that permits the cultivation of the opium poppy for purposes other than the production of opium shall take all measures necessary to ensure: a) That opium is not produced from such opium poppies; and b) That the manufacture of drugs from poppy straw is adequately controlled. 2. The Parties shall apply to poppy straw the system of import certificates and export authorizations as provided in article 31, paragraphs 4 to 15. 3. The Parties shall furnish statistical information on the import and export of poppy straw as required for drugs under article 20, paragraphs 1 d) and 2 b). - 13 - Article 26 THE COCA BUSH AND COCA LEAVES 1. If a Party permits the cultivation of the coca bush, it shall apply thereto and to coca leaves the system of controls as provided in article 23 respecting the control of the opium poppy, but as regards paragraph 2 d) of that article, the requirements imposed on the Agency therein referred to shall be only to take physical possession of the crops as soon as possible after the end of the harvest. 2. The Parties shall so far as possible enforce the uprooting of all coca bushes which grow wild. They shall destroy the coca bushes if illegally cultivated. Article 27 ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO COCA LEAVES 1. The Parties may permit the use of coca leaves for the preparation of a flavouring agent, which shall not contain any alkaloids, and, to the extent necessary for such use, may permit the production, import, export, trade in and possession of such leaves. 2. The Parties shall furnish separately estimates (article 19) and statistical information (article 20) in respect of coca leaves for preparation of the flavouring agent, except to the extent that the same coca leaves are used for the extraction of alkaloids and the flavouring agent, and so explained in the estimates and statistical information. Article 28 CONTROL OF CANNABIS 1. If a Party permits the cultivation of the cannabis plant for the production of cannabis or cannabis resin, it shall apply thereto the system of controls as provided in article 23 respecting the control of the opium poppy. 2. This Convention shall not apply to the cultivation of the cannabis plant exclusively for industrial purposes (fibre and seed) or horticultural purposes. 3. The Parties shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to prevent the misuse of, and illicit traffic in, the leaves of the cannabis plant. Article 29 MANUFACTURE 1. The Parties shall require that the manufacture of drugs be under licence except where such manufacture is carried out by a State enterprise or State enterprises. 2. The Parties shall: a) Control all persons and enterprises carrying on or engaged in the manufacture of drugs; b) Control under licence the establishments and premises in which such manufacture may take place; and c) Require that licensed manufacturers of drugs obtain periodical permits specifying the kinds and amounts of drugs which they shall be entitled to manufacture. A periodical permit, however, need not be required for preparations. 3. The Parties shall prevent the accumulation, in the possession of drug manufacturers, of quantities of drugs and poppy straw in excess of those required for the normal conduct of business, having regard to the prevailing market conditions. - 14 - Article 30 TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION 1. a) The Parties shall require that the trade in and distribution of drugs be under licence except where such trade or distribution is carried out by a State enterprise or State enterprises: b) The Parties shall: i) Control all persons and enterprises carrying on or engaged in the trade in or distribution of drugs; ii) Control under licence the establishments and premises in which such trade or distribution may take place. The requirement of licensing need not apply to preparations. c) The provisions of subparagraphs a) and b) relating to licensing need not apply to persons duly authorized to perform and while performing therapeutic or scientific functions. 2. The Parties shall also: a) Prevent the accumulation in the possession of traders, distributors, State enterprises or duly authorized persons referred to above, of quantities of drugs and poppy straw in excess of those required for the normal conduct of business, having regard to the prevailing market conditions; and b) i) Require medical prescriptions for the supply, or dispensation of drugs to individuals. This requirement need not apply to such drugs as individuals may lawfully obtain, use, dispense or administer in connexion with their duly authorized therapeutic functions; and ii) If the Parties deem these measures necessary or desirable, require that prescriptions for drugs in Schedule I should be written on official forms to be issued in the form of counterfoil books by the competent governmental authorities or by authorized professional associations. 3. It is desirable that Parties require that written or printed offers of drugs, advertisements of every kind or descriptive literature relating to drugs and used for commercial purposes, interior wrappings of packages containing drugs, and labels under which drugs are offered for sale indicate the international non-proprietary name communicated by the World Health Organization. 4. If a Party considers such measure necessary or desirable, it shall require that the inner package containing a drug or wrapping thereof shall bear a clearly visible double red band. The exterior wrapping of the package in which such drug is contained shall not bear a double red band. 5. A Party shall require that the label under which a drug is offered for sale show the exact drug content by weight or percentage. This requirement of label information need not apply to a drug dispensed to an individual on medical prescription. 6. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 5 need not apply to the retail trade in or retail distribution of drugs in Schedule II. Article 31 SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE 1. The Parties shall not knowingly permit the export of drugs to any country or territory except: a) In accordance with the laws and regulations of that country or territory; and b) Within the limits of the total of the estimates for that country or territory, as defined in paragraph 2 of article 19, with the addition of the amounts intended to be re-exported. 2. The Parties shall exercise in free ports and zones the same supervision and control as in other parts of their territories, provided, however, that they may apply more drastic measures. - 15 - 3. The Parties shall: a) Control under licence the import and export of drugs except where such import or export is carried out by a State enterprise or enterprises; b) Control all persons and enterprises carrying on or engaged in such import or export. 4. a) Every Party permitting the import or export of drugs shall require a separate import or export authorization to be obtained for each such import or export whether it consists of one or more drugs. b) Such authorization shall state the name of the drug, the international non-proprietary name if any, the quantity to be imported or exported, and the name and address of the importer and exporter, and shall specify the period within which the importation or exportation must be effected. c) The export authorization shall also state the number and date of the import certificate (paragraph 5) and the authority by whom it has been issued. d) The import authorization may allow an importation in more than one consignment. 5. Before issuing an export authorization the Parties shall require an import certificate, issued by the competent authorities of the importing country or territory and certifying that the importation of the drug or drugs referred to therein, is approved and such certificate shall be produced by the person or establishment applying for the export authorization. The Parties shall follow as closely as may be practicable the form of import certificate approved by the Commission. 6. A copy of the export authorization shall accompany each consignment, and the Government issuing the export authorization shall send a copy to the Government of the importing country or territory. 7. a) The Government of the importing country or territory, when the importation has been effected or when the period fixed for the importation has expired, shall return the export authorization, with an endorsement to that effect, to the Government of the exporting country or territory. b) The endorsement shall specify the amount actually imported; c) If a lesser quantity than that specified in the export authorization is actually exported, the quantity actually exported shall be stated by the competent authorities on the export authorization and on any official copy thereof. 8. Exports of consignments to a post office box, or to a bank to the account of a Party other than the Party named in the export authorization, shall be prohibited. 9. Exports of consignments to a bonded warehouse are prohibited unless the Government of the importing country certifies on the import certificate, produced by the person or establishment applying for the export authorization, that it has approved the importation for the purpose of being placed in a bonded warehouse. In such case the export authorization shall specify that the consignment is exported for such purpose. Each withdrawal from the bonded warehouse shall require a permit from the authorities having jurisdiction over the warehouse and, in the case of a foreign destination shall be treated as if it were a new export within the meaning of this Convention. 10. Consignments of drugs entering or leaving the territory of a Party not accompanied by an export authorization shall be detained by the competent authorities. 11. A Party shall not permit any drugs consigned to another country to pass through its territory, whether or not the consignment is removed from the conveyance in which it is carried, unless a copy of the export authorization for such consignment is produced to the competent authorities of such Party. 12. The competent authorities of any country or territory through which a consignment of drugs is permitted to pass shall take all due measures to prevent the diversion of the consignment to a destination other than that named in the accompanying copy of the export authorization unless the Government of that country or territory through which the consignment is passing authorizes the diversion. The Government of the country or territory of transit shall treat any requested diversion as if the diversion were an export from the country or territory of transit to the country or territory of new destination. If the diversion is authorized, the provisions of paragraph 7 a) and b) shall also apply between the country or territory of transit and the country or territory which originally exported the consignment. 13. No consignment of drugs while in transit, or whilst being stored in a bonded warehouse, may be subjected to any process which would change the nature of the drugs in question. The packing may not be altered without the permission of the competent authorities. - 16 - 14. The provisions of paragraphs 11 to 13 relating to the passage of drugs through the territory of a Party do not apply where the consignment in question is transported by aircraft which does not land in the country or territory of transit. If the aircraft lands in any such country or territory, those provisions shall be applied so far as circumstances require. 15. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the provisions of any international agreements which limit the control which may be exercised by any of the Parties over drugs in transit. 16. Nothing in this article other than paragraphs 1 a) and 2 need apply in the case of preparations in Schedule III. Article 32 SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE CARRIAGE OF DRUGS IN FIRST-AID KITS OF SHIPS OR AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC 1. The international carriage by ships or aircraft of such limited amounts of drugs as may be needed during their journey or voyage for first-aid purposes or emergency cases shall not be considered to be import, export or passage through a country within the meaning of this Convention. 2. Appropriate safeguards shall be taken by the country of registry to prevent the improper use of the drugs referred to in paragraph 1 or their diversion for illicit purposes. The Commission, in consultation with the appropriate international organizations, shall recommend such safeguards. 3. Drugs carried by ships or aircraft in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be subject to the laws, regulations, permits and licences of the country of registry, without prejudice to any rights of the competent local authorities to carry out checks, inspections and other control measures on board ships or aircraft. The administration of such drugs in the case of emergency shall not be considered a violation of the requirements of article 30, paragraph 2 b). Article 33 POSSESSION OF DRUGS The Parties shall not permit the possession of drugs except under legal authority. Article 34 MEASURES OF SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION The Parties shall require: a) That all persons who obtain licences as provided in accordance with this Convention, or who have managerial or supervisory positions in a State enterprise established in accordance with this Convention, shall have adequate qualifications for the effective and faithful execution of the provisions of such laws and regulations as are enacted in pursuance thereof; and b) That governmental authorities, manufacturers, traders, scientists, scientific institutions and hospitals keep such records as will show the quantities of each drug manufactured and of each individual acquisition and disposal of drugs. Such records shall respectively be preserved for a period of not less than two years. Where counterfoil books (article 30, paragraph 2 b)) of official prescriptions are used, such books including the counterfoils shall also be kept for a period of not less than two years. - 17 - Article 35 ACTION AGAINST THE ILLICIT TRAFFIC Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall: a) Make arrangements at the national level for co-ordination of preventive and repressive action against the illicit traffic; to this end they may usefully designate an appropriate agency responsible for such co-ordination; b) Assist each other in the campaign against the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs; c) Co-operate closely with each other and with the competent international organizations of which they are members with a view to maintaining a co-ordinated campaign against the illicit traffic; d) Ensure that international co-operation between the appropriate agencies be conducted in an expeditious manner; and e) Ensure that where legal papers are transmitted internationally for the purposes of a prosecution, the transmittal be effected in an expeditious manner to the bodies designated by the Parties; this requirement shall be without prejudice to the right of a Party to require that legal papers be sent to it through the diplomatic channel; f) Furnish, if they deem it appropriate, to the Board and the Commission through the Secretary-General, in addition to information required by article 18, information relating to illicit drug activity within their borders, including information on illicit cultivation, production, manufacture and use of, and on illicit trafficking in, drugs; and g) Furnish the information referred to in the preceding paragraph as far as possible in such manner, and by such dates as the Board may request; if requested by a Party, the Board may offer its advice to it in furnishing the information and in endeavouring to reduce the illicit drug activity within the borders of that Party. Article 36 PENAL PROVISIONS 1. a) Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall adopt such measures as will ensure that cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, possession, offering, offering for sale, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation and exportation of drugs contrary to the provisions of this Convention, and any other action which in the opinion of such Party may be contrary to the provisions of this Convention, shall be punishable offences when committed intentionally, and that serious offences shall be liable to adequate punishment particularly by imprisonment or other penalties of deprivation of liberty. b) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraph, when abusers of drugs have committed such offences, the Parties may provide, either as an alternative to conviction or punishment or in addition to conviction or punishment, that such abusers shall undergo measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration in conformity with paragraph 1 of article 38. 2. Subject to the constitutional limitations of a Party, its legal system and domestic law, a) i) Each of the offences enumerated in paragraph 1, if committed in different countries, shall be considered as a distinct offence; ii) Intentional participation in, conspiracy to commit and attempts to commit, any of such offences, and preparatory acts and financial operations in connexion with the offences referred to in this article, shall be punishable offences as provided in paragraph 1; iii) Foreign convictions for such offences shall be taken into account for the purpose of establishing recidivism; and iv) Serious offences heretofore referred to committed either by nationals or by foreigners shall be prosecuted by the Party in whose territory the offence was committed, or by the Party in whose territory the offender is found if extradition is not acceptable in conformity with the law of the Party to which application is made, and if such offender has not already been prosecuted and judgement given. - 18 - b) i) Each of the offences enumerated in paragraphs 1 and 2 a) ii) of this article shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing between Parties. Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them. ii) If a Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may at its option consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect of the offences enumerated in paragraphs 1 and 2 a) ii) of this article. Extradition shall be subject to the other conditions provided by the law of the requested Party. iii) Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize the offences enumerated in paragraphs 1 and 2 a) ii) of this article as extraditable offences between themselves, subject to the conditions provided by the law of the requested Party. iv) Extradition shall be granted in conformity with the law of the Party to which application is made, and, notwithstanding subparagraphs b) i), ii) and iii) of this paragraph, the Party, shall have the right to refuse to grant the extradition in cases where the competent authorities consider that the offence is not sufficiently serious. 3. The provisions of this article shall be subject to the provisions of the criminal law of the Party concerned on questions of jurisdiction. 4. Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the offences to which it refers shall be defined, prosecuted and punished in conformity with the domestic law of a Party. Article 37 SEIZURE AND CONFISCATION Any drugs, substances and equipment used in or intended for the commission of any of the offences, referred to in article 36, shall be liable to seizure and confiscation. Article 38 MEASURES AGAINST THE ABUSE OF DRUGS 1. The Parties shall give special attention to and take all practicable measures for the prevention of abuse of drugs and for the early identification, treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of the persons involved and shall co-ordinate their efforts to these ends. 2. The Parties shall as far as possible promote the training of personnel in the treatment, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of abusers of drugs. 3. The Parties shall take all practicable measures to assist persons whose work so requires to gain an understanding of the problems of abuse of drugs and of its prevention, and shall also promote such understanding among the general public if there is a risk that abuse of drugs will become widespread. Article 38 bis AGREEMENTS ON REGIONAL CENTRES If a Party considers it desirable as part of its action against the illicit traffic in drugs, having due regard to its constitutional, legal and administrative systems, and, if it so desires, with the technical advice of the Board or the specialized agencies, it shall promote the establishment, in consultation, with other interested Parties in the region, of agreements which contemplate the development of regional centres for scientific research and education to combat the problems resulting from the illicit use of and traffic in drugs. - 19 - Article 39 APPLICATION OF STRICTER NATIONAL CONTROL MEASURES THAN THOSE REQUIRED BY THIS CONVENTION Notwithstanding anything contained in this Convention, a Party shall not be, or be deemed to be, precluded from adopting measures of control more strict or severe than those provided by this Convention and in particular from requiring that preparations in Schedule III or drugs in Schedule II be subject to all or such of the measures of control applicable to drugs in Schedule I as in its opinion is necessary or desirable for the protection of the public health or welfare. Article 40 2 LANGUAGES OF THE CONVENTION AND PROCEDURE FOR SIGNATURE, RATIFICATION AND ACCESSION 1. This Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be open for signature until 1 August 1961 on behalf of any Member of the United Nations, of any non-member State which is a Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice or member of a specialized agency of the United Nations, and also of any other State which the Council may invite to become a Party. 2. This Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General. 3. This Convention shall be open after 1 August 1961 for accession by the States referred to in paragraph 1. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General. Article 41 3 ENTRY INTO FORCE 1. This Convention shall come into force on the thirtieth day following the date on which the fortieth instrument of ratification or accession is deposited in accordance with article 40. 2. In respect of any other State depositing an instrument of ratification or accession after the date of deposit of the said fortieth instrument, this Convention shall come into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by that State of its instrument of ratification or accession. Article 42 TERRITORIAL APPLICATION This Convention shall apply to all non-metropolitan territories for the international relations of which any Party is responsible, except where the previous consent of such a territory is required by the Constitution of the Party or of the territory concerned, or required by custom. In such case the Party shall endeavour to secure the needed consent of the territory within the shortest period possible, and when that consent is obtained the Party shall notify the Secretary-General. This Convention shall apply to the territory or territories named in such notification from the date of its receipt by the Secretary 2 Note by the Secretariat: The following two paragraphs are taken from the Introductory Note to the text of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as established by the Secretary-General on 8 August 1975, in accordance with article 22 of the Protocol of 25 March 1972: “The Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 (hereinafter called the 1972 Protocol) entered into force on 8 August 1975, in accordance with paragraph 1 of its article 18. In respect to any States which is already a Party to the Single Convention and deposits with the Secretary-General, after the date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification or accession, an instrument of ratification or accession to the 1972 Protocol, the latter will come into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by that State of its instrument (see articles 17 and 18 of the 1972 Protocol). “Any State which becomes a Party to the Single Convention after the entry into force of the 1972 Protocol shall, failing an expression of a different intention by that State: (a) be considered as a Party to the Single Convention as amended; and (b) be considered as a Party to the unamended Single Convention in relation to any Party to that Convention not bound by the 1972 Protocol (see article 19 of the 1972 Protocol).” 3 See footnote 3 above. - 20 - General. In those cases where the previous consent of the non-metropolitan territory is not required, the Party concerned shall, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare the non-metropolitan territory or territories to which this Convention applies. Article 43 TERRITORIES FOR THE PURPOSES OF ARTICLES 19, 20, 21 AND 31 1. Any Party may notify the Secretary-General that, for the purposes of articles 19, 20, 21 and 31, one of its territories is divided into two or more territories, or that two or more of its territories are consolidated into a single territory. 2. Two or more Parties may notify the Secretary-General that, as the result of the establishment of a customs union between them, those Parties constitute a single territory for the purposes of articles 19, 20, 21 and 31. 3. Any notification under paragraph 1 or 2 above shall take effect on 1 January of the year following the year in which the notification was made. Article 44 TERMINATION OF PREVIOUS INTERNATIONAL TREATIES 1. The provisions of this Convention, upon its coming into force, shall, as between Parties hereto, terminate and replace the provisions of the following treaties: a) International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on 23 January 1912; b) Agreement concerning the Manufacture of, Internal Trade in and Use of Prepared Opium, signed at Geneva on 11 February 1925; c) International Opium Convention, signed at Geneva on 19 February 1925; d) Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs, signed at Geneva on 13 July 1931; e) Agreement for the Control of Opium Smoking in the Far East, signed at Bangkok on 27 November 1931; f) Protocol signed at Lake Success on 11 December 1946, amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs concluded at The Hague on 23 January 1912, at Geneva on 11 February 1925 and 19 February 1925 and 13 July 1931, at Bangkok on 27 November 1931 and at Geneva on 26 June 1936, except as it affects the last-named Convention; g) The Conventions and Agreements referred to in subparagraphs a) to e) as amended by the Protocol of 1946 referred to in subparagraph f); h) Protocol signed at Paris on 19 November 1948 Bringing under International Control Drugs outside the Scope of the Convention of 13 July 1931 for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs, as Amended by the Protocol signed at Lake Success on 11 December 1946; i) Protocol for Limiting and Regulating the Cultivation of the Poppy Plant, the Production of, International and Wholesale Trade in, and Use of Opium, signed at New York on 23 June 1953, should that Protocol have come into force. 2. Upon the coming into force of this Convention, article 9 of the Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs, signed at Geneva on 26 June 1936, shall, between the Parties thereto which are also Parties to this Convention, be terminated, and shall be replaced by paragraph 2 b) of article 36 of this Convention; provided that such a Party may by notification to the Secretary-General continue in force the said article 9. - 21 - Article 45 4 TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS 1. The functions of the Board provided for in article 9 shall, as from the date of the coming into force of this Convention (article 41, paragraph 1), be provisionally carried out by the Permanent Central Board constituted under chapter VI of the Convention referred to in article 44 c) as amended, and by the Supervisory Body constituted under chapter II of the Convention referred to in article 44 d) as amended, as such functions may respectively require. 2. The Council shall fix the date on which the new Board referred to in article 9 shall enter upon its duties. As from that date that Board shall, with respect to the States Parties to the treaties enumerated in article 44 which are not Parties to this Convention, undertake the functions of the Permanent Central Board and of the Supervisory Body referred to in paragraph 1. Article 46 DENUNCIATION 1. After the expiry of two years from the date of the coming into force of this Convention (article 41, paragraph 1) any Party may, on its own behalf or on behalf of a territory for which it has international responsibility, and which has withdrawn its consent given in accordance with article 42, denounce this Convention by an instrument in writing deposited with the Secretary-General. 2. The denunciation, if received by the Secretary-General on or before the first day of July in any year, shall take effect on the first day of January in the succeeding year, and, if received after the first day of July, shall take effect as if it had been received on or before the first day of July in the succeeding year. 3. This Convention shall be terminated if, as a result of denunciations made in accordance with paragraph 1, the conditions for its coming into force as laid down in article 41, paragraph 1, cease to exist. Article 47 AMENDMENTS 1. Any Party may propose an amendment to this Convention. The text of any such amendment and the reasons therefor shall be communicated to the Secretary-General who shall communicate them to the Parties and to the Council. The Council may decide either: a) That a conference shall be called in accordance with Article 62, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations to consider the proposed amendment; or 4 The following is the text of article 20 of the 1972 Protocol: “Article 20 “Transitional provisions “1. The functions of the International Narcotics Control Board provided for in the amendments contained in this Protocol shall, as from the date of coming into force of this Protocol pursuant to paragraph 1 of article 18 above, be performed by the Board as constituted by the unamended Single Convention. “2. The Economic and Social Council shall fix the date on which the Board constituted under the amendments contained in this Protocol shall enter upon its duties. As from that date the Board as so constituted shall, with respect to those Parties to the unamended Single Convention and to those Parties to the treaties enumerated in article 44 thereof which are not Parties to this Protocol, undertake the functions of the Board as constituted under the unamended Single Convention. “3. Of the members elected at the first election after the increase in the membership of the Board from eleven to thirteen members the terms of six members shall expire at the end of three years and the terms of the other seven members shall expire at the end of five years. “4. The members of the Board whose terms are to expire at the end of the above-mentioned initial period of three years shall be chosen by lot to be drawn by the Secretary-General immediately after the first election has been completed.” - 22 - b) That the Parties shall be asked whether they accept the proposed amendment and also asked to submit to the Council any comments on the proposal. 2. If a proposed amendment circulated under paragraph 1 b) of this article has not been rejected by any Party within eighteen months after it has been circulated, it shall thereupon enter into force. If, however, a proposed amendment is rejected by any Party, the Council may decide, in the light of comments received from Parties, whether a conference shall be called to consider such amendment. Article 48 DISPUTES 1. If there should arise between two or more Parties a dispute relating to the interpretation or application of this Convention, the said Parties shall consult together with a view to the settlement of the dispute by negotiation, investigation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, recourse to regional bodies, judicial process or other peaceful means of their own choice. 2. Any such dispute which cannot be settled in the manner prescribed shall be referred to the International Court of Justice for decision. Article 49 TRANSITIONAL RESERVATIONS 1. A Party may at the time of signature, ratification or accession reserve the right to permit temporarily in any one of its territories: a) The quasi-medical use of opium; b) Opium smoking; c) Coca leaf chewing; d) The use of cannabis, cannabis resin, extracts and tinctures of cannabis for non-medical purposes; and e) The production and manufacture of and trade in the drugs referred to under a) to d) for the purposes mentioned therein. 2. The reservations under paragraph 1 shall be subject to the following restrictions: a) The activities mentioned in paragraph 1 may be authorized only to the extent that they were traditional in the territories in respect of which the reservation is made, and were there permitted on 1 January 1961. b) No export of the drugs referred to in paragraph 1 for the purposes mentioned therein may be permitted to a non-party or to a territory to which this Convention does not apply under article 42. c) Only such persons may be permitted to smoke opium as were registered by the competent authorities to this effect on 1 January 1964. d) The quasi-medical use of opium must be abolished within 15 years from the coming into force of this Convention as provided in paragraph 1 of article 41. e) Coca leaf chewing must be abolished within twenty-five years from the coming into force of this Convention as provided in paragraph 1 of article 41. f) The use of cannabis for other than medical and scientific purposes must be discontinued as soon as possible but in any case within twenty-five years from the coming into force of this Convention as provided in paragraph 1 of article 41. g) The production and manufacture of and trade in the drugs referred to in paragraph 1 for any of the uses mentioned therein must be reduced and finally abolished simultaneously with the reduction and abolition of such uses. 3. A Party making a reservation under paragraph 1 shall: a) Include in the annual report to be furnished to the Secretary-General, in accordance with article 18, paragraph 1 a), an account of the progress made in the preceding year towards the abolition of the use, production, manufacture or trade referred to under paragraph l; and b) Furnish to the Board separate estimates (article 19) and statistical returns (article 20) in respect of the reserved activities in the manner and form prescribed by the Board. - 23 - 4. a) If a Party which makes a reservation under paragraph 1 fails to furnish: i) The report referred to in paragraph 3 a) within six months after the end of the year to which the information relates; ii) The estimates referred to in paragraph 3 b) within three months after the date fixed for that purpose by the Board in accordance with article 12, paragraph 1; iii) The statistics referred to in paragraph 3 b) within three months after the date on which they are due in accordance with article 20, paragraph 2, the Board or the Secretary-General, as the case may be, shall send to the Party concerned a notification of the delay, and shall request such information within a period of three months after the receipt of that notification. b) If the Party fails to comply within this period with the request of the Board or the Secretary-General, the reservation in question made under paragraph 1 shall cease to be effective. 5. A State which has made reservations may at any time by notification in writing withdraw all or part of its reservations. Article 50 5 OTHER RESERVATIONS 1. No reservations other than those made in accordance with article 49 or with the following paragraphs shall be permitted. 2. Any State may at the time of signature, ratification or accession make reservations in respect of the following provisions of this Convention: Article 12, paragraphs 2 and 3; article 13, paragraph 2; article 14, paragraphs 1 and 2; article 31, paragraph 1 b) and article 48. 3. A State which desires to become a Party but wishes to be authorized to make reservations other than those made in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article or with article 49 may inform the Secretary-General of such intention. Unless by the end of twelve months after the date of the SecretaryGeneral's communication of the reservation concerned, this reservation has been objected to by one third of the States that have ratified or acceded to this Convention before the end of that period, it shall be deemed to be permitted, it being understood however that States which have objected to the reservation need not assume towards the reserving State any legal obligation under this Convention which is affected by the reservation. 5 The following is the text of article 21 of the 1972 Protocol: “Article 21 “Reservations “1. Any State may, at the time of signature or ratification of or accession to this Protocol, make a reservation in respect of any amendment contained herein other than the amendments to article 2, paragraphs 6 and 7 (article 1 of this Protocol), article 9, paragraphs 1, 4 and 5 (article 2 of this Protocol), article 10, paragraphs 1 and 4 (article 3 of this Protocol), article 11(article 4 of this Protocol), article 14 bis (article 7 of this Protocol), article 16 (article 8 of this Protocol), article 22 (article 12 of this Protocol), article 35 (article 13 of this Protocol), article 36, paragraph 1 b) (article 14 of this Protocol), article 38 (article 15 of this Protocol) and article 38 bis (article 16 of this Protocol). “2. A State which has made reservations may at any time by notification in writing withdraw all or part of its reservations.” * Note by the Secretariat: The following explanatory note is reproduced from the certified true copy, established by the Secretary-General on 8 August 1975, of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961: “It will be noted that States that wish to make a reservation to one or more of the amendments in accordance with the above article 21 of the 1972 Protocol should first become Parties to the Single Convention in its unamended form (if they have not already done so), and then should ratify or accede to the 1972 Protocol subject to the desired reservation.” - 24 - 4. A State which has made reservations may at any time by notification in writing withdraw all or part of its reservations. Article 51 NOTIFICATIONS The Secretary-General shall notify to all the States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 40: a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions in accordance with article 40; b) The date upon which this Convention enters into force in accordance with article 41; c) Denunciations in accordance with article 46; and d) Declarations and notifications under articles 42, 43, 47, 49 and 50. - 25 - SCHEDULES Revised Schedules including all amendments made by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs in Force as of 5 March 1990 List of Drugs Included in Schedule I Acetorphine 3-O-acetyltetrahydro-7-alpha-(1-hydroxy-1-methylbutyl)-6,14-endoetheno-oripavine Acetyl-alphamethylfentanyl N-[1-(alpha-methylphenethyl)-4-piperidyl]acetanilide Acetylmethadol 3-acetoxy-6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptane Alfentanil N-[1-[2-(4-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)ethyl]-4-(methoxymethyl)-4piperidinyl]-N-phenylpropanamide Allylprodine 3-allyl-1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine Alphacetylmethadol alpha-3-acetoxy-6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptane Alphameprodine alpha-3-ethyl-1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine Alphamethadol alpha-6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanol Alpha-methylfentanyl N-[1(alpha-methylphenethyl)-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Alpha-methylthiofentanyl N-[1-[1-methyl-2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Alphaprodine alpha-1,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine Anileridine 1-para-aminophenethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Benzethidine 1-(2-benzyloxyethyl)-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Benzylmorphine 3-O-benzylmorphine Betacetylmethadol beta-3-acetoxy-6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptane Beta-hydroxyfentanyl N-[1-(beta-hydroxyphenethyl)-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Beta-hydroxy-3methylfentanyl N-[1-(beta-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-methyl-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Betameprodine beta-3-ethyl-1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine Betamethadol beta-6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanol Betaprodine beta-1,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine Bezitramide 1-(3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl)-4-(2-oxo-3-propionyl-1-benzimidazolinyl)-piperidine Cannabis and Cannabis resin and EXTRACTS and TICTURES OF CANNABIS Clonitazene 2-para-chlorbenzyl-1-diethylaminoethyl-5-nitrobenzimidazole Coca leaf Cocaine methyl ester of benzoylecgonine Codoxime dihydrocodeinone-6-carboxymethyloxime Concentrate of poppy straw the material arising when poppy straw has entered into a process for the concentration of its alkaloids when such material is made available in trade Desomorphine dihydrodeoxymorphine Dextromoramide (+)-4-[2-methyl-4-oxo-3,3-diphenyl-4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)butyl]-morpholine Diampromide N-[2-(methylphenethylamino)-propyl]propionanilide Diethylthiambutene 3-diethylamino-1,1-di-(2´-thienyl)-1-butene Difenoxin 1-(3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl)-4-phenylisonipecotic acid Dihydromorphine Dimenoxadol 2-dimethylaminoethyl-1-ethoxy-1,1-diphenylacetate Dimepheptanol 6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanol Dimethylthiambutene 3-dimethylamino-1,1-di-(2'-thienyl)-1-butene Dioxaphetyl butyrate ethyl-4-morpholino-2,2-diphenylbutyrate Diphenoxylate 1-(3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl)-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Dipipanone 4,4-diphenyl-6-piperidine-3-heptanone Drotebanol 3,4-dimethoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-beta,14-diol Ecgonine its esters and derivatives which are convertible to ecgonine and cocaine Ethylmethylthiambutene 3-ethylmethylamino-1,1-di-(2´-thienyl)-1-butene Etonitazene 1-diethylaminoethyl-2-para-ethoxybenzyl-5-nitrobenzimidazole Etorphine tetrahydro-7-alpha-(1-hydroxy-1-methylbutyl)-6,14-endoetheno-oripavine Etoxeridine 1-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethyl]-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Fentanyl 1-phenethyl-4-N-propionylanilinopiperidine Furethidine 1-(2-tetrahydrofurfuryloxyethyl)-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Heroin diacetylmorphine Hydrocodone dihydrocodeinone Hydromorphinol 14-hydroxydihydromorphine Hydromorphone dihydromorphinone Hydroxypethidine 4-meta-hydroxyphenyl-1-methylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Isomethadone 6-dimethylamino-5-methyl-4,4-diphenyl-3-hexanone Ketobemidone 4-meta-hydroxyphenyl-1-methyl-4-propionylpiperidine Levomethorphan * (-)-3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan Levomoramide (-)-4-[2-methyl-4-oxo-3,3-diphenyl-4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-butyl]morpholine Levophenacylmorphan (1)-3-hydroxy-N-phenacylmorphinan Levorphanol * (-)-3-hydroxy-N-methylmorphinan Metazocine 2'-hydroxy-2,5,9-trimethyl-6,7-benzomorphan Methadone 6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanone Methadone intermediate 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenylbutane Methyldesorphine 6-methyl-delta-6-deoxymorphine Methyldihydromorphine 6-methyldihydromorphine 3-methylfentanyl N-(3-methyl-1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)propionanilide 3-methylthiofentanyl N-[3-methyl-1-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Metopon 5-methyldihydromorphinone Moramide intermediate 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1,1-diphenylpropane carboxylic acid Morpheridine 1-(2-morpholinoethyl)-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Morphine Morphine methobromide and other pentavalent nitrogen morphine derivatives, including in particular the morphine-N-oxide derivatives, one of which is codeine-N-oxide Morphine-N-oxide MPPP 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinol propionate (ester) Myrophine myristylbenzylmorphine Nicomorphine 3,6-dinicotinylmorphine Noracymethadol (±)-alpha-3-acetoxy-6-methylamino-4,4-diphenylheptane Norlevorphanol (-)-3-hydroxymorphinan Normethadone 6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-hexanone Normorphine demethylmorphine or N-demethylated morphine Norpipanone 4,4-diphenyl-6-piperidino-3-hexanone Opium Oxycodone 14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone Oxymorphone 14-hydroxydihydromorphinone Para-fluorofentanyl 4'-fluoro-N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)propionanilide PEPAP 1-phenethyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinol acetate (ester) Pethidine 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Pethidine intermediate A 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine Pethidine intermediate B 4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Pethidine intermediate C 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid Phenadoxone 6-morpholino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanone Phenampromide N-(1-methyl-2-piperidinoethyl)-propionanilide Phenazocine 2'-hydroxy-5,9-dimethyl-2-phenethyl-6,7-benzomorphan Phenomorphan 3-hydroxy-N-phenethylmorphinan Phenoperidine 1-(3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropyl)-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Piminodine 4-phenyl-1-(3-phenylaminopropyl)-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Piritramide 1-(3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl)-4-(1-piperidino)-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid amide Proheptazine 1,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxyazacycloheptane Properidine 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid isopropyl ester Racemethorphan (±)-3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan Racemoramide (±)-4-[2-methyl-4-oxo-3,3-diphenyl-4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-butyl]-morpholine Racemorphan (±)-3-hydroxy-N-methylmorphinan Sufentanil N-[4-(methoxymethyl)-1-[2-(2-thienyl)-ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Thebacon acetyldihydrocodeinone Thebaine Thiofentanyl N-[1-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Tilidine (±)-ethyl-trans-2-(dimethylamino)-1-phenyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate Trimeperidine 1,2,5-trimethyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine; and The isomers, unless specifically excepted, of the drugs in this Schedule whenever the existence of such isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation; The esters and ethers, unless appearing in another Schedule, of the drugs in this Schedule whenever the existence of such esters or ethers is possible; The salts of the drugs listed in this Schedule, including the salts of esters, ethers and isomers as provided above whenever the existence of such salts is possible. * Dextromethorphan ((+)-3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan) and dextrorphan ((+)-3-hydroxy-N-methylmorphinan) are specifically excluded from this Schedule. List of Drugs Included in Schedule IIAcetyldihydrocodeine Codeine 3-O-methylmorphine Dextropropoxyphene alpha-(+)-4-dimethylamino-1,2-diphenyl-3-methyl-2-butanol propionate Dihydrocodeine Ethylmorphine 3-O-ethylmorphine Nicocodine 6-nicotinylcodeine Nicodicodine 6-nicotinyldihydrocodeine Norcodeine N-demethylcodeine Pholcodine morpholinylethylmorphine Propiram N-(1-methyl-2-piperidinoethyl)-N-2-pyridylpropionamide; and The isomers, unless specifically excepted, of the drugs in this Schedule whenever the existence of such isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation; The salts of the drugs listed in this Schedule, including the salts of the isomers as provided above whenever the existence of such salts is possible. List of Preparations Included in Schedule III 1. Preparations of Acetyldihydrocodeine, Codeine, Dihydrocodeine, Ethylmorphine, Nicodicodine, Norcodeine, and Pholcodine when compounded with one or more other ingredients and containing not more than 100 milligrams of the drug per dosage unit and with a concentration of not more than 2.5 per cent in undivided preparations. 2. Preparations of Propiram containing not more than 100 milligrams of propiram per dosage unit and compounded with at least the same amount of methylcellulose. 3. Preparations of Dextropropoxyphene for oral use containing not more than 135 milligrams of dextropropoxyphene base per dosage unit or with a concentration of not more than 2.5 per cent in undivided preparations, provided that such preparations do not contain any substance controlled under the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. 4. Preparations of Cocaine containing not more than 0.1 per cent of cocaine calculated as cocaine base and preparations of opium or morphine containing not more than 0.2 per cent of morphine calculated as anhydrous morphine base and compounded with one or more other ingredients and in such a way that the drug cannot be recovered by readily applicable means or in a yield which would constitute a risk to public health. 5. Preparations of Difenoxin containing, per dosage unit, not more than 0.5 milligram of difenoxin and a quantity of atropine sulfate equivalent to at least 5 per cent of the dose of difenoxin. 6. Preparations of Diphenoxylate containing, per dosage unit, not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate calculated as base and a quantity of atropine sulfate equivalent to at least 1 per cent of the dose of diphenoxylate. 7. Preparations of Pulvis ipecacuanhae et opii compositus 10 per cent opium in powder 10 per cent ipecacuanha root, in powder well mixed with 80 per cent of any other powdered ingredient containing no drug. 8. Preparations conforming to any of the formulas listed in this Schedule and mixtures of such preparations with any material which contains no drug. List of Drugs Included in Schedule IV Acetorphine 3-O-acetyltetrahydro-7-alpha-(1-hydroxy-1-methylbutyl)-6,14-endoetheno-oripavine Acetyl-alphamethylfentanyl N-[1-(alpha-methylphenethyl)-4-piperidyl]acetanilide Alpha-methylfentanyl N-[1-(alpha-methylphenethyl)-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Alpha-methylthiofentanyl N-[1-[1-methyl-2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Beta-hydroxy-3methylfentanyl N-[1-(beta-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-methyl-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Beta-hydroxyfentanyl N-[1-(beta-hydroxyphenethyl)-4-piperidyl]propionanilide Cannabis and Cannabis resin Desomorphine dihydrodeoxymorphine Etorphine tetrahydro-7-alpha-(1-hydroxy-1-methylbutyl)-6,14-endoetheno-oripavine Heroin diacetylmorphine Ketobemidone 4-meta-hydroxyphenyl-1-methyl-4-propionylpiperidine 3-methylfentanyl N-(3-methyl-1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)propionanilide; cis-N-[3-methyl-1(2-phenylethyl)4-piperidyl]propionanilide; trans-N-[3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4piperidyl]propionanilide 3-methylthiofentanyl N-(3-methyl-1-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide MPPP 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinol propionate (ester) Para-fluorofentanyl 4'-fluoro-N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)propionanilide PEPAP 1-phenethyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinol acetate (ester) Thiofentanyl N-[1-[2-(thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]propionanilide; and The salts of the drugs listed in this Schedule whenever the formation of such salts is possible.经《修正一九六一年麻醉品单一公约的议定书》修正的一九六一年麻醉品单一公约SINGLE CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 联合国一九七五年3 介绍性说明1. 按照一九七二年三月二十五日订于日内瓦的《修正一九六一年麻醉品单一公约的议定书》的规定,秘书长已经编制了经该议定书修正的《一九六一年麻醉品单一公约》(以下称《单一公约》)全文。2. 本文件是由一九七二年三月六日至二十四日在日内瓦举行的联合国审议一九六一年麻醉品公约修正案会议通过的议定书修正后的《单一公约》全文所组成。3. 《修正一九六一年麻醉品单一公约的议定书》(以下称《一九七二年议定书》)根据其第十八条第一项的规定,已于一九七五年八月八日生效。对于已经成为《单一公约》缔约国并于第四十份批准或加入《一九七二年议定书》的文书交存之日以后向秘书长交存批准书或加入书的任何国家,《一九七二年议定书》应自该国交存其文书后第三十日起发生效力(参看《一九七二年议定书》第十七和十八条)。4. 《一九七二年议定书》发生效力后成为单一公约缔约国的任何国家,如果不作不同意向的表示:(a)应视为经过修正的单一公约的缔约国;(b)对不受本议定书拘束的该公约任何缔约国而言,应视为未经修正的单一公约的缔约国(参看《一九七二年议定书》第十九条)。5. 为了便利查阅起见,本文件已添加脚注。就《单一公约》中题为《过渡条款》和《其他保留》的第四十五条和第五十条而言, 《一九七二年议定书》的相应条款全文已作为脚注附列。5 经《修正一九六一年麻醉品单一公约的议定书》修正的一九六一年麻醉品单一公约弁言缔约国, 关怀人类的健康与福利, 确认麻醉品在医药上用以减轻痛苦仍属不可或缺,故须妥为规定俾麻醉品得以供此用途, 确认麻醉品成瘾于个人为害之烈,对人类在社会上及经济上的危险亦巨, 深感同有预防及消除此项弊害的责任, 认为防止滥用麻醉品的措施须出于协调及普遍行动始克有效, 深知此项普遍行动端赖国际合作,遵照共同原则,本同一目标以赴, 承认联合国在麻醉品管制方面的职权,并欲将各关系国际机关置于该组织体系之内, 意欲缔结普遍均可接受的一项国际公约,以替代现行各项麻醉品条约,将麻醉品限于供医药及科学用途,并规定继续不辍的国际合作及管制办法借以实现此等宗旨与目标, 爰议定条款如下: 6 第一条定义一. 本公约内,除明指他种意义或按上下文义须作他种解释者外,概适用下列定义: (a) 称“管制局”者,谓国际麻醉品管制局。(b) 称“大麻”者,谓大麻植物开花结实的梢(与梢分离的种子及叶除外)其脂质未经提取者,不论其名称为何。(c) 称“大麻植物”者,谓大麻属(genus Cannabis)的任何植物。(d) 称“大麻脂”者,谓自大麻植物取得的析离脂质,不论其为粗制抑经精炼者。(e) 称“古柯树”者,谓红木属(genus Erythroxylon)的任何一种植物。(f) 称“古柯叶”者,谓古柯树的叶,但所含爱哥宁、古柯硷、或任何其他爱哥宁生物硷经全部去除的叶除外。(g) 称“委员会”者,谓理事会所属的麻醉品委员会。(h) 称“理事会”者,谓联合国经济及社会理事会。(i) 称“种植”者,谓鸦片罂粟、古柯树或大麻植物的种植。(j) 称“麻醉品”者,谓附表壹及贰内的任何物质,不论其为天然产品或合成品。(k) 称“大会”者,谓联合国大会。(l) 称“非法产销”者,谓违反本公约的规定种植或贩运麻醉品的行为。(m) 称“输入”及“输出”者,谓各依其本义,将麻醉品自一国实际运至他国,或自一国的一领土运至同一国的另一领土。7 (n) 称“制造”者,谓除生产以外一切可用以提取麻醉品的方法,包括精炼以及将麻醉品改变为他种麻醉品在内。(o) 称“药用鸦片”者,谓鸦片经施以必要的调制以供医药之用者。(p) 称“鸦片”者,谓鸦片罂粟的凝结汁。(q) 称“鸦片罂粟”者,谓催眠性罂粟种(Papaver Somniferum L.)植物。(r) 称“罂粟草”者,谓鸦片罂粟收割后的所有各部分(罂粟子除外)。(s) 称“制剂”者,谓含有麻醉品的固体或液体混合剂。(t) 称“生产”者,谓将鸦片、古柯叶、大麻及大麻脂自其所从出的植物析离。(u) 称“附表壹”、“附表贰”、“附表叁”及“附表肆”者, 谓依此编号附于本公约的麻醉品或制剂表及其后依第三条规定随时修订者。(v) 称“秘书长”者,谓联合国秘书长。(w) 称“特别贮存品”者,谓一国或一领土的政府在该国或该领土内为供政府特别用途及应付特殊情势所持有的麻醉品数量;“特别用途”一词应按此意义解释。(x) 称“贮存品”者,谓一国或一领土内所持有以备下列用途的麻醉品数量: ㈠供该国或该领土内医药及科学上消费之用者; ㈡供在该国或该领土内用以制造麻醉品及其他物质者;或㈢供输出者; 但不包括该国或该领土内所存的下列麻醉品数量: ㈣零售药剂师或其他经核准的零售商所持有者,或各机关或合格人员为合法执行医疗或科学业务所持有者;或㈤作为“特别贮存品”所持有者。8 (y) 称“领土”者,谓一国的任何部分为适用第三十一条所规定的输入证及输出准许证制度起见经划为一各别单位者。本定义不适用于第四十二条及第四十六条所称的“领土”。二. 就适用本公约而言,麻醉品经供给任何人或企业作零售分配、充医药用途或科学研究后,即应视为业已“消费”,“消费”一词应按此意义解释。第二条受管制的物质一. 除限于对特定麻醉品适用的管制措施不论外,附表壹内的麻醉品应依本公约所规定适用于麻醉品的一切管制措施办理,尤应依第四条(c)款、第十九条、第二十条、条二十一条、第二十九条、第三十条、第三十一条、第三十二条、第三十三条、第三十四条及第三十七条所订定的措施办理。二. 附表贰内的麻醉品应如附表壹内的麻醉品依同样管制措施办理,但第三十条第二项及第五项所订定关于零售贸易的措施除外。三. 附表叁内制剂以外的制剂应如其所含的麻醉品依同样管制措施办理,但除关于此等麻醉品者外,无须另就此等制剂提送估计书(第十九条)及统计报告(第二十条),又第二十九条第二项(c)款及第三十条第一项(b)㈡款的规定可不适用。四. 附表叁内之制剂应如含有附表贰内麻醉品的制剂依同样管制措施处理,但第三十一条第一项(b)款及第三项至第十五项和关于其领取及零售分配的第三十四条(b)项的规定可不适用,又就估计书(第十九条)及统计报告(第二十条)而言,所须提送的情报应以制造此等制剂所用麻醉品的数量为限。五. 附表肆内的麻醉品应同时编入附表壹,并依适用于附表壹内麻醉品的一切管制措施办理,此外, (a) 缔约国应视此种编入表内的麻醉品所具有的特殊危险性质, 采取其认为必要的任何特别管制措施; 9 (b) 缔约国如鉴于其国内当时一般情况,认为为保护公共卫生与福利计,以禁止任何此种麻醉品的生产、制造、输出、输入、贸易、持有或使用最为适宜时,应予禁止,但专供医药及科学研究所需的份量,包括供缔约国直接监督管制下所作或受其直接监督管制的诊疗试验之用者,不在此限。六. 除适用于附表壹内的一切麻醉品的管制措施外,鸦片应依照第十九和第一项(f)款,和第二十一条之二,第二十三条及第二十四条规定办理,古柯叶应依照第二十六条及第二十七条规定办理,大麻应依照第二十八条规定办理。七. 鸦片罂粟、古柯树、大麻植物、罂粟草及大麻叶应分别依第十九条第一项(e)款,第二十条第一项(g)款,第二十一条之二和第二十二条至第二十四条;第二十二条,第二十六条及第二十七条;第二十二条及第二十八条;第二十五条;及第二十八条所订定的管制措施办理。八. 缔约国应尽最大努力对本公约范围以外而可用以非法制造麻醉品的物质,采取实际可行的监督措施。九. 缔约国对于工业上通常所用的麻醉品,而非为医药或科学之用者,无须适用本公约的规定,但: (a) 缔约国须以解除药性的适当方法或以其他方法确保充此用途的麻醉品不致受滥用或产生恶果(第三条第三项)并须确保其中有害物质实际上无法收回; (b) 缔约国须在其所提出的统计情报(第二十条)中载明充此用途的每种麻醉品的数量。第三条管制范围的变更一. 缔约国或世界卫生组织根据情报认为有修订任一附表的必要时,应检同其所根据的情报通知秘书长。10 二. 秘书长应将此项通知及其认为有关的情报转达各缔约国及委员会,遇通知系缔约国所提出时,并转达世界卫生组织。三. 遇通知所涉及的物质不在附表壹或附表贰之内时, ㈠各缔约国应参酌所有情报考虑可否对该项物质暂时依照适用于附表壹内麻醉品的一切管制措施办理; ㈡委员会在其未依本项第㈢款规定作成决议之前,得决定各缔约国对该项物质暂时依照适用于附表壹内麻醉品的一切管制措施办理。各缔约国应即对有关物质暂时适用此等措施; ㈢如世界卫生组织断定该项物质与附表壹或附表贰内的麻醉品易受同样滥用或易生同样恶果,或可改制成为麻醉品时,应将此项断定通知委员会;委员会得依照世界卫生组织的建议,决议将该项物质加入附有壹或附表贰内。四. 如世界卫生组织断定某项制剂由于其所含质料成分,不致受滥用,且不能产生恶果(第三项),并断定其中麻醉品不易收回,则委员会得依照世界卫生组织的建议,将该项制剂加入附表叁内。五. 如世界卫生组织断定附表壹内某项麻醉品特别易滋滥用及易生恶果(第三项),并断定该项麻醉品在医疗上虽有重大优点,为附表肆内麻醉品以外的物质所无,但仍弊多于利时,则委员会得依照世界卫生组织的建议将该项麻醉品列入附表肆。六. 凡遇通知所涉及者为原在附表壹或附表贰内的麻醉品、或在附表叁内的制剂时,委员会除采取第五项所规定的措施外,得依照世界卫生组织的建议,以下列方式修订任一附表: (a) 将一项麻醉品自附表壹移至附表贰,或自附表贰移至附表壹;或(b) 将某一麻醉品或制剂自附表中删去。七. 委员会依本条所作的任何决议应由秘书长通告联合国所有各会员国、本公约缔约国的非为会员国者、世界卫生组织及管制局。此项决议对于各缔约国自其接获通告之日起发生效力;缔约国应即遵照本公约采取必要的行动。11 八. (a) 委员会修订任一附表的决议如经任何缔约国于接获此项决议通知之日起九十日内提请复核,应由理事会复核。复核的请求应连同其所根据的一切有关情报向秘书长提出; (b) 秘书长应将复核申请书及有关情报的副本分送委员会、世界卫生组织及所有各缔约国,请分别于九十日内提具意见。凡收到的意见概应提交理事会审议; (c) 理事会得确认变更或废弃委员会的决议;理事会所作决定系属确定。理事会的决定应备文通知联合国所有各会员国、本公约缔约国的非为会员国者、委员会、世界卫生组织及管制局; (d) 在复核未决期间,委员会的原决议仍属有效。九. 委员会依本条所作的决议不适用第七条所规定的复核程序。第四条一般义务各缔约国应采取必要的立法及行政措施; (a) 在其本国领土内实施及执行本公约的规定; (b) 与其他国家合作实行本公约的规定;并(c) 除本公约另有规定外,麻醉品的生产、制造、输出、输入、分配、贸易、使用及持有,以专供医药及科学上的用途为限。第五条国际管制机关缔约国承认联合国在国际麻醉品管制方面的职权,爰同意委托经济及社会理事会麻醉品委员会及国际麻醉品管制局执行本公约分别授予的职务。12 第六条国际管制机关的经费委员会及管制局的经费由联合国依大会决定的方式负担。非联合国会员国的缔约国应按大会随时与各该缔约国政府商洽后摊派的公平数额分担此项经费。第七条委员会决议及建议的复核除依第三条所为的决议外,凡委员会依本公约规定所通过的决议或建议概须与委员会的其他决议或建议同受理事会或大会核准或修改。第八条委员会的职掌委员会有权审议所有与本公约宗旨有关的事项,尤其下列事项: (a) 依第三条规定修订各附表; (b) 请管制局注意任何与该局职掌可能有关的事项; (c) 提出实行本公约宗旨与规定的建议,包括科学研究方案、及科学或技术性情报的交换; (d) 请非缔约国的国家注意委员会依据本公约所通过的决议及建议,以期各该国家依照各该决议及建议考虑采取行动。13 第九条管制局的组织及职掌一. 管制局置委员十三人,由理事会依下列规定选举: (a) 就世界卫生组织提出的至少五人的名单中选出具有医学、药理学或药学经验的委员三人; (b) 就联合国会员国及非联合国会员国的缔约国所提出的名单中选出委员十人。二. 管制局委员应为才能胜任、公正无私、可获各方信任的人士,在其任期内不得担任或从事足以妨碍公正执行职务的任何职位或活动。理事会应洽商管制局采取一切必要办法以确保管制局执行其职掌时,在技术上完全独立。三. 理事会应顾及公平地域分配原则,注重以公平比例遴选明了生产国、制造国与消费国的麻醉品情况、且与此等国家有关的人士充任管制局委员。四、管制局与各政府合作,根据本公约规定,应努力限制麻醉品的种植、生产、制造及使用,使其不超出医药及科学用途所需适当数量,确保其可供此种用途并防止麻醉品的非法种植、生产和制造及非法产销和使用。五. 管制局依本公约所采取的一切措施应与下列意向极为一致: 促进各政府与管制局的合作及提供各政府同管制局继续对话的机构, 借以援助并便利各国采取有效行动以达到本公约的目的。第十条管制局委员的任期及报酬一. 管制局委员任期五年,可以连选连任。二. 管制局各委员的任期于其后任有权出席的该局首次会议即将举行时终止。14 三. 管制局委员未出席会议连续三届者,视为业已辞职。四. 理事会得根据管制局的建议,将管制局委员已不复具有第九条第二项所规定的必备条件者,予以罢免。此项建议应以管制局委员九人的可决为之。五. 管制局委员在任期内出缺时,理事会应尽速依第九条所可适用的规定另选委员补足未满的任期。六. 管制局委员应领适当报酬,其数额由大会决定。第十一条管制局议事规则一. 管制局应自行选举主席及其认为必要的其他职员,并自行制定议事规则。二. 管制局应常举行其认为妥善执行职务所需的会议,但每一历年内应至少举行两届会。三. 管制局会议以委员八人的出席为法定人数。第十二条估计制度的管理一. 管制局应对第十九条所规定的估计书,订定其提送的日期及方式,并制订其表册。二. 管制局应就本公约所不适用的国家及领土,请关系政府依本公约规定提送估计书。三. 如任何国家未于规定日期提送关于其任何领土的估计书,管制局应尽可能代为编订。管制局编订此项估计书时,应于实际可行的范围内与关系政府合作为之。15 四. 管制局应审查估计书暨补充估计书,并得对任何已有估计书提出的国家或领土,除关涉特别用途需要的情报外,要求提出该局认为必需的情报,俾使估计书臻于完备或解释其中任何一点。五. 管制局,为限制麻醉品的使用及分配,使其不超出医药学及科学用途所需适当数量并确保其可供此种用途起见,应尽速核定估计书,包括补充估计书或于征得关系政府同意时修正此种估计书。倘政府与管制局之间意见不一致时,后者应有权确定、递送及出版其本局的估计书,包括补充估计书。六. 除第十五条所称的报告书外,管制局应按照其所定时期但至少按年一次就估计书发表其认为足以便利本公约的实行的情报。第十三条统计报告制度的管理一. 管制局应对第二十条所规定的统计报告订定其提送的方式及格式,并制订其表册。二. 管制局应审查统计报告以断定缔约国或任何其他国家是否遵守本公约的规定。三. 管制局得要求提出其认为必需的补充情报,俾使统计报告臻于完备或解释统计报告所载的情报。四. 关于特别用途所需麻醉品的统计情报,管制局无权提出疑问或表示意见。第十四条确保执行本公约规定的管制局措施一. (a) 管制局于审查各国政府依本公约规定向该局提出的情报后、或于审查联合国各机关或各专门机构或经委员会依管制局建议核准的其他政府间组织或对此题目有直接权限且依联合国宪章第七十16 一条规定取得经济及社会理事会咨商地位或依与理事会所订特别协定享有相似地位的国际非政府组织所送达的情报后,如有客观理由认为某一缔约国、国家或领土未曾施行本公约的规定,致公约宗旨大受妨害时,该局有权向关系国政府建议开始进行咨商或请其提出解释。如某一缔约国或国家或领土没有不执行本公约的规定,而已成为麻醉品非法种植、生产、或制造,或产销或消费的重要中心或显有可能成为此种中心的严重危险时,管制局有权向关第国政府建议开始进行咨商。管制局除有权提请缔约国、理事会及委员会注意本项(d)款所称情事外,该局对于其依本款向政府索取情报及解释的请求或举行咨商的提议和同某一政府进行的咨商,应守秘密。(b) 管制局在依本项(a)款采取行动后,如认为确有必要时,可以促请关系政府采取在实际情况下为执行本公约规定所认为必要的补救办法。(c) 管制局,如认为此种行动是评估本项(a)款所称情事所必需的,可以向关系政府提议于其领土内用该政府认为适当的办法研究此事。关系政府如决定从事此项研究,可请管制局提供具有必要资格者一人或多人的专家知识和服务,帮助该政府官员作所提议的研究。管制局打算提供的一人或多人必须得到政府的同意。此项研究所用的方式及完成研究的时限应由该政府管制局咨商决定。该政府应将研究结果递送管制局并指明其认为必须采取的补救措施。(d) 如管制局断定关系政府虽经依照本项(a)款请其解释而未曾提出满意的解释,或虽经依照本项(b)款请其采取补救办法而未曾照办, 或局势严重,需要在国际阶层采取合作行动以求补救时,则该局得将此情事提请缔约国、理事会及委员会注意。如本公约宗旨受到严重危害,且已无法以任何其他办法圆满解决此事时,管制局也应如此办理。管制局如断定局势严重、需要在国际阶层采取合作行动以谋补救并认为提请缔约国、理事会及委员会注意此种局势是促进此种合作行动的最适当方法时,也应如此办理;理事会于审议关于此事的管制局报告书,和委员会可能提出的报告书后,可以提请大会注意此事。二. 管制局于依照本条第一项(d)款提请缔约国、理事会及委员会注意某一情事时,如认为此举确系必要,可以建议缔约国停止自关系国家或领土输入麻醉品或停止向该国或领土输出麻醉品,或两者均予17 停止,停止期限或予明定,或至管制局对该国或该领土内的情况认为满意时为止。关系国家可将此事提出于理事会。三. 管制局应有权就其依本条规定所处理的任何情事,发表报告书,送致理事会,由理事会转致所有各缔约国。如管制局在此报告书中公布其依本条所为的决议或有关该项决议之任何情报,则遇关系政府请求时,并应在报告书中将该政府的意见公布。四. 管制局依本条所公布的决议倘系未经一致同意,则少数方面的意见应予叙明。五. 任何国家对管制局会议依本条所议的问题直接关心者,应被邀派代表列席该会议。六. 管制局依本条所作决议应以全体委员三分之二多数同意为之。第十四条之二技术及财务协助管制局于认为适当并经关系国政府同意时,可于第十四条第一项及第二项所列措施外或作为此等措施的替代措施,向主管联合国机关或向专门机构建议对该政府提供技术或财务援助,或两者均予提供, 以支援该政府努力履行其依本公约承担的义务,包括第二条、第三十五条、第三十八条及第三十八条之二内所载列或提及者。第十五条管制局的报告书一. 管制局应编制常年工作报告书及其认为必要的补充报告书, 其中并应分析该局所有的估计及统计情报,如遇适当情况,并应叙述各国政府所提出或经要求而提出的解释,并附具管制局所欲申述的意见及建议。此项报告书应经由委员会提交理事会,委员会得提出其认为适当的评论。18 二. 前项报告书应由秘书长分送各缔约国然后予以公布。缔约国应准报告书的散布而不加限制。第十六条秘书处委员会及管制局的秘书处各项服务应由秘书长提供。管制局秘书尤应由秘书长商同管制局委派。第十七条特别管理机关各缔约国应设有特别管理机关,负责施行本公约的规定。第十八条缔约国向秘书长提送的情报一. 各缔约国应向秘书长提送委员会所要求为执行职务所需的情报,尤其下列各项情报: (a) 本公约在该国各领土内实施情况的常年报告; (b) 为实施本公约随时颁布的各项法律规章全文; (c) 委员会所决定有关非法产销案件的详情,包括每次查获的非法产销案件的详情,由于其对非法产销的麻醉品来源提供线索或因其所牵涉的数量或非法产销人所用的方法而可认系案情重大者; (d) 有权颁发输出及输入准许证或证书的政府机关的名称与地址。19 二. 缔约国应依委员会的请求按其所定的方式及日期并使用其所定的表册提送上述各项所称的情报。第十九条麻醉品需要量的估计一. 各缔约国应每年就其每一领土,按照管制局所定的方式及格式,在管制局供给的表册上填具关于下列事项的估计提送管制局: (a) 麻醉品供医药及科学用途的消费数量; (b) 麻醉品用以制造其他麻醉品、附表叁内的制剂、及本公约规定范围以外物质的数量; (c) 麻醉品于估计所涉年度十二月三十一日的贮存量; (d) 为增补特别贮存品所需的麻醉品的数量; (e) 种植鸦片罂粟所用土地的面积(以公顷计)及所在地区; (f) 生产鸦片的大约数量; (g) 制造合成麻醉品的工业机构的数目; (h) 前款所述每一机构制造合成麻醉品的数量。二. (a) 关于每一领土及鸦片和合成麻醉品外每项麻醉品的估计总数,除应依第二十一条第三项规定予以减除外,应为本条第一项(a)、(b)及(d)款所指数量的总和,另加为使上年十二月三十一日实有的贮存量达到第一项(c)款所规定的估计数额所需的数量。(b) 就每一领土言,关于鸦片的估计总数,除应依关于输入的第二十一条第三项及第二十一条之二第二项规定予以减除外,应为本条第一项(a)、(b)及(d)款所指数量的总和另加为使上年十二月三十一日实有的贮存量达到第一项(c)款所规定的估计数额所需的数量,或为本条第一项(f)款所指的数量,以为数较高者为准。(c) 就每一领土言,关于每项合成麻醉品的估计总数,除应依第二十一条第三项规定予以减除外,应为本条第一项(a)、(b)及(d)款所指20 数量的总和,另加为使上年十二月三十一日实有的贮存量达到第一项(c)款所规定的估计数额所需的数量,或为本条第一项(h)款所指数量的总和,以为数较高者为准。(d) 依本条上述各款提送的估计数量应予适当修改以计及已被缉获但后经发放供合法使用的数量以及自特别贮存品内拨供民用的数量。三. 任何国家得于同一年内提出补充估计书,并说明所以须作补充估计的缘由。四. 各缔约国应将其用以确定估计书所示数量的方法及此种方法的任何变更,通知管制局。五. 估计数量除依第二十一条第三项规定减除并斟酌情况计及第二十一条之二规定外,不可超出。第二十条向管制局提送的统计报告一. 各缔约国应就其每一领土,按照管制局所定的方式及格式, 在管制局供给的表册上填具关于下列事项的统计报告,提送管制局: (a) 麻醉品生产或制造情况; (b) 麻醉品用以制造其他麻醉品、附表叁内的制剂及本公约规定范围以外物质的情况;以及罂粟草用以制造麻醉品的情况; (c) 麻醉品消费情况; (d) 麻醉品及罂粟草的输入及输出情况; (e) 麻醉品的缉获及处置情况; (f) 麻醉品于统计报告所涉年度十二月三十一日的贮存量; (g) 可以查明的种植鸦片罂粟的面积。21 二. (a) 关于第一项所指事项的统计报告,除关涉(d)款者外, 应按年编制,至迟应于报告所涉年度的下一年六月三十日提送管制局。(b) 关于第一项(d)款所指事项的统计报告应按季编制,于报告所涉一季终了后一个月内提送管制局。三. 各缔约国无须提送特别贮存品的统计报告,但应就为特别用途输入其本国或领土或在其本国或领土内取得的麻醉品,以及自特别贮存品内拨供民用的麻醉品数量,单独提出统计报告。第二十一条制造及输入的限制一. 任何国家或领土在任何年度内制造及输入每项麻醉品的全部数量不得超出下列数量的总和: (a) 在有关估计的限额内,供医药及科学用途消费的数量; (b) 在有关估计的限额内,供制造其他麻醉品、附表叁内的制剂及本公约规定范围以外物质所用的数量; (c) 输出数量; (d) 为将贮存品增至有关估计所定的数额而添入的数量; (e) 在有关估计的限额内,为特别用途取得的数量。二. 凡经缉获并发放供合法用途的数量以及自特别贮存品中拨供平民需要的数量,应自第一项所指数量的总和中减除。三. 如管制局查明某一年度内制造及输入的数量超出本条第一项所指数量的总和减去依第二项应减数额后的差数,则所有如此确定而在年终尚剩有的超额,应在下一年度内自制造或输入数量中并自第十九条第二项所规定的估计总数中减除。四. (a) 如输入或输出统计报告(第二十条)显示,输出至某一国家或领土的数量,超出第十九条第二项所规定的该国家或领土估22 计总数加上据报业经输出的数量、减去依本条第三项所确定的超额以后所得的数量时,管制局得将此事通知该局认为应行通知的各国; (b) 缔约国接此通知后即不得再在该年度内准许有关麻醉品输出至该国家或领土,但有下列情况者不在此限: ㈠如该国家或领土就其超额输入数量及额外需要数量提送补充估计书者;或㈡情况特殊,输出国政府认为输出为治疗病人所必需者。第二十一条之二鸦片生产的限制一. 任何国家或领土的鸦片生产均应妥为组织及管制,一定要尽可能使任何一年的生产数量不超出依第十九条第一项(f)款所确定的生产鸦片的估计数量。二. 管制局如根据依本公约规定提送该局的情报断定曾依第十九条第一项(f)款提出估计数量的某一缔约国并未依照有关估计数量将其国境以内所生产的鸦片限于合法用途且该缔约国国境以内所生产鸦片,无论为合法或非法生产者,已有巨大数量流入非法买卖时,该局于研究关系缔约国在接到关于上述断定的通知后一个月内应当提出的解释后,可以决定从所生产的数量内并在技术上能够做到的情况下, 同时计及一年的季节及对输出鸦片所作契约上的承诺,从第十九条第二项(b)款所规定的次年估计总数内减除此项数量的全部或一部分。此项决定于通知关系缔约国后九十日施行。三. 管制局将其依上文第二项所作关于减除的决定通知关系缔约国后,为使有关情况获得圆满解决起见,应与该缔约国进行咨商。四. 如有关情况没有圆满解决,管制局可以斟酌情况利用第十四条的规定。五. 管制局依上文第二项作出关于减除的决定时,不仅应计及一切有关情况,包括引起上文第二项所称非法产销问题的情况,而且亦应计及缔约国可能已经采取的任何有关的新措施。23 第二十二条适用于种植的特别规定一. 倘缔约国认为在其本国或所属领土当前一般情况下,禁止种植鸦片罂粟、古柯树或大麻植物为保护公共卫生与福利及防止麻醉品流于非法产销的最适当办法时,关系缔约国应禁止种植。二. 禁止种植鸦片罂粟、或大麻植物的缔约国应采取适当措施缉获非法种植的任何植物并予销毁,但该缔约国为科学或研究用途所需的微小数量不在此限。第二十三条国家鸦片机关一. 凡准许为生产鸦片而种植鸦片罂粟的缔约国如尚未设立政府机关,应设立并维持一个或数个政府机关(本条以下各项简称该机关),以执行本条所规定的职务。二. 各该缔约国对于供生产鸦片的鸦片罂粟的种植及对于鸦片应适用下列规定: (a) 该机关应指定准予为生产鸦片的目的种植鸦片罂粟的区域及田地。(b) 惟有经该机关特许的种植者始得从事此种种植。(c) 每一特许证应载明准许种植的土地面积。(d) 凡种植鸦片罂粟者必须将其鸦片收成全部缴与该机关。该机关应尽速收购并实际取有此项收成,至迟不得迟于收获完毕后四个月。(e) 该机关应专有输入输出及批发购售鸦片之权,并除鸦片生物硷、药用鸦片或鸦片制剂的制造人所持有的贮存品外,应专有保持鸦片贮存品之权。缔约国无须将此项专有权利推广及于药用鸦片及鸦片制剂。24 三. 倘为关系缔约国宪法所许可,第二项所称的政府职务应由单一政府机关执行。第二十四条国际贸易上鸦片生产的限制一. (a) 任何缔约国如拟开始从事鸦片的生产或增加现有的产量应依照管制局所公布的鸦片估计,顾及当时全世界的鸦片需要量, 俾该缔约国的鸦片生产不致造成全世界鸦片产量过多的结果。(b) 缔约国如认为在其领土内生产鸦片或增加现有产量可能使鸦片流于非法产销,则对于此项生产或增产应不予准许。二. (a) 除依照第一项规定外,凡缔约国在一九六一年一月一日其生产鸦片非供输出者,如欲将其所产鸦片以每年不逾五吨的数量输出时,应检具关于下列各节的情报通知管制局: ㈠依本公约规定对于生产及输出的鸦片所行的管制办法; 及㈡该国拟将此项鸦片输出至另一国或数国的国名。管制局得核准此项通知,或向该缔约国建议勿从事供输出鸦片的生产。(b) 缔约国不在第三项所指之列者,如欲生产鸦片俾以每年五吨以上的数量输出,应检具下列各项有关情报通知理事会: ㈠拟生产以供输出的估计数量; ㈡关于所产鸦片现行或拟采行的管制办法; ㈢该国拟将此项鸦片输出至另一国或数国的国名。理事会得核准此项通知,或向该缔约国建议勿从事供输出鸦片的生产。三. 虽有第二项(a)、(b)两款的规定,缔约国在一九六一年一月一日之前十年内曾输出其本国所产鸦片者仍得继续输出其所产鸦片。25 四. (a) 缔约国不得自任何国家或领土输入非在下列缔约国领土内出产的鸦片: ㈠第三项所称的缔约国; ㈡已依第二项(a)款规定通知管制局的缔约国;或㈢已依第二项(b)款规定获得理事会核准的缔约国。(b) 虽有本项(a)款的规定,缔约国仍得输入在一九六一年一月一日之前十年内曾生产及输出鸦片的任何国家所产的鸦片,惟该国家须为第二十三条所述的目的设有及维持一国家管制机关,并须实施有效办法以确保其所产鸦片不致流于非法产销。五. 本条的规定并不禁止缔约国: (a) 生产足供其本国需要的鸦片;或(b) 将缉获的非法产销鸦片依照本公约的规定输出至另一缔约国。第二十五条罂粟草的管制一. 缔约国准许为生产鸦片以外的目的种植鸦片罂粟者应采取一切必要措施,以确保: (a) 不从此种鸦片罂粟生产鸦片; (b) 从罂粟草制造麻醉品受充分管制。二. 各缔约国应对罂粟草适用第三十一条第四项至第十五项所规定的输入证及输出准许证制度。三. 各缔约国应就罂粟草的输入与输出提送依第二十条第一项(d) 款及第二项(b)款关于麻醉品规定所须提送的统计情报。26 第二十六条古柯树与古柯叶一. 缔约国如准许种植古柯树,应对古柯树与古柯叶适用第二十三条所规定关于管制鸦片罂粟的管制制度,但就该条第二项(d)款而言,该款所称的机关只须在收获完毕后尽速实际取有该项收成即可。二. 各缔约国应尽可能执行根除所有野生的古柯树。非法种植的古柯树应予摧毁。第二十七条关于古柯叶的附加规定一. 各缔约国得准许使用古柯叶调制不含任何生物硷成分之调味料,并得在充此用途的必要范围内准许古柯叶的生产、输入、输出、贸易及持有。二. 各缔约国应就充调制调味料用途的古柯叶单独提送估计书(第十九条)及统计情报(第二十条),但用同一批古柯叶提制生物硷及调味料、并经于估计书及统计情报内作此说明者,不在此限。第二十八条大麻的管制一. 缔约国如准种大麻植物以生产大麻或大麻脂,则对此项种植应适用关于管制鸦片罂粟的第二十三条所规定的管制制度。二. 本公约对于专供工业用途(纤维质及种子)或园艺用途的大麻植物的种植不适用。三. 缔约国应采取必要措施以防止大麻叶的滥用及非法产销。27 第二十九条制造一. 各缔约国应规定麻醉品的制造须经特许,但由国营企业机关经办者,不在此限。二. 各缔约国应: (a) 管制所有从事或经营麻醉品制造的人及企业; (b) 以核发特许证办法管制准予制造麻醉品的场所及房地; (c) 规定持有特许证的麻醉品制造人须领取定期许可证,证内载明准其制造的麻醉品种类及数量。但对制剂无需规定须领定期许可证。三. 各缔约国应视当时一般市场情况,防止麻醉品制造人所积存的麻醉品及罂粟草超出正常营业所需的数量。第三十条贸易及分配一. (a) 各缔约国应规定麻醉品的贸易及分配须经特许,但由国营企业机关经办者不在此限。(b) 各缔约国应: ㈠管制所有从事或经营麻醉品贸易或分配的人及企业; ㈡以核发特许证办法管制准予进行此项贸易或分配的场所及房地。特许证的限制对于制剂可不适用。(c) (a)、(b)两款关于特许的规定对于依法准予执行医疗或科学业务的人员于执行业务时,可不适用。二. 各缔约国并应: 28 (a) 参酌当时一般市场情况,防止商人、分配者、国营企业机关、或前项所称依法准予执业的人员所积存的麻醉品及罂粟草超出正常业务所需的数量; (b) ㈠规定对个人供应或配给麻醉品一律须凭处方。此项规定对于个人用于依法执行医疗业务所可合法取得、使用、配给或施用的麻醉品可不适用; ㈡于缔约国认为有此必要或认为适宜时,规定附表壹内麻醉品的处方须用政府主管机关或经受权的专业公会所发给、附有存根的规定处方笺书写。三. 各缔约国允宜规定推销麻醉品的缮写或印刷品,关于麻醉品的各种广告或商用说明书、麻醉品包件的内部包纸、及销售麻醉品的标签应注明世界卫生组织通告的国际非专用名称。四. 缔约国认为有此必要或认为适宜时,应规定装麻醉品的内部包件或包纸上须有显明易见的双道红线标记。此项麻醉品包件的外包不应有双道红线标记。五. 缔约国应规定销售麻醉品所用的标签载明麻醉品确实成分的重量或百分比。此项在标签上载明含量的规定对于凭处方配给个人的麻醉品可不适用。六. 第二项及第五项的规定对于附表贰内麻醉品的零售贸易或零售分配可不适用。第三十一条关于国际贸易的特别规定一. 除合乎下列情况外,各缔约国不得故意准许向任何国家或领土输出麻醉品: (a) 此项输出符合该国家或领土的法律规章者;及(b) 输出数量不超出第十九条第二项所规定的该国家或领土估计总数另加供再输出用的数量的总和者。29 二. 各缔约国应在自由港及自由区内施行与其领土的其余部分相同的监督及管制,但得采行更严格的措施。三. 各缔约国应: (a) 以核发特许证办法管制麻醉品的输入或输出,但由国营企业机关经办者不在此限; (b) 管制所有从事或经营此项输入或输出业务的人及企业。四. (a) 凡准许输入或输出麻醉品的缔约国应规定每次输入或输出一种或多种麻醉品须分别领取输入或输出准许证。(b) 此项准许证应载明麻醉品名称、如有国际非专用名称者,连同该项名称、输入或输出的数量、及输入人或输出人的名号地址,并应注明输入或输出应完成的期限。(c) 输出准许证并应载明输入证(本条第五项)的号码、日期及发证机关。(d) 输入准许证得许货品分批输入。五. 缔约国在发给输出准许证前,应令出具输入国或输入领土主管机关所发给的输入证,证明其上载明的一种或多种麻醉品的输入业经核准;此项输入证应由申请输出准许证的人或机构呈缴,各缔约国应尽可能采用委员会所核定的输入证格式。六. 每批货品应附有输出准许证副本一份,核发输出准许证的政府且应将副本一份送交输入国或输入领土的政府。七. (a) 输入国或输入领土的政府于输入办妥或输入期限届满后应在输出准许证上将此情况加签注明,送还输出国或输出领土的政府。(b) 此项加签应叙明实际输入的数量。(c) 实际输出数量如较输出准许证所列者为少,实际输出数量应由主管机关在输出准许证及各份正式副本上注明。八. 运交邮政信箱或运交银行存入非输出准许证所指明收货人帐户的输出应予禁止。30 九. 运交保税仓库的输出应予禁止,但经输入国政府在申请输出准许证的人或机构所呈缴的输入证上证明准予为寄存保税仓库而输入者,不在此限。遇此情况,输出准许证应叙明该项货品系为此目的输出。每次自保税仓库提货须凭该管仓库当局所发的许可证,所提货品运往外国者,应作为本公约所规定的新输出论。十. 运入或运出缔约国领土的麻醉品如未附有输出准许证,应由主管机关扣留。十一. 缔约国对于经过其国境运至另一国家的麻醉品,不论在过境时是否从装运的运输工具移出,如未经将所运货品的输出准许证副本向该缔约国主管机关呈验,一律不准放行。十二. 准许麻醉品过境的任何国家或领土,其主管机关应采取一切适当措施,防止此项货品转运至输出准许证随货副本所列目的地以外的地点,但转运经过境国或过境领土的政府核准者,不在此限。过境国或过境领土政府应将任何请求的转运视为自过境国或过境领土向新目的地国或领土输出办理。转运如经核准,过境国家或过境领土与原输出麻醉品的国家或领土之间亦应适用第七项(a)、(b)两款的规定。十三. 麻醉品在运输途中或寄存保税仓库期间,不得以任何方法改变其性质。其包装非经主管机关许可,亦不得改动。十四. 麻醉品由航空器运输,而该航空器在过境国或过境领土并未降落者,不适用第十一项至第十三项关于麻醉品在缔约国过境的规定。如载货航空器在过境国或过境领土降落,各该项规定应视情况必要酌予适用。十五. 本条规定不妨碍任何国际协定将任何缔约国对过境麻醉品所施管制加以限制的规定。十六. 本条规定,除第一项(a)款及第二项外,对于附表叁内的制剂可不适用。31 第三十二条关于行驶国际间的船舶或航空器上急救箱内携带麻醉品的特别规定一. 凡船舶或航空器在国际间为备航程中救护或紧急需要而携带有限数量的麻醉品,不得视为本公约所规定的输入、输出或过境。二. 登记国应采取适当防备办法以防止第一项所称的麻醉品受不当使用或流于非法用途。委员会应洽商主管国际组织建议此种防备办法。三. 船舶或航空器依第一项规定所携带的麻醉品受登记国的法律规章、许可证及特许证的管制,但不妨碍主管地方机关在船舶或航空器上实行查核、检查及其他管制措施的任何权利。为急救而施用此项麻醉品不得视为违反第三十条第二项(b)款的规定。第三十三条麻醉品的持有各缔约国除对于依法得持有麻醉品者外,不得准许麻醉品的持有。第三十四条监察及检查措施各缔约国应规定: (a) 凡领得依本公约所发给的特许证者,或在依本公约规定设立的国营企业机关担任经理或监察职位者,皆应具有足以有效并忠实执行依本公约所制定一切法律规章的资格; (b) 各政府机关、制造人、商人、科学人员、科学机关及医院应备有记录,载明所制每种麻醉品的数量及每次领取及处置麻醉品32 的数量,此项记录至少应分别保存二年。如使用附有存根的规定处方笺(第三十条,第二项(b)款),此项笺册连同存根亦至少应保存二年。第三十五条取缔非法产销的行动在适当顾及缔约国宪法、法律及行政制度的情况下,各缔约国应: (a) 在全国阶层作出安排,以便协调防止并查禁非法产销的行动;为此目的,缔约国以利事功起见可以指定一主管机关负责此项协调; (b) 相互援助,进行取缔麻醉品非法产销的运动; (c) 相互并与其所参加的主管国际组织密切合作,以期保持协调的取缔非法产销的运动; (d) 确保各国主管机关间的国际合作以迅捷的方式进行; (e) 确保为进行诉究而在国际间递送司法文书时,应以迅捷的方式向缔约国指定的机关递送此等文书;此项规定应不妨碍缔约国要求司法文书循外交途径送达该国的权利; (f) 如认为适当时,在第十八条所规定的情报外,经由秘书长向管制局及委员会提送关于其国境以内非法麻醉品活动的情报,包括关于麻醉品非法种植、生产、制造和使用及关于麻醉品非法产销的情报; (g) 尽可能依照管制局所要求的方式及日期提送前项所说的情报;如经某一缔约国请求,管制局可就提送情报及努力减少该缔约国境内非法麻醉品活动两事对该国提供意见。33 第三十六条罚则一. (a) 以不违背缔约国本国宪法上的限制为限,缔约国应采取措施,务使下列各项犯罪行为出于故意者悉受惩罚,其情节重大者,科以适当的刑罚,尤应科以徒刑或其他褫夺自由的刑罚:违反本公约规定的麻醉品的种植、生产、制造、提制、调制、持有、供给、兜售、分配、购买、贩卖、以任何名义交割、经纪、发送、过境寄发、运输、输入及输出,以及任何其他行为经该缔约国认为违反本公约的规定者。(b) 虽有前款规定,于麻醉品的滥用者犯有上开罪行时,缔约国仍可自订规定,使其依第三十八条第一项的规定获得治疗、教育、善后护理、复建并重新与社会融为一体,此可作为判罪或科处刑罚的替代措施,亦可作为判罪或科处刑罚的附加措施。二. 以不违背缔约国宪法上的限制及其法律制度与国内法为限: (a) ㈠第一项所列举的每一犯罪行为,如在不同国家实施,应各自分别论罪; ㈡对任何此等犯罪行为故意参预、共谋实施、实施未遂、及从事与本条所指各项犯罪行为有关的预备行为及财务活动皆属依照第一项规定应予惩罚的罪行; ㈢此等犯罪行为在外国判定有案者应予计及,俾确定是否累犯; ㈣本国人或外国人犯有上述罪行情节重大者应由犯罪地的缔约国诉究;如发觉犯罪在一缔约国领土,虽经向该缔约国请求引渡但依该国法律不能予以引渡而该罪犯尚未受诉究裁判者,应由其所在地的该缔约国诉究。(b) ㈠本条第一项及第二项(a)款㈡目所列举的各项犯罪行为应视为各缔约国间现有引渡条约内所列应予引渡的罪行。各缔约国承允在各该国间今后所订立的一切引渡条约内将此罪行列为应予引渡的罪行; 34 ㈡以条约的存在为引渡条件的缔约国,如接到与该国未订有引渡条约的另一缔约国所提引渡请求,可任意决定是否认本公约为关于本条第一项及第二项(a)款㈡目内列举的犯罪行为办理引渡的法律根据。引渡必须依照受请求的缔约国法律所规定的其他条件; ㈢不以条约的存在为条件的各缔约国应承认本条第一项及第二项(a)款㈡目内列举的犯罪行为为各该国间应予引渡的犯罪行为,但必须依照受请求的缔约国法律所规定的条件; ㈣引渡的准许应依受请求的缔约国法律,又遇主管当局认为罪行不够严重时,虽有本项(b)款㈠、㈡及㈢的规定, 缔约国仍有权拒绝实行逮捕或拒绝引渡。三. 本条的规定以不违背关系缔约国本国刑法关于管辖问题的规定为限。四. 本条的规定不影响本条所称各项犯罪行为应依缔约国国内法予以认定、诉究及处罚的原则。第三十七条缉获及没收凡用于或拟用于实施第三十六条所称各项犯罪行为的麻醉品、物质及器具应予缉获并没收。35 第三十八条防止滥用麻醉品的措施一. 各缔约国应特别注意如何防止麻醉品滥用,对关系人早作鉴别、治疗、教育、善后护理、复建及使之重新与社会融为一体并采取一切可能措施以求其实现。各缔约国并应协力达此目的。二. 在使麻醉品滥用者获得治疗、善后护理、复建及重新与社会融为一体方面,各缔约国应尽可能促进有关工作人员的训练。三. 各缔约国应采取一切可能措施以帮助因工作需要了解麻醉品的滥用及其防止问题者获此了解,并应于麻醉品滥用情事有蔓延危险时,促进一般民众的此种了解。第三十八条之二关于区域中心的协定如一缔约国认为允宜商同区域内其他有关缔约国促成订立协定, 谋求发展区域科学研究及教育中心以解决因麻醉品的非法使用及产销而有的各项问题,作为其防止麻醉品非法产销的行动的一部分,该缔约国应于妥为计及本国宪法、法律及行政制度并于认为有需要时征询管制局或专门机构的技术意见之后,如此办理。第三十九条采行较本公约规定更为严格的国内管制措施虽有本公约所载各项规定,并不妨碍、亦不应视为妨碍缔约国采取较本公约所规定者更为严格或严厉的管制措施,尤不妨碍或视为妨碍缔约国对附表叁的制剂或附表贰的麻醉品规定应依适用于附表壹内麻醉品的一切管制措施办理或依其认为必需或允宜适用以保护公共卫生与福利的一部分管制措施办理。36 第四十条1 公约的语文及签署、批准与加入的程序一. 本公约于一九六一年八月一日前听由任何联合国会员国、为国际法院规约当事国或为联合国专门机构会员国的任何非会员国以及经由理事会邀请为缔约国的任何其他国家签署,其中文、英文、法文、俄文及西班牙文各本同一作准。二. 本公约应予批准。批准书应送交秘书长存放。三. 本公约于一九六一年八月一日后听由第一项所称的国家加入。加入书应送交秘书长存放。第四十一条2 发生效力一. 本公约应自第四十份批准书或加入书依照第四十条交存之日后的第三十日起发生效力。二. 本公约对于在上述第四十份文书交存之日以后交存批准书或加入书的任何其他国家应自该国交存批准书或加入书后第三十日起发生效力。第四十二条适用领土本公约对于由任何缔约国负责代管对外关系的一切非本部领土均适用,但依该缔约国或关系领土的宪法或习惯须事先征得该领土的同意者不在此限。在此情况下,该缔约国应尽可能在最短期间内设法征__________________ 1 参看介绍性说明第3、4 段。2 参看介绍性说明第3、4 段。37 取该领土的必要同意,倘征得此项同意,并应通知秘书长。本公约对于此项通知书所列领土自秘书长接获通知书之日起适用。倘事先征得非本部领土同意非属必要,关系缔约国应于签署、批准或加入本公约时声明适用本公约的非本部领土。第四十三条就适用第十九条、第二十条、第二十一条及第三十一条而言的领土一. 任何缔约国得通知秘书长,就适用第十九条、第二十条、第二十一条及第三十一条而言,其所属领土之一划分为两个或两个以上领土,或其所属两个或两个以上领土合并为一个领土。二. 两个或两个以上的缔约国得通知秘书长由于各该缔约国间建立关税同盟的结果,就第十九条、第二十条、第二十一条及第三十一条而言,此等缔约国构成一个领土。三. 根据本条第一项或第二项所为的通知应于通知后翌年一月一日起生效。第四十四条前有国际条约的废止一. 就缔约国间言,本公约发生效力后,其规定应废止并更替下列各条约的规定: (a) 一九一二年一月二十三日在海牙签订的各国禁烟公约; (b) 一九二五年二月十一日在日内瓦签订的关于熟鸦片的制造、国内贸易及使用的协定; (c) 一九二五年二月十九日在日内瓦签订的国际鸦片公约; (d) 一九三一年七月十三日在日内瓦签订的限制制造及调节分配麻醉品公约; 38 (e) 一九三一年十一月二十七日在曼谷签订的远东管制吸食鸦片协定; (f) 一九四六年十二月十一日在成功湖所签订修正一九一二年一月二十三日在海牙签订、一九二五年二月十一日、一九二五年二月十九日、一九三一年七月十三日在日内瓦签订、一九三一年十一月二十七日在曼谷签订及一九三六年六月二十六日在日内瓦签订关于麻醉品之各种协定、公约及议定书的议定书,但其涉及最后一项公约者除外; (g) 经(f)款所称一九四六年议定书修正的(a)款至(e)款所称各项公约及协定; (h) 一九四八年十一月十九日在巴黎所签订将不属于经一九四六年十二月十一日在成功湖所签订议定书修正的一九三一年七月十三日限制制造及调节分配麻醉品公约范围的麻醉品置于国际管制下的议定书; (i) 一九五三年六月二十三日在纽约所签订的限制与调节罂粟的种植、鸦片的生产、国际贸易、批发购售及其使用议定书(倘该议定书业已生效)。二. 本公约发生效力后,一九三六年六月二十六日在日内瓦签订的取缔非法贩运危险麻醉品公约的第九条就该公约缔约国并为本公约缔约国的国家间言应即废止而以本公约第三十六条第二项(b)款代替; 但此种缔约国得以通知书告秘书长使上述第九条继续有效。39 第四十五条3 过渡条款一. 自本公约发生效力(第四十一条第一项)之日起,第九条所规定的管制局职务应视必要分别暂由依第四十四条(c)款所称公约的修正约文第六章组成的常设中央委员会及依第四十四条(d)款所称公约的修正约文第二章组成的监察机关执行。二. 理事会应规定第九条所称的新设管制局开始执行职务日期。就第四十四条所列各项条约缔约国而非本公约缔约国的国家言,管制局应自该日起担任第一项所称常设中央委员会及监察机关的职务。第四十六条退约一. 本公约自发生效力(第四十一条第一项)之日起满二年后, 任何缔约国得为其自身或代表由其负国际责任而业已撤回依第四十二条所表示同意的领土向秘书长交存文书,宣告退约。__________________ 3 《一九七二年议定书》第二十条的条文如下:(并参看介绍性说明第5 段) 第二十条过渡条款一. 自本议定书依上述第十八条第一项发生效力之日起,本议定书所载修正约文内所规定的国际麻醉品管制局的职务应由未经修正的单一公约所设置的管制局执行。二. 经济及社会理事会应规定依照本议定书所载修正约文组成的管制局开始执行职务的日期。就未经修正的单一公约的缔约国及其第四十四条所列各项条约缔约国而非本议定书缔约国的国家言,如此组成的管制局应自该日起担任依未经修正的单一公约组成的管制局的职务。三. 管制局成员人数由十一人增至十三人后第一次选举当选的成员中,六人任期于三年届满时终止,其他七人任期于五年届满时终止。四. 任期于上述起初三年届满时终止的管制局成员,应由秘书长于第一次选举完成后立即抽签决定。40 二. 退约书经秘书长于某年七月一日以前收到者,应于次年一月一日起生效,其于七月一日之后收到者,应视为次年七月一日以前收到。三. 倘因依第一项所为退约的结果,第四十一条第一项所规定本公约发生效力的条件不复存在时,本公约应即告废止。第四十七条修正一. 任何缔约国均得对本公约提出修正案。此项修正案连同理由书应送交秘书长转致各缔约国及理事会。理事会得决定采取下列程序之一: (a) 依联合国宪章第六十二条第四项的规定召集会议审议所提议的修正案;或(b) 查询各缔约国是否接受所提议之修正案,并请其向理事会提出关于此项提议的意见。二. 依本条第一项(b)款所分发的修正案于分发之后十八个月内未受任何缔约国反对者,应随即发生效力。惟所提议的修正案如遭任何缔约国反对,理事会得参酌缔约国所提具的意见,决定应否召集会议审议此项修正案。第四十八条争端一. 两缔约国或两个以上的缔约国间如对本公约的解释或适用发生争端时,应彼此会商,俾以谈判、调查、调停、和解、公断、区域机关的利用、司法程序,或各该缔约国自行选择的其他和平方法求得解决。41 二. 任何此种争端倘不能依照第一项所规定的方式解决,应交由国际法院裁决。第四十九条过渡保留一. 缔约国得于签署、批准或加入本公约时保留权利暂准于其所辖任何领土内: (a) 使用鸦片于准医药用途; (b) 吸食鸦片; (c) 咀嚼古柯叶; (d) 使用大麻、大麻脂、大麻浸膏及大麻酊于非医药用途; (e) 生产、制造及购售(a)款至(d)款所称麻醉品,供各该款所述用途。二. 依第一项规定所为保留应受下列限制: (a) 第一项所称的各种情事须在为其提出保留的领土内已属惯常,并系该地于一九六一年一月一日所允许的限度内始可核准。(b) 第一项所称供所述各项用途的麻醉品,不得输出至非缔约国或依第四十二条规定不适用本公约的领土。(c) 惟有经主管当局于一九六四年一月一日登记在案的人方得准予吸食鸦片。(d) 使用鸦片于准医药用途须于本公约依第四十一条第一项的规定发生效力后十五年内废除。(e) 咀嚼古柯叶须于本公约依第四十一条第一项的规定发生效力后二十五年内废除。(f) 使用大麻于医学及科学以外的用途须尽早停止,但在任何情况下必须于本公约依第四十一条第一项的规定发生效力后二十五年内停止。42 (g) 第一项所称供所述各项用途的麻醉品的生产、制造及购售, 须随此等用途的减少而减少,至最后同时废除。三. 依第一项提出保留的缔约国应: (a) 将上年度内废除第一项所称的使用、生产、制造或购售情事的进度情况列入第十八条第一项(a)款提送秘书长的常年报告书内; (b) 依管制局所定的方式及格式,就所保留的各项情事另向管制局提送估计书(第十九条)及统计报告(第二十条)。四. (a) 依第一项提出保留的缔约国倘: ㈠于情报所涉的年份终了后六个月内,不提送第三项(a)款所称报告书; ㈡于管制局依第十二条第一项所特别规定的日期后三个月内,不提送第三项(b)款所称估计; ㈢于依第二十条第二项应提送统计的日期后三个月内,不提送第三项(b)款所称统计, 则管制局或秘书长(视情况而定)应向关系缔约国送致逾期通知,请其于收到通知后三个月期间内补送此项情报。(b) 倘缔约国不于此项期间内遵照管制局或秘书长之请求办理, 依第一项所提出的有关保留应即失效。五. 提出保留的国家得随时以书面通知撤回其所提保留的全部或一部。43 第五十条4 其他保留一. 除依第四十九条或下列各项规定提出的保留外,不得提出其他保留。二. 任何国家得于签署、批准或加入时对本公约下列各项规定提出保留:第十二条第二项及第三项;第十三条第二项;第十四条第一项及第二项;第三十一条第一项(b)款;及第四十八条。三. 凡愿为缔约国但欲获准在依本条第二项或第四十九条所提保留以外另提其他保留的国爱得将此种意向通知秘书长。自秘书长就此项保留发出通知之日起满十二个月后,倘在此期限内已批准或加入本公约的国家对此项保留提出异议者不足三分之一时,则此项保留应视为已获准许。但曾对此项保留提出异议的国家无须对提出此项保留的国家承担本公约内受该项保留影响的任何法律义务。四. 提出保留的国家得随时以局面通知撤回其所提保留的全部或一部。__________________ 4 《一九七二年议定书》第二十一条的条文如下(并参看介绍性说明第5 段): 第二十一条保留一. 任何国家可于签署或批准或加入本议定书时对于其中所载的任何修正,提出保留,但对下列条款提出的修正除外:第二条第六项及第七项(本议定书第一条),第九条第一项、第四项及第五项(本议定书第二条),第十条第一项及第四项(本议定书第三条), 第十一条(本议定书第四条),第十四条之二(本议定书第七条),第十六条(本议定书第八条),第二十二条(本议定书第十二条),第三十五条(本议定书第十三条),第三十六条第一项(b)款(本议定书第十四条),第三十八条(本议定书第十五条)及第三十八条之二(本议定书第十六条)。* 二. 提出保留的国家可以随时以书面通知撤回其所提保留的全部或一部。_____________ * 当可注意到,凡是想要根据《一九七二年议定书》上述第二十一条的规定对一项或多项修正提出保留的国家,应该首先成为未经修正的《单一公约》的缔约国(如果它们还没有成为缔约国的话),然后在其想要提出的保留下批准或加入《一九七二年议定书》。44 第五十一条通知秘书长应将下列事项通知第四十条第一项所称的一切国家: (a) 依第四十条所为的签署、批准及加入; (b) 依第四十一条本公约发生效力的日期; (c) 依第四十六条宣告的退约; (d) 第据第四十二条、第四十三条、第四十七条、第四十九条及第五十条所为的声明及通知。秘书长根据一九七二年三月二十五日议定书第二十二条的规定编制条文如上。秘书长代表: 法律顾问: