A_65_341_EC
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A/65/341 A_65_341e.doc (English)A/65/341 A_65_341c.doc (Chinese)
Sixty-fifth session第六十五届会议 临时议程* 项目70(c) 加强联合国人道主义和救灾援助,包括 特别经济援助的协调:加强国际合作和 协调努力以研究、减轻和尽量减少切尔 诺贝利灾难的后果 优化研究、减轻和尽量减少切尔诺贝利灾难后果的国际努力 秘书长的报告 摘要 本报告是根据大会关于加强国际合作和协调努力以研究、减轻和尽量减少切尔诺贝利灾难的后果的第62/9号决议提交的。大会在该决议中,请秘书长向大会提交报告,全面评估该决议的执行情况。 本报告载列了对联合国到2016年的切尔诺贝利复原行动计划进行的中期审查,记录了联合国各基金、方案和专门机构为促进从切尔诺贝利灾难中复原而开展的各项活动。报告强调了持续不断的国际合作的重要意义,包括在国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络范围内的合作,并简要说明了联合国开发计划署在协调执行灾区恢复和可持续发展十年(2006-2016年)的机构间努力方面的作用。报告得出结论认为,联合国系统各组织和机构坚定地推动灾区的长期发展,并强调持续需要开展社区发展努力,向受灾民众提供准确的信息。本报告附件介绍了三个受灾最严重的国家、即白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰为促进灾区复原而作出的努力。
* A/65/150.* A/65/150。
Item 70 (c) of the provisional agenda*一. 概况
Strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance of the United Nations, including special economic assistance: strengthening of international cooperation and coordination of efforts to study, mitigate and minimize the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster1. 自2006年以来,联合国各机构一直参与灾区复原和可持续发展十年(2006-2016年)。在执行大会第62/9号决议方面,联合国开发计划署( 开发署) 制定了联合国到2016年切尔诺贝利行动计划,以之作为在十年期间开展合作的务实框架。2008年11月,切尔诺贝利问题机构间工作队在切尔诺贝利复原努力合作第三个十年规划和协调工作会议上核准了行动计划草案。 2. 行动计划订立了联合国各机构旨在解决切尔诺贝利遗留问题的共同愿景和优先行动。它基于各机构的任务规定和专长以及与白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰三国政府之间强有力的伙伴关系与合作。本报告载列了对到2016年切尔诺贝利行动计划进行的中期审查。 3. 受灾最重的三国政府已为消除切尔诺贝利遗留的问题作出了重大努力( 见作为本报告附件一、二和三的白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰的报告) 。联合国各组织和机构已取得了重大进展。2009年4月发起的国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络项目利用切尔诺贝利论坛令人欣慰的调查结果,一直致力于以一种易懂的非技术语言向当地民众提供信息。切尔诺贝利受灾社区一级的发展努力使当地民众的生活质量出现了有希望的改观。据报告,在切尔诺贝利核电厂,修建新的安全的密封设施(即新的掩蔽所)和发展对辐射性废料进行安全的长期管理的基础设施方面已取得进展。 4. 切尔诺贝利事故的社会和经济后果继续对灾区产生不利影响,社区仍然需要支助,这也是众所公认的。年轻人离开这一地区,投资稀缺,因害怕辐射而使当地产品难以出售。联合国的战略是继续向灾区政府提供支助,以确保在2016年底之前,该地区能消除切尔诺贝利的污名,社区积极参与地方发展,并开始掌握自己的命运,切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区恢复正常。 二. 联合国在切尔诺贝利方面工作的协调 5. 自2004年以来,开发署一直在协调整个联合国系统在切尔诺贝利问题上的各种努力。联合国切尔诺贝利事件国际合作协调办公室是作为开发署的欧洲和独立国家联合体区域局的一部分运作的,负责管理日常协调职责。 6. 为了分享信息和确保更好的协调,2008年4月26日和2009年11月19日,开发署举办了机构间工作队会议。开发署协理署长主持了2008年的会议,开发署署长主持了2009年的会议。这两次会议均得到了尽可能广泛的参与,10个不同地点的70多人与会。两个联合国机构、即联合国人口基金(人口基金)和联合国志愿人员组织第一次参加了工作队会议。这种广泛参与强调表明切尔诺贝利事故持久的影响以及联合国和其他组织对帮助消除切尔诺贝利核事故遗留问题的承诺。 7. 2008年11月,合作开展切尔诺贝利复原努力第三个十年的第一次规划和协调工作会议在维也纳的国际原子能机构(原子能机构)总部举行。工作会议吸引了高级别的与会人员,他们当中有切尔诺贝利事故三个受灾国副部长级的官员以及联合国驻地协调员和参与切尔诺贝利相关工作的联合国机构的代表。与会者商定了执行联合国到2016年切尔诺贝利行动计划和第三个十年方案的共同方式。讨论强调继续需要提供国际援助,以处理切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的问题,并指出联合国内外有找到前瞻性解决办法以帮助当地社区和国家政府克服这些问题的热忱。 8. 2008年11月21日在维也纳举行了四方协调委员会会议,该委员会是由联合国协调员和受灾最重的三个国家负责与切尔诺贝利有关活动的部参加的一个机构。白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰三国政府的代表以及这三个国家的联合国驻地协调员和联合国切尔诺贝利事件国际合作协调办公室参加了会议。与会者就在切尔诺贝利复原工作中可期待从联合国系统得到哪些帮助以及哪些协调机制被证明最为有效交流了意见。 三. 联合国持续不断的援助努力 9. 在执行联合国到2016年切尔诺贝利行动计划方面,联合国国家工作队在三个受灾最严重的国家中的每一个国家都采取了一种发展方式来实施切尔诺贝利方案。有关活动分成九个主要类别:(a) 国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络;(b) 社区发展;(c) 政策咨询意见;(d) 基础设施;(e) 健康;(f) 减少辐射和制定标准;(g) 反应堆的安全和核废料的管理;(h) 应急准备;(i) 环境安全。 A. 国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络 10. 国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络方案旨在传播切尔诺贝利论坛关于切尔诺贝利核事故后果的调查结果,包括就健康有益的生活方式向白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰的切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的居民提供务实的咨询意见。这个三年期倡议拥有250万美元的预算,由联合国人的安全信托基金提供支助,由原子能机构、开发署、联合国儿童基金会(儿基会)和世界卫生组织(世卫组织)负责执行。传播关于事故对健康和环境影响的最新科学知识,有助于消除误解,使当地社区能最大限度地扩大该区域的社会和经济恢复。该方案于2009年4月24日在纽约开发署总部正式设立。 11. 2009年和2010年,该网络的执行机构为当地的各利益攸关者编制了各种资讯材料。网络设立了科学委员会,作为一个咨询机构,以审查成套的信息,并确保它们载列的事实准确,并且是最新的。已经以当地的利益攸关者群体,即教师、医疗专业人员、社区领袖和媒体代表为对象开展了培训活动。 12. 原子能机构正就与切尔诺贝利有关的议题收集和传播信息和经验。2009年2月在莫斯科举行的区域工作会议讨论了利用因特网技术传播信息问题。2009年6月在乌克兰举行的另一次工作会议重点探讨了切尔诺贝利事故受灾民众的信息需求和公共信息专家间的知识交流。原子能机构已经审查了关于辐射防护和辐射安全的材料,并正在准备有关这一题目的网上因特网资源。原子能机构还发表了一份报告,就切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区向公众提供信息,并用俄文发表了切尔诺贝利论坛的报告,题为“切尔诺贝利事故的环境后果及其补救:二十年的经验”。 13. 就切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区现有的健康风险提供信息是世卫组织的一项优先活动。这包括审查现有的信息、编制“辐射与健康”培训材料、通过教育培训活动传播信息。2009-2010年,世卫组织为白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰受灾社区的保健工作者举办了四次讲习班。在讲习班学到的知识和技能将有助于保健工作者向受灾民众宣传辐射风险,并将这种风险放在与环境和人类行为有关的其他健康风险当中来看待。世卫组织今后的活动将包括促进健康的生活方式,对切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的风险概况进行评估。根据对风险概况的研究结果,将编制一套专门的资料,以提供给保健和教育工作者以及社区一级的决策者。 14. 开发署已就切尔诺贝利事故的社会经济影响、社区目前面临的挑战、该地区的机会和实地行得通的解决办法编制了一套资料。在2009年期间,在乌克兰农村地区建立了三个信息和通信技术接入点,在俄罗斯联邦建立了一个。开发署就发展人的安全监测系统与科学宝/巴黎政治研究学院的公共事务研究生方案合作,重点是切尔诺贝利受灾社区民众的心理和行为方面。在次区域,开发署牵头为媒体代表和记者组织了两场培训,一场于2009年在乌克兰举办,另一场于2010年在俄罗斯联邦举办。白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰参加的记者得到了原子能机构、开发署、儿基会和世卫组织水平领先的专家的培训。就健康的生活方式实施基于小型社区的倡议和培训工作于2010年展开。 B. 社区发展 15. 在白俄罗斯,开发署、儿基会和人口基金已开始执行一项为期三年的倡议,旨在增强Slavgorod、Chechersk、Bragin、Stolin和Luninets等地区的切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区的人的安全。在联合国人的安全信托基金支持下,该项目旨在通过采取农业创新并确保产品的辐射量符合辐射安全标准,增加农场拥有者的收入。还通过促进孕妇、新生儿母亲及其家庭健康的生活方式,正在处理健康问题。此外,也注重对乳癌进行及早诊断,以及增进当地保健工作者有关健康的新生儿父母和幼年的专门知识。 16. 在乌克兰,开发署正采用一种基于地区的发展方式,支持旨在改善当地基础设施、水和煤气供应以及获得通信和信息技术服务的社区倡议。作为欧洲联盟/开发署的一项联合方案,这种方式先在切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区进行试验,然后扩大到全国。目前,这种方式正在若干区的43个切尔诺贝利事故受灾村庄采用。2008年,开发署乌克兰办事处和联合国志愿人员组织着手在基辅、日托米尔、切尔尼戈夫和罗夫诺州的农村地区实施一项关于在乌克兰对青年人实行社会包容和公民参与的三年项目。在20个农村青年中心为项目活动志愿服务的300多名青年已完成了超过35个社区项目。 17. 开发署驻乌克兰办事处举行了切尔诺贝利经济发展论坛年度会议。这些会议为工商界、地方当局和当地社区提供了讨论振兴地方经济的共同战略的一个有益论坛。开发署还推动受灾地区地方当局与欧洲联盟成员国对应方之间建立创新型伙伴关系。2009年,波兰与乌克兰的地区政府签署了19项伙伴关系协定。此外,在乌克兰,开发署切尔诺贝利复原与发展方案与牛津大学乌克兰协会和国立基辅大学莫希拉学院就一项志愿人员培训方案开展合作。每年,牛津大学约有10名学生参加了社区活动。 18. 开发署驻白俄罗斯办事处在受切尔诺贝利事故影响的Vetka、Buda-Kosheliovo、Zhitkovichi和Khoiniki灾区试验采用上述基于地区的发展方式,侧重于建立地方社区的发展能力,并使民众能够参予其住区的社会和经济恢复。这一项目将支持农村社区与地方当局之间的互利合作,以解决切尔诺贝利灾区的优先需求。将在农村地区实施30多个社区驱动的项目。 19. 儿基会驻乌克兰办事处正努力在罗夫诺州的受灾社区建立具有娱乐设施的家庭中心,并在白俄罗斯和乌克兰实施了“儿童友好型城市”倡议以及旨在促进白俄罗斯戈梅利州残疾儿童的康复和教育的社区项目。 C. 政策咨询意见 20. 开发署驻乌克兰办事处持续向乌克兰政府提供咨询支助,并正协助制定前瞻性发展战略。为重新研究乌克兰灾区区划状况编制一项综合法律框架,一直是优先任务之一。使区划疆界与目前的辐射水平保持一致,将有助于取消否则有可能存在的对经济和其他活动的限制,并鼓励新的投资。 D. 次区域合作 21. 开发署的联合国切尔诺贝利事件国际合作协调办公室,一直致力于加强次区域合作,尤其在开发署在白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰灾区工作的小组之间的合作。该办事处继续在三个优先领域发挥协同增进作用:信息;政策咨询意见;社区发展。开发署处理这一问题的工作组次区域年度会议已分别于2008年1月、2009年3月和2010年2月在莫斯科、明斯克和基辅举行。
Optimizing the international effort to study, mitigate and minimize the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster22. 在面临与切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区相同的发展挑战的地区之间推广采用最佳做法一直是次区域合作的一个优先事项。哈萨克斯坦塞米巴拉金斯克前核场地周围地区面临着与切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区相类似的问题,涉及贫穷、生活水平低下、缺乏社会服务以及创收机会、在农村地区尤其如此、以及害怕辐射。开发署切尔诺贝利小组于2008年11月和2009年6月对哈萨克斯坦的开发署塞米巴拉金斯克方案开展了两次知识分享工作。
Report of the Secretary-GeneralE. 基础设施
Summary23. 2006年,世界银行在白俄罗斯开展了一个5 000万美元的切尔诺贝利事故发生后复原项目,旨在向居住在切尔诺贝利灾区的民众提供具有能源效率的可靠的供热和热水供应服务。该项目的能源效率部分包括将产热和热分配设备升级或更换,并改善公共建筑的隔热和照明。居民区煤气连接部分将各家庭连上现有的煤气分配网络,以改善供热,并限制脏燃料、包括可能被放射性材料污染的脏燃料的使用。约3 000所住房已连上了天然气。应白俄罗斯政府请求,世界银行已准备了一项30 000万美元的补充贷款,以便为进一步的能源效率和灾区煤气连接活动供资。 24. 世界银行的供水和环卫项目,是2008年9月核准的一项为数6 000万美元的行动,旨在提高向生活在白俄罗斯20个区、包括切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区在内的170万人提供的供水和环卫服务的效率、质量和可持续性。
The present report is submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 62/9 on the strengthening of international cooperation and coordination of efforts to study, mitigate and minimize the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.F.
In that resolution, the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to submit to it a report containing a comprehensive assessment of its implementation.健康
The report presents a midterm review of the United Nations action plan for Chernobyl recovery up to 2016 and records the activities undertaken by the funds, programmes and specialized agencies of the United Nations to promote recovery from the Chernobyl disaster. It emphasizes the importance of the ongoing interagency cooperation, including in the framework of the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network, and outlines the role of the United Nations Development Programme in coordinating inter-agency efforts on the implementation of the Decade of Recovery and Sustainable Development of the Affected Regions (2006-2016). The report concludes that the organizations and bodies of the United Nations system are committed to fostering long-term development of the affected regions and emphasizes the continuing need for community development efforts and the provision of accurate information to the affected populations. The annexes to the report provide an update on the efforts of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, to facilitate recovery of the affected regions.25. 联合国原子能辐射影响科学委员会是大会具体授权对离子辐射来源的暴露量和暴露影响进行科学评估的机构。委员会与白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰三国的科学家合作,更新了其关于事故辐照对健康影响的具有里程碑意义的2000年评估报告, 补充了此后得到科学核实的资料。委员会于2008年向大会报告了研究结果, 大会将作为出售出版物印发支持性的科学附件。
I.26.
General situation尽管已经掌握了很多新的研究数据,关于辐射对健康影响的范围和性质的主要结论与委员会1988年的报告 和2000年的报告相一致。基本上是,儿时暴露于事故产生的放射性碘的人以及受辐照较多的应急和复原行动工作者面临的受辐射诱发影响的风险较大。大多数灾区居民受到相当于天然的本底辐射年剂量或数倍于年剂量的辐照,无须生活在会发生严重健康影响的恐惧中。
1. Since 2006, United Nations agencies have been engaged in the Decade of Recovery and Sustainable Development of the Affected Regions (2006-2016). In implementation of General Assembly resolution 62/9, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) prepared a United Nations action plan on Chernobyl to 2016 as a practical framework for cooperation during the Decade. The draft action plan was approved by the Inter-Agency Task Force on Chernobyl, in November 2008 at the planning and coordination workshop for the third decade of cooperation on Chernobyl recovery efforts.27. 已经发表了有关公众中确定的癌症发病率有可能增长的基于模式的预测,但在不了解的情况下报告这些预测已导致公众思想混乱。委员会决定不用这些模式来预测辐射对暴露于低剂量的民众影响的绝对数字,原因是预测存在无法接受的不确定性。
2. The action plan defines a common vision and priority actions for United Nations agencies aimed at overcoming the negative legacy of Chernobyl. It builds on agency mandates and competencies as well as on strong partnership and cooperation with Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The present report presents a midterm review of the action plan on Chernobyl to 2016.28. 委员会指出,公众和媒体往往难以认识辐射风险虽然对一些受暴露的群体来说较为严重,但从健康的角度来看,对普通公众则不像所声称的那样厉害。除了诊治方面归咎于急性辐射综合症的应急工作者的早亡以及少数致命的甲状腺癌外,委员会认为不可能将任何具体的死因归咎于因事故导致的辐照。
3. Governments of the three most affected countries have put significant efforts into overcoming the legacy of Chernobyl (see the reports of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, annexes I, II and III of the present report). Significant progress has been achieved by the United Nations organizations and bodies. Drawing on the reassuring findings of Chernobyl Forum, the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network project, initiated in April 2009, has been working on providing information to local populations in accessible, nontechnical language. Community-level development efforts in Chernobyl-affected areas show promising improvements in the quality of life of the local citizens. At the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, progress is reported on the construction of the new safe confinement (or new shelter) and the development of infrastructure for the safe long-term management of radioactive wastes.29. 作为其工作的一部分,委员会将继续审评有关资料,以便为更好地理解辐射对健康的影响提供科学依据。自1986年以来,世卫组织一直参与通过若干项目评估和减轻切尔诺贝利事故对健康的影响。这些包括1996年完成的国际切尔诺贝利事故的健康影响项目,对受切尔诺贝利事故影响的儿童中的甲状腺癌的研究、远程医药项目以及组织库项目。世卫组织在切尔诺贝利论坛的工作中发挥了重要作用,该论坛已编制了一份关于切尔诺贝利事故健康影响的基准报告。
4. It is also recognized that the social and economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to negatively influence the affected area, and that communities still require support. Young people leave the region, investment is scarce and fear of radiation makes local produce difficult to market. The United Nations strategy is to continue providing support to Governments in the affected region in order to ensure that by 2016 the area manages to overcome the Chernobyl stigma, that communities take an active role in local development and start to take control of their lives and that normalcy returns to the Chernobyl-affected territories.30. 世卫组织国际癌症研究机构正协调欧洲联盟委员会资助的题为“切尔诺贝利健康研究日程”的项目,其中包括设立多学科的专家组,以查明可能的研究并使其成为优先事项、评估其可行性、成本效益以及成功的可能性,并为今后与健康有关的研究提供一种理性的、综合战略研究日程。有人现建议设立一个与对第一颗原子弹的暴露数年后采取的行动相类似的长期供资机制。在拟订将在2010年底之前提出的战略研究日程期间,该项目寻求研究界、利益攸关者和公众积极参与。
II.31.
Coordination of the work of the United Nations on Chernobyl2008年3月,儿基会推出了其《生命知识》出版物关于切尔诺贝利的特刊,并在白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰的切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区分发了35 000份。这份特刊由儿基会、开发署、人口基金和国际移徙组织(移徙组织)共同出版。2009年,印制并分发了载有白俄罗斯《生命知识》特刊某些章节基本内容的13幅海报。海报介绍了有关辐射安全、计划生育、安全孕产、幼儿发展和营养、向残疾儿和产前的孕妇提供协助、预防儿童创伤和感染艾滋病毒的知识。
5. Since 2004, UNDP has been coordinating efforts in Chernobyl across the United Nations system. The Administrator of UNDP serves as the United Nations Coordinator of International Cooperation on Chernobyl. The Office of United Nations Coordination of International Cooperation on Chernobyl functions as part of the UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, managing day-to-day coordination responsibilities.32. 2008-2009年,儿基会在三个国家的切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的家庭中进行了关于儿童保育和发展的知识调查,并消除了关于与切尔诺贝利事故有关的若干误解。
6. In order to share information and ensure better coordination, on 26 April 2008 and 19 November 2009, UNDP organized meetings of the Inter-Agency Task Force. The Associate Administrator of UNDP chaired the meeting in 2008, and the Administrator of UNDP chaired it in 2009. Both meetings involved widest possible participation, with more than 70 participants in 10 different locations. Two United Nations agencies, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Volunteers were represented at the meeting of the Task Force for the first time. Such broad engagement underlined both the lasting impact of Chernobyl and the commitment of the United Nations and other organizations to help cope with the legacy of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.33. 儿基会正支持就“做优良父母”和年轻人受教育问题在切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区开展公共宣传活动。在白俄罗斯布雷斯特州,通过一个为期四年的生活技能和健康生活方式项目,已编制了教育方案和手册。Luninets区新设的11个信息资源中心提供与切尔诺贝利事故有关的资料和关于健康生活方式的资料。
7. In November 2008, the first planning and coordination workshop for the third decade of cooperation in Chernobyl recovery efforts took place at the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The workshop attracted high-level participation at the Deputy Minister level from the three Chernobyl-affected countries, as well as that of United Nations Resident Coordinators and representatives of United Nations agencies involved in Chernobyl-related work. The participants agreed on joint approaches to implement the United Nations action plan on Chernobyl to 2016 and the programme of the third decade. The discussions underscored a continued need for international assistance in coping with the problems of the Chernobyl-affected region, but also pointed to the enthusiasm, both within and outside the United Nations, to find forward-looking solutions to help local communities and national Governments overcome the problems.34. 在白俄罗斯,儿基会正在支持改善儿童保育和对青年人友好的服务,并培养医务专业人员在新生儿的精心护理方面的能力。在欧洲联盟资助的“切尔诺贝利的儿童”项目下,已向若干区和州的15家中心医院提供了医疗设备。已开放了5家对青年人友好的保健中心,并使人们更便于获得医疗和咨询服务。有6个切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的100多名社会工作者、医疗工作者和教师接受了“与家庭一道防止遗弃儿童”的培训。
8. On 21 November 2008 the meeting of the Quadripartite Coordination Committee, a body that brings together the United Nations Coordinator and the ministries responsible for Chernobyl-related activities in the three most affected countries, took place in Vienna.35.
The meeting was attended by representatives of the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine as well as the United Nations Resident Coordinators in the three countries and the Office of United Nations Coordination of International Cooperation on Chernobyl.在乌克兰,儿基会正致力于改善切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区母婴保健服务。已在有效的产前护理、新生儿护理和儿科保健以及感染控制方面对300多名保健工作者进行了培训。15家地区医院已被认证为“婴儿和家庭友好型”医院,并向10家地区医院提供了婴儿救生设备。儿基会还支持在乌克兰设立家庭中心,为脆弱的家庭以及有具有特殊需求的儿童的家庭提供全面的基本服务。作为家庭中心的一部分,已为父亲们开办了一所学校,以便让他们更多地参与照料和养育子女。在切尔尼戈夫市设立的一所对青年友好型诊所,现在每年为约1 000名青少年服务。在2010年底之前,将会有5家新的诊所为乌克兰的切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的青少年提供保健服务。 36.
Participants shared views on what is expected from the United Nations system in Chernobyl recovery efforts, and which coordination mechanisms proved most effective.自2006年以来,儿基会作为其倡导工作主要内容之一,已引进普及食盐碘化。2007年10月,白俄罗斯议会通过了食物安全法的缺碘性失调症/普及食盐碘化修正案,并对国家立法进行了修订,使之符合法律规定;其结果,现已建立起对加碘盐的质量及其零售供应情况的全国监测。儿基会的努力有助于从更广的范围内确认缺碘对儿童发育的影响。乌克兰罗夫诺州和文尼察州已通过了地方预防缺碘方案,切尔尼戈夫州目前正在拟订此类方案。
III.37.
Ongoing United Nations assistance efforts红十字会与红新月会国际联合会与三个国家中作为成员的国家协会一道,继续实施切尔诺贝利人道主义援助和复原方案,确保及早查出甲状腺癌和其他甲状腺病症,并满足受灾民众基本的健康需求。从2010年开始,与该方案有关的活动将逐步纳入国家保健系统,以确保长期的可持续性。
9. In implementation of the United Nations action plan on Chernobyl to 2016 United Nations country teams have been pursuing a developmental approach to Chernobyl programmes in each of the three most affected countries. Activities fall into nine main categories: (a) the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network; (b) community-based development; (c) policy advice; (d) infrastructure; (e) health; (f) radiation mitigation and standard setting; (g) reactor safety and nuclear waste management; (h) emergency preparedness; and (i) environmental security.38. 在白俄罗斯布雷斯特州、戈梅利州和莫吉廖夫州、乌克兰罗夫诺州和日托米尔州以及俄罗斯联邦布良斯克州的6个流动诊断实验室提供切尔诺贝利人道主义援助和复原方案的服务。实验室每年对90 000人进行筛检。2009年在筛检时查出40 890例甲状腺病症,并介绍12 873名病人到专门的医疗机构进行深入检查。2009年确认了约178例甲状腺癌。为了缓解受灾民众的紧张和焦虑,该方案侧重于心理社会支持。这些努力有助于采用更健康的生活方式,并制止酗酒和吸毒等。2009年,还在该方案下开始进行乳癌筛检和预防艾滋病毒活动。
A.39.
International Chernobyl Research and Information Network在白俄罗斯,开发署实施了美援署供资的“家庭健康”项目,重点是对切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的保健专业人员、孕妇和哺乳期母亲、未来的父亲、中学教师和学童进行放射生态教育。已设立了一个名为“对话”的信息和咨询中心,提供与保健有关的咨询。该项目就健康的生活方式、健康的怀孕、生产和照料儿童拟订准则、编制培训材料和拍摄影片。已实施的活动改善了保健工作者和教师的知识和技能,提高了青年人对健康的生活方式的认识。
10. The programme of the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network is designed for the dissemination of the findings of the Chernobyl Forum on the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including practical advice on healthy and productive lifestyles to the residents of Chernobyl-affected areas in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. This three-year initiative, with a budget of $2.5 million, is supported by the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security and implemented by IAEA, UNDP, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Dissemination of the latest scientific knowledge on the effects of the accident on health and the environment will help dispel misconceptions and empower the communities to maximize social and economic recovery of the region. The programme was officially launched on 24 April 2009 at UNDP headquarters in New York.40. 自2009年以来,开发署在白俄罗斯一直致力于在欧洲联盟委员会资助的倡议范围内设立一个国际甲状腺疾病科学和务实中心。该中心将:(a) 向切尔诺贝利事故受灾民众中最脆弱的几类人提供医疗服务;(b) 确保对目前观察到的病人和风险群体进行持续监测;(c) 建立一个在国家和国际专家间交流知识和专长的科学平台;(d) 举办教育研讨会,并编制关于辐射的影响以及甲状腺癌预防措施的材料。
11. In 2009 and 2010, the Network’s implementing agencies produced numerous informational materials for a variety of local stakeholders. The Scientific Board of the Network was created as a consultative body to review information packages and ensure that they are factually accurate and up to date. Training activities were initiated for local stakeholder groups, namely teachers, medical professionals, community leaders and media representatives.G. 减少辐射和制定标准
12. IAEA is collecting and disseminating information and experiences on Chernobyl-related topics. At the regional workshop in Moscow in February 2009, the issue of information dissemination using Internet technology was discussed. A workshop in Ukraine in June 2009 focused on information needs of Chernobyl-affected populations and knowledge-sharing between public information specialists. IAEA has reviewed materials on radiation protection and radiation safety and is preparing Web-based Internet resources on the subject. IAEA has also published a report providing information to the public on the territories affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as the report of the Chernobyl Forum, Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and their Remediation: Twenty Years of Experience, in Russian.41. 减轻切尔诺贝利事故的后果一直是原子能机构在白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰开展技术合作方案的优先领域之一。已经提出了关于在灾区减少切尔诺贝利事故后果的一些影响的各种务实的解决办法。
13. Information provision on existing health risks for Chernobyl-affected communities is a priority activity of WHO. This includes the review of available information, the development of “Radiation and health” training materials and information dissemination through educational and training activities. In 2009-2010, WHO organized four workshops for health workers from the affected communities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The knowledge and skills learned at the workshops will help health workers to inform affected populations about the risks of radiation, placing it in the context of other health risks related to the environment and human behaviour. Future WHO activities will include the promotion of healthy lifestyles and an assessment of the risk profile for the populations in Chernobyl-affected regions. Based on results of the risk profiling study, a tailored information package will be developed and delivered to health and education workers and decision makers at the community level.42. 原子能机构在灾区的补救方面继续向白俄罗斯提供支助,并通过其区域倡议,在辐射方面为三个国家的切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的复原提供支助。具体而言,对国家专家进行培训,教授他们如何使用原子能机构的软件,以优化补救战略。软件可用来制定补救战略的国家方式,予以优化并与国际安全标准和良好方法保持一致。它还便于在受灾国的战略之间进行更好的比较。还就复原被无机污染物污染地区的新的技术进展情况举办了若干区域讲习班。
14. UNDP has developed an information package on the socio-economic impact of Chernobyl, current challenges faced by communities, the area’s opportunities and solutions that work on the ground. During 2009, three information and communications technology (ICT) access points were established in rural areas of Ukraine and one in the Russian Federation. UNDP has partnered with the Masters of Public Affairs programme at Science Po/Paris Institute of Political Studies on the development of a human security monitoring system focusing on psychological and behavioural aspects of populations in Chernobyl-affected communities. Subregionally, UNDP took the lead in organizing two training sessions for media representatives and journalists that took place in Ukraine in 2009 and in the Russian Federation in 2010. Participating journalists from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine were trained by leading experts from IAEA, UNDP, UNICEF and WHO. Implementation of small-scale community-based initiatives and training on healthy lifestyles started in 2010.H. 反应堆安全与核废料的管理 43. 切尔诺贝利事故推动进行大规模合作,以支持乌克兰环绕着受损的反应堆建立一个新的掩蔽所。由欧洲复兴开发银行管理的切尔诺贝利掩蔽所基金于1997年设立,以执行掩蔽所实施计划,使在事故中毁坏的切尔诺贝利4号机组转入稳定的无害环境条件。由八国集团成员国、欧洲联盟和乌克兰带头的29个国家已为实施这项方案认捐9亿欧元。在全球经济和金融危机当中,具体落实认捐的捐款已成为一个重要的优先目标。 44. 掩蔽所实施计划已进入最后阶段。主要的基础设施、准备和工程项目已顺利完工,为减轻坍塌风险而稳固环绕受损的反应堆的现有结构的困难任务同样顺利完成。自2007年9月以来,已订立设计和建造一个新的安全密封设施的合同。这一设施将把该场址及其放射性库存围起来至少100年时间,并为今后的安全拆卸和移除作业提供设备。拱形结构的设计工作已接近完成,在管制方面将于2010年下半年得到所有必须的批准。该结构将在被毁坏的机组旁边组装后放入安置。在反应堆沾染的周围环境中的场址清理、准备和挖掘工作已接近完成,拱形结构的地基工程可在2010年后期开工。已定购了建造拱形结构所需的20 000多吨钢材中很大的一部分。 45. 采取将新的安全的密封设施放入的方式,而不是在现场组装,是为了尽最大限度减少工人对辐射的暴露。较高的健康和安全标准以及辐射保护标准是在该场址开展所有工程的一个不能商量的优先事项,即便这增加了工程的时间和费用。该场址的营运者、承包者和管制人员迄今取得了优异的安全记录。 46. 该方案的费用和时间表只有在新的安全密封设施的详细设计完成后才能修订。目前预期这一工程将在2013年底之前完工,隐蔽所实施计划的总造价将远远超过10亿欧元。捐助者知道这一方案没有得到充分供资,现正努力筹集完成项目所需的额外的资金。 47. 原子能机构继续支持乌克兰为使切尔诺贝利核电厂退役及其后的放射性废料的管理进行规划。还提供帮助,以改进核电厂的管理结构和人力资源管理。 I. 应急准备 48. 经济合作与发展组织核能机构继续着重努力改善核紧急状况管理,最近的紧急状况后工作集中于后果管理。在这方面,从切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区吸取了极其宝贵的经验,并将这些经验广泛用于改善该机构成员国的应急准备。目前,利益攸关方参与后果管理是这项工作的一个核心主题,也是美国核管制委员会计划在2010年10月举办的工作会议的核心主题。 J. 环境安全 49. 环境署正在实施两个与切尔诺贝利有关的项目。其中之一,关于“白俄罗斯境内波列西耶国家辐射生态保护区受放射性沾染情况”的倡议,是在环境署协调的环境与安全倡议框架内制定的北约科学促进和平与安全方案的一部分。 该倡议着重制定关于波列西耶国家辐射和生态保护区受沾染情况的综合数据库,并对火灾和洪水等极端自然现象造成的辐射再分布后果进行估算。 50. 最近,白俄罗斯政府请求环境署给予援助,以便对不适合农业生产的受沾染土地用于生物燃料生产的环境效益和可行性进行评估。环境署已成立工作组,以研究这一技术援助项目可行性。 K. 其他倡议 51. 2009年,开发署捷克信托基金核准了一个新项目,题为“地方一级的善治:捷克共和国向白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰的切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区转让知识和专长”。将在一次研究访问期间安排一系列协商和圆桌讨论,重点内容是捷克在获取信息以及利益攸关者参与决策过程方面的经验。 52. 2008年,开发署驻乌克兰办事处与欧洲委员会共同组织了一次工作会议,题为“从切尔诺贝利事故遗留影响中吸取教训,使欧洲核能更安全:地方社区、当局和中央政府在应急准备和管理中的作用”。18个国家的地方当局代表出席了工作会议。 四. 宣传、信息和公众认识 A. 周年纪念活动 53. 切尔诺贝利事故周年纪念提供了一个机会,可以提醒国际社会关注受灾地区依然面临的种种问题,推动寻找潜在的解决办法。 54. 秘书长的发言人在切尔诺贝利灾难二十二周年、二十三周年和二十四周年之际发表的谈话已用英文和俄文广泛分发,这些谈话指出这场事故对该区域造成的巨大影响,同时也表示相信,事故受灾社区有机会、也有越来越多的办法过上正常的生活。秘书长呼吁国际社会继续支持切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的复原。 55. 在纪念切尔诺贝利事故二十二周年之际,联合国切尔诺贝利事故国际合作协调办公室组织放映了白俄罗斯获奖纪录片“切尔诺贝利丛林:没有人的二十年”,该片描述了禁区内的野生生物。切尔诺贝利事故二十三周年纪念活动适逢国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络启动之时。在二十四周年纪念活动中,欧洲复兴开发银行介绍了国际筹资环绕损毁反应堆修建安全掩蔽所的进展情况。 56. 联合国国家工作队和开发署各办事处组织了公众认识和宣传活动。2008年,开发署驻乌克兰办事处组织了国际媒体代表巡察采访。三个国家举行的其他纪念活动包括圆桌会议、社区项目完工揭幕式、讨论会和学习班。 57. 2009年4月,联合国切尔诺贝利事件国际合作协调办公室制作了一部题为“翻过这一页”的录像,其中拍摄了关于白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区的现状以及开发署实施切尔诺贝利相关项目的最新片断。
B.B.
Community-based development亲善大使
15. In Belarus, UNDP, UNICEF and UNFPA have started implementation of a three-year initiative aimed at enhancing human security in the Chernobyl-affected communities of the Slavgorod, Chechersk, Bragin, Stolin and Luninets districts. Supported by the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security, the project aims at increasing the incomes of farm holders by adopting agricultural innovations and ensuring that the radiation levels in their produce comply with radiation safety standards. Health issues are being addressed by promotion of healthy lifestyles among pregnant women, new mothers and their families. In addition, there is a focus on early diagnosis of breast cancer and improving the expertise of local health workers with regard to healthy maternity, paternity and childhood.58. 2007年2月,网球明星玛丽亚 沙拉波娃成为开发署的一名亲善大使。沙拉波娃女士与联合国切尔诺贝利事件国际合作协调办公室携手合作,向切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区,特别是向青年人传达了希望的信息。
16. In Ukraine, UNDP is applying an area-based development approach to support community-based initiatives aimed at the improvement of local infrastructure, water and gas supply and access to ICT. The approach was piloted in the Chernobyl-affected regions and subsequently expanded nation-wide as a joint European Union/ UNDP programme. The approach is now being used in 43 Chernobyl-affected villages in several districts. In 2008, the UNDP office in Ukraine and the United Nations Volunteers initiated a three-year project on the social inclusion of youth and civic engagement in Ukraine in the rural areas of Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv and Rivne oblasts. The over 300 youth who have volunteered for project activities in 20 rural youth centres have completed over 35 community-based projects.59. 玛丽亚 沙拉波娃基金会资助10万美元,在白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰农村社区实施了七个面向青年的项目。项目成果包括建立电脑和因特网使用途径、提高生态认识以及修复体育设施。2008年9月,开发署同玛丽亚 沙拉波娃基金会发起了另一项举措,即白俄罗斯的切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区青年奖学金。第一批奖学金获得者于2009年9月开始在白俄罗斯两所著名大学学习。
17. The UNDP office in Ukraine has conducted annual meetings of the Chernobyl Economic Development Forum. The meetings have provided a useful platform for business, local authorities and communities to discuss joint strategies to revitalize the local economy. UNDP also facilitated innovative partnerships between local authorities of the affected regions and their equivalent counterparts in States members of the European Union. In 2009, 19 partnership agreements were signed by regional governments in Poland and Ukraine. In addition, in Ukraine, the UNDP Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme cooperated with the Oxford University Ukrainian Society and the National University of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy” on a training programme for volunteers. Each year around 10 students from Oxford University participate in community-based activities.60. 2010年夏季,沙拉波娃女士对切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区进行了为期两天的访问,她在那里亲眼看到了几个由基金会资助并由开发署实施的面向青年的项目。她还宣布,再为一个2年体育方案捐款25万美元,作为白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰灾区复原努力的一部分。
18. The UNDP office in Belarus piloted the above-mentioned area-based development approach in the Chernobyl-affected districts of Vetka, Buda-Kosheliovo, Zhitkovichi and Khoiniki, focusing on building the developmental capacity of local communities and empowering the population to participate in the social and economic recovery of their settlements. The project will support mutually beneficial cooperation between the rural communities and local authorities, aimed at resolving the priority needs of Chernobyl-affected areas. Over 30 community-driven projects will be implemented in rural localities.C. 筹备二十五周年
19.61.
The UNICEF office in Ukraine is working on establishing family centres with recreational facilities in the affected communities of Rivne oblast and has implemented “Child Friendly Cities” initiatives in both Belarus and Ukraine as well as community-based projects for the rehabilitation and education of disabled children in the Gomel oblast of Belarus.为筹备切尔诺贝利事故二十五周年纪念活动,乌克兰政府拟于2011年4月召开国际会议,题为“切尔诺贝利灾难25周年:未来的安全”。会议将要讨论的问题包括:核能前景;政府和社区在核风险和放射性风险方面的合作;放射性废物管理战略;切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的预警和应灾系统及社会经济发展。乌克兰提出的召开国际会议的倡议得到白俄罗斯和俄罗斯联邦联合发起。已有多个联合国机构同意参加会议。
C.62.
Policy advice另外还计划在2011年4月开展各种国家活动,以纪念切尔诺贝利核事故二十五周年。
20. The UNDP office in Ukraine provides ongoing advisory support to the Government and is assisting in formulating forward-looking developmental strategies. Preparation of a comprehensive legal framework for revisiting the zoning status of affected territories in Ukraine remains one of the priority tasks. The alignment of zoning boundaries with current radiation levels will help lift the restrictions on economic and other activities where they would otherwise be possible and will encourage new investment.五. 结论和建议
D.63.
Subregional cooperation联合国系统各实体和各国政府商定,将通过促进受灾地区的长期发展,消除切尔诺贝利事故的遗留后果。为了实现这一目标,切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区仍然需要各种形式的援助,包括:开办社区项目;提供关于如何安全有益地生活在受灾土地上的信息;提供有助于满足地方复原和发展需要的新机会和建立有关的新伙伴关系。
21. The UNDP Office of United Nations Coordination of International Cooperation on Chernobyl has worked to strengthen subregional cooperation, particularly among UNDP teams working in affected areas in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Office has continued to build synergies in three priority areas: information; policy advice; and community development. Subregional annual conferences of UNDP teams working on the issue were held in January 2008 in Moscow; in March 2009 in Minsk, and in February 2010 in Kyiv.64. 联合国国家工作队将不断努力,在机构间和国际议程中使切尔诺贝利事故后复原问题继续处于重要地位。联合国各组织和机构之间的协调与合作应该以采取发展方式来处理切尔诺贝利问题、“联合国到2016年的切尔诺贝利问题行动计划”以及恢复切尔诺贝利事故受灾社区正常生活的目标为指导。应该继续开展次区域合作,并通过分享知识和最佳做法发挥协同作用。
22. Replication of best practices between the areas that face developmental challenges similar to those of the Chernobyl-affected regions remains a priority of subregional cooperation. Territories around the former nuclear site of Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan face problems similar to those of the Chernobyl-affected areas, which are related to poverty, poor living standards, lack of social services and opportunities for income generation, especially in rural settlements, as well as fears of radiation. The UNDP Chernobyl team undertook two knowledge sharing missions to the UNDP Semipalatinsk programme in Kazakhstan in November 2008 and June 2009.65. 今后的主要挑战之一是调动更多捐助资源支持地方举措、帮助最脆弱人群和确保切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的长期可持续发展。
E.66.
Infrastructure2011年是切尔诺贝利核事故二十五周年。它将为国际社会提供一个机会,不仅可以提醒人们记住这场灾难,而且可以加强捐助方对切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区的援助兴趣。将于2011年4月在乌克兰举行的国际会议可能成为一个契机,伙伴国家可对有利于当地民众的创新举措作出承诺和表示兴趣。
23. In 2006 the World Bank initiated a $50 million post-Chernobyl recovery project in Belarus that aims to provide the population residing in the Chernobyl-affected areas with energy efficient and reliable heat and hot water services. The project’s energy efficiency component includes the upgrading or replacement of heat production and distribution equipment and improvement of thermal insulation and lighting in public buildings. The residential gas connections component provides household connections to the existing gas distribution network for improving heat supply and curtailing the use of dirty fuels, including those that may be contaminated with radioactive material. About 3,000 individual houses will be connected to natural gas. At request of the Government of Belarus, the World Bank has prepared an additional loan of $30 million to fund further energy efficiency and residential gas connections activities in the affected rayons.67. 举办这次会议需要参与切尔诺贝利复原努力的联合国各组织给予合作。作为联合国就切尔诺贝利开展活动的牵头机构,开发署已为协调联合国系统各实体对这次会议的投入作好了准备。
24. The World Bank’s Water Supply and Sanitation Project, a $60 million initiative approved in September 2008, aims to increase the efficiency, quality and sustainability of water supply and sanitation services to 1.7 million people living in 20 districts of Belarus, including Chernobyl-affected areas.附件一 白俄罗斯的报告
F. Health[原件:俄文]
25. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is the body specifically mandated by the General Assembly to assess scientifically levels and effects of exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. In collaboration with scientists from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the Committee has updated its landmark 2000 evaluation on health effects due to irradiation from the accident with information that had since been scientifically verified. The Committee reported its findings to the Assembly in 2008, and the United Nations will be issuing supporting scientific annexes as a sales publication.消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果的国家政策基于从复原措施过渡到提高受灾地区的社会和经济潜力并确保其可持续发展。
26. Although much new research data has become available, the major conclusions regarding the scale and nature of the effects of radiation on health were consistent with the Committee’s reports of 1988 and 2000. Essentially, persons exposed as children to radioiodine from the accident and the highly irradiated emergency and recovery operation workers are at increased risk of radiation-induced effects. Most area residents, who were irradiated at levels comparable to or a few times higher than the yearly dose of natural background radiation levels, need not live in fear of serious health consequences.这一政策以方案为基础。白俄罗斯正在实施2006-2010年消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果国家方案,同时也在2006-2010年白俄罗斯-俄罗斯联盟国家框架内实施消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果联合活动方案。
27. Model-based predictions have been published about possible increases in solid cancer incidence among the general population, but uninformed reporting of these predictions had created confusion among the public. The Committee decided not to use models to project absolute numbers on the effects of radiation on populations exposed to the low doses because of unacceptable uncertainties in the predictions.这些措施有助于为受灾民众提供社会保护,减少对灾后应急工作人员及受灾人口健康的不良影响,使民众避免暴露于辐射,并实现受沾染地区的社会和经济复原。
28. The Committee observed that it was often difficult for the public and the media to appreciate that radiation risks, while serious for some exposed groups, were, for the general population, not as significant from a health point of view as they were often represented to be. With the exception of the early deaths among emergency workers, which were clinically attributable to acute radiation syndrome, and the small proportion of thyroid cancers that were fatal, the Committee found that it was not possible to attribute any specific deaths to irradiation from the accident.然而,由于放射性沾染范围广,辐射防护工作很复杂,需要继续采取有针对性的措施。受沾染地区仍有必要采取大规模农业保护行动。
29. As part of its ongoing work, the Committee will continue to evaluate relevant information to provide a scientific basis for better understanding of the effects of radiation on health. Since 1986, WHO has been involved in assessment and mitigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on health through a number of projects. These include the international project on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, completed in 1996, the study of thyroid cancer among children affected by the Chernobyl accident, the telemedicine project and the tissue bank project. WHO played a key role in the work of the Chernobyl Forum, which produced a benchmark report on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.白俄罗斯十分重视公众认识。多年来已在受灾地区建立了约50个信息中心;其中包括19个侧重于日常生活辐射防护和基本安全的信息和行动机构。为在本国受灾最严重地区工作的专家建立了电子数据库资源。
30. The WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer is coordinating the European Commission-funded project “Agenda for Research on Chernobyl Health”, which includes the establishment of a multidisciplinary group of experts who will identify and prioritize the potential studies, assess their feasibility, cost-effectiveness and likelihood of success and provide a reasoned and comprehensive strategic research agenda for future health-related research. A mechanism for long-term funding, similar to the action taken some years after the first atomic bomb exposures, is being suggested. The project seeks the active participation and inputs from the research community, stakeholders and members of the public during the preparation of the strategic research agenda, which will be presented by the end of 2010.在这方面,结合上述白俄罗斯-俄罗斯联邦联合行动方案采取了重要步骤,其中包括:在莫斯科和明斯克建立了白俄罗斯-俄罗斯联邦切尔诺贝利相关问题信息中心;公布了显示白俄罗斯和俄罗斯联邦受切尔诺贝利事故影响的目前和预测状况(到2056年)地图集。建立统一数据库和统一汇编切尔诺贝利事故后时期积累的资料(文件、照片、视频、音频和印刷品等)的工作正在进行。
31. In March 2008, UNICEF launched a special edition of its publication Facts for Life on Chernobyl, and distributing 35,000 copies in Chernobyl-affected communities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The edition was copublished by UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). In 2009, 13 posters with essential information from chapters of the Facts for Life special edition on Belarus were printed and disseminated. The posters offer information on radiation safety, family planning, safe motherhood, early child development and nutrition, assistance to disabled children and to mothers in the prenatal period, prevention of child trauma and HIV infection.白俄罗斯正继续与国际原子能机构、联合国开发计划署、世界卫生组织、联合国儿童基金会、世界银行和其他捐助方合作实施国际项目和方案。
32. In 2008-2009, UNICEF conducted a survey of knowledge about childcare and development among families in the Chernobyl-affected areas of the three countries and cleared up numerous Chernobyl-related misconceptions.切尔诺贝利问题国际合作目前的重点是在受影响地区开展辐射、环境、社会和经济综合复原工作,然后帮助这些地区过渡到可持续发展。最有希望和需求最高的是那些恢复和重新利用受沾染土地,同时考虑到辐射安全需要、发展工农业产出和创造就业机会的项目。各种涉及信息、提高灾区居民对辐射和环境的认识以及鼓励学习日常生活和健康生活技能的活动仍然是热门议题。
33. UNICEF is supporting the public information campaign on good parenting and education for young people in Chernobyl-affected regions. In the Brest oblast in Belarus, through a four-year project on life skills and healthy lifestyle educational programmes and manuals have been developed. Eleven newly created information resource centres in the Luninets district provide Chernobyl-related materials as well as materials on healthy lifestyles.为筹备切尔诺贝利灾难二十五周年纪念,白俄罗斯正计划举办以下国际活动:
34. In Belarus, UNICEF is supporting improvement of childcare and youth-friendly services and development of the capacity of medical professionals in the area of newborn intensive care. Under the European Commission-funded project “Children of Chernobyl”, medical equipment will be delivered to 15 central hospitals in a number of districts and oblasts. Five youth-friendly health centres have been opened, improving access to medical and counselling services. More than 100 social, medical workers and teachers from six Chernobyl-affected areas received training in “working with families to prevent child abandonment”.– 科学和实际问题会议(2011年4月,戈梅利);
35. In Ukraine, UNICEF is working on the improvement of health-care services for mothers and children in Chernobyl-affected areas. More than 300 health-care workers have been trained in effective prenatal, neonatal and paediatric care and infection control. Fifteen regional hospitals have been certified as “baby and family friendly”, and lifesaving equipment for infants has been provided to 10 regional hospitals. Also in Ukraine, UNICEF is supporting the establishment of family centres that deliver comprehensive basic services for vulnerable families and families with children that have special needs. A school for fathers has been organized as part of the family centres in order to bring about the broader involvement of fathers in the care and upbringing of children. A youth-friendly clinic, established in the city of Chernihiv, now serves around 1,000 adolescents per year. By the end of 2010, five new clinics will be providing health-care services for youth from the Chernobyl-affected regions of Ukraine.– 明斯克-莫斯科-基辅远程连线会议;
36. Since 2006, UNICEF has made the introduction of universal salt iodization one of the key elements in its advocacy efforts. In October 2007, the Parliament of Belarus adopted an iodine deficiency disorders/universal salt iodization amendment to its law on food safety, and national legislation was revised to comply with the provisions of the law; as a result, national monitoring of the quality of iodized salt and its availability in the retail trade is now in place. UNICEF efforts contributed to wider recognition that iodine deficiency has an impact on child development. Local iodine deficiency prevention programmes have been adopted in the Rivne and Vinnitsa oblasts of Ukraine and a programme is under preparation in the Chernihiv oblast.– 以“共同致力于灾区复苏”为主题的展览,重点展示白俄罗斯和国际社会为消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果所作的共同努力;
37. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, together with its member national societies in the three countries, continues to implement the Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Programme, ensuring detection of thyroid gland cancer and other thyroid pathologies and addressing basic health needs of the affected population. Starting in 2010, the activities related to the programme will be gradually integrated into national health-care systems in order to ensure long-term sustainability.– 专家网上问答会,以及灾区中小型企业代表巡察采访。
38. Six mobile diagnostic laboratories working in remote areas of the Brest, Gomel and Mogilev oblasts of Belarus, the Rivne and Zhytomyr oblasts of Ukraine and the Bryansk oblast of the Russian Federation provide the services of the Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Programme. The laboratories screen about 90,000 persons annually. Screenings in 2009 detected 40,890 thyroid pathologies and referred 12,873 patients to specialized medical institutions for indepth examinations. Some 178 cases of thyroid cancer were confirmed in 2009. To address the stress and anxiety of the affected population, the programme focuses on psychosocial support. These efforts contribute to healthier lifestyles, combating, inter alia, alcohol and drug abuse. In 2009, breast screening and HIV prevention activities were also introduced under the programme.切尔诺贝利问题国际合作的未来发展应该以改进援助方法为核心,主要通过受灾国家采取措施,谋求国际项目和方案的有效协调。
39. In Belarus, UNDP implemented a USAID-funded “family health” project with focus on the radio-ecological education of health-care professionals, pregnant women and nursing mothers, future fathers, secondary school teachers and schoolchildren in Chernobyl-affected regions. An information and advisory centre, “Dialogue”, was established, offering health-related consultations. The project developed guidelines, training materials and a film on healthy lifestyles, healthy pregnancy, delivery and childcare. Implemented activities improved the knowledge and skills of health-care workers and teachers and enhanced the awareness of youth about healthy lifestyles.合作的优先事项应该是建立一个管理灾区经济和社会发展的简化系统。受沾染地区的可持续发展,社会基础设施的发展,以及增加收入并减少灾区居民未来对国家社会援助的依赖等问题,如果没有国家和国际各级的大力支持,就没有解决的希望。这还需要采取有系统、有针对性的努力,提供信息援助有关地区,恢复它们的形象,适当帮助它们吸引投资,并积极促使居民参与重新创造良好的生活条件。
40. Since 2009, UNDP has been working in Belarus on the establishment of an international scientific and practical centre for thyroid disease within the framework of the initiative funded by the European Commission. The centre will: (a) provide medical care services to the most vulnerable categories of the Chernobyl-affected population; (b) ensure continuous monitoring of the currently observed patients and the risk groups; (c) develop a scientific platform to exchange knowledge and expertise between national and international experts; and (d) provide educational seminars and develop materials about the impact of radiation as well as preventive measures against thyroid cancer.附件二 俄罗斯联邦的报告
G. Radiation mitigation and standard setting[原件:俄文]
41. Mitigation of consequences of Chernobyl has been one of the priority areas for the IAEA technical cooperation programme in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Various practical solutions for mitigating some of the effects of Chernobyl fallout in affected zones have been proposed.尽量减少切尔诺贝利灾难影响的工作集中在改善对那些生活在灾区的民众、灾难后应急工作人员和他们的孩子的医疗支助;改善那些人口群体的生活水平,使农业和林业恢复经济活动。俄罗斯联邦对这些问题投入了极大的重视。
42. IAEA continues to provide support to Belarus in remediation of the affected areas and, through its regional initiative, offers radiological support for the rehabilitation of Chernobyl-affected areas in the three countries. In particular, training was provided to national specialists on the use of IAEA software to optimize remediation strategies. The software can be used for the development of national approaches to remediation strategies, optimized and harmonized with international safety standards and good practices. It also allows for better comparison of strategies between the affected countries. Several regional workshops have been organized on new technical developments in the rehabilitation of areas contaminated by inorganic pollutants.关于向切尔诺贝利核电厂灾难的辐射受害公民提供社会保护的俄罗斯联邦法案,保证对灾难造成的个人健康和财产损害给予赔偿;保证对在辐射污染超过许可水平的地区工作和生活的危险造成的损害给予赔偿;保证社会援助。
H. Reactor safety and nuclear waste management根据该法案,社会援助的程度取决于个人情况,规定每月支付年度指数化的款项,为那些需要改善生活条件的提供住宿,为住宿和社区服务提供优惠价格,提供额外的有薪假,为辐射造成的健康损害每月支付赔偿金,为获得食品供应提供帮助,并提供其他形式的社会援助。
43. The Chernobyl accident spurred large-scale cooperation to support Ukraine in building a new shelter around the damaged reactor. The Chernobyl Shelter Fund, managed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, was established in 1997 to carry out the shelter implementation plan to transform Chernobyl unit 4, destroyed in the accident, into a stable and environmentally safe condition. Twenty-nine countries, led by member States of the Group of Eight, the European Union and Ukraine, have pledged more than 900 million euros (€) to implement the programme. Amid the global economic and financial crisis, the “materializing” of the pledged contributions has become an important priority.俄罗斯联邦正在执行题为“当前至2010年处理辐射事故后果”的联邦特别方案,其主要目标是到2011年基本完成地理区域的社会和经济恢复,保护民众免受辐射影响,使受辐射污染影响的地区恢复人类居住和经济活动的正常使用(即没有与辐射相关的限制)。该方案的目的是在污染地区建立安全居住所需的基础设施;制定并执行措施,以保障受到辐射有害影响的人的健康,包括目标明确的专门医疗援助;在受污染地区创造开展安全林业活动的条件;建立目标明确的监测系统和系统组成部分,对受污染地区的情况进行预测;并通过提供信息和开展社会恢复/心理康复活动,为在那些地区生活的人提供支助。
44. The shelter implementation plan has entered its final phase. Major infrastructure, preparatory and engineering projects have been successfully completed as well as the demanding task of stabilizing the existing structure surrounding the damaged reactor to reduce the collapse risk. Since September 2007 a contract for the design and construction of a new safe confinement is in place. It will enclose the site and its radioactive inventory for at least 100 years and provide equipment for future safe dismantling and removal operations. The design work for the arch shaped structure, which will be assembled next to the destroyed unit and slid into place, is nearing completion and should receive all necessary regulatory approvals in the second half of 2010. Site clean-up, preparation and excavation works in the contaminated surroundings of the reactor are virtually complete and work on the foundations for the arch can start later in 2010. A substantial part of the more than 20,000 tons of steel required to build the arch have been ordered.2002年至2009年为在切尔诺贝利周边开展的与方案有关的措施提供的联邦预算资金,按相应年度的价格计算,超过了30亿卢布。同期,从俄罗斯联邦各组成实体的预算中又争取了约10亿卢布。资金用于每次换班可接受1 600人次就诊的综合医院、可容纳2 300名学生的学校、约820公里长的天然气管道和150多公里长的水网管道、40 000多平方米的住所等等。这些设施的建立改善了400 000多名生活在辐射污染地区居民的生活条件。
45. The approach to slide the new safe confinement into place rather than to assemble it on site was taken in an effort to minimize the exposure of the workers to radiation. High health and safety as well as radiation protection standards are a nonnegotiable priority in the implementation of all works at the site even though it adds to construction time and cost. The site operator, contractors and regulators so far achieved an excellent safety record.以现有的国家医疗机构为基础,在联邦地区建立了专门的医疗中心,并配有必须的设备。目的是为那些暴露于辐射有害影响的人提供专门治疗。这些中心是:
46. Cost and schedule for the programme can be refined only once the detailed design for the new safe confinement is completed. Currently it is expected that work will conclude by 2013 and that the overall costs of the shelter implementation plan will be well above €1 billion. Donors are aware that the programme is not fully funded and efforts are under way to raise the additional funds required to complete the project.紧急情况部急救和辐射医学中心(圣彼得堡);
47. IAEA continues to support Ukraine in planning of the decommissioning of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and subsequent radioactive waste management. Assistance is also provided to improve management structures and human resources management at the plant.俄罗斯放射学及核医学科学中心(莫斯科);
I. Emergency preparedness罗斯托夫国立医科大学(顿河畔罗斯托夫);
48. The Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development continues to focus efforts on improving nuclear emergency management, with recent post-emergency work concentrating on consequence management. In that context, the extremely valuable experience coming from the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident is being extensively used to improve the response preparedness of the member States of the Agency. Stakeholder involvement in consequence management is currently a central theme of this work, and of a workshop planned by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for October 2010.俄罗斯医学科学院科学医疗和放射中心(卡卢加州奥布宁斯克)。
J. Environmental security这些工作使每年为暴露于切尔诺贝利灾难辐射有害影响的2 000多人提供专门的、技术先进的医疗成为可能。
49. UNEP is implementing two Chernobyl-related projects. One initiative, on the “Radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus in the Polessie State Radiation-Ecologic Reserve”, is part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme, within the framework of the UNEP-coordinated Environment and Security Initiative. It focuses on developing a comprehensive database on contamination of the Polessie State Radiation and Ecological Reserve and an estimate of the consequences of radiation redistribution resulting from extreme natural phenomena, such as fires and flooding.方案中设定的在2011年底之前实现的目标似乎可以按期实现。但是切尔诺贝利灾难后果的长期性及其范围使得2010年方案不可能完全解决全部有重大社会影响的问题。这是一系列因素导致的结果:
50. Most recently, the Government of Belarus requested UNEP support with the assessment of the environmental benefits and feasibility of biofuel production on contaminated land that is not suitable for agricultural production. A task group is established at UNEP to look into the feasibility of such a technical assistance project.( 辐射风险升级以及对民众健康造成的负面影响;
K. Other initiatives( 半衰期约30年的长效铯和锶放射性核素的污染,损害了辐射卫生状况(超过允许水平的放射性核素污染了农业和林业产品);
51. In 2009, the UNDP Czech Trust Fund approved a new project entitled “Good governance at the local level: transfer of knowledge and expertise from the Czech Republic to Chernobyl-affected areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine”. A series of consultations and round-table discussions will be organized during a study visit focusing on the Czech experience in access to information and stakeholders’ participation in the decision-making process.( 该地区辐射污染的范围和多样性。
52. In 2008, the UNDP office in Ukraine co-organized with the Council of Europe a workshop on “Learning from the Chernobyl legacy to make European nuclear energy safer: the role of local communities, authorities and central governments in emergency preparedness and management”. Representatives of local authorities from 18 countries attended the workshop.俄罗斯紧急情况部题为“当前至2015年处理辐射事故后果”的联邦特别方案设定了如下目标:
IV. Advocacy, information and public awareness到2015年,为暴露于辐射事故和灾难导致的辐射的地区提供安全日常居住、生活和经济活动的必须条件;
A. Anniversary commemorations完成一系列消除辐射事故后果的联邦项目,为将来转而由地区一级负责开展解决辐射污染地区的问题的努力,建立方法、技术和后勤基础。
53. Anniversaries of the Chernobyl accident offer an opportunity to remind the world of the problems that the affected region continues to face, and to promote potential solutions.切尔诺贝利的后果并非仅限于一个国家。俄罗斯联邦正积极与其他国家和国际组织在有关消除灾难后果的相关事项方面进行合作。
54. Statements attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General, released on the twenty-second, twenty-third and twenty-fourth anniversaries of the Chernobyl disaster and widely circulated in English and Russian, addressed the huge impact that the accident had on the region while also expressing confidence that communities affected by the accident have a chance and, increasingly, the means, to lead a normal life. The Secretary-General called upon the international community to continue supporting the recovery of Chernobyl-affected areas.目前,在2006-2010年联盟国家框架内采取联合行动消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果方案背景下,与白俄罗斯共和国开展了最紧密的合作。该联盟方案的目标是制定和增强白俄罗斯-俄罗斯联邦消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果的共同努力的协调要素和机制。其目标是:加强为受切尔诺贝利灾难影响的俄罗斯和白俄罗斯国民提供目标明确的专门医疗援助的系统各组成部分;创造条件,确保两国暴露于该事故导致的辐射污染的农业和林业土地的安全使用;通过一般信息政策让联盟国家人民对事故后果有适当的认识。
55. In commemoration of the twenty-second anniversary of Chernobyl, the Office of the United Nations Coordination of International Cooperation on Chernobyl organized the screening of an award-winning documentary from Belarus “The Chernobyl Jungles: Twenty Years without a Human”, which depicts wild life in the exclusion zone. Commemoration of the twenty-third anniversary of Chernobyl coincided with the launch of the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network, and the twenty-fourth anniversary event featured a presentation by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development on progress in the internationally funded effort to build a safe shelter around the destroyed reactor.为2006年至2009年在俄罗斯联邦开展的活动提供的资金达5亿多卢布。作为联盟方案的一部分,通过使用已建立的保健设施和利用新的医疗技术,每年向2 000多名暴露于切尔诺贝利灾难造成的辐射影响的俄罗斯和白俄罗斯国民提供先进技术援助。一个统一的切尔诺贝利登记册成为管理目标明确的医疗援助和组织大型辐射和流行病学研究的基础。2009年完成了一个项目,建立了切尔诺贝利事故对俄罗斯联邦和白俄罗斯受灾地区目前的影响及预期影响图集。
56. Public awareness and advocacy events were organized by United Nations country teams and UNDP offices. In 2008, the UNDP Office in Ukraine undertook a press-tour for international media representatives. Other commemorative events in the three countries included round tables, opening ceremonies of completed community projects, seminars and learning sessions.为确保有效实施有关解决切尔诺贝利灾难后果措施的共同信息政策,建立了白俄罗斯-俄罗斯联邦信息中心,在莫斯科及明斯克开设了分支机构。
57. In April 2009, the Office of the United Nations Coordination of International Cooperation on Chernobyl produced a video “Turning the Page”, with up-to-date footage from Chernobyl-affected communities and Chernobyl-related projects implemented by UNDP in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰在解决与切尔诺贝利有关的问题方面的合作在以令人鼓舞的方式不断发展和扩大。
B. Goodwill Ambassador俄罗斯是切尔诺贝利论坛工作的积极参与者。俄罗斯紧急情况部管理与开发署、国际原子能机构、世卫组织和儿基会进行的消除灾难负面影响的项目中俄罗斯的参与。
58. In February 2007, tennis star Maria Sharapova became a UNDP Goodwill Ambassador. Ms. Sharapova partnered with the Office of United Nations Coordination of International Cooperation on Chernobyl in delivering the message of hope to the Chernobyl-affected communities, particularly to youth.这些项目包括国际原子能机构区域性项目RER3/004,为切尔诺贝利核电站事故受灾地区的复兴方案提供放射方面的支助,以及开发署、世卫组织和儿基会在国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络框架内开展的项目。
59. With the financial support from Maria Sharapova Foundation at the level of $100,000, seven youth-focused projects were implemented in rural communities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Their results include creation of computer and Internet access, promoting ecological awareness and restoring sports facilities. In September 2008, UNDP and the Maria Sharapova Foundation launched another initiative, a scholarship for youth from Chernobyl-affected areas of Belarus. The first recipients of the scholarship started their studies at the two leading universities of Belarus in September 2009.2009年和2010年,为图拉州乌兹洛瓦亚市和奥廖尔(Oryol)州沃尔霍夫市的医疗工作者举办了世卫组织和国际原子能机构专家参与的培训研讨会。2009年,作为开发署(国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络)项目的一部分,为在布良斯克、奥廖尔、图拉和卡卢加州生活在辐射污染地区的民众开展了关于日常生活安全的宣传运动。
60. In summer 2010, Ms. Sharapova made a two-day visit to the Chernobyl-affected areas of Belarus where she saw first-hand a number of youth-focused projects financed by the Foundation and implemented by UNDP. She also announced another contribution of $250,000 for a 2-year sports programme as part of recovery efforts in the affected areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.大会2007年11月20日关于加强国际合作和协调努力以研究、减轻和尽量减少切尔诺贝利灾难的后果的第62/9号决议确认解决这些问题的迫切需要。俄罗斯联邦支持和参与了根据这一决议编制的联合国到2010年切尔诺贝利复原行动计划。
C. Towards the twenty-fifth anniversary鉴于切尔诺贝利事故后果的长期性和在管理辐射事故后果方面已经取得的经验,提出了下列建议:
61. In preparation for the commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the Government of Ukraine proposed the organization of an international conference, “25 years after the Chernobyl disaster: safety for the future”, to be held in April 2011. The issues to be discussed include prospects for nuclear energy, cooperation of Governments and communities on nuclear and radiological risks, strategies for radioactive waste management, early warning and disaster response systems and socio-economic development of the Chernobyl-affected areas. The initiative of Ukraine to convene an international conference was co-sponsored by Belarus and the Russian Federation. A number of United Nations agencies agreed to participate in the conference.建议白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰三国政府利用各项特别方案并在政府间和国家特别方案协助下,继续解决尽量减少切尔诺贝利核电站事故后果的问题;
62. National events are also planned for the commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in April 2011.支助白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰三国政府向暴露于灾难造成的辐射的公民提供目标明确的专门医疗援助,并针对生活在辐射污染地区的民众实施心理和社会适应措施。
V. Conclusions and recommendations继续在辐射污染地区就安全的日常生活针对所有公众和特别群体开展广泛的宣传和教育。
63. The entities of the United Nations system and Governments agreed to address the lingering consequences of Chernobyl by fostering the affected region’s long-term development. To make this aim a reality, Chernobyl-affected communities still require assistance in the form of community-based projects, information on how to live safe and productive lives in the affected territories, and new opportunities and partnerships that would help meeting the local recovery and development needs.巩固白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦、乌克兰政府和国际组织的工作,以确保从复兴农业和林业的角度实现辐射污染地区可持续的社会经济发展。
64. United Nations country teams will make a continuous effort to keep the issues of post-Chernobyl recovery high on the inter-agency and international agendas. Coordination and cooperation among the organizations and bodies of the United Nations system should be guided by the developmental approach to Chernobyl, the United Nations action plan on Chernobyl to 2016 and the goal of bringing life in the Chernobyl-affected communities back to normal. Subregional cooperation should be continued and synergies obtained from knowledge sharing and best practices.为了介绍外国专家的经验,在白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦和乌克兰建立国际培训中心,专门进行辐射防护、公共信息、辐射污染地区的复原、大规模辐射污染情况下的决策以及应对涉及辐射的恐怖主义行为等方面的工作。
65. One of the major challenges that lie ahead is the mobilization of more donor resources to support the local initiatives, helping the most vulnerable and ensuring the long-term sustainable development of the Chernobyl-affected territories.白俄罗斯、俄罗斯联邦、乌克兰和国际组织共同努力,为切尔诺贝利事件25周年做准备并举行纪念活动。
66. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, which will be marked in 2011, will provide an opportunity for the international community not only to remind people of the disaster but also to reinforce donor interest in assistance to communities in the affected region. The international conference that will take place in Ukraine in April 2011 may be the time for partner countries to demonstrate commitment and express interest to new and innovative initiatives for the benefit of local populations.附件三 乌克兰的报告
67. The organization of the conference will require the cooperation of all United Nations organizations that participate in Chernobyl recovery efforts. UNDP, in its role as lead agency for United Nations activities on Chernobyl, is prepared to coordinate conference inputs by all entities of the United Nations system.[原件:俄文]
Annex 1依照乌克兰关于2006-2010年期间消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果国家方案法,乌克兰政府在消除灾难后果方面的紧迫任务是帮助受害居民进行综合医疗和社会心理康复,对这些居民提供社会保护以及在受辐射污染地区创造安全的居住条件。受辐射污染的居民点和地区的社会、经济复兴是国家政策的优先目标。
Report of Belarus根据2006-2010年国家方案的宗旨与目的以及乌克兰关于切尔诺贝利灾难受害公民地位和社会保护法,受害者每年接受医疗检查和治疗。建立了为筛查、医治受害者并对其进行社会心理康复治疗的专门中心和治疗机构,包括儿童中心。
[Original: Russian]为了提供更有效的医疗和社会服务,建立了切尔诺贝利灾难受害者国家登记册。截至2010年1月1日,登记册中登记有2 339 532人。
The State policy for overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster is based on a transition from rehabilitation measures to improving the social and economic potential of, and ensuring sustainable development in, the affected regions.2009年,2 167 088名切尔诺贝利灾难受害者接受了健康机构的医疗观察,包括378 696名儿童。这些人当中,1 877 296人被确诊患病,一直需要医疗援助。为了给这些受害者提供医疗援助,建立了由37家国家和地区医疗机构以及300家本地医疗机构组成的网络。
That policy is programme-based. Belarus is implementing both the 2006-2010 State programme for overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster and the programme of joint activities for overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster within the framework of the Belarus-Russian Federation Union State for 2006-2010.国家在克服灾难影响方面的头等优先事项是保健、社会保护和辐射防护领域的国际合作以及利用可得的全球经验。
These measures have made it possible to provide social protection for those affected by the disaster, to reduce the risk of negative effects on health for the postdisaster emergency workers and for the affected population, to succeed in protecting the population from exposure to radiation and achieve the social and economic rehabilitation of the contaminated areas.多年来,乌克兰政府一直与由联合国开发计划署在乌克兰执行的切尔诺贝利复原和发展方案进行合作。该方案的目的是减少灾难的长期社会经济和生态影响,为受污染地区的居民建立良好的生活条件,并促进他们参加社会行动,使其对自己的生命更加负责。
However, the extensive radioactive contamination and the complexity of radiation protection require that the targeted measures should continue. Large-scale protective action in agriculture in the contaminated zones remains justified.向受影响人群提供社会心理支助的有效方式是提高人们对受污染地区环境状况和安全居住的认识。在联合国支助下建立的中心正在进行这项工作,从事社会心理康复服务,它们并共向公众提供如何应对灾难后果等信息。中心目前的行动领域包括社会动员和社区发展方案,这些都正在切尔诺贝利复原和发展方案框架中执行。
Belarus has placed great importance on public awareness. Over previous years, some 50 information centres have been established in the affected areas; these have included 19 information and action agencies focusing on radiation protection and basic safety in everyday life. An electronic information database has been established for specialists working in the most seriously affected parts of the country.2009年,在世卫组织、原子能机构、开发署、儿基会等联合国机构参与下,启动了国际切尔诺贝利研究和信息网络项目。项目协调方是乌克兰紧急情况部。该项目旨在在受灾民众中传播关于辐射污染地区安全居住和健康生活方式的可靠信息。在该项目下已举办各项活动,帮助当地社区“恢复正常生活”。
Important steps in that connection have been taken in the context of the Belarus-Russian Federation programme of joint activities referred to above. They include the establishment of a Belarus-Russian Federation information centre on Chernobyl-related matters with branches in Moscow and Minsk and the publication of an atlas showing the current and projected (until 2056) effects of the Chernobyl accident in Belarus and the Russian Federation. Work is proceeding to set up a single database and single collection of materials (documentation, photo, video, audio and printed matter, etc.) accumulated in the post-Chernobyl period.2009年底,与儿基会合作启动了题为“改善在切尔诺贝利事故受灾地区生活的儿童健康”的新项目的工作。该项目的目的是培训医疗工作者,提供基本医疗设备和建立帮助有孩子的家庭更便于获得医疗、社会和信息服务的中心。
Belarus is continuing to implement international projects and programmes in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Bank and other donors.切尔诺贝利核电站事故放射性物质的释放导致乌克兰2 293个住区和城镇遭受了放射性污染。
International cooperation regarding Chernobyl is currently focusing on comprehensive radiation, environmental, social and economic rehabilitation of the affected zones, and on subsequent transition to sustainable development in those zones. The projects which hold the most promise and are most in demand are those to rehabilitate and bring back into use contaminated land, taking into account the need for radiation safety, the development of agricultural and industrial output and job creation. Still highly topical are activities relating to information, to improving the radiological and environmental awareness of the inhabitants of affected areas and to encouraging skills connected with safety in everyday life and healthy living.根据乌克兰现行立法,放射性污染地区达到将近54 000平方公里。大约2 254万人,包括497 000儿童生活在这些地区。
In preparation for the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Belarus is planning to hold the following international events:过去三年,在乌克兰关于消除切尔诺贝利灾难后果国家方案法下进行了下列活动:
– a conference focusing on scientific and practical issues (April 2011, Homel);– 开展全面工作,以确定受污染地区的环境状况,包括铯-137和锶-90的污染密度;
– a Minsk-Moscow-Kyiv telebridge;– 用放射性剂量仪对乌克兰12个州的住区进行检测;
– an exhibition with the theme “Working together to resurrect the affected areas”, focusing on the joint efforts of Belarus and the international community to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster;– 监测食品、林业产品和药用植物的放射性污染水平,并进一步为放射性实验室配备设备和提供支助。这些活动由辐射监测单位进行,其网络包括在污染地区工作的123个实验室和中心;
– an Internet-based experts’ question-and-answer session and a press tour of the affected areas for representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises.– 与这些地区的放射性复原有关的一些活动,包括改善生活条件和在那里重新开始进行农业生产的措施;
The future development of international cooperation regarding Chernobyl should centre on refining approaches to assistance, primarily by seeking effective coordination of international projects and programmes with the measures taken by the affected countries.– 确保在可接受的污染水平内进行农业生产的一些措施。
Cooperation should give priority to establishing a streamlined system to manage the economic and social development of the affected areas. Unless substantial national and international support is provided, there will be no prospect of addressing such issues as sustainable development of the contaminated areas, the development of social infrastructure or increasing incomes and decreasing the future dependence of those living in the affected areas on state social assistance. This will also require systematic and targeted efforts to provide information to support the areas concerned, restore their image, furnish appropriate help to attract investment and actively involve the inhabitants in re-establishing proper living conditions.林业方面的辐射状况仍然十分复杂。科学研究表明树木、浆果、草药、蘑菇和野生鸟兽有放射性核素的累积。在森林中正在进行一些灭火行动,以增强森林的健康防护功能,预防对周围地区的二次放射污染。对林业产品进行辐射监测。
Annex 2 Report of the Russian Federation当今的主要挑战是怎样从预防消费污染产品的措施转向污染地区的复原和全面复兴。
[Original: Russian]与联合国进行进一步合作最具潜力的渠道是:
Minimizing the effects of the Chernobyl disaster centres on refining the medical support given to those living in the affected areas, the post-disaster emergency workers and their children; improving the living standards of those population groups and restoring agriculture and forestry to economic activity. The Russian Federation has devoted considerable attention to these issues.– 通过给专门的医疗设施配备先进的治疗、诊断设备和医疗用品,提供实际帮助和技术援助,以保证对受害者和那些需要进行复杂的心脏和脑部手术、器官移植或者癌症治疗的人提供恰当的医疗帮助;
The Act of the Russian Federation for the social protection of citizens exposed to radiation caused by the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant guarantees compensation for the harm to individuals’ health and property resulting from the disaster; compensation for the harm caused by the risks of living and working in the area affected by radioactive contamination above permitted levels; and social assistance.– 为民众社会心理康复区域间中心提供援助,为民众提供有关如何应对切尔诺贝利灾难影响的信息;这些中心不仅在民众间进行心理以及康复工作,开展外联活动,还帮助生活在污染地区的社区发展能力,引入社会经济发展项目;
The extent of social assistance varies according to the status of the individual, in accordance with the Act, and provides for annually indexed monthly payments, for the supply of accommodation to those in need of improved living conditions, for advantageous rates for accommodation and communal services, for extra paid leave, for monthly compensatory payments for the damage to health caused by radiation, for assistance in acquiring food supplies and for other forms of social assistance.– 继续对甲状腺癌进行研究,尤其是在事故发生时不到18岁的人当中,并且继续进行碘缺乏症的治疗,尤其在儿童中;
The Russian Federation is implementing the federal special programme entitled “Dealing with the consequences of radiation accidents up to the year 2010”, the main aim of which is to largely complete by 2011 the measures for the social and economic rehabilitation of geographical areas and protection of the population from radiation and the return of radiation-contaminated areas to normal use (that is, without radiation-related restrictions) for human habitation and economic activity. The purpose of the programmes is to establish the infrastructure needed for safe habitation in the contaminated areas; to develop and implement measures to safeguard the health of individuals exposed to harmful effects of radiation, including targeted specialized medical assistance; establishing conditions for safe forestry activity in the contaminated areas; developing targeted monitoring systems and system components and forecasting the situation in the contaminated areas; and providing support in the form of information and social/psychological rehabilitation for individuals living in those areas.– 在医疗、环境、青年和社会经济问题方面,与联合国进行更广泛的合作(根据切尔诺贝利论坛的建议);
The federal budget funds provided between 2002 and 2009 for the programme-related measures carried out in the vicinity of Chernobyl, at the prices for the corresponding years, exceeds 3 billion roubles. During the same period, a further amount of approximately 1 billion roubles was solicited from the budgets of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The funds were used for polyclinics receiving over 1,600 visits per shift; schools with a capacity of 2,300 pupils, some 820 kilometres of gas pipe and over 150 kilometres of water network pipe, over 40,000 square metres of living accommodation, and so on. The establishment of these facilities improved living conditions for over 400,000 inhabitants of the radiation-contaminated areas.– 2011年4月1日与白俄罗斯和俄罗斯联邦一起举办了题为“切尔诺贝利事故后25年,未来的安全”国际会议;以及
Taking as a basis existing State medical establishments, specialized medical centres have been set up in the federal districts and provided with the necessary equipment. Their purpose is to provide specialized treatment for those exposed to the harmful effects of radiation.– 与白俄罗斯和俄罗斯联邦的专家一起举办了国际因特网会议。
National Centre for Emergency and Radiation Medicine of the Ministry for Emergency Situations (St. Petersburg);乌克兰政府对切尔诺贝利核电站的问题给予了特别关注。2008年至2010年,为使核电厂退役开展了大量工作,并将掩蔽设施改造成对环境安全的系统。已预先采取各项措施,确保第1、2、3号机组以及1号乏燃料储存设施和掩蔽工程的安全,确保核电厂工业场所核材料的实物保护,并遵守国际原子能机构关于储存的要求。
Russian Scientific Centre for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Moscow);2008年至2010年,由于国际技术援助,在液态放射性废料后处理设施、乏燃料储存设施(2号)、固态放射性废料工业综合体建设以及掩蔽所实施计划方面取得了重大进展。
Rostov State Medical University (Rostov-on-Don); Scientific Medical and Radiological Centre of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Obninsk, Kaluga Region).但是,乌克兰对切尔诺贝利电厂现场的放射性废料表示关注,该场地受到了很大的放射性污染的影响。在对事故进行清理以及机组运行过程中,产生了大量的放射性废料。现在核电厂没有足够的生产或财政能力来处理如此大量的废料。缺乏综合废料管理系统对切尔诺贝利核电厂国际项目的执行,主要是掩蔽所实施计划的执行产生了负面影响。切尔诺贝利掩蔽所基金的捐助方多次对此事表示关注。
These efforts have made it possible to provide specialized, technologically advanced, medical treatment each year to over 2,000 people exposed to the harmful effects of radiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster.成功解决切尔诺贝利核电站退役问题以及对掩蔽所进行改造问题在很大程度上取决于设施的基础设施能否及时完工。这包括乏燃料储存设施、液态放射性废料后处理设施以及固态放射性废料的工业综合体的修建。现在这些设施在核电厂场址处于不同的建设阶段。这些设施未能及时完工对掩蔽所新防护层的建设和核电厂的退役造成了延误。
The goals set in the programme for achievement by 2011 seem on course to be achieved. However, the long-term character and the scale of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster make it impossible to speak of complete resolution of all the socially significant problematic issues in the context of the 2010 programme. This is the result of a number of factors: the presence of elevated radiation risks and negative effects on the health of the population; contamination with long-lived caesium and strontium radionuclides with half-lives of approximately 30 years, which damages the radiation hygiene situation (contamination of agricultural and forestry products with higher-than-permitted levels of radionuclides); the scale and variety of radioactive contamination of the territory. Under the federal special programme entitled “Dealing with the consequences of radiation accidents for the period up to 2015” of the Russian Ministry for Emergency Situations, the following objectives have been set: Provision by 2015 of the conditions necessary for safe everyday habitation living and economic activities in territories exposed to radiation as a result of radiation accidents and disasters; Completion of a series of federal projects to overcome the consequences of radiation accidents and the establishment of the methodological, technical and logistical basis for transferring to the regional level future efforts to address the problems of territories with radioactive contamination. The consequences of Chernobyl are not limited to one State. The Russian Federation is working actively with other countries and international organizations on matters related to overcoming the consequences of that disaster. Currently, the closest cooperation is with the Republic of Belarus, in the context of the Programme of joint activities for overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster within the framework of the Union State for 2006-2010. The goal of the Union Programme is to establish and enhance coordinated elements and mechanisms of joint Belarus-Russian Federation efforts to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Its objectives are to enhance the components of the system for providing targeted specialized medical assistance to Russian and Belarusian nationals who were affected by the Chernobyl disaster; establishing conditions to ensure the safe use of agricultural and forest lands in both countries exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident; and instilling an adequate understanding on the part of the population of the Union State concerning the consequences of the accident by means of a general information policy. Financing of the activities carried out in the Russian Federation between 2006 and 2009 amounted to over 500 million rubles. As part of the Union Programme, technologically advanced assistance is provided annually to more than 2,000 Russian and Belarusian nationals exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster, by using the health-care facilities which have been established and by exploiting new medical technologies. A unified Chernobyl registry serves as the basis for managing targeted medical assistance and organizing large-scale radiation and epidemiological studies. In 2009, a project to create an atlas of current and forecast effects of the Chernobyl accident on affected parts of the Russian Federation and Belarus was completed. To ensure effective implementation of a common information policy regarding measures to address the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, a Belarus-Russian Federation information centre has been set up, with branches in Moscow and Minsk. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and Ukraine to resolve Chernobyl-related problems has been developing and expanding in an encouraging way. The Russian Federation is an active participant in the work of the Chernobyl Forum. The Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation manages Russian involvement in projects with UNDP, IAEA, WHO and UNICEF to overcome the negative consequences of the disaster. Such projects include IAEA regional project RER 3/004, Radiological Support for the Rehabilitation of the Areas Affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident, and UNDP, WHO and UNICEF projects carried out within the framework of the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN). In 2009 and 2010, training seminars involving international WHO and IAEA experts were held for medical workers in the cities of Uzlovaya in the Tula region and Volkhova in the Oryol region. In 2009, there was a public information campaign on safety in daily living for people living in areas with radioactive contamination in Bryansk, Oryol, Tula and Kaluga regions, as part of a UNDP (ICRIN) project. General Assembly resolution 62/9 of 20 November 2007 on strengthening of international cooperation and coordination of efforts to study, mitigate and minimize the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster confirms the pressing need to address these issues. The Russian Federation supports and participates in the United Nations action plan for Chernobyl recovery up to 2010 prepared in accordance with this resolution. Given the long-term nature of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the experience already gained in managing the consequences of radiation accidents, the following is proposed: To recommend to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine that they continue addressing the issues of minimizing the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant using special programmes and with assistance from intergovernmental and national special programmes; To support the efforts of the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to provide targeted specialized medical assistance to citizens exposed to radiation due to the disaster and to implement psychological and social adaptation measures for those living in areas of radioactive contamination; To continue with broad information and education on matters of safe daily living in areas of radioactive contamination for the public as a whole and for specific groups; To consolidate the efforts of the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and international organizations to ensure sustainable socioeconomic development of radioactively contaminated territories from the perspective of rehabilitating agriculture and forestry; To set up, for the purpose of transmitting the experience of foreign specialists, international training centres in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine specializing in radiation protection and public information, rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated territories, decision-making in conditions of large-scale radioactive contamination and responding to terrorist acts involving radiation; To pool the efforts of Belarus, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and international organizations to prepare and hold commemorative activities on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the events at Chernobyl. Annex 3 Report of Ukraine [Original: Russian] Pursuant to the Ukrainian Act on the national programme to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster for 2006-2010, the immediate tasks facing the Ukrainian Government in this respect are the integrated medical and sociopsychological rehabilitation of the affected population, their social protection and the establishment of safe living conditions in areas contaminated by radiation. The socio-economic regeneration of population centres and areas exposed to radioactive contamination is a priority of national policy. In keeping with the aims and goals of the national programme for 2006-2010 and the Ukrainian Act on the status and social protection of citizens who are Chernobyl disaster victims, victims receive annual medical check-ups and treatment. Specialized centres and treatment establishments, including centres for children, have been set up for the screening, treatment and socio-psychological rehabilitation of victims. With a view to providing more effective medical and social care, a State register of Chernobyl disaster victims has been created. As at 1 January 2010, the register included 2,339,532 persons. In 2009, 2,167,088 Chernobyl disaster victims were being kept under medical observation by health institutions, including 378,696 children. Of these persons, 1,877,296 were found to be ill and constantly in need of medical assistance. To provide medical assistance to the victims, a network has been established of 37 national and regional medical institutions, as well as 300 local medical institutions. A top national priority to overcome the consequences of the disaster is international cooperation on health-care issues, social and radiation protection, and making use of the global experience available. For many years the Government of Ukraine has been cooperating with the Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme, which is implemented in Ukraine by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The purpose of the Programme is to reduce the long-term socio-economic and ecological impact of the disaster, to create favourable living conditions for residents of the contaminated areas, and to increase their social activism and responsibility for their lives. An effective measure of socio-psychological support to the affected population is raising awareness about the environmental situation and safe residence in the contaminated areas. Such work is being carried out in centres, established with United Nations support, for socio-psychological rehabilitation and for providing information to the public on how to deal with the consequences of the disaster. Current lines of action for the centres include a social mobilization and community development programme, which is being implemented within the framework of the Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme. In 2009, with the participation of United Nations agencies (WHO, IAEA, UNDP and UNICEF), the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) project was launched. Its coordinator is the Ukrainian Ministry of Emergency Situations. The purpose of the project is to distribute reliable information among the affected population on safe residence and a healthy lifestyle in the areas contaminated by radiation. Under the project, events were held to help local communities “return to normal life”. At the end of 2009, work commenced in cooperation with UNICEF on a new project, entitled “Improving the health of children living in territories affected by Chernobyl”. The project aims to train medical workers, to provide basic medical equipment and to establish centres where families with children will have improved access to medical, social and information services. The release of radioactive substances following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant resulted in the radioactive contamination of 2,293 settlements and towns in Ukraine. According to the Ukrainian legislation in force, the area of radioactive contamination is almost 54,000 square kilometres. Around 2,254 million people, including 497,000 children, live there. Over the past three years, the following activities have been conducted under the Ukrainian Act on the national programme to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: – Comprehensive work to determine the environmental status of contaminated areas, including the contamination density of cesium-137 and strontium-90; – Dosimetry certification of settlements in 12 regions of Ukraine; – Monitoring the level of radioactive contamination of food, forest products and medicinal plants, and further equipping and supporting radiological laboratories. These operations are carried out by radiation monitoring units, whose network includes 123 laboratories and centres working in the contaminated areas; – Activities related to the radiological rehabilitation of the areas, including measures designed to improve living conditions and to restart agricultural production there; and, – Measures to ensure that agricultural production is within acceptable contamination levels. The radiation situation in forests remains complicated. Scientific research shows that there is an accumulation of radionuclides in trees, berries, herbal medicine, mushrooms and game. A number of firefighting activities are taking place in the forests in order to enhance their health protection functions and to prevent secondary radioactive contamination of the surrounding areas. Forest products are subject to radiation monitoring. The main challenge today is to move away from measures to prevent the consumption of contaminated products and towards the recovery and comprehensive rehabilitation of contaminated areas. The most promising avenues of further cooperation with the United Nations are: – The provision of practical and technical assistance by equipping specialized medical facilities with up-to-date equipment for treatment and diagnosis, and with medical supplies, to secure an appropriate level of medical assistance for victims and persons requiring complicated heart or brain surgery, organ transplants or treatment for cancerous diseases; – Assistance to interregional centres for the socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population and supplying the latter with information on how to cope with the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; these centres not only carry out psychosocial and rehabilitation work among the population and provide outreach activities, but also help to develop the capacities of communities living in contaminated areas and to introduce socio-economic development projects; – Continued research on thyroid cancer, especially among those who were under the age of 18 at the time of the accident, and continued iodine deficiency treatment, especially in children; – Wider cooperation with the United Nations with respect to medical, environmental, youth and socio-economic questions (in keeping with the recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum); – Holding an international conference in April 2011, in conjunction with Belarus and the Russian Federation, entitled “Twenty-five years after the Chernobyl Accident. Safety for the Future”; and – Holding an international Internet conference in conjunction with experts from Belarus and the Russian Federation. The Government of Ukraine accords special attention to the problems of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In 2008-2010, a significant amount of work was done to decommission the plant and to convert the shelter facility into an environmentally safe system. Provisions have been made to ensure the safety of unit Nos. 1, 2 and 3, spent fuel storage facility No. 1, the shelter facility, to ensure the physical protection of nuclear material on the industrial site of the nuclear power plant, and to comply with IAEA requirements for its storage. Over the period 2008-2010, international technical assistance enabled significant progress to be made in the construction of a facility for reprocessing liquid radioactive waste, a spent fuel storage facility (No. 2) and an industrial complex for solid radioactive waste, as well as in the Shelter Implementation Plan. However, Ukraine is concerned by the radioactive waste on the site of the Chernobyl plant, whose grounds have been affected by significant radioactive contamination. A large amount of the radioactive waste was generated during the clean-up of the accident and while the units were in operation. The nuclear power plant today does not have the production or financial capacities to deal with such significant amounts of waste. The lack of an integrated waste management system could have a negative impact on the implementation of international projects at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, primarily the Shelter Implementation Plan. Donors to the Chernobyl Shelter Fund have expressed this concern on many occasions. A successful solution to the problems of decommissioning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and converting the shelter will largely depend on the timely completion of facility infrastructure. This includes the construction of the spent fuel storage facility, the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility and the industrial complex for solid radioactive waste. Today these facilities are at different stages of construction on the nuclear power plant site. Their untimely completion is causing delays in the construction of the new protective cover over the shelter and in the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. In view of the above situation, the review of the amount of work entailed and the estimated costs of the Shelter Implementation Plan, additional international financial assistance will be required to implement the Chernobyl projects in accordance with the Ottawa Memorandum of Understanding. Ukraine believes that the Governments of other countries should join the ranks of donor countries in providing financial support for the implementation of the Chernobyl projects, since the problems which arose in connection with the closure of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant have enormous safety implications not only for Ukraine. Completing the projects on the site of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant corresponds to the international approach adopted in support of Ukraine’s decision to close the plant, as well as international agreements for decommissioning the plant and converting the shelter facility into an environmentally safe system.鉴于上述情况,需要对所需工作以及执行掩蔽所实施计划的预计成本进行审查,并需要额外的国际资金援助,以便按照《渥太华谅解备忘录》执行切尔诺贝利项目。乌克兰认为,其他国家政府也应该加入捐助国行列,为执行切尔诺贝利项目提供资金支助,因为关闭切尔诺贝利核电站引起的问题不仅仅对乌克兰有安全影响。完成切尔诺贝利核电站的这些项目符合在支持乌克兰关闭该电厂的决定方面所采取的国际方式,符合使核电厂退役并将掩蔽设施改造成对环境安全的设施的国际协定。
See A/55/46.A/55/46。
See A/63/46.A/63/46。
See A/43/45.A/43/45。
http://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/chernobyl/en/.http://www.who.int/ionizing-radiation/chernobyL/en/。
The Environment and Security Initiative was established in 2003 by UNEP, UNDP and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. NATO became an associate member in 2004 through its Public Diplomacy Division. In 2006 the Economic Commission for Europe and the Regional Environment Center for Central and Eastern Europe joined the initiative. The initiative seeks to facilitate a process within which key public decision makers in South Eastern and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus can motivate action to advance and protect both peace and the environment at the same time.环境与安全倡议是2003年由环境署、开发署和欧洲安全与合作组织订立的。2004年,北约通过其公共外交司成为该倡议的准成员。2006年,联合国欧洲经济委员会和中东欧区域环境中心加入该倡议。该倡议谋求促进这样一个进程,使南欧、东欧、中亚和高加索地区的公共决策者能够推动既促进和平、又保护环境的行动。
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A/65/341A/65/341
A/65/341A/65/341
10-50273 1610-50272 (C) 20
17 10-5027319 10-50272 (C)
United Nations联合国
A/65/341A/65/341
General Assembly大 会
Distr.Distr.
: General: General
1 September 20101 September 2010
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
10-50273 (E) 01101010-50272 (C) 300910 011010
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