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IDB.35/8/ADD.1 V0857905.doc (english)IDB.35/8/ADD.1 V0857904.doc (chinese)
Industrial Development Board工业发展理事会
Thirty-fifth session第三十五届会议
Vienna, 2-4 December 20082008年12月2日至4日,维也纳
Item 2 (e) of the provisional agenda临时议程项目2(e)
Medium-term programme framework, 2010-20132010-2013年中期方案纲要
Industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability工业发展促进减贫,包容性全球化和环境可持续力
Medium-term programme framework, 2010-20132010-2013年中期方案纲要
Comprehensive proposals of the Director-General总干事的全面建议
In compliance with General Conference decisions GC.2/Dec.23 and GC.6/Dec.10, presents comprehensive proposals for the draft medium-term programme framework, 2010-2013.依照大会GC.2/Dec.23和GC.6/Dec.10号决定,提交2010-2013年中期方案纲要草案全面建议。
A. Context and main featuresA. 背景和主要特征
B. Situation and trend analysisB. 形势和趋势分析
B.1 IntroductionB.1 导言
B.2 Trends in industrial developmentB.2 工业发展趋势
B.3 Global challengesB.3 全球挑战
B.3.1 Poverty and inequalityB.3.1 贫困和不平等
B.3.2 Uneven globalizationB.3.2 不均衡的全球化
B.3.3 Environmental degradation and climate changeB.3.3 环境退化和气候变化
B.4 The changing multilateral development system and global aid architectureB.4 变化中的多边发展体系和全球援助结构
B.5 Partnerships for developmentB.5 发展合作伙伴关系
C. Programme results frameworkC. 方案实效框架
C.1 IntroductionC.1 导言
C.2 Development objectiveC.2 发展目标
C.3 Thematic priorities and expected impactC.3 主题重点和预期成效
C.4 Expected country-level outcomesC.4 国别一级的预期成果
C.5 Thematic programme componentsC.5 主题方案组成部分
C.5.1 Poverty reduction through productive activitiesC.5.1 通过生产活动减贫
C.5.2 Trade capacity-buildingC.5.2 贸易能力建设
C.5.3 Environment and energyC.5.3 环境和能源
C.5.4 Cross-cutting programmesC.5.4 跨领域方案
C.6 Regional programmesC.6 区域方案
C.6.1 The regional programme for AfricaC.6.1 非洲区域方案
C.6.2 The regional programme for the Arab regionC.6.2 阿拉伯区域方案
C.6.3 The regional programme for Asiaand the PacificC.6.3 亚洲和太平洋区域方案
C.6.4 The regional programme for Europeand the Newly Independent States (NIS)C.6.4 欧洲和新近独立国家区域方案
C.6.5 The regional programme for Latin Americaand the Caribbean (LAC)C.6.5 拉丁美洲和加勒比区域方案
D. Programme management frameworkD. 方案管理框架
D.1 Management objective and staff valuesD.1 管理目标和工作人员价值观
D.2 Human resource development and gender mainstreamingD.2 人力资源开发和性别观点纳入主流
D.3 Resource mobilizationD.3 资源调动
D.4 Role of field offices and staff mobilityD.4 外地办事处的作用和工作人员流动
D.5 Business process re-engineering (BPR)D.5 业务流程重新设计
D.6 ProcurementD.6 采购
E. Action required of the BoardE. 需请理事会采取的行动
List of abbreviations and acronyms简称和首字母缩合词表
A. Context and main featuresA. 背景和主要特征
In accordance with General Conference decision GC.2/Dec.23, as amended in GC.6/Dec.10, and in light of document IDB.35/8-PBC.24/8, the present document sets out the proposals of the Director-General for the medium-term programme framework (MTPF) 2010-2013.1. 本文件根据经GC.6/Dec.10号决定修正的大会GC.2/Dec.23号决定并参照IDB.35/8-PBC.24/8号文件,阐述总干事对2010-2013年中期方案纲要提出的各项建议。
2. Against an escalating series of shocks to the international system – aptly summed up as the food, fuel and financial crises – the internationally agreed development goals embodied in the Millennium Declaration remain the overarching framework for collective action.2. 在国际体系连续剧烈震荡,接连出现粮食、燃料和金融危机的大背景下,《千年宣言》中所体现的国际公认发展目标依然是集体行动的总体框架。
In a globalized world where economies are interdependent and issues are interconnected, the challenges of change call for heightened international cooperation.全球化世界中经济相互依赖,问题错综复杂,变革带来的挑战要求加强合作。
For the foreseeable future, the main focus of multilateral development cooperation will therefore continue to be the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).因此,在可遇见的未来,多边发展合作的主要侧重点仍将是实现《千年发展目标》。
For industrial development cooperation, the eradication of poverty, spreading the benefits of globalization and preserving the environment will remain the key challenges.而对工业发展合作来说,关键挑战依然是消除贫困、普及全球化惠益和保护环境。
The MTPF 2010-2013 represents the programmatic and managerial response of UNIDO to these challenges.2010-2013年中期方案纲要是工发组织应对这些挑战的方案策略和管理手段。
3. With the transition of UNIDO’s programmatic services and administrative processes towards a fully results-based approach, the MTPF 2010-2013 represents a significant departure from previous MTPF documents.3. 由于工发组织的方案服务和行政程序正在向完全注重实效的方法转变,2010-2013年中期方案纲要与以往的中期方案纲要文件相比有很大不同。
The new format of the MTPF 2010-2013 is designed as a flexible tool for implementing the decisions and resolutions of UNIDO’s governing bodies, as well as the relevant outcomes of intergovernmental bodies in the United Nations system.2010-2013年中期方案纲要采用新的格式,目的是以此作为一种灵活的工具执行工发组织理事机构的各项决定和决议,落实联合国系统政府间机构的有关成果。
It is also intended to provide an overview of the Organization’s programmatic priorities and delivery modalities in the 2010-2013 period.另一个目的是提供2010-2013年期间工发组织方案重点和执行方式概况。
4. In line with the principles underlying the concept of a revolving four-year MTPF updated every two years, the MTPF 2010-2013 is presented with particular emphasis on programmatic continuity, coherence and enhancements.4. 四年期循环中期方案纲要每两年更新一次,本着这一构想所体现的基本原则,2010-2013年中期方案纲要的特别侧重点是方案连续性、一致性和改善。
Thus, the well-established three thematic priorities of UNIDO (poverty reduction through productive activities; trade capacity-building; environment and energy) will continue to serve as the basic programmatic architecture for organizing and planning UNIDO’s more specific support programmes for the 2010-2013 period.因此,将继续以工发组织牢固树立起来的主题重点(通过生产活动减贫、贸易能力建设、环境和能源)作为基本方案结构,对2010-2013年期间工发组织更为具体的支助方案进行安排和规划。
Within this architecture, new programme initiatives will be launched in response to changes in the Organization’s operating environment and the development needs of Member States.在这一结构范围内,还将针对本组织业务环境发生的变化以及成员国的发展需要发起一些新的方案举措。
5. The format of the MTPF 2010-2013 also introduces a number of major structural innovations, which are aimed at enhancing its results orientation and strengthening its operational relevance for the biennial preparation of the programme and budgets.5. 2010-2013年中期方案纲要的格式也采用了一些新颖做法,对结构作了重大调整,以突出注重实效的做法,加强对两年期方案和预算编制工作的实际意义。
The intention is to link, in a systematic and seamless manner, the medium-term priorities on the one hand, and biennial work programmes, on the other.其目的是用系统、完整的方式把中期重点与两年期工作方案连接起来。
6. The main innovative features of the MTPF 2010-2013 are summarized below:6. 2010-2013年中期方案纲要的主要新颖之处概述如下:
(a) For the first time, the new MTPF contains an overarching development objective explicitly linking industrial development to the three thematic priorities – “Industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability”. The development objective provides the overall context in which UNIDO aims to deliver on the mandate given by its Member States and contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).(a) 新纲要第一次在总体发展目标中把工业发展同三大主题重点明确联系起来,这三个主题重点就是“工业发展促进减贫、包容性全球化和环境可持续力”。发展目标概述工发组织力求完成成员国委托的任务并促进实现《千年发展目标》的大背景。
(b) The document starts out with a situation and trend analysis in chapter B, which establishes a solid analytical basis for the Organization’s thematic and regional programme priorities. Specifically, relevant trends in poverty, trade, environment, energy and climate change are highlighted. So are recent developments in the global aid architecture and implications for strategic partnerships.(b) 纲要文件首先在B章对形势和趋势作了分析,从而为本组织的主题方案重点和区域方案重点确立了坚实的分析基础。在具体论述中着重说明贫困、贸易、环境、能源和气候变化方面的有关趋势,以及全球援助结构近期动态及其对战略伙伴关系的影响。
(c) The structure and composition of the thematic programme components (as presented in chapter C.5) have been fully aligned with those to be included in the forthcoming programme and budgets, 2010-2011.(c) 主题方案各部分的结构和组成(如C.5章所示)与即将推出的2010-2011年方案和预算完全一致。
As the previous MTPF did not contain programme components, this new feature will not only introduce a higher degree of specificity to the new MTPF but will also facilitate the process of deriving the biennial work programmes directly from the MTPF.由于以前的纲要没有列入方案组成部分,这一新的特征不仅将提高新纲要的具体程度,而且有利于直接根据纲要拟订两年期工作方案的过程。
(d) Furthermore, the number of thematic programme components in the new MTPF has also been significantly streamlined.(d) 另外,新纲要主题方案组成部分的数目也大大缩减。
As compared to the programme and budgets, 2008-2009 (document GC.12/8), the total number of such components has been reduced from 21 to 12.如果与2008-2009年方案和预算(GC.12/8号文件)相比,主题方案组成部分的总数从21个减至12个。
This is expected to produce a more streamlined and synergistic programme framework with improved substantive coherence and greater incentives for UNIDO staff to work together for increased collective impact.预期这将产生一个更为精简、更有协同作用的方案框架,实务工作将更加紧凑,而且更有利于鼓励工发组织工作人员携手合作,增加集体效力。
(e) In keeping with the principles and practice of results-based management (RBM), the MTPF 2010-2013 further introduces a set of measurable policy and institutional outcomes, which are to be achieved at the regional and country levels. These outcomes go beyond the immediate effects of UNIDO’s interventions and generally fall within the purview of governments, upon whom the ownership and leadership of the development process rests. The introduction of these outcomes is intended to guide programme and project design, development and implementation towards the desired medium-term results. The six policy and institutional outcomes are directly linked to the three thematic priorities and will be reflected in the programme and budgets, 2010-2011, to replace the fragmented outcome structure in the 2008-2009 programme and budgets document.(e) 本着注重实效管理的原则和做法,2010-2013年中期方案纲要还采用了一套必须在区域和国别一级实现的政策和体制方面可衡量成果。这些成果不限于工发组织干预行动的即时效果,一般都在政府力所能及的范围之内,因为发展过程的自主权和领导权都掌握在政府的手中。采用这些成果指标,是为了引导方案项目的设计、开发和执行工作取得预期的中期效果。政策和体制方面的六项成果与三大主题重点直接挂钩,并且将反映在2010-2011年方案和预算中,从而取代2008-2009年方案和预算文件支离破碎的成果结构。
(f) Complementing the new approach of formulating aggregate policy and institutional outcomes is the identification of relevant performance indicators. Together, the outcomes and indicators are integrated into a consolidated UNIDO results matrix (see page 19).(f) 确定有关的绩效指标,是对这种制订政策和体制方面总体成果新方法的补充。成果和指标一同列入工发组织成效综合矩阵(见第16页)。
(g) The MTPF 2010-2013 presents separate programmes for each of UNIDO’s five regions (Africa, Arab region, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and NIS, and Latin America and the Caribbean). Each regional programme presents the main challenges to be addressed and UNIDO’s region-specific response strategies.(g) 2010-2013年纲要分别提出了工发组织五个区域(非洲、阿拉伯区域、亚洲和太平洋、欧洲和新近独立国家、拉丁美洲和加勒比)的单独方案。每个区域方案都列出了要面对的主要挑战以及工发组织的区域对策。
(h) The programme management framework (chapter D) provides an overview of key support functions required for effective and efficient programme delivery. It presents a succinct statement of the overarching management objective of UNIDO and the core values guiding the work of its staff at all levels. It also outlines the major initiatives and developments planned for the period under consideration. In particular, it highlights the steps proposed to enhance UNIDO’s operating efficiency through business process re-engineering (BPR), and further measures to reinforce the decentralization process and the substantive role of field offices.(h) 方案管理框架(D章)概述有效、高效执行方案所必需的关键支助功能。这一部分简明扼要地说明工发组织的总体管理目标以及指导各级工作人员工作的核心价值观。另外还概述计划在这一期间开展的重大举措和活动。特别强调了通过重新设计业务流程提高工发组织工作效率的拟议步骤,以及为推进分散管理过程和加强外地办事处实质作用而需进一步采取的措施。
7. Against the background of the new and innovative features highlighted above, the MTPF 2010-2013 continues to emphasize many of UNIDO’s well-established programmatic interventions within the three thematic priorities.7. 在突出上述各种新颖特征的情况下,2010-2013年纲要继续强调工发组织三大主题重点范围内许多行之有效的方案举措。
The interventions proposed are geared towards promoting mutually reinforcing linkages between the analytical, normative, convening and technical cooperation functions of the Organization and providing strategy and policy advice to decision makers in the public and private sectors (hence the emphasis on policy outcomes under each thematic priority).拟议举措着眼于促进本组织分析、规范、开会和技术合作这些功能之间相辅相成的联系,并为公共和私营部门决策人员提供战略和政策建议(为此在每一主题重点之下强调了政策成果)。
8. In addition, during the 2010-2013 period, a number of programmatic enhancements are envisaged specifically in the following areas:8. 另外设想在2010-2013年期间着重对以下方面的方案作出若干改进:
(a) South-South cooperation;(a) 南南合作;
(b) Youth employment;(b) 青年就业;
(c) Women in industrial development and economic empowerment of women;(c) 妇女参与工业发展和加强妇女经济地位;
(d) Cleaner production and resource-efficient and low-carbon industries;(d) 清洁生产以及资源高效型和低碳型工业;
(e) Energy access and energy for the poor;(e) 能源获取以及穷困者使用能源;
(f) Partnerships with international financial institutions;(f) 与国际金融机构的伙伴关系;
(g) Strengthening industrial capacities through industrial skills upgrading and industrial human resources development.(g) 通过提升工业技能和开发工业人力资源,加强工业能力。
9. While some of these programmatic enhancements fall within clearly identifiable programme components, others are of a more cross-cutting nature (e.g. empowerment of women) and will thus have to guide programme development and implementation in a broader range of areas.9. 虽然其中一些方案是在可以明显确定的方案组成部分的范围之内,但也有一些方案具有更明显的跨领域性质(如加强妇女经济地位),因此必须在更为广泛的领域对方案制订和执行工作进行指导。
10. A key element in UNIDO’s implementation strategy for the MTPF 2010-2013 is its continued emphasis on strengthening strategic partnerships with both United Nations and non-United Nations entities to build greater synergies and enhance the impact of its programmes and activities.10. 工发组织2010-2013年中期方案纲要执行战略的一个关键要素是,继续强调加强与联合国实体和非联合国实体的战略伙伴关系,以便发挥更大的协同作用,加强工发组织方案和活动的效果。
Particular emphasis will be given to continued proactive engagement in efforts to achieve system-wide coherence at Headquarters and field levels.特别强调继续积极主动开展工作,以便在总部和外地实现全系统协调。
UNIDO will also pursue closer collaboration with all parts of the United Nations development system, particularly those with complementary mandates, to enhance its capacity to meet the growing needs of its Member States.工发组织还将继续密切与联合国发展系统各部分的协作关系,特别着眼于担负辅助任务的机构,从而加强其满足成员国日益增长需要的能力。
11. In overall terms, the MTPF 2010-2013 aims to provide the Organization with a comprehensive and coherent framework to respond effectively to the challenges of a rapidly changing environment for industrial development.11. 总而言之,2010-2013年中期方案纲要旨在为本组织提供一个全面、统一的指导框架,以便有效应对工业发展环境迅速变化带来的各种挑战。
It seeks to do so by ensuring that the necessary support systems are in place to deliver measurable development results and in a manner that makes the best possible use of resources entrusted to it by its Member States.为此,纲要确保建立必要的支助系统取得可衡量的发展成果,尽量充分利用成员国托付给工发组织的各种资源。
12. A graphical representation of the MTPF 2010-2013 is presented on page 6.12. 第6页载有2010-2013年中期方案纲要图示。
B. Situation and trend analysisB. 形势和趋势分析
B.1 IntroductionB.1 导言
13. The United Nations General Assembly, in resolution 61/215 of 2006, reaffirmed that industrialization is an essential factor in the sustained economic growth, sustainable development and eradication of poverty of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as well as the creation of productive employment, income generation and the facilitation of social integration, including the integration of women into the development process.13. 联合国大会在2006年第61/215号决议中重申,工业化是推动发展中国家及经济转型国家实现经济持续增长、可持续发展和消除贫困以及创造生产性就业、创收和促进社会融合,包括促使妇女参与发展进程等方面的一个必不可少的因素。
It also stressed the critical role of productive capacity-building and industrial development for the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).大会还强调生产能力建设和工业发展对于实现国际商定的发展目标,包括《千年发展目标》极其重要。
14. The achievement of the MDGs, foremost of which is the eradication of poverty, constitutes the overriding objective of UNIDO.14. 实现《千年发展目标》,尤其是消除贫困,是工发组织的首要目标。
In today’s globalized world, industrial development remains a powerful tool to advance human welfare and promote the common good encapsulated in the MDGs.在当今全球化世界,工业发展依然是增进人类福利,促进《千年发展目标》所体现的共同福祉的一个强有力手段。
B.2 Trends in industrial developmentB.2 工业发展趋势
15. Over the past decades, the pace and pattern of change in the global economy have created an increasingly complex environment for industrial development.15. 过去几十年当中,全球经济变化的速度和方式使工业发展面临越来越复杂的环境。
The internationalization of industrial production, trade, investment and technology is moving at an unprecedented but uneven pace, creating a growing industrial divide and widening disparities between developed and developing countries, and among developing countries themselves.工业生产、贸易、投资和技术正在以前所未有的速度走向国际化,但由于国际化速度不均匀,在发达国家与发展中国家,甚至是在发展中国家之间造成越来越大的工业鸿沟,差距也不断扩大。
Developing countries now account for about a quarter of global manufacturing value added (MVA) due to the remarkable growth of East and South Asia, particularly China and India.目前,发展中国家在全球制造业增加值中约占四分之一,这是由于东亚和南亚,特别是中国和印度取得了显著增长。
At the same time, the share of global MVA accounted for by sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, has remained stagnant at about 0.25 per cent, while both the transition economies and the Latin American and Caribbeaneconomies witnessed a halving of their respective contributions to world industrial output to slightly over 3 per cent.与此同时,非洲撒哈拉以南地区(不包括南非)在全球制造业增加值中所占的比重徘徊不前,约为0.25%,转型经济体和拉丁美洲及加勒比经济体对世界工业产值的贡献都减少了一半,只略高于3%。
16. The growth of manufacturing production in developing countries has been accompanied by an increase in their share of the global trade in manufactures.16. 伴随发展中国家制造业的增长,发展中国家在全球制造业贸易中的份额也有所增加。
Developing countries now account for approximately a third of world manufacturing trade, compared with 12 per cent in the 1980s.发展中国家目前约占世界制造业贸易的三分之一,相比之下上世纪八十年代为12%。
While much of this growth has been in trade between developing and developed countries, recent years have also witnessed a steady growth in South-South trade in both commodities and manufactures.虽然这一增长主要是通过发展中国家与发达国家之间的贸易取得的,但近年来南南之间商品和制造业贸易也在稳步增长。
17. A new pattern of global interdependence along both a North-South and a South-South axis is emerging.17. 正在出现以北南和南南为主轴的全球相互依赖新格局。
This new pattern no longer makes it possible to treat the “developing world” as a homogeneous group. Neither is it possible to think of a country’s industrialization as a purely internal process.这种新格局出现后,再也无法将所谓的“发展中世界”看作是同一个群体,而且也无法再把一国的工业化进程看作是纯粹的内变进程。
Manufacturing has become globally integrated, and is shifting in the direction of developing countries at an ever-increasing pace.制造业已经全球一体化,正在向发展中国家转移,其速度比以往任何时候都快。
East Asia, and particularly China, is increasingly becoming the manufacturing hub of the world.东亚,特别是中国正在日益成为世界制造中心。
The division of manufacturing production between developing countries according to income group is especially revealing.如果按收入群计算,发展中国家之间制造业的差距尤其发人深醒。
In 2007, Chinaalone outstripped all the other newly industrialized countries combined in terms of MVA.2007年,单是中国的制造业增加值就超过了其他所有新兴工业化国家加在一起的制造业增加值。
A loss in the share of manufacturing production is evident in all other developing country groups, especially among the least developed countries (LDCs).所有其他发展中国家制造业的比重都明显下降,特别是最不发达国家。
18. At the same time, despite considerable efforts to meet the MDGs, poverty remains prevalent in many parts of the world.18. 同时,尽管为实现《千年发展目标》作出巨大努力,全世界许多地方仍然普遍存在贫困。
While some regions and countries have made important strides towards meeting these goals, progress has been uneven.虽然有些区域和有些国家在实现这些目标方面取得了重要进展,但并不是均衡进展。
In sub-Saharan Africa, the projected shortfalls in halving poverty by 2015 are raising serious concerns.原来预期非洲撒哈拉以南地区到2015年可将贫困人数减少一半,而现在则十分令人担忧。
Climate change and high energy and food prices are exacerbating the challenges faced by many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.气候变化加上能源和粮食价格上涨,使许多发展中国家,特别是非洲撒哈拉以南地区发展中国家面临更严峻的挑战。
The impact of high food, oil, and other commodity prices since early 2007 has caused the gross domestic product (GDP) of many African countries to contract by three to 10 per cent.2007年初以来粮食、石油及其他商品价格升高,致使非洲许多国家的国内生产总值萎缩,下滑3%到10%不等。
The terms-of-trade effects of food and energy price increases are in excess of 10 per cent of the GDP in more than 15 developing countries.从至少15个发展中国家的进出口比价来看,粮食和能源提价造成的影响已经超出这些国家国内生产总值的10%。
19. Against this background, a growth-centred approach is all the more urgent as the economic and financial turmoil of recent times has sharpened the focus on global economic interdependence, and as the food, fuel and financial crises have affected economic stability in developing and developed countries alike.19. 在这种背景下,由于近期经济和金融动荡突显了全球经济相互依赖性,粮食、燃料和金融危机对发展中国家和发达国家的经济稳定都产生影响,如今比以往任何时候都迫切需要采取重增长的办法。
For millions living on the margin between subsistence and starvation, high food and fuel prices may represent a threat to their survival.对于生活在温饱和饥饿边缘的千百万人来说,高粮价和高油价是对他们生存的威胁。
The financial crisis could also lead to a global economic slowdown, which may reduce demand for exports from developing countries, cut foreign direct investments and curtail development financing for poor countries.金融危机还会导致全球经济放缓,从而导致减少对发展中国家出口的需求,撤减外国直接投资,限制对穷国的发展援助资金。
Under the circumstances, it would be difficult to avoid a contraction in economic activity in developing countries, risking a reversal of the hard-won gains made in relation to the MDGs.在这种情况下,发展中国家经济活动萎缩难以避免,《千年发展目标》方面得来不易的进展可能前功尽弃。
20. Increased international cooperation and coordinated action are clearly called for to address effectively the unprecedented combination of crises – food, fuel and financial – that the world is facing today.20. 今天,世界面临着粮食、燃料和金融危机同时发生这种前所未有的局面,显然必须加强国际合作和协调行动才能有效应对此种局面。
In a globally integrated economy, industrial development cooperation is clearly a key component of this international response.在全球一体化经济中,工业发展合作显然是这种国际对策的一个关键组成部分。
B.3 Global challengesB.3 全球挑战
21. Beyond the current and interlinked food, fuel and financial crises are three major challenges that need to be addressed if continued progress is to be made towards meeting the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration.21. 为了继续朝着实现《千年宣言》目标和指标的方向取得进展,除了应对当前相互交错的粮食、燃料和金融危机之外,还必须应对三大挑战。
Foremost among these is the eradication of poverty.其中最重大的挑战是消除贫困。
Second, is spreading the benefits of globalization and making it work for the poor.其次是普及全球化惠益,造福于穷苦大众。
The third challenge is managing the transition to a sustainable, low-carbon path to development.第三项挑战是掌握向持久、低碳发展道路的转变过程。
During the period of the next medium-term programme framework, 2010-2013, UNIDO will focus its programmes and activities on assisting Member States to meet these key challenges.在2010-2013年也就是下一个中期方案纲要期间,工发组织将在其方案和活动中侧重于协助成员国应对这些重大挑战。
Emphasis will be given to the specific measures contained in the strategic long-term vision statement for the period 2005-2015 (as adopted in resolution GC.11/Res.4).重点将是(GC.11/Res.4号决议中所通过的)2005-2015年期间战略远景说明中阐明的各项具体措施。
B.3.1 Poverty and inequalityB.3.1 贫困和不平等
22. Poverty eradication remains the central challenge in the present-day world.22. 铲除贫困依然是当今世界所面临的最关键的挑战。
It continues to be a major focus of the international community, whose collective efforts are making an impact on the incidence and depth of poverty.国际社会继续将此项工作作为主要重点,通过集体努力正在对贫困的发生和深度产生影响。
Even as the number of people living in extreme poverty continues to decline globally however, this success masks slow and uneven progress in some countries, including much of sub-Saharan Africa.虽然从全球范围来看生活在赤贫状况下的人数继续下降,但是,这种成功的下面掩盖了某些国家进展缓慢和不均匀的情况,这当中包括非洲撒哈拉以南地区大多数国家。
Indeed, as indicated above, it now appears that several countries may not be able to meet the MDG target of halving poverty by 2015.的确,如上所述,现在看来有些国家可能无法实现《千年发展目标》提出的到2015年减少一半贫困人数的目标。
The recent increases in the price of food and fuel have pushed an estimated 100 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, into poverty.近期粮食燃料价格上涨估计又使约一亿人陷入贫困,其中大多数是在非洲撒哈拉以南地区和南亚。
23. There are many policy prescriptions for poverty reduction but what has been shown to be most effective is rapid and sustained economic growth underpinned by private sector-led industrialization.23. 对于减贫可以开出许多政策药方,但迄今为止被证明最行之有效的办法,是在私营部门引导工业化的情况下支持迅速、持久的经济增长。
More than 300 million people have moved out of poverty in East and South-East Asiaover the past decade as a result of rapid economic growth.过去十年当中东亚和东南亚有三亿多人脱贫就是经济迅速增长的成果。
Central to this dramatic reduction in poverty was the development of industrial productive capacities and the creation of productive employment for poor women and men.实现如此大规模的减贫,关键是发展工业生产能力和为贫困男女创造生产就业机会。
24. Unleashing the dynamism of the private sector and making rapid industrial progress possible require an enabling environment that encourages the emergence and expansion of enterprises.24. 要想释放私营部门的能量,实现工业迅速发展,就必须提供有利环境,鼓励创办、扩大企业。
In most countries, the private sector accounts directly for more than three quarters of the GDP.在大多数国家,私营部门直接占国内生产总值四分之三强。
It is the driving force of industrial development in almost all countries and, through changing patterns of international production, investment and trade, it shapes the economic globalization process.私营部门是几乎所有国家工业发展的驱动力,私营部门通过改变国际生产、投资和贸易格局,重塑了经济全球化进程。
A vibrant private sector, building on the combined strength of, and linkages between, large, medium, small and micro enterprises, is an essential prerequisite for triggering economic dynamism, enhancing productivity, transferring and diffusing new industrial technologies, maintaining competitiveness and contributing to entrepreneurship development and ultimately to poverty reduction.一个以大中小型企业和微型企业的综合实力和网络为基础的生机勃勃的私营部门,是激发经济动能、提高生产力、转让和推广新的工业技术、保持竞争力、促进创业精神并最终得以减少贫困的一个基本前提。
25. Many developing countries, especially the least developed, generate a disproportionate share of their industrial output from a relatively small group of very large enterprises, usually owned by the state, foreign investors or a few wealthy local entrepreneurs.25. 在许多发展中国家,特别是在最不发达国家,工业产出比例失调,相对少数的超大型企业所占的比例过高,而这些企业往往掌握在国家、外国投资人或当地少数几位富有企业家的手中。
Often these firms have relatively few linkages with the rest of the economy.相对来说,这些公司往往与经济的其他部分没有什么联系。
The majority of the non-agricultural workforce is employed or self-employed in a large number of micro- and small-scale enterprises, many of which are in the informal sector.大多数非农劳动力不是受雇于微型和小型企业,就是自己开办这样的企业,此种企业数目众多,大多数都在非正规部门。
Relatively few of these enterprises are able to grow and become competitive in the national economy and in the international marketplace.这些企业中能够成长起来成为国民经济和国际市场上有竞争力的企业的,寥寥可数。
26. To address this challenge, pro-poor and inclusive growth strategies are needed to remove policy-related and regulatory obstacles that impede local entrepreneurial initiatives, to strengthen entrepreneurial capabilities and provide access to finance, technical know-how and market information.26. 为了应对这一挑战,必须采取扶贫、包容增长战略,以消除在政策和管理方面妨碍当地企业家创业的种种障碍,加强企业家管理能力,并提供获取资金、专门技术知识和市场信息的渠道。
Growth strategies directed towards poverty reduction should therefore aim to support the development of micro-, small- and medium scale enterprises into dynamic, innovative and growth-oriented enterprises capable of competing in national and international markets.因此,以减贫为目的的增长战略应当着眼于支持发展微型、小型和中型企业,使之成长为能够在国内市场和国际市场上竞争的有活力、有创新能力的成长型企业。
Such strategies help create the necessary conditions for sustaining economic growth by unleashing the underutilized assets of the economy and enhancing their potential for productivity increases.这样的战略是把经济中利用不足的资产调动起来,充分发挥其提高生产力的潜能,因而有助于创造维持经济增长的必要条件。
The goal must be to help poor people move out of poverty while laying the foundation for the development of a modern and industrialized economy.目标必须是帮助穷人摆脱贫困,同时奠定发展现代工业化经济的基础。
B.3.2 Uneven globalizationB.3.2 不均衡的全球化
27. Globalization has emerged as the dominant feature of the world economy and is bound to retain this pre-eminence in the coming years.27. 全球化已经成为世界经济的支配力量,而且未来必将继续保持这一显著特征。
While trade has been recognized as a central element in industrial development strategies for some time, the MDG 8 target on global partnership contains at its core the aim to develop a trading system that is open, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory.一段时期以来人们已经将贸易看作是工业发展战略中的一个关键要素,《千年发展目标》中关于全球合作伙伴关系的目标8就是把发展开放、守规、可预测和非歧视性贸易制度这一目标放在核心位置。
However, experience shows that globalization and the associated liberalization of investment and trade regimes on their own do not ensure that much of the developing world benefits from global markets and achieves rapid economic growth.但是,经验表明,全球化以及相应的投资、贸易制度自由化本身并不足以确保绝大多数发展中国家受益于全球市场,实现迅速经济增长。
28. Developing countries continue to face significant distortions, and have been unable to take full advantage of the limited moves made by the industrialized countries to open their markets.28. 发展中国家继续面临严重的扭曲状况,无法充分利用工业化国家在开放本国市场方面采取的范围有限的行动。
Although global trade has increased significantly over the past decades, and despite the fact that developing countries are giving greater priority to trade and its linkages to poverty in their national development strategies, the volume of LDC exports is only marginally higher today than it was in 1995.尽管几十年来全球贸易显著增长,而且发展中国家在本国发展战略中对贸易以及贸易与减贫之间的关系给予更多优先考虑,最不发达国家今天的出口额仅略高于1995年。
One reason for this is that barriers to trade continue to lock out a significant proportion of the developing world from access to markets in sectors where industry might thrive.其中一个原因是,贸易障碍继续将众多发展中国家拒之于门外,使其无法进入本可取得长足进展的工业部门市场。
A successful trading agreement, reflecting the development intentions of MDG 8 would thus go a long way towards fulfilling the potential of developing countries to integrate properly and fairly into the world economy.因此,本着《千年发展目标》目标8的发展宗旨订立的贸易协定若想取得成功,还需经过漫长道路才能达至发展中国家适当、公平融入世界经济的前景。
29. Yet, merely opening up economies to trade is not sufficient.29. 光是开放经济促进贸易还不够。
The link between trade liberalization and a subsequent increase in trade from developing countries on the one hand, and poverty reduction on the other, is not automatic.贸易自由化和随之而来的发展中国家贸易增长与减少贫困之间并没有必然的联系。
Trade can create opportunities for pro-poor economic growth through the encouragement of productive activities and the expansion and diversification of sources of employment in developing countries, but there is no guarantee that export expansion will lead to inclusive economic growth.贸易往来固然可以增加扶贫性经济增长的机会,因为贸易可以刺激发展中国家的生产活动,扩大就业并使就业来源多样化,但出口扩大并不能保证实现包容性经济增长。
In LDCs in particular, the productive supply capacity or export base is narrow, and relies too heavily on commodities.在最不发达国家尤其是这样,这些国家无论是生产供应能力还是出口基础都十分有限,而且过于依赖商品出口。
Exporters trying to sell new products and penetrate new markets may lack access to legal and commercial information services and to the technical support needed to develop their products and reach markets.出口商想要推销新产品,打入新市场,却苦于没有法律、商业信息服务渠道,也得不到开发产品、拓展市场所需要的技术支助。
Many countries lack supporting infrastructure, both physical, such as transport and communications, and institutional, such as bodies to implement international trade rules or to offer technical and financial services.许多国家没有可提供支助的基础设施,既无运输、通信等方面的有形基础设施,又无可执行国际贸易规则或提供技术、金融服务的机构。
30. Progress is therefore required, not only on the access issues foreseen in the international trade negotiations, but also on value-addition, diversification of production away from a heavy reliance on commodities, and on capacity-building to meet the technical and business requirements of participation in trade.30. 因此,不仅要在国际贸易谈判中就这些预见到的市场准入问题取得进展,更要在实现增值并通过生产多样化减少对商品过份依赖等方面取得进展,同时还要在开展能力建设以达到参与贸易的技术和商业要求方面取得进展。
The Aid for Trade initiative and the Enhanced Integrated Framework play a critical role in supporting developing countries to build their export capacity, and will determine how and to what extent developing countries, and particularly LDCs, will be able to benefit from global trade and overcome the risk of global marginalization.“贸易援助”举措和“增强型综合框架”对帮助发展中国家打造出口能力发挥着关键作用,将决定发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家以何种方式和在多大程度上能够受益于全球贸易并克服全球边缘化危险。
Trade capacity-building as a means of developing productive capacities has thus moved to the centre of the development discourse.贸易能力建设是发展生产能力的手段,所以也就成为发展议题的核心。
31. However, it is important to recognize that many developing countries, particularly middle-income countries, are caught in a predicament.31. 但是必须认识到,许多发展中国家,特别是中等收入国家已经陷入困境。
They find themselves trapped between their limited success in moving towards a knowledge-based economy due to insufficient endowment of skills and cutting-edge technologies, and their inability to compete through a low-wage economy, which uses widely available technology to do routine tasks at the lowest possible cost.一方面,由于这些国家对技能和先进技术的掌握先天不足,向知识型经济转变成效有限,另一方面,在低薪经济使用普及技术以最低成本进行例行操作的情况下,又无法通过这种低薪经济模式参与竞争,结果进也不是退也不是。
This “industrial middle class”, notably in Latin America and Eastern Europe, continues to struggle to find a niche in the world economy and derive greater benefits from the integration of these countries into global markets.这些所谓的“中等工业国家”主要集中在拉丁美洲和东欧,它们还在艰难地摸索,试图在世界经济中找到一席之地,从本国融入全球市场的过程中获取更大益处。
32. In addition, while manufacturing is gradually shifting from the production of full products to a global division of tasks, exportability increasingly depends on a wider concept of product sophistication.32. 另外,制造业正在逐渐从整品生产转变为全球分工产生,但出口能力越来越取决于更广泛的产品高质化概念。
Although task-based production enables countries to specialize in the manufacture of components rather than final products, many developing countries have so far failed to adapt their industrial activities to the broad requirements and global standards in industrial design, logistics and marketing which are key elements of modern industrial production.尽管分工型生产使各国能够进行部件而不是成品的专门化生产,但迄今为止许多发展中国家还不能使本国生产活动适应工业设计、物流和推销方面的广泛要求和全球标准,而这些都是现化工业生产的关键要素。
33. Furthermore, international product and quality standards, already a difficult barrier to trade for developing countries, have been joined in recent times by the emergence of private sector standards.33. 此外,除了已经成为发展中国家难以逾越的贸易障碍的国际产品和质量标准之外,近年来又出现了私营部门标准。
Although the private sector has long been the driving force behind the formulation and adoption of management and product standards in industrialized countries, an increasing number of private sector standards and retailer requirements are impacting on the ability of developing country enterprises to participate in global production and supply chains.虽然私营部门长期以来一直是工业化国家制定和采用管理标准和产品标准的驱动力,但是,私营部门标准和零售要求不断增多,正在影响到发展中国家企业参与全球生产和供应链的能力。
While the origins of such standards are diverse, they are to some extent linked to changing consumer demand – especially in industrialized countries – for high quality goods with minimal impact on the environment.虽然产生这些标准的根源不同,但它们在一定程度上都与消费者不断变化的需求,特别是工业化国家对高质量货物和尽量减少环境影响的要求有关。
More emphasis will thus need to be given to the significance of private sector requirements for enterprise systems and product standards, including the production and supply of manufactured goods in a manner that minimizes the release of carbon dioxide and other emissions that damage the environment.因此,必须更加重视私营部门要求对企业制度和产品标准的重要性,其中包括以尽量减少二氧化碳排放和其他对环境有害排放的方式进行制成品生产和供应。
For developing countries, mainstreaming “green growth” into trade represents a formidable challenge, but also an opportunity, especially in the agro-industrial sector.在贸易活动中体现“绿色增长”理念,是摆在发展中国家面前的一项艰巨挑战,不过同时也是一种机遇,尤其是在农产工业部门。
34. The increasingly blurred distinction between public and private sector responsibilities and functions, poses a further challenge to collective action.34. 公共和私营部门之间职责和功能的界线愈益模糊,是对集体行动提出的又一挑战。
“Corporate responsibility” has entered the global debate and civil society now actively participates in global and local development activities.“公司责任”已经成为全球辩论的话题,公民社会如今也积极参与全球和地方发展活动。
This trend is likely to continue.这种趋势可能会继续下去。
Nevertheless, market imperfections and government failures will remain and will require a clear global governance structure and appropriate modalities for public-private partnerships.不过由于市场作用总会有缺陷,政府作用也会失灵,还是需要建立清晰的全球治理结构和适当的公共和私营部门伙伴关系模式。
35. Furthermore, the recent and sustained increase in commodity prices has intensified global competition for commodities.35. 另外,近期商品价格持续升高加剧了全球商品竞争。
While developing-country commodity producers have benefited from this strong demand, their economies have remained vulnerable to price volatility and have reaped only limited development gains from their production and trade.虽然发展中国家的商品生产商受益于这种强有力的需求,但经济上仍然容易受到价格剧烈变化的影响,而且从生产贸易中获取的发展收益极为有限。
Without putting in place industrial strategies to encourage diversification into value-added exports, which are capable of enduring price shocks and responding to changes in international demand, the benefits accruing from trade in primary commodities are unlikely to filter down to the poorest people in society over the long-term.发展多样化的增值出口能够抵御价格振荡并适应国际需求的变化,如果不确立起鼓励这种多样化的工业战略,初级商品贸易带来的益处就不可能最终惠及最贫困的社会阶层。
B.3.3 Environmental degradation and climate changeB.3.3 环境退化和气候变化
36. Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation, including climate change, biodiversity loss, the pollution of international waters and depletion of the ozone layer, continue to threaten the global environment.36. 自然资源消耗和环境退化继续威胁着全球环境,这包括气候变化、生物多元性丧失、国际水域污染和消耗臭氧层。
Environmentally sustainable growth paths need to be combined with disaster prevention and risk reduction in industry, especially where the poor are most threatened.为了实现环境可持续的增长道路,必须相应地防止灾害和减少工业风险,特别是在对穷困者威胁最大的方面。
In this respect, new technologies, innovative methodologies, green industries and solid financial mechanisms need to be found for both rural and urban communities.为此,城乡社区需要有新技术、革新方法、绿色工业和健全的金融机制。
Meeting these challenges will remain a major item on the global development agenda, as reflected in MDGs 7 and 8.从《千年发展目标》7和8来看,如何应对这些挑战仍将是全球发展议程上的一个主要课题。
37. According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), greenhouse gas emissions covered by the Kyoto Protocol have increased by about 70 per cent between 1970 and 2004, with CO2 being by far the largest source, growing by about 80 per cent in this period.37. 根据《政府间小组气候变化问题第四次评价报告》,1970到2004年期间,《京都议定书》所涉及的温室气体排放量增加了约70%,其中最大的排放源是二氧化碳,同期内约增长80%。
Industry is one of the main sources of these emissions, and accounted for 19 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in 2004.工业是主要排放源之一,2004年占温室气体排放量的19%。
About 85 per cent of the industrial sector’s energy use occurs in the energy intensive industries: iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, chemicals and fertilizers, petroleum refining, minerals (cement, lime, glass and ceramics), and pulp and paper.工业部门使用的能源约85%是能源密集型工业消耗的:钢铁、有色金属、化工产品和肥料、石油提炼、矿物(水泥、石灰、玻璃和搪瓷)以及纸浆和纸张。
The sector also emits large quantities of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons, (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).工业部门还排放大量的非二氧化碳温室气体,如一氧化二氮(N2O)、氟烷(HFCs)、全氟化碳(PFCs)和六氟化硫(SF6)。
38. Yet industry which is necessary to drive pro-poor economic growth, is also the predominant source of technological solutions to mitigate climate change.38. 然而,工业既是推动扶贫经济增长的必要动力,也是缓减气候变化技术办法的主要来源。
Many of the technologies and instruments needed to respond to the global challenge of climate change are already available, and others should be commercialized in the coming years, once appropriate incentives have been put in place.应对全球气候变化这一挑战所必需的许多技术和工具已经推出,一旦有了适当激励措施,未来几年即可在市场上推出其他技术和工具。
The flows of information, experience, expertise and equipment between countries hold the key for transfers of technology for both climate change mitigation and adaptation.各国间交流信息、经验、专门知识和设备,是转让缓减和适应气候变化所用技术的关键。
39. Unless countries and their industries follow a sustainable, low-carbon path to development, industrialization will not only have an adverse impact on the global climate but will also undo the economic progress achieved so far.39. 除非各国及其工业走上低碳可持续发展道路,否则工业化不仅会对全球气候产生负面影响,而且还会使迄今取得的经济进步化为乌有。
Due to their paucity of resources or their geographic location, developing countries are particularly at risk.发展中国家由于资源匮乏或所处的地理位置而深受其害。
The most effective long-term solution is the adoption of a global low-emissions economic development strategy as a central component of a global agreement to combat climate change.最有效的长远解决办法是采取低排放量经济发展全球战略,以此作为应对气候变化的全球性协议的一部分。
Economic growth and the fight against climate change should not just proceed as a combined strategy; they should become two parts of the same whole, simultaneously addressing cost-effective mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development objectives.不仅应当从综合战略的角度推进经济增长并解决气候变化问题,而且应当把它们作为一个整体的两个方面,力求既能以符合成本效益的方式缓减和适应气候变化,同时又能实现可持续发展的目标。
Such a scenario is inconceivable without the development and diffusion of environmentally sound technology and expertise.如果不开发和推广无害环境技术与专门知识,这种设想便无从落实。
40. As economic growth accelerates, particularly in developing countries, the world is consuming natural resources at an unprecedented rate.40. 随着各国,特别是发展中国家经济增长的加速,全世界正在以前所未有的速度消耗着自然资源。
In countries such as Chinaand Indiafor example, oil consumption has doubled in the past decade.例如,在中国和印度等国,过去十年的石油消费翻了一番。
Likewise the newly industrialized countries are struggling to build power generation capacities fast enough to meet the growth in demand.同样,新兴工业化国家正在努力迅速发展电力生产能力,满足需求的增长。
Rising demand for energy and materials is spurring a massive need for investment. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the oil industry alone must invest $4.3 trillion from 2005 to 2030 in order to keep pace.能源和材料需求的增加刺激了投资的庞大需求:根据国际原子能机构(原子能机构)的估计,为跟上需求,仅石油工业2005年至2030年期间就需要投资4.3万亿美元。
The projected cumulative investment required during this period to meet the world’s energy needs is almost $20.1 trillion.这一期间为满足全世界能源需求而需要的累计投资预计为20.1万亿美元。
However, even if this investment is secured over the next thirty years, about 1.4 billion people will still lack access to electricity in 2030 and 2.7 billion will still rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating.即便今后30年能获得这么一笔投资,到2030年,仍将有大约14亿人得不到电力供应,有27亿人烧饭取暖仍将依赖传统生物质能。
41. One effect of the pressure on energy supply has been the increased attention given to renewable energy based on water, wind, biomass, photovoltaics and solar energy.41. 能源供应压力带来的影响之一是,以水、风、生物质能、光电效应和太阳能为基础的可再生能源更受重视。
Support for the use of renewable energy is increasing in many countries especially since it has the potential to make a positive contribution to energy access for industry in these countries.许多国家已在增加对使用可再生能源的支持,主要是因为可再生能源有可能对这些国家工业的能源供应作出有益的贡献。
More recently, in the wake of the food price crisis, concerns over the effects of biofuel production on food supply have arisen, but the introduction of second-generation biofuels, which promote the use of waste products from agro-industrial processing, can have a vital role in securing energy for the poor.最近发生粮价危机之后,人们开始担心生物燃料生产会影响粮食供应,不过由于第二代生物燃料能够推动对农业工业加工所产生的废弃物的利用,使用这种燃料对穷国的能源保障极为重要。
42. Measures to improve energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, including industry, should also be followed.42. 还应当采取措施提高所有经济部门包括工业部门的能效。
Energy efficiency alone could cut energy demand by 20 to 24 per cent and save hundreds of billions of dollars per year.单是能效一项每年就可减少20-24%的能源需求,节省数千亿美元。
In countries with high energy prices and high energy intensities, energy efficiency is the least-cost strategy for improving economic efficiency across sectors.在能源价格高、能源使用高度密集的国家,提高能效是各部门提高经济效率的成本最低廉的战略。
According to the IEA, the implementation of conducive policies could result in nearly 40 per cent of avoided greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.原子能机构指出,如果执行有利的政策,到2030年将可避免近40%的温室气体排放。
The policies that are most effective in reducing emissions are also effective in lowering the energy bill and dependence on oil and energy imports, or could make available further resources that could be used for development purposes, which would otherwise be wasted.减排方面最有效的政策,也可有效地减少能源费用或降低对石油和能源的进口需求,将本来会被浪费掉的资源更多地用于发展。
43. The shift to sustainable development policies and practices has proceeded slowly so far.43. 迄今为止,向可持续发展政策和做法的过渡进展缓慢。
There are still a number of barriers to the deployment and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies and expertise, including a lack of awareness, human intransigence, the absence of appropriate policies and regulatory frameworks, and insufficient investment in the infrastructure needed for new energy technologies.不论是由于缺乏认识还是固执己见,也不论是由于没有适当的政策和监管框架,还是对新的能源技术所需基础设施投资不够,在利用和推广无害环境技术和专门知识方面都存在着若干障碍。
The key is to forge an effective international mechanism for the development and dissemination of technologies, aiming to remove barriers and providing predictable financial resources and other incentives for scaling up investment in environmentally sound technologies around the world, especially in developing countries.关键是在技术研发和推广方面建立有效的国际机制,目的是消除障碍,提供可预测的资金和其他激励措施,以便增加全世界对无害环境技术的投资,特别是增加在发展中国家的投资。
It is here where the multilateral system has a central role to play in bringing countries together and building consensus on norms and standards to which all countries can adhere for their common good.多边系统正是在这方面发挥着关键的作用,它促使各国走到一起,就各国可以为共同利益而遵守的规范和标准建立共识。
B.4 The changing multilateral development system and global aid architectureB.4 变化中的多边发展体系和全球援助结构
44. The proliferation of aid channels, the increasing fragmentation of official development assistance (ODA), the emergence of new donors, an increase in the number and volume of vertical funds and private philanthropy, and a high degree of earmarking have contributed to increasing the complexity of the current aid architecture.44. 援助渠道激增、官方发展援助日渐分散、新捐助方出现、垂直基金和私人慈善基金数目和捐资数额增加,以及资金专款专用的比例甚高,凡此种种均导致现有援助结构更为复杂。
The average number of donors interacting with recipient countries has risen from 12 to 33 in the period 2001 to 2005, including more than 230 international organizations, funds and programmes, particularly in the health sector.2001年至2005年期间,与受援国来往的捐助方平均数目从12个增加至33个,其中包括230多个国际组织、基金和方案,它们主要集中在卫生部门。
45. The traditional horizontal character of the aid environment (governmental agency-recipient country) now coexists with the increasing importance of vertical or special purpose funds programmed at the global level.45. 以往是横向援助(政府机构对受援国),如今全球一级拟定的垂直基金或专门用途基金日渐重要,两者并存。
Vertical funds are also referred to as global programmes representing partnerships and related initiatives whose benefits are intended to cut across more than one region of the world in such areas as environment and agriculture, health, nutrition and population, infrastructure and private sector development, trade and finance, and information and knowledge.垂直基金也称作全球性方案,包括伙伴关系和相关举措,其预期受益方不限于世界某一地区,所涉领域包括环境和农业、卫生、营养和人口、基础设施和私营部门发展、贸易和金融以及信息和知识。
In 2006, vertical funds reached an amount of $2.7 billion, more than three times their level in 1997.2006年,垂直基金所筹款额为27亿美元,比1997年的数额增加了三倍多。
46. The growing importance of public-private partnerships (PPPs) involving business, governments, foundations, charities, religious organizations and workers remittances is supplementing, if not supplanting, the traditional “donor-to-recipient” model of aid.46. 涉及企业、政府、基金会、慈善组织、宗教组织和工作者汇款的公私伙伴关系日益重要,是对“捐助方对受援方”这种传统援助模式的一种补充,而不是取而代之。
According to the Index of Global Philanthropy (IGP) published by the Hudson Institute’s Centre for Global Prosperity, private donations now account for over 75 per cent of all developed countries’ transfers to developing countries.根据哈得逊学院全球繁荣中心公布的全球慈善指数,在所有发达国家向发展中国家的拨款中,私人捐助的款项超过75%。
For example, it noted that in 2006 the United States of Americagave $34.8 billion through private philanthropy and $71.5 billion through remittances, while its ODA amounted to $23.5 billion.例如,该指数表明,2006年,美利坚合众国通过私人慈善组织捐助的资金为348亿美元,通过汇款捐助的资金为715亿美元,而它的官方发展援助为235亿美元。
The increase in the quantity of private flows is not the only trend in corporate philanthropy aimed at development and poverty reduction.私人善款增加,并不是公司慈善事业致力于发展和扶贫的唯一新动向。
Philanthropists also stress the need to achieve quality through efficiency and results-based management in all funded programmes and projects.慈善机构和人士还强调必须通过提高效率和注重实效的管理,改善所有资助方案和项目的质量。
47. The emergence of new donors, many of them from the South, is also changing the face of development cooperation.47. 许多来自南方的新捐助方的出现,也在改变着发展合作格局。
In 2006, total net ODA by emerging donors, as reported to the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-DAC), amounted to $4.5 billion which was four times the level of 1995.给经济合作及发展组织发展援助委员会(经合组织发援委)的报告指出,2006年,新捐助方提供的官方发展援助净额总数为45亿美元,是1995年的四倍。
China and India do not report their development assistance disbursements to the OECD-DAC but the World Bank estimates China’s ODA disbursements at $2 to 3 billion and India’s at around $1、印度不向经合组织发援委报告其发展援助的数额,但根据世界银行的估计,中国的官方发展援助数额在20亿至30亿美元之间,而印度的数额约为10亿美元。
In addition, Chinahas pledged $10 billion for LDCs for the period from 2007 to 2010.此外,中国承诺在2007年至2010年期间向最不发达国家提供100亿美元的援助。
Non-DAC OECD countries are expected to increase their current ODA levels in aggregate by over $2 billion in 2010.预计到2010年,不属于经合组织发援委的国家将在其目前的官方发展援助水平上总共增加20多亿美元。
While empirical evidence regarding the actual weight of their contribution is incomplete, the emerging new donors are giving a new meaning to South-South and triangular cooperation, which will have repercussions for the roles and activities of multilateral development agencies.有关其捐助数额实际作用的实证数据尚不完备,尽管如此,正在出现的新捐助方给南南合作和三方合作赋予了新的含义,将对多边发展机构的作用和活动产生影响。
48. Among traditional donors, increased emphasis is being given to enhancing aid effectiveness.48. 传统捐助方更加重视提高援助效果。
Joint financing and other forms of harmonization among donors are becoming apparent, while private sector involvement is increasing.捐助方联合筹资和其他形式的协同筹资已然成型,而私营部门的参与正在增加。
Instead of direct project support, where bilateral or multilateral agencies implement their own programmes directly, the emphasis now is increasingly on partner country-led strategies.如今越来越重视由伙伴国主导的战略,而不是由双边或多边机构直接实施各自方案的直接项目支助。
Such an approach, formalized in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the subsequent Accra Agenda for Action, is intended to increase country ownership and donor coordination and harmonization of operational policies and procedures.这种做法由《关于援助效果问题的巴黎宣言》及其后的《阿克拉行动议程》正式确立,目的是加强国家自主权,促进捐助方对业务政策和程序的协调统一。
This approach has resulted in new aid modalities such as sector-wide approaches, basket funding and budget support, all geared towards the promotion of alignment between aid and the priorities and programmes of aid recipients.这种做法催生了一些新的援助方式,例如全部门做法、一揽子供资和预算支助,均着眼于确保援助更加符合受援方的优先事项和方案。
The introduction of poverty reduction strategies (PRSs) as a programming tool for both governments and development agencies is a practical step in this direction.提出减贫战略,将其作为政府和发展机构拟定方案的一个工具,就是朝这一方向迈出的一个实际步骤。
49. The implications of the changing aid architecture are diverse, but it is clear that the multilateral development system is at a turning point.49. 变化中的援助结构具有多方面的影响,但多边发展体系显然正处于转折关头。
Within the United Nations, the issue of system-wide coherence has received renewed attention over the past two years.过去两年里,在联合国系统内,全系统一致性问题再次引起会员国和各组织的注意。
Since the launch of the report of the High-level Panel on System-wide Coherence in November 2006, such system-wide coherence has been an important subject of discussions at the General Assembly, the governing bodies of United Nations specialized agencies, funds and programmes and in the principal inter-agency body of the system – the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), including the United Nations Development Group (UNDG).自2006年11月发表全系统一致性问题高级别小组报告以来,这个问题一直是联合国大会以及联合国各专门机构、基金和方案的理事会、联合国系统行政首长协调理事会(行政首长协调会)和(包括联合国发展集团(发展集团))等联合国系统机构间主要机关的重要议题。
Progress towards system-wide coherence has been most noticeable at the country level.在实现全系统一致性方面,国家一级取得的进展最为突出。
The launching of the “Delivering as One” initiative in eight pilot countries towards the end of 2006 and the beginning of 2007 introduced an important dimension into the drive towards increased coherence among United Nations organizations at the country level.2006年底至2007年初,在8个试点国家发起了“一体行动,履行使命”的举措,为联合国各组织加强国家一级的一致性开辟了一个重要的方面。
50. As far as national needs in industrial development assistance are concerned in these pilot countries, strategies for their implementation have been integrated as components of the economic development sections of United Nations system-wide “One Plans” or in the United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs).50. 在这些试点国家,就国家对工业发展援助的需要而言,已将落实援助的战略纳入联合国全系统“一个计划”的经济发展部分或载入《联合国发展援助框架》(《发展援助框架》)。
The mainstreaming of a country-led approach to delivery has had the benefit of reinforcing the economic aspects of development, which tended to be underrepresented compared to pressing social and humanitarian needs in the past.将国家主导落实工作的做法纳入主流的好处是,能够加强发展所涉经济方面的工作,而以往这方面的工作力度不够,无法适应紧迫的社会和人道主义需要。
UNDAFs based on country-driven poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) are giving more emphasis to private sector-led economic growth than ever before.根据由《发展援助框架》以国家主导拟定的减贫战略文件为基础,比以往更为强调由私营部门牵头促进经济增长。
The challenge for specialized agencies will be to find a harmonized way of operating in this new environment, enhancing the current methods of Harmonized Approach to Cash Transfers (HACT) and national execution with modalities that are in line with their mandates and business models.专门机构所面临的挑战是,如何在这种新的环境下统一行动,改进“现金转移统一做法”的现行方法,使用与各自任务和运营模式相吻合的方式加强国别执行工作。
At the same time, transparency and ethics issues need to be systematically addressed at all levels of the multilateral system.同时,需要有条不紊地解决多边系统各级存在的透明度和道德问题。
51. The new spirit of coherence within the United Nations system also provides an opportunity to consider the overall value that the system can bring globally in industrial development, and specifically its convening function, as a catalyst for establishing norms and standards, as an advocate of internationally-agreed rules and as a provider of impartial advice to stakeholders.51. 联合国系统内部出现协调一致的新气象,也为考虑以下问题提供了机会:在工业发展方面,以及在召集各国的具体职能方面,联合国应当在全球推行什么样的基本价值观,从而对拟订规范和准则发挥促进作用,倡导国际商定的规则,并向利益攸关者提供公正不偏的咨询意见。
These are some of the main tasks to be undertaken in meeting the prevailing industrial development challenges – from combating climate change to creating a fairer system for international trade – in the context of a changing multilateral system of development cooperation and an evolving global aid architecture.在多边发展合作体系不断变化,全球援助机构逐渐形成的背景下,这些都是应对当前工业发展挑战必须开展的一些主要工作,包括应对气候变化和建立更为公平的国际贸易制度。
B.5 Partnerships for developmentB.5 发展合作伙伴关系
52. Addressing the challenges of poverty eradication, unequal globalization and the transition to a sustainable, low-carbon path to development requires closer cooperation among development partners.52. 消除贫困、克服全球化造成的不平等并逐步走上低碳可持续发展道路,要应对这些挑战,发展合作伙伴就必须加强合作。
For UNIDO, the importance of strategic partnerships is based on the premise that no single United Nations organization, acting on its own, can effectively address the world’s major development challenges.工发组织认为,建立战略合作伙伴关系之所以重要,是因为联合国任何一个组织都无法单凭一己之力有效应对发展方面的全球重大挑战。
By combining its capacities and competencies with those of other United Nations system organizations, UNIDO interventions are more likely to make a greater contribution to improving people’s lives.与联合国系统其他组织齐心合力,工发组织的援助措施就更有可能对改善人民生活作出更大贡献。
It is for this reason that UNIDO has forged partnerships and continues to work closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) on agri-business development; with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on private sector development and field representation; with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on cleaner production and implementation of multilateral environment agreements; with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the Executive Secretariat of the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) on trade capacity-building;53. 正因为此,工发组织与其他组织结成了伙伴关系,继续就以下有关问题开展密切合作:在农用企业发展问题上,有联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)和国际农业发展基金(农发基金);在私营部门发展和外地代表制问题上,有联合国开发计划署(开发计划署);在清洁生产和多边环境协定的执行上,有联合国环境规划署(环境规划署);在贸易能力建设上,有联合国贸易和发展会议(贸发会议)、世界贸易组织(世贸组织)、国际贸易中心(贸易中心)和增强型综合框架执行秘书处;在环境和能源问题上,有世界银行。
and with the World Bank on environment and energy. 54. As part of the United Nations system, UNIDO also participates actively in system-wide initiatives and coordination mechanisms at the global, regional and national levels.54. 作为联合国系统的一部分,工发组织还积极参与全球、区域和国家各级的全系统举措与协调机制的工作。
Its chief aim is to advance the effectiveness, efficiency, coherence and impact of the United Nations development system at the regional and country levels and the achievement of the MDGs at the international level.工发组织的主要目标是,在区域和国家一级力求增进联合国发展系统的效能、效率、一致性和影响,在国际一级力争实现《千年发展目标》。
It cooperates and collaborates with complementary government institutions, international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the regional development banks, and global and regional cooperation entities.工发组织与发挥补充作用的政府机构、世界银行和区域开发银行等国际金融机构以及全球和区域合作实体开展合作与协作。
Where appropriate, UNIDO also seeks synergies with bilateral aid agencies, private enterprises, civil society and academia.工发组织还将酌情与双边援助机构、私营企业、民间团体和学术机构携手合作。
55. Over the medium-term, the continued ability of UNIDO to deliver on its mandate and to make a major contribution to the achievement of the MDGs will hinge not only on how well it works with others but more so on how well it carries out three important tasks, namely increasing programme delivery with the highest standards of quality; enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and accountability of its management systems; and mobilizing the resources required to meet the growing needs of its Member States.55. 中期内,工发组织能否继续履行其使命,对实现《千年发展目标》作出重大贡献,不仅取决于如何同其他机构开展合作,而且更取决于如何执行三项重要任务,即:按照最高质量标准增加方案执行额;增进管理系统的效能、效率、透明度和问责制;调动所需资源满足成员国不断增加的需要。
C. Programme results frameworkC. 方案实效框架
C.1 IntroductionC.1 导言
56. The programme results framework provides a conceptual mechanism for linking and aligning, based on the principles of results-based management (RBM), the three principal strategic management tools of UNIDO: the ten-year strategic long-term vision statement adopted by the eleventh session of the General Conference in 2005, the revolving four-year medium-term programme frameworks updated every two years, and the biennial programme and budgets documents.56. 方案实效框架是依照注重实效管理原则,把工发组织战略管理三大工具结合、统一起来的构想机制,这三大工具是:大会2005年第十一届会议通过的十年远景说明、每两年更新的循环式四年中期方案纲要以及两年期方案和预算文件。
Specifically, it is intended to serve as a link between the strategic long-term vision statement, which offers broad guidelines regarding the thematic areas of focus to be covered by the Organization, and the detailed programmatic presentation contained in the programme and budgets.具体而言,方案实效框架的目的是,把为工发组织重点主题领域提供广泛指导的战略远景说明同方案和预算所载方案详细说明联系起来。
The programme results framework thus consolidates the expected results from UNIDO’s contributions towards the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs, which derive from its various activities.因此,方案实效框架集中反映了工发组织通过其各项活动将对实现《千年发展目标》等国际商定的发展目标作出贡献的预期成果。
These include its analytical and statistical services; its work as an impartial convener and facilitator; its services in the provision of industrial policy advice and the promotion of related global norms and standards; and its well-recognized technical cooperation services in support of industrial development.这些活动包括:分析和统计服务、作为公正召集人和牵线人所做的工作、为提供工业政策咨询和倡导相关的全球准则和标准而提供的服务、支持工业发展方面得到普遍承认的技术合作服务。
57. In RBM terms, the programme results framework links the outputs of UNIDO’s various programme components, which are implemented in the form of a wide range of individual projects at the country, regional and global level, with the corresponding outcomes at the policy and institutional levels, and impacts at the overall thematic levels.57. 从注重实效的管理来看,方案实效框架是把工发组织方案各组成部分的产出同政策和机构各级的相应成果以及对整个主题的影响挂钩,而方案各组成部分是通过在国家、区域和全球各级的多个项目实施的。
This alignment forms the basis for greater coherence in the programmatic delivery of results and thus for improving UNIDO’s ability to manage for results.这两者挂钩是方案成果更有一致性,从而提高工发组织绩效管理能力的基础。
As the programme advances in its implementation, additional synergies and collaborations are expected to develop, in particular between UNIDO and other partner institutions in the multilateral development system.随着方案执行工作的推进,预计还将有更多的协力合作,特别是在工发组织与多边发展系统的其他伙伴机构之间。
It thus has the potential to further increase overall coherence among development actors and enhance productive cooperation and mutual accountability for the beneficiary countries and their people.因此,工发组织有潜力进一步增进各发展行动方之间的全面协调一致,加强务实合作,共同承担责任,为受惠国及其人民造福。
58. The programme results framework includes an aggregated results matrix (see section C.4) and is implemented by a programme management framework in Chapter D.58. 方案实效框架列有累计成果矩阵(见C.4节),由D章方案管理框架负责实施。
C.2 Development objectiveC.2 发展目标
59. Within the programme results framework, UNIDO’s overall development objective for the MTPF 2010-2013 has been set as: Industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability.59. 方案实效框架为工发组织2010-2013年中期方案纲要设定的总体发展目标是:工业发展促进减贫、包容性全球化和环境可持续力。
This reflects the fact that UNIDO’s support programmes are aimed at reducing poverty, making globalization more equitable and inclusive, and protecting the environment through sustainable patterns of industrial development.由此可以看出,工发组织支助方案力求减轻贫困,使全球化更公平、更具包容性,采用可持续的工业发展模式保护环境。
This contributes to overall economic growth, which in turn makes a positive contribution to the improvement of living standards and the quality of life of people in all countries, and thus to achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs, which are a prerequisite for enduring peace and security.这将有助于经济全面增长,进而对提高各国人民的生活水平和质量作出积极贡献,从而实现千年发展目标等国际商定的发展目标,这些目标的实现是确保持久和平与安全的先决条件。
C.3 Thematic priorities and expected impactC.3 主题重点和预期成效
60. In line with this development rationale and the strategic long-term vision statement for the period 2005-2015, UNIDO continues to group its activities to promote industrial development into three thematic priorities in which it seeks to achieve a long-term impact.60. 按照这一发展构想和2005-2015年期间战略远景说明,工发组织继续把促进工业发展的活动分为三个主题重点,力求在这些领域实现长远效果。
These thematic priorities comprise poverty reduction through productive activities (linked to MDGs 1 and 3), trade capacity-building (linked to MDG 7) and environment and energy (linked to MDG 8).三个主题重点是:通过生产活动减贫(与《千年发展目标》之1和3有关)、贸易能力建设(与《千年发展目标》之7有关)、环境和能源(与《千年发展目标》之8有关)。
Through its services provided under each of these thematic priority areas, UNIDO expects to achieve the following impacts:工发组织期望通过在其中每一主题重点领域提供服务,取得以下成果:
1. Poverty reduction through productive activities: Women and men are equally empowered to generate and increase their income by engaging in productive industrial activities.1. 通过生产活动减贫:为男女提供同等支助,使其能够通过参与工业生产活动创收增收。
2. Trade capacity-building: Industries in developing countries are enabled to produce and trade goods and services that meet international public and private industrial standards, and benefit increasingly from globalization.2. 贸易能力建设:发展中国家工业有能力进行可达到公共和私营领域国际工业标准的货物、服务生产和贸易,从全球化受益逐渐增加。
3. Environment and energy: Industries adopt cleaner, resource-efficient and low-carbon patterns of production and investment, which contribute to mitigating environmental challenges and adapting to climate change.3. 能源和环境:工业部门采用更清洁、资源效率更高、低碳生产方式和投资方式,以此促进减轻环境压力和适应气候变化。
C.4 Expected country-level outcomesC.4 国别一级的预期成果
61. In order to ensure the clarity and coherence of UNIDO’s activities under each of the three thematic priority areas in the medium-term programme framework, and to maximize the potential for synergies between the results of all branches and units of the Organization, and between UNIDO and other actors in the multilateral development system, a set of desired policy and institutional outcomes have been defined for each thematic priority area at the regional and country level.61. 为了确保中期方案纲要三个主题重点领域每一领域中工发组织的活动明确一致,最大限度地挖掘工发组织各科室工作成果的潜在协力作用,并最大限度地发挥工发组织与多边发展系统其他行动方之间的协同潜力,分别在区域和国家一级为每一主题重点领域确定了政策和体制方面的一套预期成果。
These are complemented by performance indicators at both impact and outcome levels as summarized in the matrix below.作为这些成果的补充,在下面的矩阵中按成效和成果概要列出绩效指示数。
Programmatic results matrix (2010-2013)方案实效矩阵(2010-2013年)
Industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability工业发展促进减贫、包容性全球化和环境可持续力
1. Poverty reduction through productive activities1. 通过生产活动减贫
Performance indicators:绩效指示数:
Expected impact:预期成效:
Women and men are equally empowered to generate and increase their income by engaging in productive industrial activities.为男女提供同等支助,使其能够通过参与工业生产活动创收增收。
Increased job opportunities, in particular for poor target groups就业机会增加,特别是贫困目标群的机会增加
Increased and equitable levels of income from productive activities从生产活动中得到的收入增加,更趋公平
More decent working conditions工作条件更像样
Outcome 1.1: Equitable growth policies成果1.1:公平的增长政策
Industrial strategies, policies and regulations support equitable and inclusive industrial growth.工业战略、政策和条例支持公平和包容工业增长。
Industrial policies set quantified poverty reduction objectives工业政策确定量化减贫目标
Inclusiveness and reduced inequality are policy priorities力求以包容性和减少不平等现象作为政策重点
Industrial statistics monitor the impact of industrial policies on poverty使用工业统计数字观察工业政策对贫困的影响
Outcome 1.2: Market enabling and investment support institutions成果1.2:市场辅助和投资支助机构
National and regional organizations establish market-enabling services for industries and assist them to increase productive capacities.国家和区域机构建立面向企业的市场辅助服务,协助企业提高生产能力。
Support organizations serve increased numbers and types of enterprises支助组织所服务的企业数量和类型增加
New and better support services become available有新型、更好的支助服务
Enterprises are satisfied with quality of services企业对服务质量满意
Private service providers emerge and develop私营服务供应商出现并得到发展
2. Trade capacity-building2. 贸易能力建设
Performance indicators:绩效指示数:
Expected impact:预期成效:
Industries are enabled to produce and trade goods and services that meet international public and private industrial standards, and benefit increasingly from globalization.工业有能力进行可达到公共和私营领域国际工业标准的货物、服务生产和贸易,从全球化受益逐渐增加。
Increased exports, in particular from poverty relevant sectors出口增加,特别是减贫相关部门的出口增加
Reduced rejection rates of exported products出口产品退货率降低
New products brought to the global market Outcome 2.1: International standards and compliance新产品打入国际市场 成果2.1:国际标准和合规
Policies and regulations enhance opportunities for international industrial cooperation and rule-based, non-discriminatory patterns of trade.政策条例增进国际工业合作机会,加强守规、非歧视贸易方式。
Trade policies give priority to industrial development贸易政策优先考虑工业发展
Effective policy dialogue between public and private sector公共和私营部门开展有效的政策对话
Harmonized framework of trade-related institutions贸易相关机构采用统一框架
Enterprises are effectively protected from sub-standard imports企业得到有效保护,未受低劣进口品影响
Outcome 2.2: Standardization and trade support institutions成果2.2:标准化和贸易支助机构
Support organizations adopt and diffuse international public and private industrial standards, provide trade-enabling assistance to enterprises seeking to supply international market opportunities.支助组织采用、推广公共和私营领域工业国际标准,为寻求成为国际市场供应商的企业提供贸易便利协助。
National and international standards are aligned and relevant to enterprises国内标准和国际标准接轨,企业贯彻
Support organizations serve increased numbers and types of enterprises支助组织所服务的企业数量和类型增加
Enterprises have access to necessary trade-related services企业获得必要的贸易相关服务
Enterprises are satisfied with quality of services企业对服务质量满意
3. Environment and energy:3. 环境和能源
Performance indicators:绩效指示数:
Expected impact:预期成效:
Industries adopt resource-efficient and low-carbon patterns of production and growth, which contributes to mitigating environmental challenges and adapting to climate change, while improving productivity.工业采用资源效率更高、低碳生产方式和增长模式,以此促进减轻环境压力和适应气候变化,同时提高生产力。
Reduced industrial pollution工业污染减少
Better use of natural resources自然资源得到更好的利用
Increased use of renewable energies可再生能源使用增加
Outcome 3.1: Industrial sustainability policies and practices成果3.1:工业可持续性政策和做法
Industrial policies, plans and regulations internalize environmental considerations and the sustainable use of goods, services and energy.工业政策、规划和条例内化环境考虑以及货物、服务和能源的可持续利用。
Industrial policies define verifiable environmental objectives工业政策确定可核实的环境目标
Policies and regulations provide incentives for sustainability政策条例鼓励实现可持续性
Energy policies give priority to productive energy use能源政策优先考虑将能源用于生产
Outcome 3.2: Green industry support services成果3.2:绿色产业支助服务
Public and private institutions support industry in complying with environmental agreements and provide services to mitigate negative industrial externalities and to adapt to climate change.公共和私营机构支持工业部门遵守环境协定,提供服务减轻工业外部性并适应环境变化。
Support organizations serve increased numbers and types of enterprises支助组织所服务的企业数量和类型增加
Environmental and other enterprise support services delivered in integrated manner以综合方式提供环境和其他方面的企业支助服务
Private service providers emerge and develop私营服务供应商出现并得到发展
Enterprises have access to renewable energy supply企业获得可再生能源供应
National institutions effectively implement international environmental agreements国家机构有效执行国际环境协定
C.5 Thematic programme componentsC.5 主题方案组成部分
62. UNIDO’s programme is geared towards achieving progress within the three thematic priorities through twelve programme components, which in turn identify a number of specific outputs and results.62. 工发组织的方案着眼于通过十二个方案组成部分在三个主题重点领域取得进展,而这十二个组成部分要确定若干具体产出和成果。
These will be contained in the detailed results matrices in the programme and budgets documents for 2010-2011 and 2012-2013.这些产出和成果将在2010-2011年和2012-2013年方案和预算文件的具体成果矩阵中列出。
In addition, three cross-cutting programme components are presented.此外,三个方案组成部分则贯穿整个矩阵。
C.5.1 Poverty reduction through productive activitiesC.5.1 通过生产活动减贫
63. Poverty reduction (MDG 1) and the related objectives of gender equality and the empowerment of women (MDG 3) remain the central pillar of the support services provided to its Member States by UNIDO.63. 减轻贫困(《千年发展目标》之1)及与之有关的争取两性平等和提高妇女能力的目标,仍然是工发组织向成员国提供支助服务的主要支柱。
This commitment is based on the conviction that the most effective way to achieve these goals is through economic growth, and that private sector-led industrial development can play a significant role in setting the economies of developing countries on a path of sustained economic growth.作出这一承诺所依赖的信念是,经济增长是实现这些目标的最有效的方式,由私营部门主导的工业发展将在推动发展中国家的经济走上可持续经济增长道路方面发挥重要作用。
Industry is a seedbed for entrepreneurship, business investment, technological progress, the upgrading of human skills, and the creation of decent jobs.创业、企业投资、技术进步、提升人的技能和创造体面的就业机会都将依赖于工业。
Through intersectoral linkages, industrial development can also establish the foundation for a more effective and efficient agricultural sector and a flourishing tertiary sector.通过部门之间的联系,工业发展还能为提高农业部门的效能和效率、发展繁荣的第三产业奠定基础。
All these factors contribute to sustained productivity improvements that can ensure pro-poor outcomes and contribute to increased living standards in developing countries.所有这些因素均有助于生产力持续提高,从而确保产生扶贫效果,提高发展中国家生活水平。
64. Governments have a key role in both regulating and facilitating the development of the private sector.64. 政府在规范、扶植私营部门发展方面起着关键作用。
It is therefore important that governments in developing countries establish a conducive business environment, based on sound industrial policies and an effective and efficient institutional framework under which the private sector can flourish and become a driver for sustainable and inclusive growth.因此,发展中国家的政府必须创造有利的企业运营环境,一方面制定健全的工业政策,另一方面则建立有效、高效的体制框架,使私营部门能够繁荣发展,成为可持续、有包容性的增长的驱动力。
65. Entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the main sources of economic activities that support productivity growth and poverty reduction in developing countries.65. 企业家和中小企业是经济活动的主体,这种经济活动是发展中国家提高生产力和减贫的基础。
Better-educated and networked entrepreneurs and SMEs are able to make better judgments and decisions, and therefore are more likely to engage successfully in operations that require long-term investments – such as manufacturing enterprises – based on their knowledge about the business environment.受过较好教育而且联系广泛的企业家和中小企业能够作出较为明智的判断和决定,因而也就更有可能成功地根据对运营环境的了解开展需要长期投资的业务——例如制造业企业。
Therefore, promoting human resource development and networking among entrepreneurs and SMEs can play an important role in strengthening their productive capacities and market competitiveness.因此,在企业家和中小企业当中推动人力资源开发并建立广泛联系,可以对加强生产能力和市场竞争力发挥重要作用。
66. Increasing the economic empowerment of marginalized parts of the population can also make a significant contribution to poverty reduction. This is particularly true in the case of the agriculture-based economies in sub-Saharan Africaand the LDCs, where the majority of the population is often engaged in subsistence agriculture.66. 提高弱势群体的经济能力也能对减贫工作作出重要贡献,对于非洲撒哈拉以南地区和最不发达国家的农业型经济尤其是这样,这些国家的人通常大多都靠务农维持生计。
As most of the youth in these countries grow up without being exposed to entrepreneurial experiences or learning entrepreneurial skills, the capacity of these countries to create entrepreneurs is also limited.这些国家的多数年轻人在其成长过程中均没有创业经验,也从未掌握任何创业技能,因此这些国家产生企业家的能力也很有限。
Similarly, the low levels of female education and female participation in entrepreneurial activities also inhibit the growth of entrepreneurship in many developing countries.同样,妇女文化程度不高,很少参与企业活动,也阻碍了许多发展中国家创业能力的发展。
67. A particular challenge for many developing countries is to shift their industries from low-value and price-driven commodity-based activities to higher-value and knowledge-based production and services.67. 许多发展中国家都面临一个特殊挑战,本国工业如何从低价值、价格主导型商品活动转为价值较高、立足于知识的生产和服务。
Helping businesses in these countries to gain access to business information and information and communication technologies (ICTs) will play an important role in overcoming these development hurdles.帮助这些国家的企业获取商业信息以及信息通信技术,将大大有助于克服这些发展障碍。
The gradual creation of such an information society in developing countries, and particularly in LDCs, is a key prerequisite for stimulating increased innovation, productivity, competitiveness and market-linkages.逐步在发展中国家,特别是在最不发达国家建立起这样一个信息社会,是促进提高创新力、生产力、竞争力和市场联系的一个关键。
68. In many cases the growth prospects of SMEs in developing countries are constrained by their inability to tap into international investment and technology flows.68. 在许多情况下,发展中国家中小企业的增长前景受制于无法得到国际投资和技术。
They therefore lack the capital to upscale, or the technology to improve or diversify their product range.因此,这些企业缺乏扩大规模的资本,也没有增加产品品种或进行多样化经营的必要技术。
While this may often be the result of unfavourable policy measures and regulatory approaches adopted by governments, it is also frequently the result of a lack of knowledge on the part of external providers of capital and technology of the opportunities prevailing in many developing countries.尽管造成这种情况的原因通常是政府采取的政策措施和监管做法不利,但经常也是由于外部资本和技术供应方对许多发展中国家存在的机会缺乏了解。
Deliberate efforts are needed in such cases to help establish partnerships between national producers and potential foreign partners and counterparts.如果是这种情况,就需要特别努力帮助国内生产商与潜在的外国合作伙伴和对应方建立伙伴关系。
69. It is against this background that UNIDO offers five interrelated programme components under its priority theme of Poverty reduction through productive activities.69. 正是在这一背景之下,工发组织在“通过生产活动减贫”的重点主题下设有五个互有联系的方案组成部分。
These comprise industrial strategy and business environment; investment and technology promotion; SME cluster and agro-value chain development; rural, women and youth entrepreneurship development, and human security and post-crisis rehabilitation.这些组成部分包括:工业战略和企营环境;投资和技术促进;中小企业集群和农产价值链发展;乡村、妇女和青年培养创业能力以及人的安全和危机后重建。
Industrial strategy and business environment工业战略和企业运营环境
70. After several years of quasi-neglect, there is renewed interest among opinion- and policymakers in the theme of industrial policy, which is almost certain to be reinforced in coming years as a result of the global financial and economic crisis triggered in the second half of 2008.70. 舆论和决策者几年来几乎一直不关心工业政策问题,如今又重新发生兴趣,在2008年下半年发生全球金融危机和经济危机后,今后几年几乎肯定会更加重视这个问题。
The new concept of industrial policy differs from its predecessors, however, insofar as it seeks to strengthen the industrialization process rather than the products of industry.但是,工业政策新构想将不同于以往的这类构想,其不同之处在于,工业政策力图加强的是工业化进程,而不是工业产品。
In response, UNIDO’s technical cooperation in the field of industrial policy will emphasize capacity-building at the national level for collecting and analysing reliable economic data, and this process will continue into the foreseeable future.工发组织在工业政策方面的技术合作将因此而强调收集和分析可靠经济数据方面的国家能力建设,在可预见的将来,都将延续这种做法。
By setting up pockets of industrial excellence in ministries and chambers of industry, a solid analytical foundation can be laid for the formulation of strategies and policies based on close consultation between the public and private sectors.在工业部委协会中建立工业卓越绩效研究部门,可以为在公共和私营部门密切协商的基础上拟订相关战略和政策奠定牢固的分析基础。
While the focus and scope of UNIDO’s support services will be tailored to the specific needs of each individual country, the provision of these services will typically involve the stages of diagnosis, formulation, implementation and monitoring.工发组织的支助服务要调整重点和规模,使之适应每个国家的具体需要,但通常还是要分成诊断分析、拟订、执行和监督这样几个阶段。
71. The formulation process can be enriched by the deployment of a number of specific approaches and methodologies.71. 应当使用一些专门做法和方法来充实拟订工作。
The technology foresight methodology is instrumental in supporting decision-making on the application of technology and innovation for sustainable and competitive economic and industrial policy, and covers such topics as technology dissemination, national innovation systems, and technological capacity-building.在将技术和创新用于制订可持续、有竞争力的经济和工业政策方面,技术展望方法是一种支持决策的有利工具。 它所涵盖的专题有:技术普及、国家创新制度和技术能力建设。
Meanwhile, the asymmetric flows of technology can be corrected by devoting increased attention to the institutional basis for determining the direction and pace of technological development through linkages with production-chains and networks.同时,为纠正技术流不对称情况,可以把更多的注意力放在建立体制基础上,通过与生产链和生产网挂钩来确定技术发展方向和速度。
72. Given the overriding importance attributed specifically to SMEs for poverty reduction, this programme component places particular emphasis on devising policies, programmes and regulatory frameworks that result in a business environment free from biases against SMEs and conducive to private sector development overall.72. 鉴于中小企业对减贫工作的极为重要,本方案组成部分特别重视拟订政策、方案和监管框架,营造一种中小企业不受歧视,有利于私营部门全面发展的商业环境。
Support for capacity-building for the design and establishment of national and local institutional infrastructures that effectively spur SME development is a further distinctive feature of the programme component, as is the facilitation of access to market-based business development services (BDS).本方案组成部分的另一个显著特点是,支持开展能力建设,设计并建立国家和地方体制基础设施,有力推动中小企业发展,一如协助提供面向市场的商业发展服务。
In addition, UNIDO will complement its capacity-building support services in this field with efforts to create partnerships and encourage a structured dialogue between public and private sector stakeholders in the formulation and continuous adaptation of industrial and, particularly, SME development policies and related business environment improvements throughout this programme period.此外,工发组织在提供该领域能力建设支助服务的同时,还将辅之以力争建立伙伴关系,鼓励公共和私营部门利益攸关者展开有序对话,在本方案期内,共同拟订并不断调整工业政策,特别是中小企业发展政策,并改善相关的商业环境。
73. Building bridges between government and industry is vital for reducing bureaucratic complexities and difficulties in accessing key information, including on licensing procedures and other legal provisions.73. 在获取重要信息(包括关于许可程序和其他法律条文的信息)方面,要减少繁琐、复杂的官僚行政手续,就必须在政府和工业之间架起桥梁。
This thematic programme component will therefore continue to assist governments in developing electronic portals that offer integrated access to information on regulatory mandates, support institutions and generic business advice, especially for SMEs and entrepreneurs.因此,本主题方案组成部分将继续协助政府开发电子门户,特别针对中小企业和企业家提供关于规范性命令、支助机构和一般商业建议的信息渠道。
Such e-government solutions increase the transparency, effectiveness and coverage of industry-related public service delivery and industrial policy dissemination and set standards for ICT usage particularly among SMEs.采用这种电子政务解决办法后,与工业有关的公共服务工作和工业政策宣传将更加透明、有效,覆盖面更大,还会特别为中小企业使用信息通信技术树立标准。
Investment and technology promotion投资和技术促进
74. Investment is the key driver of productive capacity and competitiveness.74. 投资是生产能力和竞争力的主要动力。
Under this programme component efforts will therefore be made to assist developing countries in identifying and targeting foreign investor groups that can have a positive impact on the local economy.因此,在本方案构成部分下,将努力协助发展中国家找到并具体确定可对当地经济产生积极影响的外国投资群体。
Efforts will also be made to increase the positive spillovers of foreign direct investment (FDI), especially for reducing poverty, promoting economic growth, and generating increased employment.还将努力加大外国直接投资的积极外溢效应,特别是在减贫、促进经济增长和增加就业方面的效果。
Information and monitoring platforms to facilitate informed policy and strategy formulation will be established, comprising analytical information and interactive databases, and providing the means for measuring investor response to policy interventions and the provision of public goods.将建立信息和监测平台,促进在了解情况的基础上制订政策和战略。 这些平台将由分析信息数据库和互动数据库组成,提供手段衡量投资人对政策干预的反应和公共产品的提供情况。
They will also generate rankings, indices, benchmarks and other indicators for assisting both investor decisions and policy formulation.这些平台还将产生排名、索引、基准和其他指标,为投资人做决定和制订政策提供帮助。
Also, national capacities will be developed to improve the investment climate through better policies, more effective enforcement, and the provision of related institutional services.此外还将为改善投资环境而提高国家能力,包括制订更好的政策,更有效地贯彻,并提供相关的机构服务。
75. Technical cooperation services provided under this component will also support the building of national subcontracting exchange (SPX) networks to facilitate outsourcing as well as supply chain development to generate viable investment opportunities and to integrate developing countries into the world economy.75. 在本组成部分下提供的技术合作服务还将支助建立国家分包交流所网络,以促进外包和供应链发展,创造可行的投资机会,使发展中国家融入世界经济。
Investment projects so generated are linked to financing sources through cooperation with equity funds and other financial institutions.如此产生的投资项目将通过与股票基金及其他金融机构合作,与各种筹资来源联系起来。
76. The UNIDO network of Investment and Technology Promotion Offices (ITPOs) will continue to target and promote specific investment opportunities and business partnerships and will thereby extend the global reach of developing countries’ promotion efforts.76. 工发组织的投资和技术促进办事处网络将继续针对具体的投资机会和商业伙伴关系开展促进工作,从而把发展中国家的促进工作扩大到全球范围。
Special attention will be given to establish synergies with other UNIDO activities in order to maximize development spillovers and impact.将特别重视与工发组织的其他活动形成协同效应,以便最大限度地实现发展的外溢效应和影响。
The promotion of responsible investments and business opportunities through ITPOs and Investment Promotion Units (IPUs) will ensure the provision of support at all stages of project development through advisory and training services, specialized events and delegate programmes.通过投资和技术促进办事处和投资促进股促进负责任的投资和商业机会,将确保通过咨询和培训服务、专项活动和权力下放方案,在项目开发的所有阶段提供支助。
77. Technological progress is a key global resource for competitiveness, wealth and job creation, and has a recognized impact on economic growth, development and poverty reduction, inter alia, also at the level of SMEs.77. 技术进步是提升竞争力、增加财富和创造就业机会的一个主要的全局性资源,对经济增长、发展和减贫具有公认的作用,特别是在中小企业层面上。
However global agreements such as the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) negotiated during the Uruguay Round, and multilateral conventions on climate change will have important implications for developing countries regarding conditions for their access to and use of technology, and their economic and social development.然而,在乌拉圭回合期间谈判达成的世贸组织《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》等全球协定,以及关于气候变化的各项多边公约,将对发展中国家获得和使用技术的条件及其经济和社会发展产生重大影响。
UNIDO’s role is to assist developing countries in overcoming these international barriers to technology transfer, facilitate affordable access to adequate knowledge and tailor-made solutions in long-term economic transformation, and ultimately facilitate access to international trade in technology-based products.工发组织的作用是协助发展中国家克服这些技术转让上的国际障碍,便利在长期经济改革期间以负担得起的方式获得充分的知识和因地制宜的解决办法,并最终便利参与技术产品国际贸易。
During the MTPF period, UNIDO will take into consideration the current changed global technology scenario and focus its intervention on the promotion, transfer, application and diffusion of new enabling technologies and innovations in developing countries.本纲要期间,工发组织将考虑到目前已改变的全球技术形势,将干预工作侧重于在发展中国家促进、转让、应用和推广新的使能技术和革新。
In this context, UNIDO’s assistance on technology transfer both at policy and institutional levels will play a key role in achieving these results.在这方面,工发组织在政策和制度层面的技术转让援助将在实现上述成果的过程中发挥重要作用。
This programme component will also develop capacities of stakeholders at government, civil society, institutional and enterprise level and strengthen the linkages among themselves as well as with UNIDO’s international networks of ITPOs, technology centres/parks and universities to expand access to technologies, business partnerships and sources of finance.本方案组成部分还将提高政府、民间社会、机构和企业等层面利益方的能力,并加强其相互之间的联系以及与工发组织投资和技术促进办事处国际网络、技术中心/园区和大学的联系,以便有更多机会获得技术和资金来源,并建立商业伙伴关系。
78. UNIDO will also provide technical assistance, methodologies and tools for the creation and strengthening of national innovation systems, the establishment and support of technology parks and incubators, and technology and innovation centres.78. 工发组织还将提供技术协助、办法和工具,用于建立和加强国家创新制度、创建和支助技术园区和孵化器以及技术和创新中心。
It will specifically seek to enhance the application of new and emerging technologies, such as ICT and clean energy technologies for sustained economic growth.工发组织将特别寻求为持续经济增长而加强信息通信技术和清洁能源技术等新兴技术的应用。
UNIDO will strengthen its capacity-building services in the area of technology management: technology needs assessment, mapping, sourcing, evaluation, negotiation, licensing and adaptation.工发组织将加强技术管理领域的能力建设服务:技术需求评估、制图、采购、评价、谈判、许可和改造。
This expertise and application of best practices will contribute to strengthening the mechanism of technology transfer in sectors most affected by global agreements on climate change and intellectual property rights (IPR).这种专业知识和最佳做法应用将有助于加强受关于气候变化和知识产权的全球协定影响最大的部门的技术转让机制。
The promotional component will be implemented through global forum events and capacity-building programmes on awareness raising, skills development, technology road mapping, assistance in national policy and strategy formulation and implementation and fostering international partnership and cooperation.实施宣传部分时,将在以下各方面开展全球论坛活动和能力建设方案:提高认识、培养技能、构建技术路线图、协助制定和实施国家政策和战略、以及扶助国际伙伴关系与合作。
The programme will also pay special attention to gender and youth issues, when these target groups encounter barriers in accessing technology and finance.本方案还将特别关注性别问题和青年问题,处理这些目标群体在获取技术和资金遇到障碍时所面临的问题。
79. One of the key technologies for increasing productivity and for stimulating a competitive knowledge-based economy is information and communication technology.79. 信息通信技术是用于提高生产力和促进有竞争力的知识型经济的主要技术之一。
However, industry, and in particular SMEs, in most developing countries is suffering from inadequate ICT access regarding content, application, services and infrastructure – key ingredients for industrial development, particularly in LDCs.然而,大多数发展中国家的工业,特别是中小企业,却由于在内容、应用、服务和基础设施这些工业发展要素上无法充分利用信息通信技术而处于不利地位,最不发达国家的处境更是不利。
ICT penetration remains low and expensive, and ICT services are often provided in a highly disintegrated manner.信息通信技术的深入程度低、费用高,提供信息通信技术服务的方式往往极为分散。
This programme component will therefore also address the barriers to SMEs when seeking to use ICT tools, namely affordable access, adequate knowledge, and tailor-made solutions.因此,本方案组成部分还将处理中小企业寻求使用信息通信技术工具时遇到的障碍,即从三个方面着眼:有负担得起的使用途径、有足够知识、有因地制宜的解决办法。
Specifically, this will be done through UNIDO’s growing network of business information centres, partly powered through renewable energy sources in rural areas, assistance to public and private institutions in the development local software economies and the establishment of mobile phone-based information solutions for SMEs.具体地说,开展这一工作的途径是,借助农村地区可再生资源提供的电力,不断扩大工发组织商务信息中心网络;协助公共和私营机构发展当地软件经济;为中小企业制订以移动电话为基础的信息解决办法。
SME cluster and agro-value chain development中小企业集群和农业价值链的发展
80. This programme component aims at promoting the development of clusters and business linkages to help enterprises, especially smaller ones, improve productivity and innovation, and achieve systemic competitive advantages.80. 本方案组成部分的目标是促进集群和商务联系的发展,以协助企业特别是较小企业提高生产力和创新力,全面提升竞争优势。
By promoting clusters, networks, supplier development and private-public partnerships, the programme strengthens local economic systems where enterprises complement their capabilities, jointly achieve economies of scale and scope, increase their access to resources and markets within a conducive institutional environment and opportunities are developed for spreading the benefits to the poor.通过促进集群、网络、供应商发展和公私合作伙伴关系,本方案将加强地方经济体系,使企业在有利的体制环境下相互取长补短,共同实现规模经济和范围经济,增加使用资源和进入市场的机会;并创造机会惠及贫困人口。
81. Specifically, the programme contributes to poverty reduction not only by creating economic opportunities for the poor target groups but also by adopting a broad-based approach which promotes the participation of these groups in decision-making, seeks to overcome gender and other marginalization biases, and empowers the poor to capture economic opportunities by upgrading their skills, organization and institutional representation.81. 具体地说,本方案为减贫作贡献的途径,一是为贫困的目标群体创造经济机会,二是通过采用基础广泛的办法促进这些群体参与决策,力求克服性别偏见和其他边缘化偏见,并为贫困人口提供支助,使其能够通过提高技能、改善组织方式和加强在机构中的地位,抓住经济机会。
The poverty reduction outcomes that can be achieved through a cluster/linkages approach therefore include employment and income for cluster entrepreneurs and their labour forces, a greater availability of affordable goods and services, the development of human capital, greater access to infrastructure as a result of public-private investment, and the integration of women and ethnic minorities in production activities.因此,可通过集群/联系办法实现的减贫成果包括:集群企业家及其劳动力的就业和收入、负担得起的产品和服务的供应增加、人力资本的发展、使用基础设施的机会因公私投资而增加,以及妇女和少数民族参与生产活动。
82. UNIDO has a recognized competence and leadership in the development of clusters and business linkages.82. 工发组织在发展集群和商务联系方面具有公认的能力和领导地位。
During the MTPF 2010-2013 period, the Organization will innovate upon the concept and broaden the approach through the systematic integration of new services into the programme component.在2010-2013年中期方案纲要期间,本组织将在概念上进行创新,并通过系统地将新服务纳入本方案构成部分,扩大这一办法的范围。
For instance, the services employed for the development of export consortia will be used to create dynamic groups of enterprises within clusters able to link with smaller suppliers and generate a pull effect throughout the clusters towards export markets.例如,将把用于发展出口联合总会的服务用于在集群中建立能够与较小供应商联系的有活力的企业团体,进而在整个集群中产生面向出口市场的拉动效应。
Similarly, the triple-bottom line approach employed in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) context will also be mainstreamed into business linkages to offer a hands-on methodology to balance economic, social and environmental imperatives.同样,还要把公司社会责任方面使用的三重底线办法纳入商业联系的主流,为平衡经济、社会和环境三方面的要求提供一个实践方法。
Further integration will be sought with investment promotion services in order to enhance the effect of large investments on local communities and with renewable energy related services in order to enhance the use of renewable energies for productive activities at the cluster level.还将力求进一步与投资促进服务整合,以便增强大型投资对地方社区的影响,力求与可再生能源方面的服务整合,以便在集群层面提高可再生能源在生产活动中的应用。
83. The programme component will engage increasingly with the private sector as a partner of its development efforts.83. 将有越来越多的私营部门作为发展工作的伙伴参与本方案组成部分。
Emphasis will be placed on the establishment of partnerships with industrial leaders and global buyers, to leverage knowledge, best practices, resources and contacts for the benefit of local development initiatives.将重点与行业领头企业和全球采购商建立合作伙伴关系,以便运用知识、最佳做法、资源和联系,促进地方发展举措。
84. In line with lessons learned from field experience, the component will also strengthen its services for policy advice and the development of key human resources.84. 按照从实地工作中学到的经验教训,本组成部分还将加强对政策咨询和开发主要人力资源的工作。
This implies the increasing need to address the requirements of policymakers in the process of mainstreaming cluster development into national and regional policies, while also assisting in the formation of key skills for policy implementation and monitoring required by officials of local government, intermediary support institutions, governance institutions, and educational institutions as well as the cluster entrepreneurs themselves.这意味着越来越多地需要解决决策者在将集群发展纳入国家和区域政策主流的过程中的各种需要,同时还要协助对地方政府、中间支助机构、治理机构和教育机构的官员以及集群企业家本身进行培训,使其在政策实施和监测方面具备所需的主要技能。
85. Finally, emphasis will be placed on knowledge management functions.85. 最后,还将注重知识管理功能。
The programme component can already draw on a number of tools, methodologies and experiences in knowledge diffusion, policy advice and training.本方案组成部分已经能够利用知识传播、政策咨询和培训等方面的若干工具、方法和经验。
This set of tools will be further strengthened by the establishment of a knowledge management system encompassing four components:这一整套工具将随着知识管理系统的建立而得到进一步加强。 知识管理系统由四个部分构成:
(a) Knowledge codification and dissemination (systematization of project experience, communications strategy, specialized training programmes at the global and regional levels);(a) 知识编集和传播(全球和区域范围的项目经验系统化、通信战略、专门培训方案);
(b) Capacity-building of key industrial skills (training of trainers, centres of excellence);(b) 主要工业技能方面的能力建设(对培训教员的培训、高级研究中心);
(c) Systematic innovation of the approach (action-oriented research, monitoring and evaluation, and feedback into project design;(c) 方法的系统革新(以行动为导向的研究、监测和评估,以及将反馈纳入项目设计);
(d) Networking with external partners, including IFIs.(d) 与国际金融机构等外部合作伙伴联网。
86. Improving competitiveness, flexibility and productivity of SMEs, particularly in rural areas is a further focus of this programme component, which will continue building institutional support infrastructures for agro-based, rural industries.86. 本方案组成部分的另一个侧重点是提高中小企业竞争力、灵活性和生产力,特别是在农村地区。 将继续为乡村农产工业发展机构支助基础设施。
This will build on commodities and the related secondary agro-processing industries with emphasis on food (such as fish, meat, dairy, fruits/vegetables, vegetable oils) and certain non-food products (wood and non-wood forest products, textiles and garments, hides and skins and derived products).这将以商品和有关的次级农产品加工行业为基础,侧重于食物(如鱼、肉、乳制品、水果蔬菜、植物油)和某些非食物产品(木材和非木材林业产品、纺织品和服装、毛皮和衍生产品)。
Public and private techno-economic support infrastructure will furthermore be developed, based on findings in pilot rural agro-enterprises regarding production flows, product quality, waste minimization, by-product utilization and packaging methods.此外,还将依据在试点乡村农业企业中关于生产流程、产品质量、减废、副产品利用和包装方法等问题的研究结果,在技术和经济方面发展公共和私营支助基础设施。
87. Through the establishment of regional centres of excellence in, inter alia, food processing, safety and quality control, packaging, labelling, testing standards, agro-machinery, and by-products utilization, support services to industries will be improved in quantity and quality.87. 将建立关于食品加工、安全和质量控制、包装、标签、测试标准、农业机械和副产品利用等问题的区域高级研究中心,提高对各行业支助服务的数量和质量。
This is expected to lead to higher productivity and efficiency, improvement in product quality with lower reject rates, higher levels of resource utilization and value addition, and reductions in post-harvest losses.预计这将提高生产力和效率,改进产品质量,降低废品率,提高资源利用水平和增加值水平,并降低采后损失。
In addition, technical advice and cooperation will be provided for the development of agricultural machinery manufacturing through the establishment of rural technology centres for technology transfer and appropriate repair and maintenance of basic agricultural tools and agro-processing equipment in rural areas.此外,还将建立农村技术中心,进行技术转让,对农村地区的基本农具和农产品加工设备进行维修,为农业机械生产的发展提供技术咨询与合作。
Rural, women and youth entrepreneurship development乡村、妇女、青年培养创业能力
88. This programme component will continue to promote rural, women and youth entrepreneurship by focusing on the provision of entrepreneurial training to the designated target groups in order to help build the foundation for private sector development.88. 本方案构成部分将继续提高乡村、妇女和青年的创业能力,侧重于向特定目标群体提供创业培训,以协助为私营部门发展打下基础。
It will also encourage improvements in the regulatory and administrative environment to promote competitive entrepreneurial activities in the formal sector.还将鼓励改善监管和行政环境,以推动正规部门中的竞争性创业活动。
As the expected long-term impact of the component is an increasing number of competitive SMEs in the formal sector with an increased entrepreneurial participation of rural populations, women and young people, it is of particular interest for LDCs and countries with special needs.本组成部分的长远预期效果是正规部门中有竞争力的中小企业数量逐渐增多,并有更多的农村人口、妇女和青年参与创业,因此对最不发达国家和有特别需要的国家来说尤其重要。
89. It is planned to replicate the successful youth employment programme in West Africa(Mano River Union) in other relevant subregions.89. 西非(马诺河联盟)的青年就业方案取得了成功,计划在相关的其他次区域仿效这一方案。
90. Using a bottom-up growth strategy for poverty reduction, the programme component will continue to introduce practical entrepreneurship curricula at secondary and vocational training institutions, particularly targeting the development of entrepreneurial skills among the youth, both girls and boys, before they enter into their career life.90. 本方案组成部分将利用自下而上增长的减贫战略,继续在中级和职业培训机构推行实用创业课程,特别侧重于青年(包括女孩和男孩)踏入职业生涯之前培养创业能力。
It is expected that this will enable young people to acquire entrepreneurial characteristics and positive attitudes towards taking up business opportunities and self-employment.希望藉此使年轻人具备创业素质,培养他们抓住商机、自行创业的积极态度。
This will be enriched through elements of ICT training, combining the basics of entrepreneurship with practical experiences in the use of new technology and thus preparing young people for key job requirements and an increasingly networked information society facing any young entrepreneur.为了丰富课程,将增加信息通信技术培训内容,将创业基本要素和使用新技术的实际经验相结合,从而为青年人达到主要就业要求并面对所有青年创业者都要面临的日趋网络化的信息社会做好准备。
91. During this MTPF period, UNIDO will emphasize the transformation of enterprises from the informal sector to the formal sector, with a special focus on simplifying and improving access to administrative company registration services.91. 本纲要期间,工发组织将强调企业从非正规部门向正规部门的转化,特别侧重于简化、改善公司注册行政服务手续。
The programme component will also aim at improving women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities, based on the principle of equal opportunities for women and men with equal capabilities and interests.本方案组成部分的另一个目的是,按照能力和兴趣相当的男女享有平等机会的原则,使妇女更多地参与创业活动。
It will also address the entrepreneurial human resource development of women, and the reduction of formal and informal barriers to their entrepreneurial endeavours, including the introduction of gender-neutral business regulatory environments.还将涉及妇女创业人力资源开发问题,以及减少影响妇女创业努力的正式和非正式阻碍,包括倡导无性别倾向的商业监管环境。
Human security and post-crisis rehabilitation人的安全和危机后重建
92.92. 刚刚摆脱危机的国家面临着一系列独有的难题。
Countries emerging from crisis face a unique set of challenges and unless they are identified and effectively addressed, these countries face a high risk of relapsing into violence and social conflict.除非找出这些难题并进行有效处理,否则这些国家极有可能重新陷入暴力和社会冲突。
While the reasons for crisis situations may be different, the common factor in all these is a serious threat to human security as a result of severely depleted productive capacities, environmental degradation, destroyed livelihoods, non-existent or demolished physical or social infrastructure and the erosion of social capital.危机局面形成的原因各有不同,但所有这一切的共同点是,由于生产能力严重耗损、环境恶化、生计受到破坏、有形基础设施或社会基础设施不具备或遭到毁坏,以及社会资本削弱等原因,人的安全受到严重威胁。
93. Based on its experience in post-crisis and human security programmes and projects, UNIDO will continue to respond to complex emergencies through activities that contribute to socio-economic as well as environmental and energy security.93. 工发组织基于自身在危机后和人的安全方案和项目上的经验,将继续开展有助于社会经济安全、环境安全和能源安全的活动,应对复杂的紧急情况。
It will thus help to build resilience of institutions and of the productive sector and contribute to human security particularly of vulnerable groups.因此本组织将协助机构和生产部门恢复能力,并为人的安全,特别是弱势群体的安全做出贡献。
94. It has been recognized that peacekeeping must be closely interlinked with peacebuilding efforts and socio-economic development.94. 人们已经认识到,维护和平必须与和平建设努力和社会经济发展紧密地联系起来。
One of the cornerstones in preventing crises and creating resilient societies is, inter alia, socio-economic development as a key factor in a country’s ability to recover, withstand or avoid internal and external shocks.预防危机和创建有恢复力的社会,基础之一是将社会经济发展作为一国恢复、抵制或避免内部和外部冲突的能力的一个关键要素。
UNIDO will thus concentrate on a number of key interventions to help strengthening economic resilience and human security, such as restoring and upgrading of local productive capacities; building and strengthening of institutions; renewable energy for the poor; and strengthening the resilience of the most vulnerable, including youth and women.因此工发组织将致力于若干主要干预工作,协助加强经济恢复力和人的安全,如恢复和提高地方生产能力;建设和加强机构;为贫困人口提供可再生能源;加强包括青年和妇女在内的最弱势人口的恢复力。
C.5.2 Trade capacity-buildingC.5.2 贸易能力建设
95. As has come to be widely recognized, enhancing the capacity of developing countries to participate in global trade is critical for their future economic growth and sustainable industrial development – prerequisites for poverty reduction and the achievement of MDGs 1, 3 and 8.95. 正如人们广泛承认的那样,提高发展中国家参与全球贸易的能力对其未来的经济增长和可持续工业发展至关重要,而经济增长和可持续工业发展是减贫和实现《千年发展目标》第1、3、8项目标的前提条件。
It also ensures smoother transition towards more rule-based, non-discriminatory and inclusive patterns of international trade and economic globalization.提高发展中国家参与全球贸易的能力还可确保国际贸易和经济全球化更顺利地向守规、非歧视和包容模式转化。
One of the key determinants of its success is the ability of industries in developing countries to trade internationally, which in turn depends on their ability to enter into global value chains often established by transnational corporations (TNCs).其成功的主要决定因素之一是发展中国家的工业进行国际贸易的能力,而这种能力又取决于它们能否进入往往是由跨国公司建立的全球价值链。
This not only requires generally stronger supply capacities but also evidence of international market conformity.这不仅需要普遍加强供应能力,还要证明达到了国际市场标准。
Industries therefore need to have better access to know-how and services allowing them to manufacture products with high-export potential and in accordance with quantitative and qualitative market requirements, including international standards, particular private buyer requirements, technical specifications and social and environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR) obligations.因此,工业部门需要能够更方便地获得专门知识和服务,才能按照市场对数量和质量的要求,生产具有高度出口潜力的产品。 市场要求包括各种国际标准,特别是私营采购人的要求、技术规格,以及公司社会责任中在社会和环境方面的义务。
96. Against this background, UNIDO will continue to support developing countries in their efforts to offer competitive, safe, reliable and cost-effective products to the world markets.96. 在这一背景下,工发组织将继续协助发展中国家努力向世界市场提供竞争力强、安全、可靠、效费比高的产品。
This will include:这种支助包括:
(a) Identifying sectors and products that have competitive potential;(a) 确定具有竞争潜力的部门和产品;
(b) Analysing and assessing trends in industrial performance at national, regional and global levels, and formulating strategies and policies designed to improve industrial competitiveness and to overcome technical barriers to trade (TBT) and comply with sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures (SPS);(b) 分析和评估国家、区域和全球层面工业绩效的趋势,并制订战略和政策以提高工业竞争力,克服技术性贸易壁垒,并遵守卫生和植物检疫措施;
(c) Assisting in upgrading manufacturing processes in sectors with high-export potential to internationally acceptable levels;(c) 协助在具有高度出口潜力的部门改良生产工序,使之达到国际认可的水平;
(d) Supporting the creation of export consortia, a specialized form of SME network;(d) 协助建立出口联合总会,即一种专门化的中小企业网络形式;
(e) Defining CSR-related and favourable industrial policies and adequate CSR intermediary institutions; and,(e) 阐明与公司社会责任有关的、有利的工业政策和完备的公司社会责任中间机构;
(f) Designing and implementing national and regional trade capacity-building programmes, in cooperation with international partner agencies such as the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), FAO, the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO), and the World Trade Organization (WTO).(f) 与商品共同基金(商品基金)、粮农组织、国际贸易中心(贸发会议/世贸组织)和世界贸易组织(世贸组织)等国际伙伴机构合作,制订并实施国家和区域贸易能力建设方案。
97. Compliance with international standards and market requirements will continue to play a key role in trade capacity-building.97. 遵守国际标准和市场要求将继续在贸易能力建设中发挥关键的作用。
In particular, countries that have recently acceded to WTO, or are in the accession process, need to develop adequate conformity infrastructure to fulfil the requirements and obligations, inter alia, under the WTO TBT agreement and the agreement on the application of SPS measures.特别是,新近加入世贸组织的国家或者正在申请加入世贸组织的国家,要发展完备的合规管理基础设施,以达到各项要求并履行各种义务,特别是世贸组织技术性贸易壁垒协议和关于适用卫生和植物检疫措施的协议所规定的要求和义务。
To this end, capacities need to be developed in national standards bodies to perform internationally-recognized product testing and calibration services, based on analyses of infrastructural and service gaps in metrology, testing and inspection services, and develop accreditation institutions for laboratories, system certifiers and inspection bodies.为此,有必要根据对计量、测试和检查服务方面基础设施和服务差距进行的分析,提高国家标准机构的能力,使之能够进行国际承认的产品测试和校准服务,并为实验室、系统验证人和检查机构制定认证制度。
98. In the area of product standards, food hygiene and food safety (ISO 22000), quality management (ISO 9001), environmental management (ISO 14001), and social accountability (SA 8000) will continue to be of particular importance for industrial export.98. 在产品标准方面,食品卫生和食品安全(ISO 22000)、质量管理(ISO 9001)、环境管理(ISO 14001)和社会问责(SA 8000)仍然对工业出口具有特别的意义。
Other forms of international conformity that UNIDO intends to address include self declarations of conformity, such as the CE markings, and “voluntary” CSR obligations along global value chains, especially in light of the upcoming international standard on social responsibility (ISO 26000).工发组织打算涉及的其他形式的国际合规工作包括合规性自我申报,如CE标志和在全球价值链中“自愿”加上公司社会责任的义务,尤其是鉴于社会责任国际标准(ISO 26000)即将出台。
99. In this overall context, UNIDO will provide its trade capacity-building services through the following four interrelated programme components, namely industrial capacities for trade competitiveness, quality and compliance infrastructure, export-oriented agribusiness and SME consortia, and corporate social responsibility for market integration.99. 在这一大背景下,工发组织将通过以下四个相互关联的方案组成部分提供贸易能力建设服务:通过提升工业能力促进贸易竞争力、质量和合规制度建设、外向型农产企业和中小企业联合总会,公司走向市场承担社会责任。
Competitive productive capacities for international trade提升生产竞争力,促进国际贸易
100. Competitive, safe, reliable and cost-effective goods and services are a key prerequisite for enhancing an industry’s competitiveness and export market share in tradable goods and services.100. 要提高一个行业的竞争力,使之在可交易商品和服务的出口市场上占有更大份额,商品和服务的竞争力、安全性、可靠性和效费比是一个关键。
Industries therefore have a continuous need for market information, know-how, restructuring and upgrading.因此各行业随时需要获得市场信息和专门知识、进行改组和升级。
This is usually supported by investment and technology inflows for process upgrading, as well as by productivity and quality management improvement.为流程升级进行投资和输入技术,以及提高生产力和改进质量管理,通常可以起到辅助作用。
101. The programme component will aim at building capacities in both public and private institutions of developing countries to formulate trade policies and strategies based on economic and statistical analysis; benchmarking competitive performance at sectoral and product levels; and the establishment of trade-related databases such as inventories of technical barriers to trade (TBT), which are designed to expand exports from the industrial sector.101. 本方案组成部分的目的是:在发展中国家的公共和私营部门进行能力建设,以便根据经济分析和统计数据分析制订贸易政策和战略;在部门一级和产品一级按照基准衡量竞争力绩效;建立技术性贸易壁垒清单等与贸易有关的数据库,用以扩大工业部门的出口范围。
102. This programme component also provides for technical support services in establishing regional and national productivity centres for providing targeted services that enhance enterprise productivity and export capacity.102. 本方案组成部分还为建立区域和国家生产力中心提供技术支助服务,这些中心的目的是通过提供有针对性的服务提高企业生产力和出口能力。
The activities are mainly targeted at strengthening the institutional capacity through expert knowledge, training programmes, study tours, equipment supply, development of tools and methodologies and undertaking pilot demonstration projects for replication.各项活动的主要目标是通过以下途径加强机构能力:专家知识、培训方案、参观考察、提供设备、开发工具和制订方法、开展试点示范项目以供仿效。
103. Under this programme, UNIDO will also contribute substantively to the implementation of the EU/ACP Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs).103. 在本方案下,工发组织还将为实施欧盟/非加太国家经济合作协议作出实质性贡献。
The Organization is currently engaged in finalizing the formulation of large-scale subregional programmes on industrial upgrading and modernization for five regional economic communities (REC) in the Africa, Caribbeanand Pacific (ACP) regions covering more than 60 individual countries.本组织为非洲、加勒比和太平洋区域五个区域性经济共同体制订的关于工业升级和现代化的大型分区域方案涵盖了60多个国家,目前正在审定阶段。
The six-year joint ACP/EU/UNIDO initiative will be fully operational during the MTPF period, and will provide the following services:这一为期6年的非加太国家/欧盟/工发组织联合举措将在本纲要期间全面运作,并提供以下服务:
(a) Support for upgrading private industrial enterprises and improving their competitiveness;(a) 支助私营工业企业升级提高竞争力;
(b) Strengthening the capacities of the quality infrastructure in the beneficiary countries;(b) 加强受惠国质量基础设施的能力;
(c) Establishing/upgrading the required technical support institutions.(c) 建立/改进必要的技术支助机构。
Quality and compliance infrastructure质量和合规制度建设
104. This programme component will address the need for enhancing the capacity of developing countries to comply with international standards, such as ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 22000.104. 本方案组成部分涉及的问题是,需要加强发展中国家遵守ISO 9001、ISO 14001、ISO 22000等国际标准的能力。
Product traceability to ensure information on the source of products is just one example of global standards with which exporters need to comply in order to enter foreign markets.出口商必须遵守全球标准才能进入国外市场,产品溯源只是全球标准的一个实例,其目的是确保了解产品来源。
Developing country manufacturers and related industry support institutions need to develop systems to comply with the new management standards, requiring assistance in related capacity-building, awareness-building and dissemination of the necessary know-how and information.发展中国家的生产商和有关的工业支助机构必须建立制度以遵守新的管理标准,因此需要协助其进行有关的能力建设和提高认识,并协助传播必要的专门知识和信息。
105. The programme component will also provide technical assistance to developing countries to ensure that their products, on entering global markets, are adequately tested according to international standards and conformity assessment requirements.105. 本方案组成部分还将向发展中国家提供技术援助,以确保其产品在进入全球市场时按照国际标准和合规评估要求得到充分的检测。
Developing countries are required to operate testing laboratories, which are able to test products and samples for compliance to international standards.发展中国家必须开设能够检测产品和样品是否符合国际标准的检测实验室。
Furthermore, to enable precision manufacture and to comply with stringent quality requirements, developing countries need metrology infrastructure, having calibration facilities that can establish measurement and traceability chains to the international system of units.此外,为了能够进行精密制造并符合严格的质量要求,发展中国家还需要有计量基础设施,具备能够按照国际单位制建立测量链和溯源链的校准设施。
Providing the evidence of conformity presupposes that developing countries should have the institutional and legal framework for standards, metrology, testing and quality (SMTQ).为了证明合规,发展中国家必须首先具备有关标准、计量、测试和质量的机构和法律框架。
106. In essence, during this MTPF period, this programme component thus aims at:106. 因此,本纲要期间,本方案组成部分的基本目标有:
(a) Enabling national standards bodies to offer services for industrial compliance with WTO agreements, especially on TBT/SPS, while taking into account private sector, exporter and consumer needs;(a) 使国家标准机构能够为工业部门遵守世贸组织各项协议(特别是关于技术性贸易壁垒/卫生与植物检疫的协议)提供服务,同时考虑到私营部门、出口商和消费者的需要;
(b) Developing local capacities in metrology, calibration and product testing to provide services to local testers, producers and exporters according to international best practice, also in the field of consumer protection;(b) 发展地方在计量、校准和产品检验方面的能力,以便按照国际最佳做法向地方检验人、生产商和出口商提供服务,并提供消费者保护服务;
(c) Making available internationally recognized certification services for international public and private standards regarding, inter alia, quality, environment, social accountability, food safety, and traceability to exporters and local enterprises;(c) 提供国际公认的公共和私营部门国际标准认证服务,特别是在质量、环境、社会问责、食品安全以及追溯出口商和地方企业等方面;
(d) Enabling national and regional accreditation schemes to assess the performance of local and regional laboratories, inspection units and certification bodies;(d) 使国家和区域的资格审查方案能够评估地方和区域实验室、检查组和核证机构的工作情况;
(e) Building capacities in consumer associations to promote consumer rights based on national policies and in line with international best practices.(e) 提高消费者协会的能力,使之能够按照国家政策和国际最佳做法促进消费者的权利。
Export-oriented agribusiness and SME consortia外向型农产企业和中小企业联合总会
107. In the age of globalization, gaining access to export markets is particularly important for SMEs in developing countries for their growth and increased productivity.107. 在全球化时代,进入出口市场对于发展中国家的中小企业发展和提高生产力尤为重要。
With a majority of exportable goods from developing countries coming from the agribusiness sector, this programme component will support national and regional institutions in their decision-making on economic development options for strengthening the agro-industrial sector (food, leather, textiles, wood and agro-machinery).发展中国家的可出口商品大部分来自农业企业部门,因此本方案组成部分将支助国家和区域机构对经济发展选择做出决策,以加强农产工业部门(食品、皮革、纺织品、木材和农用机械)。
It will build capacities at the institutional and industry levels to enhance industrial productivity and marketing performance in agribusinesses, and support traditional agro-industries to improve their productivity and increase their integration into global value chains.本方案组成部分还将在机构层面和行业层面建设能力,以提高农业企业的工业生产力和销售业绩,并支助传统农产工业提高生产力并更多地融入全球价值链。
It will also facilitate the participation of relevant institutions in the work of international normative bodies, the promotion of research on priority commodities, the preparation of training manuals and tool kits for agro-processing and related technologies, and the dissemination of agro-industrial information.本组成部分还将在以下方面起到促进作用:使有关机构参与国际标准机构的工作,推动对优先商品的研究,编写农产品加工和相关技术方面的培训手册和工具箱,以及传播农产工业信息。
108. For many SMEs, exporting is often a complex business involving high risks.108. 对于许多中小企业来说,出口常常是风险极高的复杂业务。
The assistance provided under this component will include the creation of export consortia in different sectors (with special emphasis on agribusiness), institutional capacity-building and policy advice on the regulatory and incentive framework.在本组成部分下提供的援助将包括在不同部门建立出口联合总会(特别侧重于农业企业)、进行机构能力建设,以及在规范和奖励框架方面提供政策建议。
Export consortia development activities will be undertaken within cluster programmes emphasizing the linkage aspect with smaller economic partners to contribute to the pro-poor growth agenda, or as specific projects targeting dynamic SMEs in growth oriented sectors.出口联合总会的发展活动有两种方式,一种是在集群方案范围内开展活动,注重与较小经济合作伙伴的联系,以便为扶贫增长议程做出贡献;另一种是以增长型部门中活跃的中小企业为对象的具体项目。
The corporate social responsibility (CSR) concepts will be progressively integrated in the process of export consortia development to facilitate SMEs insertion into regional and global value chains.公司社会责任概念将逐渐融入出口联合总会的发展进程,以便利中小企业加入区域和全球价值链。
The export consortia programme component will prioritize the diffusion of knowledge and the development of specialized skills through the organization of global and regional training and by strengthening its strategic alliances with national, regional and global organizations active in this field and by further promoting South-South cooperation activities.出口联合总会方案组成部分的优先工作是通过以下途径传播知识和发展专门技能:组织全球和区域范围培训,加强与活跃于这一领域的国家组织、区域组织和国际组织的战略联盟,以及进一步促进南南合作活动。
Corporate social responsibility for market integration公司走向市场承担社会责任
109. CSR has been widely recognized as a modern management tool, as SMEs around the world come into contact with international supply chains and the CSR policies of foreign investors.109. 随着世界各地中小企业接触到国际供应链和外国投资者的公司社会责任政策,公司社会责任已成为公认的现代管理工具。
CSR-related legislation and policies are also being developed in many parts of the world.世界许多地方也正在制定与公司社会责任有关的法规政策。
This programme component supports public and private institutions to better understand emerging CSR standards that require adherence not only to technical concerns but also to environmental and social principles.本方案组成部分帮助公共和私营机构更好地理解正在形成的公司社会责任标准,其中要求不仅要注意技术问题,还要遵守各项环境和社会原则。
110. The need to adhere to these standards not only represents a compliance challenge for SMEs but a potential competitive advantage and a business opportunity for integrating successfully into global value chains.110. 遵守这些标准不仅是中小企业在合规方面面临的挑战,也是潜在的竞争优势和成功融入全球价值链的商业机会。
Creating enhanced awareness of this “business case” for CSR will receive special emphasis in this MTPF period.本纲要期间,将特别重视提高对公司社会责任的这一“商业论证”的认识。
This requires adequate support in monitoring and implementing CSR standards by business support institutions and industry associations, and conducive industrial policies that actively promote environmental and social responsibility in industries.这就要求充分支助商业支助机构和行业协会监督和执行公司社会责任标准的工作,还要具备在各行业中积极促进环境和社会责任的有益的工业政策。
111. The CSR programme, although included within trade capacity-building activities, is also relevant for the poverty reduction agenda of UNIDO as it promotes the active involvement of the private sector to achieve social and environmental development objectives.111. 公司社会责任方案虽然包括在贸易能力建设活动中,但也与工发组织的减贫议程有关,因为该方案鼓励私营部门积极参与,以实现各项社会和环境发展目标。
For this reason the programme will seek greater integration of CSR topics into the Cluster and Business Linkages Programme and in general in all UNIDO services related to the development of the private sector for poverty reduction, including, for instance the programme for youth entrepreneurship where business ethics will be included in the school curricula.因此,本方案将力求将公司社会责任议题更多地纳入“集群与商业联系方案”,并普遍纳入工发组织所有与发展私营部门促进减贫有关的服务,例如将商业道德列入学校课程的青年创业方案。
Collaboration with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) on SMEs and anti-corruption will be further expanded.将进一步扩大与联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室(毒品和犯罪问题办公室)在中小企业和反腐败问题上的合作范围。
C.5.3 Environment and energyC.5.3 环境和能源
112. Global industrial production and consumption are outpacing the renewal capacity of natural resources and the capacity of governments to manage pollution and wastes.112. 全球工业生产和消耗的速度目前逐渐超过了自然资源的再生能力和各国政府管理污染和废物的能力。
While industrial growth has helped raise tens of millions of people out of poverty in many countries over the last decades, particularly in ever-growing urban agglomerations, it is evident that economic growth and urbanization have not come without a price.在过去几十年中,工业增长虽然已经帮助许多国家的千百万人脱离了贫困,但特别是在不断扩大的城市群中,经济增长和城市化显然不是没有代价的。
These trends increasingly trigger a decline in natural capital – shrinking forests, declining biodiversity, disappearing water resources, and degraded lands – through unprecedented levels of mainly industrial air, water, and land pollution.这些趋势越来越多地造成了自然资本减少—森林面积缩小、生物多样性降低、水资源逐渐消失、土地退化—因为主要由工业造成的大气、水和土地污染达到了前所未有的程度。
113. This phenomenon is accompanied by inadequate or non-existent environmental and urban services, including recycling systems, wastewater treatment and sewage systems, drainage, water supply, sanitation, and solid waste management.113. 这一现象伴随着环境和城市服务不足或缺位的问题,其中包括再循环系统、废水处理和污水系统、排水系统、供水、卫生和固体废物管理。
Such deficiencies inhibit economic growth, place further stress on natural systems, and damage public health and the investment climate.这些缺陷限制了经济增长,对自然系统造成了更大的压力,破坏了公共卫生和投资环境。
They also constrain the potential for urban areas to contribute fully to economic growth.此外,这些缺陷还限制了城市地区为经济增长作出充分贡献的潜力。
114. While developing countries must not be denied the chance to share in the planet’s wealth, it is important to acknowledge that negative environmental effects will continue to result from current development patterns.114. 虽然不能剥夺发展中国家分享地球财富的机会,但必须承认,目前的发展模式将继续对环境造成负面影响。
Given the present trends in consumption and population growth, it is questionable whether our globe can continue to withstand growing levels of pollution and resource extraction without major adverse consequences in the near future.鉴于目前的消耗和人口增长趋势,我们的地球是否能继续承受不断加重的污染和资源榨取而不会在不远的将来出现严重的不利后果,这是一个很令人怀疑的问题。
Adjustments are therefore needed in both the developed and developing countries.因此有必要在发达国家和发展中国家进行调整。
115. The international concern over global climate change is increasing the attention being given to these issues.115. 由于国际上对全球气候变化的忧虑,这些问题得到了越来越多的关注。
The impacts of climate change may be very serious to developing countries, particularly LDCs, many of which are ill-equipped to deal with the resulting effects on agricultural output, labour productivity, health and internal displacement.气候变化可能会对发展中国家产生严重的影响,特别是最不发达国家,因为其中许多国家并没有做好准备处理农业生产、劳动生产力、健康和国内流离失所问题因气候变化而受到的影响。
The hardest hit will undoubtedly be the poor.遭受打击最大的无疑是贫困人口。
They are the most directly exposed to pollution and the extremes of nature brought on by climate change, and have a greater dependence on natural resources, such as crops, livestock and biomass fuels.他们直接承受着气候变化所导致的污染和极端自然现象,而且对农作物、牲畜和生物质燃料等自然资源依赖较重。
As water tables fall and surface water variability increases, harvest cutbacks could occur simultaneously in many countries, creating potentially unmanageable food scarcity.随着地下水位下降和地表水更加多变,许多国家可能会同时发生农作物歉收,从而可能造成难以控制的粮食短缺问题。
116. UNIDO has long recognized that environmental issues must be addressed and cleaner production methodologies must be promoted at a systemic level in industrial development.116. 长期以来,工发组织认识到,必须处理环境问题并在工业发展中系统地推广清洁生产办法。
The promotion of resource efficiency requires a perspective and a decision-making process that simultaneously considers both economic value and environmental sustainability.要提高资源效率,需要有正确的认识,还需要在决策过程中同时考虑到经济价值和环境可持续性。
117. Improved resource efficiency also applies to energy where it reduces greenhouse gas emissions from energy generation and use, materials extraction and processing, transportation and waste disposal.117. 提高资源效率也适用于能源,可减少因能量的产生和使用、材料提炼和加工、运输及废物处理而排放的温室气体。
Sustainable industrial energy strategies that include adoption of renewable energy sources as well as energy efficiency are thus key for addressing climate change through moving economies onto a lower carbon path.因此包括采用可再生能源和能源效率在内的可持续工业能源战略对于将经济转向低碳道路以解决环境变化问题是至关重要的。
118. Over-reliance on simple waste disposal is unsustainable, and countries will not be able to afford the building of adequate systems quickly and safely enough to solve their waste dilemmas if current waste generation rates persist.118. 过于依赖简单的废物处理是无法持续的,照目前的废物产生速度,各国将无力快速而安全地建立足够的系统解决废物难题。
Waste management must therefore be viewed as an integrated part of industrial development, and many industrial business opportunities may arise not only in input-efficient production, as discussed above, but also in recycling and environmentally sound disposal.因此必须将废物管理视为工业发展不可分割的一部分,许多实业机会可能不仅如上所述来自投入效率高的生产,而且可能来自再循环和无害环境处理。
Thus, developing countries can leapfrog over conventional solutions to more profitable and sustainable opportunities, such as resource recovery and waste-to-energy schemes.因此,发展中国家可超越传统解决办法,采用利润更高、持续性更强的机会,如资源回收和废物变能源方案。
The potential market for environmental goods and services is rapidly growing and could develop into a major source of employment and long-term asset protection, particularly for SMEs that concentrate on local and national demand.环境产品和服务的潜在市场正在迅速增长,可能会发展成为就业和长期资产保护的主要来源,特别是对于业务集中于地方和国内需求的中小企业来说。
This can only be realized with industrialized economies promoting and transferring new technologies in the area of “green” chemistry and renewable energy.要实现这一结果,只有依靠工业化经济体推广和转让“绿色”化学和可再生能源领域的新技术。
119. Intensified competition for scarce resources, including water and energy, may not only amplify conflicts within the industrial context.119. 对包括水和能源在内的稀缺资源的激烈竞争可能不仅会加剧工业领域内的矛盾。
Environmental degradation and climate change may also intensify already worrying trends, such as desertification, sea-level rise, more frequent severe weather events and shortages of freshwater, leading in the worst scenarios to civil and cross-border conflict, uncontrollable migration and violence over scarce necessities.环境恶化和气候变化还可能加重一些已经令人担忧的趋势,如沙漠化、海平面上升、恶劣天气事件更加频繁及淡水短缺,在最严重的情况下会导致国内冲突和跨国界冲突、无法控制的移民潮和对稀缺必需品的暴力争夺。
Resource efficiency and low-carbon economic development can thus lessen the pressures and help to avert some important root causes of social conflict.因此,资源效率和低碳经济发展可减轻压力,有助于消除可能导致社会矛盾的某些重要根缘。
120. Against this background, UNIDO provides its support services in the environment and energy thematic priority area through three interrelated programme components, covering resource efficient and low-carbon industrial production, renewable energy for productive use, and capacity-building for the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements.120. 在这一背景下,工发组织通过三个相互关联的方案组成部分,在环境和能源这一主题重点领域提供支助服务,范围包括资源效率高的低碳工业生产、可再生能源用于生产以及通过能力建设促进实施多边环境协定。
Resource-efficient and low-carbon industrial production高资源效率、低碳工业生产
121. Environmental protection in enterprises has been undergoing structural changes in recent years.121. 企业内环境保护近年来经历了多次结构改革。
The emphasis is shifting to preventive techniques that focus on the production processes themselves, avoiding the formation of waste or pollution in the first place or recycling it straight away to some productive purpose.重点正在转向侧重于生产工序本身的预防性技术,首先是避免产生废物或污染物,或者直接将废物进行再循环用于某种生产目的。
Not only does this reduce the pollution load on the environment but it also saves enterprises money since waste and pollution are in effect wasted resources that the enterprise originally had to purchase.这不仅会减少对环境的污染量,还会节省企业的资金,因为废物和污染物实际上也是企业原本必须购买的资源中被浪费的部分。
122. This programme component will further promote this shift of focus through the establishment of National Cleaner Production Centres and by implementing other cleaner production projects, stressing the cost effectiveness of cleaner production as well as its significant contribution to environmental protection.122. 本方案组成部分将通过以下途径进一步促进这种重点的转变:建立国家清洁生产中心,实施其他清洁生产项目,强调清洁生产的成本效益及其对环境保护的重要贡献。
Particular emphasis will be placed in this connection on the agro-processing sector in the developing countries, and especially on the leather, textile, wood and food industries.在这方面,将尤其侧重于发展中国家的农业加工部门,特别是皮革、纺织、木材和食品工业。
123. An increasing focus will be put on the sustainable management of chemicals through a commitment to the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), adopted in early 2006.123. 本方案组成部分将越来越多地侧重于对化学品可持续管理,致力于2006年初批准的《国际化学品管理战略方针》。
This will be based on the implementation of the follow-up funding mechanisms to SAICM’s Quick Start Programme (QSP) and an increasing emphasis on promoting the concept of eco-leasing, especially in the chemicals sector where the environmental benefits are significant.这一工作的基础在于《国际化学品管理战略方针》快速启动方案的后续筹资机制以及对生态租赁概念的日益重视,在环境效益重大的化学品部门尤其如此。
124. While cleaner production can do much to reduce the waste and pollution generated by industrial processes, some residuals will nevertheless remain, and industry needs support from the environmental services sector to recycle or otherwise dispose of them in an environmentally sound manner.124. 虽然清洁生产可为降低工业加工所造成的废物和污染作出很多贡献,但仍然存在一些残留物,工业部门需要环境服务部门协助对废物进行再循环或以其他环保方式进行处理。
At the same time, the products that industry manufactures require proper management when they reach the end of their useful lives and become waste.同时,在工业产品寿命期满,成为废物时,也需要对其进行适当管理。
As the economies of developing countries grow, the need for these countries to have a strong environmental sector becomes ever more important.随着发展中国家经济的增长,这些国家越来越需要具备强有力的环境部门。
During the MTPF period, this programme component will therefore give greater attention to assisting countries to build up their environmental services sector, focusing particularly on recycling industries.因此,本纲要期间,本方案组成部分将更加注重协助各国加强环境服务部门,特别侧重于再循环行业。
125. A case in point is electrical and electronic waste.125. 这方面的一个例子是废弃的电器和电子垃圾。
As developing countries join the global information society, the quantity of obsolete electronic hardware is growing rapidly. The release of toxins into the environment from old computer and mobile phone equipment, including lead, mercury and arsenic, through poor landfilling or recovery techniques, constitute a serious environmental and social concern.随着发展中国家加入全球信息社会,废旧电子硬件的数量迅速增加,旧计算机和移动电话设备向环境释放的毒素包括铅、汞和砷,由于填埋或回收技术不良,成为严重的环境和社会问题。
Currently, electronic appliances are rarely disposed of in an adequate manner and national regulation is often insufficient.目前,电子器具几乎得不到适当处理,而且往往缺乏足够的国家规范。
This is why this programme component, which has started work on this waste stream, will intensify its efforts to build national and regional capacities in the field of e-waste recycling and computer refurbishing services within the broader context of promoting more and better environmental service industries in developing countries.因此,已经对这一废物流展开工作的本方案组成部分将加大工作力度,凭借在发展中国家推广更多更好的环境服务行业这一大环境,在电子废物再循环和计算机整修服务方面建设国家和区域能力。
126. The levels of water consumption by the industrial sector will also continue to increase, as will the amounts and toxicity of the effluents it discharges to water bodies.126. 工业水耗也会继续增加,它向水体排放的废水的数量和毒性也会提高。
This will become particularly critical in many developing countries, which are already suffering from shortages of water, shortages which might increase with climate change.这在已有缺水之患的许多发展中国家尤为严重,而随着气候的变化,这种缺水状态可能会恶化。
This programme component will therefore also provide assistance to countries to protect their water resources (both national and those shared with other countries) from the discharges of industrial effluents, and to increase industrial water productivity and reduce excessive water consumption by enterprises.因此,本方案组成部分还将协助发展中国家保护其水资源(包括国内水资源和与他国共享的水资源)不被排入工业废水,增加工业用水生产率并减少企业对水的过度消耗。
127. Furthermore, the programme component will seek to improve industrial energy efficiency by contributing to the transformation of markets for energy-efficient products and services.127. 此外,本方案组成部分还力图通过协助转变节能产品和服务市场来提高工业能效。
To this end, it will be strongly promoting the use of new energy management standards, accelerated investments by industries in energy system optimization measures, and the increased deployment of new energy-efficient industrial technologies through technical, financial and policy advisory services.为此,本方案组成部分将大力促进以下工作:采用新能源管理标准,加快工业部门对能源系统优化措施的投资,以及通过在技术、财务和政策咨询等方面提供服务,使新的节能工业技术得到更多的使用。
Renewable energy for productive use可再生能源用于生产
128. Enhancing access to modern and reliable energy supplies is widely regarded as a prerequisite for economic development in the developing economies.128. 人们普遍认为,改善现代可靠能源供应的利用途径是发展中经济体经济发展的一个先决条件。
For such development to be sustainable, this energy must be used to promote productive uses that would create jobs and more income generation opportunities for the local communities.为使这种发展具有可持续性,这种能源必须用于促进可在地方社区创造就业机会和更多创收机会的生产用途。
This programme component will therefore work to increase access to modern energy supplies, especially based on renewable energy for supporting the development of productive capacities in rural and urban areas.因此本方案构成部分将努力增加现代能源供应的利用途径,特别是以可再生能源为基础,支助农村和城市地区发展生产能力。
129. Given the growing gap in demand and supply of energy, renewable energy has assumed a critical role in the energy supply chain in meeting the rising demand for energy, especially by industry in developing countries.129. 鉴于能源需求和供应之间的差距日益加大,可再生能源在满足(特别是发展中国家的工业)日益增长的能源需求的能源供应链中发挥了关键的作用。
Several renewable energy technologies have emerged as economically viable and environmentally friendly options, which if suitably adopted, can meet growing energy needs of industry, and particularly SMEs.出现了经济上可行且有益环境的几种可再生能源技术,如果得到适当采用,可满足特别是中小企业日益增长的能源需求。
130. During the MTPF period, this programme component will in particular promote industrial applications of renewable energy in energy intensive manufacturing SMEs, which have requirements for motive power and process heat for low or high temperature applications.130. 本纲要期间,本方案组成部分将特别在能源密集型中小生产企业中推广可再生能源的工业应用,这些企业的低温或高温应用需要动力和工业用热。
Currently, SMEs satisfy the great majority of these requirements through electricity derived from fossil fuels or from the direct combustion of such fuels, in the form of furnace oil, kerosene or coal.目前,中小企业通过高炉燃油、柴油或煤炭等矿物燃料或这种燃料的直接燃烧所产生的电力满足大部分需要。
In view of rapidly rising costs of these fuels, enhanced use of renewable energy technologies would not only improve the local environment, but also increase the productivity and competitiveness of the SMEs.由于矿物燃料的成本日益增加,提高对可再生能源技术的利用,不仅可改善当地环境,还可提高中小企业的生产力和竞争力。
It also offsets unreliable energy supplies from national grids.此外还可弥补国内电网不可靠的能源供应。
131. Furthermore, this programme component will intensify advice to national and regional planners and decision makers in elaborating strategies for their industrial energy mix, considering all available technologies, with a focus on renewable sources of energy.131. 此外,本方案组成部分还将在制订工业混合能源战略方面加强对国家和区域规划者和决策者的咨询服务,同时考虑到所有可用技术,侧重于可再生能源。
It will also enhance efforts in promoting national and regional production and assembly capacities for renewable energy technologies and adequate support structures, including innovative financial schemes.本组成部分还将加强努力促进国家和区域可再生能源技术的生产和组装能力以及充分的支助体系,包括创新的筹资办法。
Implementation of multilateral environmental agreements执行多边环境协定
132. There is a need to phase out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), which lead to the continuing degradation of human health and the natural environment.132. 要逐步淘汰消耗臭氧物质的生产和消费,因为这些物质导致人类健康和自然环境的不断衰退。
The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol provide a response to that need.《维也纳公约》和《蒙特利尔议定书》对这一需要作出了响应。
This programme component therefore assists the Governments of developing countries that are signatories to the Montreal Protocol to comply with its requirements through transferring non-ODS-based technologies to Article 5 countries and supporting them to meet the set targets in terms of tonnages of ODS to be eliminated.因此本方案组成部分帮助签署了《蒙特利尔议定书》的发展中国家政府达到议定书的要求,办法是将非消耗臭氧物质技术转让给第5条国家,支助其达到消耗臭氧物质的减少吨数指标。
During the MTPF period, the programme component will be shifting its focus to methyl bromide and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).本纲要期间,本方案组成部分将把重点转向溴甲烷和氢氯氟烃。
133. The climate change element of this programme component aims at supporting both the mitigation (reducing emissions at source) and adaptation (adapting to unavoidable levels of climate change) approaches.133. 本方案组成部分的环境变化部分旨在为缓减办法(即减少排放源)和改造办法(即适应不可避免的气候变化程度)提供支助。
Support services for the former include the development of viable projects for greenhouse gas emission reductions in developing countries and economies in transition, providing sustainable development benefits at the national level in addition to contributing to global environmental efforts to mitigate climate change.对前者的支助服务除了为缓减气候变化的全球环境努力作出贡献外,还包括制订减少发展中国家和转型期经济体的温室气体排放量的可行项目,在国家一级提供可持续发展援助。
Support services for the latter include assistance with the development of relevant programmes and projects, focusing on the adaptation priorities of the industrial sector in developing countries.后者的支助服务包括协助制订相关方案和项目,侧重于发展中国家工业部门的重点改造项目。
To this end, UNIDO will continue to:为此,工发组织将继续:
(a) Support host country capacity and institution building to enable and maximize opportunities for technology transfer and carbon financing for investment in environmental projects in the industrial sector, through the clean development mechanism (CDM) or joint implementation (JI);(a) 通过清洁发展机制或共同执行,支助东道国的能力和机构建设,以促成工业部门环境项目的技术转让和碳融资投资机会,并最大限度地扩大这种机会;
(b) Promote carbon projects and support the development of new and innovative partnerships between carbon market participants (e.g. buyers and sellers of emission reductions);(b) 促进碳项目并支助发展碳市场参与者(如减排量的买方和卖方)之间新的和创新性的合作伙伴关系;
(c) Maximize and promote carbon finance potential to support technology transfer and know-how in industrial energy efficiency and renewable energy.(c) 最大限度地发挥并提高碳融资潜力,以支助在工业能效和可再生能源领域的技术转让与专门知识。
134. There is a commitment on the part of Governments that are parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to implement legal, organizational and environmental management measures, including substantive technological changes, in order to comply with the requirements of the Convention.134. 《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》缔约方政府承诺实行法律措施、组织措施和环境管理措施,包括进行实质性技术改革,以达到《公约》的要求。
The production and use of POPs as well as their presence in the biosphere are causing serious damage to human health and the environment.持久性有机污染物的生产和使用及其在生物圈中的存在,正对人类健康和环境造成严重损害。
This programme component therefore will also assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to achieve compliance with the Stockholm Convention and aims at developing capacities in developing countries to protect their populations and their environmental resources from POPs-related pollution.因此本方案组成部分还将帮助发展中国家和经济转型期国家遵守《斯德哥尔摩公约》,并力求在发展中国家发展能力,以保护其人口和环境资源免遭持久性有机污染物带来的污染。
C.5.4 Cross-cutting programmesC.5.4 跨领域方案
135. UNIDO also implements a small number of cross-cutting programmes.135. 工发组织还实施少量跨领域方案。
For the MTPF 2010-2013, these cross-cutting programmes have been identified as strategic industrial research and statistics; partnerships with international financial institutions and the private sector, and South-South cooperation.2010-2013年中期方案纲要确定这些跨领域方案为工业战略研究和统计、与国际金融机构和私营部门建立伙伴关系以及南南合作。
Strategic industrial research and statistics工业战略研究和统计
136. Industrial development is a major source of prosperity for the world population and will continue to be so for a long time to come.136. 工业发展是世界人民过上富足生活的主要途径,在未来很长时期内将继续如此。
It creates the jobs that help lift people out of poverty and gradually, as countries progress through its different stages, leads to higher salaries, better working conditions and increasing job satisfaction.工业发展创造就业机会,有助于人们脱贫,并且随着各国进入不同发展阶段,促使逐步提高工资水平、改善工作条件和提升工作满意度。
It has a proven potential for realizing factor productivity growth and higher multiplier effects through the creation of linkages.事实证明,工业发展具有实现要素生产率增长并通过建立联系产生较高乘数效应的潜力。
It spawns many of the goods that allow individuals to live a more comfortable life and to improve their standard of living.工业发展创造许多货物,使人们能够过上更舒适生活和提高生活水平。
It provides the technologies that allow for newer jobs, a wider range of products and continuously improving production methods.工业发展带来的技术促进产生新的工种,增加产品种类并不断改进生产办法。
Through the interaction between employment creation, technological change and innovation, industrialization generates a self-reinforcing dynamic process that underpins economic growth for more than two centuries.通过创造就业、技术变革和创新之间相互促进,工业化带来了一个可自行强化的蓬勃发展过程,这一过程支持经济增长超过两个世纪。
137. Understanding how industrialization unfolds is no easy feat.137. 认识工业化如何发展并非易事。
The multiplicity of mutually interacting factors means that there is no single path to industrial development.有多种因素相互作用,这就意味着,工业发展道路不止一条。
It also means that, at any one point in time, countries need not be at the same stage of progress.同时还意味着,在任何时间点,各国不一定处于相同发展阶段。
This complexity notwithstanding, without a proper understanding of the determinants of industrial development, UNIDO would not be able to fulfil its mandate to advise and provide technical cooperation services on this subject.问题既然如此复杂,如果对工业发展的决定因素缺乏适当认识,工发组织就无法履行任务,就此议题提出建议和提供技术合作服务。
One of the main objectives of the Organization’s research programme is, therefore, to identify and explain patterns of industrial development as well as their underlying causality.因此,本组织研究方案的主要目标之一,就是查明并解释工业发展格局及潜在因果关系。
The research focuses on the intersection between structural change within manufacturing industry, domestic investment and technological learning and change while distinguishing, at least, between the experiences of LDCs and middle-income countries (MICs).研究侧重于制造业结构变化、国内投资与技术学习和变革相互交叉之处,同时至少对最不发达国家和中等收入国家的经验加以区分。
138. To be relevant for its internal and external stakeholders UNIDO’s research needs to link to its thematic priorities and programme components.138. 工发组织的研究需要与其优先专题和方案组成部分联系在一起,才能适合内部和外部利益相关者的需要。
Thus, identifying the poverty reduction and empowerment effects of different industrialization patterns will constitute a key area of research in this MTPF period.这样,本纲要期间,查明不同工业化格局对减轻贫穷和增强能力的影响将是一个关键研究领域。
An examination will also be conducted of the impact of diverse types of SME clustering arrangements and of natural resource-based as opposed to processing-based value chains on structural change.还将审视不同类型中小企业集群安排和自然资源型价值链相对于加工型价值链对结构变化的影响。
Furthermore, the choices in terms of energy efficient technologies and investments vis-à-vis varying stages or levels of industrial development will be studied.此外,还将研究不同工业发展阶段或水平对高能效技术和投资的选择。
Indeed, an analysis of the major determinants of industrial development and their implications for UNIDO’s thematic priorities will contribute to developing a unique area of expertise and add value to the world body of knowledge on industrialization.事实上,分析工业发展的主要决定因素及其对工发组织主题重点的影响,将有助于发展一个独特领域的专门知识,丰富全世界的工业化认识体系。
This will, in turn, constitute the basis for building an industrial policy framework aimed at recommending optimal country-specific industrial development strategies, another major objective of the research programme and UNIDO at large.这种分析反过来又构成制定工业政策框架以便针对具体国家推荐最佳工业发展战略的基础,后者是本研究方案和整个工发组织的另一个主要目标。
139. A full account of the causes and implications of industrialization and its effects needs to be sought.139. 对全面阐述工业化原因、影响和结果是有必要的。
Yet, comprehensive explanations are beyond the capacity of any research institution, let alone UNIDO.然而,全面解释超越了任何一个研究机构的能力,更别说工发组织了。
To this end, it will be necessary to partner with other like-minded United Nations organizations, universities and research centres in order to enhance UNIDO’s understanding of the phenomenon at stake.为此,必须与有着相同想法的联合国机构、大学和研究中心结成伙伴关系,以增进工发组织对有关现象的认识。
Much in the way that business development partnerships emerge between private and public sectors and funding partnerships emerge between international organizations, there is potential for expanding “knowledge partnerships” between research at UNIDO and top academic institutions specialized in thematic priorities.如同私营部门和公营部门之间结成商业发展伙伴关系,国际组织之间结成供资伙伴关系,工发组织研究工作与主题重点领域顶级专门学术机构研究工作之间拓展“知识伙伴关系”,也是大有可为的。
140. UNIDO’s contribution to understanding industrial development will be applied and grounded in solid empirical data.140. 工发组织将以可靠的实证数据为基础对认识工业发展作出贡献。
Indeed, the Organization has the responsibility to compile and distribute key industrial statistics, which governments, private sector and knowledge institutions also use for their own industrial strategies, policies and programmes.事实上,本组织有责任汇编并发布关键的工业统计数据,政府、私营部门和知识机构则可将这些数据用于自身的工业战略、政策和方案。
Methodologies for the production and dissemination of industrial statistics emerge from the interaction between national statistics offices, UNIDO and the international statistics community.工业统计数据的生成和发布方法在各国家统计部门、工发组织和国际统计界的相互交流中产生。
In addition, UNIDO produces manufacturing production data at the subsectoral level as well as indicators of industrial competitiveness and productivity.此外,工发组织还提供分部门一级制造业生产数据以及工业竞争力和生产率指标。
New indicators related to thematic priorities will need to be devised.需要拟订与主题重点有关的新指标。
Training and capacity-building will be provided in industrial statistics as well as in their relationship to thematic priorities and industrialization strategies and policies.将在工业统计及其与主题重点和工业化战略和政策的关系等方面提供培训和开展能力建设。
141. In terms of publications, the Industrial Development Report (IDR) will continue to be the periodical flagship publication of UNIDO.141. 在出版物方面,《工业发展报告》将继续作为工发组织定期发行的旗舰出版物。
While in recent years the document emphasizes a theme, it is envisaged that in the coming years the IDR will be more message oriented in the sense that it will convey a clear statement that the Organization considers topical and significant at the time of publication.尽管近年来该出版物以一个主题为重点,但设想未来几年《工业发展报告》将更加以信息为重点,即刊载该报告出版时本组织认为热门和重要的明确观点。
The IDR will be complemented with working papers and topical papers.将以工作文件和专题文件来补充《工业发展报告》。
A continuously updated and improved version of the UNIDO Scoreboard will, as always, be included.经过不断更新和改进的“工发组织排行榜”将一如既往包括在内。
Partnerships with international financial institutions and the private sector与国际金融机构和私营部门建立伙伴关系
142. During the MTPF period, UNIDO will continue to seek strategic partnerships with other organizations and institutions in the public and private sectors, and with private corporations.142. 本纲要期间,工发组织将继续寻求与公共和私营部门其他组织和机构并与私营公司建立战略性伙伴关系。
The rationale for these partnerships is to maximize the scope for synergies between UNIDO’s services and the development-related activities of the partner agencies, and hence to maximize the developmental impact of these joint activities.建立这类伙伴关系的目的是最大程度地实现工发组织服务与各伙伴机构发展相关活动之间的协同增效作用,并使这些共同活动对发展产生最大影响。
The scope for these partnerships straddles all three thematic priorities of UNIDO, and is hence regarded as a mechanism with a cross-cutting applicability.这种伙伴关系遍及工发组织所有三个主题重点,因此被视作一个可以跨领域适用的机制。
143. Given the often significant divergences between the objectives, business models and focus areas of these potential partners and those of UNIDO, innovative approaches are required to identify possible areas and modalities of cooperation.143. 这些潜在伙伴的目标、商业模式和重点领域往往与工发组织有着很大差异,因此需要采取创新做法以查明可能的合作领域和方式。
Based on the extensive experience already gained by UNIDO in the establishment of such partnerships in recent years, UNIDO expects to achieve a substantial expansion of these partnerships in the MTPF period.近年来工发组织在建立这类伙伴关系方面已经取得了丰富经验,在此基础上,工发组织期望在本纲要期内大力扩展这类伙伴关系。
144. Particular emphasis will be placed in this context on the development of partnerships with international finance institutions (IFIs), including development finance institutions, which generally share UNIDO’s objectives of reducing poverty, promoting economic growth and protecting the environment.144. 在这方面,将特别重视与国际金融机构包括发展筹资机构建立伙伴关系,这些机构普遍与工发组织一样有着减轻贫穷、促进经济增长和保护环境等目标。
Traditionally, they have promoted these objectives by working with governments and government agencies, and by providing loans for public sector projects or programmes, technical assistance, and policy-based lending.传统上,它们通过与政府和政府机构合作并为公共部门项目或方案提供贷款、技术援助和政策性借贷推动实现这些目标。
145. There is an increased recognition among developing countries of the need to create the conditions in which a strong private sector can flourish.145. 发展中国家日益认识到需要创造条件,大力发展私营部门。
Thus, considerable scope exists for synergies between technical assistance on the one hand, which would be aimed at improving the business environment with a view to encouraging domestic and foreign private investments as a source of market-oriented economic growth, and financial assistance on the other, which would help to sustain such private sector investment.技术援助与资金援助之间发挥协同增效作用存在很大余地,前者旨在改善商业环境,鼓励国内和国外私人投资,以促进面向市场的经济增长,而后者将有助于保持这类私营部门投资。
Such a scheme thus establishes a functional mechanism linking typical technical assistance delivered by multilateral organizations, such as UNIDO, with financial instruments supported by the IFIs.因此,这样的计划将建立一个可行的机制,将工发组织等多边机构提供的典型技术援助与国际金融机构提供的财政手段联系在一起。
146. From an operational point of view, the anticipated synergies between UNIDO and IFIs can occur at two different levels:146. 从实际操作角度来看,工发组织与国际金融机构之间预期的协同增效作用可以在两个不同层面产生:
(a) UNIDO supports an IFI in the establishment and implementation of a large-scale investment programme by offering its specific country-level data and expertise. In doing so, it enhances its technical cooperation functions in Member States and attains greater impact. Working in partnership with IFIs may also allow UNIDO to increase its support to Member States by leveraging new funding sources.(a) 工发组织提供国别一级特定数据和专门知识,支助国际金融机构确定和实施大型投资方案。工发组织将籍此增强在成员国的技术合作作用并发挥更大影响。借助与国际金融机构建立伙伴关系,获取新的供资来源,工发组织可以增加对成员国的支助。
(b) IFIs address local SMEs through intermediary partners, such as local banks, fund managers or guarantee organizations. UNIDO’s expertise and experience in working with SMEs, inter alia in identifying suitable investment opportunities or helping SMEs to overcome information asymmetries between themselves and the financial intermediaries that they work with, can help to ensure the success of such programmes.(b) 国际金融机构通过中间伙伴如当地银行、基金管理人或担保组织与当地中小企业打交道。工发组织拥有同中小企业打交道的专门知识和经验,特别善长查明合适投资机会或帮助中小企业克服自身与和其打交道的金融中间人之间的信息不对称方面,因此可以帮助确保这类方案取得成功。
147. UNIDO has already pioneered such arrangements with a number of IFIs, and will seek to develop them further in the MTPF period.147. 工发组织已经开始与一些国际金融机构建立这类安排,本纲要期内将进一步发展这类安排。
It will also seek to develop similar partnerships with private sector funds, where appropriate.工发组织还将酌情寻求与私营部门基金建立类似的伙伴关系。
Through the development of collaborative programmes, knowledge generation and sharing, and the provision of policy advisory services to governments, UNIDO will aim to enhance the effectiveness of the services provided by these institutions, and thereby increase their developmental impact.工发组织的目的是通过发展协作方案、生成和共享知识以及向政府提供政策咨询服务,提高这些机构所提供服务的效力,从而增强这些机构对于发展的影响。
148. Strategic partnerships and alliances will also continue to be promoted with private corporations in an effort to engage them as agents for developmental change and leverage their resources and corporate citizenship approaches for joint programmes of technical cooperation for sustainable industrial development.148. 还将继续促进与私营公司的战略伙伴关系和联盟,促使它们发挥发展变革推动者的作用,并引导它们将资源和公司承担社会责任的做法用于促进可持续工业发展的技术合作共同方案。
In this context, UNIDO will build on the experience of its existing private sector engagement programmes, which are based on three broad categories of interventions:在这方面,工发组织将利用目前由私营部门参与的方案的经验,这些经验以三大类干预措施为基础:
(a) Promoting the principles and values of the United Nations Global Compact, of which UNIDO is a core agency, with a special focus on SMEs;(a) 宣传工发组织作为核心机构参加的《联合国全球契约》的原则和价值观,特别注重中小企业;
(b) Supporting the establishment of linkages between large corporations and small suppliers with a view to facilitating their integration into national and global value chains;(b) 支持在大公司和小供应商之间建立联系,促进它们融入全国和全球价值链;
(c) Mobilizing the private sector as a source of direct investments, technology transfer and outsourcing opportunities, as well as the establishment of innovative partnerships with a special emphasis on information and communication technology (ICT) and the development of public-private partnerships.(c) 动员私营部门成为直接投资、技术转让和外包机会的来源,并建立新型伙伴关系,特别重视信息通信技术和发展公私伙伴关系。
South-South cooperation南南合作
149. South-South cooperation will remain a key priority for UNIDO for the period 2010-2013.149. 2010-2013年期间,南南合作仍将是工发组织一个主要优先事项。
After the successful establishment of South-South Industrial Cooperation Centres (USSICC) in India(2007) and China(2008), it is expected that three or four new centres of this kind will become operational by 2013 in various middle-income countries based on ongoing negotiations with their governments.已在印度(2007年)和中国(2008年)成功地设立南南工业合作中心,预计到2013年,在目前与政府谈判的基础上,将有三四个这类新的中心在几个中等收入国家投入运行。
150. South-South cooperation and the associated UNIDO centres are likely to establish an increasingly strategic role in development cooperation in the medium term.150. 中期而言,南南合作和相关的工发组织中心有可能在发展合作方面发挥越来越具有战略性的作用。
As the current financial crisis and global economic restructuring continue to unfold, they are likely to have significant impact on the changing architecture of aid, and it is assumed that South-South cooperation will rise to constitute a larger portion of development cooperation among various international agencies, international financial institutions, and partners in the future.随着当前金融危机和全球经济结构调整继续发展,南南合作和相关的工发组织中心有可能对不断变化的援助结构产生重大影响,可以假设,未来南南合作将在各种国际机构、国际金融机构和合作伙伴之间的发展合作中占更大比例。
151. In order to meet these challenges and opportunities, UNIDO will work with all key external partners such as the UNDP South-South Cooperation Unit to increase its capacities and resources required for continued support at various levels.151. 为了迎接挑战,把握机遇,工发组织将与外部所有关键合作伙伴如开发署南南合作股合作,增强在各级提供持续支助所需要的能力和资源。
Such endeavours will require additional funds from a wider range of sources, particularly from the South.这类工作将需要来自更广泛来源特别是南方的更多资金。
In this regard, an important step for UNIDO will be to establish dynamic and responsive mechanisms for interaction with a new group of donor countries, including traditional recipient countries.在这方面,工发组织将要采取的一项重要措施是携手几个新的捐助国包括传统的受援国,建立有活力和响应性强的互动机制。
152. At the same time, the MTPF period will also provide an opportunity to carry out strategic evaluations of South-South cooperation, including the new Industrial Centres, and to draw from the lessons learned at a relatively early stage.152. 与此同时,中期方案纲要还将提供对南南合作包括新设工业中心进行战略评价并在较早阶段吸取经验教训的机会。
Such reviews will include cost-benefit analyses of South-South cooperation versus traditional cooperation; determining best practices; focusing on quality and results (what works and what does not); and furthering the discourse on cooperation modalities, including triangular cooperation.这类审查将包括南南合作相对于传统合作的成本效益分析;确定最佳做法;注重质量和结果(哪些可行,哪些不可行);促进就合作方式包括三方合作进行讨论。
This exercise will be a key contribution to determining UNIDO’s South-South strategy and future direction.这项活动将为确定工发组织的南南合作战略和未来方针作出重要贡献。
153. As part of its efforts to strengthen South-South cooperation, UNIDO will also enhance the coordination and synergies between its investment and technology promotion centres, thus bringing a large network of resources together with the requisite web-based tools for easy and cost-effective global access to information.153. 为了加强南南合作,工发组织还将加强各投资和技术促进中心之间的相互协调和协同增效作用,从而建立一个配有必要网络工具,可在全球范围以高成本效益便捷获取信息的大型资源网络。
Special programme for the least developed countries (LDCs)最不发达国家特别方案
154. The past few years have witnessed a surge in the economic growth of LDCs as a group with improved terms of international trade for primary commodities.154. 过去几年,随着初级商品国际贸易条件好转,最不发达国家整体经济急速增长。
The average annual growth rate of these countries amounted to around 7 per cent over the period 2005-2007, which exceeded that of the high income group of countries and represented the best overall economic performance by LDCs in 30 years.2005年至2007年期间这些国家年均增长率达到7%左右,超过了高收入国家的增长率,这是最不发达国家30年来取得的最佳总体经济表现。
Rising demand for primary commodities from newly industrialized countries coupled with rising levels of FDI from these countries into the LDCs have been major factors in reversing the longstanding and steady deterioration in the LDCs’ terms of trade.新兴工业化国家对初级商品的需求增加,以及自这些国家流入最不发达国家的外国直接投资额增加,是扭转最不发达国家贸易条件长期持续恶化趋势的主要因素。
155. The current financial turmoil poses a potentially serious threat to recent LDC gains as a sudden drop in demand for various commodities and fears of a global recession have driven down prices.155. 随着各种商品的需求突然下降以及对全球衰退的担心推动价格下跌,当前的金融动荡可能对最不发达国家最近的增长带来严重威胁。
In the context of long-term globalization trends, however, it appears safe to assume that the market for various commodities has expanded irreversibly, and that while demand for primary commodities may continue to weaken in the foreseeable future, it is unlikely to collapse and may even stage a rapid recovery before or during the MTPF period.不过,在全球化长期趋势的背景下,似乎可以有把握地假定,各种商品市场的扩大已经不可逆转,虽然在可预见的未来初级商品的需求可能继续疲软,但这种需求不可能崩溃,甚至在中期方案纲要期之前或期间就会迅速恢复。
156. The future prospects for LDCs in the medium term are therefore unclear, with many challenges and opportunities on the horizon.156. 因此,中期而言最不发达国家的未来前景还不明朗,它们将会遇到许多挑战和机遇。
What is clear, however, is that the global economy is increasingly interdependent, and there are new centres of wealth and economic dynamism that could reignite the growth momentum of the LDCs.但是,明确的是全球经济日益相互依赖,新的财富和经济增长中心可以重新启动最不发达国家的增长势头。
Moreover, the developments of recent months have clearly demonstrated the LDCs’ vulnerability to external shocks and their need for economic diversification and greater trade options for sustainable economic development.此外,最近几个月的事态发展显然证明最不发达国家易受外部冲击,需要实现经济多元化和增加贸易选择才能维系经济发展。
157. Over the coming years, the LDCs will have greater opportunities to produce a wide range of goods, attract a wider range of investors, and trade in a wider range of markets.157. 未来数年内,最不发达国家将有更多机会生产更多种货物,吸引更广泛的投资者,并进入更多市场。
Against this background, the LDCs are likely to see greater levels of aid and investment flows from a growing number of partners in the medium term once the current structural adjustments take root.在此背景下,一旦当前的结构调整产生作用,中期内最不发达国家有可能看到来自日益增多的合作伙伴的更多援助和投资流。
158. Translating economic growth into development and poverty reduction remains a significant challenge for all countries, but for LDCs in particular.158. 通过经济增长实现发展和减贫仍是所有国家面临的一个重大挑战,但对最不发达国家尤其如此。
To help these countries achieve the MDGs, UNIDO will almost inevitably have to assume a greater role.为了帮助这些国家实现千年发展目标,工发组织发挥更大作用几乎是不可避免的。
This is particularly true if current trends toward addressing supply-side constraints and diversification of trade continue to flourish with initiatives such as Aid for Trade and the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF).如果随着“贸易援助”和“增强型综合框架”等举措的开展,当前解决供应方制约因素和实现贸易多样化的趋势继续发展下去,情况更是如此。
159. Resource mobilization is a key element of UNIDO’s growing support towards productivity enhancement for poverty reduction among LDCs.159. 资源调动是工发组织为最不发达国家提高生产率以促进减轻贫穷提供越来越多支助的一个关键组成部分。
UNIDO will continue to leverage new opportunities presented by the new aid architecture, and bring traditional, new and emerging donors together through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation.工发组织将继续利用新的援助结构所提供的新机遇,并通过北南合作、南南合作和三方合作,汇集传统捐助方、新的捐助方和正在出现的捐助方的力量。
Such initiatives will also be aimed at stimulating investment and technical cooperation flows to the countries in question through collaboration with the Organization’s investment and technology promotion offices and the newly established South-South Centres.这类举措的目的也是通过与本组织的投资和技术促进办事处和新设立的南南中心开展合作,促进投资和技术合作流向有关国家。
160. In supporting LDCs, particular attention will continue to be paid to agro-business, trade capacity-building (including standards and metrology), SME development, cleaner production and technology transfer from an increasingly diversified range of sources and partners in the North and the South.160. 在支助最不发达国家时,将继续特别注意农产企业、贸易能力建设(包括标准和度量衡)、中小企业发展、清洁生产和来自北方和南方日益多样化来源和合作伙伴的技术转让。
UNIDO will also play its role in maintaining a focus on poverty reduction and the achievement of the MDGs through effective development cooperation, policy advisory support, and socially responsible private sector development.工发组织还将通过推动有效的发展合作、提供政策咨询支助和发展有社会责任感的私营部门,对继续重视减贫和实现千年发展目标发挥作用。
In addition, UNIDO will develop a new initiative to formulate and implement specific Aid for Trade programmes in eight pilot countries in collaboration with EIF partners.此外,工发组织将确定一项新的举措,与“增强型综合框架”合作伙伴合作,在八个试点国家拟订和实施具体的“贸易援助方案”。
Through these activities it is anticipated that the volume and quality of UNIDO support for the LDCs will have been significantly enhanced by the end of the MTPF period.到中期方案纲要结束时,预计工发组织通过这些活动向最不发达国家提供支助的数量和质量都将大大提高。
C.6 Regional programmesC.6 区域方案
161. The application of these programme components will be determined by the specific developmental needs of the regions and countries concerned.161. 这些区域方案组成部分是否适用,将由有关区域和国家的具体发展需要决定。
For this purpose, individual regional programmes will be formulated to draw upon the various available programme components and integrate them into coherent and demand-driven regional response packages, specifically designed to meet the industrial policy and technical cooperation needs of each region.为此,制订具体的区域方案时需要利用现有的各种方案组成部分,将其纳入根据需求确定的统一协调的区域一揽子对策,特别是要满足每个区域的工业政策和技术合作需要。
The key priorities for the regional programmes in Africa, the Arab region, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and the Newly Independent States, and Latin America and the Caribbeanfor the period 2010-13 are described below.下文分别说明2010-2013年期间非洲、阿拉伯区域、亚洲和太平洋、欧洲和新近独立国家以及拉丁美洲和加勒比区域方案的主要优先事项。
These will be refined into more specific country programmes addressing the precise development needs of the countries according to their level and pattern of industrial and economic development.将进一步调整这些优先事项,以制订更加具体的国家方案,根据各国的工业和经济发展水平和格局处理各国确切的发展需要。
Furthermore, special programmes will be developed to cover priorities in areas such as least-developed countries (LDCs) and countries in post-crisis situations.此外,将制订特别方案,处理最不发达国家和危机后局势中国家等地区的优先事项。
C.6.1 The regional programme for AfricaC.6.1 非洲区域方案
Recent trends and challenges最近的趋势和挑战
162. The African region has benefited from a number of favourable developments in recent years.162. 最近几年,非洲区域受益于一些有利的事态发展。
Most African countries have implemented extensive and deep-reaching macroeconomic stabilization measures during this period.在此期间,多数非洲国家采取了广泛而深入的宏观经济稳定措施。
Many have also experienced robust global demand growth and high prices for their commodity exports, including oil, as well as increasing private capital flows and debt forgiveness.包括石油在内出口商品的全球需求增长强劲,价格高企,私人资本流增长和债务豁免,这些情况也使许多国家受益。
Similarly, the evolution from protectionism to liberalization in the global trading system has offered tremendous opportunities to Africato promote its trade and economic development.同样,全球贸易体系从保护主义向自由化发展,为非洲国家促进贸易和经济发展提供了重大机遇。
Apart from various preferential trade agreements, the region has also benefited from other important concessionary schemes such as the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and the Everything But Arms Initiative.除各种优惠贸易协定之外,本区域还受益于其他重要的优惠安排,如《非洲增长和机会法》和《除武器以外的一切产品》倡议。
163. The impact of these developments has been impressive, with African countries enjoying a continued acceleration of economic growth in recent years, culminating in average GDP growth rates of 5.7 per cent in 2006 and 5.8 per cent in 2008.163. 这些事态发展产生了深刻的影响,近年来非洲各国经济增长呈不断加速之势,2006年国内生产总值平均增长率达到5.7%,2008年达到5.8%。
Unfortunately, however, the response of the industrial sector to these developments has remained subdued.但是,遗憾的是,工业部门对这些事态发展的反应仍然受到抑制。
This weak response has largely been attributed to supply-side rigidities arising from weak productive and trade capacities, poor infrastructure and weak internal demand.反应力度较小的主要原因在于生产和贸易能力薄弱、基础设施落后和内部需求不振等造成供应方缺乏灵活余地。
The effects of these weaknesses have been exacerbated by a variety of challenges limiting the region’s ability to integrate into the multilateral trading system, which have prevented it from reaping the full benefits of the new trading opportunities it has been offered.同时,由于各种挑战限制本区域融入多边贸易体系的能力,使其无法充分享受新的贸易机会所带来的好处,上述薄弱环节的后果更趋严重。
These include the lack of conducive business environments, adequate productive capacities, effective investment promotion mechanisms and private sector development tools, appropriate knowledge and innovation systems, and internationally recognized quality assurance systems which would allow the region’s exports to comply with the technical standards and regulations prevailing in international markets.这些挑战包括缺乏有利的商业环境、足够生产能力、有效的投资促进机制和私营部门发展手段、适当的知识和创新体系以及国际认可的质量保证体系,后者将使本区域的出口产品符合国际市场通行的技术标准和条例。
164. These constraints are significantly inhibiting the industrial and trade and development potential of Africa.164. 这些制约因素严重妨碍非洲的工业和贸易及发展潜力。
In addition, most African countries face major difficulties in the agro-food or textiles and garments sectors where they would otherwise enjoy comparative advantages.此外,多数非洲国家在其本来应当有比较优势的农业食品或纺织服装部门面临重大困难。
The key to raising their industrial performance consequently lies in promoting the insertion of their industries into local and global value chains in these major subsectors.因此,提升工业绩效的关键在于促进它们的工业融入这些主要分部门的当地和全球价值链。
165. In addition, most parts of Africa, and especially the rural areas, are characterized by a lack of access to energy, as well as low energy efficiency and an overdependence on traditional biomass for meeting basic energy needs.165. 此外,非洲多数地区特别是农村地区缺乏获得能源的途径,能源效率低下,并且过度依赖传统生物质能满足基本能源需要。
Since access to affordable energy is the central determinant of economic growth and poverty reduction efforts, Africacontinues to face critical challenges related to its energy sector.由于获得支付得起的能源是经济增长和减贫工作的核心决定因素,因此,非洲继续面临着与能源部门有关的重大挑战。
Yet, Africa is endowed with vast energy resources that remain largely untapped, including oil and gas in North Africa and coal in South Africa.不过,非洲拥有基本上未开发的丰富能源,包括北非的石油和天然气,南非的煤炭。
The need to exploit and integrate all sources of energy consequently remains high, especially as oil prices are expected to follow a rising long-term trend and energy shortages are having a negative impact on industrial performance and economic growth.因此,开发并综合利用各类能源仍然具有很大的必要性,特别是石油价格预计将有一个长期走高趋势,而能源短缺正对工业绩效和经济增长产生不利影响。
In addition, Africafaces continuing threats of severe environmental degradation, increasing pollution of crucial water bodies and soil as well as climate change.不仅如此,非洲还面临着持续威胁,包括环境严重恶化、重要水体和土壤污染日益严重以及气候变化。
All of these issues will have to be taken into account in developing sustainable patterns of industrial development for the region.在设计该区域可持续工业发展布局时必须考虑到所有这些问题。
The UNIDO response 166. Against this background, the Tenth Ordinary Session of the African Union Assembly of Heads of States and Governments held in January 2008 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, approved the Action Plan for Accelerated Industrial Development of Africa.166. 在此背景下,2008年1月在埃塞俄比亚亚的斯亚贝巴举行了非洲联盟国家元首和政府首脑大会第十届常会,这次会议批准了《非洲加速工业发展行动计划》。
With its accent on the transformation of African economies through value addition, wealth creation and connectivity with global trade, this decision represented a significant turning point for Africa’s development prospects.该计划强调通过增加价值、创造财富和与全球贸易接轨实现非洲经济转型,它代表着非洲发展前景的重大转折点。
UNIDO will fully support the implementation of this Plan and align the services it provides to the African region with its objectives and priorities.工发组织将全力支持该计划的实施,并将按照该计划的目标和优先事项调整向非洲区域提供的各项服务。
167. To operationalize the Action Plan, seven programme clusters have been agreed upon:167. 为使该《行动计划》具有可操作性,商定了下述七个方案组:
1. Industrial policy and institutional direction;1. 工业政策和体制建设方向;
2. Upgrading production and trade capacities;2. 提升生产贸易能力;
3. Promotion of infrastructure and energy for industrial development;3. 基础设施和能源促进工业发展;
4. Human resources for industry;4. 工业人力资源;
5. Industrial innovations, research and development and technological development;5. 工业创新、研究和开发及技术发展;
6. Financing and resource mobilization;6. 筹资和调动资源;
7. Sustainable development.7. 可持续发展。
168. In most of these areas, and especially in the context of clusters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, UNIDO will contribute to building the necessary productive and trade capacities, as well as managerial capacities, skills and competitiveness.168. 在其中多个领域,特别是在第1、2、3、4和5组,工发组织将为发展必要的生产贸易能力以及管理能力、技能和竞争力作出贡献。
In general, within the scope of the above, cooperation services will be provided to guide the development of national and regional industrial policies and strengthening regional institutions and infrastructure.总体而言,在上述范围内,将提供合作服务,指导制订国家和区域工业政策并加强区域机构和基础设施。
In addition, issues relating to investment promotion, technology transfer, SME cluster development and development of export consortia, quality management and compliance with international standards, and cleaner production will be addressed to enhance the supply capacities and export potential of countries in the region.此外,将处理与投资促进、技术转让、中小企业集群发展和发展出口联营集团、质量管理和遵守国际标准以及清洁生产有关的问题,以增强本区域各国的供应能力和出口潜力。
It may be noted that UNIDO, at the request of the Regional Economic Communities of Sub-Saharan Africa – Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale/Communauté Economique des Etats d’Afrique centrale (CEMAC/CEEAC), Southern African Development Community (SADC), and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) – has prepared four regional industrial modernization programmes for these regions, in close consultation with the European Commission (EC).注意到工发组织应非洲撒哈拉以南地区四个区域经济委员会的请求,经与欧盟委员会密切协商,为这些区域制定了区域工业现代化方案,这些区域经济委员会即西非国家经济共同体(西非经共体)、中非经济和货币共同体/中非国家经济共同体(中非经货共同体/中非经共体)、南部非洲发展共同体(南部非洲共同体)和东部和南部非洲共同市场(东南非共同市场)。
The regions are in the process of including these programmes within the regional Aid for Trade packages that they are discussing with their European Union development partners.这些区域正在将这些方案纳入它们目前与欧洲联盟发展伙伴讨论的贸易援助一揽子方案。
169. Furthermore, UNIDO’s technical cooperation services in these areas will be aimed at encouraging investments from the African diaspora, sovereign wealth funds, other foreign investors, and the emerging African private sector and capital markets, which could be channelled into regional investment projects in industry and infrastructure.169. 此外,工发组织在这些领域的技术合作服务的目的是鼓励海外非洲人、主权财富基金、其他外国投资者和正在兴起的非洲私营部门和资本市场进行投资,可以引导这些资金投向工业和基础设施领域的区域投资项目。
Efforts will also be made to promote increased intra-African trade, with the aim of fostering intensified industrial cooperation among African industrial entrepreneurs, and thereby enabling African industry to benefit from economies of scale as well as specialization.还将努力促进增加非洲内部贸易,目的是促进加强非洲工业企业家之间的工业合作,使非洲工业既能受益于规模经济又能受益于专业分工。
This will also strengthen the capacity of African entrepreneurs to enter into international supply chains value and establish a greater presence in international markets, especially for agro-based products.这项工作也将加强非洲企业家进入国际供应价值链并在国际市场特别是农产品国际市场发挥更大作用的能力。
170. In the field of environment and energy, emphasis will be placed on a number of activities to contribute to Africa’s energy security through the implementation of policies and programmes designed to promote increased energy efficiency and to demonstrate the potential and benefits of renewable energy technologies.170. 在环境和能源领域,将重点开展几项活动,通过实施旨在促进提高能效的政策和方案加强非洲的能源安全,并证明可再生能源技术的潜力和好处。
Particular emphasis will be given to the latter, with a view to enhancing access to energy and augmenting rural electrification as a means of enhancing the quality of life of local populations and their ability to engage in industrial activities.特别以后者为重点,目的是增强获取能源的能力并扩大农村电气化,以此提高当地人民的生活质量,提升其从事工业活动的能力。
Due account will be taken in this connection of the outcomes of recent expert group meetings on biofuels and renewable energy and other related events arranged by UNIDO.在这方面,将适当考虑到工发组织最近安排的生物燃料和可再生能源专家组会议和其他有关活动的成果。
At the same time, UNIDO will continue to promote programmes to increase environmental sustainability, including programmes for the protection of large marine ecosystems, the adoption of cleaner production measures, and the establishment of institutional capacities for pollution control and environmental management.与此同时,工发组织将继续促进旨在增强环境可持续力的方案,包括保护大型海洋生态系统、采取清洁生产措施和建立污染控制和环境管理机构能力等方面的方案。
C.6.2 The regional programme for the Arab regionC.6.2 阿拉伯区域方案
Recent trends and challenges最近的趋势和挑战
171. Poverty reduction remains one of the primary challenges facing many countries in the Arab region and unemployment – mainly among the youth – still constitutes a major challenge to economic development.171. 减贫仍是阿拉伯区域许多国家面临的主要挑战之一,而失业主要是年轻人失业仍是经济发展遇到的一个重大挑战。
This general challenge notwithstanding, the region is marked by extensive variations in development trends between its various subregions, including the oil producing and non-oil producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula, the Arab Maghreb countries, and the West Asian Arab countries.尽管面临这一共同挑战,但该区域各分区域之间在发展趋势方面存在着广泛差异,这些分区域包括阿拉伯半鸟的石油生产国和非石油生产国、阿拉伯马格里布国家和西亚阿拉伯国家。
172. In many countries of the Arabian Peninsulaand its offshore islands, the availability of substantial oil revenues has permitted the creation of a modern physical and social infrastructure, and facilitated a substantial increase in the standard of living of the population.172. 阿拉伯半岛及其沿海岛屿的许多国家因获得大量石油收入而得以建立现代化的物质和社会基础设施,人民生活水平因此而得到大幅提高。
These countries have established an open trade regime and enjoy low inflation, stable currencies and good living standards.这些国家建立了开放的贸易制度,通货膨胀低、货币稳定,生活优越。
In particular, they face two challenges for sustainable industrial development: (a) a diversification of their economies from their heavy dependence on oil, and (b) a shift from the public to the private sector.在实现可持续工业发展方面特别面临两个挑战:(a)从严重依赖石油到实现经济多元化;(b)从公共部门转向私营部门。
173. The Arab states of the West Asiasubregion are suffering from the effects of war and civil conflict, sometimes directly and sometimes indirectly.173. 西亚阿拉伯国家饱受战争和内部冲突的影响,这种影响有时是直接的,有时是间接的。
The associated political uncertainty is affecting all countries in this subregion, and constraining their ability to embark on a sustainable process of economic and industrial development.由此带来的政局不稳影响着分区域所有国家,制约了它们迈上可持续经济和工业发展进程的能力。
This subregion also faces a strong need to rehabilitate its often outdated and frequently damaged industrial infrastructure and capacities.该分区域还迫切需要恢复其往往过时并频繁遭到毁坏的工业基础设施和能力。
174. For the African Arab states, the main concern is the establishment of an appropriate policy framework at the national and subregional levels in order to enable them to meet their sustainable development objectives and achieve, in particular, poverty reduction through employment creation and income generation.174. 对于非洲阿拉伯国家而言,主要关切是在国家和分区域级别建立适当的政策框架,使其能够实现可持续发展目标,特别是通过创造就业和增加收入实现减贫。
In this context, emphasis is also placed on private sector development and the development of SMEs.在这方面,还应当注重私营部门发展和中小企业发展。
In addition, these countries need to promote sustainable productivity growth through technology diffusion and a modernization and upgrading of their industrial sector in general and their agro-industries in particular.此外,这些国家需要通过技术传播以及整个工业部门特别是农产工业的现代化和升级,促进生产力的可持续增长。
Trade facilitation and market access are other major prerequisites for the achievement of their industrial development goals.贸易便利和市场准入是实现工业发展目标的其他主要前提条件。
175. Meanwhile, for the small number of Arab LDCs the principal objective is to overcome abject poverty and to move out of the vicious cycle of low income, low investment and low growth.175. 与此同时,对少数最不发达阿拉伯国家而言,主要目标是消除赤贫,摆脱低收入、低投资和低增长恶性循环。
Their economic stagnation is linked to the insufficient attention paid to the development of the productive sectors, and especially their manufacturing industry.这些国家的经济停顿与没有充分注意发展生产性部门特别是制造业有关。
Without developing their industrial sector, they are unlikely to be able to embark upon a sustainable path of economic development.不发展工业部门,就不可能迈上可持续经济发展的道路。
176. The Arab region as a whole faces significant environmental challenges affecting air and water pollution, the degradation and depletion of natural resources, and the inefficient use of energy.176. 整个阿拉伯区域面临着重大环境挑战,涉及空气和水污染、自然资源退化和耗减和能源利用效率低下。
The degradation and depletion of natural resources, especially with regard to the larger water bodies, constitutes a serious problem in the region.自然资源特别是大规模水体退化和耗减构成本区域的一个严重问题。
It is widely expected that environmental management and industrial pollution control capacities and policies will increasingly become key necessities for the region.普遍预期环境管理和工业污染控制能力和政策将日益成为该区域必须处理的主要事项。
The UNIDO response工发组织的对策
177. Based on the specific development trends and challenges identified above, UNIDO’s programme in the Arab region will continue to focus primarily on entrepreneurship development.177. 根据上述具体发展趋势和挑战,工发组织在阿拉伯区域的方案将继续主要侧重于培养企业家能力。
In this context, due attention will also be given to promoting rural entrepreneurship and the economic empowerment of women and youth, with an emphasis on supporting the creation of employment and income opportunities.在此范围内,还将适当注意提高农村企业家能力并增强妇女和青年的经济能力,重点支持创造就业和收入机会。
The strengthening of the “missing middle” will also remain a focus and UNIDO will consequently implement programmes targeting private sector development, with an emphasis on agro-industries and SME development (including in particular SME clusters and networks).加强“缺失的中间阶层”也仍然作为一个重点,因此工发组织将实施针对私营部门发展的方案,重点是农产工业和中小企业(特别包括中小企业集群和网络)的发展。
In the case of the major oil-producing countries, steps will also be taken to promote a diversification of products away from crude oil or oil products.就多数产油国而言,还将采取措施促进从原油或石油产品实现产品多元化。
178. In overall terms, the UNIDO Programme for the Arab region during the MTPF 2010-2013 period will involve the following activities:178. 总体而言,2010-2013年中期方案纲要期间,工发组织在阿拉伯区域的方案将涉及下列活动:
(a) Upgrading the industrial sector for improved competitiveness;(a) 工业部门升级以提高竞争力;
(b) Strengthening the export sectors by promoting quality assurance issues;(b) 通过解决质量保证问题加强出口部门;
(c) Establishing and strengthening investment and technology promotion offices in the Arab region;(c) 在阿拉伯区域建立和加强投资和技术促进办事处;
(d) Strengthening South-South cooperation.(d) 加强南南合作。
179. The UNIDO strategy for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries will aim to provide high quality technical advice for developing human resources and upgrading industrial skills, increasing diversification, promoting new competitive technologies, technology parks and innovation, promotion of the private sector, and consolidating regional cooperation.179. 工发组织针对海湾合作理事会国家采取的战略着眼于在下列方面提供高质量技术咨询:开发人力资源和提升工业技能,加强多元化,促进具有竞争力的新技术、技术园区和创新,促进私营部门,并加强区域合作。
180. For the Arab States of the West Asia subregion, UNIDO will focus on the formulation of sound industrial policy strategies and programmes, including those covering private sector entrepreneurship development programmes, investment and technology promotion, improvement of product quality and the development of export markets, promotion of rural development and renewable energy, and the protection of the environment, water management and control of industrial waste.180. 对于西亚分区域的阿拉伯国家,工发组织将把重点放在制定可行的工业政策战略和方案上,包括涵盖以下各方面的战略和方案:私营部门企业家能力培养方案、投资和技术促进、提高产品质量和发展出口市场、促进农村发展和可再生能源,以及保护环境、水管理和工业废物控制。
181. For the Northern African subregion, UNIDO will aim at helping countries address the challenges to local industries posed by the Euro-Mediterranean free trade area by 2010.181. 对于北非分区域,工发组织将着眼于帮助这些国家应对2010年建立欧洲—地中海自由贸易区给当地工业带来的挑战。
This will include measures to promote competitive trade expansion, a further emphasis on private sector development and the development of SMEs.这将包括采取措施促进拓展有竞争力的贸易,继续注重私营部门发展和中小企业发展。
182. The Arab LDCs will only be able to benefit from liberalized trade if existing supply-side constraints for industrial growth are removed and competitive productive capacities are developed. This will be the priority for UNIDO’s support during the MTPF period.182. 只有在工业增长目前遇到的供应方制约因素得到消除并且生产竞争力得到发展时,阿拉伯最不发达国家才能够受益于自由化贸易。
C.6.3 The regional programme for Asiaand the PacificC.6.3 亚洲和太平洋区域方案
Recent trends and challenges最近的趋势和挑战
183. The Asiaand the Pacific region comprises a diverse group of countries at divergent levels of development and facing varied challenges.183. 亚洲及太平洋区域包括一些发展水平迥异、面临不同挑战的差异性很大的国家。
On the one hand, it hosts a large number of rapidly growing and industrializing countries, led by China, Indiaand some member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).一方面,亚洲有大量增长迅速和正在走向工业化的国家,为首的是中国、印度和东南亚国家联盟(东盟)一些成员国。
On the other, it includes fourteen LDCs, some of which are landlocked while others are small island developing states.另一方面,亚洲有十四个最不发达国家,其中一些是内陆国,另一些是小岛屿发展中国家。
184. China has been the main engine of growth of the region in the recent past, registering an annual average GDP growth rate of about 10 per cent during the past decade.184. 中国最近成为该区域增长的主要引擎,过去十年国内生产总值年均增长约10%。
This growth in economy as a whole has mainly been driven by double-digit growth rates in the country’s industrial sector.这种经济增长主要是受到该国工业部门两位数增长率的推动。
The robust performance of Chinahas had positive spillover effects on many other countries in the region, stimulating trade and economic growth and lifting millions out of poverty.中国的强劲表现对区域许多国家产生了积极的外溢效应,促进了贸易和经济增长,使千百万人脱贫。
185. Despite the considerable progress achieved in recent years in reducing poverty in this region, it remains home to more than 600 million poor people – nearly two-thirds of the poor population of the world.185. 尽管近些年该区域在减贫方面取得巨大进步,但仍有超过6亿穷人,占世界穷人数量的近三分之二。
Moreover, a significant majority, again some two-thirds, of Asia’s poor are women.而且,亚洲穷人大多数是妇女,也约占三分之二。
Poverty reduction and enhancing the role of women in development are thus the main priorities of the region in the medium and long term.因此,中长期而言,减贫和增强妇女在发展中的作用是区域的主要优先事项。
Fortunately, the experiences gained in the rapidly developing and industrializing countries of the region bring opportunities for the intraregional transfer of best practices in poverty reduction and technology.幸运的是,该区域迅速发展的国家和正在走向工业化的国家取得的经验为区域内推广减贫最佳做法和转让技术带来了机会。
These rapidly developing countries also serve as sources for investment and as potential markets for other countries in the region.这些发展迅速的国家既是投资来源也是区域其他国家的潜在市场。
186. Although they vary in scope and intensity from country to country, and from subregion to subregion, the region is facing a number of developmental challenges.186. 该区域面临着许多发展方面的挑战,尽管这些挑战在范围和强度上因国家和分区域不同而有差异。
Income disparities remain a major challenge for many countries, even for the rapidly growing and populous countries such as Chinaand India.收入差距仍是许多国家面临的一个主要挑战,即使是对增长迅速和人口众多的中国和印度等国家也是如此。
Some of the poorest countries in the region are emerging from conflict and have very weak institutional capacities, while the small island countries have difficulty creating employment for their growing and youthful population, and in achieving sustainable development.区域一些最贫穷国家刚刚摆脱冲突,机构能力非常薄弱,而一些小岛屿发展中国家则在为日益增多的年轻人创造就业方面以及实现可持续发展方面遇到困难。
Moreover, their very survival is threatened by rising sea levels caused by climate change.此外,小岛屿国家本身的生存因气候变化导致海平面上升而受到威胁。
In many countries, energy and food security issues are high on the development agenda.许多国家将能源和粮食安全问题摆在发展议程的重要位置。
The region has also suffered severe environmental deterioration due to a combination of factors, such as high population density and growth, rapid industrialization and urbanization, natural disasters, and poverty.几个方面的因素同时存在造成该区域环境严重恶化,如人口密度大、增长快、工业化和城市化迅速、自然灾害和贫穷等。
The UNIDO response工发组织的对策
187. The diversity of the Asian and Pacific region will necessitate the adoption of a differentiated approach by UNIDO with regard to the support services it offers to the countries of the region.187. 亚洲和太平洋区域的差异性使得工发组织必须采取区别对待的做法向区域各国提供支助服务。
In overall terms, the development of SME enabling frameworks, especially in the context of agro-based industries, will remain a key priority in the region.总体而言,建立有利于中小企业特别是农产工业的框架,仍是该区域一个主要优先事项。
Thus, institutional support, cluster development, rural and women’s entrepreneurship development, food-safety infrastructure, skills development and capacity-building in the use of new technologies, and support to traditional agro-industries for enhancement of productivity will constitute major programme components in the region.因此,制度支助、集群发展、农村和妇女企业家能力培养、粮食安全基础设施、新技术使用方面的技能培养和能力建设以及支助传统农产工业提高生产率,将构成区域方案的主要组成部分。
188. In order to improve the competitiveness of the low-income and lower middle-income countries, UNIDO will emphasize the establishment or enhancement of the standards and conformity infrastructure, institutional capacities for supply chain management, information networking and technology development.188. 为了提高低收入和偏低中等收入国家的竞争力,工发组织将注重建立或加强标准和遵规基础设施、供应链管理方面的机构能力、信息联网和技术开发。
In the LDCs, and in particular in the Pacific island countries, the main focus will be on regional cooperation projects and programmes for youth employment, food safety, renewable energy and climate change.在最不发达国家,特别是太平洋岛屿国家,主要重点将放在青年就业、粮食安全、可再生能源和气候变化区域合作项目和方案上。
189. The Regional Programme for Asiaand the Pacific will also give high priority to the integration of economic and environmental measures.189. 亚洲和太平洋区域方案还将高度重视经济措施和环境措施综合配套。
In particular, UNIDO will promote and implement its “Green Industry Initiative” in Asiaand hold several international conferences on green industry, renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change in the region.特别是工发组织将在亚洲推行其“绿色产业举措”,并在该区域举办几次关于绿色产业、可再生能源、能效和气候变化国际会议。
High emphasis will also be given to issues of environmental management in countries where industrialization has already advanced, including China, Indiaand several ASEAN countries.还将高度重视工业化程度已经较高的国家的环境管理问题,包括中国、印度和几个东盟国家。
The services provided to these countries will include programmes related to the Montreal Protocol, the elimination of POPs, and cleaner production and resource efficiency.向这些国家提供的服务将包括与《蒙特利尔议定书》、消除持久性有机污染物以及清洁生产和能效有关的方案。
Where appropriate, the Organization will also support the transfer of modern environmentally sound technologies for renewable energy and water management.本组织还将酌情支助可再生能源和水管理无害环境现代技术的转让。
190. The dynamism and diversity of the region’s economies provide a tremendous potential for development cooperation among countries within the region and beyond.190. 该区域经济充满活力而又存在巨大差异,这为区域内和区域外国家之间开展发展合作提供了巨大潜力。
Through the established South-South Industrial Cooperation Centers (USSICC) in Chinaand India, UNIDO will promote industrial South-South cooperation within Asia and between Asiaand other regions in areas such as investment promotion, technology transfer, transfer of knowledge and know-how, and sharing of development experiences.工发组织将通过已经在中国和印度设立的南南工业合作中心,在投资促进、技术转让、知识和诀窍转让和发展经验分享等方面促进亚洲内部以及亚洲和其他区域之间的南南工业合作。
C.6.4 The regional programme for Europe and the Newly Independent States (NIS)C.6.4 欧洲和新近独立国家区域方案
Recent trends and challenges最近的趋势和挑战
191. The Europeand NIS Programme covers 29 countries of great diversity, many of which have experienced conflicts during the past 15 years.191. 欧洲和新近独立国家方案包括29个差异很大的国家,过去15年当中其中许多国家发生过冲突。
This legacy seriously constrains the ability of the countries of the region to realize their full development potential, particularly in the Caucasus, Central Asiaand the Western Balkans.这种历史包袱严重制约区域各国充分发挥其发展潜力的能力,特别是高加索、中亚和巴尔干西部各国。
Moreover, the countries of the region are in varying stages of transition from centrally planned to market-based economies and many are still suffering the aftershocks of this transition, which has frequently resulted in high levels of unemployment and uneven development patterns within the individual countries.此外,区域各国处于从中央计划经济向市场经济过渡的不同阶段,许多国家仍在承受这种过渡所带来的冲击,这种冲击往往造成失业率居高不下,各个国家内部发展状况不均衡。
192. One of the region’s most important development milestones was the accession of 12 countries to the European Union (EU).192. 该区域最重要的发展里程碑之一是12个国家加入欧洲联盟(欧盟)。
These countries are “graduating” from the status of recipients of development assistance from United Nations agencies and from bilateral donors.这些国家以前是联合国机构和双边捐助方发展援助的接受者,目前正在“毕业”。
Instead, they are becoming “emerging donors”, and are putting in place their own development cooperation frameworks with other countries in the Europe and NISregion and beyond.这些国家如今正在成为“新兴捐助国”,与欧洲和新近独立国家区域之内和之外的其他国家一道实施自己的发展合作框架。
193. The other 19 countries remain fully eligible for development assistance and can be grouped into four subregions: Central Asia, the Caucasus, Western NIS (including the Russian Federation) and South-Eastern Europe (including Turkey).193. 其余19个国家仍然完全有资格获得发展援助,这些国家可以归入四个分区域:中亚、高加索地区、西部新近独立国家(包括俄罗斯联邦)和东南欧(包括土耳其)。
Economic and industrial diversification is a growing and most pressing need in all four subregions.所有这四个分区域都越来越需要实现经济和工业多样化,而且这也是一项最迫切的需要。
Their efforts to break into Western European and other world markets for industrial goods are stymied by their inability to comply with the various trade, energy, environmental and social standards prevailing in these markets.它们将工业产品打入西欧和世界其他市场的努力由于无法遵守这些市场的各种贸易、能源、环境和社会标准而受到阻碍。
The industrial technologies employed in these countries are also often outdated and environmentally unsafe, leading to high levels of toxic emissions and pollution.这些国家采用的工业技术也往往已经过时,对环境不安全,造成大量有毒物质排放和污染。
While some countries from the South-Eastern Europe and Western NIS have been pursuing harmonization with the European Union, the countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus are striving to accelerate their integration within the NISregion.在有些东南欧国家和西部新近独立国家寻求与欧洲联盟实现协调统一的同时,中亚和高加索地区国家也在努力加快融入新近独立国家区域的步伐。
The UNIDO response 194.工发组织的对策
UNIDO’s technical cooperation with the Europe and NIS region emphasizes capacity-building in several interconnected areas such as policy measures for economic and industrial diversification, private sector and SME development, technology management and cleaner production, which reflects the strong demand for these programme areas in the countries in the region.194. 工发组织与欧洲和新近独立国家区域的技术合作侧重于一些相互联系的领域的能力建设,例如经济和工业多样化政策措施、私营部门和中小企业发展、技术管理和清洁生产等。 这反映出区域各国对这些方案领域有强烈需求。
During the MTPF 2010-2013 period this broad range of support services will be retained, with additional measures being introduced according to the needs and development priorities of the countries of the region, and a tailored approach being adopted to address the divergent requirements of the emerging donor and the remaining recipient countries.在2010-2013年纲要期间,将继续提供这些广泛的支助服务,并根据区域各国的需要和发展重点采取更多措施,同时采取有针对性的方法来满足新兴捐助国和其余受援国的不同需求。
In this context, UNIDO will also promote East-East cooperation in order to share best practices and channel development assistance to poorer countries in the region.在这方面,工发组织还将促进东东合作,以交流最佳做法,并将发展援助引向该区域较贫穷国家。
195. During the MTPF period, UNIDO will continue to help the countries of this region to formulate measures to diversify their economies.195. 在中期方案纲要期间,工发组织将继续帮助区域各国制定经济多样化措施。
In this context, particular emphasis will be placed on helping them to realize their considerable potential for achieving increased food security and exports through the development and modernization of their agro-industrial sector.在这方面,将特别重视通过这些国家农产工业部门的发展和现代化,帮助它们实现增加粮食安全和出口的巨大潜力。
The issue of unemployment will continue to be addressed through the promotion of SMEs and entrepreneurship development, particularly for women and youth.将继续通过促进中小企业发展和创业能力培养尤其是对妇女和青年的培养来解决失业问题。
UNIDO will also continue its regional programme on technology foresight, a key aspect of which will be to offer incentives and assistance to enterprises for the adoption of improved technologies for enhanced competitiveness.工发组织还将继续实施其区域技术展望方案,其中的一个主要方面是激励和帮助企业采用改良技术,提高竞争力。
196. UNIDO will also continue to support the efforts of the countries of the region to participate in international trade.196. 工发组织还将继续支持区域各国参与国际贸易的努力。
To meet the technical requirements prevailing in external markets it will continue to help them to strengthen their capacities to address such issues as conformity assessment, standardization, traceability and quality control.为了达到境外市场的技术要求,工发组织将继续协助这些国家增强处理合规评价、标准化、溯源和质量控制等问题的能力。
To meet the challenges posed by international social and environmental standards, meanwhile, UNIDO will assist in the establishment of a “Regional Centre for CSR Competence”.同时,为了应对社会和经济方面国际标准带来的挑战,工发组织将协助建立一个“公司社会责任区域职能中心”。
197. To address climate change and other energy-related issues, UNIDO will promote projects on industrial energy efficiency and energy management standards, focusing on a new generation of energy-saving technologies.197. 为了应对气候变化和其他能源相关问题,工发组织将促进实施关于工业能效和能源管理标准的项目,重点是新一代节能技术。
In addition, UNIDO will assist in exploring the scope for expanding the use of renewable sources of energy, such as wind, solar, biomass, small hydropower and biofuels.此外,工发组织还将协助探讨可在多大程度上扩大可再生能源的使用范围,例如风能、太阳能、生物质能、小型水电站和生物燃料等。
The International Centre for Hydrogen Technologies (ICHET) in Istanbul, Turkeywill continue its research on use and application of hydrogen as a renewable source of energy through demonstration projects in the region and worldwide.设在土耳其伊斯坦布尔的国际氢能技术中心(氢能技术中心)将继续通过在该区域和全世界实施的示范项目,研究氢能作为一种可再生能源的使用和应用情况。
198. Cleaner and sustainable production will remain a priority programme within the environmental area.198. 清洁生产和可持续生产仍将是环境领域的一个优先方案。
UNIDO’s activities will be expanded through the establishment of new National Cleaner Production Centers (NCPCs) and the strengthening of the existing NCPCs in the region.工发组织将在该区域建立新的国家清洁生产中心(清洁生产中心)和加强现有的清洁生产中心,扩大活动范围。
The Organization will also continue to assist the governments of the region in the field of water management by supporting the increased reuse and recycling of water, and the application of environmentally sound technologies to minimize water and pollution discharges.本组织还将继续协助区域各国政府在水管理领域的努力,支持加强水的重复利用和循环利用,并使用无害环境技术尽可能减少废水和污染物排放。
In the context of the Montreal Protocol and the Stockholm Convention, meanwhile, UNIDO will continue its activities in phasing out ozone depleting substances and persistent organic pollutants.同时,工发组织还将在《蒙特利尔议定书》和《斯德哥尔摩公约》框架内,继续在逐步淘汰消耗臭氧物质和持久性有机污染物方面开展活动。
C.6.5 The regional programme for Latin America and the Caribbean(LAC)C.6.5 拉丁美洲和加勒比区域方案
Recent trends and challenges最近的趋势和挑战
199. Despite a broadly favourable macroeconomic performance in recent years, the LAC region continues to face high levels of poverty, which affects about one-third of its population, or approximately 180 million people.199. 虽然近年来宏观经济形势一片大好,但拉丁美洲和加勒比区域的贫困率仍然较高,受影响人口约占三分之一,即大约1.8亿人。
Of these, some 70 million reside in the region’s five most populous countries.其中约有7,000万人居住在该区域人口最密集的五个国家。
The incidence of poverty is particularly acute in the countryside, and is both a cause and an effect of the rapid urbanization and rural-urban migration throughout the region in the past few decades.农村的贫困发生率尤其高,这既是该区域过去几十年迅速城市化和农村人口流向城市的一个原因,也是其所带来的一个结果。
Within this overall context of continuing high poverty levels, the gaps between high and low-income groups, rural and urban areas, and more developed and less developed areas are also becoming more pronounced.在贫困率高居不下的总体背景下,高低收入群体之间、城乡之间以及发达地区和欠发达地区之间的差距也更加显著。
200. In an attempt to take advantage of the opportunities for trade and income growth offered by the processes of globalization and economic liberalization prevailing since the 1980s, the countries of the LAC region have entered into a number of free trade agreements among themselves and with their major trading partners outside the region.200. 为了利用1980年代以来全球化和经济自由化进程提供的贸易和经济增长机会,拉丁美洲和加勒比区域各国相互签订并与该区域以外的主要贸易伙伴签订了一些自由贸易协定。
Particular attention has been given in this context to “North-South” accords with industrialized nations, e.g. in the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), and with the European Union (EU).在这方面,与工业化国家如美洲自由贸易区国家和欧洲联盟签订的“南北”协定受到特别重视。
However, while offering new opportunities, the opening of the LAC economies also exposed them to significant external competitive pressures and shocks, which necessitated a variety of structural changes that aggravated the incidence of poverty.不过,拉丁美洲和加勒比经济体的开放在带来新机会的同时,也使这些经济体遇到巨大的外部竞争压力和冲击,结果不得不进行各种结构调整,而这些调整又导致贫困进一步加剧。
201. The natural wealth and abundance of the region’s different ecosystems form an important base for the development of its economies and the improvement of its people’s quality of life.201. 该区域丰富多样的自然生态系统为各经济体的发展和提高人民生活质量提供了重要基础。
However, the overexploitation of these resources, reinforced more recently by the effects of climate change, is resulting in their rapid depletion and in serious damage to the natural environment.但是,这些资源的过度开发导致它们迅速枯竭,并对自然环境造成严重损害,而气候变化的影响最近又加剧了这种开发趋势。
202. These general conditions prevail in varying degrees throughout the LAC region, but at the same time there are clearly distinguishable subregions with their own particular characteristics.202. 整个拉丁美洲区域都不同程度地存在着这些总体状况,同时各个分区域又有明显差别,各具特点。
Central Americais made up of largely agro-based economies and suffers from widespread poverty while the Andean region has a larger natural resource and industrial base but with serious levels of rural poverty. The Southern Cone and Mexicoboast the most sophisticated economies of the entire region but also show pockets of remarkable poverty, while the Caribbeanhas the typical problems of small island economies, such as a heavy dependency on imports and the limitations of small domestic markets.中美洲由主要以农业为基础的经济体组成,普遍比较贫困;安第斯地区拥有较大的自然资源和工业基础,但农村的贫困程度非常严重;南锥体和墨西哥拥有整个区域最复杂的经济体,但也有一些极其贫困的地区;加勒比则面临小岛屿经济体的典型问题,例如对进口的高度依赖和国内小型市场的局限性等。
The UNIDO response 203.工发组织的对策
During the period 2010-2013, UNIDO will continue to build on the success of the “Regional Programme for Latin American and Caribbean (RPLAC)”, established in response to resolution GC.11/Res.1 and approved by GRULAC and UNIDO in November 2007.203. 2010-2013年期间,工发组织将在“拉丁美洲和加勒比区域方案”取得成功的基础上再接再厉。 该方案是根据GC.11/Res.1号决议制定的,并于2007年11月得到拉丁美洲和加勒比国家组及工发组织的核准。
Apart from supporting regional integration, the RPLAC aims to strengthen the systematic dialogue between UNIDO and LAC Member Statesto facilitate a continuous process of project identification and priority review.除了为区域一体化提供支助外,该方案的目的还在于加强工发组织与拉丁美洲和加勒比成员国之间的系统性对话,以促进不断开展项目确定和优先事项审查工作。
As in previous periods, a number of support instruments will be employed to ensure the relevance of the UNIDO thematic priorities to the region, to enhance the implementation of joint funds mobilization strategies and to achieve a higher impact of UNIDO technical cooperation programmes in the LAC region.同以往各个期间一样,将利用一些支助工具,确保工发组织的优先专题适合区域具体情况,加强联合调动资金战略的实施,并使工发组织的技术合作方案在拉丁美洲和加勒比区域产生更大影响。
Those instruments include, in particular, an Industrial Knowledge Bank as a mechanism for intraregional South-South cooperation; study tours and a regional virtual community of practice; a mechanism for strengthening intraregional dialogue through annual thematic expert group coordination meetings for the development of regional and subregional technical strategies; and a mechanism for the promotion of multi-stakeholder coordination platforms by means of establishing National Consultative Groups in LAC countries.这些工具尤其包括:一个作为区域内南南合作机制的工业知识库;参观考察和区域虚拟实践社区;一个通过有助于制定区域和分区域技术战略的年度专题专家组协调会议而加强区域内对话的机制;以及一个通过在拉丁美洲和加勒比国家成立国家协商小组来促进多个利益方之间协调平台的机制。
204. RPLAC will also continue the development of the Observatory for Renewable Energy and the Rational Use of Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean Region, taking into account Board decision IDB.32/Dec.8 and the conclusions reached at the Ministerial Meeting on Renewable Energy held in Montevideoin September 2006.204. 拉丁美洲和加勒比区域方案还将根据理事会IDB.32/Dec.8号决定和2006年9月在蒙得维的举行的可再生能源问题部长级会议达成的结论,继续开展成立拉丁美洲和加勒比区域可再生能源和合理利用能源观察站的工作。
205. Against this background, UNIDO will seek to tailor its technical cooperation projects and programmes to the specific needs of the various countries and subregions within the LAC region.205. 在这一背景下,工发组织将力求根据拉丁美洲和加勒比各个国家和分区域的具体需要,制定有针对性的技术合作项目和方案。
Particular emphasis will be given in this connection to strengthening the integration of the LAC countries at the subregional level, including Central America, the Andean subregion, Mercosur/Mercosul, and the Caribbean.在这方面,将尤其注重在分区域一级加强拉丁美洲国家的一体化,包括中美洲、安第斯分区域、南方共同市场和加勒比。
The objectives to be achieved through this integration will include compliance with the increasingly demanding rules and regulations in external markets, the adoption of standards and new marketing strategies, the modernization of technology, and the use of more productive practices that increase the added value and competitiveness of their manufactures.拟通过这种一体化而实现的目标包括:遵守外部市场日益严格的条例规则;采用标准和新的销售战略;实现技术现代化;以及采取生产率更高的做法,增加制造产品增加值和竞争力。
UNIDO has already launched preparatory measures to support such regional integration programmes, often in cooperation and coordination with the EC.工发组织已经采取了一些准备措施来支助这些区域一体化方案,并且经常是在与欧共体合作协调下进行的。
It is expected that these programmes will be fully operational during the MTPF period, especially in the Andean, Caribbeanand Central American subregions.预计这些方案将在中期方案纲要期间全面实施,尤其是在安第斯、加勒比和中美洲各分区域。
206. More specifically, UNIDO activities in Central Americawill focus on supporting the development of agro-based value chains to satisfy domestic needs and produce for export markets.206. 具体而言,工发组织在中美洲的活动将侧重于支持开发农产业价值链,以满足国内需求,并为出口市场生产产品。
By contrast, the Organization’s activities in the largely middle-income countries of the Andean region and the lower-income countries of the Southern Cone will concentrate on improving industrial competitiveness of their industries through the promotion of SME clusters, export consortia, the quality and compliance infrastructure, as well as through support for industrial policy formulation.相比之下,本组织在基本是中等收入国家的安第斯地区和收入较低的南锥体国家的活动将通过促进中小企业集群、出口联营集团、质量和合规基础设施,以及通过支持制定工业政策等,重点提高这些国家工业的竞争力。
In the larger economies of the Southern Cone and in Mexico, UNIDO projects will mainly target agro-based value chains in the poorer, largely rural, areas with a view to improving local living conditions.在南锥体较大的经济体内和墨西哥,工发组织项目将主要针对贫困地区(大多是农村地区)农产业价值链,改善当地生活条件。
For the island economies of the Caribbean, emphasis will be placed on adding value to existing agro-based production in an ecologically sustainable manner, and negotiations are currently underway with the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for the development of such a programme.对加勒比的岛屿经济体来说,将把重点放在以具有生态可持续性的方式增加现有以农业为基础的生产价值上,目前正在为制定这种方案与全球环境基金(环境基金)进行谈判。
207. In addition, LAC countries need to develop strategies to meet new challenges to regional integration, including compliance with more demanding market rules and regulations, adoption of standards, new marketing strategies, modernization of technology and the use of more productive practices that increase the added value and competitiveness of their manufactures.207. 此外,拉丁美洲和加勒比国家还必须制定战略,应对区域一体化的新挑战,包括遵守更加严格的市场条例规则,采用标准,制定新的销售战略,实现技术现代化,以及采取生产率更高的做法增加制造产品增加值和竞争力。
The economic models and manufacturing activities in LAC countries should therefore be adjusted to these new realities.因此应根据这些新情况调整拉丁美洲和加勒比国家的经济模式和生产活动。
208. The environmental stress faced by many countries of the Latin American and Caribbean region underlines the fact that poverty reduction and sustainable industrial development will only be achieved if environmental and social concerns are properly integrated into industrial strategies, policies and plans, with shared responsibilities at all levels of private and public institutions in the region.208. 拉丁美洲和加勒比区域许多国家面临的环境压力突出表明,只有将环境和社会方面令人关切的问题适当纳入工业战略、政策和计划,并在区域各级公私营机构共同承担责任的情况下,才能实现减贫和可持续工业发展。
UNIDO will therefore continue to offer its services in the areas of cleaner industrial production, renewable and affordable energy for productive use, and the more efficient utilization of energy as key elements for ensuring the sustainable exploitation of the region’s material resources for industrial production.因此,工发组织将继续在清洁工业生产、可再生和负担得起的生产用能源以及提高能源利用效率等领域提供服务,这些都是确保区域物质资源可持续地用于工业生产的关键因素。
D. Programme management frameworkD. 方案管理框架
209. In implementing its programmes and activities, UNIDO will continue to follow a demand-driven and results-oriented approach anchored on the principles of national ownership and leadership.209. 工发组织在实施方案和活动时,将继续采取以国家自主权和领导权原则为基础的需求驱动、注重实效的方法。
It will consult and cooperate on a continuing basis with national and local counterparts, donors, and United Nations and non-United Nations development partners to ensure that its programmes and activities lead to the desired policy and institutional outcomes.工发组织将不断与国家和地方对应机构、捐助方、联合国以及联合国以外的发展伙伴进行协商与合作,确保本组织的方案和活动能够产生预期的政策和机构效果。
In the context of advancing system-wide coherence, UNIDO will continue to work closely with United Nations Country Teams under the leadership of the Resident Coordinator to maximize the impact of its programmes and activities, and to help minimize transaction costs for governments.在推动全系统一致性的背景下,工发组织将继续在驻地协调员领导下与联合国国别工作组密切合作,尽可能扩大方案和活动影响,并协助尽量为政府降低交易成本。
UNIDO will further contribute to inter-agency coordination in the implementation, monitoring and reporting of its programmes and activities at the country level.工发组织将进一步促进在国家一级实施、监测和报告本组织方案和活动方面的机构间协调。
210. The programme management framework is designed to provide guidance for the management support required for realizing the programme of work as set out in this MTPF document.210. 方案管理框架旨在为实现本中期方案纲要文件中阐述的工作方案所需的管理支助提供指导。
D.1 Management objective and staff valuesD.1 管理目标和工作人员价值观
211. In order to ensure a smooth implementation process among the multiple interdependent programmatic activities, UNIDO not only requires an overall strategic direction and continuous results measurement and learning but also sound programme support services.211. 为确保相互依赖的多种方案活动顺利实施,工发组织不仅需要总的战略方向和持续的成果衡量和学习,还需要可靠的方案支助服务。
In line with this dual objective for the Organization’s programme management, UNIDO has formulated the following overarching management objective:根据本组织方案管理的这一双重目标,工发组织制定了下述总体管理目标:
UNIDO’s programmatic work, based on the programme results framework, is innovative, focused and coherent in its design, implementation and assessment, has adequate assistance from efficient and effective support services and follows the internationally recognized principles of aid effectiveness and international development cooperation.工发组织的方案编制工作以方案实效框架为基础,在设计、执行和评价上力求创新、重点突出、协调一致,能够从切实有效的支助服务中得到充分协助,同时秉承国际公认的援助实效和国际发展合作原则。
212. In view of this overarching management principle, UNIDO will promote the following values as the basis for staff work in all areas:212. 根据这一总体管理原则,工发组织将提倡以下列价值观作为各领域工作人员的工作基础:
Commitment: UNIDO staff members have a sense of dedication to UNIDO’s mandate and the internationally agreed development goals, and are committed to the Organization and the entire United Nations system.献身精神: 工发组织工作人员具有对工发组织任务和国际商定的发展目标无私奉献的精神,献身于本组织和整个联合国系统。
Excellence: UNIDO staff members are at the forefront of best practice in their respective functional area, maintain high standards of competence through continuous learning, are conscientious and efficient, and persistent in finding sustainable solutions.追求卓越: 工发组织工作人员站在各自职能领域最佳做法的最前沿,通过不断学习保持高业务水准,工作勤勉,讲求效率,探索可持续解决办法孜孜以求。
Team-orientation: UNIDO staff members foster teamwork and coaching within the Organization and encourage joint activities and learning with partner institutions.注重合作: 工发组织工作人员促进本组织内的协作、辅导氛围,鼓励与伙伴机构开展联合活动并相互学习。
Results-orientation: UNIDO staff members align their entrusted human and financial resources with the Organization’s strategic results and establish integrated systems for planning, managing, measuring and reporting on results.注重成效: 工发组织工作人员按本组织战略成果使用受托人力、财政资源,建立成果规划、管理、衡量和报告综合制度。
Innovativeness: UNIDO staff members encourage innovation, take advantage of newly arising opportunities and maximize efficiency at all levels.创新精神: 工发组织工作人员鼓励创新,利用新机遇,尽可能提高各级工作效率。
Accountability: UNIDO staff members foster a culture of personal accountability and responsibility for meeting the highest performance standards and for achieving set results.承担责任: 工发组织工作人员提倡为达到最高业绩标准和实现预期成果而承担个人责任的风气。
Integrity: UNIDO staff members place the good of the Organization above all else, defend the Organization’s interests, do not abuse power or authority, resist undue political pressure, and take prompt action against unethical behaviour.廉洁奉公: 工发组织工作人员视本组织利益高于一切,捍卫本组织利益,不滥用职权,抵制不当政治压力,对不道德行为立即采取行动。
Sustainability: UNIDO staff members promote the achievement of carbon-neutral and low-emission operations at all levels of the Organization.可持续性: 工发组织工作人员推动实现本组织各级活动无碳、低排放目标。
D.2 Human resource development and gender mainstreamingD.2 人力资源开发和性别观点纳入主流
213. Human resources and their effective management are key to organizational performance.213. 人力资源及其有效管理是组织业绩的关键。
Qualitative improvements in human resource management will continue to be made during the MTPF period, and will be enhanced in a number of areas, such as:将在中期方案纲要期间继续提高人力资源管理质量,并在一些领域予以加强,例如:
(a) Evidence-based performance management, employing RBM principles and reverse appraisal;(a) 采用注重实效管理原则和反向评价方法,实行循证业绩管理;
(b) Already existing learning programmes based on a learning policy that promotes skills upgrading and professional growth;(b) 现有学习方案以促进技能提升和职业发展的学习政策为基础;
(c) Continuous effective communication and dialogue between staff and management and constructive staff-management relations.(c) 工作人员与管理层之间不断开展有效沟通和对话,二者之间形成建设性关系。
214. UNIDO’s learning programmes are also aimed at providing staff with the knowledge required to carry out necessary programme support functions, such as procurement.214. 工发组织学习方案还着眼于为工作人员提供履行必要的方案支助职能如采购职能所需的知识。
Mandatory training with certification is already being implemented in this area, and will be developed further to reach all relevant outposted staff.这方面已经进行了必须参加的培训,通过后颁发证书,并将进一步发展这种培训,以便使所有外派工作人员都受到培训。
Emphasis will also continue to be placed on improving the technical and managerial competencies of staff by offering them a wide choice of training opportunities within and outside the Organization.还将继续强调为工作人员提供本组织内外的广泛培训机会,提高他们的技术和管理能力。
Partnerships will be pursued with local industries/research institutions to provide learning opportunities for staff.将与当地工业或研究机构建立伙伴关系,为工作人员提供学习机会。
215. With significant numbers of staff members scheduled to reach their mandatory retirement age during the MTPF period, effective succession planning measures are being put in place.215. 由于中期方案纲要期间将有大批工作人员达到法定退休年龄,因此正在制定有效的接班规划措施。
These go beyond the mere formulation of recruitment plans, and include a managed staff rotation scheme between Headquarters and field duty stations, as well as the continuation of the Young Professionals Programme, which also aims to support knowledge retention.这不仅包括制定征聘计划,还包括制定总部和外地工作地点之间工作人员有序轮换计划,以及继续实施青年专业人员方案,该方案的目的也着眼于协助保持知识。
Measures to facilitate career development, especially through opportunities for lateral movements, will also be implemented during the MTPF period.中期方案纲要期间还将采取促进职业发展的措施,尤其是通过提供横向调动机会。
The promotion system will be reviewed to make it relevant to the strategic orientation and the changing demography of the Organization.将审查晋升制度,使其与本组织的战略方向和人员构成变化相一致。
216. Transparency and accountability will be enhanced through the introduction of a UNIDO Code of Conduct, which will be based, inter alia, on the Code of Conduct promulgated by the International Civil Service Commission.216. 将通过实行《工发组织行为守则》加强透明度和问责制,该守则将特别以国际公务员制度委员会制定的《行为守则》为基础。
This will be complemented by the introduction of a financial disclosure programme.此外还将实施一项财产披露方案作为补充。
217. Communication with staff will continue to be emphasized.217. 将继续强调与工作人员的沟通。
Various initiatives already being implemented will be continued, and new ones will be introduced.目前已在实施的各种举措将继续实施,并将采取新举措。
These initiatives include periodic meetings between the Director-General and staff, quarterly meetings of the Staff Council with senior management, regular meetings of the Joint Advisory Committee (JAC) during which various staff issues are discussed, and the more recent “open door” initiative being implemented in a number of organizational units.这些举措包括总干事和工作人员之间的定期会议、工作人员代表大会与高级管理层之间每季度一次的会议、讨论各种人事问题的联合咨询委员会(联合咨委会)定期会议,以及最近在一些组织部门实施的“门户开放”举措等。
218. UNIDO recognizes that gender equality and the empowerment of women, and in particular the economic empowerment of women, have a significant positive impact on sustained economic growth and sustainable industrial development.218. 工发组织认识到两性平等和增强妇女能力尤其是经济能力对经济持续增长和可持续的工业发展具有重大积极影响。
To this end, UNIDO is committed to mainstreaming gender in all its organizational programmes, policies and practices, as a means of achieving the goals of gender equality and the empowerment of women.因此,工发组织致力于将性别观点纳入本组织所有组织方案、政策和做法的主流,以此作为实现两性平等和增强妇女能力等目标的方法。
In the programmatic sphere, this commitment involves a conscious effort to promote these goals in all of the Organization’s programmes and projects.在方案领域,这项工作意味着有意识地努力在本组织所有方案和项目中促进这些目标。
In the area of human resources management, this commitment extends to accelerated organizational action, through proactive policy and practice with the aim of attaining tangible results in gender balance, and thus benefiting from the diversity of experience.在人力资源管理领域,这项工作还包括通过积极主动的政策和做法加快采取组织行动,以便在性别均衡领域取得具体成果,从而能够受益于各种经验。
D.3 Resource mobilizationD.3 资源调动
219. In implementing the MTPF 2010-2013, UNIDO will seek to establish a balanced portfolio of activities covering all of its three thematic priorities.219. 在实施2010-2013年中期方案纲要期间,工发组织将力求建立一种平衡的活动组合,涵盖所有的三个主题重点。
This will require strong emphasis to be placed on the mobilization of adequate financial resources in support of the Organization’s programmatic activities.这要求大力重视调动充足的财政资源来支助本组织的方案活动。
220. The recent, and expected further, strengthening of UNIDO’s advocacy function and the continued promotion of partnerships with other developmental and financing organizations as well as entities of the private sector and of civil society will have important beneficial implications for these resource mobilization efforts.220. 工发组织的倡导职能最近得到加强并有望进一步加强,另外还将继续促进与其他发展和供资组织以及私营部门和民间社会实体之间的伙伴关系,所有这些都将对资源调动工作产生有利影响。
Based on the encouraging trends of the past, and assuming that the ramifications of the current financial crisis will be limited, it is anticipated that these resource mobilization efforts will be broadly successful.基于过去令人鼓舞的趋势,如果当前的金融危机影响有限的话,预计资源调动工作将取得广泛成功。
221. As reported in the Annual Report of UNIDO 2007, the level of financial resources mobilized for UNIDO’s technical cooperation activities had risen to $172 million in that year from some $120-$130 million per year in 2005-2006, already reaching the $170-200 million target set for 2011 in the MTPF 2008-2011.221. 如《工发组织2007年年度报告》所述,为工发组织技术合作活动调动的财政资源数额从2005-2006年期间每年约1.2-1.3亿美元增加到2007年的1.72亿美元,从而达到了2008-2011年中期方案纲要为2011年设定的1.7-2亿美元的目标。
With the expectation that donor preferences will continue to emphasize the three UNIDO thematic priorities it is anticipated that gradual growth will continue in the 2010-2013 period.预计捐助方将继续重点偏向于工发组织的三个主题重点,在这种情况下,预计资源数额将在2010-2013年期间继续逐渐增加。
It may be anticipated that by 2013 the annual volume of programme funding may reach $220 million.可以预计,到2013年,年度方案资金数额可能会达到2.2亿美元。
222. A disaggregation of the $172 million mobilized in 2007 reveals that the share of contributions from governmental donors across the priority themes continued to increase, while the share of resources received from multilateral funds related to international environmental agreements has decreased, even though the absolute amount has shown a small increase.222. 2007年调动的1.72亿美元的具体来源情况表明,政府捐助方对各主题的捐款份额继续上升,与国际环境协定有关的多边基金提供的资源份额则有所下降,尽管其绝对数额稍有增加。
This trend is expected to continue.这一趋势预计还会继续。
In addition, starting from 2008, funding from multi-donor trust funds (MDTF) is expected to increase and become a considerable channel for funding up to about $20 million per year.此外,自2008年起,预计多捐助方信托基金提供的资金将会增加,从而成为一个重要供资渠道,每年供资约达2,000万美元。
This will apply to a number of post-crisis countries, the eight “One-UN” pilot countries as well as other multi-donor trust funds.一些危机后国家、“联合国一体化”举措的八个试点国家以及其他多捐助方信托基金也是如此。
It is anticipated that these MDTFs will mainly finance activities under the theme “Poverty reduction through productive activities”, contributing to a better balanced funding distribution between the three thematic priorities.预计这些多捐助方信托基金将主要资助“通过生产活动减贫”主题下的活动,从而有助于在三个主题重点之间实现更为均衡的资金分配。
223. In the view of the Secretariat, the increasing funding is the result, in part, of the increased focus of the Organization in areas where it has, and is recognized as having, strong comparative advantages, and where it is responding to increasing demand and agreed global priorities.223. 秘书处认为,供资增加的部分原因在于本组织更加注重其拥有并且被公认拥有很强相对优势的领域,更加注重本组织正在应对日益增加的需求和商定的全球优先事项的领域。
UNIDO will continue to develop and promote the importance of these focus areas, and at the same time seek to increase further its close cooperation with complementary organizations so as to be able to deliver a more complete service to both its clients and its donors.工发组织将继续扩大和促进这些重点领域的重要作用,同时力求进一步加强与协作组织的密切合作,以便能够为客户和捐助方提供更全面的服务。
It is expected that this will result in a continuation of the strongly positive development of funding of UNIDO’s priority programmes.预计这将使得工发组织优先方案的供资继续取得非常积极的进展。
224. UNIDO’s efforts to mobilize the needed resources for the delivery of its services will be supported by the retention of its three priority themes and their associated programme components as the clear focus of its work.224. 继续以工发组织的三个主题重点及其有关方案组成部分作为工发组织工作的明确重点,将有利于工发组织为提供服务而调动所需的资源。
As the experience of the MTPF 2008-2011 has shown, this clear definition of the Organization’s priority themes and programmatic activities allows for a better promotion of the work of the Organization, and generates a better understanding both from the side of the developing Member States as well as the donors.2008-2011年中期方案纲要的经验表明,对本组织主题重点和方案活动的这种明确界定有助于更好地推动本组织的工作,并可加强发展中成员国和捐助国的理解。
It further enables increased efficiency through economies of scale as well as the better development of approaches and tools.此外,这种做法还可通过规模经济以及更好地制定各种办法和工具,进一步提高效率。
The clear link between the three priority themes and the development priorities of the global community as set by the Millennium Summit and subsequent international agreements reached in the context of financing for development, climate change and sustainable development, and Aid for Trade, facilitate the advocacy of UNIDO’s activities.三个主题重点同千年首脑会议以及后来就发展筹资、气候变化和可持续发展等问题达成的国际协定和“贸易援助”方案所确定的发展重点之间明确挂钩,有助于宣传工发组织活动。
With the establishment of a special public advocacy unit in 2008, UNIDO will be in a strengthened position to take advantage of these opportunities.2008年成立一个专门的公共宣传股后,工发组织将能更好地利用这些机会。
225. The continued clear focus of the Organization will enable it to sustain its policy of developing partnerships with organizations with a complementary mandate in each of its thematic priority areas.225. 本组织继续明确工作重点,将有助于继续推行在本组织的每个主题重点领域同发挥互补作用的组织建立伙伴关系的政策。
Many partnerships of this kind have already been established – with FAO, IFAD, ILO and UNDP in the context of the poverty reduction through productive activities theme, with WTO in the context of the trade capacity-building theme, and with UNEP in the context of the environment and energy theme.已经建立了许多这种伙伴关系,其中包括,在通过生产活动减贫主题下与粮农组织、农发基金、劳工组织和开发计划署建立伙伴关系,在贸易能力建设主题下与世贸组织建立伙伴关系,以及在环境与能源主题下与环境规划署建立伙伴关系。
These existing partnerships will be deepened in the 2010-2013 period, and new partnerships with other complementary agencies will be developed.2010-1013年期间将继续深化这些已经建立起来的伙伴关系,并与其他协作机构建立新伙伴关系。
These partnerships will increase the (joint) visibility of the organizations involved, highlight the contributions UNIDO can make to development, facilitate the mobilization of resources, and increase the impact of the joint activities.这些伙伴关系将提升有关组织的(共同)影响力,突显工发组织可为发展作出的贡献,促进调动资源,并扩大联合活动的影响。
226. As before, the trade capacity-building theme is expected to be the driver of further increases in resource mobilization.226. 同以往一样,预计贸易能力建设主题是调动更多资源的驱动力。
Specifically, the cooperation with the European Commission related to the capacity-building work under the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and the continued strong donor interest for activities under the “Aid for Trade” heading will continue to provide many opportunities for UNIDO to assist Member States in this critical area of development.具体来说,根据《经济伙伴协定》与欧盟委员会开展能力建设方面的合作,以及捐助方继续对“贸易援助”标题下的活动保持强烈兴趣,将使工发组织继续有很多机会在这一重要发展领域为成员国提供援助。
UNIDO’s energy-related activities constitute a second growth area, and are witnessing considerable increase in demand from developing countries as well as a very high degree of interest from the international donor community, partly in response to the recent sharp increases in energy prices.第二大增长领域是工发组织的能源相关活动,不仅发展中国家对这些活动的需求大量增加,而且国际捐助界也对这些活动表现出很大兴趣,部分原因是由于近来能源价格暴涨。
A third area of anticipated growth is the subject of persistent organic pollutants, although projects in this area require considerable co-funding resources from UNIDO to unlock the GEF funding available for these activities.预计将会出现增长的第三个领域是持久性有机污染物的问题,但该领域的项目需要工发组织作为共同出资方大量注资,否则环境基金不会为这些活动提供资金。
UNIDO is consulting with donors on the possibility of establishing a multi-donor trust fund for this purpose.工发组织正在就能否为此设立一个多捐助方信托基金与捐助方进行协商。
227. Where viable, UNIDO will continue to try to mobilize funding for its activities from other sources, including the private sector, although it must be recognized that in many cases such contributions may take the form of contributions in kind and cooperation rather than finance.227. 如果可行的话,工发组织将继续努力从其他来源包括私营部门调动活动资金,但必须承认,在许多情况下,这些捐助可能采取实物捐助和合作形式,而不是资金形式。
D.4 Role of field offices and staff mobilityD.4 外地办事处的作用和工作人员流动
228. UNIDO’s Member States have long called for the Organization to decentralize its structure by expanding its field presence.228. 长期以来工发组织成员国一直呼吁本组织通过扩大外地存在来分散其结构。
Significant steps were taken towards achieving this goal in 2006, when a new field mobility policy was introduced and a substantial number of staff were posted to field offices.2006年在实现这一目标方面取得了重大进展,实行了新的轮岗政策,大批工作人员派到外地办事处。
This was followed by new recruitments and related appointments directly to field offices.随后进行了新的征聘,并向外地办事处直接任命了有关人员。
As a result of these measures, all UNIDO Representative (UR) posts are expected to be filled by the end of 2008.在采取这些措施后,工发组织的所有代表职位预计将于2008年底填满。
229. Similarly, the technical competences of field offices have also been increased, with the result that all regional offices now host either international or national professional UNIDO staff, or both.229. 同样,外地办事处的技术能力也得到加强,目前所有区域办事处都拥有国际或当地征聘的工发组织专业人员,或者是这两种人员。
Additional recruitments in this category are still ongoing which will further strengthen the field offices and increase their operational capacity.这一职等还在征聘更多人员,以进一步加强外地办事处,提高业务能力。
Moreover, the number of UNIDO Desks established under the cooperation agreement with UNDP, has increased to 16.此外,根据与开发计划署的合作协定设立的工发组织服务台也增加到16个。
Taking these developments, as well as the network of UNIDO focal points, into account, UNIDO’s field presence now numbers 51 staff members of a Professional or higher category, which provides a well-balanced base for effective field representation.如果考虑到这些新的发展,以及工发组织联络点网络,工发组织的外地机构目前为51个国家和区域代表办事处、工发组织服务台和联络点,为建立有效的外地代表制提供了非常均衡的基础。
230. The presence of technical staff in the field offices is one of the main cornerstones in UNIDO’s strategy to bring about an increased involvement of the field offices in the identification, formulation, and implementation of technical cooperation programmes and projects.230. 向外地办事处派驻技术人员是工发组织加强外地办事处参与确定、制定和实施技术合作方案和项目战略的一个主要基石。
With the new programming and funding approaches arising from the “Delivery as One” initiative and that of the Spanish MDG-Fund, and in connection with the Common Country Assessment/United Nations Development Assistance Framework (CCA/UNDAF) preparation cycle in general, the on-site presence of UNIDO is increasingly essential to ensure the Organization’s full and meaningful participation in these processes.随着在“一体行动,履行使命”倡议和西班牙千年发展目标基金倡议下形成新的方案编制和供资方法,并考虑到共同国别评价/联合国发展援助框架的整个编写周期,工发组织外地机构对于确保本组织充分和有意义地参与这些进程愈发重要。
While it is not envisaged that UNIDO can and will be present in all countries, the Organization will adjust its operating procedures to ensure that it can participate fully in these field-level activities through its expanded and strengthened field network.虽然不能设想工发组织在所有国家都设立机构,但本组织将调整业务程序,确保能够通过扩大和加强外地网络,充分参与这些外地一级行动。
231. Against this background, it is anticipated that the period 2010-2013 covered by this MTPF will give rise to further calls to increase the role and delivery capacity of the field offices.231. 在这种背景下,预计在本中期方案纲要所涉2010-2013年期间将会产生更多关于加强外地办事处作用和服务能力的要求。
Primary focus will be placed on ensuring that existing resources can be utilized more efficiently, among others, through the ongoing exercise of business process re-engineering (BPR) initiated by the Director-General.首要重点是确保更有效地利用现有资源,方法包括目前正在实施的总干事提出的业务流程重新设计方案。
The process adjustments carried out under this programme will further streamline and strengthen the capacity of the field while also building the capacity of national staff employed in the field offices.这一方案下的流程调整将使外地能力进一步精简和增强,同时加强外地办事处雇用的当地工作人员的能力。
232. The first batch of staff assigned under the field mobility policy will be completing their tour of duty during the MTPF period.232. 在轮岗政策下派出的第一批工作人员将在中期方案纲要期间结束任期。
Efforts will be made to ensure an orderly rotation process through advance planning.将通过提前规划,努力确保有序轮换。
The Organization will also continue to ensure that staff members assigned to field duty stations are properly prepared through a comprehensive induction programme prior to their taking up their new appointments.本组织还将继续确保被派往外地工作地点的工作人员在接受新任命之前能够通过全面的情况介绍,做好适当准备。
D.5 Business process re-engineering (BPR)D.5 业务流程重新设计
233. Business process re-engineering (BPR) is a management approach aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes that exist throughout the Organization.233. 业务流程重新设计是一种旨在提高整个组织既有流程的效率和效能的管理方法。
The use of information technology (IT) is a major enabler in increasing organizational efficiency.使用信息技术是提高组织效率的一个主要能动因素。
234. The aim of the BPR is to simplify and streamline UNIDO’s business processes.234. 业务流程重新设计的目的是简化、精简工发组织的业务流程。
The BPR effort will diagnose bottlenecks and it is intended to identify key control points, strengthen them where necessary, and apply them effectively so as to ensure that a rigorous control framework is maintained.这项工作将查明瓶颈,确定和酌情加强关键控制点并加以有效利用,以确保继续保持强有力的控制框架。
The information flow between Headquarters and Field Offices is being improved with significant improvements in connectivity and accessibility.随着信息连通、获取实现重大改进,总部和外地办事处之间的信息流动正在改善。
235. In connection with the adoption of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) and with a view to recognizing the evolution of UNIDO’s business module over time, a business process re-engineering project has been launched in 2008.235. 配合采用《国际公共部门会计准则》,同时为了了解工发组织业务单元随着时间推移发生的变化,2008年启动了业务流程重新设计项目。
This multi-year undertaking will allow the Organization to map out its current business processes and redesign them in accordance with current managerial and operational requirements.这项多年期工作将使工发组织能够详细审查现有业务流程,并根据当前的管理和业务需要对其进行重新设计。
The new processes are expected to bring about not only increased efficiencies but also a better interface with the internal control framework and hence contribute to the stated management principles.预计新的流程不仅能够提高效率,还能加强与内部控制网络的协调,从而有助于贯彻既定管理原则。
236. These measures will simplify the use of the Agresso Enterprise Resource Planning system, the processing of consultants’ payments, budgeting of technical cooperation projects, project reporting mechanisms, and the monitoring of decentralized procurement.236. 这些措施将简化Agresso企业资源规划系统的使用、顾问报酬的处理,技术合作项目的预算编制、项目报告机制以及对分散采购的监测。
237. The implementation of BPR will not only increase staff morale and performance by removing bureaucratic impediments and red tape, but will strengthen accountability and also lead to significant cost and efficiency savings.237. 业务流程重新设计不仅能够通过消除官僚行政障碍和繁文缛节来提高士气和改善业绩,还将加强问责制,大量节省成本,提高效率。
UNIDO is committed to a successful implementation of BPR and will ensure a continuous business process improvement cycle.工发组织致力于成功实施这种方法,确保不断改进业务流程。
This will incorporate improvements in the use of information technology throughout the UNIDO.这将包括在整个工发组织内改进信息技术的使用。
D.6 ProcurementD.6 采购
238. Procurement procedures will be continuously modified and streamlined to reflect developments taking place in the international markets and in the United Nations system in order to ensure transparency, accountability and efficiency of the procurement process.238. 将不断修改、简化采购程序,以反映国际市场和联合国系统内的变化发展,确保采购过程的透明度、问责制和效率。
New advanced computerized procurement systems will be introduced, which in combination with extensive application of electronic procurement will significantly contribute to the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the procurement process.将采用新的计算机化先进采购系统,这种系统与电子采购的广泛应用相结合,将大大有助于提高采购过程的效率和成本效益。
This work will continue to deepen UNIDO’s cooperation with other United Nations organizations to achieve economies of scale and harmonize procurement processes.这项工作将继续深化工发组织与联合国其他组织的合作,以实现规模经济,统一采购过程。
These measures will result in a further enhancement of the procurement planning mechanisms with regard to quality and efficiency of the acquisitions, and to effectiveness and transparency of the procurement activities.这些措施将在采购质量和效率以及采购活动的效益和透明度方面进一步加强采购规划机制。
To support the enhancements in procurement activities a comprehensive procurement training programme will be implemented on a regular basis.作为对加强采购活动的支持,将定期开展全面的采购培训方案。
E. Action required of the BoardE. 需请理事会采取的行动
239. The Board may wish to take note of the information provided in the present document.239. 理事会似宜注意本文件提供的信息。
List of abbreviations and acronyms简称和首字母缩合词表 英文简称 中文简称 中文全称
ACP African, Caribbeanand Pacific countries, signatories to the Lomé ConventionACP 非洲、加勒比和太平洋国家,《洛美协定》签署国
ASEAN Association of South East Asian NationsASEAN 东盟 东南亚国家联盟
BDS business development servicesBDS 商业发展服务
BPR business process re-engineeringBPR 业务流程重新设计
CDM clean development mechanismCDM 清洁发展机制
CEB United Nations System Chief Executives Board for CoordinationCEB 行政首长协调会 联合国系统行政首长协调理事会
CEEAC Communauté Economique des Etats d’Afrique centraleCEEAC
CEMAC Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique CentraleCEMAC
CFC Common Fund for CommoditiesCFC 商品共同基金
CO2 carbon dioxideCO2
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern AfricaCOMESA 东南非共同市场 东部和南部非洲共同市场
CSR corporate social responsibilityCSR 公司社会责任
EC European CommunityEC 欧共体 欧洲共同体
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African StatesECOWAS 西非经共体 西非国家经济共同体
EDIP Enterprise Development and Investment PromotionEDIP 企业发展和投资促进
EIF Enhanced Integrated FrameworkEIF 强化型综合框架
EPA Economic Partnership AgreementEPA 经济伙伴协定
EU European UnionEU 欧盟 欧洲联盟
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsFAO 粮农组织 联合国粮食及农业组织
FDI foreign direct investmentFDI 外国直接投资
FTAA Free Trade Area of the AmericasFTAA 美洲自由贸易区
GCC Gulf Cooperation CouncilGCC 海湾合作委员会
GDP gross domestic productGDP 国内生产总值
GEF Global Environment FacilityGEF 环境基金 全球环境基金
GRULAC Group of Latin American and CaribbeanCountriesGRULAC 拉加组
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbonHCFC
HFC hydrofluorocarbonHFC
JI joint implementationJI 联合履约
ICT information and communications technologyICT 信息通信技术
IEA International Energy AgencyIEA 能源机构 国际能源机构
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural DevelopmentIFAD 农发基金 国际农业发展基金
IFI International Finance InstitutionsIFI 国际金融机构
IGP Index of Global PhilanthropyIGP 全球慈善指数
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIPCC 气候变化小组
IPR intellectual property rightsIPR 知识产权
IPU Investment Promotion UnitIPU 投资促进股
ISO International Organization for StandardizationISO 标准化组织 国际标准化组织
ITC International Trade CentreITC 贸易中心 国际贸易中心
ITPO Investment and Technology Promotion OfficeITPO 投资和技术促进办公室
JAC Joint Advisory CommitteeJAC 联合咨委会 联合咨询委员会
LAC Latin America and the Caribbean拉丁美洲和加勒比
LDC least developed countryLDC 最不发达国家
M&E monitoring and evaluationM&E 监测与评价
MDG Millennium Development GoalMDG 千年发展目标
MDTF Multi-donor trust fundMDTF 多捐助方信托基金
Mercosul Mercado Comum do Sul (Portuguese)Mercosul 南方共同市场(葡萄牙语)
Mercosur Mercado Común del Sur (Spanish)Mercosur 南方共同市场(西班牙语)
MIC Middle-income countryMIC 中等收入国家
MTPF medium-term programme frameworkMTPF
MVA manufacturing value addedMVA 制造业增加值
N2O nitrous oxideN2O
NIS Newly Independent StatesNIS 新近独立国家
ODA official development assistanceODA 官方发展援助
ODS ozone depleting substanceODS 消耗臭氧物质
OECD-DAC Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentOECD-DAC 经合组织发援委 经济合作与发展组织发展援助委员会
PFCs perfluorocarbonsPFCs
POPs persistent organic pollutants持久性有机污染物
PPP public-private partnershipsPPP 公私伙伴关系
PRS poverty reduction strategyPRS 减贫战略
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy PapersPRSP 减贫战略文件
QSP Quick Start Programme of SAICMQSP 国际化学品管理战略方针快速启动方案
RBM results-based managementRBM 注重实效的管理
RPLAC Regional Programme for Latin America and the CaribbeanRPLAC 拉丁美洲和加勒比区域方案
SADC Southern African Development CommunitySADC 南部非洲共同体 南部非洲发展共同体
SAICM Strategic Approach to International Chemicals ManagementSAICM 国际化学品管理战略方针
SF6 sulphur hexafluorideSF6
SME small and medium enterpriseSME 中小企业
SMTQ standards, metrology, testing and qualitySMTQ 标准、计量、测试和质量
SPS sanitary and phyto-sanitary measuresSPS 卫生和植物检疫标准
SPX subcontracting exchangeSPX 分包交流所
TBT technical barriers to tradeTBT 技术性贸易壁垒
TCPR Triennial Comprehensive Policy ReviewTCPR 三年期全面政策审查
TNC transnational corporationTNC 跨国公司
TRIPS WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights世贸组织与贸易有关的知识产权协定
UN United NationsUN 联合国
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUNCTAD 贸发会议 联合国贸易和发展会议
UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance FrameworkUNDAF 发展援助框架
UNDG United Nations Development GroupUNDG 发展集团
UNDP United Nations Development Programme联合国发展集团 UNDP
UNEP United Nations Environment ProgrammeUNEP 环境规划署
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationUNIDO 工发组织 联合国工业发展组织
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeUNODC 毒品和犯罪问题办公室
USSICC UNIDO South-South Industrial Cooperation CentreUSSICC 工发组织南南工业合作中心
WTO World Trade OrganizationWTO 世贸组织
1 The Paris Declaration, endorsed in March 2005, is an international agreement to which more than 100 countries committed to continue to increase efforts in harmonization and managing aid.1 《巴黎宣言》于2005年3月获得核可,是由100多个国家承诺继续加强援助协调与管理工作的一份国际协议。