TENTH SURVEY ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SAFEGUARDS GUARANTEEING PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THOSE F
Correct misalignment Change languages order
TENTH SURVEY ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SAFEGUARDS GUARANTEEING PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THOSE FACING THE DEATH PENALTY, COVERING THE PERIOD 2014-2018 revised draft Questionnaire Eng CP.draft.6.6.19_for translation_fn fixed.docx (English)TENTH SURVEY ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SAFEGUARDS GUARANTEEING PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THOSE FACING THE DEATH PENALTY, COVERING THE PERIOD 2014-2018 V1904960.docx (Chinese)
Tenth survey on capital punishment and on the implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, covering the period 2014-2018第十次关于死刑和保护死刑犯权利保障措施执行情况的调查,涵盖2014-2018年时期
The questionnaire should be completed and returned, in electronic and/or paper form, by 30 September 2019, to the address below.本调查表应以电子和(或)书面形式于2019年9月30日前填妥并按如下地址寄回。
Electronic versions of the questionnaire and background documents are available at http://www.unodc.org.调查表和背景文件的电子版可查阅http://www.unodc.org。
For further information or assistance concerning the completion of the questionnaire, please contact:与填写调查表有关的更多信息或协助,请联系:
Justice SectionJustice Section
United Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
P.O. Box 500P.O. Box 500
A-1400 ViennaA-1400 Vienna
AustriaAustria
Electronic mail: justice@unodc.org电子邮件:justice@unodc.org
Telephone: +(43) (1) 26060-4354 or 4569电话:+(43) (1) 26060-4354或4569
Telefax: +(43) (1) 26060-7-4354传真:+(43) (1) 26060-7-4354
Country:国家:
Name and contact details of the official responsible for completing the questionnaire:负责填写调查表的官员姓名和详细联系方式:
Name:姓名:
Title and position:头衔和职务:
Agency/office:机构/办公室:
Mailing address:邮政地址:
Telephone:电话:
Electronic-mail address:电子邮件地址:
Page of 30Page of 30
Introduction导言
In its resolution 1745 (LIV) of 16 May 1973, the Economic and Social Council invited the Secretary-General to submit periodic updated and analytical reports at five-year intervals, starting from 1975, on the situation of capital punishment worldwide. Pursuant to Council resolution 1989/64 of 24 May 1989, those surveys have also contained information on the implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty (Council resolutions 1984/50, annex, and 1996/15).经济及社会理事会在1973年5月16日第1745 (LIV)号决议中,请秘书长自1975年开始每隔五年就全世界的死刑情况定期提交最新的分析报告。 依照经社理事会1989年5月24日第1989/64号决议,这些调查还载有关于保护死刑犯权利的保障措施执行情况的信息(经社理事会第1984/50号决议,附件和第1996/15号决议)。 经社理事会在1990年7月24日第1990/51号决议中,请秘书长在编写报告时,参照所有可用数据,包括最新的犯罪学研究,并请各专门机构、政府间组织和在经社理事会具有咨商地位的非政府组织就此问题发表意见。
In its resolution 1990/51 of 24 July 1990, the Council requested the Secretary-General, in preparing his reports, to draw on all available data, including current criminological research, and to invite the comments of specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Council on the question. This is the tenth five-year survey of global practice with respect to capital punishment. The information generated by the survey will provide the United Nations and its Member States with a tool to understand current global law and practice on the subject. Taken as a whole, the ten surveys provide the means to examine the evolution of capital punishment within the broader field of criminal justice. In completing the current survey, which covers the period 2014-2018, Member States are requested to inform the Secretary-General of their current status with regard to capital punishment, possible plans for abolition and restriction or extension of the use of capital punishment and the implementation of the safeguards and other well-accepted international standards, notably those set out in General Comment 36 of the Human Rights Committee, adopted in October 2018.
As in the past, the Secretariat will also draw on other available sources of information to complete the information provided by Member States.这是关于死刑方面全球实践的第十次五年期调查。 调查收集到的信息将有助于联合国及其会员国了解关于这一主题的现行全球法律和实践。 总体而言,这十次调查可供在更广泛的刑事司法领域内审查死刑演变情况。
In accordance with Economic and Social Council resolutions 1745 (LIV) and 1990/51 of 24 July 1990, 1995/57 of 28 July 1995 and 1996/15 of 23 July 1996, the report on the present survey will be submitted to the Council at its substantive session in July 2020 and to the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its twenty-ninth session in May 2020. Attached herewith is a copy of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and the recommendations related to their implementation.本次调查涵盖2014-2018年时期,请各会员国通过填写调查表向秘书长通报本国关于死刑的现状、废除死刑和限制或延续使用死刑的可能计划,以及保障措施和其他公认国际标准的执行情况,特别是人权事务委员会2018年10月通过的第36号一般性意见所载标准的执行情况。 秘书处也将按照以往做法参考其他可用信息来源补全各会员国提供的信息。 根据经济及社会理事会第1745 (LIV)号决议以及1990年7月24日第1990/51号、1995年7月28日第1995/57号和1996年7月23日第1996/15号决议,本次调查的报告将提交经社理事会2020年7月的实务会议以及预防犯罪和刑事司法委员会2020年5月的第二十九届会议。
This survey covers the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018.随此附上一份关于保护死刑犯权利的保障措施以及与执行这些措施有关的建议。
The questionnaire consists of three sections:本调查涵盖的时期为2014年1月1日至2018年12月31日。
Section 1 is to be completed by States that completely abolished capital punishment for all crimes under all circumstances before 31 December 2018.本调查表分为三部分: 第一部分由已在2018年12月31日前对所有情形下的一切犯罪完全废除了死刑的国家填写。
If your State abolished capital punishment during the survey period, that is, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2018, you should also complete the relevant questions in sections 2 and 3.如贵国在调查期内,即2014年1月1日至2018年12月31日期间废除了死刑,则也应填写第二部分和第三部分的相关问题。
Section 2 is to be completed by all States that retained capital punishment in their criminal law during the survey period.第二部分由在调查期内在本国刑法中保留死刑的所有国家填写。
Section 3, which is concerned with the safeguards guaranteeing the rights of those facing the death penalty, should be completed by any State that had not abolished the death penalty completely by the end of the survey period, 31 December 2018.第三部分涉及保证死刑犯权利的保障措施,应由截至2018年12月31日调查期终止时尚未完全废除死刑的所有国家填写。
Please use additional sheets of paper if the space on the questionnaire is insufficient for a full answer.如完整作答时调查表预留的空白处不够,请添加附页。
Section 1.第一部分.
States that completely abolished capital punishment by 31 December 2018已在2018年12月31日前完全废除死刑的国家
This section is to be completed by States that had completely abolished capital punishment for all crimes in all circumstances, both in peacetime and wartime, by 31 December 2018.本部分由已在2018年12月31日前对和平时期和战争时期所有情形下的一切犯罪完全废除了死刑的国家填写。
If capital punishment could still be imposed in your State on 31 December 2018, please proceed to Sections 2 and 3.如贵国在2018年12月31日仍在实行死刑,请跳转至第二部分和第三部分填写。
1.1.
When was capital punishment abolished in your country for all crimes?贵国何时对一切犯罪废除了死刑?
Date:日期:
2.2.
If your State is not a party to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex), are there any official initiatives to become a party to it?如贵国尚未加入《公民权利和政治权利国际公约第二任择议定书》(大会第2200 A (XXI)号决议,附件),那么是否采取了任何官方举措以加入该议定书?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
3.3.
Has your country undertaken any initiatives to promote, at the bilateral or multilateral level, the abolition of capital punishment or to reduce its scope and incidence of application?贵国是否采取了任何举措在双边或多边一级促进废除死刑或缩减其适用范围和次数?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
4.4.
Were there any attempts to reintroduce capital punishment in your country through changes in legislation during the survey period?贵国在调查期内是否试图通过更改法规重新实行死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, what was the outcome?如果选答是的话,那么结果如何?
5.5.
If capital punishment was abolished during the survey period,如果贵国在调查期内废除了死刑,那么
(a)(a)
With what penalty was it replaced?替代实行的惩处是?
b.b.
Is the penalty mandatory or discretionary?该项惩处是强制性的还是酌情实行的?
(c)(c)
If there are provisions for early release, please provide details?如有关于提前释放的规定,请予详述:
5.5.
If your country permits extradition to a State where capital punishment may be imposed, does it make this conditional upon an assurance that the person concerned will not be sentenced to death or executed?如果贵国允许把相关人员引渡到可执行死刑的国家,则是否以保证此人不会被判处死刑或执行死刑作为引渡条件?
Yes
No
If no, what is your policy with regard to extradition where the individual in question may be subject to capital punishment in the receiving State?如果选答否的话,那么针对引渡后相关个人在接收国可能被处以死刑的情况,贵国有何政策?
If your State abolished capital punishment during the survey period, that is, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2018, you should also complete the relevant questions in sections 2 and 3.如贵国在调查期内,即2014年1月1日至2018年12月31日期间废除了死刑,还请填写第二部分和第三部分的相关问题。
If your State was completely abolitionist throughout the survey period, you need not answer any more questions.如果贵国在整个调查期内完全废除了死刑,则无需继续作答。
Thank you for your assistance.感谢您的协助。
Section 2.第二部分.
States that retained capital punishment as of 1 January 2014截至2014年1月1日仍保留死刑的国家
This section is to be completed if in your State capital punishment could have been imposed at the beginning of the survey period (1 January 2014), even if your State abolished it during that period.如贵国在调查期开始时(2014年1月1日)仍在实行死刑,那么即使贵国在调查期内废除了死刑,也请填写本部分。
1.1.
Crimes subject to capital punishment.予以判处死刑的犯罪。
Please indicate the crimes for which capital punishment could be imposed as of the beginning of the survey period (1 January 2014).请说明截至调查期开始时(2014年1月1日)可判处死刑的犯罪。
Please specify the name of the specific offence and indicate whether or not the penalty of death is mandatory.请详述具体罪名,并说明死刑是否是强制执行的。
Specific offence具体犯罪
Mandatory?强制执行?
2.2.
Changes in law and practice.法律和实践方面的变化。
Please state whether there were any changes to legislation or to practice concerning capital punishment during the survey period, that is, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2018.请说明在调查期内,即2014年1月1日至2018年12月31日,有关死刑的法规或实践是否发生了任何变化。
If the death penalty was removed for certain offences, indicate the punishment that replaced it.如对某些犯罪取消了死刑,请就替代惩处提供说明。
Specific offence具体犯罪
Punishment with which death penalty was replaced.替代死刑的惩处
Indicate whether this is mandatory.请说明替代惩处是否是强制性的
What were the main reasons for these changes?做出这些改变的主要原因是什么?
Please specify and rank the importance of the reasons, if possible.如果可能,请具体说明,并按照原因的重要性排序。
By what means were these changes made?这些变化是通过什么方式实现的?
(a)(a)
By legislative enactment立法
(b)(b)
By a new constitution一项新宪法
(c)(c)
By constitutional amendment宪法修正案
(d)(d)
By presidential or royal decree总统或皇家法令
(e)(e)
By a decision of the courts法院的裁定
Please provide details:请详述:
3.3.
Does legislation in your country provide for any limitations or restrictions on applying the sentence of death that are related to the age of the offender?贵国法律是否规定了与犯罪者年龄相关的对适用死刑的任何限制或约束?
Yes
No
If yes, please provide details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
4.4.
Were there any official initiatives to abolish capital punishment for any of the offences listed above?是否有任何官方举措以废除对上文所列任一犯罪的死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
5.5.
Does your State collect disaggregated statistical information about persons sentenced to death and executed, as well as about persons whose sentence has been reversed, commuted or pardoned, indicating such elements as type of offence, sex, age (at time of offence / at time of execution), economic status, nationality, ethnicity, religion, membership in a minority, and year of imposition of sentence?贵国是否收集关于被判处死刑和被执行死刑的人员以及死刑判决被撤销、获得减刑或赦免的人员的分类统计信息,其中标明犯罪类型、性别、年龄(犯罪时年龄/执行死刑时年龄)、经济状况、国籍、族裔、宗教、少数群体成员和判刑年份等要素?
Yes
No
If yes, please provide details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
6.6.
What is the average length of time between imposition of a death sentence and execution?宣判死刑至执行死刑平均间隔多少时间?
7.7.
What is the longest period of time since sentence of death was imposed of a person who has not yet been executed?被判处死刑者等待执行时间最长多久?
8.8.
Are prisoners under sentence of death segregated from the rest of the prison population?死刑囚犯是否与其他囚犯分开关押?
If yes, please provide details on the regime that applies to them (i.e. visits, exercise, etc.).如果是的话,则请详述对死刑囚犯适用的制度(例如,探视、放风等)。
9.9.
If no persons were executed during the survey period, when was the last execution?如果在调查期内没有任何人被执行死刑,那么最近一次执行死刑是在何时?
10.10.
If the last execution took place before 2014, is there a de-facto moratorium on executions?如果最近一次执行死刑发生在2014年之前,那么贵国是否已事实上暂停执行死刑?
Yes
No (i.e. executions may still take place)否(即可能仍继续执行死刑)
If yes, since when has the policy existed?如果选答是的话,那么该政策自何时起开始实行?
11.11.
Has there been an official moratorium on executions?是否已正式暂停执行死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, when was it established and in what way?如果选答是的话,那么该政策何时以何种方式制定?
If no, why have no executions taken place for such a long period of time?如果选答否的话,那么这么长时间没有执行死刑的原因是什么?
12.12.
If applicable, what are the main reasons why capital punishment has not been abolished for ordinary crimes in your country?如予适用,贵国对普通犯罪没有废除死刑的主要原因是什么?
13.13.
Are there any sectors of civil society that are engaged in a discussion of:是否有任何民间社会阶层参与讨论以下内容:
(a)(a)
Restriction of the scope of capital punishment?限制死刑适用范围?
(b)(b)
Restriction of the number of executions carried out?限制被执行死刑的人数?[ ]
(c)(c)
Total abolition of capital punishment?完全废除死刑?[ ]
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
No discussion of the issue未讨论相关问题
14.14.
When your State requests extradition of a person charged with a capital offence in your country, is it possible to provide assurances to the requested State that capital punishment will not be carried out if so requested?当贵国请求引渡在贵国被指控犯有可判死刑罪的人员时,是否可以向被请求国作出如下保证:如果收到请求对此人免予死刑处罚,则不对其处以死刑?
Yes
No
15.15.
Have there been any such extradition cases during the survey period?在调查期内是否有任何此类引渡案件?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答有的话,则请详述:
16.16.
Has any research on the subject of capital punishment recently been carried out in your country?贵国最近是否就死刑问题进行了任何研究?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
If no, is any government action being taken to promote research in this field?如果选答否的话,那么贵国政府是否正在采取行动以促进该领域的研究?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
If your State completely abolished capital punishment during the survey period, you need not answer any more questions.如贵国在调查期内完全废除了死刑,则无需继续作答。
Thank you for your assistance.感谢您的协助。
If your State had not completely abolished capital punishment at the end of the survey period, you should complete section 3.如贵国在调查期结束时尚未完全废除死刑,则请填写第三部分。
Section 3.第三部分.
Safeguards guaranteeing the protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty保护死刑犯权利的保障措施
The safeguards guaranteeing the protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty were adopted by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1984/50 and implemented by it in its resolutions 1989/64 and 1996/15.经济及社会理事会第1984/50号决议通过了保护死刑犯权利的保障措施,并通过其第1989/64号和第1996/15号决议予以执行。
This section should only be completed if in your State capital punishment had not been abolished completely before the end of the survey period, 31 December 2018.本部分仅由在2018年12月31日调查期结束前尚未完全废除死刑的国家填写。
1.1.
Does the law in your country prohibit capital punishment being imposed for offences for which it was not provided by law at the time of the offence?贵国法律是否禁止对犯罪时法律未作死刑规定的罪行适用死刑?
Yes
No
2.2.
Have any such retroactive sentences been imposed and/or carried out in the period 2014-2018?2014-2018年期间是否判处和(或)执行过任何此类追溯性判决?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
3.3.
Does the law provide that a lighter sentence may be substituted for capital punishment if legislation abolishing capital punishment, or making capital punishment discretionary rather than mandatory, is passed after the person has been sentenced to death?法律是否有以下规定:在有人被判处死刑后,如果通过了废除死刑或规定死刑不再是强制性惩处而是酌情予以判处的法规,则应以一项较轻的判刑取代死刑?
Yes
No
4.4.
Does the law provide that a person may not be sentenced to death for an offence committed when that person was under the age of 18?法律是否规定不得对犯罪时不满18岁者判处死刑?
Yes
No
5.5.
Does the law stipulate a maximum age beyond which:法律是否规定了最大年龄限制,如果超过了该年龄,则:
(a)(a)
A person may not be sentenced to death不得对此人判处死刑
Yes
No
If yes, what is the age?如果选答是的话,则最大年龄是多少岁?
(b)(b)
A person may not be executed不得对此人执行死刑
Yes
No
If yes, what is the age?如果选答是的话,则最大年龄是多少岁?
6.6.
Does the law provide that pregnant women may not be executed?法律是否规定不得对孕妇执行死刑?
Yes
No
7.7.
Does the law provide that mothers of young children may not be executed?法律是否规定不得对子女年幼的母亲执行死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, is an age set defining the notion of young children?如果选答是的话,那么符合年幼条件的子女年龄范围是?
9.9.
Does the law provide that a person with mental disorders at the time of the offence may not be sentenced to death?法律是否规定不得对犯罪时患有精神障碍者判处死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, how are mental disorders defined and determined?如果选答是的话,那么如何界定和确诊精神障碍?
10.10.
Does the law provide that a person with mental disorders may not be executed?法律是否规定不得对患有精神障碍者执行死刑?
Yes
No
If no, is it the practice to postpone execution until mental disorders are no longer present?如果选答否的话,那么是否采取推迟执行死刑直至其精神障碍治愈这一做法?
Yes是[ ]
No否[ ]
11.11.
Were any death sentences overturned or commuted during the survey period because of doubts about the safeness of the conviction (i.e. in the belief that the person convicted was in fact possibly or probably innocent)?在调查期内,是否有死刑判决因对定罪的可靠性存在疑虑(即认为被定罪者事实上或许或可能是无辜的)而被推翻或减刑?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
12.12.
Does an offender charged with a capital offence have the right in all circumstances laid down in substantive law, in the law of criminal procedure or guaranteed by the Constitution:被指控犯有可判死刑罪的罪犯是否在所有情形下享有实体法或刑事诉讼法规定的或《宪法》保障的权利,从而可以:
(a)(a)
To a public hearing接受公开的听审
Yes
No
If no, in what circumstances would there not be a public hearing?如果选答否的话,那么在什么情形下不进行公开听审?
(b)(b)
To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law?在依法判定有罪之前应被假定为无罪?
Yes
No
(c)(c)
To counsel of his or her own choosing, at public expense if he or she does not have the resources to pay for it, at all stages of the proceedings, from the moment that he or she is arrested?自被逮捕之时起在诉讼程序的所有阶段,如无支付能力,可以使用公费雇请自己选择的律师?
Yes
No
If no, what provision, if any, is made for counsel funded at public expense?如果选答否的话,那么在公费雇请律师方面有何规定?
Please indicate the stages of the proceedings, if any, where counsel funded at public expense is provided.请说明在诉讼程序哪些阶段可提供由公费雇请的律师。
(d)(d)
To the free assistance of an interpreter from the moment that he or she is arrested, if he or she does not understand or speak the language used by the police or in court?自被逮捕之时起,如果听不懂或不会说警方或法庭所用语言,可免费获得口译员的协助?
Yes
No
If no, what are the procedures in your country in such cases?如果选答否的话,那么在这类情况下贵国有什么样的程序?
13.13.
Are all foreign nationals informed of their right to seek the assistance of their consular authorities, at the time of their arrest and/or committal to prison or custody awaiting trial?所有外国国民在被逮捕时和(或)被送入监狱或羁押待审时,是否均被告知其有权寻求本国领事机关的协助?
Yes
No
If no, what is the procedure to ensure that this obligation under article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations is met?如果选答否的话,那么有什么样的程序确保《维也纳领事关系公约》第三十六条规定的义务得到履行?
14.14.
What procedures are in place to ensure a fair trial for persons facing capital punishment if convicted?有何程序确保如被定罪即判死刑的人可以得到公正审判?
15.15.
Are there specific safeguards for defendants facing a charge for which capital punishment might be imposed over and above the general safeguards available to all defendants?除了所有被告均可享有的一般保障措施外,是否对被指控犯有可能判处死刑罪的被告提供特别保障措施?
Yes
No
If yes, what are these safeguards?如果选答是的话,那么这些保障措施是什么?
16.16.
Is there a right to appeal to a court of higher jurisdiction in all cases?是否在所有案件中被判刑人员均有权向上级法院提出上诉?
Yes
No
If no:如果选答否的话,那么:
(a)(a)
What are the current procedures in your country?贵国目前的程序是什么?
(b)(b)
Are there any plans to introduce in domestic legislation a right of appeal in all cases?是否有任何计划在国内法规中规定在所有案件中均有权提起上诉?
Yes
No
17.17.
How much time is allowed to launch an appeal for a person who has been sentenced to capital punishment?被判处死刑的人员被允许在多长时间内提出上诉?
18.18.
Are all death sentences automatically reviewed by a court of appeal?上诉法院是否自动复核所有死刑判决?
Yes
No
If no:如果选答否的话,那么:
(a)(a)
What are the procedures for review of death sentences in your country?贵国通过何种程序复核死刑判决?
(b)(b)
Are there any plans to make such a review automatic?是否有任何计划推行自动复核死刑判决?
Yes
No
19.19.
Is there a right for a person sentenced to death to seek commutation of the sentence or a pardon from the State authorities (e.g. the President, the sovereign or a pardons board)?被判处死刑的人员是否有权向国家机关(例如总统、君主或赦免委员会)寻求减刑或赦免?
Yes
No
If no:如果选答否的话,那么:
(a)(a)
What are the procedures in your country?贵国执行何种程序?
(b)(b)
Are there any plans to make such a possibility of seeking commutation or pardon automatic?有没有计划让这种寻求减刑或赦免的可能行为成为自动程序?
Yes
No
20.20.
How much time is allowed for a person who has been sentenced to death and exhausted all avenues of appeal in the courts to prepare a petition for commutation or pardon?被判处死刑并已用尽所有法院上诉渠道的人员被允许有多长时间准备其减刑或赦免申请?
21.21.
Is execution invariably suspended until all domestic avenues of appeal through the courts and proceedings relating to commutation or pardon have been exhausted and the outcome has been communicated to the defendant or his or her legal advisers?是否总是暂不执行死刑,直至通过法院提出上诉的国内所有渠道和减刑或赦免相关程序均用尽,而且结果也已通知被告或其法律顾问之后?
Yes
No
22.22.
What methods of execution are provided for by law?法律规定的死刑执行方式有哪些?
Where more than one method is provided:如果法律规定了多种执行方式:
(a)(a)
For what types of offence/offender is each provided?每种方式分别针对哪些类型的犯罪/罪犯?
(b)(b)
Is the defendant given a choice of method of execution?被告是否可以选择执行方式?
Yes
No
23.23.
Are any procedures employed to minimize the suffering of the person to be executed?是否采取了任何程序确保以最大限度减轻痛苦的方式执行死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, what are these procedures?如果选答是的话,那么采取了何种程序?
24.24.
Does the law permit executions to take place in public?法律是否允许公开执行死刑?
Yes
No
If yes:如果选答是的话,那么
(a)(a)
Does this apply to all offences/offenders?是否对所有犯罪/罪犯一律适用?
Yes
No
If it applies only to certain offences/offenders, please specify:如果仅适用于某些犯罪/罪犯,则请具体说明:
(b)(b)
Have any persons been executed in public during the survey period?在调查期内是否有人被公开执行死刑?
Yes
No
If yes, how many?如果选答是的话,则请提供具体人数
25.25.
How are the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (“the Nelson Mandela Rules”) applied in your country in order to keep to a minimum the suffering of prisoners under sentence of death?贵国如何适用《联合国囚犯待遇最低限度标准规则(纳尔逊·曼德拉规则)》从而使被判死刑但尚未执刑的囚犯尽量少受痛苦?
26.26.
Are any procedures in place to ensure that persons responsible for carrying out executions are fully informed until the moment of execution of the status of appeals for clemency for the prisoner in question?是否有任何程序确保负责执行死刑的人员在执刑之前被充分告知所涉犯人请求从宽处理的上诉的状态?
Yes
No
If no, what are procedures in your country?如果选答否的话,那么贵国执行何种程序?
27.27.
Are any procedures in place to ensure that family members are informed of the date and time of execution?是否设有确保通知家属死刑执行日期和时间的程序?
Yes
No
If yes, please provide details.如果选答是的话,则请详述:
28.28.
Are there any provisions of assistance and support that are implemented and/or provided by authorities of your country to children of parents sentenced to death or executed, with a particular focus on the ways and means to ensure the full enjoyment of their rights?是否订有相关规定,要求贵国当局对被判处或被执行死刑者的子女实施和(或)提供协助和支持,特别注重通过采取相关方式和方法来确保这些子女充分享有各项权利?
Yes
No
If yes, please give details:如果选答是的话,则请详述:
Thank you for your assistance.感谢您的协助。
Annex I: Safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty附件一:关于保护死刑犯权利的保障措施
Approved by Economic and Social Council resolution 1984/50 of 25 May 1984经济及社会理事会1984年5月25日第1984/50号决议核准
1.1.
In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, capital punishment may be imposed only for the most serious crimes, it being understood that their scope should not go beyond intentional crimes with lethal or other extremely grave consequences.在没有废除死刑的国家,只有最严重的罪行可判处死刑,应理解为死刑的范围只限于对蓄意而结果为害命或其他极端严重后果的罪行。
2.2.
Capital punishment may be imposed only for a crime for which the death penalty is prescribed by law at the time of its commission, it being understood that if, subsequent to the commission of the crime, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.只有犯罪时法律有明文规定该罪行应判死刑的情况可判处死刑,应理解为如果在犯罪之后法律有规定可以轻判,该罪犯应予轻判。
3.3.
Persons below 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime shall not be sentenced to death, nor shall the death sentence be carried out on pregnant women, or on new mothers, or on persons who have become insane.对犯罪时未满18岁的人不得判处死刑,对孕妇或新生婴儿的母亲或已患精神病者不得执行死刑。
4.4.
Capital punishment may be imposed only when the guilt of the person charged is based upon clear and convincing evidence leaving no room for an alternative explanation of the facts.只有在对被告的罪行根据明确和令人信服的证据而对事实没有其他解释余地的情况下,才能判处死刑。
5.5.
Capital punishment may only be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court after legal process which gives all possible safeguards to ensure a fair trial, at least equal to those contained in article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, including the right of anyone suspected of or charged with a crime for which capital punishment may be imposed to adequate legal assistance at all stages of the proceedings.只有在经过法律程序提供确保审判公正的各种可能的保障,至少相当于《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》第十四条所载的各项措施,包括任何被怀疑或被控告犯了可判死刑罪的人有权在诉讼过程的每一阶段取得适当法律协助后,才可根据主管法院的终审执行死刑。
6.6.
Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to appeal to a court of higher jurisdiction, and steps should be taken to ensure that such appeals shall become mandatory.任何被判处死刑的人有权向较高级的法院上诉,并应采取步骤确保必须提出这种上诉。
7.7.
Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon, or commutation of sentence;任何被判处死刑的人有权寻求赦免或减刑,所有死刑案件均可给与赦免或减刑。 8.
pardon or commutation of sentence may be granted in all cases of capital punishment.在任何上诉或采取其他申诉程序或与赦免或减刑有关的其他程序期间,不得执行死刑。
8.9.
Capital punishment shall not be carried out pending any appeal or other recourse procedure or other proceeding relating to pardon or commutation of the sentence.判处死刑的执行应尽量以引起最少痛苦的方式为之。 附件二:保护死刑犯权利的保障措施的执行情况,E/RES/1989/64号决议
9.经济及社会理事会,
Where capital punishment occurs, it shall be carried out so as to inflict the minimum possible suffering.忆及其1984年5月25日第1984/50号决议,其中核可了关于保护死刑犯权利的保障措施,
Annex II: Implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, E/RES/1989/64还忆及第七届联合国预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会第15号决议, 并忆及其1986年5月21日第1986/10号决议第十节,其中理事会要求研究死刑问题和犯罪学对此问题的新贡献,
The Economic and Social Council,注意到秘书长关于联合国保护死刑犯权利的保障措施执行情况的报告,
Recalling its resolution 1984/50 of 25 May 1984, in which it approved the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty,满意地注意到许多会员国就保障措施执行情况向秘书长提供了情况并作出了贡献, 赞赏地注意到关于死刑问题和犯罪学对此问题的新贡献的研究,
Recalling also resolution 15 of the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,对不断出现有违保护死刑犯权利的保障措施的做法表示震惊,
Recalling further section X of Council resolution 1986/10 of 21 May 1986, in which the Council requested a study on the question of the death penalty and new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter,意识到为有效执行这些保障措施,需要按第七届大会第15号决议的规定,审查有关国家立法并加强向所有与此有关的人员和实体宣传和散发这一文本,
Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the United Nations safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty,深信必须继续取得进展在国家一级更有效地执行保障措施,且有一项谅解,即不得以此推迟或阻止废除死刑,
Noting with satisfaction that a large number of Member States have provided the Secretary-General with information on the implementation of the safeguards and have made contributions,确认需要取得关于世界各区域保障措施执行情况和一般死刑问题的全面且准确的资料并进行进一步研究,
Noting with appreciation the study on the question of the death penalty and the new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter, Alarmed at the continued occurrence of practices incompatible with the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, Aware that effective implementation of those safeguards requires a review of relevant national legislation and the improved dissemination of the text to all persons and entities concerned with them, as specified in resolution 15 of the Seventh Congress, Convinced that further progress should be achieved towards more effective implementation of the safeguards at the national level on the understanding that they shall not be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment, Acknowledging the need for comprehensive and accurate information and additional research about the implementation of the safeguards and the death penalty in general in every region of the world,
1.1.
Recommends that Member States take steps to implement the safeguards and strengthen further the protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, where applicable, by:建议会员国采取步骤执行保障措施并进一步加强对死刑犯的权利的保护,在可行情况下采取以下办法:
(a) Affording special protection to persons facing charges for which the death penalty is provided by allowing time and facilities for the preparation of their defence, including the adequate assistance of counsel at every stage of the proceedings, above and beyond the protection afforded in non-capital cases;(a) 给予被判处死刑的人特别保护,使其有时间准备辩护并为其提供便利,包括在诉讼的每一阶段有律师充分协助,要超过非死刑案件情况下所给予的保护; (b)
(b) Providing for mandatory appeals or review with provisions for clemency or pardon in all cases of capital offence;对所有死刑案件规定强制上诉或复审,并有宽大或赦免的规定; (c) 规定可判处死刑或予以处决的最高年龄;
(c) Establishing a maximum age beyond which a person may not be sentenced to death or executed;(d) 撤销对智力迟钝或智力极其有限的人的死刑,无论是在宣判或执行阶段; 2.
(d) Eliminating the death penalty for persons suffering from mental retardation or extremely limited mental competence, whether at the stage of sentence or execution;请会员国与这一领域的各专门机构、非政府组织、学术机构和专家合作,致力于就世界各区域采用死刑问题进行研究;
2.3.
Invites Member States to co-operate with specialized bodies, non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and specialists in the field in efforts to conduct research on the use of the death penalty in every region of the world;还请会员国助成秘书长就保障措施执行情况和一般死刑问题收集全面、及时和准确的资料; 4. 请尚未这样做的会员国审查其立法在何种程度上规定有理事会第1984/50号决议附件所列保护死刑犯权利的保障措施;
3.5.
Also invites Member States to facilitate the efforts of the Secretary-General to gather comprehensive, timely and accurate information about the implementation of the safeguards and the death penalty in general;促请会员国如有可能,每年公布许可处以死刑的各类罪行采用死刑的情况,包括判处死刑人数、实际处决人数、被判死刑但尚未执刑人数、经上诉后撤销死刑或减刑人数以及给予宽大处理人数,并包括其国内法在何种程度上载入了上文提到的保障措施的情况;
4.6.
Invites Member States that have not yet done so to review the extent to which their legislation provides for the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty as set out in the annex to Economic and Social Council resolution 1984/50; 5.建议按照其1973年5月16日第1745 (LIV)号决议拟于1990年提交理事会的秘书长关于死刑问题的报告此后应包括保障措施执行情况以及采用死刑情况; 7. 请秘书长发表按照理事会第1986/10号决议第十节编写的关于死刑问题和犯罪学对此问题的新贡献的研究报告,并与其他有关文件一起提供第八届联合国预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会。
Urges Member States to publish, for each category of offence for which the death penalty is authorized, and if possible on an annual basis, information about the use of the death penalty, including the number of persons sentenced to death, the number of executions actually carried out, the number of persons under sentence of death, the number of death sentences reversed or commuted on appeal and the number of instances in which clemency has been granted, and to include information on the extent to which the safeguards referred to above are incorporated in national law; 6. Recommends that the report of the Secretary-General on the question of capital punishment, to be submitted to the Economic and Social Council in 1990, in pursuance of Council resolution 1745 (LIV) of 16 May 1973, should henceforth cover the implementation of the safeguards as well as the use of capital punishment; 7. Requests the Secretary-General to publish the study on the question of the death penalty and the new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter prepared pursuant to section X of Economic and Social Council resolution 1986/10 and to make it available, with other relevant documentation, to the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.
11
General Comment 36 on article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, on the right to life, adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Committee at its 124th session (8 October to 2 November 2018), also contains paragraphs relevant to the issue of the death penalty.联合国人权事务委员会第一百二十四届会议(2018年10月8日至11月2日)通过的关于《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》有关生命权的第六条的第36号一般性意见也载有涉及死刑问题的款项。
It is currently available here in English in its advanced, unedited version, and will become available in all official languages of the United Nations in due course at the following website: https://undocs.org/CCPR/C/GC/36该一般性意见目前可点击此处查阅未经编辑的英文预发本,并将在适当时候在以下网址:https://undocs.org/CCPR/C/GC/36上以联合国所有正式语文发布。
22
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 596, No. 8638.联合国,《条约汇编》,第596卷,第8638号。
33
A/RES/70/175, annex.A/RES/70/175,附件。