CAC_COSP_IRG_I_3_1_ADD_21_EC
Correct misalignment Corrected by li.peng on 8/24/2015 12:56:43 PM Original version Change languages order
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.21 V1502792.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.21 V1502791.doc (Chinese)
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国的法律和体制框架概览
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia signed the United Nations Convention against Corruption on 18 August 2005 and ratified it on 13 April 2007.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国于2005年8月18日签署了并于2007年4月13日批准了《联合国反腐败公约》。
The Convention entered into force domestically on 13 May 2007.《公约》于2007年5月13日在国内生效。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is a unitary State with a parliamentary type of governance.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国是一个统一国家,实行议会制。
According to article 1 of its Constitution, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is a sovereign, independent, democratic and social State with its sovereignty deriving from and belonging to its citizens.依照《宪法》第1条,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国是一个主权、独立、民主和社会的国家,主权来自并属于本国公民。
The constitutional organization of power is based on its division into legislative, executive and judicial.《宪法》对于权力的安排基于立法、行政和司法的分立。
The Assembly is a representative body of citizens in which the legislative power is vested.国会作为公民的代表机构,被赋予立法权。
At present, it is composed of 123 representatives, directly elected for a term of four years.目前,国会共有123名议员,通过直接选举产生,每届任期四年。
The mandate of a representative is terminated if he/she is sentenced for a criminal offence for which a sentence of at least five years is prescribed.若议员因刑事犯罪获刑,且至少被判处五年,其代表权即被终止。
The President is elected directly for a term of five years, for a maximum of two terms.总统通过直接选举产生,每届任期五年,最多不得超过两任。
The Constitutional Court decides on the accountability of the President by a two-third majority.宪法法院以三分之二多数裁定是否向总统问责。
If acknowledged accountable, the term of the President can be terminated.若被认定负有责任,总统即被免职。
The executive power is vested in the Government.行政权属于政府。
The Prime Minister and Ministers cannot be members of Parliament.总理及各部长不得出任议员。
The Prime Minister enjoys immunity and the Parliament decides on his/her immunity.总理享有豁免权,并由议会裁定其豁免权。
The office of the Prime Minister and that of a Minister is incompatible with the performance of any other public office or profession.总理府与部长办公室不得担任任何其它公职或专业职务。
The judicial power is exercised by autonomous and independent courts which rule on the basis of the Constitution, laws and international agreements ratified in accordance with the Constitution.司法权由自主独立的法院行使,法院依照《宪法》、法律以及依据《宪法》批准的国际协定做出判决。
According to article 118 of the Constitution, “international agreements ratified in accordance with the Constitution are part of the internal legal order and cannot be changed by the laws.”《宪法》第118条规定:“依据《宪法》批准的国际协定纳入国内法律秩序,法律不得予以变更。”
The laws most relevant to the fight against corruption are the Criminal Code (CC); the Law on Civil Servants; the Law on the Management of Confiscated Property, Proceeds and Objects Seized in Criminal and Misdemeanour Procedure; the Law on Criminal Proceedings (CP); the Law on the Prevention of Corruption; the Law on Witness Protection; the Law on Public Servants and the Law on International Cooperation in Criminal Matters.打击腐败方面最重要的法律为《刑法》、《公务员法》、《刑事和轻罪诉讼所扣押没收财产、所得和物品管理法》、《刑事诉讼法》、《预防腐败法》、《证人保护法》、《公务员法》和《刑事事项方面国际合作法》。
The institutions most relevant to the fight against corruption are the State Commission for the Prevention of Corruption; the Public Prosecutor’s Office for the Fight against Organized Crime and Corruption; the Specialized Department for Proceeding Cases of Organized Crime and Corruption of the First Instance Court Skopje 1; the Anti-corruption Unit of the Ministry of Interior; the Financial Police Administration of the Ministry of Finance; the Anti-corruption Department of the Public Revenue Office; and the Integrity Department of the Customs Administration.打击腐败方面最重要的机构为国家预防腐败委员会、打击有组织犯罪和腐败检察署、斯科普里1区初审法院有组织犯罪和腐败诉讼案件专职部、内政部反腐败处、财政部金融监督管理局、国库署反腐败司和海关总署廉政司。
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement2. 第三章:定罪和执法
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)贿赂和影响力交易 (第十五、十六、十八、二十一条)
Active and passive bribery of public officials is criminalized pursuant to articles 358 and 357 of the CC respectively.分别依照《刑法》第358和357条,公职人员的行贿和受贿行为构成犯罪。
Both articles cover bribery of national public officials, foreign public officials as well as officials of a public international organization.上述两条条款均涵盖了国内公职人员、外国公职人员以及国际公共组织官员的贿赂行为。
Active bribery in the private sector (art. 253-a) and the active trading in influence (art. 358-a) were introduced as new criminal acts through the amendments of the CC of 2011.私营部门的行贿行为(第253-a条)和主动影响力交易(第358-a条)均作为新的犯罪行为纳入2011年《刑法》修正案。
Prior to these amendments, only passive bribery in the private sector (art. 253) and passive trading in influence (art. 359) had been criminalized.该修正案出台前,只有私营部门的受贿行为(第253条)和被动影响力交易行为(第359条)构成犯罪。
The reviewing experts found all aforementioned provisions to be in line with the Convention.审议专家发现,上述条款均符合《公约》。
However, they were not in a position to judge on the effective implementation of the provisions on the criminalization of bribery in the private sector due to lack of related cases.然而,鉴于缺乏相关案件,他们无法判定私营部门贿赂行为定罪条款是否得到了有效实施。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)洗钱,窝赃(第二十三、二十四条)
Article 273 of the CC criminalizes money-laundering, including self-laundering, although few cases had been taken forward under this provision.依照《刑法》第273条,包括内部洗钱在内的洗钱行为构成犯罪,但只有少数案件依据本条款予以了处理。
As for predicate offences to money-laundering, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has adopted an all-crime approach, covering any criminal act committed within the national territory or abroad.关于洗钱的上游犯罪,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国采用了全面定罪的方法,涵盖了国境内外实施的所有犯罪行为。
Ancillary offences to money-laundering, including attempt (art. 19), instigation (art. 12) and conspiracy (art. 393), are also covered pursuant to the general provisions of the CC.按照《刑法》的一般性规定,还涵盖了洗钱的附带犯罪,包括未遂(第19条)、唆使(第12条)和同谋(第393条)。
The national authorities confirmed that it was sufficient to establish the criminal nature of the proceeds without the need to identify the predicate offence for a money-laundering conviction.国家机关证实,无需查明洗钱判罪的上游犯罪,即可认定所得的犯罪性质。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia promised to send copies of its laws in accordance with article 23, subparagraph 2(d), of the Convention.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国承诺依照《公约》第二十三条第二款第㈣项呈送其法律副本。
The concealment or continued retention of criminal proceeds is criminalized as a separate offence pursuant to article 261 of the CC, which does not prescribe a term of retention of such proceeds as an element of the incrimination.依照《刑法》第261条,窝藏或继续保留犯罪所得的行为单独构成犯罪,该条款并未规定保留此类所得的期限作为入罪要素。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)贪污,滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十、二十二条)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has criminalized embezzlement, misappropriation or other diversion of property by a public official and abuse of functions in line with articles 17 and 19 of the Convention pursuant to articles 353 to 356 of the CC.依照《公约》第十七和十九条以及《刑法》第353至356条,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国已将公职人员贪污、挪用或者以其它类似形式侵犯财产以及滥用职权定为犯罪。
Article 355 (fraud in the service) incriminates intentional acquiring of an unlawful property benefit of the official person for himself/herself or for another, by submitting false bills or by deceiving the authorized person in some other way to effect an unlawful payment.依照第355条(利用职务之便进行欺诈),通过提交虚假账单或其它方式欺骗被授权人产生非法付款,从而为本人或他人蓄意从官方人士处获得非法财产利益的行为构成犯罪。
The type of property which may be diverted or the actual criminal act is not specified, and therefore all kinds of property and diversion are covered.条款并未明确可能侵犯的财产类型或者实际的犯罪行为,因此涵盖了各类财产以及侵犯行为。
Article 354 (embezzlement in the service) and article 356 (use of resources for personal benefit while in service) are both related to the type of property which a person can be authorized to hold/use in service or while performing duties of service (and may be physically returned).第354条(利用职务之便进行贪污)和第356条(利用职务之便动用资源获取个人利益)均涉及了当事人在工作或履行公务过程中获得授权保管/使用的财产类型(可以实物形式返还)。
Article 353 criminalizes the “abuse of official position and authorization”, which covers the diversion of any kind of entrusted property committed while the perpetrator uses his/her official position or authorization, by exceeding the limits of his official authorization, or by not performing his/her official duty.根据第353条,“滥用公职和授权”的行为构成犯罪,涉及了各类托管财产的侵犯行为,期间犯罪人利用其公职或授权,超越官方授权的限制或者不履行公务。
Embezzlement in the private sector is addressed in articles 354 and 355 of the CC for acts committed by “a responsible person in a legal entity”.《刑法》第354和355条述及私营部门内“法律实体责任人”实施的贪污行为。
For the implementation of article 22 of the Convention, article 239 of the CC on concealment is also relevant.在实施《公约》第二十二条方面,《刑法》有关窝赃的第239条同样重要。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has criminalized illicit enrichment pursuant to article 359-a, introduced in 2009 to the CC.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国已经依照2009年引入《刑法》的第359-a条,将资产非法增加定为犯罪。
No cases have been brought forward on the basis of that article.尚未依照该条款提出诉讼。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)妨害司法(第二十五条)
Article 368-a of the CC criminalizes the illegal influencing of witnesses and makes it a general crime punishable by imprisonment of one to three years.《刑法》第368-a条将非法影响证人的行为定为犯罪,视之为普通犯罪,可以判处一至三年监禁。
Although “intimidation” and “promising and giving of an undue advantage” are not specifically mentioned, those are covered by the term “or in any other manner influencing a person”.虽然并未具体提及“恐吓”和“允诺和给予不正当好处”,但它们仍然涵盖在“或通过其它方式影响他人”的表述中。
Article 368 of the CC criminalizes the act of preventing the collection of evidence.依照《刑法》第368条,妨碍收集证据的行为构成犯罪。
Although it does not reflect the wording of article 25, paragraph (a), of the Convention, the term “or makes useless” covers all kinds of interference in the production of evidence.虽然它并未反映出《公约》第二十五条第㈠项的措辞,但“或者致使无效”的表述涵盖了干扰提供证据的各类行为。
Article 144 of the CC on “threatening the safety” is broad enough to cover all cases of threat, including threats directed at law enforcement officials.《刑法》第144条有关“威胁安全”的涵盖范围较广,涉及各类威胁行为,包括威胁执法人员。
Article 375 of the CC criminalizes the use of physical force, threats or intimidation to interfere with the exercise of official duties by judiciary employees.依照《刑法》第375条,使用暴力、威胁或者恐吓手段干扰司法人员执行公务的行为构成犯罪。
Article 382 and 383 of the CC criminalize the use of physical force or threats against official persons including law enforcement officials.依照《刑法》第382和383条,针对包括执法人员在内的公职人员使用暴力或威胁的行为构成犯罪。
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)法人责任(第二十六条)
The criminal liability of legal persons is established in article 28-a of the CC and emphasized by the legal provisions for the criminal act of “giving a bribe” (art. 358, para.5) and “receiving a reward for unlawful influence” (art. 359, para.6).法人的刑事责任在《刑法》第28-a条中得到了确定,并通过有关“行贿”(第358条第5款)和“收取非法影响的回报”(第359条第6款)的犯罪行为的法律条款得到了强调。
Such liability does not preclude the criminal liability of the natural persons who committed the offences.此类责任并不排除实施上述犯罪行为的自然人的刑事责任。
The liability of legal persons is also recognized in civil and administrative procedures pursuant to article 70 of the Law on civil procedure and article 47 of the Law on general administrative procedure.依照《民事诉讼法》第70条和《一般行政诉讼法》第47条,民事和行政诉讼中的法人责任也得到了认定。
Adequate criminal and non-criminal sanctions are provided for when the liability of a legal entity is recognized.在认定法律实体责任的情况下,规定了恰当的刑事或非刑事制裁。
Those sanctions include fines or other monetary penalties, and can include termination of status of the legal entity, prohibition on participating in public contracting or/and confiscation of property and property gain, and forfeiture of objects.此类制裁包括罚款或其它金钱处罚,可以包括终止法律实体地位、禁止参与公共承包或/及没收财产和财产收益以及充公物品。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)参与和未遂(第二十七条)
The CC contains general provisions criminalizing the participation in an offence, namely article 22 on “joint perpetration”, article 23 on “instigation” and article 24 on “assistance”.《刑法》载有的一般性条款将参与犯罪的行为定为犯罪,即第22条“共同犯罪”、第23条“教唆”和第24条“协助”。
According to article 19 of the CC, attempted crimes are criminalized when the crime is punishable by imprisonment of five years or more or when the law explicitly prescribes a sentence for an attempt of such crime.依照《刑法》第19条,对于可判处五年或以上监禁,或者法律明确规定相应犯罪未遂须获刑的犯罪,犯罪未遂构成犯罪。
Most corruption offences are punishable by imprisonment of less than five years, which leaves their attempt unpunished unless the law explicitly provides otherwise, like in article 382 of the CC on “preventing an official person from the performance of an official act”, and article 375 on “coercion of a judiciary employee”.大多数腐败犯罪可以判处五年以下监禁,因此相应的犯罪未遂无须获刑,除非法律另有明确规定,例如《刑法》第382条“妨碍公职人员执行公务”和第375条“胁迫司法人员”。
Preparation to commit a crime is not criminalized itself, except in relation to a few non-corruption-related offences.预备实施犯罪的行为本身并不构成犯罪,除非涉及某些非腐败相关的犯罪。
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十、三十七条)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has adopted penalties for corruption offences that range from a fine up to ten years’ imprisonment, taking into account the gravity of the offence.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国已经针对腐败犯罪施行了各类处罚,监禁最长达十年,顾及了犯罪行为的轻重程度。
Immunities do not seem to constitute an impediment to the effective prosecution of such offences.豁免权似乎并未对有效起诉此类犯罪构成障碍。
Prosecution follows the principle of legality.起诉遵循合法性原则。
Regarding procedures relating to release pending trial or appeal, the measures described in Chapter XVI of the CP are applicable to corruption offences.关于判决前或者上诉期间释放的诉讼,《刑事诉讼法》第十六章所述措施适用于腐败犯罪。
These include the prohibition to leave the temporary or permanent place of residence, an obligation for the defendant to report occasionally to a certain official person, and the temporary confiscation of a passport.上述措施包括禁止离开临时或长住居住地、要求被告人不定期向特定公职人员报到以及暂时没收护照。
Early release is possible after having served half of the term of imprisonment or having served one third of the term of imprisonment if special circumstances concerning the personality of the convicted evidently show that the aim of the sentence has been achieved.已决罪犯服完一半刑期,或者服完三分之一刑期,并且有关已决罪犯品性的特殊情况显著表明刑罚的目的已经达到,可以早释。
A public servant may be suspended from an institution in the cases where a criminal procedure has been initiated against him/her.在已对公务员启动刑事诉讼的案件中,机构可以对其予以停职。
Furthermore, several legal provisions exist regarding the termination of employment of a convicted public official.此外,已有多项法律条款涉及解雇被判罪公职人员。
The liability for a criminal offence does not exclude the disciplinary liability of the civil servant, pursuant to the Law on Civil Servants.依照《公务员法》,刑事犯罪责任并不排除公务员的纪律处分责任。
The Law on Execution of Sanctions provides for a number of measures to promote the reintegration of convicted offenders into society including training, counselling and employment assistance.《制裁执行法》规定了多项措施来促进已决罪犯重新融入社会,包括培训、辅导和就业援助。
The national legislation provides for the possibility of plea bargaining in addition to different protection measures for collaborators to justice.国家立法规定,除了针对污点证人的各种保护措施,还可以进行控辩交易。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)保护证人和举报人(第三十二、三十三条)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has a comprehensive legal framework and a specialized unit within the Ministry of Interior for witness protection.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国建立了一套全面的法律框架,并在内务部设立了一个专职部门来负责保护证人。
A wide range of protection can be provided for persons who give a statement or act as a witness in a procedure for a corruption offence, including relocation and change of identity of witnesses and their family.针对在腐败犯罪诉讼中提供证词或者充当证人的人员,提供了一系列保护措施,包括转移证人及其家人和改变其身份。
The person has the right to compensation for damage that he or a member of his family may suffer owing to the statement given or appearance as a witness.证人有权索取赔偿,补偿其或家庭成员可能因其提供证词或出庭作证而遭受的损害。
Such compensation is paid with funds from the national budget.此类赔偿通过国家预算资金支付。
The protection also applies to victims insofar as they are witnesses.上述保护措施也适用于充当证人的被害人。
The CP contains a range of evidentiary rules to ensure the safety of witnesses in danger, including the possibility for an examination conducted with the assistance of technical devices for transfer of picture and sound (distorting the face and the voice).《刑事诉讼法》规定了一系列取证规则来确保面临危险的证人安全,包括可以在讯问中借助技术设备来传送图片和声音(扭曲面部和嗓音)。
The national authorities reported on different provisions on the protection of reporting persons (Law on the Prevention of Corruption; CC; Law on Labour Relations; Law on Protection from Harassment in the Workplace).国家机关呈报了有关保护举报人的各种规定(《预防腐败法》;《刑法》;《劳资关系法》;《工作场所骚扰防护法》)。
However, the reviewing experts noted the fact that these provisions were fragmented, as well as the absence of ad hoc whistle-blower protection legislation.然而,审议专家注意到这样一个事实,即此类规定并不完整,并且缺乏特设的举报人保护立法。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia indicated that amendments to the Law on the Prevention of Corruption are currently being prepared in order to introduce a whistle-blower protection system and provide systematic and institutional protection of whistle-blowers.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国表示,正在编写《预防腐败法》修正案来实行举报人保护系统,为举报人提供系统性的制度保护。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一、四十条)
The CC regulates confiscation.《刑法》规定了没收处罚。
Article 98 provides for the confiscation of the direct and indirect proceeds of a crime, from the offender or from third parties, including value-based confiscation.第98条规定了没收犯罪人或第三方的直接及间接的犯罪所得,包括以价值为依据的没收处理。
Article 98-a provides for “enlarged confiscation” which could be applied when the property exceeds the legal incomes of the offender and originates from a crime committed within a criminal association or which is related to money-laundering punished by imprisonment of at least four years.第98-a条规定了“扩大没收”,适用于财产超出犯罪人合法收入并来自某个犯罪团伙内部实施的犯罪,或者财产涉及了可判处至少四年监禁的洗钱行为。
Confiscation also covers property, equipment or other instrumentalities used in or destined for use in offences.没收范围还涵盖用于或拟用于犯罪的财产、设备或其它工具。
The CP allows for a range of investigative measures available for the identification, tracing, freezing or seizure of criminal proceeds and instrumentalities.《刑事诉讼法》顾及了各类侦查措施,可用于辨认、追查、冻结或扣押犯罪所得和工具。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has a special and comprehensive Law on the Management of Confiscated Property, Proceeds and Objects Seized in Criminal and Misdemeanour Proceedings.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国特别制定了一项全面的《刑事和轻罪诉讼所扣押没收财产、所得和物品管理法》。
This Law establishes an agency with a wide scope of work.该法设立了一个工作范围广泛的机构。
Pursuant to a request by the public prosecutor, the court may order the production and seizure of banking and commercial records.应检察官的请求,法院可下令提供或扣押银行和商业记录。
The preliminary procedure judge should decide about the request by the public prosecutor immediately, and no later than 12 hours from receipt of the request.预审法官应对检察官提出的请求立即做出决定,自收到请求后不得超过12个小时。
In emergency cases, the public prosecutor may impose the mentioned measures without a court order (art. 200 of the CP).在紧急情况下,检察官可在未获法院命令的情况下执行上述措施(《刑事诉讼法》第200条)。
Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)时效;犯罪记录(第二十九、四十一条)
The period of limitation for criminal cases ranges from 2 to 30 years, depending on the severity of the sentence prescribed for a specific crime, and starts on the day the crime was committed or the consequence occurred.刑事案件的时效为2至30年不等,取决于特定犯罪法定的刑罚轻重程度,从实施犯罪或产生后果之日起计算。
According to article 39 of the CC, previous convictions can be taken into consideration when deciding on the severity of a sentence.依照《刑法》第39条,判定刑罚轻重时可以考虑之前的判罪。
The governmental authorities confirmed that this provision was not limited to cases of prior domestic convictions but extend also to foreign convictions.政府机关证实,该条款并不限于本国之前的判罪案件,也涵盖了外国判罪。
Jurisdiction (art. 42)管辖权(第四十二条)
Jurisdiction over corruption offences is established in the CC, Chapter 12 (art. 116: territorial jurisdiction; art. 118: active personality jurisdiction; art. 119: passive personality jurisdiction).《刑法》第十二章确立了有关腐败犯罪的管辖权(第116条:属地管辖权;第118条:主动属人管辖权;第119条:被动属人管辖权)。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia also adopted additional grounds of criminal jurisdiction, other than those described in article 42 of the Convention (art. 117: universal jurisdiction).除《公约》第四十二条所述的刑事管辖权依据外,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国还采用了其它依据(第117条:普遍管辖权)。
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四、三十五条)
According to articles 5-a and 46 of the Law on the Prevention of Corruption, legal acts resulting from corruption are null and void and any person damaged by a corruption act has a right to request damage compensation (actual damage and lost profit) from the offender.依照《预防腐败法》第5-a和46条,腐败引发的法律行为视作无效,因腐败行为遭受损害的任何人均有权向罪犯要求赔偿损害(实际损害和利润损失)。
The CP also contains provisions dealing with the rights of victims (art. 53) and the rights of the injured party (art. 57).《刑事诉讼法》也载有保护被害人权利(第53条)和受损害一方权利(第57条)的条款。
The victim of a crime has the right to participate in the criminal proceedings for the purpose of filing a legal property claim for damages.犯罪被害人有权参与就损害提出合法财产赔偿要求的刑事诉讼。
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)专职机关和机构间协调 (第三十六、三十八、三十九条)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has several authorities specialized in combating corruption through law enforcement.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国设有多个专职机关负责通过执法来打击腐败。
The State Commission for the Prevention of Corruption, established in 2002, can instigate an initiative for criminal prosecution of elected or appointed officials, and track and follow the assets and changes of assets of public officials.2002年设立的国家预防腐败委员会能够提议对民选或委任的官员发起刑事诉讼,并且追踪和跟踪公职人员的资产与资产变动。
The Public Prosecutor’s Office for Organized Crime and Corruption is competent to prosecute a series of crimes.有组织犯罪和腐败检察署有权起诉一些列犯罪。
Those crimes are brought before the Specialized Department for Cases of Organized Crime and Corruption of the First Instance Court Skopje 1.相关犯罪案件均在斯科普里1区初审法院有组织犯罪和腐败诉讼案件专职部提起诉讼。
The anti-corruption institutional framework also comprises the Anti-corruption Unit of the Ministry of Interior, the Financial Police Administration of the Ministry of Finance, the Anti-corruption Department of the Public Revenue Office, and the Integrity Department of the Customs Administration.反腐败体制框架的构成部门还包括内政部反腐败处、财政部金融监督管理局、国库署反腐败司和海关总署廉洁司。
The independence of those specialized bodies is ensured by law.上述专职机构的独立性在法律上得到了保障。
Their staff is provided with adequate training and resources.工作人员均得到了充分的培训和充足的资源。
A number of legal provisions mandate cooperation between public authorities and authorities responsible for investigating and prosecuting criminal offences.多项法律条款规定,公共机关与负责刑事犯罪侦查和起诉的机关之间必须展开合作。
Public officials are legally required to report every punishable act related to corruption.依照法律要求,公职人员必须上报每一件应惩处的腐败行为。
Other legal provisions mandate cooperation between the private sector, particularly financial institutions, and the State prosecution services.其它法律条款规定,私营部门尤其是金融机构与国家检察机关之间必须展开合作。
Article 58 of the Law on the Prevention of Corruption requires the proactive reporting, by all employees in financial institutions, of suspicious transactions related to corruption.《预防腐败法》第58条规定,金融机构的所有雇员必须主动上报与腐败相关的可疑交易。
Article 112 on the Law on Banks provides that requests for documentation from State prosecutors cannot be denied by financial institutions on grounds of confidentiality.《银行法》第112条规定,金融机构不得以保密为由拒绝国家检察官要求提交文件的请求。
Article 30 of the Law on Prevention of Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism establishes an obligation for financial institutions and other designated entities to report suspicious transactions to the financial intelligence unit (FIU).《预防洗钱和资助恐怖主义法》第30条规定,金融机构及其它指定实体有义务向金融情报中心举报可疑交易。
Hotlines for reporting corruption have also been opened for the public.腐败举报热线也已向公众开放。
2.2. Successes and good practices2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing chapter III of the Convention are highlighted:总之,强调了《公约》第三章实施过程中下述成功经验和良好做法:
The fact that different initiatives have been taken by the national authorities to encourage the cooperation with the private sector as well as with the public;国家机关已经采取了不同举措来鼓励与私营部门以及公众展开合作;
The fact that it is sufficient to establish the criminal nature of the proceeds, without the need to identify the predicate offence, for a money-laundering conviction was positively noted by the review team as conducive to the pursuit of money-laundering cases;无需查明上游犯罪,即可认定所得的犯罪性质,因为审议组明确指出,洗钱行为的判罪有助于追踪洗钱案件;
The fact that a person who has given a statement or witnessed in a procedure for corruption has the right to compensation for damage paid with funds from the national budget (art. 19 of the Law on the Prevention of Corruption);在腐败诉讼中提供证词或作证的人有权要求赔偿损害,而赔偿资金拨自国家预算(《预防腐败法》第19条);
The possibility of enlarged confiscation;可以扩大没收范围;
The fact that the enforcement of the special measures involving confiscation of property and seizure of objects has no statute of limitation;执行针对财产没收和物品扣押的特别措施不受时效限制;
The existence of a special law and a special agency dealing with the administration of frozen, seized or confiscated property.制定了一项专门法律并且设立了一个专职机构来处理冻结、扣押或没收财产的管理。
2.3. Challenges in implementation2.3. 实施方面的挑战
While noting the advanced anti-corruption legal system of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the reviewers identified some challenges in implementation and/or grounds for further improvement and made the following remarks, to be taken into account for action or consideration by the competent national authorities (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant requirements of the Convention):虽然审议者注意到了前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国先进的反腐败法律制度,但他们仍然发现了实施过程中面临的某些挑战以及/或进一步改进的空间,并提出了以下意见供国家主管机关采取行动或予以考虑(取决于《公约》有关规定的法定或任择性质):
With regard to bribery in the private sector, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia should consider a wider use of articles 253 (passive bribery) and 253-a (active bribery) of the CC (art. 21 of the Convention);关于私营部门内的贿赂问题,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国应考虑扩大《刑法》第253条(受贿)和253-a条(索贿)的适用范围(《公约》第二十一条);
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia should furnish copies of its laws criminalizing the laundering of proceeds of crime to the Secretary-General of the United Nations (art. 23, para. 2(d) of the Convention);前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国应向联合国秘书长提供其有关犯罪所得洗钱行为的定罪法律副本(《公约》第二十三条第二款第㈣项);
With regard to illicit enrichment, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is encouraged to increase the effective implementation of article 359-a of the CC (art. 21 of the Convention);关于资产非法增加,鼓励前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国加强《刑法》第359-a条的有效实施(《公约》第二十一条);
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia may wish to extend the scope of application of the domestic provision on the criminalization of attempt to cover all corruption offences (art. 27, para. 2 of the Convention);前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国不妨扩大本国未遂定罪规定的适用范围,以便涵盖各类腐败犯罪(《公约》第二十七条第二款);
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is encouraged to continue efforts to enact specific legislation on the protection of reporting persons (art. 33 of the Convention).鼓励前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国继续开展工作来颁布具体的举报人保护立法(《公约》第三十三条)。
3. Chapter IV: International cooperation3. 第四章:国际合作
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has a comprehensive special law on international cooperation in criminal matters.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国已就国际刑事事项合作制定了一项全面的特别法。
However, it was difficult to assess in detail the practice of providing international legal assistance in corruption cases, due to the absence of relevant data.然而,由于缺少相关数据,难以详细评估在腐败案件中提供国际司法协助的情况。
3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47)引渡;被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、四十五、四十七条)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has a two-tier extradition system in place: a regular procedure whereby the final decision is taken by the Minister of Justice, and a simplified procedure when the person agrees to be extradited, whereby the final decision is taken by the Judicial Council.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国设立了一套双轨制引渡制度:一套常规程序由司法部最终裁决,一套简化程序在当事人同意引渡的情况下由司法委员最终裁决。
Both are regulated in the Law on International Cooperation in Criminal Matters (LICCM).两套程序均通过《刑事事项方面国际合作法》进行规范。
Requests for extradition received from a foreign State should be forwarded through diplomatic channels or sent directly to the Ministry of Justice which, will then submit it to the competent judicial authority.外国提出的引渡请求应通过外交渠道转呈或直接呈交至司法部,随后由司法部递交至主管司法机关。
The competent judge may detain the person whose extradition is sought for a maximum period of 180 days.主审法官可拘留拟引渡的当事人,最长不超过180天。
He may also impose another measure for securing the presence of that person.主审法官也可执行其它措施来确保当事人在场。
His decision may be subject to an appeal addressed to the criminal council of the Court in a period of 24 hours after the delivery of the decision.主审法官下达裁决后24小时内,可以向法院刑事委员会提出上诉。
Extradition in the absence of dual criminality is at present not possible.目前,无法在缺乏两国共认犯罪的情况下进行引渡。
Although extradition is not conditional on the existence of a treaty and could be based on the principle of reciprocity, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia considers the Convention as a legal basis for extradition, provided the conditions of the LICCM are met.虽然引渡不以是否订立了一项条约为条件,并以相互原则为依据,但前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国将《公约》视作引渡的一个法律依据,前提是符合《刑事事项方面国际合作法》的条件。
Offences are extraditable if the conditions related to dual criminality and the minimum period of imprisonment are satisfied.凡符合有关两国共认犯罪和最低监禁期限的条件的,相应犯罪即可予以引渡。
Accordingly, most corruption offences which are punishable by at least one year are thus extraditable offences.相应地,大多数可判处至少一年监禁的腐败犯罪可以引渡。
Corruption offences which do not satisfy the one year imprisonment condition could be extraditable on the basis of the direct applicability of the Convention pursuant to Article 118 of the Constitution.未满足一年监禁条件的腐败犯罪可依据《宪法》第118条,基于《公约》的直接适用性进行引渡。
Criminal offences related to a breach of the regulations on taxes, fees, duties and foreign exchange operations are extraditable.违反税务、收费、职务和外汇操作方面法规的刑事犯罪可以引渡。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia does not extradite its citizens unless provided otherwise by international or bilateral agreements.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国不会引渡本国公民,除非国际或双边协定另有规定。
The possibility of submitting a case without undue delay to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution is introduced in the country’s legislation, but the principle aut dedere aut judicare is not regulated by statutory law and has never been applied.本国立法规定,在提交案件给主管当局起诉的过程中不得无故延误,但成文法没有规定不引渡即审判原则,因而从未得到应用。
A foreign sentence can be enforced provided that the condition of dual criminality is met and that the foreign criminal judgement is final, enforceable and has been rendered in presentia.外国的判罚可以得到执行,前提是满足两国共认犯罪的条件,并且外国的刑事判决为最终判决,能够执行且当面宣判的。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is a party to the European Convention on Extradition and three of its Additional Protocols, and has concluded a number of bilateral treaties on extradition, including with countries from the region (Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina).前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国是《欧洲引渡公约》及其三个《附加议定书》的缔约国,已经与该地区的多个国家(塞尔维亚、克罗地亚、黑山、波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那)签订了多项双边引渡条约。
None of the corruption offences is deemed a political offence.腐败犯罪均不视作政治犯罪。
Moreover, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia does not authorize extradition based on political grounds and its legislation guarantees fair treatment to any person concerning whom an extradition request is made while proceedings are under way.此外,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国不会批准出于政治理由的引渡,而且其立法保障诉讼过程中引渡请求对象的公平待遇。
Part two of the LICCM provides for the transfer of sentenced persons.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》第二部分对被判刑人的移管做出了规定。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is also a party to the Council of Europe Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons and its Additional Protocol and has signed relevant bilateral agreements (with Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey).前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国也是《欧洲委员会移管被判刑人公约》及其《附加议定书》的缔约国,并签署了相关的双边协定(与阿尔巴尼亚、波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那、黑山、塞尔维亚、斯洛文尼亚和土耳其)。
The LICCM (chapter III) provides for the possibility of taking over of criminal proceedings in case of dual criminality (art. 43, para.1).《刑事事项方面国际合作法》(第三章)规定,可以接管两国共认犯罪刑事诉讼(第43条第1款)。
The Law also provides for the possibility of transferring to a foreign State criminal proceedings for criminal offences for which a prison sentence up to ten years is foreseen (art. 47, para.3 of the Law).该法还规定可向外国移交针对预计可判处最高为十年监禁期的刑事犯罪的刑事诉讼(该法第47条第3款)
Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)司法协助(第四十六条)
The LICCM provides for a wide range of mutual legal assistance (MLA) measures.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》对各种司法协助措施做出了规定。
The central authority responsible and authorized to receive MLA requests and either to execute them or to transmit them to the competent authorities for execution is the Ministry of Justice, Department for International Legal Assistance.负责和有权接受司法协助请求并执行请求或将请求转交主管机关执行的中央机关是司法部国际司法协助司。
An MLA request should be, as reported by the national authorities, in Macedonian and should be sent in writing.国家机关报备的司法协助请求应以马其顿文书写,并以书面形式递交。
It can be received electronically or through another way of telecommunication for which a record shall be kept, and the original shall be sent through regular mail.请求可通过电子形式或其它电信手段接收,并应留档以及通过平信寄送原件。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia may provide assistance irrespective of the existence of a treaty.不论是否订有条约,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国均可提供协助。
Furthermore, dual criminality is not a precondition to render assistance.此外,两国共认犯罪不构成提供协助的先决条件。
MLA requests regarding physical and legal persons are treated equally.处理涉及自然人和法人的司法协助请求时一视同仁。
The LICCM provides for the interrogation through videoconference and through telephone conference, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has had previous relevant experience.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》规定可通过视频会议以及电话会议讯问,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国此前已有相关经验。
The LICCM also clearly provides for the delivery of spontaneous information.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》也对自发信息的传递做出了明确规定。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia will comply with a request for confidentiality; if that is not possible, it will notify the foreign requesting authorities immediately.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国将会配合保密请求;若无法做到,本国将会立即知会提出请求的外国机关。
Bank secrecy and fiscal matters are not grounds for declining an MLA request.银行保密和财税事项不构成拒绝司法协助请求的依据。
Such a request may be denied if it is based on considerations of racial, ethnical and social affiliation or religious beliefs.若此类请求基于种族、民族和社会归属或者宗教信仰方面的考虑,则可予以拒绝。
The decision for rejection should be elaborated upon unless otherwise specified by an international agreement.应当详述拒绝决定的理由,除非另有国际协定明确说明。
Article 17 of the LICCM stipulates the urgency of acting upon receiving the letter rogatory by the foreign competent authority.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》第17条规定,必须立即针对外国主管机关递交的代询证人委托书采取行动。
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50)执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九、五十条)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has put in place a regulatory framework and has concluded many bilateral agreements that provide for the international exchange of information for purposes of law enforcement.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国建立了一个监管框架,并且签订了多项双边协定来通过国际信息交流促进执法。
The national law enforcement authorities have channels of communication through, inter alia, the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the European Police Office (Europol).国家执法机关拥有各类联系渠道,除其它外,包括国际刑事警察组织(刑警组织)和欧洲警察组织。
Furthermore, the national FIU is a member of the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units.此外,国家金融情报中心也是金融情报中心埃格蒙特小组的成员。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been an observer of the Camden Assets Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN) since July 2014.2014年7月以来,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国一直是卡姆登资产追回机构间网络的观察员。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has also been a member State of European Partners against Corruption (EPAC) since 2009.2009年以来,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国也是欧洲反腐败伙伴的成员国。
The conduct of joint investigation teams is regulated in article 38 of the LICCM.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》第38条对联合侦查组的行为做出了规范。
The domestic competent authorities for detection and prosecution of organized crime and corruption can be part of the joint investigation teams with the foreign competent authorities.本国主管有组织犯罪和腐败侦查及起诉的机关可与外国主管机关加入联合侦查组。
However, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia did not take measures to promote the exchange of personnel and other experts, including the posting of liaison officers.然而,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国并未采取措施来加强人员及其他专家的交流,包括派出联络官员。
The LICCM and the CP, together with a large number of bilateral agreements on international cooperation in criminal matters to which the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is a party, authorize and organize the use of special investigative techniques in matters of organized crime and corruption.《刑事事项方面国际合作法》和《刑事诉讼法》连同前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国作为缔约国的多项有关国际刑事事项合作的双边协定,授权和组织了在有组织犯罪和腐败事项中采用特殊侦查手段。
Chapter XIX of the CP provides for special investigative measures which could be used in corruption cases including the monitoring and recording of telephone and other electronic communications, the monitoring and recording of conversations with technical devices, secret access to and search of computer systems, simulated offering and receiving bribes, controlled delivery and the use of undercover agents.《刑事诉讼法》第十九章规定对腐败案件可采用特殊侦查措施,包括监测和记录电话及其它电子通信、采用技术设备监测和记录谈话内容、秘密接入或搜索电脑系统、伪装行贿和受贿、控制下交付和派遣卧底探员。
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia established a department for undercover operations in 2005 within the Division for Organized or Serious Crime.2005年,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国在有组织犯罪或重罪司下设立了一个负责卧底行动的部门。
This department includes a unit for undercover police officers, a unit for interception of communications, a unit for surveillance, monitoring and documentation and a unit for protection of witnesses.该部门下设一个卧底警员科、一个通信拦截科、一个监视、监测和记录科以及一个证人保护科。
There appear to be no challenges regarding the admissibility in court of evidence derived from special investigative techniques.在特殊侦查手段所获证据可否被法庭采信方面,似乎未遇到挑战。
3.2. Successes and good practices3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing chapter IV of the Convention are highlighted:总之,强调了《公约》第四章实施过程中下述成功经验和良好做法:
The fact that the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has a comprehensive special law on international cooperation in criminal matters with provisions on all modalities of international cooperation in criminal matters;前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国就国际刑事事项合作制定了一套全面的特别法,对各种国际刑事事项合作的形式做出了规定;
The fact that mutual legal assistance is not subject to the dual criminality requirement.司法协助并不取决于两国共认犯罪的要求。
3.3. Challenges in implementation3.3. 实施方面的挑战
While noting the advanced anti-corruption legal system of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the reviewers identified some challenges in implementation and/or grounds for further improvement and made the following remarks, to be taken into account for action or consideration by the competent national authorities (depending on the mandatory or optional nature of the relevant requirements of the Convention):虽然审议者注意到了前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国先进的反腐败法律制度,但他们仍然发现了实施过程中面临的某些挑战以及/或进一步改进的空间,并提出了以下意见供国家主管机关采取行动或予以考虑(取决于《公约》有关规定的法定或任择性质):
The reviewing experts highlighted the need for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to put in place and render fully operational an information system compiling in a systematic manner statistical data and information on extradition and mutual legal assistance cases with a view to facilitating the monitoring and tracking of such cases and assessing the effectiveness of implementation with regard to, among others, the duration of MLA and extradition proceedings, and encouraged the national authorities to continue their efforts in this regard;审议专家强调,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国需要设立一个信息系统并保证其充分运转,系统地汇编有关引渡和司法协助案件的统计数据和信息,从而更好地监测和追踪此类案件,评估司法协助和引渡程序的持续时间等方面的实施效果,并鼓励国家机关在这方面进一步开展工作;
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia should take effective measures to promote the exchange of personnel and other experts, including the posting of liaison officers;前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国应采取有效措施来加强人员及其他专家的交流,包括派出联络官员;
In the interests of greater legal certainty in the absence of applicable extradition treaties, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia should take measures to more specifically address the aut dedere aut judicare principle in its domestic legislation;为在缺少适用引渡条约的情况下加强法律确定性,前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国应采取措施在本国立法中进一步明确不引渡即审判原则;
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia may wish to consider removing the limitation contained in article 47, paragraph 3, of the LICCM, whereby the reassignment of criminal procedure may only be granted for offences for which a prison sentence of up to ten years is foreseen.前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国不妨考虑取消《刑事事项方面国际合作法》第47条第3款所载限制,即只准予可最高判处十年监禁刑罚的犯罪重新安排刑事诉讼。
3.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention3.4. 在改进《公约》实施工作方面指明的技术援助需求
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has indicated that the following forms of technical assistance, if available, would assist it in better implementing the articles of Chapter IV of the Convention:前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国表示,如果取得以下形式的技术援助,将有助于其更好地实施《公约》第四章的条款:
Capacity-building in the area of extradition and mutual legal assistance;引渡和司法协助领域的能力建设;
Training for judges and public prosecutors on the implementation of Chapter IV of the Convention;《公约》第四章实施方面的法官和检察官培训;
Software for collecting, keeping and processing statistical data for cases of international legal assistance;用于收集、储存和处理国际司法协助案件统计数据的软件;
Summary of good practices/lessons learned;总结良好做法/汲取的经验教训;
On-site assistance by a relevant expert;相关专家提供现场援助;
Legal advice.法律咨询。