A_AC_105_C_1_107_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/107 V1257471.doc (English)A/AC.105/C.1/107 V1257470.doc (Chinese)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Fiftieth session第五十届会议
Vienna, 11-22 February 20132013年2月11日至22日,维也纳
Item 7 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目7
Space debris空间碎片
National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris各国关于空间碎片、携载核动力源的空间物体安全以及 关于其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.
In its resolution 67/113, the General Assembly recognized that space debris was an issue of concern to all nations;
considered that it was essential that Member States pay more attention to the problem of collisions of space objects, including those with nuclear power sources, with space debris, and other aspects of space debris; called for the continuation of national research on that question, for the development of improved technology for the monitoring of space debris and for the compilation and dissemination of data on space debris; considered that, to the extent possible, information thereon should be provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space; and agreed that international cooperation was needed to expand appropriate and affordable strategies to minimize the impact of space debris on future space missions.1. 联合国大会第67/113号决议确认,空间碎片是关系到所有国家的一个问题;认为各会员国应当更加重视空间物体包括携载核动力源的空间物体与空间碎片相碰撞的问题,以及空间碎片的其他方面;呼吁各国继续对这一问题进行研究,以便研发改进空间碎片的监测技术和汇编及传播空间碎片数据;认为应当尽可能向和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会提供这方面的资料;以及赞同需要开展国际合作,扩大适当的和能够承受得起的战略,以尽量减少空间碎片对未来空间飞行任务的影响。
2. At its forty-ninth session, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee agreed that research on space debris should continue and that Member States should make available to all interested parties the results of that research, including information on practices that had proved effective in minimizing the creation of space debris (A/AC.105/1001, para. 91).2. 科学和技术小组委员会在其第四十九届会议上商定,应当继续对空间碎片的研究,各会员国应当向感兴趣的所有各方提供这种研究的成果,包括介绍已被证明可有效尽量减少产生空间碎片的各种做法(A/AC.105/1001,第91段)。
In a note verbale dated 31 July 2012, the Secretary-General invited Governments to provide by 19 October 2012 reports on research on space debris, the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to the collision of such space objects with space debris, so that the information could be submitted to the Subcommittee at its fiftieth session.在2012年7月31日的一份普通照会中,秘书长请各国政府于2012年10月19日之前提供关于空间碎片、携载核动力源的空间物体安全和关于这些空间物体与空间碎片相碰撞问题的研究报告,以便可向小组委员会第五十届会议提交相关的资料。
3. The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from three Member States — Germany, Japan and Peru — and from two non-governmental organizations — the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the Secure World Foundation.3. 本文件是秘书处在收到三个会员国——德国、日本和秘鲁——和两个非政府组织——空间研究委员会(空间研委会)和世界安全基金会——的资料基础上编写的。
Information provided by Japan, entitled “Report on space debris-related activities in Japan”, which includes pictures, tables and figures related to space debris, will be made available in English only on the website of the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat (www.unoosa.org) and as a conference room paper at the fiftieth session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.日本提供的资料标题是“关于日本在空间碎片方面活动的报告”,其中包括与空间碎片相关的图片、表格和数字,仅有英文本,将放在秘书处外空间事务厅的网站(www.unoosa.org)上,并作为一份会议室文件提供给科学和技术小组第五十届会议。
Information provided by the Secure World Foundation is contained in the note by the Secretariat on information on experiences and practices related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities (A/AC.105/C.1/104).世界安全基金会提供的资料载于秘书处的说明:关于外层空间活动长期可持续性相关经验和做法的信息(A/AC.105/C.1/103)。
II. Replies received from Member States二. 从会员国收到的答复
Germany德国
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[29 October 2012][2012年10月29日]
German research activities related to space debris issues carried out in 2012 cover various aspects.2012年德国关于空间碎片问题开展的研究活动涵盖各个方面。
Research activities continued at the Fraunhofer Ernst-Mach Institute to improve a new accelerator facility — the so-called “TwinGun”. This facility is used for vulnerability and survivability analysis of spacecraft with regards to impacts of space debris and micrometeoroids. The objective is to be able to experimentally simulate hypervelocity impacts at velocities of up to 10 kilometres/second without changing the physical properties of the projectile during the acceleration.研究活动继续在弗劳恩霍夫应用研究促进协会恩斯特·马赫研究所进行,以改进被称作“双联炮”的新加速器设施。这一实施用于在遭受空间碎片和微流星体撞击时航天器受损特征和存活能力的分析。目的是能够在实验中模拟速度高达每秒10公里的超高速撞击,而在加速期间又不改变抛射弹丸的物理特性。
At the Technical University of Braunschweig, a study is being performed to investigate the economics of the active removal of large objects from sun-synchronous orbits. High-risk collision partners are being identified as candidates for a possible removal. Simulations are conducted to show the influence of the active removal of these objects on the future evolution of the space debris environment.正在不伦瑞克大学开展一项研究,以便探讨从太阳同步轨道主动清除大型物体的经济成本问题。正在查明碰撞风险高的伴行物体,作为可能清除的候选物。进行了相关模拟,以显示清除这些物体对空间碎片环境今后演变的影响。
Scientists at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Institute of Technical Physics are currently developing the technology for laser-based tracking of space debris. A successful demonstration on real low Earth orbit (LEO) debris objects was performed in 2012 in cooperation with the Graz satellite laser ranging station (Austria). The technology is aiming at the simultaneous monitoring of highly accurate angular and distance data of orbital objects that can be used for orbit determination.德国航空航天中心(德国航天中心)技术物理学研究所的科学人员目前正在开发利用激光跟踪空间碎片的技术。2012年,与格拉茨卫星激光测距站(奥地利)合作对低地球轨道碎片实际物体进行了成功演示。该技术旨在同时监测非常精确的轨道物体角度数据和距离数据,这些数据可用于轨道的确定。
The collision avoidance system at the German Space Operations Centre (GSOC) has been enhanced with various tools supporting the evaluation and analysis of critical conjunctions. Another system expansion is the reception of Conjunction Summary Messages (CSM) released by the Joint Space Operation Center (JSpOC) as input to the assessment process. A revised conjunction assessment procedure allows the exchange of operational orbital data, including manoeuvre planning and execution. Since the beginning of 2011 (until September 2012), GSOC has analysed 27 critical events (17 in 2011, and 10 in 2012), for which CSM have been received in 24 cases, and executed 6 collision avoidance manoeuvres (3 in 2011, and 3 in 2012) with the satellites controlled by GSOC.通过各种用以支持评价和分析临界会合的工具,德国空间活动中心的避免碰撞系统得到了加强。另一项系统扩展是作为对评估过程的一项重要投入,接收联合空间业务中心发布的会合事件摘要信息。经修订的会合评估程序使得可以交流运行轨道数据,包括机动操作规划和执行。从2011年初起(到2012年9月),德国空间活动中心已对27次临界事件开展分析(2011年17次,2012年10次),其中在24次事件中接收了会合事件摘要信息,并利用德国空间活动中心控制的卫星执行了6次避免碰撞的机动操作(2011年3次,2012年3次)。
Germany is developing a national competence in space situational awareness and its assessment by using existing resources. The mission of the German Space Situational Awareness Centre (GSSAC) is to produce a recognized space picture in order to contribute to the protection of the space infrastructure, and to security on the ground. To fulfil this mission, GSSAC will acquire, collect, process, analyse and store data from different sources, work in close cooperation with national and international partners, and produce various products and services in order to provide the recognized space picture.德国正利用现有资源,发展国家在空间态势感知和评估方面的能力。德国空间态势感知中心的任务是,生成经确认的空间图像,以促进对空间基础设施的保护及地面安全。为履行这一任务,德国空间态势感知中心将与国家和国际合作伙伴紧密合作,从不同来源获取和收集数据,对其进行处理、分析和储存,并制作各种产品和服务,以期提供经确认的空间图像。
GSSAC was set up in Kalkar/Uedem in 2009 with across-the-board facilities under the management of the German Air Force and a prominent participation of the DLR Space Administration.德国空间态势感知中心于2009年在乌埃德姆卡尔卡尔成立,其设施全面,由德国空军进行管理,德国航天中心的航天局是该中心的一个主要参与方。
Space situational awareness, in addition to its technological relevance, has gained a highly political dimension. In Germany, the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Economics and Technology are working closely together to assess national capabilities. Moreover, there are firm plans to increase activities regarding French-German cooperation initiatives. Both countries have the necessary technical equipment and complement each other perfectly.除其技术方面的重要意义外,空间态势感知在政治层面也具有十分重要的意义。在德国,国防部正与经济技术部密切合作,评估国家的能力。此外,还有确定的计划,准备增加与法德合作举措相关的活动。两国均拥有必要的技术设备,并可进行很好的互补。
Japan日本
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[18 October 2012][2012年10月18日]
Introduction导言
Research relating to space debris in Japan, mainly conducted by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), has focused on the following areas:日本的空间碎片相关研究主要由日本宇宙航空研究开发机构进行,该研究侧重于以下方面:
(a) Preventing damage to spacecraft caused by collision with debris and safeguarding mission operations;(a) 防止与碎片碰撞造成对航天器损害,并确保飞行任务的运行;
(b) Preventing the generation of debris during the operation of spacecraft and launch vehicles, including by removing mission-terminated space systems from useful orbital regions and ensuring ground safety in respect of space systems removed from orbit and allowed to fall to Earth;(b) 防止航天器和运载火箭运行过程中产生碎片,办法包括从可用轨道区清除那些任务终结的空间系统,同时在从轨道中清除空间系统并允许其坠落地球时确保地面安全;
(c) Promoting research targeting the improvement of the orbital environment by removing existing large debris from orbit.(c) 促进旨在从轨道中清除现有大块碎片而改善轨道环境的研究。
Accordingly, JAXA defines the fundamental details of its debris-related strategy in the following Space Debris Strategic Plan:因此,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构在以下《空间碎片战略计划》中界定了其碎片相关战略的基本细节:
Strategy 1: mission assurance. To apply measures to mitigate debris and ensure mission reliability at a rational cost. This also ensures debris mitigation activities are performed successfully;战略1:飞行任务保证。适用碎片减缓措施,并以合理的费用确保飞行任务的可靠性。还确保碎片减缓活动顺利开展;
Strategy 2: preservation of the orbital environment. To ensure the sustainability of space activities and to mitigate the generation of debris to preserve the environment while balancing cost and reliability;战略2:保护轨道环境。确保空间活动的可持续性,并减少碎片的产生,以期保护环境,同时在费用与可靠性之间做出权衡;
Strategy 3: safe re-entry. If re-entering objects caused casualties, this would not only be tragic for the victims, but also unfortunate for space users, because it would delay space activities or enforce fundamental changes in the related procedures;战略3:安全重返大气层。如果重返大气层的物体造成伤亡,不仅对受害者是一场悲剧,对于空间用户也是一场不幸,因为它会推迟空间活动,或迫使从根本上改变相关程序;
Strategy 4: remediation of the orbital environment. To prevent chain collision reactions among orbital objects, it is crucial to remove a portion of such large objects left in orbit in future. This action will require the collective efforts of multiple countries, hence international cooperation should be encouraged.战略4:补救轨道环境。为防止轨道物体间出现连锁碰撞反应,今后清除遗留在轨道的一部分此类大型物体至关重要。这一活动将需要多个国家做出集体努力,因此,应鼓励开展国际合作。
Strategy 1: mission assurance战略1:飞行任务保证
(a) Target of the strategy(a) 战略的目标
The target of strategy 1 is to ensure mission reliability via reasonable and rational measures. The Strategic Plan will stipulate measures to prevent any loss of function and mission performance. Moreover, under international responsibility, it will prevent fragmentation caused by collision and any loss of crucial functions used to conduct disposal actions.战略1的目标是通过合理和理性的措施,确保飞行任务的可靠性。战略计划将规定相关措施,防止发生任何功能丧失及飞行任务的执行出现任何失败。此外,根据国际责任,它将防止碰撞造成碎裂,并防止用于开展处置行动的重要功能发生任何丧失。
(b) Work breakdown structure(b) 工作细目分类结构
The overall mission assurance measures, induced by the contingency planning approach, consist of preventive measures, detection of the realization of a threat and countermeasures. Collision with detectable large objects (>10 centimetre (cm) or several centimetres in low Earth orbit (LEO)), can be avoided by manoeuvres, while protection from tiny debris (<1 millimetres (mm) or several millimetres) should be provided by design. However, objects within the range from several millimetres to 10 cm are impossible to detect in order to avoid collision and to prevent damage. To reduce related risks, observation technology aims to detect smaller objects, while protection technology targets larger debris as far as possible.由应急规划做法产生的总体飞行任务保证措施包括:预防措施、探测将出现的威胁以及相应对策。可通过机动操作避免同可探测到的大型物体(>10厘米或低地球轨道上几厘米的物体)发生碰撞,同时应通过设计提供免于同(<1毫米或几毫米的)微小碎片发生碰撞的防护。但是,不可能探测到大小在几毫米至10厘米间的物体以避免碰撞和防止受损。为减少相关风险,观测技术旨在探测较小的物体,而防护技术则尽可能针对较大的物体。
(c) Research and development activities(c) 研究和开发活动
To support the above measures for mission assurance, the following are identified as research and development work in the Strategic Plan:为支持上述飞行任务保证措施,在战略计划中将以下方面确定为研究和开发工作:
(i) Debris environment models, including a function to predict the future environment;㈠ 碎片环境模型,包括预测未来环境的功能;
(ii) A conjunction analysis tool and procedure to conduct avoidance manoeuvres;㈡ 会合分析工具及避免碰撞的机动操作程序;
(iii) Observation of smaller objects in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), and determination of orbital characteristics;㈢ 观测地球同步轨道上的较小物体,以及确定轨道特征;
(iv) Observation of smaller objects in LEO using an optical telescope;㈣ 利用光学望远镜观测低地轨道上的较小物体;
(v) Modelling the impact damage characteristics and developing protective measures;㈤ 对撞击损害的特征进行建模,并制定预防措施;
(vi) Surveying and modelling the population of particles.㈥ 测量粒子数量,并进行建模。
The following subsection will introduce the above items (iii) to (vi):下几个小节将介绍上述的项目㈢至㈥:
(iii) Observation technology to detect smaller objects in GEO㈢ 探测地球同步轨道上较小物体的观测技术
The purpose of this study is to develop technologies to determine orbital characteristics, irrespective of the United States catalogue data, and detect objects smaller than the current world level.此项研究的目的是开发相关技术,确定轨道特征,不论美国的编目数据为何,以及探测直径小于当前世界标定值的物体。
(Official limit is 1 metre in GEO in the United States surveillance network.) In JAXA, a stacking method, using multiple charge-coupled device (CCD) images to detect very faint objects that are undetectable on a single CCD image, has been developed since 2000.(美国监测网地球同步轨道上物体的官方限值是1米。 )在日本宇宙航空研究开发机构,2000年以来开发了叠加法,使用多个电荷耦合元件的成像探测单独一个电荷耦合元件成像所探测不到的非常暗淡的物体。
The only weak point of the stacking method is the extended duration required to analyse data when detecting unseen objects with unknown movement, because the range of likely paths must be assumed and checked.叠加法的唯一弱点是,探测移动情况不明的隐形物体时需要较长的时间分析数据,因为必须假定和验明各种可能的路径。
To reduce the analysis time involved in the stacking method, an analysis system applying a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is being developed.为减少叠加分析所需的时间,正在开发一个适用现场可编程门阵列的分析系统。
In 2011, the FPGA system was installed at the JAXA Mount Nyukasa optical facility to observe GEO debris, and successfully determined the orbit characteristics of objects which had not been catalogued by the United States.2011年,在日本宇宙航空研究开发机构的入笠山光学设施站安装了现场可编程门阵列系统以观测地球同步轨道碎片,并成功确定了美国编目中未收录的物体的轨道特征。
It also succeeded in detecting small fragments (roughly in the 20 cm class) near GEO using a 35-cm aperture optical telescope.该系统还利用35厘米孔径光学望远镜,成功探测到地球同步轨道附近的小块碎裂物(约20厘米级)。
This technology will enable the detection of 10-cm class objects and determine their orbit, if applied to larger telescopes available in Japan.如果将该技术适用于日本现有的较大望远镜,则能够探测到10厘米级的物体,并确定其轨道。
(See appendix A of the report on space debris-related activities in Japan, available from www.unoosa.org.)(见日本空间碎片相关活动的报告的附录A,可查阅www.unoosa.org。
(iv) Observation technology used to detect smaller objects in low Earth orbit via an optical telescope) ㈣ 通过光学望远镜探测低地轨道上较小物体的观测技术
Objects in LEO are usually observed via a radar system.
However, the use of such a system for detecting objects in the 10 cm class would see the budget far exceeding permissible levels.
Accordingly, an optical observation system is being studied instead of radar as a secondary measure due to its lower cost. However, severe restrictions stemming from the lighting conditions of the sun, time (relation with sunshine) and weather conditions apply. Such a system would be cost-effective if its problems could be solved by setting out multiple locations to compensate for this problem due to the lighting of the sun. Using wide-field optics and large high-speed CCD cameras, the detection and orbit determination of compact LEO debris will be possible.通常通过雷达系统观测低地轨道上的物体。但是,利用这一系统探测10厘米级的物体会使得预算远远超出允许的水平。因此,由于光学观测的成本较低,正在研究一项光学观测系统,以此作为辅助措施代替雷达。但是,在太阳的光照条件、时间(与太阳光相关)和气候条件方面具有严格的限制。如果能够通过设立多个地点弥补因太阳光照造成的这一问题来解决这种系统的问题,这种系统将是一套具有成本效益的系统。利用广角光学和大型高速电耦合相机,将可能探测到低地轨道小块碎片,并对其进行轨道确定。迄今,已对其可行性开展积极评估,此项技术还有望应用于轨道观测系统。
To date, feasibility has been positively assessed, and this technology is also expected to be applicable to on-orbit observation systems. (v) Modelling the impact damage mode and developing protective measures㈤ 建立撞击损害模型,并制定保护措施
Historically, protection technologies for manned systems have been studied to protect against the impact of debris smaller than one centimetre or so.从历史上看,已对载人系统的防护技术开展研究,以防范小于1厘米左右的碎片造成的撞击。
However, ordinal satellites remain vulnerable, even to particles smaller than 1 mm. Under this study, the characteristic of impact damage for vulnerable elements of spacecraft, such as the electric harness and the honeycomb sandwich panel, are being studied using the hypervelocity impact test and numerical simulation analysis, as well as some materials for the protection shield.但是,在轨卫星仍很脆弱,甚至是相对于那些小于1毫米的粒子而言。 在此项研究下,正在利用超高速撞击测试和数值模拟分析来研究航天器脆弱部件(如电路控制和蜂窝夹芯板以及一些保护罩材料)撞击受损的特征。
The result of this study is reflected in the JAXA Design Manual to provide the spacecraft project teams with cost-effective protective measures.此项研究的结果载于《日本宇宙航空研究开发机构设计手册》,以向航天器项目小组提供具有成本效益的预防措施。
In the recent orbital environment, it has become crucial to apply a protective design to important spacecraft to ensure the minimum function crucial for disposal actions.在最近的轨道环境中,对重要航天器适用防护设计已变得至关重要,目的是确保处置操作时最低限度的基本功能。
(See appendix B of the report on space debris-related activities in Japan, available from www.unoosa.org.)(见日本空间碎片相关活动的报告的附录B,可查阅www.unoosa.org。
(vi) Technology to survey and model the population of particles) ㈥ 测量和模拟粒子总量的技术
When a protective design against particle impact is applied, the increased mass of the protection shield or bumper may impact on mass management efforts in a manner that must be addressed.在应用免遭粒子撞击的防护设计时,保护罩或缓冲器的体积增加可能会对体积管理努力产生影响,因而必须加以解决。
Conversely, in risk assessment using current debris environment models, engineers warn that the probability of impact tends to be overestimated beyond their engineering sense, whereupon a more accurate debris population model is required.反过来,在使用当前碎片环境模型的风险评估中,工程师警告,对撞击概率往往过高估计,超出了其工程意义的范畴,因此需要一个更为准确的碎片总量模型。
This study aims to determine the actual debris population using an in situ Micro-Debris Measurement Sensor and to improve the debris population model.此研究旨在利用现场微型碎片测量传感器确定碎片的实际总量,并完善碎片总量模型。
Such a sensor should be expected to measure particles of around 100 micrometres to 1 millimetre in size, and should have the advantage of allowing real-time detection while traditional surveys are performed on spacecraft retrieved a few years after impact.这一传感器有望测量到大小约100微米至1毫米的粒子,并具有实时探测的优势,而对发生撞击几年后才收回的航天器则进行传统测量。
The performance of this sensor has been verified using the Bread Board Model to detect objects from 100 micrometres to a few millimetres.已利用模拟板模型校验了这一传感器探测100微米至几毫米物体时的性能。
It is expected that in future, the sensor would be installed in global spacecraft and data shared to improve global debris population models and contribute to a more cost-effective protective design.今后,有望在全球航天器上安装这种传感器,共享数据,以完善全球碎片总量模型及促进开展更具成本效益的防护设计。
Japan hopes to coordinate the above with other space agencies in the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC).日本希望与机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)中的其他空间机构协调上述工作。
(See appendix C of the report on space debris-related activities in Japan, available from www.unoosa.org.)(见日本空间碎片相关活动报告附录C,可查阅:www.unoosa.org。 )
Strategy 2: preservation of the orbital environment战略2:保护轨道环境
(a) Target of the strategy(a) 战略的目标
The target of strategy 2 is to mitigate debris and thus ensure the sustainability of space activities.战略2的目标是减缓空间碎片,从而确保空间活动的可持续性。
The Strategic Plan will develop technology, infrastructure and a management system to control debris generation in compliance with the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as a minimum.《战略计划》将开发相关技术、技术设施和管理系统,至少根据和平利用外层空间委员会《空间碎片减缓准则》的要求控制碎片的形成。
(b) Activities(b) 活动
\ (i) General㈠ 总论
The technologies involved in general debris mitigation activities, such as limiting the release of mission-related objects or preventing break-up, have almost matured and are not major items promoted for research and development activities. Debris mitigation activities are controlled in systems engineering, design management or operation control with few technical problems remaining to be studied. One exception is the study of a new propellant for solid rocket motors, which would not eject slag.一般性碎片减缓活动所涉及的技术——诸如限制飞行任务相关物体的释放或防止分裂解体——已接近成熟,这些技术不是促进作为研究和开发活动内容的主要项目。碎片减缓活动是在系统工程、设计管理或运行控制方面调控的,仍有待研究的技术问题寥寥无几。一项例外是固体火箭发动机一种新推进剂的研究,这种推进剂将不会排放熔渣。
Subsequently, related works include mainly management work to encourage debris mitigation activities, control projects, avoid engaging in activities which may threaten other space activities, and develop a support system to provide engineers with best practices for sustainable space activities. Internationally, discussion seems focused on how to strengthen voluntary activities to spread to other nations and international organizations worldwide, and establish transparency and confidence-building measures to avoid conflict through mutual understanding. Activities in the framework of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) are introduced in the following sections as examples.因此,相关工作主要包括管理工作,以鼓励碎片减缓活动,控制项目,避免开展可能危及其他空间活动的活动,以及开发一个向工程师提供促进可持续空间活动之最佳做法的支助系统。在国际上,讨论似乎侧重于如何加强自愿活动向世界其他国家和国际组织推广,以及如何制定透明度和建立信任措施,以期通过相互理解避免冲突。作为实例,在以下几节介绍和平利用外层空间委员会和国际标准化组织(标准化组织)框架内的各项活动。
(ii) Works in the framework of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space㈡ 和平利用外层空间委员会框架内的工作
In the framework of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, a working group of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee for the agenda item on the long-term sustainability of outer space activities was established. In February 2011 and 2012, the Japanese Government proposed comprehensive work, including risk assessment, identification of subjects using a contingency planning approach, and development of best practices to ensure effective output. The proposal identified current vulnerabilities, and proposed cooperative work for a solution was identified. One of the unique points involved focusing on “Lack of Quality and Reliability Assurance” as one of the risks.在和平利用外层空间委员会框架内,在科学和技术小组委员会设立了一个负责外层空间活动长期可持续性议程项目的工作组。2011年和2012年,日本政府提议开展全面工作,包括风险评估,查明采用应急规划方法的主题内容,以及制定确保有效产出的最佳做法。这一提议查明了当前的脆弱点,并确定了所提议的合作寻求解决办法。其中一个独特之处是,作为风险之一,重点关注“缺少质量和可靠性保证”问题。目前,由于意外或故意摧毁,一些空间系统往往在刚发射不久后就发生分裂解体。此外,据指出,一些航天器在刚刚送入轨道之后便丧失功能,最终成为毫无正常功能的碎片。全球碎片减缓准则提到有必要制止故意摧毁行为,但没有涉及确保质量,以期防止分裂解体或发射有缺陷的系统。原因可能包括使用失效的部件,缺少验证其机械或耐热强度的测试等等。此情况有望通过制定ISO标准等适当标准得到改善。
Currently, a number of space systems have been prone to break-up just after launch due to accidental or intentional destruction.
Moreover, it has been observed that certain spacecrafts tend to lose their functions just after being injected into orbit, ending up as dysfunctional debris.
Global debris mitigation guidelines mention the need to refrain from intentional destruction, but do not cover ensuring quality to prevent break-up or the launch of defective systems.
The causes may include the use of invalid parts, lack of tests to verify their mechanical or thermal strengths and so on.
The situation is expected to improve by establishing proper standards, such as ISO standards.
(iii) Works for ISO/TC20/SC14㈢ ISO/TC20/SC14的相关工作
Since many debris-related standards are being developed in ISO, engineers must also refer to many of them and utilize all the requirements imposed in the subsystems or components for which they are responsible. Japan has proposed the development of a technical report, entitled “Spacecraft design and operation manual in the debris environment”, which will support the engineers in charge of concept design, system design, subsystem design component design or operations, and help them systematically understand and comply with the technical requirements and recommendations. The manual is being developed in parallel by both JAXA and ISO and is supported by the Japanese space industry. It has the following aims:由于标准化组织正在制定多项碎片相关标准,因此工程师还必须参照其中的诸多标准,并在其所负责的子系统或组件中采用规定的所有要求。日本已提议编制题为“碎片环境中的航天器设计和运作手册”的技术报告, 这将为负责概念设计、系统设计、子系统设计、组件设计或运作的工程师提供支助,并系统地帮助他们了解和遵守技术要求和建议。目前正由日本宇宙航空研究开发机构和标准化组织同时编制该手册,并得到了日本航天业的支助。手册具有以下目标:
(a) Encouraging a debris mitigation design from an early product lifecycle phase;(a) 鼓励从产品寿命周期的早期阶段开始碎片减缓设计;
(b) Encouraging the determination of a philosophy affecting system design (disposal, ground safety, collision avoidance, impact protection etc.);(b) 鼓励确定一项有关系统设计的原理(处置、地面安全、避免碰撞、撞击防护等);
(c) Providing a list of all the requirements and recommendation affecting system design;(c) 提供一份影响系统设计的所有要求和建议清单;以及
and
(d) Providing a checklist for designing and operation planning of associated subsystems and components.(d) 提供一份相关子系统及组件的设计运作规划核对单。
Strategy 3: safe re-entry战略3:安全重返大气层
(a) Strategic target(a) 战略的目标
The target of strategy 3 involves limiting the re-entry hazard, not only to prevent tragedy for individuals, but also the social and diplomatic impact, which may trigger a reaction halting space activities.战略3的目标涉及限制重返大气层的危害,以便不仅是防止发生个人悲剧,而且是防止产生社会和外交影响,这种影响有可能会引起反应,呼吁停止空间活动。
The Strategic Plan will enable the re-entry risk to be properly determined, and provide design measures to minimize risk using specific hardware or technology for controlled re-entry.《战略计划》将使得能够适当确定重返大气层的风险,并提供设计措施,以利用在控制下重返大气层的具体硬件或技术,尽量减少相关风险。
(b) Work breakdown structure(b) 工作细目分类结构
The measures for ground safety from re-entry are shown in table 3 of the report on space debris-related activities in Japan, available from www.unoosa.org.重返大气层的地面安全措施载于日本空间碎片相关活动报告表3。
(c) Research and development activities(c) 研究和开发活动
To support the above ground safety measures, the following are identified as major research and development items in the JAXA Strategic Plan:为支持上述地面安全措施,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构《战略计划》将以下方面确定为主要研究和开发项目:
(i) Improving the accuracy of re-entry survivability analysis (re-entry survivability analysis tool, and other measures to improve analytical accuracy);㈠ 提高重返大气层存活能力分析的精确度(重返大气层存活能力分析工具,以及提高分析精确度的其他措施);
(ii) Developing a composite propellant tank for early demise;㈡ 开发一个早期处置的复合材料推进剂燃料箱;
(iii) Mastering technology for controlled re-entry;㈢ 掌握在控制下重返大气层的技术;
(iv) Mastering technology to estimate decay trajectory.㈣ 掌握估算衰变轨道的技术。
The first two research and development items are introduced in the next subsections.以下几个小节介绍前两项研究和开发项目。
(i) Improving the accuracy of re-entry survivability analysis㈠ 提高重返大气层存活能力分析的精确度
Most global space agencies strive to limit the expected number of casualties (Ec) of re-entering spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages to less than 0.0001.多数全球空间机构努力将重返大气层的航天器和运载火箭轨道级预期伤亡人数限制在不超过0.0001。
Since this criterion is difficult to meet, particularly for launch vehicle orbital stages, which incorporate numerous mechanical and thermal components designed strongly, the calculation of Ec needs careful consideration.由于这一标准难以满足,特别是对于运载火箭轨道级而言,所以其中包含设计坚固的许多机械组件和热组件,因此对预期伤亡人数的计算需要认真考虑。
JAXA coordinated with NASA to import a tool to analyse re-entry survivability in 2001, and has since improved it by adding functions and support programs.2001年,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构与美国航天局协调,进口了一项重返大气层存活能力分析工具,并在之后通过增加各种功能和支助方案对其做了改进。
There are now plans to verify the analysis with actual data acquired by on-board sensors, and hence acquire the thermal characteristics of materials for accurate analysis.目前已有一些计划,准备使用携载的传感器所获的实际数据验证分析结果,从而获得材料的热特性作精确分析。
(ii) Composite propellant tank㈡ 复合推进剂燃料箱
One of the elements increasing the risk of re-entry is the use of pressure bottles and propellant tanks made of titanium alloy. JAXA is studying the development of composite tanks with metal skin overwrapped with carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), which are expected to break up during re-entry.增加重返大气层风险的因素之一是使用钛合金制作的压力瓶和推进剂燃料箱。日本宇宙航空研究开发机构正研究复合材料燃料箱的变化,其金属外壳的外包装是碳纤维强化塑料,预计会在重返大气层过程中分裂解体。
Strategy 4: remedying the orbital environment战略4:补救轨道环境
(a) Target of the strategy(a) 战略的目标
The target of Strategy 4 is to develop cost-effective technology to remove existing large debris from useful orbital regions and thus prevent a chain reaction of on-orbit collisions.战略4的目标是开发具有成本效益的技术,以从可用轨道区清除现有的大块碎片,并从而防止出现在轨碰撞的连锁反应。
The Strategic Plan will help accelerate international cooperation to remove a certain amount of debris.《战略计划》将协助促进国际合作,清除一定数量的碎片。
(b) Work breakdown(b) 工作细目分类
Several technical measures have been proposed to remove existing large (system-level) objects from useful orbital regions.已提出若干项技术措施,从可用轨道区清除现有的大型(系统类)物体。
These may include traditional propulsion devices, aerodynamic-drag enhancement devices, laser radiation from the ground, and so on.这些技术措施可能包括传统的推进装置、气动阻力加强装置,以及来自地面的激光辐射等。
To remove large dysfunctional objects from LEO, at an altitude of roughly 800-1000 kilometres, with light mass devices, JAXA is striving to develop an electrodynamics tether system.为利用轻质装置在约800-1,000千米的高度,从低地轨道清除丧失正常功能的大型物体,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构正在努力开发一种电动力绳缆系统。
This research and development includes technologies for rendezvous with non-cooperative objects, motion/attitude estimation, the installation of tether devices, and so on.该项研究和开发包括与缺乏协同性的物体对接、移动姿态评价,以及安装绳索装置等技术。
However, the task of remedying the orbital environment cannot be accomplished by one country alone.但是,仅凭一国之力无法完成补救轨道环境的任务。
JAXA is proposing that this matter be mentioned in the report of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构正提议,在科学和技术小组委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的报告中提及此事项。
Besides the technical innovation, some subjects remain to be ascertained before initiating the remediation.除技术创新之外,在着手补救工作之前仍有待确定一些主题。
Firstly, how to obtain with owners consensus on the selection of target objects?首先,如何与所有权人就目标物体的选择达成共识。
Secondly, there are risks of re-entry casualties.第二,存在发生重返大气层伤亡的风险。
These and other non-technical matters are also under discussion in the committee involving the industry side.涉及此行业领域的委员会内也正在讨论这些事项及其他非技术性事项。
JAXA is also proposing that IADC discuss the above for future cooperation.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构还正在提议空间碎片协委会讨论上述事项,以促进今后的合作。
(See appendix D of the report on space debris-related activities in Japan, available from www.unoosa.org.)(见日本空间碎片相关活动的报告的附录D,可查阅www.unoosa.org。 )
JAXA is also studying the feasibility to re-orbit large objects from the GEO using ion beam irradiation.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构还正在研究利用离子束辐照从地球同步轨道将大型物体转轨的可行性。
This system can be operated without catching target objects, and can thus be applied to a wide range of debris objects, regardless of their shapes or rotations. (See appendix E of the report on space debris-related activities in Japan, available from www.unoosa.org.)该系统能够在没有捕获到目标物体的情况下运作,因此可应用于各种碎片物体,不论其形状或旋转情况为何(见日本空间碎片相关活动的报告的附录E,可查阅www.unoosa.org。
Conclusion结论
Debris mitigation efforts are crucial to ensure the long-term sustainability of space activities. If this understanding becomes global, the industrial society will welcome these trends to guarantee a fair and competitive business environment. The scope must also include universities, in that they have responsibilities to train their students to master how to join human society.碎片减缓努力对确保空间活动的长期可持续性至关重要。如果这种认识趋向全球化,工业社会将欢迎这些趋势,以保障有一个公平和具有竞争力的商业环境。其中还必须包括大学,因为它们有责任训练学生掌握参与人类社会的方法。
However, the current orbital environment has deteriorated to such an extent that protective measures are strongly recommended, not only to ensure mission reliability but also under the responsibility to sustain space activities. Under the Strategic Plan introduced above, JAXA will continue to accelerate debris mitigation and protective measures and help develop a global framework for the sustainability of space activities, while taking technical and financial feasibility into consideration.但是,目前的轨道环境已恶化至强烈建议采取预防措施的程度,这样做不仅是为了确保飞行任务的可靠性,而且还为了根据相关责任继续开展空间活动。根据上文介绍的《战略计划》,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构将继续加快碎片减缓和预防措施工作,并帮助制定一项促进空间可持续性的全球框架,同时考虑到技术和经济可持续性。
Peru秘鲁
[Original: Spanish][原文:西班牙文]
[9 November 2012][2012年11月9日]
The Asia-Pacific Ground-based Optical Satellite Observation System (APOSOS), a project operated by the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO), has been implementing a system node in Peru.由亚洲太平洋空间合作组织(亚太空间合作组织)运作的项目即亚洲太平洋地基光学卫星观测系统正在秘鲁实施其系统节点。
III. Replies received from international organizations三. 从国际组织收到的答复
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[23 October 2012][2012年10月23日]
The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) has been addressing the topic of space debris for more than a quarter century. For many years the COSPAR Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space (PEDAS) has held multiple space debris sessions at each biannual COSPAR Scientific Assembly. These sessions address (a) the characterization of the space debris environment through measurements and modelling, (b) risks posed to spacecraft by collisions with space debris, (c) the means to protect spacecraft, and (d) strategies and policies to curtail the creation of new space debris.在超过四分之一个世纪的时间里,空间研究委员会一直在探讨空间碎片问题。多年以来,在每次空间研究委员会半年期科学大会上,空间研究委员会关于可能有害环境的空间活动问题小组都举行多次空间碎片问题会议。这些会议涉及:(a)通过测量和建模确定空间碎片环境的特征,(b)与空间碎片碰撞给航天器带来的风险,(c)保护航天器的各种途径,以及(d)减少新空间碎片形成的战略和政策。
Today, the number of individually monitored, man-made objects in Earth orbit exceeds 22,000 and represents a mass of more than 6,000 metric tons. The number of smaller debris that are potentially hazardous to operational satellites is many millions. To date, two identified incidents of collisions between operational spacecraft and space debris have resulted in the damage of one spacecraft and the total destruction of the other. Dozens of collision avoidance manoeuvres are executed each year, including by the International Space Station.今天,地球轨道上逐个监测的人造物体数量超过了22,000个,其质量在6,000公吨以上。对运作中卫星具有潜在危险性的小碎片数量达数百万之多。迄今,两起经查明的运行中航天器与空间碎片发生碰撞的事件,已导致一个航天器受损,另一个彻底被毁。包括通过国际空间站,现在每年执行数十次避免碰撞的机动操作。
Prior to 2007 more than 95 per cent of all hazardous space debris was created in accidental or deliberate explosions of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages. The major spacefaring nations and organizations recognized the threat that the continued growth of the space debris population posed to the numerous space systems serving vital needs on Earth and adopted first national and then international space debris mitigation policies. The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) established in 2002 the first consensus set of space debris mitigation guidelines for the world’s leading national space agencies. These guidelines were used as the foundation for the United Nations space debris mitigation guidelines of 2007.2007年之前,95%以上的危险空间碎片均为航天器和运载火箭轨道级的意外或故意爆炸所致。主要航天国家和组织认识到空间碎片数量继续增加给满足地球上重要需求的多个空间系统构成了威胁,并通过了最初的国家及之后的国际空间碎片减缓政策。2002年,机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)以协商一致方式为世界主要国家空间机构制定了首套空间碎片减缓准则。这些准则被用作2007年联合国空间碎片减缓准则的基础。
Collisions among resident space objects not only can be potentially catastrophic but also can generate large numbers of new debris, which could further degrade the near-Earth space environment. This threat was first espoused in the 1970s, but new studies in 2005 indicated that some parts of the low Earth orbit region, i.e., altitudes below 2,000 kilometres, had already become unstable. In other words, the rate of debris generation by accidental collisions exceeded the natural removal rate by atmospheric drag. Hence, the space debris population in those regimes will continue to increase even in the absence of new satellite deployments.驻留空间的物体之间发生碰撞不仅有可能造成巨大灾难,而且还会产生大量新的碎片,这会进一步恶化近地空间环境。1970年代首次认同存在这一威胁,但2005年的研究表明,一部分低地轨道区域,即高度低于2,000千米的区域,已经变得不安全。换言之,意外碰撞产生碎片的速度超过了通过大气阻力自动清除的速度。因此,即使没有新的卫星部署,这些区域的空间碎片数量还将继续增加。这种情况被称为“凯斯勒症候群”,是影响外层空间活动长期可持续性的一个重要问题。
This condition, known as the Kessler Syndrome, is one of the major issues affecting the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.
In the near-term, the greatest threat to operational spacecraft is the very large population of debris with sizes of 5 millimetres-10 centimetres. With very high collision velocities, these small debris carry sufficient energy to penetrate and to damage vital spacecraft systems. For the long-term, the principal threat arises from the collision of larger objects, which in turn will generate significant numbers of new space debris. Even if all newly launched satellites comply with international recommendations for limiting stays in low Earth orbit, the large number of derelict spacecraft, launch vehicle orbital stages, and moderately-sized debris already in orbit will collide among one another with increasing frequency and create new hazardous debris.近期而言,对运行中航天器的最大威胁是数量庞大的5毫米-10厘米大小的碎片。由于碰撞速度极高,这些小碎片携带了穿透和损坏重要航天系统的足够能量。长期而言,主要威胁来自较大物体的碰撞,继而产生大量新的空间碎片。即使所有新发射的卫星都遵守限制在低地轨道停留期限的国际建议,轨道已有的大量废弃航天器、运载火箭轨道级和中等碎片也将会发生日趋频繁的相互碰撞,产生新的危险碎片。
Consequently, the removal of existing space debris, both small and large, is of great importance for the preservation of near-Earth space for the use of future generations. Several countries are now evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of a wide variety of space debris removal concepts. These proposals range from conventional space tugs to innovative ideas employing drag augmentation devices, electrodynamic tethers, solar sails and many other imaginative devices.因此,清除现有的大小空间碎片对于保护近地空间供后人利用极为重要。现在,若干国家在评价各类空间碎片清除概念的技术和经济可行性。这些提议包括传统的空间拖车,以及利用增加阻力装置、电动力绳缆、太阳帆和许多其他富有想象力的装置等创新理念。
The challenges of active space debris removal are substantial, but spacefaring nations and international scientific organizations such as COSPAR are devoting considerable efforts to promote the long-term sustainability of operations in near-Earth space for the benefit of all.主动清除空间碎片的挑战十分艰巨,但航天国家和国际科学组织正在做出大量努力,促进近地空间活动的长期可持续性,以造福所有人。