A-56-326-e-_A-56-326-c-_EC
Correct misalignment Change languages order
A-56-326-e-.doc (english) A-56-326-c-.doc (chinese)
Fifty-sixth session第五十六届会议
Item 40 of the provisional agenda*临时议程*项目40
Follow-up to the outcome of the Millennium Summit千年首脑会议成果的后续行动
Road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration执行《联合国千年宣言》的行进图
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
* A/56/150.执行摘要
Executive summary执行《联合国千年宣言》的行进图对当前情况进行综合、全面的概述。它扼要介绍可能的行动战略,用以实现通过《千年宣言》的147名国家元首和政府首脑以及总共189个会员国提出的目标和作出的承诺。
The road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration contains an integrated and comprehensive overview of the current situation. It outlines potential strategies for action that are designed to meet the goals and commitments made by the 147 heads of State and Government, and 189 Member States in total, who adopted the Millennium Declaration.本报告全面论述《千年宣言》所载的各项目标和承诺,提出行动途径,并交流关于“最佳做法”的资料。它借鉴各国政府、包括布雷顿森林机构和世界贸易组织在内的联合国整个系统、政府间组织、国际组织、区域组织和民间社会所做的工作。
The report addresses fully each and every one of the goals and commitments contained in the Millennium Declaration, suggests paths to follow and shares information on “best practices”. It draws on the work of Governments, the entire United Nations system, including the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization, intergovernmental organizations, international organizations, regional organizations and civil society.本报告第二节“和平、安全与裁军”概述有助于促进人类安全的措施,其中包括:
In section II, “Peace, security and disarmament”, the report outlines measures that will help promote human security, including:加强法治并采取打击跨国犯罪的行动:国际社会,包括联合国在内,将继续协助各国批准各项条约,将其国内法与国际义务相统一,扩大国际法院的管辖权并推动《国际刑事法院罗马规约》迅速生效;
Strengthening the rule of law and taking action against transnational crime: the international community, including the United Nations, will continue to assist States in ratifying treaties, harmonizing their domestic laws with international obligations, widening the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice and promoting the rapid entry into force of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court;在法治失效时采取行动:国际社会往往要同区域组织开展合作,承担各种责任,包括预防暴力冲突并部署维和行动以及建设和平特派团。需采取下列行动应付这些挑战:
Taking action when the rule of law fails: the international community often finds itself with responsibilities ranging from preventing violent conflict to deploying peacekeeping operations and peace-building missions, often while working with regional organization partners. These challenges require action to:(a) 用预防文化代替被动反应文化,预防性军备控制以及标识和追查“血腥钻石”等限制武装冲突的措施是这种文化的反映;
(a) Replace the culture of reaction by one of prevention, as reflected in measures designed to limit armed conflict that include preventive arms control and marking and tracking “blood diamonds”;(b) 完成联合国维和行动的重大管理改革,包括填补新员额并建立30天至90天部署能力;
(b) Complete the significant management reforms under way in United Nations peacekeeping, which include filling new posts and developing a 30-to-90-day deployment capability;(c) 支助在实地建设和平的努力,加强协调参与解除武装、复员和重返社会工作的所有行动者,同时提供选举援助并促进实现可持续和平所需的和解;
(c) Support peace-building efforts on the ground and enhance the coordination of all the actors involved in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, while providing the electoral assistance and promoting the reconciliation that a sustainable peace requires;改革制裁制度:尽管制裁可成为安全理事会采取行动的重要工具,但在实行“目标明确”的制裁方面必须继续取得进展,以确保制裁更为有效,进一步减少其对平民的影响;
Reforming sanctions. Although sanctions can be important instruments of Security Council action, progress must continue to be made in making sanctions “targeted”, ensuring that they become more effective and that their impact on civilians is further reduced;最后,在包括大规模毁灭性武器、地雷和小武器在内的所有裁军领域取得进展:下一步涉及执行现有公约、建立查明、追踪和制止非法贩卖武器的区域机制并支助民间社会的宣传工作。
Finally, making progress in disarmament in all areas, including weapons of mass destruction, landmines and small arms: next steps involve implementing existing conventions, working to develop regional mechanisms to identify, trace and halt illicit traffic in weapons, and supporting civil society advocacy efforts.第三节“发展与消除贫穷:千年发展目标”侧重于通过消除贫穷实现可持续发展,强调必须将每日生活费不超过一美元的人口数减少一半。实现可持续发展的任何努力均需采取减少贫穷的协调努力,包括找到解决饥饿、营养不良和疾病的办法。要取得进展,发展中国家将需得到富国伙伴的政治和财政承诺。国际社会应继续在许多领域开展工作,以实现这些目标:
Section III, “Development and poverty eradication: the millennium development goals”, focuses on sustainable development through poverty eradication, emphasizing the importance of halving the number of people who currently live on one dollar a day or less. Any effort to achieve sustainable development demands a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including finding solutions to hunger, malnutrition and disease. To achieve progress, the developing countries will need the political and financial commitment of their richer country partners. The international community should continue to operate on many fronts to reach these goals:由于艾滋病/艾滋病毒和其他疾病的肆虐对消除贫穷的各项努力均有破坏性影响,因此,全球艾滋病和保健基金既是改善健康的运动,也是实现可持续发展的关键战略的一部分;
Since the scourge of HIV/AIDS and other diseases has a devastating impact on every effort to lift people out of poverty, the Global AIDS and Health Fund is thus both a campaign to improve health and part of an essential strategy to achieve sustainable development;鉴于有关贫穷的所有问题均相互关联,需要贯穿各领域的解决办法,因此,“校餐”和“带口粮回家”等方案能带来多种益处,而不仅仅是补充营养。教育传授的技能可以帮助家庭摆脱极端贫穷,保障社区健康。特别在社会通过教育促进增强女孩权能时,女孩及其家庭的日常生活将受到前所未有的最终影响;
Given that all the issues around poverty are interconnected and demand cross-cutting solutions, such measures as the “School meals” and “Take home rations” programmes can have multiple benefits that extend beyond nutritional assistance. Education provides the skills that can lift families out of extreme poverty and preserve community health. In particular, when society facilitates girls’ empowerment through education, the eventual impact on their and their families’ daily lives is unequalled;以人为中心的倡议至关重要,但必须辅以健全的国家政策并改善施政、基础设施和体制建设,前者如负责任的社会支出方案,后者如确立穷人产权的改良措施;
People-centred initiatives are crucial but must be supplemented with sound national policies, such as responsible social spending programmes, as well as improvements in governance, infrastructure and institution-building, such as those included in establishing property rights for the poor;富国必须信守其在官方发展援助、贸易机会和持续承受债务能力方面的保证,这些均为即将举行的发展筹资问题国际会议议程的重要项目;
Wealthier nations must adhere to their promises regarding official development assistance, trade access and debt sustainability, all of which are important items on the agenda of the upcoming International Conference on Financing for Development;对于49个最不发达国家而言,下一步包括执行"除武器之外的一切产品"的欧洲贸易方案的全球版本;增加官方发展援助;充分执行增加优惠的重债穷国倡议,并采取措施,促进取消双边官方债务;
For the 49 least developed countries, the next steps are implementing a global version of the European “Everything but arms” trade programme; increasing official development assistance; fully implementing the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative and pursuing measures to promote the cancellation of official bilateral debt;内陆和小岛屿发展中国家特别脆弱,解决办法是向内陆和过境发展中国家与捐助界间过境运输合作全球框架提供支助并执行小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领;
Landlocked and small island developing countries are subject to special vulnerabilities that need to be addressed through support to the Global Framework for Transit-Transport Cooperation between landlocked and transit developing countries and the donor community and through the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States;最后,将于2001年9月举行会议的信息和通信技术工作队将采取步骤,着手弥合数字鸿沟。
Lastly, the Information and Communications Technologies Task Force, which is to meet in September 2001, will take steps to begin the bridging of the digital divide.第四节“保护我们共有的环境”描述气候变化对地球造成的破坏性影响,说明因此有必要提高警惕,保护环境和加强管理。扭转日益严重的环境破坏趋势正当其时,造成环境破坏的原因包括全球变暖、砍伐森林、破坏生物多样性、水土流失和荒漠化、地下水位降低以及自然灾害增加。重要行动包括:
Section IV, “Protecting our common environment”, describes the devastating impact that our changing climate is having on the Earth and the consequent necessity of a vigilant approach to conservation and stewardship. It is time to reverse the growing environmental damage that is occurring because of global warming, deforestation, the decimation of biodiversity, soil erosion and desertification, reduction in water tables and the increase in natural disasters. Essential actions include:完成《京都议定书》的批准,以此作为控制温室气体排放的下一个关键步骤;
Completing the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol as the next key step towards curbing greenhouse gas emissions;加强各有关国际组织和区域组织以及公私伙伴在有关森林问题上的合作与协作;
Enhancing cooperation and coordination on forest-related issues among relevant international and regional organizations, as well as public-private partners;在遭遇严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家、特别是非洲国家中执行《生物多样性公约》和《联合国防治荒漠化公约》;
Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa;支助无害环境的水管理倡议;
Supporting initiatives towards environmentally sound water management;采取有关战略,减少自然灾害的影响;
Adopting strategies to reduce the impact of natural disasters;在人类基因组研究中尊重人的尊严原则。
Respecting the principles of human dignity as research continues on the human genome.第五节“人权、民主和善政”重申,基本人权是人类尊严的基础,必须得到保护。该节概述民主推动改革和赋予公民权能的力量,重申有必要共同努力,建立更具包容性的政治进程,实行真正参政。前进战略包括:
Section V, “Human rights, democracy and good governance”, reaffirms that fundamental human rights are the foundation of human dignity and must be protected. It outlines the power of democracy to effect change and empower citizens, and reaffirms the need to work collectively for more inclusive political processes, with genuine political participation. Strategies for moving forward include:促进国家人权体制;
Fostering national human rights institutions;支助切实执行以权利为基础的发展;
Supporting the practical application of a rights-based approach to development;提供选举援助,帮助巩固新成立的民主国家和恢复民主制度的国家,并努力通过体制改革方案实行民主原则;
Providing electoral assistance to help consolidate new and restored democracies and work to implement democratic principles through institutional reform programmes;鼓励进一步批准和执行《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》;
Encouraging the further ratification and implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women;努力保护移民及其家人的权利;
Working to protect the rights of migrants and their families;帮助确保新闻自由和独立。
Helping to ensure the freedom and independence of the media.第六节“保护脆弱者”着重于因复杂的人道主义紧急情况而被迫流离失所和受到虐待的群体,特别是妇女和儿童。由于战争性质发生改变,这些群体面临高度风险,国家行为者和非国家行为者均需遵守现行的诸多国际法和国际法框架,确保平民、难民和国内流离失所者得到保护。本报告确定可采取的保护平民的切实措施,其中包括起诉违反国际刑事法的行为,向易受害人口提供保护,并将被迫流离失所局势中的平民和武装分子分开。主要后续步骤包括:
Section VI, “Protecting the vulnerable”, focuses on those groups, in particular women and children, that are forced into situations of displacement and abuse because of complex humanitarian emergencies. The changing nature of war has left these groups highly exposed, and both State and non-State actors need to respect the wealth of international laws and frameworks that exist to ensure the protection of civilians, refugees and the internally displaced. The report identifies practical measures that can be taken to provide protection to civilians, including through prosecuting violations of international criminal law, gaining access to vulnerable populations, and separating civilians and armed elements in situations of forced displacement. Essential next steps include:通过始终如一地运用国际刑事法,促进一种保护文化;
Fostering a culture of protection through the consistent use of international criminal law;向难民和国内流离失所者提供保护,继续传播关于国内流离失所问题的指导原则等国际标准;
Providing protection for refugees and internally displaced persons and continuing to disseminate international standards such as the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement;支助各国努力充分执行《儿童权利公约》及其任择议定书,并提供特别协助,停止使用童兵;
Supporting national efforts to implement fully the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols, and providing special assistance to halt the use of children as soldiers.第七节“满足非洲的特别需要”处理极端贫穷、严重成灾的债务负担、疾病、冲突和国际关注摇摆不定所带来的挑战。其中一些问题是发展中国家普遍面临的问题,但由于非洲在全球化进程中陷入边缘地位,其所受影响特别严重。过去十年中,非洲在贸易、投资和技术进步方面所占份额进一步减少。然而,非洲领导人已为一系列倡议和战略争取到地方和国际支助,以便在下列领域取得进展:
Section VII, “Meeting the special needs of Africa”, addresses the challenges posed by extreme poverty, devastating debt burdens, disease, conflict and wavering international interest. Some of those problems are general to developing countries, but Africa suffers particularly from its marginalization in the process of globalization. Africa’s share in trade, investment and advances in technology have diminished further over the last decade. But African leadership has galvanized local and international support for a range of initiatives and strategies for moving forward in the following arenas:支助新非洲倡议,因为该倡议涉及所有部门;
Supporting the New African Initiative as it affects all sectors;加强民主施政;
Strengthening democratic governance;与区域组织合作,进一步建立维和能力;
Building peacekeeping capacity further, in cooperation with regional organizations;增加官方发展援助、加强私人资本流动和建立贸易能力,以努力促进可持续发展;
Working for sustainable development by increasing official development assistance, enhancing private capital flows and building capacities for trade;响应阿布贾首脑会议声明,结成伙伴关系,合力战胜艾滋病/艾滋病毒。
Forming partnerships in response to the Abuja Summit Declaration in order to combat HIV/AIDS.第八节“加强联合国”指出,要想更新联合国能力,为开展真正对话提供论坛并推动采取有效行动,就需要改进联合国各主要机构间的协调,并加强与其他多边组织和民间社会的伙伴关系。为此,关键改革将涉及:
Section VIII, “Strengthening the United Nations”, argues that renewing the capacity of the Organization to provide a space for genuine dialogue and a catalyst for effective action calls for improved coordination among its principal organs and enhanced partnerships with other multilateral organizations and civil society. For these purposes, key reforms will involve:确保联合国在及时和可预见的基础上获得履行其任务所需的财政资源;
Ensuring that the Organization receives on a timely and predictable basis the financial resources it needs to carry out its mandates;继续采取最佳内部管理做法;
Continuing to adopt the best internal management practices;特别关注联合国人员及有关人员的安全;
Paying particular attention to the safety of United Nations and associated personnel;通过协调咨询委员会,加强联合国、布雷顿森林机构、世界贸易组织间的关系;
Building a stronger relationship among the United Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization through the Advisory Committee on Coordination;加强与各国议会联盟的关系,并通过联合国国际伙伴基金会和全球协约,争取私营部门、非政府组织以及民间社会其他部门的参与。
Deepening the relationship with the Inter-Parliamentary Union and engaging the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the rest of civil society through the United Nations Foundation for International Partnerships and the Global Compact. The road map concludes by noting that there will be annual reports and, every five years, a comprehensive report on progress made or not made in reaching these goals. The entire United Nations family of Member States, international organizations, funds, agencies, programmes, the private sector and civil society must join together to meet the lofty commitments that are embodied in the Millennium Declaration. Success requires solidarity.行进图最后指出,将编写年度报告和五年一次的综合报告,说明在实现这些目标方面已经或尚未取得的进展。由会员国、国际组织、基金、机构、方案、私营部门和民间社会组成的联合国大家庭必须携起手来,为履行《千年宣言》作出的崇高承诺共同努力。团结一致就可成功。
Contents目录
Paragraphs Page章次 段次 页次
Introduction导言
1–11 71-11 7
Peace, security and disarmament和平、安全与裁军
12–79 712-79 7
International rule of law发展与消灭贫穷:千年发展目标
14–32 880-163 16
Strengthening United Nations capacities for resolving armed conflict保护我们的共同环境
33–61 11164-194 28
Disarmament人权、民主和善政
62–79 16195-224 31
Development and poverty eradication: the millennium development goals保护易受伤害者
80–163 18225-238 35
Protecting our common environment满足非洲的特殊需要
164–194 32239-260 37
Human rights, democracy and good governance加强联合国
195–224 36261-303 40
Protecting the vulnerable前面的道路
225–238 41 Meeting the special needs of Africa 239–260 43 Strengthening the United Nations 261–303 46 The road ahead 304–307 53304-307 45
Annex附件
Millennium development goals千年发展目标
5547
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.1.
The United Nations Millennium Declaration (General Assembly resolution 55/2), which was adopted by all 189 Member States of the United Nations (147 of them represented directly by their head of State or Government) on 8 September 2000, embodies a large number of specific commitments aimed at improving the lot of humanity in the new century.2000年9月8日,联合国所有189个会员国(其中147个会员国由其国家元首或政府首脑直接代表)通过了《联合国千年宣言》(大会第55/2号决议)。宣言内载许多具体承诺,目的是改善新世纪人类的命运。
2. In paragraph 18 of its resolution 55/162 on the follow-up to the outcome of the Millennium Summit, the General Assembly asked me to prepare a “road map” to set out in detail how these commitments could be fulfilled.2.
That is the purpose of the present report.大会关于千年首脑会议成果的后续行动的第55/162号决议第18段请我制订“行进图”,详细说明如何履行这些承诺。这就是本报告的目的。
3. It is almost a truism that the problems facing humanity are closely intertwined, and that each tends to complicate the solution of one or more others. To take an obvious example, conflict and endemic disease tend to thrive in regions where the people are poor and uneducated, but in their turn they act as powerful inhibitors of education and economic growth. This observation does not justify defeatism. Rather, it shows the vital importance of a comprehensive approach and a coordinated strategy, tackling many problems simultaneously across a broad front.3. 不言而喻,人类面临的问题彼此紧密交织,每个问题往往牵扯一个或多个其他问题,使这些问题更难解决。举一个明显的例子,冲突和地方性疾病往往发生在人口贫穷和教育落后的地区,但它们反过来又是教育和经济增长极有力的抑制因素。这一现象不应成为失败主义的理由。相反,它表明亟须采取综合办法和协调战略,同时全面处理许多问题。
4. That was precisely the objective of the United Nations Millennium Summit and Declaration. And therefore, the present report not only examines each of the commitments contained in the Millennium Declaration in its own right but also considers how they interact with each other. It seeks to highlight cross-cutting issues, where a coordinated approach can yield much more than the sum of its parts.4. 这正是联合国千年首脑会议和宣言的目标。因此,本报告不仅审查《千年宣言》所载的每项承诺,并且考虑它们如何相互关联。报告努力突出贯穿各领域的问题,对于这些问题,协调办法比零敲碎打收效更大。
5. A coordinated strategy will not be achieved without better coordination among international institutions and agencies, including those within the United Nations system.5.
And this effort must also mobilize the energies of all actors, including notably the private sector, philanthropic foundations, non-governmental organizations, academic and cultural institutions, and other members of civil society.如果包括联合国系统机构在内的国际机构不能加强协调,协调战略将无法实现。这一努力还必须调集所有行为者的力量,其中主要包括私营部门、慈善基金会、非政府组织、学术和文化机构以及民间社会其他成员。
6. Most of the targets set by the Millennium Declaration were not new. They derived from the global conferences of the 1990s and from the body of international norms and laws that had been codified over the past half-century. Moreover, the present report shows that the plans of action needed for reaching these targets have, for the most part, already been developed and formally adopted by Member States, sometimes individually and sometimes jointly, within international organizations and at conferences.6. 《千年宣言》所列目标大多并非新目标。它们源于1990年代的全球会议以及过去半个世纪中编纂的国际准则和国际法。本报告还说明,实现这些目标所需的行动计划大多已经制订并由会员国在国际组织内或国际会议上个别或集体通过。
7. What is needed, therefore, is not more technical or feasibility studies.7.
Rather, States need to demonstrate the political will to carry out commitments already given and to implement strategies already worked out.因此,所需要的并不是更多的技术或可行性研究。相反,各国需显示出政治意愿,履行业已作出的承诺并执行业已制订的战略。
8.8.
This will require hard decisions and courageous reforms in all States and all areas of policy, ranging from cuts in energy consumption and carbon emissions, the provision of troops and other personnel for hazardous peacekeeping operations, the absorption of refugees and the control of arms exports to more transparent and accountable governance and the reallocation of public resources towards projects that benefit the neediest groups in society, as opposed to the most influential.这将需要所有国家在所有政策领域作出艰难决策并实行大胆改革,这些领域包括减少能源消费和碳排放量、为危险的维和行动提供部队及其他人员、接纳难民和管制武器出口、更透明和负责的施政、重新分配公共资源,支持惠益最需帮助的社会群体而不是最有影响力的社会群体的项目。
9. Indeed, none of the millennium development goals can be reached unless significant additional resources are made available.9.
Many of these resources will have to be found within the countries where they are spent, but a special obligation falls on the more fortunate countries to ensure that the less fortunate have a genuine opportunity to improve their lot.的确,除非提供大量额外资源,否则任何千年发展目标都将无法实现。许多这种资源将须在其使用国内调集,但较幸运的国家有特别义务来确保不那么幸运的国家真正有机会改善其命运。
10. In the Millennium Declaration, industrialized countries reaffirmed long-standing commitments to much higher levels of development assistance, much more generous debt relief, and duty- and quota-free access for exports from the least developed countries. Those that fail to honour these commitments must realize that they are failing also in the responsibility, which they have solemnly recognized, “to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level” (see General Assembly resolution 55/2, para. 2).10. 工业化国家在《千年宣言》中重申其长期承诺,即提供更多发展援助、更慷慨地减免债务并免除最不发达国家出口产品的关税和配额。未能履行这些承诺的国家必须认识到,它们同时也未能承担其业已庄严承认的责任,即“在全球维护人的尊严、平等与公平原则”(见大会第55/2号决议,第2段)。
11. The international community has just emerged from an era of commitment.11.
It must now enter an era of implementation, in which it mobilizes the will and resources needed to fulfil the promises made.国际社会刚刚走出一个作出承诺的时代。现在,它必须迈入执行承诺的时代,并为履行所作保证动员所需的意愿与资源。
II. Peace, security and disarmament二. 和平、安全与裁军
12. The turn of the millennium has brought new challenges and new opportunities, particularly in the field of peace and security. Today’s wars are mostly fought within States, although some conflicts have involved neighbouring countries, into which they spill over with destabilizing effects. The total number of armed conflicts is now declining and there has been a significant increase in the number of peace agreements, peacekeeping operations and other types of peace-making efforts by the international community. Nevertheless, civilians have become more vulnerable; women, children and humanitarian workers are deliberately targeted, and in some cases mutilation and rape are used as instruments of terror and control. This situation has compelled the international community to address these threats to human security.12. 千年之交带来了新的挑战和新的机遇,特别是在和平与安全领域。今天的战争大多是国内战争,虽然有些冲突蔓延到国外,卷入邻国,产生了破坏稳定的影响。武装冲突总数目前在下降,和平协定、维持和平行动以及国际社会建立和平的种种其他努力数目大增。然而,平民变得更加脆弱;妇女、儿童和人道主义工作人员成为蓄意攻击的目标,在某些情况下,残害和强奸被用作为制造恐怖和实施控制的手段。这种局势迫使国际社会出面处理这些对人类安全的威胁。
13. The principle of human-centred security, along with the need to protect individuals and communities from violence, is increasingly acknowledged. Human security depends first on the effective application of law and order, which in turn demands a firm adherence to the rule of law. A commitment to human security also demands enhanced international cooperation in conflict prevention, and strengthened capacities to assist countries in building, keeping and restoring peace. A further requirement for ensuring human security is disarmament, which involves a consistent and concerted effort from all. Progress here can both reduce global threats and save resources vital for social and economic well-being.13. 以人为中心的安全原则,连同保护个人和集体免遭暴力的必要性日益得到确认。人类安全首先依靠有效地实施法律,维持治安,而这又需要坚定地遵行法制。要促进人类安全,就需要在预防冲突方面加强国际合作,并加大力度援助各国建立、维持和恢复和平的能力。确保人类安全的另一项要求是裁军。裁军涉及各方协调一致的努力。裁军方面有进展既可以减少全球性威胁,又可以节省对社会和经济福利至关重要的资源。
A.A.
International rule of law国际法制
GOAL: Strengthen the international rule of law and compliance with the International Court of Justice and the Charter of the United Nations, ensure the implementation by States parties of treaties in such areas as arms control and disarmament and of international humanitarian law and human rights law, and call upon all States to consider signing and ratifying the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court1目标:加强国际法制,遵从国际法院和《联合国宪章》,确保诸如军备控制和裁军等领域的各项条约以及国际人道主义法和人权法得到缔约国的执行,并吁请所有国家考虑签署和批准《国际刑事法院罗马规约》。1
14. The Charter of the United Nations and other sources of international law have established conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties can be maintained.14.
The rule of law at the international level is becoming more widely accepted, and States are increasingly employing treaties to regulate their relations.《联合国宪章》及其他国际法渊源确定了可以维持主持正义和尊重条约义务的条件。国际一级的法制正在得到更广泛的接受,各国越来越多地用条约管理彼此之间的关系。
15. The rule of law is ultimately enforced through the application of democratic principles and international human rights and humanitarian norms. The primary responsibility for guaranteeing the protection and well-being of the individual rests with the State. While such structures as the International Criminal Court and the International Criminal Tribunals are critical in challenging the “culture of impunity” by deterring future human rights violations and thus acting as prevention mechanisms, there is no substitute for concrete State action to ensure that those who violate international law are brought to justice.15. 法制最终以适用各项民主原则以及国际人权和人道主义准则的方式实施。保障个人保护和福祉的主要责任在于国家。虽然诸如国际刑事法院和国际刑事法庭等组织,通过遏止未来的侵犯人权行径,对挑战“有罪不罚”文化至关重要,从而可成为预防机制,但是确保将违反国际法的人绳之以法的具体国家行动是无法取代的。 16. 截至2001年8月1日,秘书长保存了500余项重大多边文书,其中429项已经生效。这些条约形成了管理影响个人和社区生活的国家行为的综合全面的法律准则框架。这些条约涉及种种人类交往活动,从人权到使用外层空间不等。秘书长为千年首脑会议发起了一场促进签署和批准各种条约的运动,特别强调一组反映联合国重要宗旨的25项核心条约。共有84个代表团(59个由国家元首和政府首脑)签署或交存了与秘书长保存的40项多边协定有关的批准书或加入书。在为期三天的首脑会议,实际的签署书有187个、批准书或加入书有87项。这种活动每年将重复举行。今年的签约活动将于2001年9月19日至10月5日举行。题为“2001年重点:妇女和儿童权利”的活动,将与大会关于儿童问题的特别会议和大会开幕同时举行。 17. 现正提出重要倡议,向上述有罪不罚文化发出挑战。已为柬埔寨和塞拉利昂设计了混合征聘本国和国际工作人员以利用国家和国际司法管辖经验的法庭。这些法庭若能成功,即预示着有新办法可在有人犯下种族灭绝、危害人类罪和战争罪的国家消灭“有罪不罚”文化。这些机制将不仅解决目前的问题,还将在有关国家留下一支由受过训练的法官、律师和法律工作者组成的永久骨干队伍,并将协助把国际公正标准纳入国家法律制度。 18. 截至2001年8月19日,37个国家批准了《国际刑事法院罗马规约》。该规约首次规定设立一个审判被控犯下种族灭绝、战争罪和危害人类罪的个人的常设法庭。条约必须有六十份批准书才能生效。批准和加入的速度表明该规约将很快生效,这是向普遍人权和法治迈出的一大步。 19. 为了确保联合国部队遵守国际人道主义法,1999年公布了秘书长关于联合国部队遵守国际人道主义法的公报。2 这项措施对联合国维持和平行动的所有成员具有约束力,已传达到所有维持和平特派团,标志着正式承认国际人道主义法适用于联合国维持和平行动。这项措施将适用于联合国部队积极参与化解的武装冲突局势。 20. 前进战略: 支持各国设计与国际人权准则和标准相符的国内法律框架; 提供国际技术援助帮助,希望使其国内法律与国际义务保持一致的国家; 鼓励各国参加签约活动“2001年重点:妇女和儿童权利”,特别注意一组与提高妇女和儿童权利有关的23项选定条约; 支持各国执行包括条约在内的国际法律承诺,并发展联合国机制,如《条约手册》,以帮助各国政府起草立法和举办有关国际法各方面问题的培训方案。 确保国际法院的强制性管辖权得到最广泛的接受,并确保未来的多边条约条款规定将争端提交国际法院;并且 在国家一级努力推动批准和加入进程,以便获得《国际刑事法院罗马规约》生效所需的60份批准书。 目标:采取一致行动打击国际恐怖主义,并尽快加入所有相关的国际公约 21. 联合国反对国际恐怖主义的战略在很大程度上集中于设立法律框架的工作。已经通过十二项全球性公约和议定书以及很多宣言。加入关于恐怖主义问题的国际公约的国家数目正在缓慢地增加,执行速度有快有慢。在《关于犯罪与司法:迎接二十一世纪的挑战的维也纳宣言》3中,会员国承诺采取措施预防和打击助长恐怖主义的犯罪行为。 22.前进战略: 鼓励各国签署、批准和执行关于恐怖主义的公约和议定书; 支持国际社会努力最后确定制止核恐怖主义行为的国际公约草案,并努力拟订关于国际恐怖主义的全面公约;并且 继续努力在国家一级制定并通过相应的法律和行政程序。 目标:加倍努力履行我们对反击世界毒品问题的承诺 23. 非法贩运毒品一年创收1500亿至2500亿美元。这笔毒资或者被清洗,或被用来资助其他更多的非法活动和武装冲突。联合国帮助各国加强其打击贩运毒品的努力,方法是就管制毒品的策略提供咨询意见,查明并促进执法方面的良好做法以及制定提高执法当局效力的适当项目。 24. 三项关于毒品管制的国际公约几乎得到普遍批准;170个国家加入了《1961年麻醉品单一公约》;4 168个国家加入了《1971年精神药物公约》;5 160个国家加入了《1988年联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》。6 25. 会员国于1998年6月通过了大会第二十届特别会议的《政治宣言》,7从而承诺不迟于2003年确立或加强打击非法制造、贩运和滥用合成毒品的措施;打击洗钱的国家立法和方案以及司法执法当局之间的合作;促进司法和执法当局之间合作的措施;减少毒品需求的战略和方案。它们还进一步承诺不迟于2008年在减少毒品需求方面取得重大的可衡量的成果;大幅度消除或减少非法制造、销售和贩运包括合成毒品在内的精神药物,并大幅度消除或减少非法种植古柯、大麻和罂粟。 26. 前进战略: 支持各国确保在大会第二十届特别会议上作出的承诺得以实现;并 努力确保为各项替代发展方案提供充分的财政和技术支助,并设立改进过的监测和评价机制来评价替代发展干预的影响。 目标:加紧努力打击所有方面的跨国犯罪,包括贩卖和偷运人口以及洗钱行为 27. 大会最近通过了《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》8及其关于防止、禁止和惩治贩卖人口特别是妇女和儿童的议定书9关于打击陆、海空偷运移民的议定书。10以及关于打击非法制造和贩运枪支的议定书。11截至2001年8月14日,126个国家签署了这项公约。公约将在40个国家批准后生效,预计会在2002年底以前获得此数目。迄今为止,两个国家批准了这项公约。 28. 跨国犯罪每年的周转金估计有1万亿美元,盈利估计为5 000亿美元。犯罪组织正在将其行动转向涉及信息技术和金融部门的更为复杂的犯罪活动,并转向不那么“传统”的领域,包括贩卖人口和贩运枪支。例如,被贩卖的受害者目前估计每年有70万到2百万,大多数是妇女、儿童和赤贫者。 29. 腐败对法制、善政与发展的挑战现在得到了广泛承认。腐败夺走了许多发展中国家和转型期国家的国家资产。这些国家试图收回失去的这些钱,但由于没有适当的国际条约,又由于银行保密原因,有关工作却被拖延。制定一项将加强和动员反腐败的国家和国际行动的新公约的工作已经开始,有关该公约的谈判应在2003年底以前完成。 30. 前进战略: 鼓励各国尽快使《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》及其议定书生效并予以执行,帮助发展中国家履行这些文书产生的新义务; 研究网络空间罪行的复杂问题,特别是研究处理该问题的国际合作方式; 联合国继续努力利用其综合全面的信息、法律、管制和强制执行基础设施去打击洗钱;并 将对预防犯罪和刑事司法的关切纳入联合国和平行动。 目标:从今以后,个别及集体遵守奥林匹克休战,并支持国际奥林匹克委员会(国际奥委会)努力体育和奥林匹克理想,促进和平及人与人之间的相互谅解 31. 奥林匹克休战要求所有交战方在奥林匹克运动会前后的特定时间内停止敌对行动。这是化解冲突的重要工具,各国元首在1993年大会上表示赞同,12 并于千年首脑会议上再次加以赞成。13 国际奥林匹克委员会(国际奥委会)正在会同联合国伙伴及他方开展一些项目,发展体育,把体育作为冲突和冲突后局势下促进族裔和解的手段。秘书长体育促进发展与和平顾问正在确定联合国有哪些其它方案可以得益于体育组织的参与。 32. 前进战略: 加强会员国、国际奥委会和联合国系统之间的合作,利用体育推动经济和社会发展,并促进和平文化,尤其是在青年人中间这样做。 B. 加强联合国解决武装冲突的能力 目标:加强联合国维护和平与安全的能力,为它提供预防冲突、和平解决争端、维持和平及冲突后建设和平与重建所需要的资源和工具 33. 尽管过去十年间武装冲突次数减少,但战争继续带来巨大的苦痛,在非洲和亚洲尤其如此。在1990年代,武装冲突夺去了500万条生命,多为平民,幸存者身受其害、颠沛流离、家财两空,也是艰辛备尝。不能预防冲突,将需长期付出严酷的人力和物力代价。国际社会必须放弃被动反应的文化,提倡预防武装冲突的文化:这是确保持久和平的最理想、最合算的战略。 预防冲突: 34. 预防冲突如同冲突本身一样,是一个贯穿各领域的问题,不能孤立于发展、安全、政治、人权和环境领域的政策之外实施。可持续发展和人的安全之间有着重要的相互依存关系。社会稳定和社会正义的机制往往是与生活水平的提高同时并进的。这一进程是充满活力的:基本的发展目标推动善政的需求,反过来,善政的做法又为和平与发展提供了框架。 35. 发展是变革力量,可以激发人们的期望,但也可突出不平等之处,甚至引发暴力冲突。过去,每逢发展停顿、退步,加上不平等现象日趋严重,紧张局势加剧,这一问题就严重恶化。此种情形下预防战略的一项内容就是要把握发展步伐、力持公正,并确保能以可持续方式实施项目,确保当地的期望是有适当基础的。
16. As of 1 August 2001, the Secretary-General is the depositary of more than 500 major multilateral instruments, 429 of which are in force. These treaties form a comprehensive framework of legal norms regulating the conduct of nations that has a broad impact on the lives of individuals and communities. They span the spectrum of human interactions, from human rights to the use of outer space. For the Millennium Summit, the Secretary-General launched a campaign promoting the signature and ratification of a wide range of treaties, with particular emphasis on a set of 25 core treaties representative of the key objectives of the United Nations. A total of 84 delegations (59 at the head of state and government level) signed or deposited instruments of ratification or accession relating to 40 multilateral agreements deposited with the Secretary-General. During the three-day Summit, 187 signatures and 87 ratifications or accessions were effected. The event will be repeated annually. This year’s treaty event will be held from 19 September to 5 October 2001. Entitled “Focus 2001: rights of women and children”, it will coincide with the special session of the General Assembly on children and the opening of the General Assembly.36. 有效的预防冲突战略必须以多学科的全面办法为基础,并照顾到每种情形下独特的环境。这一办法应包括结构措施以处理冲突的根本原因,如社会、经济方面的不平等现象或否定基本人权等等。此外还应包括预防危机的特别措施,如实况调查团、预防性外交或预防性部署。在联合国内,我们已开始着眼于较长期的预防,以补足较传统的政治、军事冲突预防活动,并把这一做法有意识地贯穿于一切工作之中。将继续利用有效的预防性外交措施,包括派实况调查团和建立信任特派团、特使出访、以及由秘书长进行“斡旋”。
17. Important initiatives are under way to challenge the culture of impunity referred to above. Tribunals of mixed national and international staff, drawing on national and international jurisdiction, have been designed for Cambodia and Sierra Leone. If successful, they may herald a new approach to eradicating impunity in countries where genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes have been committed. These mechanisms will not only resolve current issues but also leave a permanent cadre of trained judges, lawyers and legal staff in the country involved, and will help to integrate international standards of justice into national legal systems.37. 近年来,世界各地的学术、研究机构会同联合国负责研究的部门,例如联合国大学和联合国训练研究所,都相当重视预防问题。非政府组织已成为预防行动和预防性外交的重要渠道。非政府组织还成为意见相左的各团体进行沟通和谈判的公正论坛,传播有关反应机会及政策简报方面的研究成果,并提高国际认识,使注意即将到来或正在发生的冲突。此外,在预防冲突领域,目前正在形成国际联网能力,把学术专家、非政府组织和民间社会其它部门同联合国机其它各个国际组织和区域组织系统地联系起来。
18. As of 19 August 2001, 37 countries have ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which provides, for the first time, a permanent tribunal for trying individuals accused of committing genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Sixty ratifications are needed before the treaty will enter into force. The pace of ratification and accession augurs well for the Statute’s early entry into force, which will be a giant step forward in the march towards universal human rights and the rule of law.38. 预防冲突的其它战略有:跟踪“血腥钻石”及其它“冲突资源”并加以标志。2001年7月,40个钻石生产国、世界钻石理事会和欧洲联盟(欧盟)提出了验证制度的主要原则,该制度规定各国政府确认钻石正当合法,并要生产商向其政府作出保证。各项战略亦可纳入消除非法小武器流动的内容,例如通过一些冲突后计划,以票据或现金换武器的办法来实行。
19. In order to ensure that United Nations forces comply with international humanitarian law, a Secretary-General’s bulletin on the observance by United Nations forces of international humanitarian law was issued in 1999.2 This measure is binding upon all members of United Nations peace operations and has been disseminated to all peacekeeping missions, signalling formal recognition of the applicability of international humanitarian law to United Nations peace operations. It will apply in situations of armed conflict where United Nations forces are actively engaged.39. 安全理事会最近关于预防武器冲突的第1366(2001)号决议是预防冲突方面特别重大的成就。该决议广泛地逐步认可与预防有关的一系列问题,同时提出建议,协助推动对话,这是值得欢迎的。安全理事会这一决议强调预防冲突的基本职责在于各国政府,但安理会也表示愿在工作中采纳长期综合预防战略。
20.40.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略:
Supporting States in designing domestic legal frameworks consistent with international human rights norms and standards;及早采取更多持续的行动,处理冲突的根源,针对各区域制定更好的一体化预防战略,并提高各会员国、区域组织和联合国系统采取有效预防行动的能力;
Making international technical assistance available to help countries that wish to harmonize their domestic laws with international obligations;鼓励各国确保资产的公平分配及资源的公平获取;
Encouraging States to take part in the treaty event “Focus 2001: rights of women and children”, with particular attention to the set of 23 selected treaties relating to the advancement of women’s and children’s rights;敦促各国对秘书长关于预防武装冲突的报告 14 中的各项建议采取行动;
Supporting States to implement international legal commitments, including treaties, and developing United Nations mechanisms, such as the Treaty Handbook, to help Governments draft legislation and run training programmes on aspects of international law;加强处理结构风险因素的国家能力,提供联合国咨询服务和技术援助;以及
Ensuring the widest acceptance of the International Court of Justice’s compulsory jurisdiction, and ensuring that provisions in future multilateral treaties provide for disputes to be referred to the International Court of Justice;继续联合国多学科实况调查团,鼓励各国和安全理事会利用预防性部署、建立预防冲突知名人士非正式网络。
Working at the national level to advance ratification and accession processes in order to reach the 60 ratifications required for the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court to enter into force.维持和平:
GOAL: To take concerted action against international terrorism and to accede as soon as possible to all the relevant international conventions41. 1948年以来,联合国共开展了54次维和行动,其中三分之二是1991年之后部署的。然而,过去五十年来,尤其是过去十年来,维持和平的趋势有起有伏。今天,积极开展活动的维和行动有16起。相应地,军队人数和民警编制也有增加。1999年,在联合国行动中供职的军队有35 000人,民警有8 000名。与区域组织的合作成了维和工作的重要方面,不过各区域维持和平能力高低不平,影响了同联合国合作的性质。区域行动者有动力、了解情况,联合国具有合法性、专门知识和资源,两方面结合起来,可以促进国际社会谋求和平的工作。发展中国家派遣部队的情况大有改善。1991年,前10名部队派遣国中,只有两个是发展中国家;2001年,前10名部队派遣国中,八个是发展中国家。
21. The United Nations strategy against international terrorism has largely focused on efforts to create a legal framework. Twelve global conventions and protocols, as well as numerous declarations, have been adopted. The number of States acceding to the international conventions on terrorism is increasing slowly, and the rate of implementation varies. In the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century,3 Member States committed themselves to take measures to prevent and combat criminal acts that further terrorism.42. 维持和平固然是至为重要的工具,但以前曾有倾向把它作为权宜之计,而不努力投资,使之取得长期成功。会员国现已认识到必须把维持和平任务同人力、物力、财力和政治上的支持相结合;我们一起迈上了争取优秀行动成绩的征途。
22.43.
Strategies for moving forward include: Encouraging States to sign, ratify and implement the conventions and protocols relating to terrorism;联合国和平行动问题小组及维持和平行动特别委员会各份报告 15 已详细说明,由于总部人手不足,外勤人员短缺,财力不敷,部队、人员和资源的供应也跟不上,联合国维持和平的能力受到制约。此外,由于有人把维和视为临时措施、而非联合国核心职能,因此,即使是总部也没有得到正常开展工作所需要的资源。
Supporting the international community in its efforts to finalize the draft international convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, and efforts to draw up a comprehensive convention on international terrorism;44.
Continuing efforts to develop and adopt corresponding laws and administrative procedures at the national level.《千年宣言》要求迅速审议联合国和平行动问题小组的各项建议。大会对增拨资源的建议作出了反应,于2000年12月为联合国提供93名员额,并正在审议一份预算以回应针对关于增加员额配置、加强管理措施和文化、把立法指导化为今后维和行动战略计划的其他建议。在制定30天至90天部署能力方面取得进展,尤其令人鼓舞。维和改革进程包括军人、文职人员和民警人员的扩大待命安排,以及制定通盘后勤支助和人事战略。加强联合国维和工作的其它努力有:形成长期规划能力、提高总部和外地特派团关系的效率、加强培训能力、让维和人员接受标准训练、包括在人权和人道主义法方面受训。为改善和平与安全执行委员会的运作所作的其它努力,如设一小秘书处,对增强决策能力,包括增强与维和有关领域的决策能力,会有助益。
GOAL: To redouble our efforts to implement our commitment to counter the world drug problem45. 前进战略:
23. Illicit drug traffic generates between $150 billion to $250 billion a year, which is either laundered or used to finance further illegal activities and armed conflict. The United Nations helps countries to strengthen their efforts to combat drug trafficking by advising on strategic approaches to drug control, identifying and promoting good practice in law enforcement and developing appropriate projects to enhance the effectiveness of law enforcement authorities.确保各会员国和联合国从速完成维和改革进程,尤其注重今年就取得更大进步所必需的立法决定、包括关于财政资源的立法决定达成协定;
24. Ratification of the three international conventions on drug control is close to universal: 170 States are parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961,4 168 are parties to the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 19715 and 160 are parties to the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988.6增强联合国与各区域组织之间的协作;以及
25. By adopting the Political Declaration at the twentieth special session of the General Assembly, in June 1998,7 Member States committed themselves to establishing or strengthening by 2003 measures against the illicit manufacture, trafficking and abuse of synthetic drugs; national legislation and programmes against money-laundering and cooperation among judicial law enforcement authorities; measures to promote cooperation among judicial and law enforcement authorities; and drug demand reduction strategies and programmes. They further committed themselves to achieving significant and measurable results in drug demand reduction; significant elimination or reduction of the illicit manufacture, marketing and trafficking of psychotropic substances, including synthetic drugs and significant elimination or reduction of the illicit cultivation of coca, cannabis and opium poppy by 2008.更为重视维持和平行动中的性别、人道主义和解除武装的问题。
26. Strategies for moving forward include:建设和平与重建:
Supporting States to ensure that the commitments made at the twentieth special session of the General Assembly are realized;46. 联合国及其专门机构相当一部分工作涉及和平解决争端、包括通过法律机制解决争端,也涉及建设和平和重建饱受战争创伤的社会。这项工作往往是低调的、长期的,但对于促进世界和平与公正的工作而言,则是至关重要的。
Working to secure adequate financial and technical support for alternative development programmes, and to set up improved monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess the impact of alternative development interventions.47. 联合国解决争端的工具,既有秘书长斡旋,也有秘书长高级别特使和特别代表的特派团,还有各业务机构采纳的长期倡议和方案。其它工作还有真相与和解委员会以及族裔对话活动,目的是要把利益有关者、通常是在国内冲突中的利益有关者集合起来,在非对抗性环境中讨论并化解分歧。各国间的冲突可以通过利用国际法律框架、提请国际法院加以解决。
GOAL: To intensify our efforts to fight transnational crime in all its dimensions, including trafficking in and smuggling human beings and money-laundering48. 化解冲突机制,尤其是涉及真相与和解的机制,即使在暴力冲突开始后也是至为重要的,但随之应在“建设和平”框架内采取更加广泛的措施。建设和平的工作涉及政治、发展、经济、社会、安全、人道主义和人权方面的长期措施,这些措施是要从根源着手,防止冲突爆发或重起。建设和平工作的形式多种多样:前战斗人员解除武装、复员和重返社会、加强法治和司法、提供选举和治理方面的援助、支持发展民间社会和独立自由的新闻媒介;开展土改、在当地社区一级提高化解冲突与谋求和解的技能。
27. The General Assembly recently adopted the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime8 and its Protocols to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children,9 against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air,10 and against Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms.11 As of 14 August 2001, there are 126 signatories to the Convention, which will enter into force once it has been ratified by 40 States, which is expected to happen by the end of 2002. To date, two States have ratified the Convention.49. 联合国早先在纳米比亚和柬埔寨有了经验,1992年发表《和平纲领》,16 最近又派特派团去东帝汶、科索沃和塔吉克斯坦,从中积累了丰富的建设和平的实际经验。《千年宣言》强调要增拨资源和工具、以进行有效的建设和平工作,这是很及时的,因为最近这方面的理论构思和实际业务工作都有增加。
28. Transnational crime has an estimated turnover of $1 trillion and estimated profits of $500 billion per year. Criminal organizations are shifting their operations to more sophisticated criminal activities, involving information technology and the financial sector, as well as to less “traditional” areas, including trafficking in human beings and trafficking in firearms. For example, estimates of the number of trafficking victims now range from 700,000 to 2 million a year, mostly women, children and the very poor.50. 千年首脑会议以来,在建设和平领域推行了若干倡议。2001年2月,安全理事会举行了主题辩论,并同区域组织就建设和平问题进行了磋商。联合国系统内有关建设和平政策的工作仍在进行,全系统都提出了重要建议。联合国各部门、机构、基金和方案业务知识丰富,大家也越来越多地认识到,最成功的维持和平行动有助于建设能帮助防止下一轮冲突的机构、社会基础设施和经济能力。
29. The challenge that corruption poses to the rule of law, good governance and development is now widely recognized. Corruption has robbed many developing and transition countries of their national assets. Attempts by such countries to recover money lost in this way have been delayed by the absence of appropriate international treaties and by bank secrecy. Work on a new convention that will strengthen and mobilize national and international actions against corruption has begun, and the negotiations for this convention should be complete by the end of 2003.51. 从化解冲突向恢复和平过渡时,要集中注重可持续措施。联合国在某一国家内的所有行动者可以、而且也确实在对建设和平作出贡献。许多部门和机构已设置了专门的建设和平职能,或正在设置过程中,而且已做了相当的工作,促进这方面的机构间协调。在建设和平工作中,各业务机构作出了巨大贡献。在当地,联合国驻地协调员和国家小组正在加强方案拟订工作的连贯性,总部也在设立建设和平股,以支助这些活动。
30.52.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略:
Encouraging States to bring into force and implement the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols as soon as possible, and to help developing countries meet new obligations arising from these instruments;确保国际社会提供充分的资源,使冲突后社会得以恢复和发展;
Directing research towards the complexities of cyber-crime, particularly on modalities of international cooperation to deal with it;加强联合国驻地协调员和国家小组进行有效的建设和平工作的能力;
Continuing efforts by the United Nations to employ its comprehensive information, legal, regulatory and enforcement infrastructure to combat money-laundering;通过解除武装、复员和重返社会措施,巩固和平、防止冲突再起;
Incorporating crime prevention and criminal justice concerns into United Nations peace operations.根据最近派出的评价工作团的调查结论,改善联合国建设和平支助办事处的运作。
GOAL: To observe the Olympic Truce, individually and collectively, now and in the future, and to support the International Olympic Committee in its efforts to promote peace and human understanding through sport and the Olympic ideal目标:根据《联合国宪章》第八章的规定加强联合国和区域组织的合作
31. The Olympic Truce requires all belligerents to cease hostilities for a specific period around the Olympic Games. This is an important conflict resolution tool, endorsed by heads of State at the General Assembly in 199312 and again at the Millennium Summit.13 The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is engaged in a number of projects, with United Nations partners and others, to develop sport as a means for the reconciliation of communities in conflict or post-conflict situations. The Secretary-General’s Adviser on Sports for Development and Peace is identifying other United Nations programmes that might benefit from the involvement of sports organizations.53. 许多区域组织都在建立或增强它们在和平与安全领域的能力,如建立冲突预防和冲突管理的机构能力。此外,联合国和区域组织作出了许多合作安排,如联合国日内瓦办事处、欧洲联盟、欧洲委员会和欧洲安全与合作组织(欧安组织)举行年度会议,1998年在亚的斯亚贝巴设立一个同非洲统一组织(非统组织)总部联络的联合国办事处。在维和与建和方面,联合国和区域集团或共同部署,或分担责任。科索沃特派团可以看出这种合作的新方式,该团确立了由区域伙伴向联合国科索沃临时行政当局特派团(科索沃特派团)直接报告的渠道。其他实际合作形式业已出现,如外地联合预防冲突特派团。
32.54.
Strategy for moving forward:从1994年以来,联合国和区域组织每两年举行一次高级别会议。1998年的主题是冲突预防。今年的会议于2001年2月举行,审查了在建设和平领域扩大合作的可能性。来自区域、分区域和其他国际组织的18个代表团参加了会议并通过了“建设和平合作框架”。欧安组织将举办第一次区域讲习班,讨论具体的区域合作问题。
Enhancing cooperation between Member States, IOC and the United Nations system to use sport in economic and social development, and for the promotion of a culture of peace, particularly among youth.55. 前进战略:
B. Strengthening United Nations capacities for resolving armed conflict联合国和区域组织继续每两年举行一次高级别会议;
GOAL: Make the United Nations more effective in maintaining peace and security by giving it the resources and tools it needs for conflict prevention, the peaceful resolution of disputes, peacekeeping, and post-conflict peace-building and reconstruction通过区域组织和联合国的能力建设、战略发展和业务互动加强合作;和
33. Despite a decline in the number of armed conflicts during the past decade, wars continue to cause immense suffering, particularly in Africa and Asia. In the 1990s, armed conflict claimed more than 5 million lives, most of them civilians, and inflicted hardship on its survivors through injury, displacement and dispossession. The human and material costs of failing to prevent conflict are harsh and lasting. The international community must move from a culture of reaction to a culture of prevention of armed conflict: it is the most desirable and cost-effective strategy to ensure lasting peace.加强国家和区域的预防冲突、化解冲突与建设和平机制并探索同民间社会建立联系的途径。
Conflict prevention目标:尽量减少联合国经济制裁对无辜百姓的不利影响,定期审查制裁制度,以及消除制裁对第三方的不利影响
34. Conflict prevention, like conflict itself, is a cross-cutting issue and cannot be implemented in isolation from policies in the development, security, political, human rights and environmental arenas. There is a critical interdependence between sustainable development and human security. Mechanisms of social stability and societal justice usually develop hand in hand with improvements in living standards. This process is a dynamic one, with basic development goals reinforcing the need for good governance, and in turn good governance practices providing a framework for peace and development.56. 根据《联合国宪章》第七章第四十一条采取的强制性措施是安全理事会设法维护或恢复国际和平与安全的重要工具。然而,近年来人们日益关注制裁对易受伤害的平民百姓的不利影响以及对第三方的附带影响。全面制裁有可能对平民造成困苦,困苦程度与可能获得的政治收益不成比例。掌权者可以把这些代价转给易受伤害者,还可从黑市活动中获利和用制裁作为掩盖其本身所犯错误的理由。还有,邻国承受了实施制裁造成的大部分贸易损失。因此,应进一步利用《宪章》的现有规定,减少制裁对这些国家所产生的经济影响。
35. Development is a force of change that can raise expectations but can also highlight disparities and even trigger violent conflicts. This problem has been exacerbated in the past, when development has stopped, regressed or been accompanied by rising inequalities, causing tensions to increase. Part of the prevention strategy in these situations is to manage the pace of development and foster equity, also ensuring that projects can be undertaken in a sustainable manner and that local expectations are set appropriately.57. 为了解决这些问题,各会员国、政府间组织、非政府组织和学术界专家一直努力提高联合国制裁的效果,修订目标明确的制裁概念。这些措施有财政制裁、武器禁运、旅行禁令和外交限制。已举行了确定联合国财政制裁目标的专家讨论会,以探索会员国、政府间组织、非政府组织和专家实地合作的基础。讨论会又研讨了设计和应用安全理事会目标明确的针对决策上层人士的财政制裁等问题。目标明确的财政制裁可以提高制裁工具的效果,减少无意造成的消极影响。
36. Effective conflict prevention strategies need to be based on a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, tailored to the unique circumstances of each situation. This approach should include structural measures to address the underlying causes of conflict, such as socio-economic inequalities or the denial of fundamental human rights. It should also include operational measures aimed at crisis prevention, such as fact-finding missions, preventive diplomacy or preventive deployment. Within the United Nations, we have begun to supplement our more traditional political and military conflict prevention activities with a longer-term vision of prevention, which we are now building more consciously into all our work. Effective preventive diplomacy measures will continue to be utlilized, including fact-finding and confidence-building missions, visits by special envoys, as well as the exercise of the Secretary-General’s “good offices”.58. 安全理事会最近采取的制裁措施目标更加明确,在所有这些制裁制度中,安理会设法把制裁压力集中在对违反和平与安全国际准则的行为负责者身上,同时努力减少对百姓和受影响的第三国的人道主义影响。不过,就是目标明确的制裁也可能不足以恢复和平或制止非法行动。必须将它们纳入化解冲突的全面战略或预防冲突的全面战略,同时必须用诱导措施加以补充。
37. In recent years, academic and research institutes around the world, together with United Nations research arms, such as the United Nations University and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, have significantly increased their focus on prevention issues. Non-governmental organizations have emerged as an important channel for preventive action and diplomacy. They have provided impartial forums for divided groups to communicate and negotiate, disseminate studies on response opportunities and policy briefs, and act as advocates in raising international awareness of impending or ongoing conflict. In addition, an international networking capacity in the field of conflict prevention is currently being developed to systematically link academic experts, non-governmental organizations and other sectors of civil society to the United Nations and various other international and regional organizations.59. 还必须寻找办法解决监测制裁的困难。目前这项任务主要由会员国承担,但是他们往往缺少有效监测的能力。需要发展一种长期的制裁监测机制,以确保制裁目标更加明确,同时实施智制裁,并把不合作和不遵守规定的情况提请安全理事会注意。这就能够更系统地跟踪那些违反制裁或不同联合国专家小组和制裁委员会合作的国家和非国家行为人,以及为安全理事会和处理制裁问题的其他国际组织及区域组织提供一个联络点。因此,安全理事会必须商定它的政策目标和如何确定制裁是否成功。
38. Other strategies for conflict prevention can include tracking and marking “blood diamonds” and other “conflict resources”. In July 2001, 40 diamond-producing countries, the World Diamond Council and the European Union (EU) came up with the main principles of a certification system requiring Governments to confirm the legitimacy of diamonds and producers to give guarantees to their Governments. Strategies can also include eliminating the flow of illegal small arms, such as through post-conflict schemes in which vouchers or cash are offered in exchange for weapons.60. 安全理事会还更经常地使用联合国专家小组,它有记录证明违反制裁的情况,包括非法军火贩运和非法钻石销售,并提出改进国际监测工作的建议。安全理事会可以在实施制裁前增加进行人道主义评估的次数以及在实施制裁后继续监测人道主义的影响,如最近在阿富汗那样。安全理事会主席2000年4月17日设立的安全理事会制裁问题工作组已申明,一对有关建议达成协商一致意见,就会向安理会报告。
39. A particularly important achievement with regard to conflict prevention is the recent Security Council resolution 1366 (2001) on the prevention of armed conflict. The resolution is a broad and progressive endorsement of a range of issues related to prevention, and should be welcomed for its recommendations and its contribution to the dialogue. In the resolution, the Security Council stressed that national Governments hold the essential responsibility for conflict prevention, but the Council also demonstrated a willingness to integrate a comprehensive and long-term preventive strategy into its work.61. 前进战略:
40. Strategies for moving forward include:支持国际社会继续努力设计目标明确的制裁;和
Earlier and more sustained action to address the underlying causes of conflict, development of improved integrated prevention strategies with a regional focus, and enhancing the capacity of Member States, regional organizations and the United Nations system to undertake effective preventive action;支持安全理事会改进制裁机制的国际监测工作和努力评估制裁产生的人道主义影响。
Encouraging States to ensure the equitable distribution of assets and access to resources;C. 裁军
Urging States to act on the recommendations made in the report of the Secretary-General on the prevention of armed conflict;14 Strengthening national capacities for addressing structural risk factors by providing United Nations advisory services and technical assistance;62. 尽管冷战已经结束,但全球军事开支却不断增加。1998年的军事开支为7 620亿美元,而2000年大规模毁灭性武器、常规武器、研究和开发以及人事费用达8 000亿美元左右。由于缺少若干国家的数据,包括目前处于冲突中的某些国家,实际的总额可能更高。这种趋势预示着新一轮军备竞赛的危险。《限制反弹道导弹条约》17 可能死亡,这威胁到整个裁军和不扩散条约框架,同时增加了新的军备竞赛的危险,包括外层空间的军备竞赛。全世界的无辜人民仍受到大规模毁灭性武器的威胁。他们还受到主要常规武器、小武器和轻武器足以破坏稳定的积聚及非法销售,以及地雷的继续生产和使用等威胁。不过,在所有这些挑战中,完全销毁核武器必须继续列为最高度优先事项。
Continuing to utilize United Nations multidisciplinary fact-finding missions, encouraging States and the Security Council to use preventive deployments and establishing an informal network of eminent persons for conflict prevention.目标:努力消除大规模毁灭性武器,特别是核武器,为实现这个目标,保留一切选择办法,包括可能召开一次国际会议,以确定消除核危险的方式
Peacekeeping63. 尽管人们不断广泛要求增强透明度,但是没有任何官方数字说明当今世界上核武器的数量或它们的费用总额。不过,根据几个估计数字,世界上有30000多件核武器,其中许多处于一触即发的戒备状态。
41. A total of 54 United Nations peacekeeping operations have been set up since 1948, two thirds of those since 1991. However, peacekeeping trends have fluctuated over the past 50 years, particularly over the last decade. Today, there are 16 active peacekeeping operations. Correspondingly, the numbers of military troops and civilian police staffing levels have also increased. In 1999, there were 9,000 military troops and 2,000 civilian police serving in United Nations operations; today, there are 35,000 military troops and 8,000 civilian police. Cooperation with regional organizations has become an important aspect of peacekeeping, although varying regional peacekeeping capacities influence the nature of cooperation with the United Nations. Combining the motivation and knowledge of regional actors with the legitimacy, expertise and resources of the United Nations can enhance the international community’s work for peace. Troop contributions from developing countries have increased substantially. In 1991, only two of the top 10 troop contributors were developing countries; in 2001, eight of the top 10 contributors are developing countries.64. 虽然《全面禁止核试验条约》18 已有161份签署书和77份批准书,但是它还没有生效。五个核武器国家(根据《不扩散核武器条约》19 的定义),仅有3个批准了该条约。第二阶段裁武条约,20 是美国和俄罗斯联邦的双边条约, 双方承诺把核武器减少到约3 500件,但还没有生效。
42. Although peacekeeping is a vital instrument, there was previously a tendency to treat it as a temporary aberration rather than to invest in its long-term success.65.
Member States have now recognized the need to match peacekeeping mandates with human, material, financial and political support, and we have embarked together on the journey towards achieving operational excellence.虽然日益需要关于核裁军、裂变材料和防止外层空间军备竞赛的新协议,但是裁军谈判会议仍然陷于僵局。这种僵局引起国际社会的严重关切,认为既定多边裁军机制的效力已受到不利影响。
43. As detailed in the reports of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations and of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations,15 United Nations peacekeeping capacity has suffered from shortages in Headquarters staff, field personnel and financial resources, and in the availability of troops, personnel and resources.66.
Furthermore, because of the perception that peacekeeping was a temporary endeavour rather than a core function of the United Nations, Headquarters in particular was not equipped with the level of resources it needed to function adequately.尽管存在这些趋势,但是有些事态发展为将来的进展奠下基础。在冷战高峰时期部署的核武器中有一大半已经拆卸。绝大多数国家充分遵守了它们对大规模毁灭性武器的法律义务。不遵守国际原子能机构保障协定和安全理事会决议的情况很少,形成不了全球趋势。
44. The Millennium Declaration called for expeditious consideration of the recommendations of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. The General Assembly responded to the recommendation to make additional resources available, providing the United Nations with 93 posts in December 2000, and is now considering a budget for further recommendations on increased staffing levels, on strengthening management practices and culture, and on translating legislative guidance into strategic plans for future peacekeeping operations. The progress made towards developing a 30-to-90-day deployment capability is particularly welcome. The peacekeeping reform process includes expanded standby arrangements for military, civilian and civilian police personnel, and the development of global logistics support and staffing strategies. Further efforts to strengthen United Nations peacekeeping include creating a long-term planning capacity, improving efficiency in the relationship between headquarters and field missions and enhancing training capacity, whereby peacekeepers will receive standardized training, including in human rights and humanitarian law. Related efforts to enhance the functioning of the Executive Committee on Peace and Security, through the provision of a small secretariat, will contribute to enhance decision-making capabilities, including in areas pertaining to peacekeeping.67. 1996年国际法院关于威胁使用或使用核武器合法性的咨询意见增强了消除核武器工作的力量。国际法院一致裁定,除非符合适用于武装冲突的国际法有规定,否则不得威胁使用或使用核武器,“各国有义务诚意推动并完成在严格有效的国际管制下进行的导致在所有方面实现核裁军的谈判”。21 五个核武器国家对核裁军作出了毫不含糊的承诺。
45.68.
Strategies for moving forward include:消除其他大规模毁灭性武器的工作取得了一些进展。在《关于禁止发展、生产和储存细菌(生物)及毒素武器和销毁此种武器的公约》22 缔约国第五次审查会议上,预期将讨论旨在强化《公约》的谈判状况。自1997年《关于禁止发展’生产、储存和使用化学武器及销毁此种武器的公约》23 生效以来,已销毁约5 600吨化学剂和160万件军需品和储存器,禁止化学武器组织在49个国家进行了约1 000次检查。
Ensuring the expeditious completion of the peacekeeping reform process by Member States and the United Nations, focusing in particular on reaching an agreement in 2001 on the legislative decisions required for further progress, including on financial resources;69. 2005年不扩散条约审查会议的筹备工作将于2002年开始。一个政府专家小组将开始进行一项导弹研究,于2002年向大会提出报告。2001年9月5日至27日将召开促进全面禁止核试验条约生效会议。大会于2000年11月决定就裁军和不扩散方面的教育和培训问题进行为期两年的研究。
Increasing collaboration between the United Nations and regional organizations;70. 应当探索能否在其他领域,如导弹和外层空间,建立可核查和不可逆准则。在政府间一级,早就应该有一个机会讨论包括多边裁军机制在内的更加广泛的裁军问题。
Dedicating greater attention to gender, humanitarian and disarmament issues in peacekeeping operations.71. 前进战略:
Peace-building and reconstruction更加努力确保《不扩散条约》、《生物武器公约》和《化学武器公约》的全面实施并促进它们的普遍性;
46. A significant part of the work of the United Nations and its specialized agencies is in the area of peaceful dispute resolution, including through legal mechanisms, and in programmes for building peace and reconstructing war-torn societies. This work tends to be low-key and long-term but is vital in efforts to achieve a more peaceful and just world.召开专门讨论裁军问题的国际会议;
47. The United Nations uses a number of tools for dispute resolution, ranging from the Secretary-General’s good offices and missions by his high-level envoys and special representatives to longer-term initiatives and programmes undertaken by the operational agencies. Other efforts include truth and reconciliation commissions and community dialogue activities, which aim to bring together stakeholders, usually in intra-State conflicts, to discuss and resolve differences in non-confrontational settings. Conflicts between States can be resolved through the use of the international legal framework and the International Court of Justice.联合国继续加强公共问责制、说明裁军的好处和监测武器的研究和开发活动;和
48. Dispute resolution mechanisms, particularly those concerned with truth and reconciliation, are critical even after a violent conflict has begun, but they should be accompanied by a broader range of measures that fall under the rubric of “peace-building”. Peace-building involves long-term political, developmental, economic, social, security, humanitarian and human rights measures aimed at preventing the outbreak or recurrence of conflict by addressing its root causes. It can take many forms, such as the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants; strengthening the rule of law and the administration of justice; providing electoral and governance assistance; supporting the development of civil society and of the free and independent media; engaging in land reform; and promoting conflict resolution and reconciliation techniques at the local community level.支持国际社会,包括民间社会,努力消除大规模毁灭性武器。
49. From early experiences in Namibia and Cambodia and the 1992 publication of the Agenda for Peace16 to more recent missions in East Timor, Kosovo and Tajikistan, the United Nations has acquired a wealth of practical peace-building experience. The Millennium Declaration’s focus on additional resources and tools for effective peace-building is timely, given the recent increase in both conceptual and operational work in this area.目标:吁请所有国家考虑加入《关于禁止使用、储存、生产和转让杀伤人员地雷及销毁此种地雷的公约》(禁止杀伤人员地雷公约)24 以及某些常规武器公约的地雷问题修正议定书25
50. A number of initiatives have been taken in the peace-building arena since the Millennium Summit. In February 2001, there was a thematic debate of the Security Council, a presidential statement of the Security Council (S/PRST/2001/5) and a consultation on peace-building with regional organizations. Work within the system on peace-building policy is ongoing and has seen important contributions from throughout the system. There is a vast body of operational expertise in all the United Nations departments, agencies, funds and programmes, and a growing recognition that the most successful peacekeeping operations help to build the institutions, social infrastructure and economic capacities that can help to prevent what would otherwise be the next round of conflict.72. 地雷继续妨碍世界近三分之一国家的人民的发展并危害他们的安全。针对这种状况,联合国现已向30多个国家计划提供或提供了排雷行动支助,这比1997年以来的支助增加了一倍。重要的是,独立的研究表明,在同一时期地雷的生产和转让几乎已经停止,同时已成功地谴责地雷的使用。尽管如此,每天还继续发生人员触雷伤亡事件,有些国家和团伙仍执意部署地雷。
51. Moving from resolving conflict to restoring peace requires a focus on sustainable measures. All United Nations actors present in a specific country can and do contribute to peace-building. Many departments and agencies have established or are in the process of establishing specialized peace-building functions, while considerable work has gone into inter-agency coordination in this area. The contribution of operational agencies is vital in peace-building. On the ground, United Nations resident coordinators and country teams are improving the coherence of their programming, and a peace-building unit is being established at Headquarters to support these activities.73. 通过民间社会监测、透明度措施和缔约国年会,谴责地雷使用和销毁现有库存地雷的势头继续保持。到2001年6月29日为止,《禁止杀伤人员地雷公约》共有117个缔约国。自《千年宣言》公布以来,有12个国家加入或批准了该公约,有58个国家参加了《禁止或限制使用某些可被认为具有过分伤害力或滥杀滥伤作用的常规武器公约第二修正议定书》。26 彻底消除杀伤人员地雷仍是人类安全和社会经济发展的极为重要的条件。
52.74.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略:
Securing adequate resources from the international community to permit recovery and development for post-conflict societies;鼓励各国批准或加入《禁止杀伤人员地雷公约》和《某些常规武器公约》并接受《第二修正议定书》,以实现这些公约和修正议定书的普遍化;
Strengthening the capacity of United Nations resident coordinators and country teams to undertake effective peace-building;鼓励各国向秘书长提供《禁止杀伤人员地雷公约》第7条规定的完整和及时的信息;和
Consolidating peace and preventing the recurrence of conflict through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration measures;联合国继续为受地雷影响的国家和区域制定排雷、防雷宣传、受害者援助等方案和应急计划。
Improving the functioning of the United Nations peace-building support offices based on the findings of the recent evaluation mission.目标:采取协调一致行动,考虑到联合国小武器和轻武器非法贸易问题会议的所有建议,增加武器转让的透明度和支持区域裁军措施,制止小武器和轻武器的非法贩运
GOAL: To strengthen cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations75. 小武器和轻武器的非法贸易是对国际和平与安全的严重挑战。它们的过度积聚和容易获取破坏了冲突后的重建和发展工作、威胁了人类安全并违反了人道主义法和人权。世界上至少有95个国家600多家公司合法生产小武器,全球小武器生产的价值估计超过14亿美元,弹药生产达26亿美元。世界各地可获得的小武器和轻武器估计有5亿件。即使在冲突区之外,这些武器也对经济、社会和人类发展造成了严重的不利影响。
53. A number of regional organizations are establishing or enhancing their capacity in the peace and security area, such as through the establishment of institutional capacities for conflict prevention and conflict management. In addition, the United Nations and regional organizations have created a number of cooperative arrangements, such as annual meetings between the United Nations Office at Geneva, the European Union, the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the establishment in 1998 of a United Nations office in Addis Ababa to liaise with the headquarters of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In peacekeeping and peace-building situations, the United Nations and regional groups have codeployed or have divided responsibilities. A new permutation of such cooperation can be seen in the mission in Kosovo, where direct reporting lines have been established from regional partners to the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Other practical forms of cooperation have evolved, such as fielding joint conflict prevention missions.76. 为了解决小武器非法贸易问题,全球和区域两级目前正提出各种倡议。区域一级的措施有签署具有法律效力的条约,加强和采取暂停转让和生产这类武器的区域或分区域措施。这些措施包括西非国家经济共同体关于暂停小武器生产和贸易的声明;《美洲国家禁止非法制造和贩运火器、弹药、 爆炸物及其他有关材料公约》;欧洲联盟小武器联合行动和军火出口行为准则;和南部非洲发展共同体(南共体)行动计划。在非洲、拉丁美洲和欧洲,这方面的区域合作最后产生了巴马科、内罗毕、巴西利亚和南共体的宣言以及欧安组织关于小武器和轻武器的文件。
54. Since 1994, there have been high-level biannual meetings between the United Nations and regional organizations. The theme in 1998 was conflict prevention. This year’s meeting, in February 2001, examined the potential for expanding cooperation in the field of peace-building; 18 delegations from regional, subregional and other international organizations attended and adopted a “Framework for cooperation in peace-building”. OSCE will hold the first regional workshop to discuss specific regional dimensions of cooperation.77. 增加武器转让的透明度也极其重要。联合国管理两个建立信任的工具,即常规武器登记册和军事支出标准汇报表。每年平均有90个国家向登记册汇报情况。每年有大约35个国家汇报军事支出。虽然参加利用这些工具的国家明显增加,但是它们还没有得到应当得到的充分利用。
55.78.
Strategies for moving forward include:2001年7月9日至20日举行的联合国小武器和轻武器非法贸易各方面问题大会为国际社会提供了一个采取措施消灭这种全球祸害的机会。大会协商一致通过的行动方案是防止、打击和消除小武器和轻武器非法贸易重要的第一步。它包括对国家战略的建议,如建立国家协调机制和制定适当的法律、销毁多余武器和加强对这类武器生产和转让的控制。它赞同和鼓励各种区域措施,如协调国家立法和建立及加强区域机制和区域行动方案,以防止、打击和消除这些武器的非法贸易。该方案还强调国际合作和援助的重要性,特别是对安全理事会规定的武器禁运执行工作和前战斗人员解除武装、复员和重返民间社会的国际合作和援助。然而,该会议没有对两个重大问题达成协商一致意见:限制和管制私人拥有这类武器和防止把它们转让给非国家行为人。
Continuing the high-level biannual meetings between the United Nations and regional organizations;79. 前进战略:
Strengthening cooperation through capacity-building, strategic development and operational interaction between regional organizations and the United Nations;争取国际承诺紧急提供人力和财力资源,以便有效执行联合国小武器和轻武器非法贸易各方面问题大会采取的措施并开展有关后续行动;
Strengthening national and regional mechanisms for prevention, conflict resolution and peace-building, and examining ways to build links to civil society.通过联合国召开缔约国2006年审查会议和两年期会议,以审议大会行动方案的执行进展情况;
GOAL: To minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic sanctions on innocent populations, to subject such sanctions regimes to regular reviews and to eliminate the adverse effects of sanctions on third parties通过向收集和销毁小武器工作提供专门技术和财政支助,支持国家政府努力防止小武器的扩散;
56. Mandatory measures imposed under Article 41, Chapter VII, of the Charter of the United Nations are an important tool available to the Security Council as it seeks to maintain or restore international peace and security. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern about the negative effects of sanctions on vulnerable civilian populations, as well as over their collateral effects on third States. Comprehensive sanctions may impose civilian hardships disproportionate to likely political gains. Those in power might transfer the cost to the vulnerable, profit from black market activity and exploit sanctions as a justification for their own shortcomings. Furthermore, neighbouring countries bear much of the trading losses from compliance. Greater use should, therefore, be made of existing provisions contained in the Charter for mitigating the economic effects of sanctions on these countries.探索私营部门和公营部门能否向“销毁武器促进发展”的倡议提供资金;和
57. In response to these problems, Member States, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and academic experts have been making efforts to improve the effectiveness of United Nations sanctions, as well as to refine the concept of targeted sanctions. Such measures include financial sanctions, arms embargoes, travel bans and diplomatic restrictions. Expert seminars on targeting United Nations financial sanctions have been held to explore the basis for cooperation among Member States, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and experts in the field. The seminars have also explored such issues as the design and application of targeted Security Council financial sanctions against decision-making elites. Targeted financial sanctions could enhance the effectiveness of the sanctions instrument and minimize unintended negative effects.联合国继续努力促进各国普遍参与建立信任的机制和鼓励采取区域主动行动,如建立区域登记册和交流国家库存的数据。
58. Recent sanctions measures imposed by the Security Council have been more targeted, and in all of these sanctions regimes the Council has sought to focus sanctions pressure on those responsible for behaviour that contravenes international norms of peace and security, while seeking to minimize the humanitarian impact on civilian populations and on affected third States. Even targeted sanctions might not be enough to restore peace or halt illicit actions. They must be integrated into a comprehensive conflict resolution strategy or conflict prevention strategy, and must be complemented by inducement measures.三. 发展与消灭贫穷:千年发展目标
59. Solutions must also be found to the difficulties of monitoring sanctions. That task is currently the primary responsibility of Member States, but they often lack the capacity to monitor effectively. A permanent sanctions monitoring mechanism needs to be developed in order to ensure better targeting and enforcement of smart sanctions and to bring non-cooperation and non-compliance information to the attention of the Security Council. This would allow for a more systematic follow-up for those State and non-state actors who break sanctions or who do not cooperate with United Nations panels of experts and sanctions committees, and would also provide a point of contact between the Security Council and other international and regional organizations dealing with sanctions. It is therefore essential for the Security Council to reach agreement on its policy objectives and on how success should be defined with regard to sanctions.80. 为了大幅度减少贫穷,促进发展,必须实现基础广大的持续经济增长。千年发展目标突出了一些必须处理以便消除极端贫穷的优先领域。这些目标包括由发达国家作出承诺,如增加官方发展援助,改善发展中国家出口的市场准入条件。
60. The Security Council has also made more frequent use of United Nations panels of experts, which have documented sanctions violations, including illicit arms trafficking and illegal sales of diamonds, and made recommendations on improving international monitoring. The Security Council might make more frequent use of humanitarian assessments before the imposition of sanctions, as well as continuing to monitor the humanitarian impact once sanctions have been imposed, as has recently been the case in Afghanistan. The Security Council Working Group on Sanctions, established by the President of the Security Council on 17 April 2000, has confirmed that it will report to the Council when it reaches consensus on recommendations.81. 千年发展目标必须成为国家目标,要起到使国家政策和方案更加连贯一致的作用,这是很关键的。它们还必须有助于缩减需要做的工作与目前正在做的工作之间的差距。目标与成就之间的差距越来越大,表明国际社会未能履行它在1990年代作出的关键承诺。
61.82.
Strategies for moving forward include: Supporting the international community’s continuing efforts to develop targeted sanctions;千年发展目标彼此相辅相成,需要采用同时兼顾各目标的多部门方案。各国应确保通过选择适当的经济和社会政策,将减贫战略重点更多地放在最贫困、最易受伤害的人身上。人权应成为和平、安全和发展方案的中心。此外,需要扩大民间社会和私营部门等所有利益有关者之间的伙伴关系。
Supporting the Security Council in its work to improve international monitoring of sanctions regimes and in efforts to assess the humanitarian impact of sanctions.83. 联合国系统将与其他发展伙伴合作,监测直接与发展和消灭贫穷有关的目标的执行情况。(见附件)
C. Disarmament目标:在2015年年底前,使世界上每日收入低于一美元的人口比例和挨饿人口比例降低一半,并在同一日期之前,使无法得到或负担不起安全饮用水的人口比例降低一半
62. Despite the end of the cold war, global military spending has been increasing. In 1998, military spending was $762 billion; in 2000, approximately $800 billion was spent on weapons of mass destruction, conventional weapons, research and development and personnel costs. The real total is likely to be even higher since data is not available for a number of countries, including some that are currently in conflict. That ominous trend heightens the danger of a renewed arms race. The possible demise of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems17 threatens the framework of treaties on disarmament and non-proliferation, while raising the risks of new arms races, including in outer space. Innocent people throughout the world are still threatened by weapons of mass destruction. They face additional threats from major conventional weapons, as well as from the destabilizing accumulation and illicit sale of small arms and light weapons, and the continued production and use of landmines. Of all these challenges, however, the total elimination of nuclear weapons must remain the top priority.收入贫穷
GOAL: To strive for the elimination of weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons, and to keep all options open for achieving this aim, including the possibility of convening an international conference to identify ways of eliminating nuclear dangers84. 自1990年以来,每日靠不到一美元过活的人数已从13亿人下降到12亿人。但是,这一下降并不是到处一样的。在东亚,贫困率已快速降低,足以在2015年达到目标。但撒南非洲却远远落后,一些国家的贫困率反而恶化。虽然贫困人口在南亚最多,但撒南非洲的贫困人口比例却最高,人口中约有51%每日靠不到一美元过活。
63. Despite widespread and persistent calls for transparency, there are no official figures available on either the number of nuclear weapons in the world today or their total cost.85.
According to several estimates, however, more than 30,000 such weapons remain, many of them on hair-trigger alert.大会在2000年,举行的第二十四届特别会议重申社会发展问题世界首脑会议商定的承诺,并提出了对消灭贫穷具有极为重大意义的新倡议。具体而言,第一次议定在2015年年底前将极端贫穷人口比例降低一半的全球指标,其后各国在2000年9月通过的《联合国千年宣言》中赞同承诺实现减贫的全球指标。除了政策一级的工作外,还加大力度支持有效和高效的机构。例如联合国参与了一些方案,通过符合当地社区优先需要的微额融资项目,向小企业家提供服务。
64. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty18 has not entered into force even though it has 161 signatories and 77 ratifications. Only three of the five nuclear-weapon States (as defined by the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT))19 have ratified the Treaty. START II,20 a bilateral treaty to reduce nuclear weapons to about 3,500 each for the United States and the Russian Federation, has not entered into force.86. 前进战略:
65. The Conference on Disarmament remains deadlocked despite a growing need for new agreements on nuclear disarmament, fissile materials and the prevention of an arms race in outer space. This stalemate has raised serious concern within the international community that the effectiveness of the established multilateral disarmament machinery is being adversely affected.确保支持由国家主导的、以减贫为重点的经济和社会倡议;
66. Despite these trends, certain developments offer a foundation for future progress. More than half of the nuclear weapons deployed at the height of the cold war have now been dismantled. The overwhelming majority of States have fully complied with their legal obligations concerning weapons of mass destruction. Instances of non-compliance with International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards agreements and Security Council resolutions are rare and do not signify a global trend.加强提供基本社会服务的能力;
67. Efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons have gained new strength from the 1996 International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons, which found unanimously that no threat or use of nuclear weapons should be made unless it is compatible with the requirements of international law applicable in armed conflict, and that “there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control”.21 At the 2000 NPT Review Conference, the five nuclear weapons States made an unequivocal commitment to nuclear disarmament.协助进行有关贫困评析、监测和规划的能力建设。
68. There has been some progress in eliminating other weapons of mass destruction. At the Fifth Review Conference of the States parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction,22 the status of the negotiations aimed at strengthening the Convention is expected to be discussed. Since the entry into force of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction23 in 1997, about 5,600 tons of chemical agents and 1.6 million munitions and containers have been destroyed, and 1,000 inspections were conducted in 49 States by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.饥饿
69. The preparatory process for the 2005 NPT Review Conference will begin in 2002. A panel of governmental experts will commence work on a study on missiles reporting to the General Assembly in 2002. The Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will take place from 5 to 27 September 2001. The General Assembly resolved in November 2000 to prepare a two-year study on education and training in disarmament and non-proliferation.87. 收入不是衡量贫困的唯一尺度。穷人营养不良,健康状况较差。在1990-1992年和1996-1998年之间,发展中世界营养不足的人数减少了4 000万人。尽管如此,发展中国家仍有约8.26亿人吃不饱,无法过上正常、健康和积极的生活。此外,发展中国家每年有1 100万儿童在五岁之前死亡,其中630万儿童饿死。
70. Possibilities for creating verifiable and irreversible norms in other areas, including missiles and outer space, should be explored.88.
At the intergovernmental level, an opportunity to discuss an even broader array of disarmament issues, including the multilateral disarmament machinery, is long overdue.减轻饥饿也是可持续减贫的一项前提条件,原因是改善营养可提高劳动生产力和个人增加收入的能力。提高粮食生产是必须的,因为,全世界75%的穷人和忍饥挨饿的人生活在农村地区,直接或间接地靠农业为生。此外,若提高粮食产量,就会降低价格,从而造福所有穷人。
71.89.
Strategies for moving forward include: More efforts to ensure full implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention and to promote their universality;1996年在世界粮食首脑会议上通过的《关于世界粮食安全的罗马宣言》和《世界粮食首脑会议行动计划》27,为个人、家庭、国家、区域和全球各级迈向实现粮食安全这个共同目标的各种途径打下了基础。首脑会议的主要目标是确保形成有利的政治、社会和经济环境,创造消灭贫穷和以男女充分和平等参与为基础的持久和平的最佳条件,这对实现普遍可持续粮食安全最有帮助。首脑会议强调,必须执行改善获取粮食的政策,使食物够、营养足,要对此有效加以利用。
Convening an international conference devoted to disarmament;90. 前进战略
Continuing United Nations work to enhance public accountability, clarify the benefits of disarmament, and monitor weapons research and development activities;在将于2001年11月举行的世界粮食首脑会议五年审查会议上评价自1996年世界粮食首脑会议以来所采取的行动,并提出在国家和国际各级实现消除饥饿目标的新计划;
Supporting the international community, including civil society, in efforts to eliminate weapons of mass destruction.确保粮食、农业贸易和整体贸易政策有助于通过采用公平、公正的世界贸易制度,促进人人享受粮食安全;
GOAL: To call on all States to consider acceding to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (APM Ban Treaty),24 as well as the amended mines protocol to the Convention on certain conventional weapons25继续优先重视小农;支持他们努力提高环境意识并推广低成本的简单技术。
72. Landmines continue to impede the development and security of populations in almost one third of the world’s countries. In response to this situation, United Nations support to mine action is now being planned or provided in over 30 countries, an increase of 100 per cent since 1997. Significantly, independent research indicates that in the same period, the production and transfer of landmines has all but ceased while the use of mines has been successfully stigmatized. Nevertheless, casualties continue to occur on a daily basis, and some countries and groups persist in the deployment of landmines.用水
73. The momentum generated by stigmatizing the use of landmines and destroying existing stockpiles is being maintained through civil society monitoring, transparency measures, and yearly meetings of States parties. As of 29 June 2001, there are 117 parties to the APM Ban Treaty. Twelve countries have acceded or ratified the Treaty since the publication of the Millennium Declaration, while 58 nations are participants to the Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or To Have Indiscriminate Effects.26 The total eradication of anti-personnel mines remains a crucial requirement for human security and socio-economic development.91. 发展中世界约80%的人目前能得到更好的水源。但是,仍有近10亿人得不到清洁水的供应,有24亿人用不上基本的卫生设施。随着经济发展和人口增长,有限的水资源受到越来越大的压力,水的管理以及提供安全饮水和卫生设施将成为优先领域。联合国供水和卫生联合监测方案一直在支持进行旨在实现人人享有安全饮水和卫生的能力建设。
74.92.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略
Achieving the universalization of the APM Ban Treaty, the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and Amended Protocol II by encouraging States to ratify or accede to the Treaties and accept the amended Protocol;推动增加投资于水和卫生部门;
Encouraging States to provide the Secretary-General with complete and timely information, as required in article 7 of the APM Ban Treaty;在2002年于约翰内斯堡举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议上处理与水资源的可持续管理有关的其他问题。
Continuing United Nations work to establish mine clearance, awareness, victim assistance programmes and contingency planning for mine-affected countries and regions.目标:确保在2015年年底之前,使各地儿童,不论男女,都能上完小学全部课程,男女儿童都享有平等机会,接受所有各级教育
GOAL: To take concerted action to end illicit traffic in small arms and light weapons, especially by making arms transfers more transparent and supporting regional disarmament measures, taking account of all the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons93. 发展中国家的教育水平在过去半个世纪里已经大幅度提高,但我们还有更远的路要走。1998年,约1.13亿学龄儿童未进小学,其中97%生活在发展中国家,近60%是女童。特别是农村地区,女童入学率之低令人吃惊。
75. Illicit trade in small arms and light weapons poses grave challenges to international peace and security. Their excessive accumulation and easy availability jeopardize post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts, threaten human security and violate humanitarian law and human rights. Small arms are legally produced by more than 600 companies in at least 95 countries, with the value of global small arms production estimated at over $1.4 billion and that of ammunition production at $2.6 billion. An estimated 500 million small arms and light weapons are available around the world. Even outside of conflict zones, these weapons have severe adverse effects on economic, social and human development.94. 促进人人有机会接受基本教育仍然是一项挑战。在发展中国家,平均三个儿童中有一个无法完成五年学业。尽管若干区域的入学率已在上升,但许多区域的教育质量仍然很低。在许多国家,女童与男童之间以及富人家和穷人家之间在入学率和在学率方面差距很大。性别偏见、早婚、对女童身心安全的威胁以及对性别问题不敏感的课程等等合起来会妨碍实现女童受教育的基本权利。
76. Various initiatives are currently under way, globally and regionally, to address the issue of illicit trade in small arms. At the regional level, measures involve signing legally binding treaties, and strengthening and establishing regional or subregional moratoria on the transfer and manufacture of such weapons. These measures include the Economic Community of West African States moratorium on the production and trade in small arms; the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials; a European Union joint action on small arms and code of conduct on arms exports; and a Southern African Development Community (SADC) plan of action. In Africa, Latin America and Europe, such regional cooperation culminated in Bamako, Nairobi, Brasilia and SADC declarations, and an OSCE document on small arms and light weapons.95. 让女童少拿少得不仅涉及性别歧视,还是经济学及学好的问题,也是不良的社会政策。经验再三证明,对女童教育的投资很快可直接转变为整个家庭的营养改善,保健加强,生育率降低,贫困减轻,整体表现提高。
77. Making arms transfers more transparent is also vitally important. The United Nations manages two confidence-building instruments, the Register of Conventional Arms and the Standardized Instrument for Reporting of Military Expenditures. An average of 90 countries already report to the Register annually. Some 35 countries report military expenditures annually. While participation in these instruments has increased noticeably, they have not been as fully utilized as they should be.96. 普及教育/达喀尔框架要求拟定或加强国家行动计划,加强国家、区域和国际机制,以协调全球努力,加快实现普及教育。联合国女童教育倡议是在普及教育框架后续工作范围内提出的,在国家一级向联合国系统提供指导意见,并邀请其他伙伴参加。
78. The United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, held from 9 to 20 July 2001, provided the international community with an opportunity to adopt measures to combat this global scourge. The Programme of Action of the Conference, which was adopted by consensus, is a significant first step towards the goal of preventing, combating and eradicating the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. It includes suggestions for national strategies, such as establishing national coordination mechanisms and adequate laws, and destroying surplus weapons and increasing controls over the manufacture and transfer of such weapons. It endorses and encourages various regional measures, such as harmonizing national legislation and establishing and strengthening regional mechanisms, and regional action programmes to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in these weapons. The programme also underscores the importance of international cooperation and assistance, particularly regarding the implementation of arms embargoes imposed by the Security Council and the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration into civil society of ex-combatants. The Conference did not, however, achieve consensus on two essential issues: restrictions on and regulation of private ownership of such weapons, and preventing their transfer to non-State actors.97. “校餐”和“带口粮回家”方案就是良好的例子,说明可如何通过具有创意的、由地方推动力的多层次解决办法,引导贫困家庭将他们的女孩送入学校。这些方案可对我们面临的种种挑战产生作用:缺乏受教育的机会、健康问题以及贫困。学校发校餐和口粮可使更多的儿童入学,使女童获得平等机会,降低营养不良的发生率,提高在学人数。
79.98.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略
Securing urgent international commitments for both human and financial resources to effectively implement and follow up the measures adopted at the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects;敦促国家决策者把女童的教育当作实现普及初级教育的一项战略,并将其本身当成目标;
Convening, through the United Nations, a review conference in 2006 and biennial meetings of States to consider progress made in the implementation of the Programme of Action of the Conference;敦促各国政府、地方社区和国际社会承诺拿出大量资源用于教育,如修建校舍、购置书本和聘用教师;
Supporting Governments’ endeavours to prevent the spread of small arms by providing technical expertise and financial support in collecting and destroying such weapons;使教育体制能适合女童、特别是穷家女童的需求;
Exploring private and public sector financing of “weapons for development” initiatives;支持采用能吸引女童入学的校餐方案和带口粮回家方案。
Continuing United Nations efforts to achieve universal participation in confidence-building instruments and to foster regional initiatives, such as the creation of regional registers and exchanges of data on national inventories.目标:在2015年年底之前,将目前产妇死亡率降低四分之三,将目前五岁以下儿童死亡率减少三分之二
III.99.
Development and poverty eradication: the millennium development goals在全球范围内,1995年产妇死亡率的估计数字表明,每年约有515 000名妇女死于与怀孕有关的原因,其中99%发生在发展中国家。尽管有证据显示一些国家的产妇死亡率已大幅度降低,但在据认为问题最严重的国家中,尚未掌握可靠数据。产妇死亡率的降低取决于孕妇能否获得保健服务,特别是在处理怀孕期并发症时更是如此。熟练的助产士和护士仅帮助了全球56%的生育。少女和妇女往往无力自我作决策,并且不能得到高质量、能负担得起的生殖保健服务,包括计划生育服务。
80. In order to significantly reduce poverty and promote development it is essential to achieve sustained and broad-based economic growth. The millennium development goals highlight some of the priority areas that must be addressed to eliminate extreme poverty. These goals include commitments made by developed nations, such as increased official development assistance (ODA) and improved market access for exports from developing countries.100. “使怀孕更安全”倡议是联合国对实现安全孕产的全球努力的贡献之一。该倡议所依据的假设是,大幅度持续降低产妇和新生儿的死亡率,其关键在于是否拥有和能否取得产妇保健服务以及服务的质量,因此必须将工作重点放在加强保健系统之上。
81. It is crucial that the millennium development goals become national goals and serve to increase the coherence and consistency of national policies and programmes. They must also help reduce the gap between what needs to be done and what is actually being done. The widening gap between goals and achievements implies that the international community has failed to deliver on crucial commitments it made during the 1990s.101. 在全世界范围内,五岁以下儿童死亡率正在降低。在1990至2000年期间,五岁以下儿童的死亡率已从每千名活产婴儿死94名下降到81名。但是,发展中国家每年有约1 100万名五岁以下儿童死亡,而且大多死于可预防的疾病。一些区域在降低儿童死亡率方面进展所减慢,是因为人体免疫机能丧失病毒/后天免疫机能丧失综合症(艾滋病毒/艾滋病)的影响,又因为疟疾和结核病重新抬头。不安全的水、营养不良、不充分的免疫、缺乏教育以及不能得到基本保健和社会服务是促成减慢的主要因素。
82. The millennium development goals are mutually supportive and require multisectoral programmes that tackle each of the goals simultaneously. Countries should ensure that poverty reduction strategies increase the focus on the poorest and most vulnerable through an appropriate choice of economic and social policies. Human rights should be at the centre of peace, security and development programmes. In addition, it is necessary to broaden partnerships between all stakeholders, such as civil society and the private sector.102. 已发起多种倡议,以便遏制特别是儿童中的主要疾病祸患,其中有全球疫苗和免疫联盟。免疫联盟于2000年初在达沃斯正式发起,其目的是将公共和私有资源结合起来,以确保全世界儿童受到保护,不致于染上可用接种疫苗预防的六大疾病:小儿麻痹症、白喉、百日咳、麻疹、破伤风和结核病。
83.103.
The United Nations system, in cooperation with other partners in development, will monitor goals that are directly related to development and poverty eradication (see annex).前进战略:
GOAL: To halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’s population whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water制定(或增订)有关安全孕产的国家政策、标准和管制机制;建立制度以确保其得到执行;
Income poverty推广有助于安全孕产和降低五岁以下儿童死亡率的适当的社区做法;
84. Since 1990, the number of people living on less than a dollar a day has declined from 1.3 billion to 1.2 billion. However, this decline has not been spread evenly. In East Asia, poverty rates have declined fast enough to meet the goal in 2015. But sub-Saharan Africa lags far behind and in some countries poverty rates have worsened. While the greatest number of poor people live in South Asia, the highest proportion of poor people is in sub-Saharan Africa, where approximately 51 per cent of the population lives on less than a dollar a day.监测产妇和新生儿的保健状况和能否得到服务的情况;
85. At its twenty-fourth special session, held in 2000, the General Assembly reaffirmed the commitments agreed at the World Summit for Social Development and produced very significant new initiatives for the eradication of poverty. In particular, there was agreement for the first time on a global target of halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015, and the commitment to the global targets for poverty reduction was subsequently endorsed by all countries in the United Nations Millennium Declaration adopted in September 2000. Accompanying this work at the policy level, much is going on to support effective and efficient institutions. The United Nations, for example, is involved in programmes that extend services to small entrepreneurs through microfinance projects which meet local community priorities.支持免疫和疫苗接种方案,并支持使用口服体液补充疗法、营养和饮水及卫生措施。
86. Strategies for moving forward include:目标:在2015年之前制止并开始扭转艾滋病毒/艾滋病的蔓延、消除疟疾及其他折磨人类的主要疾病的祸害
Ensuring support for country-led economic and social initiatives that focus on poverty reduction; Strengthening capabilities to provide basic social services; Assisting capacity-building for poverty assessment, monitoring and planning.104. 仅2000年就有大约300万人死于艾滋病,另有3600万人感染艾滋病毒/艾滋病。截至2000年底,全球艾滋病毒/艾滋病灾难夺去了近2200万人的性命。由于治疗不善,在许多国家,对多种药物都有抗药性的肺结核有所增加。每年有800万人感染活性肺结核,约200万人死亡。超过90%的病例和死亡发生在发展中国家。肺结核也是艾滋病毒/艾滋病感染者的主要死亡原因。疟疾是另一个主要问题。每年都有100万人死于疟疾,这个数字在过去20年中持续上升。卫生系统每况俞下、对药物和杀虫剂产生越来越大的抗药性、环境变化及人口迁移增加了疾病蔓延的机会,从而使全球疟疾问题日益严重。
Hunger105. 近年来,各国政府越来越多地承诺通过政治和财政手段解决艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾、肺结核和其他需要优先处理的健康问题。它们认识到这些疾病会影响贫困人口的脱贫能力,以及国民经济的发展前景。“击退疟疾运动”和“遏止结核病”倡议都是全球性倡议,旨在抑制这些主要疾病带来的祸患。
87. Income is not the only measure of poverty. The poor suffer from malnutrition and poor health. Between 1990-1992 and 1996-1998, the number of undernourished people fell by 40 million in the developing world. However, the developing world still has some 826 million people who are not getting enough food to lead normal, healthy and active lives. In addition, of the 11 million children in developing countries who die each year before reaching the age of five, 6.3 million die of hunger.106. 在2001年6月举行的关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病的特别会议上,各国政府承认,国家、区域和国际性防疫措施必须以预防艾滋病毒感染为主。它们还认识到,为受到感染和影响的人提供预防、保健、支助和治疗是有效防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病过程中相辅相承的几个方面,必须将它们结合起来,对这种疾病的蔓延进行综合治理。
88. Alleviating hunger is also a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction since better nourishment improves labour productivity and the earning capacity of individuals. Increased food production is essential since 75 per cent of the world’s poor and hungry live in rural areas and depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. Moreover, a higher crop yield reduces prices, benefiting all the poor.107. 全球艾滋病和健康基金旨在提高国际上对全球健康危机的关注,并将这种关注转化为政治支持和财政承诺。基金有意帮助扼制艾滋病毒/艾滋病、肺结核和疟疾的蔓延,并减少这些疾病带来的后果。希望基金在年底能够开始运作。
89. The Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action that was adopted at the World Food Summit in 199627 laid the foundation for diverse paths to a common objective — food security, at the individual, household, national, regional and global levels. The main goal of the Summit was to ensure an enabling political, social and economic environment, designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and a durable peace based on the full and equal participation of women and men, which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all. The Summit stressed the importance of implementing policies that would improve access to sufficient and nutritionally adequate food and its effective utilization.108. 前进战略:
90. Strategies for moving forward include:实现用于艾滋病毒/艾滋病的总开支达70亿至100亿美元的目标,这些资金来自各个渠道,包括受影响的国家;
Taking stock of actions taken since the 1996 World Food Summit, at the five-year review of the World Food Summit to be held in November 2001, and proposing new plans at the national and international levels to achieve hunger goals;敦促国际社会支持全球艾滋病和健康基金;
Ensuring that food, agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and just world trade system; Continuing to give priority to small farmers, and supporting their efforts to promote environmental awareness and low-cost simple technologies. Access to water 91. About 80 per cent of the people in the developing world now have access to improved water sources. Yet nearly 1 billion people are still denied access to clean water supplies and 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. As economic development and population growth increase demands on limited water resources, water management and the provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities will become priority areas. The United Nations Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation has been supporting capacity-building towards universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation. 92. Strategies for moving forward include: Promoting increased investment in the water and sanitation sectors; Addressing further issues related to the sustainable management of water resources at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, to be held in Johannesburg in 2002. GOAL: To ensure that, by the year 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will have equal access to all levels of education 93. Education levels in developing countries have climbed dramatically in the past half-century, yet we have a long way to go. In 1998, of some 113 million school-age children not enrolled in primary education, 97 per cent lived in developing nations and nearly 60 per cent were girls. Female enrolment in rural areas, in particular, remains shockingly low. 94. Promoting universal access to basic education continues to be a challenge. In developing countries, one child in three does not complete five years of schooling. Although enrolment rates have been increasing in several regions, the quality of education remains low for many. In numerous countries, there are serious disparities in enrolments and retention rates between girls and boys and between children of rich and poor families. Gender biases, early marriage, threats to the physical and emotional security of girls and gender insensitive curricula can all conspire against the realization of the fundamental right to education for girls. 95. Short-changing girls is not only a matter of gender discrimination but is bad economics and bad social policy. Experience has shown over and over again that investment in girls’ education translates directly and quickly into better nutrition for the whole family, better health care, declining fertility, poverty reduction and better overall performance. 96. The Education For All (EFA)/Dakar Framework calls for the development or strengthening of national plans of action and the reinforcing of national, regional and international mechanisms to coordinate global efforts to accelerate progress towards Education For All. The United Nations Girls Education Initiative, established within the context of follow-up to the Education For All Framework, provides country-level guidance to the United Nations system and involves other partners. 97. The “School meals” and “Take home rations” programmes are good examples of how poor households can be influenced to send their girl children to school through creative, locally driven multi-level solutions. These programmes can have an impact on all the challenges we face: lack of access to education, health problems and poverty. School-based meals and rations can bring more children into school, give equal opportunities to girls, lower rates of malnutrition and improve retention levels. 98. Strategies for moving forward include: Urging national policy makers to accept girls’ education as a strategy for achieving universal primary schooling, as well as an end in its own right; Urging national Governments, local communities and the international community to commit significant resources towards education such as school buildings, books and teachers; Making education systems adaptable to the needs of girl children, especially those from poor households; Supporting school-feeding programmes and take-home rations programmes that can attract girls to school. GOAL: By the year 2015, to have reduced maternal mortality by three quarters, and under-five child mortality by two thirds of their current rates 99. At the global level, estimates of maternal mortality for 1995 indicate that about 515,000 women die each year of pregnancy related causes, 99 per cent of them in developing countries. Although there is evidence of substantive declines in maternal mortality in some countries, there is no reliable data in countries where the problem is thought to be most acute. Reduction in maternal mortality depends on the availability of health care for expectant mothers, particularly when dealing with complications in pregnancy. Globally, skilled attendants and skilled nurses assist only about 56 per cent of births. Adolescent girls and women often lack the power to make decisions for themselves and lack access to good quality and affordable reproductive health, including family planning services. 100. The “Making pregnancy safer” initiative represents one of the contributions of the United Nations to the global efforts to achieve safe motherhood. The initiative is based on the premise that achieving substantial and sustained reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality is critically dependent on the availability, accessibility and quality of maternal health care services, and therefore efforts must necessarily be focused on strengthening health-care systems. 101. Worldwide, under-five mortality rates are declining: under-five mortality decreased from 94 to 81 per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2000. However, approximately 11 million children under five still die annually in developing countries, mostly from preventable diseases. Progress in the reduction of child mortality has slowed in some regions because of the effects of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the resurgence of malaria and tuberculosis. Unsafe water, malnutrition, inadequate immunization, lack of education and lack of access to basic heath and social services are major contributing factors. 102. Among the initiatives that were launched to curb the scourge of major diseases, especially among children, is the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. Officially launched in early 2000 at Davos, it aimed to combine public and private resources to ensure that all the world’s children are protected against six core vaccine-preventable diseases: polio, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, tetanus and tuberculosis. 103. Strategies for moving forward include: Establishing (or updating) national policies, standards and regulatory mechanisms for safe motherhood; and developing systems to ensure their implementation; Promoting appropriate community practices in support of safe motherhood and the reduction of under-five mortality; Monitoring maternal and newborn health care status and access to services; Supporting programmes for immunization and vaccination, the use of oral rehydration therapy, nutrition and water and sanitation interventions. GOAL: To have, by 2015, halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases that afflict humanity 104. Approximately three million people died of AIDS in 2000 alone, and some 36 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS. By the end of 2000, the global HIV/AIDS catastrophe had claimed nearly 22 million lives. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is increasing in many countries, due to poor treatment practices. Eight million people develop active tuberculosis and nearly two million die annually. Over 90 per cent of cases and deaths are in developing countries. Tuberculosis is also the leading cause of death in people with HIV/AIDS. Malaria is another major concern. Each year, one million people die from malaria, and the number has been increasing over the past two decades. The deterioration of health systems, growing resistance to drugs and insecticides, environmental changes and human migration, which have led to an increase in epidemics, all contribute to the worsening global malaria problem. 105. In recent years, Governments have demonstrated an increased political and financial commitment to tackling HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other priority health problems. They recognize the impact of these illnesses on poor people’s ability to emerge from poverty, and on prospects for national economic growth. The Roll Back Malaria Campaign and the Stop Tuberculosis Initiative were global initiatives undertaken to help curb the scourge of these major diseases. 106. At the special session of the General Assembly on HIV/AIDS, held in June 2001, Governments acknowledged that prevention of HIV infection must be the mainstay of national, regional and international responses to the epidemic. They also recognized that prevention, care, support and treatment for those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS are mutually reinforcing elements of an effective response and must be integrated in a comprehensive approach to combat the epidemic. 107. The Global AIDS and Health Fund is an instrument to raise international attention on the global health crisis, and to translate that attention into political support and financial commitments. The Fund intends to help reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, and to reduce the consequences of these illnesses. The aim is to have the Fund operational by the end of the year. 108. Strategies for moving forward include: Achieving a target of $7 to $10 billion in total spending on HIV/AIDS from all sources, including affected countries; Urging the international community to support the Global AIDS and Health Fund; Strengthening health-care systems and addressing factors that affect the provision of HIV-related drugs, including anti-retroviral drugs and their affordability and pricing; Supporting and encouraging the involvement of local communities in making people aware of such diseases;加强卫生保健系统,处理对提供包括抗反转录病毒药物在内的艾滋病毒相关药品及其价格和人们的负担能力产生影响的因素;
Urging national Governments to devote a higher proportion of resources to basic social services in poorer areas since this is crucial for preventing diseases;支持和鼓励地方社区参与对此类疾病的宣传;
Supporting other initiatives based on partnerships with the private sector and other partners in development.敦促各国政府将更大比例的资源用于较贫困地区的基础社会服务,这对于预防疾病至关重要;
GOAL: To provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS支持与私营部门和其他伙伴结成合作关系的其他计划的发展。
109. Some 13 million children have been orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDS, over 90 per cent of them in sub-Saharan Africa. It is expected that the number of AIDS orphans will rise to approximately 40 million in the next two decades in sub-Saharan Africa alone. The mechanisms causing and reinforcing poverty are changing due to AIDS because the majority of people living with and dying from AIDS are in the prime of life. As a result, in some areas of the world, a significant part of a generation is disappearing and leaving behind the elderly and children to fend for themselves. The cost of AIDS in rural areas is particularly high because HIV-infected urban dwellers return to their villages for care when they fall ill, which places pressure on women and a tremendous strain on rural household resources. The Interagency Task Team on Orphans and Vulnerable Children has been set up in order to define the strategy and action plan for providing effective United Nations support to orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS.目标:为艾滋病毒/艾滋病孤儿提供特别援助
110.109.
Strategies for moving forward include:艾滋病毒/艾滋病孤儿达1300万,90%以上来自撒南非洲。仅在这一地区,未来20年中艾滋病孤儿人数预计将增加到大约4000万。由于大多数感染和死于艾滋病的人正处在人生的鼎盛时期,艾滋病正在改变导致贫困和使贫困加剧的原因。因此,在世界上某些地区,一代人中有许多人英年早逝,留下老人和孩子自己照顾自己。由于感染艾滋病的城里人生病后回到他们原来居住的村庄接受照顾,艾滋病对农村地区的影响尤其严重。这给妇女带来压力,耗费大量农村家庭资源。现已建立一个孤儿和脆弱儿童跨机构工作组,制订战略和行动计划,使联合国能够有效地支助因艾滋病毒/艾滋病而成为孤儿和变得脆弱的儿童。
Mobilizing and strengthening community and family-based actions to support orphaned and vulnerable children;110. 前进战略:
Ensuring that Governments protect children from violence, abuse, exploitation and discrimination;动员和加强社区和家庭为支助孤儿和脆弱儿童所采取的行动;
Ensuring that Governments provide essential quality social services for children and that orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS are treated on an equal basis with other children;确保各国政府为儿童提供保护,使其不受暴力、虐待、剥削和歧视。
Expanding the role of schools as community resource and care centres.确保各国政府为儿童提供高质量基本社会服务,确保受艾滋病毒/艾滋病影响的儿童得到与其他儿童一样的对待。
GOAL: To encourage the pharmaceutical industry to make essential drugs more widely available and affordable by all who need them in developing countries扩大学校作为社区资源和护理中心的作用。 目标:鼓励制药业生产更多必需药品,使发展中国家需要这些药品的所有人都能更容易地获得和负担得起必需药品 111. 近年来,制药业越来越多地参与具体方案,这些方案旨在降低治疗艾滋病、疟疾、麻风病、脑膜炎、淋巴丝虫病、沙眼和肺结核等疾病的药品的价格或为人们免费提供这类药品。2000年5月,五家主要制药公司与联合国结成伙伴关系,以便使发展中国家更容易获得治疗艾滋病的药品,包括大幅度降低抗反转录病毒药物的价格。通过这一行动提供的技术援助已帮助26个国家发展艾滋病护理和支援计划。到目前为止,其中13个国家已与供应商签订提供减价药品的协议。为增加治疗艾滋病药物的供应,联合国还请医药研究和制造公司及非专利药品生产商表态支持。 112. 2001年5月举行的第五十四届世界卫生大会吁请国际社会共同努力,加强制药政策和做法,以促进国内制药业的发展。大会还提出,需要自愿监测和报告药品价格,使人们能更加公平地在国际体系中获得必需药品。大会要求联合国鼓励开发用于治疗影响贫困国家的疾病的药品,并作出更大努力,研究国际贸易协定现在和将来对健康的影响。今年早些时候,联合国与世界上一些主要制药公司进行了讨论,就应进一步采取的步骤达成一致,以使更多的人获得艾滋病预防和护理,包括使发展中国家获得与艾滋病相关的药品。 113. 在2001年6月大会关于艾滋病的特别会议上,会员国认识到药物和相关技术的供应和负担能力问题是有待全面处理的重要因素。它们还认识到必须同私营部门和制药公司密切合作,降低这些药物和技术的成本。大会特别会议的《承诺宣言》28吁请各方争取在执行综合护理战略方面取得发展和进展,包括实施必要的融资计划和转诊机制,为人们提供负担得起的药品、诊断和相关技术。 114. 大会特别会议欢迎各国为促进创新和发展符合国际法的国内工业所作的努力。这将使所有的人有更多机会获得药品。大会特别会议强调,有必要评估国际贸易协定对地方必要药品的生产、新药品研制及其供应的影响。 115. 近年来,一些理事机构和其他论坛吁请对贸易协定及其在支持药品供应方面的作用进行审查。关于药品供应的最重要的贸易协定是《关于与贸易有关的知识产权方面的协定》。29该协定规定了知识产权保护的全球准则,包括同样适用于药品的20年专利最低年限。但该协定同时允许政府灵活处理社会利益,如在药品供应方面,允许各国政府颁布能够推翻专利给予新药品发明人的专有控制权的强制性证书。2001年6月,世界贸易组织(世贸组织)《关于与贸易有关的知识产权方面的协定》理事会召开关于该协定和健康问题的为期一天的特别讨论会,集中讨论了如何保证向发展中国家供应更多救生药品并支持新药品和技术的创新,下一轮世贸组织部长级贸易会谈可能继续讨论这一问题。 116. 由于约95%的艾滋病毒抗体阳性者来自发展中国家,且这些国家大多严重缺医少药,联合国系统正在加倍努力,大力扩大发展中国家,尤其是受到严重影响的最不发达国家的药品供应。 117. 前进战略: 加强卫生体系,提供必要; 通过差别价格和减免进口关税各种税金来提高人们的负担能力; 进行可持续融资,帮助支付贫困国家增加药品供应所需的费用; 探讨与非政府组织和其他有关伙伴协作,开发并实施全球药价自愿监测及报告制度的可行性; 敦促药品公司不仅降低必需药品的价格,而且改善救生药品的分销,特别是在最不发达国家; 利用非传统和创新机制,更有效地向需要者分销药品; 保证进一步评价和评析影响必需药品供应的国际贸易协定; 加强用于治疗主要影响发展中国家的疾病的高级药品的研究和开发。
111. In recent years, the pharmaceutical industry has become increasingly involved in specific programs to make cheap or free drugs available for such diseases as AIDS, malaria, leprosy, meningitis, lymphatic filariasis, trachoma and tuberculosis. In May 2000, a partnership was launched between five major pharmaceutical companies and the United Nations to increase developing country access to HIV medicines, including sharp reductions in prices for anti-retroviral drugs. Technical assistance provided though this initiative has supported the development of HIV care and support plans in some 26 countries. So far, in 13 of these countries, agreements for the supply of discounted drugs have been reached with suppliers. A request for expressions of interest open to both research and development pharmaceutical companies and generic drug producers has been issued as part of the United Nations efforts to expand access to HIV medicines.目标:根据“无贫民窑城市”倡议的提议,在2020年年底前大大改善至少1亿贫民窑居民的生活
112. The fifty-fourth World Health Assembly, held in May 2001, called upon the international community to cooperate in strengthening pharmaceutical policies and practices in order to promote the development of domestic industries. The Assembly further referred to the need for voluntary monitoring and reporting of drug prices in order to improve equity of access to essential drugs in the international system. The Assembly requested that the United Nations encourage the development of drugs for diseases affecting poor countries, and work to enhance the study of existing and future health implications of international trade agreements. Earlier in the year, the United Nations undertook discussions with of some of the world’s leading pharmaceutical companies to agree on what further steps need to be taken to expand access to HIV prevention and care, including access to HIV-related medicines for developing countries. 113. In June 2001, at the special session of the General Assembly on HIV/AIDS, Member States recognized that the availability and affordability of drugs and related technology are significant factors to be addressed. They also recognized the need to reduce the cost of these drugs and technologies, in close collaboration with the private sector and pharmaceutical companies. In the Declaration of Commitment,28 the General Assembly called for the development of and progress in implementing comprehensive care strategies, including the financing plans and referral mechanisms required to provide access to affordable medicines, diagnostics and related technologies. 114. At the special session, the General Assembly welcomed national efforts to promote innovation and develop domestic industries consistent with international law, which will increase access to medicines for all. the General Assembly stressed the need to evaluate the impact of international trade agreements on local manufacturing of essential drugs, the development of new drugs and obtaining access to them. 115. During recent years, a number of governing bodies and other forums have called for the examination of trade agreements and their role in supporting access to medicines. The most important trade agreement concerning access to medicines is the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS).29 TRIPS provides global norms for intellectual property protection, including a minimum 20-year patent term that also applies to medicines. However, TRIPS also accords Governments the flexibility to address social interests, such as access to medicines, for example by allowing Governments to issue compulsory licenses that effectively override the exclusive control that patents can give to the inventor of new drugs. In June 2001, the TRIPS Council of the World Trade Organization (WTO) convened a special discussion day on TRIPS and health. This discussion, focusing on how to ensure greater access to life-saving drugs in developing countries while at the same time supporting innovation of new drugs and technologies, is likely to continue at the next round of WTO ministerial-level trade talks. 116. With some 95 per cent of HIV-positive people living in developing countries and the severe deprivation of medicines in many of those countries, the United Nations system is redoubling its approach to greatly expand access to medicines in developing countries, in particular the hard-hit least developed countries. 117. Strategies for moving forward include: Strengthening health systems for the provision of essential medicines; Increasing affordability through differential pricing and the reduction or elimination of import duties, tariffs and taxes; Mobilizing sustainable financing to support the costs of expanded access to drugs in poor countries; Exploring the feasibility, in collaboration with non-governmental organizations and other concerned partners, of developing and implementing systems for the voluntary monitoring and reporting of global drug prices; Urging drug companies not only to reduce prices of essential drugs but also to improve the distribution of life-saving drugs, especially in least developed countries; Utilizing non-traditional and innovative mechanisms to increase the effective distribution of drugs to those who need them; Ensuring further evaluation and assessment of international trade agreements that affect the availability of essential drugs; Increasing research and development of advanced medications for those diseases that primarily affect developing countries. GOAL: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, as proposed in the “Cities without slums” initiative 118. During the next generation, the global urban population will double from 2.5 billion to 5 billion people. Almost all of the increase will be in developing countries. Recent figures show that a quarter of the world’s population who live in cities do not have adequate housing and often lack access to basic social services, such as access to clean and safe water and sanitation.118. 在下一代,全球城市人口将翻一番,从25亿增加到50亿。几乎所有增加的人都来自发展中国家。近期数据表明,世界城市居民中的四分之一没有适当住房,往往不能得到基本社会服务,如清洁安全的饮用水和卫生条件。
119. The increasing concentration of population and economic activity in large cities in developing countries tends to increase poverty and squatter settlements. Slums lack basic municipal services, such as water, sanitation, waste collection and drainage systems. They create intense pressure on local resources, ecosystems and environments, creating a need for well organized and efficient social services, transportation, waste management and pollution control. Intervening at the city level can help reduce poverty, partly because the economies of scale that are possible make the provision of services cost-effective.119. 发展中国家大城市日益增加的人口密度和经济活动会使贫困区和棚护区增加。贫民窟缺乏基本的市政服务,如用水、卫生、废物收集和排水系统。这些给地方资源、生态系统和环境带来巨大压力,使有组织、高效的社会服务、运输、废物管理和污染控制成为必要。在城市一级进行干预有助于减少贫困,部分原因是可能的规模经济能提高服务的成本效益。 120. 联合国已与其他发展伙伴共同努力,通过一些重要倡议迎接这一挑战,如无贫民窑城市倡议、全球促进安全保有权运动、全球城市管理运动和非洲城市用水管理等,其中全球促进安全保有权运动的目的是在2015年之前在为每个社区的所有人提供具有安全保有权和必需服务的适当的住所方面取得显著进展。 121. 前进战略: 保证国际社会对提供基本社会服务,如为城市贫民提供安全用水和卫生条件的支持; 确保制订综合的、鼓励参与的城市规划和管理方案; 建立公私伙伴关系,确保良好的城市管理和规划。 目标:促进两性平等、增强妇女权能,以有效消除贫困、饥饿和疾病,刺激名副其实的可持续发展 122. 妇女仍是世界上贫困人口中最为贫困的,日生活费低于1美元的人中有三分之二是妇女。日生活费低于1美元的妇女所占比例如此之大,表明妇女和贫困之间的关系非常明显。在过去20年中,处于绝对贫穷状态的农村妇女人数增加了50%,而同样处境的男子人数只增加了30%。要改变这种极不平等的状况,妇女需要获得对财政和物资资源的控制权,也需要通过教育获得机会。 123. 在对《北京行动纲要》的五年审议中,各国政府承诺在2005年年底前废除所有歧视性法律规定,并消除使女童和妇女得不到有效法律保护及对性别歧视进行追诉的法律缺陷。 124. 1999年,在对国际人口与发展会议五周年期审议(人发会议五周年)中,177个会员国通过了“进一步实施国际人口与发展会议的主要行动”,吁请各国政府实施和执行对性别问题敏感的法律和政策,保护和促进妇女和女童的人权。 125. 前进战略: 敦促人们在产妇死亡率、艾滋病毒/艾滋病的预防性别敏感教育等领域作出更大努力; 倡导在就业方面增强妇女权能; 支持妇女成为政府及其他决策机构的高级官员。 目标:制定并实施各种战略,使世界各地的年轻人有真正的机会来找到体面的生产性工作 126. 全世界的青年人总数男女加起来达10亿多。到2010年,预计将增长1亿多,达到将近12亿,其中一半以上是在亚洲和太平洋地区。青年人还占世界失业人口总数40%以上。今天世界上没有工作的年轻人估计有6 600万——自1995年以来增加了将近1千万。 127. 2000年,联合国系统借助私营工业界、民间社会和经济政策等领域最有创造力的领导人,设立了一个青年人就业问题高级别政策网络,其目的是想办法通过一些富有想象力的方法,为青年人创造机会。一些国家将制定国家行动计划,并且将提议为所有有关组织用来设置监测进展情况的报告机制。该网络除了制定政策建议之外,预计将调动有利于青年人就业的公共舆论和行动。 128. 前进战略: 通过增加青年人教育和职业培训方面的投资,确保可就业能力; 给予男女青年同样的机会,确保机会平等;并且 使创业和营业程序更加简便,便利企业经营。 目标:成功实现这些目标,除其他外,要依赖每个国家实行善政,还要依赖国际一级推选善政以及金融、货币和贸易系统行事透明。我们致力于制订一个公开、公平、有章可循、可预见和不歧视的多边贸易和金融体制。我们还关心发展中国家在调动所需资源以资助其持续发展方面所面临的障碍。因此,我们将竭尽努力,确保发展筹资问题高级别国际会议取得成功 129. 尽管在人类发展以及经济发展方面已经有了一些相当不错的改善,但仍然存在一些真正的挑战。发展中国家需要即时提供帮助,以解决金融、贸易和施政方面的问题。 130. 2002年3月,联合国将在墨西哥的蒙特里召开发展筹资问题国际会议。在该会议上,联合国将吁请国际社会大力支持下述国际发展与合作关键因素,以便加强发展中国家在今天全球化世界中的实力。 国内资源调动 131. 调动国内资源是自力维持发展的基础。国内资源在国内投资和社会方案融资方面发挥主要作用,而国内投资和社会方案对经济增长以及在消除贫困方面取得永久成绩是必不可少的。然而,经济内部的条件必须有利于储蓄以及投资支出。健全的财政政策、负责任的社会支出、以及运行良好的竞争性金融体系是善政的组成部分,对于经济和社会发展至关重要。 私人资本流动的增加 132. 外国资本对一个国家可以产生的国内资源来说是宝贵的补充。大量资本以外国直接投资(这是长期流动)以及短期流动(证券流动的形式跨越国境)。国际资本市场也是一个各国可以利用的巨大资金集散地。外国直接投资现在是私人资本流向发展中国家规模最大的形式。在1990年和1999年期间,全世界外国投资直接投资流动的数额增加了4倍,从2 000亿美元增加到8 840亿美元;在发展中国家其占GDP的比例总的来说在上升。在冲突国家或者投资气候不好的国家,外国直接投资流动较少。例如,1997年,15个新兴经济(主要在东亚、拉丁美洲和欧洲)占流向发展中国家的所有长期私人资本净额的83%。撒南非洲只得到总数的5%。 133. 尽管私人资本本身不能减贫,但在促进增长方面能发挥重大作用。然而私人资本的提供需要得到有效的组织,以便减少对危机的脆弱性。最近的趋势表明,流向新兴经济、尤其是东亚新兴经济的资本主要是短期资本流动;这种资本具有变化不定的性质。缺乏一个健全的金融体系使各国尤其容易受到短期资本流动的冲击,从而导致金融危机。要促使任一经济体形成金融资本,不管是国内与否,都需要一个健全的国内环境。 134. 前进战略: 以参与和法治为基础的善政,强调打击腐败,有适当保障私人投资; 有条不紊的宏观经济政策和财政政策,其中包括调动税收和非税收收入的明确目标。 在基础教育和卫生、农村部门、以及妇女方面实行负责任的公共支出; 各种运行良好的金融体系,将储蓄分配给能有效投资的人,包括微额借贷人、妇女和农村部门;以及 公正的投资政策,公平对待国内投资者和外国投资者,减少对金融危机的脆弱性。 官方发展援助的增加 135. 官方发展援助仍是一个关键的资金来源,对于那些缺乏必要的基础设施来吸引私人资本流动的最不发达国家来说尤其如此。流向发展中国家的官方发展援助净额从1994年的585亿降到了1999年485亿。这种降低是在官方发展援助应该大量增加的时候出现的,联合国一系列重大会议曾为此提出了明确的发展合作纲领。此外,越来越多的发展中国家在经济和政治施政方面进行了重大改革,捐助国的财政情况也已大大改善。 136. 前进战略: 工业国家要在发展筹资问题会议上作出承诺,实现提供相当于其国民生产总值(GNP)0.7%的官方发展援助的目标; 将用在发展方面的官方发展援助和用在人道主义援助方面的官方发展援助区分开来,以免发生为了人道主义援助而减少发展援助的情况; 捐助国要将官方发展援助分配给最需要援助的国家,以及制定了有效减贫政策的国家。 贸易增长 137. 贸易是增长的重要动力。贸易不仅仅是赚取外汇的重要手段,而且还可以通过就业创收,从而产生倍数效应。在过去的半个世纪里,八轮多边谈判在消除关税贸易壁垒和非关税贸易壁垒方面发挥了重要作用。但是迄今为止,贸易自由化的主要受益人一直是工业化国家。发展中国家的产品在富裕国家的市场上仍然面临着重大障碍。发展中国家具有很强竞争力的基本产品正是最先进国家保护最严密的产品。这些产品不仅包括农业产品,而且还包括一些工业产品。1990年代,中上收入经济体的贸易增长势头最强;这些经济体在世界商品贸易中的比例在1990至1998年期间由8%上升到11%。用购买力平价来衡量,贸易占GDP的比例目前在25%以上。但有太多的国家沾不上边。最穷的48个经济体所占比例令人遗憾地几乎总是停留在4%左右。 138. 前进战略: 确保发达国家充分遵守它们在多边贸易谈判乌拉圭回合中作出的承诺,改善发展中国家产品的市场准入; 确保大力改善发展中国家的农产品在发达国家的市场准入情况; 消除制造业,尤其是纺织业和服装业仍然存在的贸易壁垒; 允许处在初级发展阶段的国家对新生产业进行有限的、有时间限制的保护; 进行有关贸易谈判和解决纠纷的能力建设并提供技术援助; 确保下一个回合的贸易谈判是真正的发展回合。 目标:设法满足最不发展国家的特殊需求。在这一背景下,欢迎将于2001年5月份召开的第三次联合国最不发达国家问题会议,并确保其取得成功。吁请工业化国家: (a) 最好在召开这一会议之前能采用一项政策,取消对最不发达国家基本上所有出口品进入市场的关税和配额限制; (b) 不再拖延地实施增加优惠的重债穷国减债方案,并同意取消那些国家的所有官方双边债务,以换取它们作出明确的消灭贫穷承诺; (c) 提供更加慷慨的发展援助,尤其是对那些在真正努力将资源用于减贫的国家。 139. 2001年5月召开的第三次联合国最不发达国家问题会议通过了一个行动纲领;该纲领为加速最不发达国家的持续经济增长和可持续发提供了一个全球伙伴关系框架。最不发达国家及其伙伴致力于鼓励以人为本的政策框架以及国家和国际两级的善政,建设生产能力,使全球化有利于最不发达国家,加强贸易在发展中的作用,减少脆弱性并保护环境,以及调动财政资源等。 140. 行动纲领认识到各国政府、民间社会和私营部门必须通过更有力的公私伙伴关系,在行动纲领的实施和后续工作中发挥重要作用。现在迫切需要有一个有效的机制,以支持对行动纲领的实施情况进行政府间审查并开始后续工作;调动联合国系统、以及其他有关的多边组织;并促使最不发达国家实质性地参与适当的多边论坛。已经请秘书长向大会第五十六届会议提出建议,制订一个高效的、获高度注意的后续机制。 取消最不发达国家基本上所有出口品的关税和配额限制 141.1970年代,几个先进经济体提出了发展中国家市场准入优惠计划。欧盟和日本于1971年采用了普遍优惠制(普惠制),加拿大在1974年,美国在1976年。目前全世界有15个普惠制计划。根据普惠制,发达国家(普惠制捐助国)对从发展中国家(普惠制受惠国)进口品单方面自愿实行优惠税率。其他许多国家也对最不发达国家采用了优惠市场准入计划。然而,这些计划通常不包括农产品和纺织品等发达国家认为敏感的许多产品。 142. 最近,欧盟宣布推行,“除武器外一切产品均可免税进入倡议”,将允许49个最不发达国家基本上所有非军事出口品免税、免配额进入欧盟。这一倡议建议取消来自于最不发达国家除武器之外所有进口品的关税和配额。除武器外一切产品均可免税进入倡议于2001年3月5日生效,范围包括除糖、大米和香蕉之外的大多数产品。这一举动将有助于重建人们的信心,让他们信任对多边贸易体系和世界贸易组织有能力反映其所有成员的需求。目前正在敦促其他发达国家效仿欧盟所树立的榜样。 143. 前进战略: 加强努力,将贸易政策纳入各国的消灭贫穷发展政策; 帮助最不发达国家进行贸易政策以及关税、海关、竞争和技术方面的投资等相关领域的能力建设; 继续努力实现最不发达国家除武器之外的所有产品免税、免配额进入市场的目标; 帮助最不发达国家改进其生产和出口能力; 简化行政程序和各种手续,继续改善针对最不发达国家的普遍优惠制。 减免债务 144. 1996年9月,国际货币基金组织和世界银行的临时委员会和发展委员会核可了重债穷国倡议,在有资格的国家满足了一系列条件之后,即减免这些国家的债务,使它们能够通过出口收益、援助、以及资本流入来偿还剩余债务。重债穷国倡议要求各债务国进行宏观经济调整以及结构和社会政策改革,并为社会部门各方案(主要是基础卫生和教育部门)提供更多资金。 145. 在对重债穷国倡议进行了全面审查之后,1999年9月核准对该倡议进行一些改动,以更快速、更深入、更广泛地减免列为重债穷国的41个国家的债务,并加强减免债务与减少贫困之间的联系。所依据的设想是减免债务将腾出财政资源,使这些国家能够改善人类发展。 146. 截至2000年12月底,共有22个国家到达了决定点,因此根据更加优惠倡议有资格获得减免债务。重债穷国倡议将把22个国家的债务总额减少差不多三分之二,从以现值计算的530亿美元净额减少到大约200亿美元。在符合减免债务条件的22个国家中,17个是非洲最不发达国家。另外根据重债穷国倡议的标准,还有11个最不发达国家面临着无法持续承担的债务负担。这些国家中大部分受到了冲突的影响。然而,根据现有的程序,这些国家需要几年才能满足减免债务所要求的条件。此外,还有几个债务负担沉重的最不发达国家没有被列为重债穷国。国际社会必须采取快速行动,减免这些最不发达国家的债务负担。另外,减免债务所腾出的财政资源有可能不会完全成为额外资源。在符合减免债务条件的17个非洲最不发达国家中,有14个国家的官方资本流动在1996年和1999年期间大幅度下降。 147. 前进战略: 鼓励捐助者调动资源,为减免债务提供资金; 确保减免债务是一项额外的工作,而不是用来替代其他发展援助形式; 采取措施,加强国家政策框架,有效协助消灭贫穷并促进更快的经济增长; 设计并实施各国自己的发展政策和战略,并在适当时包括由利益有关者充分参与的减贫战略文件。 官方发展援助 148. 1990年第二次最不发达国家问题会议通过的给最不发达国家官方发展援助的目标是GNP的0.15%到0.20%,与此相比,2000年实际官方发展援助的数额为0.06%。官方发展援助的减少影响到许多发展中国家,对非洲和亚洲造成的影响尤其严重。各国政府和多边机构支付给非洲的官方发展援助净额下降了四分之一以上,从1990年的251亿美元下降到1998年的185亿美元,给亚洲的官方发展援助在同期也由195亿美元下降到161亿美元。许多最不发达国家下降严重,尤其是以人均收到的官方发展援助计算。这一组国家中有7个国家所收到的人均官方发展援助净额在1990年和1998年期间下降了50%以上;它们都是非洲国家。有20个国家的下降幅度在25%和50%之间,13个国家下降多达25%。
120. The United Nations has joined forces with other development partners to respond to this challenge through major initiatives, such as Cities Without Slums; the Global Campaign for Secure Tenure, which aimed to achieve demonstrated progress towards adequate shelter for all with secure tenure and access to essential services in every community by 2015; the Global Campaign on Urban Governance; and Managing Water for African Cities.149. 由于需要官方发展援助来建设必需的基础设施以吸引直接或间接外国资本,因此,如果各国政府要实现2015年的目标,并使可持续经济增长和可持续经济增长成为所有发展中国家的准则,那么就需要数额更大的官方发展援助。
121.150.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略:
Ensuring support from the international community for the provision of basic social services, such as safe water and sanitation, to the urban poor;敦促双边和多边发展机构采取措施,提高其援助方案的效率,更好地满足最不发达国家的需求;
Ensuring the development of integrated and participatory approaches to urban environmental planning and management;支持进一步进行体制改革,增加双边和多边两级的透明度和对话;
Ensuring good urban governance and planning by forging public-private partnerships.敦促捐助国兑现它们给予最不发达国家更多援助的承诺;
GOAL: To promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as effective ways to combat poverty, hunger and disease and to stimulate development that is truly sustainable建立信息系统,监测官方发展援助的使用情况和产生的效益。
122. Women are still the poorest of the world’s poor, representing two thirds of those living under a dollar a day. When such a large proportion of women live on incomes of less than $1 a day, the relationship between being female and being poor is stark. Over the past two decades, the number of rural women living in absolute poverty has risen by 50 per cent, as opposed to 30 per cent for men. To change this severe inequality, women will need to gain control over financial and material resources, and will also need access to opportunity through education.目标:决心通过快速、充分地实施《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》以及第二十二届大会特别会议所取得的成果,设法满足小岛屿发展中国家的特殊需求。敦促国际社会在制订脆弱性指标的过程中,确保考虑到小岛屿发展中国家的特殊需求
123.151.
In the five-year review of the Beijing Platform for Action, Governments committed themselves to removing all discriminatory provisions in legislation and eliminating legislative gaps that leave girls and women without effective legal protection and recourse against gender-based discrimination by 2005.小岛屿发展中国家因生物物理、社会文化以及经济特点各自不同而具有很大的差异。然而,它们的可持续发展努力却受到一些共同不利条件所限制,其中包括:自然资源有限、生态系统脆弱以及容易发生自然灾害等。在所有小岛屿国家中,除5个之外,其余的土地面积都在3万平方公里以下。许多小岛屿发展中国家位于热带,经常处于热带风暴和旋风的影响之下。因此,这些国家很容易出现极端的天气现象。其经济活动往往以专门农业(如糖)和旅游业为主。这两个产业都受到气候因素的影响。虽然人们认识到小岛屿国家在结构上存在的不利条件,但这些国家难以据此争取优惠。不幸的是,小岛屿发展中国家面临着一个矛盾,因为根据其国民收入指标人们日益认为这些国家是相对繁荣的国家,尽管这些数字并不能反映它们实际存在的经济和环境脆弱性。
124.152.
In 1999, at the five-year review of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD+5), a total of 177 Member States adopted “Key actions for the further implementation of ICPD”, calling on Governments to protect and promote women’s and girls’ human rights through the implementation and enforcement of gender-sensitive legislation and policies.《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》30 查明了一些优先领域;针对这些优先领域,需要在国家、区域和国际三级采取具体行动。其中一些优先领域是:易受气候变化的影响;废物管理;沿海和海洋资源管理;以及能源、淡水和土地资源管理。
125.153.
Strategies for moving forward include: Urging greater efforts in the areas of maternal mortality, the prevention of HIV/AIDS and gender sensitivity in education;联合国系统内外所制定的一些指标表明,小岛屿发展中国家容易受到自己无法控制的外部冲击的影响。与小岛屿发展中国家的经济不稳定问题尤其相关的是经济脆弱性指标,范围涵盖128个发展中国家(其中包括大多数小岛屿发展中国家)。经济脆弱性指标表明,小岛屿发展中国家:(a) 由于自然冲击和经济冲击的影响,因而在经济上极不稳定;(b) 由于国土面积小,因而受到了许多限制。
Advocating women’s empowerment in employment;154.
Supporting the inclusion of women in government and other decision-making bodies at a high level.第二十二届大会特别会议以来举办了一些全球性活动,如联合国贸易和发展会议第十届大会和第三次联合国最不发达国家问题会议。这些活动都回顾了小岛屿发展中国家在全球化经济中的脆弱地位。在这种情况下,人们逐渐达成共识,认识到小岛屿发展中国家必须以脆弱性为理由,争取关键国际机构认可。这些国际机构已经将优惠给予其他类别的国家,如最不发达国家(世界贸易组织)或低收入国家(世界银行)。
GOAL: To develop and implement strategies that give young people everywhere a real chance to find decent and productive work155. 前进战略:
126. The youth population of the world amounts to more than one billion men and women. Their numbers are expected to grow by more than 100 million to reach almost 1.2 billion by 2010, more than half of them in Asia and the Pacific. Youth also make up more than 40 per cent of the world’s total unemployed. There are an estimated 66 million unemployed young people in the world today, an increase of nearly 10 million since 1995.确保在与金融及贸易相关的领域内给予小岛屿发展中国家特殊和优惠待遇方面取得进展;
127. In 2000, the United Nations system established the High-Level Policy Network on Youth Employment, drawing on the most creative leaders in the private industry, civil society and economic policy. The aim is to explore imaginative approaches in creating opportunities for youth. National plans of action in selected countries will be developed. Reporting mechanisms for monitoring progress will be proposed for all organizations involved. In addition to developing policy recommendations, the Network is expected to mobilize public opinion and action in favour of youth employment.在多边贸易谈判的各个具体方面支持并协助小岛屿发展中国家;
128. Strategies for moving forward include:支持实施《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》过程中所需要的任何其他努力。
Ensuring employability through increased investment in education and vocational training for young people;目标:认识到内陆发展中国家的特殊需要和问题,并促请双边和多边捐助者增加对这组国家的财政和技术援助,以满足其特殊发展需要,并通过改善其过境运输体系,帮助其克服地理障碍
Ensuring equal opportunities by giving girls the same opportunities as boys;156. 内陆发展中国家受到了出口和进口费用较高的不利影响。根据最近的数字(1997年),发达国家进口产品的运输费用大约占c.i.f.进口值的4.4%,而对整体发展中国家来说,这一比例大约为8%,而西非内陆国家的这一比例大约为24.6%,东非的比例为16.7%,拉丁美洲内陆国家大约为c.i.f.进口值的14.6%。造成内陆国家国际运输费用较高的原因还有,它们的出口品在过境国要交付更多的费用(清关费、道路使用费等等)。内陆国家进口品的运输费用较高,燃料等消费者投入和中间投入的价格膨胀,给内陆国家的经济造成了重大的经济负担。
Facilitating entrepreneurship by making it easier to start and run enterprises.157. 前进战略:
GOAL: Success in meeting these objectives depends, inter alia, on good governance within each country. It also depends on good governance at the international level and on transparency in the financial, monetary and trading systems. We are committed to an open, equitable, rule based, predictable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading and financial system. We are also concerned about the obstacles developing countries face in mobilizing the resources needed to finance their sustained development. We will therefore make every effort to ensure the success of the International Conference on Financing for Development确保内陆和过境发展中国家与捐助界合作实施《过境运输合作全球框架》;
129. While there have been some considerable improvements in human as well as economic development, some real challenges still remain. Developing nations need immediate help in addressing issues in finance, trade and governance.协助内陆国家发展高效灵活的运输体系;
130. In March 2002, the United Nations will convene the International Conference for Financing for Development in Monterrey, Mexico. At the Conference, the United Nations will call upon the international community to strongly support the key elements in international development and cooperation described below in order to strengthen the position of developing nations in today’s globalizing world.敦促捐助者以及国际金融和发展机构促进创新性金融机制,帮助内陆国家满足其基础设施方面的筹资和管理需求。
Domestic resource mobilization目标:以全面有效的方式解决中低收入发展中国家的债务问题,采取各种国家和国际措施,使其债务可以长期持续承受
131. The mobilization of domestic resources is the foundation for self-sustaining development. Domestic resources play the main role in financing domestic investment and social programmes, which are essential for economic growth and making permanent gains in eradicating poverty. However, conditions within the economy must be conducive to saving and investment spending. A sound fiscal policy, responsible social spending and a well functioning and competitive financial system are the elements of good governance that are crucial to economic and social development.158. 那些曾进入国际资本市场、从而有各种官方和私人债权人的中等收入国家和少数几个低收入国家的情况相当复杂,无法一概而论。用这些国家的外汇收入或其预算收入的百分比来衡量,其中许多国家的偿债付息担子非常沉重。
Increase in private capital flows159. 这些非重债穷国中有一些近几年曾努力调整其外债偿还结构。尽管在帮助这些国家调整其债务结构、接受临时国际流动资金方面有现成的程序,但各种机制一直在发展,预期会有进一步变化。巴黎俱乐部通常是调整债务结构的中心,在这一方面可能会继续保持关键地位。尽管巴黎俱乐部在采取措施,使人们更容易获得关于其工作程序的资料,但在解决债务问题方面仍需要制订更明确的原则和更透明的机制,并可能需要采取新的补充办法。
132. Foreign capital can provide a valuable supplement to the domestic resources that a country can generate. Large sums of capital cross national borders in the form of foreign direct investment (FDI), both long-term flows and short-term flows (portfolio flows). The international capital markets constitute a further vast pool of funds from which countries can draw. FDI is now the largest form of private capital inflow to developing countries. World flows of FDI increased fourfold between 1990 and 1999, from $200 billion to $884 billion, and its ratio to GDP is generally rising in developing countries. FDI flows are less in countries in conflict or those that do not have an attractive investment climate. For example, 15 emerging economies, mainly in East Asia, Latin America and Europe, accounted for 83 per cent of all net long-term private capital flows to developing countries in 1997. Sub-Saharan Africa received only 5 per cent of the total.160. 前进战略:
133. While private capital cannot alleviate poverty by itself, it can play a significant role in promoting growth. However, its provision needs to be organized in such a way that reduces vulnerability to crises. Recent trends indicate that capital flows to emerging economies, particularly those in East Asia, were short-term capital flows, which are volatile in nature. The absence of a sound financial system makes nations particularly vulnerable to short-term flows, leading to financial crises. Facilitating financial capital formation in an economy, whether domestic or otherwise, requires a sound domestic environment.敦促发展中国家的所有债权人支持采取措施,确保债务资金筹措成为其发展努力不可分割的一部分,而不是成为发展努力的障碍;
134. Strategies for moving forward include:确保私人和公共债权人在制订债务国家还债办法时进行更好的协调;
Good governance that is based on participation and the rule of law, with a strong focus on combating corruption and appropriate safeguards for private investment;避免积累过多的债务并避免发生还债付息在短期内“挤迫”的情况,以便确保债务资金筹措在发展融资方面发挥积极作用。
Disciplined macroeconomic policies and fiscal policy, including clear goals for the mobilization of tax and non-tax revenues;目标:依照《经济及社会理事会2001年实质性会议高级别部分通过的部长宣言》31 所载的建议,确保人人均可享受新技术、特别是信息和通讯技术的好处
Responsible public spending on basic education and health, the rural sector and women;161.
Well functioning and diverse financial systems that allocate savings to those capable of investing efficiently, including microfinance borrowers, women and the rural sector;信息和通讯技术在加速基础广泛的增长和可持续发展以及减贫方面可以成为很有效的工具。世界上有许多地区在连通能力和获得全球信息和知识方面日益落后,因此在新兴的全球知识经济中被边际化。在美国,上网的人几乎占人口的60%,而这一比例在孟加拉国仅为0.02%,在巴拉圭为0.36%,在埃及为0.65%。全世界上网的人有4亿1千万,但其中只有5%在非洲或拉丁美洲。经济及社会理事会2001年实质性会议高级别部分深为关切的问题是,信息和通讯技术促进发展尤其是促进发展中国家的发展的巨大潜力目前还没有得到充分利用。
A just investment policy that treats domestic as well as foreign investors fairly and reduces vulnerability to financial crises.162. 为解决这一问题,经社理事会提议设立信息和通讯技术工作队,使各种努力具有真正的全球特点,以弥补全球存在的数字鸿沟,创造数字机会,从而使信息和通讯技术为全人类的发展服务。工作队已经成立,并将于2001年9月份正式启动。
Increase in official development assistance163. 前进战略:
135. Official development assistance (ODA) is still a key source of finance, especially for least developed countries that lack the infrastructure necessary to attract private capital flows. Net ODA to developing nations declined from 58.5 billion in 1994 to 48.5 billion in 1999. This decline has come at a time when ODA should have gone up substantially, taking into account that a clear programmatic basis for development cooperation was put forward in a cycle of major United Nations conferences. Furthermore, an increasing number of developing countries undertook major reforms in economic and political governance, and the fiscal situation in donor countries had improved significantly.促使信息和通讯技术获普遍利用,费用低廉,并协助会员国创造用于发展战略的信息和通讯技术;
136. Strategies for moving forward include:支持人力资源开发和体制能力建设;
A commitment by the industrial countries at the International Conference on Financing for Development to implement the target of providing ODA equal to 0.7 per cent of their gross national product (GNP);建设各种伙伴关系,包括与私营部门的伙伴关系。
Distinguishing between the portion of ODA spent on development and that spent on humanitarian assistance so as to help prevent the erosion of development assistance in favour of humanitarian assistance;四. 保护我们的共同环境
Allocation of ODA by donor nations to countries that need it most, and to those countries whose policies are effectively directed towards reducing poverty.164. 今后几年,我们面临的最大挑战之一是确保我们的子孙后代能在地球上持续生存。我们必须优先处理气候变化问题,保护生物多样性,治理我们的森林和水资源,并减轻自然灾害和人为灾害的影响。如果不采取行动控制已造成的损害并减轻今后的危害,就会给我们丰富的生态系统及其物产带来不可逆转的损害。
Increase in trade目标:竭尽全力确保《京都议定书》32生效,最好在2002年联合国环境与发展会议十周年之前生效,并开始按规定减少温室气体的排放
137. Trade is an important engine of growth. Not only is it an important foreign exchange earner but it also has multiplier effects by generating income through employment. Eight rounds of multilateral negotiations have done much in the past half-century to dismantle tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade. But by far the main beneficiaries of trade liberalization have been the industrialized countries. Developing countries’ products continue to face significant impediments in rich countries’ markets. Basic products in which developing countries are highly competitive are precisely the ones that carry the highest protection in the most advanced countries. These include not only agricultural products but also some industrial products. In the 1990s, growth in trade has been the strongest among upper-middle-income economies, whose share of world trade in goods grew from 8 to 11 per cent between 1990 and 1998. Their ratio of trade to gross domestic product (GDP) measured in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms now stands at more than 25 per cent. But too many countries have been left out. The share of the poorest 48 economies unfortunately has remained nearly constant, at about 4 per cent.165. 1997年,全世界排放了238亿吨二氧化碳(CO2)-最重要的温室气体。这些排放量中有近一半来自高收入经济体。这是1950年排放量的四倍,目前每年增加近3亿吨。人口增长、消费增加、对矿物燃料的依赖,所有这些都使温室气体的排放量增加,导致全球升温。据政府间气候变化问题小组说,过去100年里,温室气体的增加已使气温上升0.3至0.6摄氏度。过去10年,气温有急剧上升的趋势,1993年以来是记录上最热的年份。如果不采取行动控制温室气体的排放,到2020年,全球平均气温可能再上升0.4摄氏度。全球升温可能使海平面到二十一世纪末上升34英寸,淹没人类的海岸和岛上居住区,并使极地冰盖融化。
138.166.
Strategies for moving forward include: Ensuring that developed nations fully comply with the commitments they made under the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations to improve market access for products from developing countries;《京都议定书》旨在使工业化国家在2008年至2012年期间将温室气体排放量降到比1990年水平少5.2%。1990年至1998年期间,工业化国家的温室气体排放量下降,特别是由于俄罗斯联邦、前苏联其他部分和东欧的经济变化。正进行谈判以实施联合国环境与发展会议(环发会议)上签署的《联合国气候变化框架公约》,33 并使1997年《京都议定书》生效。
Ensuring significant improvement in market access in developed countries for agricultural products from developing countries;167. 《京都条约》的生效需要有55个国家批准条约,而这些国家至少占CO2排放量的55%。截至2001年8月14日,签署《京都议定书》的84个国家中有37个已予以批准。各国政府仍有可能在2002年9月可持续发展问题世界首脑会议召开前达到使该议定书生效的目标。
Eliminating the remaining trade barriers in manufacturing, especially on textiles and clothing;168.
Providing for limited, time-bound protection of new industries by countries that are in the early stages of development;在2001年7月在德国举行的第六届缔约国会议续会上,《联合国气候变化框架公约》缔约国举行了正式讨论。会议批准了减少温室气体排放量的《京都议定书》的执行细则。这一协商一致意见得到178个国家的支持。促成协议的鼓励措施之一是规定发达国家可进行排放额交易。排放额交易的构想是,那些将排放量降到低于规定水平的公司和国家可出售超额分。那些不能达到排放量指标的工业化国家和公司或许会发现,买超额分比安装新的减少污染设备便宜。预期这一市场机制可将有限的投资资金引向成本效益最佳的减少排放量项目。与会各国的立法者在对正式批准问题进行投票时将审议执行措施。
Capacity-building and technical assistance for trade negotiations and dispute settlements;169. 目前,联合国支持减少温室气体排放的倡议包括政府间气候变化问题小组,该小组对气候变化这一科学及其潜在的社会经济后果加以评估。全球环境基金帮助各国减少并适应气候变化。
Ensuring that the next round of trade negotiations is truly a development round.170. 定于2002年9月在约翰内斯堡举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议将成为环发会议十周年审查会议。一份突出重点的议程应有助于讨论特定环境部门(森林、海洋、气候、能源、淡水等)以及诸如经济文书、新技术和全球化等跨部门领域的调查结果。首脑会议还必须全面考虑1992年以来技术、生物学和通信领域的革新的影响。促请公民和机构参与这一进程。广泛的参与至关重要。要使今后的行动能有效实现可持续这一最终目标,各国政府就不能单独行动。
GOAL: Address the special needs of the least developed countries, and in this context welcome the Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, held in May 2001, and ensure its success.171.
The industrialized countries are called on:当务之急是确保《京都议定书》得到55个国家的批准,它们至少占1990年COz排放量的55%。联合国还将鼓励《气候变化公约》缔约国订立限制温室气体排放量的文书和程序,并向发展中国家提供这方面的技术手段。
(a) To adopt, preferably by the time of that conference, a policy of duty- and quota-free access for essentially all exports from the least developed countries;172. 前进战略:
(b) To implement the enhanced programme of debt relief for the heavily indebted poor countries without further delay, and to agree to cancel all official bilateral debts of those countries in return for their making demonstrable commitments to poverty eradication;确保《京都议定书》得到批准;
(c) To grant more generous development assistance, especially to countries that are genuinely making an effort to apply their resources to poverty reduction拟订一个明确框架,嘉奖减少温室气体排放量的自愿行动,以此诱发私营部门的自愿倡议;
139. The Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, held in May 2001, adopted a programme of action that provides a framework for a global partnership to accelerate sustained economic growth and sustainable development in least developed countries. The least developed countries and their partners are committed to fostering a people-centred policy framework; good governance at the national and international levels; building productive capacities to make globalization work for least developed countries; enhancing the role of trade in development; reducing vulnerability and protecting the environment; and mobilizing financial resources.鼓励有助于降低穷人的脆弱性并加强其应对气候变化不利影响的适应能力的倡议;
140. The programme of action recognizes the important role that Governments, civil society and the private sector have to play in its implementation and follow-up, through stronger public-private partnerships. There is a critical need for an effective mechanism to support intergovernmental review and follow-up of the implementation of the programme of action; to mobilize the United Nations system, as well as other relevant multilateral organizations; and to facilitate substantive participation of least developed countries in appropriate multilateral forums. The Secretary-General has been requested to submit to the General Assembly, at its fifty-sixth session, his recommendations for an efficient and highly visible follow-up mechanism.鼓励新的伙伴关系并加强机构以因应气候变化的不利影响。
Duty- and quota-free access for essentially all exports from least developed countries目标:加紧进行集体努力,以管理、保护和可持续地开发所有各类森林
141. During the 1970s, several advanced economies introduced preferential market access schemes for developing countries. The EU and Japan introduced their Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) programmes in 1971, Canada in 1974 and the United States in 1976. Currently, there are 15 GSP schemes throughout the world. Under the System, developed countries (GSP donor countries) have applied, on a voluntary and unilateral basis, preferential tariff rates to imports from developing countries (GSP beneficiaries). Numerous other countries have also introduced preferential market access schemes for least developed countries. However, they usually exempt many products, such as agriculture and textiles, that are deemed sensitive by developed nations.173. 森林和林地对人们的社会和经济福祉至关重要。它们为经济发展以及千百万人的生计提供众多产品,这些人包括生活在森林地区及周围的土著人民。而且,森林还提供不可或缺的环境服务,如水土保持、维护生物多样性及通过碳的储存和多价螯合减缓气候变化。
142. Recently, the EU announced that the Everything But Arms (EBA) initiative will grant duty- and quota-free access for essentially all non-military exports from the 49 least developed countries. This initiative proposes to remove all tariffs and quotas on all imports from least developed countries except arms. EBA came into effect for most products on 5 March 2001, except for sugar, rice and bananas. The gesture will help to rebuild confidence in the ability of the multilateral trade system and WTO to reflect the needs of all its members. Other developed nations are being urged to follow this example set by the EU.174. 到2000年,有39亿公顷土地,即世界陆地总面积的约三分之一由森林覆盖。17%在非洲,14%在亚洲,5%在大洋洲,27%在欧洲,14%在北美和中美洲,23%在南美洲。
143.175.
Strategies for moving forward include: Strengthening efforts to integrate trade policies into national development policies towards poverty eradication;森林资源为社区生计和经济作贡献,但如今的许多森林使用方式是不可持续的。世界天然森林继续以惊人速度转化为其他用地。目前,热带地区的毁林问题最为严重。全球毁林速度估计为每年1 460万公顷。毁林和森林退化的主要原因包括农业扩展及砍伐薪柴。世界上砍伐的木料有一半被用作燃料,大多是在发展中国家。在发达国家,森林资源主要用于工业生产。发展中国家的林区中只有6%由国家核可的正式森林管理计划加以管理,而在发达国家,这一比例为89%。
Assisting least developed countries in capacity-building in trade policy and related areas, such as tariffs, customs, competition and investment in technology;176. 森林政策审议工作最初由政府间森林问题小组和政府间森林问题论坛负责进行,它们均为可持续发展委员会的附属机构,现在,此项工作则由其继承者联合国森林问题论坛接手,后者本身是经济及社会理事会的一个附属机构。由12个森林问题领域多边组织组成的森林问题合作伙伴关系也已组建,目的是支助联合国森林问题论坛的活动。
Continuing to work towards the objective of duty-free and quota-free market access for all least developed countries’ products, excluding arms;177. 前进战略:
Assisting least developed countries in upgrading their production and export capacities and capabilities;相关国际和区域组织以及公共和私营部门合作伙伴在森林问题上加强合作及协调;
Continuing to improve the generalized system of preferences for least developed countries by reducing administrative and procedural complexities.加强所有各类森林的管理、保护和可持续开发,包括森林覆盖率低的国家的特殊需要和需求方面的政治承诺。
Debt relief目标:推动全面执行《生物多样性公约》34和《在发生严重干旱和(或)荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化公约》35
144. In September 1996, the Interim and Development Committees of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank endorsed the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative to provide relief to eligible countries once they meet a range of conditions that should enable them to service the residual debt through export earnings, aid, and capital inflows.178.
The HIPC Initiative requires debtor countries to pursue macroeconomic adjustment and structural and social policy reforms and provide for additional finance for social sector programmes, primarily basic health and education.世界生物多样性正以惊人速度消失。例如,已查明的175万物种中,估计有3 400种植物和5 200种动物包括八分之一的鸟类物种和近四分之一的哺乳动物濒临灭绝。
145.179.
Following a comprehensive review of the HIPC Initiative, a number of modifications were approved in September 1999 to provide faster, deeper and broader debt relief to 41 countries classified as HIPCs and strengthen the links between debt relief and poverty reduction, the assumption being that debt relief would release fiscal resources to allow these countries to improve human development.截至2001年8月14日,1992年《生物多样性公约》有181个缔约国,该公约要求各国政府致力于保护生物多样性,以可持续方式加以利用,并公平分享利用遗传资源所得惠益。尽管如此,世界生物多样性仍以令人吃惊的速度不可逆转地消失,原因在于大规模清除和焚烧森林;过度伐木;滥用杀虫剂和其他持久性有毒化学品;湿地排水和填地;珊瑚礁和红树林的消失;破坏性捕鱼方式;气候变化;水污染以及野地转化为农业和城市用地。
146. A total of 22 countries reached their decision point by end-December 2000 and therefore qualify for debt relief under the enhanced HIPC Initiative. The HIPC Initiative will reduce the debt stock of the 22 countries by almost two thirds, from $53 billion in net current value terms to roughly $20 billion. Of the 22 countries that have qualified for debt relief, 17 are African least developed countries. There are 11 more least developed countries that face an unsustainable debt burden according to HIPC criteria, most of which are affected by conflicts. However, under current procedures it may take several years before those countries are able to fulfil the conditions required to receive debt relief. In addition, there are several debt-stressed least developed countries that are not defined as HIPCs. The international community must act quickly to relieve these least developed countries of their debt burden. There is also a risk that the financial resources released by debt relief will not be fully additional. For 14 of the 17 African least developed countries which have qualified for debt relief, official flows fell considerably between 1996 and 1999.180. 显然需要更多资源以评估生物多样性的现状和趋势,并将生物多样性关切问题纳入部门和跨部门规划、政策和项目的主流。需密切关注进一步科学评估现代生物技术造成的改性活生物体问题。
147. Strategies for moving forward include: Encouraging donors to mobilize resources to finance debt relief;181.
Ensuring that debt relief is additional and not an alternative to other forms of development assistance;2000年1月29日,130多个国家在蒙特利尔通过了《生物多样性公约卡塔赫纳议定书》。该议定书以1999年作为东道主组办公约缔约国会议的哥伦比亚卡塔赫纳这一城市为名,称为《卡塔赫纳生物技术安全议定书》,它生效后将提供一个框架,处理跨国界生物工程产品或“改性活生物体”对环境的影响。《卡塔赫纳议定书》有助于在避免不必要地干扰世界粮食贸易的前提下保护环境。截至2001年7月31日,已有102个国家和一个区域经济组织——欧洲共同体签署了《卡塔赫纳生物技术安全议定书》。
Taking measures to enhance a national policy framework that contributes effectively to poverty eradication and promotes faster economic growth;182. 联合国《在发生严重干旱和(或)荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化公约》是在会议后谈判达成并于1996年12月生效的。它强调需要采取一个基层参与性新办法来解决荒漠化问题。荒漠化影响表土,而表土对农业和世界粮食供应至关重要。荒漠化主要归咎于过度耕种、不良灌溉、干旱和过度放牧。公约强调了国际和国内的伙伴关系,并强调必须特别考虑发展中国家中受荒漠化影响的人。
Designing and implementing nationally owned development policies and strategies, including, where appropriate, poverty reduction strategy papers, with the full participation of stakeholders;183. 前进战略:
Pursuing measures to promote the cancellation of official bilateral debt.采取措施防治土地退化,并注重以新的参与性办法解决荒漠化问题,以此支持《防治荒漠化公约》的执行;
Official development assistance确保普遍批准《生物多样性公约》和《卡塔赫纳生物技术安全议定书》以及协调和执行有关生物多样性问题的文书和方案。
148. Compared to the goal of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of GNP as ODA to least developed countries, as adopted at the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in 1990, actual ODA flows were 0.06 per cent in 2000. While the cutback in ODA has affected a large number of developing countries, it has hit Africa and Asia especially hard. Net ODA disbursements from Governments and multilateral institutions to Africa fell by more than a quarter from $25.1 billion in 1990 to $18.5 billion in 1998, while flows to Asia dropped from $19.5 billion to $16.1 billion during the same period. Many of the least developed countries have suffered a severe decline, particularly in terms of ODA received per capita. Seven countries in this group, all from Africa, recorded a drop of more than 50 per cent in net ODA receipts per capita between 1990 and 1998, 20 countries saw a fall of between 25 per cent and 50 per cent and 13 countries registered a decline of up to 25 per cent.目标:通过在区域、国家和地方各级拟订促进公平获取用水和充分供水的水管理战略,制止不可持续地滥用水资源
149.184.
Since ODA is necessary to build the infrastructure necessary to attract foreign capital, direct or otherwise, if Governments are to achieve the goals for 2015 and if sustained and sustainable economic growth is to become the norm in all developing countries, substantially larger amounts of ODA will be needed.洁净和安全饮水的供应未跟上需求增长。每个大洲的地下水位都在下降。尽管地球表面的70%被水覆盖,但地球上的水只有2.5%是淡水。世界淡水资源中可供人类使用的不到1%。在二十世纪,用水增长率是人口增长率的两倍多。2000年,至少有11亿人即世界人口的18%缺乏安全饮水。如果目前的水消费趋势继续下去,那么到2050年,将有近25亿人面临缺水问题。
150.185.
Strategies for moving forward include:联合国在2000年海牙世界水论坛会议上发挥了积极作用。论坛讨论重点是可持续管理水资源及其相关海岸和海洋环境的战略。一些国家正在联合国积极参与下实施这些战略,包括管理淡水系统及其相关海岸和海洋环境的方案。
Urging bilateral and multilateral development agencies to take steps towards making their aid programmes more efficient and responsive to the needs of least developed countries;186. 前进战略:
Supporting further institutional reforms to increase transparency and dialogue at the bilateral and multilateral levels;在全球范围内评估优先的水生生态系统,以期拟订适当的因应政策;
Urging donor nations to fulfil their commitments towards increased assistance to the least developed countries;拟订环境上可持续的综合水管理政策、指导方针和管理工具;
Establishing information systems to monitor the use and effectiveness of ODA.帮助发展中国家和转型期经济国家利用无害环境技术处理城市和淡水流域的环境问题;
GOAL: Resolve to address the special needs of small island developing States by implementing the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly rapidly and in full. Urge the international community to ensure that, in the development of a vulnerability index, the special needs of small island developing States are taken into account确保在2002年约翰内斯堡可持续发展问题世界首脑会议上全面审查《21世纪议程》36第18章,该章是联合国在淡水资源管理方面活动的主要框架;
151. Small island developing States vary enormously according to distinct bio-physical, sociocultural and economic characteristics. Their efforts for sustainable development, however, are constrained by common disadvantages, such as limited natural resources, fragility of ecosystems and vulnerability to natural hazards. All except five of the small islands have a land area of less than 30,000 square kilometres. Many small island developing States are located in the tropics and fall within the influence of tropical storms and cyclones. Therefore, they are prone to extreme weather events. Economic activities are frequently dominated by specialized agriculture (e.g., sugar) and by tourism, both of which are influenced by climatic factors. The small islands face difficulties in gaining concessions based on the recognition of their structural disadvantages. The small island developing States unfortunately face a paradox as they are increasingly regarded as relatively prosperous nations based on their national income indicators even though those numbers do not reflect their actual economic and environmental vulnerability.确保诸如“污染者付清理费”原则、在世界水论坛上提出的水的定价等措施得到进一步审查。
152. The Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States30 identified a number of priority areas in which specific actions are needed at the national, regional and international levels, including vulnerability to climate change, management of wastes, management of coastal and marine resources, and management of energy, freshwater and land resources.目标:加紧集体努力以减少自然灾害和人为灾害的次数及其影响
153. Several indicators developed within or outside the United Nations have demonstrated the vulnerability of small island developing States to external shocks beyond their control. Particularly relevant to the problems of economic instability of small island developing States is the economic vulnerability index covering 128 developing countries (including most small island developing States). The index shows that small island developing States are (a) highly unstable economically as a result of natural and economic shocks, and (b) greatly handicapped as a result of their small size.187. 1999年,自然灾害使10多万人丧生。如果同时考虑气候变化对灾害的预期影响这一因素,那么灾害所致的人身和经济损失将非常之大,除非采取强有力措施预防或减轻自然灾害和人为灾害的影响。
154. Since the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly, several global events, such as the Tenth United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, have recalled the fragility of small island developing States in the globalizing economy.188.
In this context, progress has been made towards a consensus on the importance, for small island developing States, of gaining recognition on the grounds of vulnerability in key international arenas where concessions are already granted to other categories, such as the least developed countries (in WTO) or low-income countries (in the World Bank).传统上强调救灾,如今则强调减灾,这是一个重要的观念变化。国际减少自然灾害十年(1990年-1999年)促成了国际减少灾害战略的订立及减少自然灾害机构间工作队和秘书处的设立,减少灾害是要做好准备并预防和减轻自然灾害和相关环境和技术灾害的不利影响。必须在国际发展议程中作为紧迫的优先事项推动这一工作。
155.189.
Strategies for moving forward include:许多国家已在非国家行动者的协助下开始采取主动行动,包括更多运用旨在减少自然灾害及相关技术和环境现象的影响的科学技术。
Ensuring progress towards a special and differential treatment of small island developing States in the financial and trade-related spheres;190. 日内瓦减灾任务重申,各国政府政策必须将减灾和风险管理作为重要组成部分。国际减少灾害战略将有助于各社会努力减缓并尽可能预防自然灾害的影响。此外,大会授权减灾战略继续开展国际合作以减轻厄尔尼诺现象和其他气候变异的影响,并通过预警措施加强减灾能力。
Supporting and assisting small island developing States in specific aspects of multilateral trade negotiations;191. 前进战略:
Supporting any additional efforts necessary towards the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.支持多学科和部门间伙伴关系,改善关于自然灾害原因的科学研究,更好地开展国际合作以减轻诸如厄尔尼诺和拉尼娜等气候变异的影响;
GOAL: Recognize the special needs and problems of landlocked developing countries, and urge both bilateral and multilateral donors to increase financial and technical assistance to this group of countries to meet their special development needs and to help them overcome the impediments of geography and by improving their transit transportation system发展预警、脆弱性勘测、技术转让和培训;
156. Landlocked developing countries are negatively affected by the high cost of their exports and imports. According to the latest available figures (1997), while freight costs represented approximately 4.4 per cent of the cost including freight (c.i.f.) import values for developed countries and about 8 per cent for developing countries as a group, for the landlocked countries in West Africa they represented approximately 24.6 per cent, for those in East Africa they represented about 16.7 per cent and for those in Latin America they represented approximately 14.6 per cent of c.i.f. import values. The high level of international transport costs facing landlocked countries is explained also by the fact that their exports incur additional costs in the country or countries of transit (customs clearance fees, road user charges etc.). The high transport costs of landlocked countries imports impose a significant economic burden on the economies of landlocked countries in the form of inflated prices of both consumer and intermediate inputs, such as fuel.鼓励各国政府解决大城市、位于高风险地区的住区及灾害的其他人为因素所造成的问题;
157. Strategies for moving forward include:鼓励各国政府将减少灾害风险纳入国家规划进程,包括建筑条例。
Ensuring that landlocked and transit developing countries and the donor community cooperate in the implementation of the Global Framework for Transit-Transport Cooperation;目标:确保自由获取有关人类基因组序列的资料
Assisting landlocked countries in developing efficient and flexible transport systems; Urging donors and international financial and development agencies to promote innovative financial mechanisms to help landlocked countries meet their infrastructure financing and management needs.192. 2000年,由公共供资的人类基因组项目与商营的Celera基因公司联合宣布,成功列出了31亿个人类脱氧核糖核酸基因。虽说已列出脱氧核糖核酸序列,但要解译它或使它具有意义则还需若干年。这个项目是一个跨国公共研究团体,它已宣布,将在英特网上免费开放其基因组数据库,但预期Celera公司会收使用费。人类基因的解译突出了基因专利权的问题。基因组项目是技术转让起作用的一个佳例,至少有18个国家的众多实验室参与这一项目的运作。虽说有些生物技术创新源自发展中国家,但大多数较复杂的生物技术仍由发达国家开发。
GOAL: Deal comprehensively and effectively with the debt problems of low- and middle-income developing countries, through various national and international measures designed to make their debt sustainable in the long run193. 1997年联合国教育、科学及文化组织(教科文组织)成员国一致签署了《世界人类基因组与人权宣言》。37申明自然状态的人类基因组不得产生经济效益,任何有关人类基因组的研究不得超越对人权的尊重。同样,违背人的尊严的一些做法,如用克隆技术复制人的做法,是不能允许的,而人类基因组方面的进步应使每个人受益。此外,有关人类基因组的研究应以减轻痛苦和改善健康为目的。
158. The situation of middle-income countries and the few low-income countries which have had access to international capital markets and thus have a mix of official and private creditors is fairly complex and cannot be generalized. Many of them have heavy debt-servicing obligations, measured as a percentage of their foreign exchange earnings and/or budgetary revenue.194. 前进战略:
159. Some of these non-HIPC countries have had to seek a restructuring of their external debt-servicing obligations in recent years. While there are established procedures for helping such countries to restructure their debts and receive temporary international liquidity, the mechanisms have been evolving and further change can be expected. The Paris Club is usually at the centre of debt restructurings and it may well remain key in this regard. While it is taking steps to improve the availability of information on its proceedings, the need remains for clearer principles and more transparent mechanisms for working out debt problems, and new complementary approaches may be required.促请各国考虑到1997年教科文组织宣言,确保自由获取关于人类基因组序列的信息。
160. Strategies for moving forward include:五. 人权、民主和善政
Urging all creditors to developing countries to support measures to ensure that debt financing becomes an integral part of their development efforts and not a hindrance to them;195. 联合国的存在是重申坚信基本人权、人的尊严和价值、男女的平等权利以及少数民族和移民生活在和平之中的权利。所有的人权——公民的、政治的、经济的、社会的和文化的——均为全面、普遍、相互依存的。它们是支撑人的尊严的基础,任何侵犯人权的行径都是对人的尊严实质的攻击。凡不保护基本人权的地方、国家和人民都更可能经受冲突、贫困和不义。
Ensuring better coordination between private and public creditors in debt workouts of debtor nations; Preventing the accumulation of excessive debt or the “bunching” of debt-servicing obligations over a short period of time so as to ensure that debt financing plays a constructive role in development finance. GOAL: To ensure that the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication technologies, in conformity with the recommendations contained in the ministerial declaration adopted by the Economic and Social Council at the high-level segment of its substantive session of 200131 are available to all 161. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be potent instruments for accelerating broad-based growth and sustainable development and for reducing poverty. Vast regions of the world are increasingly lagging behind in connectivity and access to global information flows and knowledge and are thus marginalized from the emerging global knowledge-based economy. While in the United States nearly 60 per cent of the population are online, the percentage of the population online is only 0.02 per cent in Bangladesh, 0.36 per cent in Paraguay and 0.65 per cent in Egypt. Worldwide, 410 million people are online, but only 5 per cent of those are in Africa or Latin America. At the high-level segment of its substantive session of 2001, the Economic and Social Council expressed profound concern that the huge potential of ICT for advancing development, in particular of the developing countries, has not yet been fully exploited. 162. To address this problem, the Council proposed the establishment of an ICT task force that would lend a truly global dimension to the multitude of efforts to bridge the global digital divide, foster digital opportunity and thus put ICT at the service of development for all. The task force has been established and will be formally launched in September 2001. 163. Strategies for moving forward include: Promoting universal and affordable access to ICT and assisting Member States in creating ICT for development strategies; Supporting human resources development and institutional capacity-building; Building partnerships, including with the private sector. IV. Protecting our common environment 164. One of our greatest challenges in the coming years is to ensure that our children and all future generations are able to sustain their lives on the planet. We must tackle, as a matter of priority, issues of climate change, preserving biodiversity, managing our forests and water resources and reducing the impacts of natural and man-made disasters. If we do not act to contain the damage already done and mitigate future harm, we will inflict irreversible damage on our rich ecosystem and the bounties it offers. GOAL: To make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol,32 preferably by the tenth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 2002, and to embark on the required reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases 165. In 1997, the world released 23.8 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important of the greenhouse gases. Almost half of those emissions were from high-income economies. That level is four times the 1950 level and is currently increasing at a rate of nearly 300 million tons annually. Population growth, increasing consumption and the reliance on fossil fuels all combine to drive up the release of greenhouse gases, leading to global warming. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, increases in greenhouse gases have already caused a temperature rise of 0.3 to 0.6 degrees Celsius during the last 100 years. There has been a sharp upward trend in temperatures in the last 10 years, and the years since 1993 have been the hottest on record. If nothing is done to control greenhouse gas emissions, the global average temperature could rise by a further 0.4 degrees Celsius by the year 2020. Global warming could result in sea levels rising by 34 inches by the end of the twenty-first century, flooding human coastal and island settlements and melting the polar ice caps. 166. The Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by industrialized nations to 5.2 per cent below 1990 levels within the period 2008 to 2012. Greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized countries have fallen during the period 1990 to 1998, particularly due to the economic changes in the Russian Federation, other parts of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Negotiations are ongoing to implement the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change33 signed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) and to bring into force the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. 167. To come into force, the Kyoto Treaty requires the ratification of 55 countries, which must also be responsible for at least 55 per cent of CO2 emissions. As of 14 August 2001, 37 of the 84 countries that have signed the Kyoto Protocol have ratified it. It is still possible for Governments to meet the target of entry into force by the opening of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in September 2002. 168. Formal discussions among the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change were held at the resumed sixth Conference of the Parties, held in Germany in July 2001. The Conference approved rules for implementing the Kyoto Protocol to cut greenhouse gas emissions. The consensus agreement won the backing of 178 nations. Among the incentives that secured the agreement was a provision for developed countries to engage in emissions trading. The idea behind emissions trading is that companies and countries that cut emissions below their assigned target level will have excess credits to sell. Industrialized nations and companies that cannot reach their emissions quotas may find it cheaper to buy the excess credits than install new pollution-abatement equipment. Such a market-based mechanism is expected to direct limited investment money to the most cost-effective emissions-reduction projects. Lawmakers from the nations attending the meeting will consider the implementation measures when they vote on formal ratification. 169. Current United Nations initiatives in support of greenhouse gas reduction include the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which carries out assessments of the science of climate change as well as its potential socio-economic consequences. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) helps countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change. 170. The World Summit on Sustainable Development, to be held in Johannesburg in September 2002, will constitute the 10-year review of UNCED. A focused agenda should foster discussion of findings in particular environmental sectors (forests, oceans, climate, energy, fresh water, etc.) as well as in cross-sector areas, such as economic instruments, new technologies and globalization. The Summit must also consider fully the impact of the revolutions in technology, biology and communications that have taken place since 1992. Private citizens as well as institutions are urged to take part in the process. Broad participation is critical. If further action is to be effective in achieving the ultimate goal of sustainability, Governments cannot work alone. 171. For the immediate future, the most important effort is to ensure that the Kyoto Protocol is ratified by 55 nations responsible for at least 55 per cent of the CO2 emissions in 1990. The United Nations will also encourage the parties to the Convention on Climate Change to introduce instruments and procedures to restrict greenhouse gas emissions and to provide technical means to developing countries to do so. 172. Strategies for moving forward include: Ensuring the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol; Developing a clear framework to elicit voluntary initiatives from the private sector by giving credit to voluntary actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; Encouraging initiatives that will help reduce the vulnerability of the poor and strengthen their adaptive capacity to deal with the adverse impacts of climate change; Encouraging new partnerships and strengthening of institutions to deal with the adverse impact of climate change. GOAL: To intensify our collective efforts for the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests 173. Forests and woodlands are vital to the social and economic well-being of people. They provide a wide range of products for economic development as well as subsistence for millions of people, including indigenous people, who live in and around forests. Furthermore, forests also provide indispensable environmental services, such as soil and water conservation, the preservation of biological diversity and the mitigation of climate change through carbon storage and sequestration. 174. As of 2000, 3.9 billion hectares (ha) of land, about one third of the world’s total land area, are covered by forests, 17 per cent in Africa, 14 per cent in Asia, 5 per cent in Oceania, 27 per cent in Europe, 14 per cent in North and Central America and 23 per cent in South America. 175. Forest resources contribute to the subsistence of communities and economies, but many current forms of usage are unsustainable. The world’s natural forests continue to be converted to other land uses at an alarming rate. Currently, deforestation is greatest in the tropics. The global deforestation rate is estimated to be about 14.6 million ha per year. Major causes of deforestation and forest degradation include agricultural expansion and the harvesting of fuel wood. Half of the wood harvested in the world is used as fuel, mostly in developing countries. In developed nations, forest resources are used mainly for industrial products. Only 6 per cent of the forest area in developing countries is covered by a formal and nationally approved forest management plan, compared with 89 per cent in developed countries. 176. Forest policy deliberations, initially conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests and the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, subsidiary bodies of the Commission on Sustainable Development, are now carried out by their successor, the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), itself a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council. The Collaborative Partnership on Forests, consisting of 12 multilateral forest-related organizations, has also been formed to support the activities of UNFF. 177. Strategies for moving forward include: Enhancing cooperation and coordination on forest-related issues among relevant international and regional organizations, as well as public-private partners; Strengthening political commitment to the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests, including the special needs and requirements of countries with low forest cover. GOAL: To press for the full implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity34 and the Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa35 178. The world’s biological diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. For example, of the 1.75 million species that have been identified it is estimated that 3,400 plants and 5,200 animal species, including one in eight bird species and nearly one in four mammal species, face extinction. 179. The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity has 181 States parties as of 14 August 2001, and commits Governments to conserve biodiversity, to use its components in a sustainable manner and to share equitably the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. Despite this, the world’s biological diversity is being irreversibly lost at an alarming rate, as a result of large-scale clearing and burning of forests; the overharvesting of plants; the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other persistent toxic chemicals; the draining and filling of wetlands; the loss of coral reefs and mangroves; destructive fishing practices; climate change; water pollution; and the conversion of wild lands to agricultural and urban uses. 180. There is a clear need for additional resources to assess status and trends on biological diversity and to mainstream biodiversity concerns into sectoral and cross-sectoral planning, policies and projects. The issue of further scientific assessment of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology will require close attention. 181. The Cartagena Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted by more than 130 countries on 29 January 2000, in Montreal. Called the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in honour of the Colombian city which hosted the Conference of Parties to the Convention in Cartagena in 1999, the Protocol, upon entry into force, is expected to provide a framework for addressing the environmental impacts of bioengineered products or “living modified organisms” that cross international borders. The Cartagena Protocol will help to protect the environment without unnecessarily disrupting world food trade. As of 31 July 2001, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has been signed by 102 countries and one regional economic organization — the European Community. 182. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, was negotiated after UNCED and it entered into force in December 1996. It stressed the need for a new grass-roots participatory approach to solving the problem of desertification. Desertification affects the topsoil that is crucial to agriculture and the world’s food supply. This is predominantly due to overcultivation, poor irrigation, drought and overgrazing. The Convention emphasizes partnerships, both internationally and domestically, as well as the need to afford special consideration to those affected by desertification in developing countries. 183. Strategies for moving ahead include: Supporting the implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification by taking measures that prevent land degradation and focus on new participatory approaches to solving the problem of desertification; Ensuring the universal ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, as well as the harmonization and implementation of biodiversity-related instruments and programmes. GOAL: To stop the unsustainable exploitation of water resources by developing water management strategies at the regional, national and local levels which promote both equitable access and adequate supplies 184. The supply of clean and safe water has not kept up with the increases in demand for it. Water tables are falling in every continent. Although 70 per cent of the world’s surface is covered by water, only 2.5 per cent of the water on earth is freshwater. Less than 1 per cent of the world’s freshwater resources is accessible for human use. Water use grew at more than twice the rate of population during the twentieth century. In 2000, at least 1.1 billion people or 18 per cent of the world’s population lacked access to safe water. If present trends in water consumption continue, almost 2.5 billion people will be subject to water shortages by 2050. 185. The United Nations played an active role in the World Water Forum held in The Hague in 2000, where discussions focused on strategies for the sustainable management of water resources and their related coastal and marine environments. These strategies are currently being implemented by various nations, with the active involvement of the United Nations, and include programmes for the management of freshwater systems and their related coastal and marine environments. 186. Strategies for moving ahead include: Conducting global assessments of priority aquatic ecosystems with a view to developing appropriate policy responses; Developing policies, guidelines and management tools for environmentally sustainable integrated water management; Helping developing countries and countries with economies in transition to use environmentally sound technologies to address urban and freshwater basin environmental problems; Ensuring a comprehensive review of chapter 18 of Agenda 21,36 which is the main framework for United Nations activities in the management of freshwater resources, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, to be held in Johannesburg in 2002; Ensuring that such measures as the “polluter pays” principle and the pricing of water, which were raised at the World Water Forum, are further examined. GOAL: To intensify our collective efforts to reduce the number and effects of natural and man-made disasters 187. In 1999, natural disasters resulted in the loss of more than 100,000 human lives. If the projected impact of climate change on disasters is also factored into the equation, human and economic losses resulting from disasters will be significant unless aggressive measures are implemented to prevent the occurrence of or mitigate the effects of natural and man-made disasters. 188. There has been a major conceptual shift from the traditional emphasis on disaster response to disaster reduction. The International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-1999) led to the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and the establishment of an inter-agency task force and secretariat. Disaster reduction prevents, mitigates and prepares for the adverse impact of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. It must be promoted as an urgent priority on the international development agenda. 189. Many countries, with the assistance of non-state actors, have begun to adopt initiatives, including the increased application of science and technology, designed to reduce the impact of natural hazards and related technological and environmental phenomena. 190. The Geneva Mandate on Disaster Reduction reaffirms the necessity for disaster reduction and risk management as essential elements of government policies. The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction will help societies in their endeavours to mitigate and to the extent possible to prevent the effects of natural hazards. Separately, the General Assembly mandated the Strategy to continue international cooperation to reduce the impacts of El Niño and other climate variability, and to strengthen disaster reduction capacities through early warning. 191. Strategies for moving ahead include: Supporting interdisciplinary and intersectoral partnerships, improved scientific research on the causes of natural disasters and better international cooperation to reduce the impact of climate variables, such as El Niño and La Niña; Developing early warning, vulnerability mapping, technological transfer and training; Encouraging Governments to address the problems created by megacities, the location of settlements in high-risk areas and other man-made determinants of disasters; Encouraging Governments to incorporate disaster risk reduction into national planning processes, including building codes. GOAL: To ensure free access to information on the human genome sequence 192. In 2000, the publicly funded Human Genome Project and the commercial Celera Genomics Corporation jointly announced success in listing the sequence of the 3.1 billion bases of human DNA. But although the DNA sequence has been listed, decoding it or making it meaningful will take several more years. The Project, a multinational public-sector research consortium, has announced that its genome database will be made freely available on the Internet, but Celera is expected to charge royalties. The decoding of the human gene has brought the issue of patenting genes to the fore. The genome project is an excellent example of technology transfer at work, with numerous laboratories operating in at least 18 different countries. Although some biotechnology innovations originate in the South, most of the more complex biotechnology is still being advanced in developed countries. 193. In 1997, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) members unanimously signed the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights,37 stating that the human genome in its natural state must not give rise to financial gains, and that no research concerning the human genome should prevail over respect for human rights. Also, practices contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive human cloning, should not be permitted and benefits from advances concerning the human genome must be made available to all. In addition, research concerning the human genome shall seek to offer relief from suffering and improve health. 194. Strategy for moving forward: Taking into account the UNESCO declaration of 1997, nations are urged to ensure free access to information on the human genome sequence. V. Human rights, democracy and good governance 195. The United Nations exists to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, the equal rights of men and women, and the right of minorities and migrants to live in peace. All human rights — civil, political, economic, social and cultural — are comprehensive, universal and interdependent. They are the foundations that support human dignity, and any violations of human rights represent an attack on human dignity’s very core. Where fundamental human rights are not protected, States and their peoples are more likely to experience conflict, poverty and injustice. GOAL: To respect and fully uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights38 and strive for the full protection and promotion in all countries of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights for all目标:尊重并充分维护《世界人权宣言》,38 力争在各国全面保护并促进所有人的公民、政治、经济、社会和文化权利
196. Currently, the ratification status of key international human rights treaties is as follows (numbers of countries which have ratified in parentheses): the International Covenant for Economic Social and Cultural Rights39 (145), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights40 (147); the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination41 (158); the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women42 (168); the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment43 (126), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child44 (191).196. 目前,批准主要国际人权条约的情况如下(括号内为批准国家数):《经济、社会、文化权利国际盟约》39 (145)、《公民及政治权利国际盟约》40(147)、《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》41(158)、《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》42(168)、《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》43(126)和《儿童权利公约》44(191)。
197. While the increasing willingness of Governments to make these commitments should be applauded, the gulf between commitments and concrete action must still be bridged. People throughout the world remain victims of summary executions, disappearances and torture. Accuracy on numbers is difficult to ascertain because violations take place in too many countries of the world and are rarely reported. One of the very few measures available is the work of the special rapporteurs on human rights. For example, the number of letters sent by the Special Rapporteur on torture of the Commission on Human Rights might give a sense of the situation regarding torture but cannot describe the full magnitude of the problem: in 2000, 66 letters were sent to 60 countries on behalf of about 650 individuals and 28 groups involving 2,250 persons.197. 尽管应赞扬政府更加愿意作出这些承诺,但仍然必须缩小承诺与实际行动之间的鸿沟。世界各地的人们依然是即决处决、失踪和酷刑的受害者。由于违规事件发生在世界上的许多国家且很少报道,故难以确定准确的数字。现有的少数衡量手段之一是人权问题特别报告员的工作。例如,人权委员会酷刑问题特别报告员发出的信件数目也许可使人大体了解有关酷刑的情况,但无法描述问题的全部:在2000年,代表约650人和涉及2 250人的28个团体向60个国家发出了66封信。
198. Thirty-eight countries have undertaken to adopt national plans of action for human rights, following the recommendation of the 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action,45 and at least 14 countries have completed the process. More than 50 national human rights institutions have been established under the Paris principles, a detailed set of internationally recognized principles that provides minimum standards on the status and advisory role of national human rights institutions. The Paris principles were endorsed by the Commission on Human Rights in 1992 and the General Assembly in 1993, and have become the foundation and reference point for United Nations activity in this area. Since 1995 and the start of the Decade on Human Rights Education, at least 17 countries have undertaken national planning programmes and more than 40 have initiated human rights education activities.198. 遵照1993年的《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》45的建议,已有38个国家着手制订国家的人权行动计划,其中至少有14个国家完成了这一进程。有50多个国家人权研究所根据《巴黎原则》创建起来。《巴黎原则》是一整套详细的国际公认的原则,规定有关国家人权研究所的地位和咨询作用的最低标准。人权委员会于1992年,大会于1993年核可了《巴黎原则》,成为联合国在该领域活动的基础和参考点。自1995年和人权教育十年开始以来,至少有17个国家已进行国家规划方案,有40多个国家开始了人权教育活动。
199. A mid-term global study undertaken in 2000 found that effective human rights education strategies have yet to be developed. Specific measures for school systems, such as developing and revising curricula and textbooks, human rights training of school personnel and relevant extracurricular activities, have yet to be institutionalized. Similarly, human rights are rarely a focus of study at the university level, except at specialized human rights institutes. Some efforts have been made to educate personnel working in the administration of justice, but less has been done for officials working in the social and economic fields.199. 2000年进行的中期全球研究发现尚未制订有效的人权教育战略。学校系统的具体措施,例如编制和修改课程及课本、对教职员工进行人权培训、有关的课外活动都尚待制度化。同样,除专门的人权研究所外,人权很少是大学一级的研究重点。虽在教育司法行政人员方面作了一些努力,但对从事社会和经济领域工作的官员所作的努力较少。
200. There has been a clear shift in attitudes towards human rights protection by Member States.200.
Once considered to be the sole territory of sovereign States, the protection of human rights is now viewed as a universal concern, as evidenced by the recent convictions for genocide, rape, war crimes and crimes against humanity handed down in the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and former Yugoslavia.会员国对保护人权的态度有明显转变。原先,保护人权被认为是主权国家独占的领域。而今,则被视为世界关切的事项,最近卢旺达问题和前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭对灭绝种族罪、强奸罪、战争罪和危害人类罪所作判决就是明证。
201. Human rights are also a central tenet of United Nations reform, which emphasizes the centrality of human rights in all activities of the system. The cross-cutting nature of human rights demands that whether we are working for peace and security, for humanitarian relief or for a common development approach and common development operations, the activities and programmes of the system must be conducted with the principles of equality at their core. That evolution is reflected in a diverse range of United Nations forums.201. 人权也是联合国改革的中心原则,即强调本系统全部活动应以人权为中心。人权横贯一切的性质要求我们不论是为和平与安全,为人道主义救济而工作,还是为共同发展方法与共同发展行动而工作,本系统的活动和方案必须以平等原则为核心。这一变化反映在联合国的各种论坛之中。
202. Human rights are an intrinsic part of human dignity and human development can be a means towards realizing these rights. A rights-based approach to development is the basis of equality and equity, both in the distribution of development gains and in the level of participation in the development process. Economic, social and cultural rights are at the heart of all the millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, hunger alleviation, access to water, education for boys and girls, the reduction of maternal and under-five child mortality, combating HIV/AIDS and other major diseases, and promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women.202. 人权是人的尊严的实质内容,而人类发展是实现这些权利的一种手段。基于权利的发展方法是平等与公平的基础,不仅在分配发展收益而且在参与发展进程的程度两方面均是如此。经济、社会和文化权利是有关减少贫穷、缓解饥饿、获取用水、向男女儿童提供教育、减少产妇和五岁以下儿童死亡率、防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病和其他主要疾病、促进性别平等和赋予妇女权力等所有千年发展目标的核心所在。
203. Human poverty indicators in recent years have shown enormous differences among countries and between the developing and developed worlds. When disaggregated by region, rural and urban areas, ethnic group or gender, national human development data reveal disparities that are unacceptable from the human rights perspective. An increasing number of Member States have recognized the value of the rights-based perspective on development and should be encouraged to implement this approach at the national level.203. 近年的人的贫穷指数显示出国家之间、发展中世界与发达世界之间的巨大差异。按区域、农村和城镇地区、种族或性别分类后,国家人类发展数据即显出从人权角度看来无法接受的差异。越来越多地会员国认识到以权利为基础的发展观的价值,应鼓励它们在国家一级贯彻这种做法。
204.204.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略:
Encouraging Governments to fulfil their human rights obligations, to ratify the six principal human rights treaties urgently, and to ratify or accede to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court;鼓励政府履行它们对人权的义务,紧急批准六个主要的人权条约、批准或加入国际刑事法院的《罗马规约》;
Integrating human rights in all development activities focused on the economic, social and cultural well-being of each member of society;将人权纳入着重社会每个成员的经济、社会和文化福祉的所有发展活动之中;
Supporting the work of regional and subregional human rights institutions to promote national implementation of human rights norms, and to develop joint strategies for action on cross-border issues;支助区域和分区域人权研究所促进在各国实施人权标准、拟订为跨界问题采取行动的共同战略方面的工作;
Expanding United Nations programmes for Member States aimed at providing advice and training on treaty ratification, reporting and implementation;扩大联合国为会员国制订的方案,提供关于批准、报告和执行条约方面的咨询和培训;
Integrating human rights norms into United Nations system policies, programmes and country strategies, including country frameworks and development loans.将人权标准纳入联合国系统的政策、方案和国家战略,包括国家框架和发展贷款之中。
GOAL: To strengthen the capacity of all our countries to implement the principles and practices of democracy and human rights, including minority rights目标:加强我们所有国家的能力,以履行民主的原则与实践,尊重包括少数人权利在内的各项人权
205. There has been a rapid increase in the number of democracies over the past 20 years. The ratio of democratic Governments to autocracies in the mid-1990s was more than two to one, a complete reversal of the situation in the late 1970s. In 2000, the Commission on Human Rights outlined a number of elements for promoting and consolidating democracy. These include fair and periodic elections, an independent judiciary, a transparent government and a vibrant civil society. States that respect the rights of all their citizens and allow all of them a say in decisions that affect their lives are likely to benefit from their creative energies and to provide the kind of economic and social environment that promotes sustainable development. However, an election alone is not a solution; small minorities are often at risk in democracies and a well-functioning democracy is one that operates within the context of a comprehensive human rights regime.205. 过去20年间民主政府的数目迅速增加。1990年代中期,民主政府对独裁政体的比率多于2比1,与1970年代末期的情况安全相反。2000年,人权委员会概述了促进和巩固民主的若干要素。其中包括公平和定期的选举、司法独立、透明施政以及一个有活力的民间社会。尊重所有公民的权利、允许所有人就影响其生活的决定发表意见的国家能得益于公民的创造活力、造就促进可持续发展的经济和社会环境。然而,单只选举本身不是解决方法;人数较少的少数群体常在民主社会中处境不利,运作良好的民主社会是在有全面人权体制情况下运行的。 206. 联合国继续协助新的或恢复的民主政体。1988年以来,已召开四次国际会议,目的在于确定基本的民主理想、机制和机构以及实施战略。这些会议帮助瞄准行动领域,包括建立解决冲突的能力、反腐败、建立和支持民间社会、加强新闻媒介的作用,改革治安部门、支助公共行动结构与权力下放、改善选举和议会制度与过程。保护妇女、少数群体、移民和土著人的权利也同样重要。 207. 1989年以来,联合国收到来自会员国的140多份要求对进行民主选举的法律、技术、行政和人权方面提供选举援助的请求。有时,例如在科索沃和东帝汶,任务扩大到提供过渡行政管理,监督整个为促进人权和民主参与而设计的政治进程。会员国要求联合国在举行选举、法律改革、司法行政和培训执法官员等方面提供人权帮助的请求也在增加。 208. 前进战略: 支持各国将人权机制纳入国家机构,特别是通过建立人权委员会、监察员和法律改革委员会; 通过机制改革和提高公民意识加强民主原则的实施; 特别关注少数群体、土著人民和每个社会中最脆弱者的权利; 继续联合国的工作,确保选举基于自由和公正的原则。 目标:打击一切形式的对妇女的暴力,并执行《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》 209.迄今,已有168个国家批准或加入了《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》,承诺结束对妇女的一切形式的歧视。大会为妇女作出划时代的决定,通过了公约的《任择议定书》,46允许调查严重或系统侵犯妇女权利的情况。该议定书已于2000年12月生效,现共有67个签字国、22个批准国。但是,针对妇女和女童的暴力继续在家庭和社区中发生,贩卖妇女和女童、为维护名誉而杀人以及诸如切割女性生殖器官之类的有害传统做法依然是常见的虐待形式。在武装冲突中,强奸、性折磨和性奴役被用作对付妇女和女童的战争武器。现有的许多经济、政治和社会结构因无法为妇女和女童提供同样的机会并保护她们而常使她们得不到教育、容易陷入贫困、染上疾病。 210. 目前出现了令人鼓舞的做法,即在国家一级制订和实施新的政策、程序和法律,保证尊重妇女的权利。区域努力有2001年4月16日至18日在亚的斯亚贝巴举行的关于促进非洲国家两性平等国家机构的会议、2001年6月4日至8日在乌兰巴托举行的关于全球化环境中农村妇女处境的专家组会议。 211. 促进两性平等是联合国为确保妇女在人类事业各个方面的平等、享受可持续发展、和平与安全、善政和人权而设计的活动的主要重点。联合国在推进关于妇女问题的全球议程、促进国际标准和规范、宣传最佳做法方面起着催化作用。 212. 2001年,妇女地位委员会通过一项多年方案,要求审查有关赋予妇女权力的主题,包括消除贫穷、妇女参与和接触媒体与最新信息技术、男人与男童在实现两性平等方面的作用、妇女平等参与预防、管理和解决冲突以及建设和平。大会关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题的特别会议和联合国人类住区会议(人居二)五周年审查会议都在最后的文件中纳入了性别层面。 213. 前进战略: 鼓励各国政府进行立法改革、加强国内的执法机制以促进不歧视和保证遵守国际标准; 支持国家保障妇女平等享受教育、社会和保健服务、改善她们对经济资产的控制、增强她们参与决策进程的努力; 继续鼓励冲突各方使妇女参与停火与和平谈判,在和平协议与和平进程中纳入性别问题; 在联合国内进行努力,确保明确授权所有的维和特派团防止、监测并报告针对妇女和女童的暴力、包括所有的性暴力、绑架、强迫卖淫和贩卖。
206. The United Nations continues to assist new or restored democracies. Since 1988, four international conferences have been held with the aim of identifying essential democratic ideals, mechanisms and institutions and implementation strategies. Those conferences have helped to target areas for action, including building conflict resolution capacities, combating corruption, building and supporting civil society, enhancing the role of the media, security sector reform, supporting public administration structures and decentralization, and improving electoral and parliamentary systems and processes. Protecting the rights of women, minorities, migrants and indigenous peoples is also essential.目标:采取措施以确保尊重和保护移徙者、移民工人及其家属的人权,消除许多社会中日益增加的种族主义行为和排外行动,并增进所有社会中人与人之间的和谐与容忍
207. Since 1989, the United Nations has received over 140 requests for electoral assistance from Member States on the legal, technical, administrative and human rights aspects of conducting democratic elections. Occasionally, as in Kosovo and East Timor, the mandate has expanded to providing a transitional administration, with oversight of an entire political process designed to promote human rights and democratic participation. The United Nations has also experienced a growth in requests from Member States for human rights assistance in such areas as holding elections, law reform, the administration of justice and training for law enforcement officials.214. 移徙者、少数群体、难民、流离失所者、寻求庇护者和偷渡者依然是歧视、种族主义和不容忍的受害者。国际移徙组织估计全世界约有1 500万至3 000万身份不正常的移民。据估计,世界人口中有10%以上的人属民族或族裔、语言和宗教上的少数,另有3亿多土著人口。
208. Strategies for moving forward include:215. 1998年组成了促使批准《移民权利公约》全球宣传运动国际指导委员会,移民人权问题特别报告员继续在人权委员会授予她的权限范围内促进遵守该公约。各国应行动起来批准《保护所有移徙工人及其家属权利国际公约》,47 以使公约尽快生效,并应制订实施公约的立法,以使《消除一切形式种族歧视公约》产生效果。打击种族主义、种族歧视、排外心理和相关不容忍的切实的行动战略十分重要。可利用强制执行和行政结构、尤其通过对公众的宣传和对移民官员和警察的人权方面的培训,减少移徙者的易受伤害性。通过系统地收集、交流和分析数据、在国家、区域和国际各级按年龄、种族、少数群体或移民身份分类,将可改善有效的政策拟订。
Supporting States in integrating human rights mechanisms into national institutions, particularly by establishing human rights commissions, ombudsmen and law reform commissions;216. 反对种族主义、种族歧视、仇外心理和有关不容忍行为世界会议为促进更好地了解这些问题提供了一个机会。各人权机构,例如:儿童权利委员会、经济、社会和文化权利委员会和消除种族歧视委员会,在会议进程中积极合作。挑战在于确定和实施切实而具体的措施,通过,举例说,关注青年和教育,解决种族主义问题。
Strengthening the implementation of democratic principles through institutional reform and raising civic awareness;217. 前进战略:
Paying special attention to the rights of minorities, indigenous peoples and those most vulnerable in each society;支持各国批准和实施《移徙工人公约》的努力; 帮助各国为其公民,包括成人和儿童,拟订文献方案,以向他们提供获取基本权利的重要途径; 继续联合国的工作,提供技术咨询和培训,领导关于处理移民问题及其影响的具体政策的对话。
Continuing United Nations work to ensure that elections are based on free and fair principles.目标:作出集体努力,以促进更具包容性的政治进程,让我们所有国家的全体公民都能够真正参与
GOAL: To combat all forms of violence against women and to implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women218. 要确保民主就需要善政,而善政则取决于广泛参与、透明度、问责制和促进法治。所有国家行动者,包括非政府组织和私营部门,必须积极互动,争取民主的、有代表性的结果。联合国协助各国政府加强其民主治理的法律框架、政策、机制和机构,办法是支持民主治理机构,例如议会、司法机构和选举管理机构;建立人权机构和解决冲突的机制和技能,加强地方政府和民间社会参与决策进程;强化公共部门的管理、透明度和问责制;打击腐败、增强媒介作用;改善选举和议会制度。
209. To date, 168 States have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, committing themselves to ending discrimination against women in all forms. In a landmark decision for women, the General Assembly adopted an Optional Protocol46 to the Convention allowing for inquiries into situations of grave or systematic violations of women’s rights, which entered into force in December 2000 and now has a total of 67 signatories and 22 ratifications. However, violence against women and girls continues to take place in the family and the community, while trafficking in women and girls, honour killings, and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation, remain common forms of abuse. During armed conflict, rape, sexual torture and slavery are used as weapons of war against women and girls. The failure of many existing economic, political and social structures to provide equal opportunities and protection for girls and women has often left them excluded from education, vulnerable to poverty and subject to disease.219. 联合国和区域机构的合作有了增加。诸如非洲人权和人民权利委员会、欧洲委员会、欧安组织、少数民族事务高级专员等机制与联合国的人权机构,例如人权委员会、少数群体问题工作组,在支助少数群体有效参与公共生活方面交流经验。此外,2000年7月,经济及社会理事会建立了土蓍问题常设论坛,为协调、统一和全面处理土著问题提供机会。
210. There are encouraging moves to create and implement new policies, procedures and laws that ensure respect for women’s rights at the national level. Regional efforts include a meeting concerning national machinery for gender equality in African countries, held from 16 to18 April 2001 in Addis Ababa, and an expert group meeting on the situation of rural women within the context of globalization, held in Ulaanbaatar from 4 to 8 June 2001.220. 前进战略:
211. The promotion of gender equality is a strong focus of United Nations activities, which are designed to ensure the equality of women in all aspects of human endeavour and as beneficiaries of sustainable development, peace and security, good governance and human rights. The United Nations acts as a catalyst for advancing the global agenda on women’s issues, promoting international standards and norms and the dissemination of best practices.鼓励各国按国际人权标准拟订和实施劫持多元体制、定期选举和其他民主进程的方案;
212. In 2001, the Commission on the Status of Women adopted a multi-year programme that calls for the review of themes relevant to the empowerment of women, including the eradication of poverty, the participation and access of women to the media and current information technologies, the role of men and boys in achieving gender equality, and women’s equal participation in conflict prevention, management and resolution and in peace-building. During the special sessions of the General Assembly on HIV/AIDS and on the five-year review of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), a gender dimension was incorporated into the final outcome documents.继续联合国的工作,加强议会结构和决策进程;
213. Strategies for moving forward include:协助政府使民间社会参与决策决定的努力; 支持政府加强城市和农村地区地方治理的努力。 目标:确保新闻媒体有发挥其重要作用的自由,也确保公众有获取信息的权利
Encouraging Governments to implement legislative reform and strengthen domestic law enforcement mechanisms to promote non-discrimination and ensure compliance with international standards;221. 新闻媒体的自由是保证透明度和问责制的民主的主要原则之一。但是,尽管有保证媒体自由的普遍的国际、区域和国家立法,从骚扰、任意逮捕、身体伤害到进行制度化检查的违法行为依然存在。至今,人权委员会主管促进和保护见解和言论自由权的特别报告员已提出16项有关侵犯见解和言论自由权的指控和100多件紧急行动案。这后一种程序专为处理那些有生命危险性的案件或事件的特殊境况需要立即关注的其他情况。过去五年中,有200多件国家和非国家行动者针对记者的暴力事件。此外,有数起关闭或控制因特网的进入和使用的企图,令人担忧。
Supporting national efforts to guarantee women equal access to education, social and health services, to improve their control over economic assets and to enhance their participation in decision-making processes;222. 打击这些违法行为需要各国的进一步努力,包括进行司法改革、重新检查国内的执法机制,以保证符合关于见解和言论自由权的国际标准。《公民及政治权利国际盟约》和《经济、社会、文化权利国际盟约》为自由和独立媒体的存在提供了最低限度的保护和保证。批准这些文书十分重要。 223. 在区域一级,美洲国家组织在2000年批准了《关于言论自由的原则宣言》。该宣言由联合国、美洲国家组织和欧安组织的特别报告员拟订,肯定了下列权利和自由:民主所不可或缺的言论自由、自由寻求、接收和传递信息和见解的权利、除特殊限制外获得国家掌握的信息的权利、禁止事先检查以及以任何手段和形式表达观点的权利。 224. 前进战略: 鼓励各国改革以国家安全、诽谤、诬蔑和蔑视司法等理由不当限制言论的立法; 审查国家刑法及其执行情况,以保护见解、言论和信息自由权;
Continuing efforts to encourage parties to conflicts to involve women in ceasefire and peace negotiations and include gender issues in peace processes as well as in peace agreements;继续联合国与政府的合作,通过拟订相应的法律框架、与民间社会合作、发展媒体监测机制和查明滥权行为的能力等方式,发展一个自由而独立的媒介。
Working within the United Nations to ensure clear mandates for all peacekeeping missions to prevent, monitor and report on violence against women and girls, including all sexual violence, abduction, forced prostitution and trafficking.六. 保护易受伤害者 225. 保护处于复杂紧急状况下的易受伤害者是会员国和国际社会的一项基本关切事项。在世界的许多地区,武装冲突造成的复杂紧急状况有所加剧,有时还由于自然灾害而更加复杂。据估计,过去几十年死于战争的人中有75%是平民。在冲突期间,妇女和儿童特别容易受到侵害。1990年代,有200多万儿童在武装冲突中丧生,有600多万留下了永久残疾或严重受伤。由于大规模的被迫流离失所和冲突对妇女和儿童造成的特别影响,包括强奸、性奴役、贩运人口、征募和使用儿童兵,使得平民的易受伤害程度更为加剧。地雷的滥用和小武器毫无控制的扩散进一步加重了易受伤害的平民百姓的苦难。
GOAL: To take measures to ensure respect for and the protection of the human rights of migrants, migrant workers and their families, to eliminate the increasing acts of racism and xenophobia in many societies, and to promote greater harmony and tolerance in all societies目标:依照国际人道法,扩大和加强保护处于复杂紧急状况下的平民 226. 扩大和加强保护平民的主要责任在于各国政府;各国政府对于建立我在保护平民的报告中所呼吁的“保护平民文化”是至关重要的。如果政府本身不具备有效保护易受伤害民众的手段,它们就应主动与能提供保护的所有实体接触,包括联合国系统、非政府组织、区域组织和私营部门。在区域冲突中,决定性和迅速的行动往往需要政治决策人超越单纯是某个具体国家的观点。然而,不仅仅是政府有此责任。按照1994年《日内瓦四公约》和习惯国际人道法,武装集团对保护处于武装冲突下的平民也具有直接责任。 227. 最近几年,会员国和安全理事会已承诺保护处于复杂紧急状况下的平民。联合国已制定政策和采取初步,在核准禁运和实施制裁时加强平民的保护。此外,各区域组织和安排,包括非统组织、西非经共体、美洲国家组织、欧盟、欧安组织和八个主要工业化国家集团均已采取行动解决武装冲突中保护儿童问题的各个方面。 228. 前进战略: 敦促各国通过国家法院或一旦成立后的国际刑事法院,起诉违反国际刑法的行为; 加强国家司法系统,确保始终执行保护平民的国际法; 呼吁冲突的所有各方确保能接济到易受伤害的民众; 制定标准和程序,以便在被迫流离失所的人群中查明武装分子并将其隔离开来。 目标:加强国际合作,包括分担责任及协调对难民收容国的人道援助;协助所有难民和流离失所者自愿地、有尊严地安全返回其家园,并顺利重新融入其社会。
214. Migrants, minorities, refugees, displaced persons, asylum seekers and smuggled persons remain the victims of discrimination, racism and intolerance. The International Organization for Migration estimates that there are between 15 and 30 million irregular migrants worldwide. It is estimated that more than 10 per cent of the world’s population belong to national or ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities, and that there are more than 300 million indigenous people.229. 2001年,约有2 000万到2 500万人因武装冲突和一般暴力而在国内流离失所,并有1 200万难民。大多数国家均从法律上作出承诺,恪守保护难民的基本原则,尊重人权,促进国际和平与安全。这些基本原则是保护流离失所者的所有努力的基础,必须提供更多的资源和援助以支持收容国提供保护的努力。 230. 现在人们已经广泛认识到难民收容国所面临的困难情形,其中许多是最不发达国家。然而,有关国际团结和分担责任的言辞很少转变为对受难民影响地区的实际支持。要想有效地分担责任,所有行动者就必须采取一致行动,目的应是减少对稀少资源的压力。目前存在的普遍共识是虽然难民应得到必要的支持,但也应同时解决收容社区的需要和敏感问题。联合国正寻求促进难民的自力更生,并便利难民融入当地社会,与此同时,解决收容社区的基本需要,补偿对当地物质、社会经济基础设施造成的某些不利影响。即使在难民受到理解和同情地接受的情况下,大批难民人口还是会给公共服务、住房、农地和环境造成紧张。这种压力对通过自愿遣返、融入当地社会或重新安置寻找难民问题的解决办法构成严重障碍。 231. 各国政府和难民双方均认定自愿遣返是持久解决难民苦难的优先办法。重返社会的阶段对于回返者和原籍社区都是十分关键的。提供全面和广泛的重返社会援助可防止难民进一步外流。为“重返社会一揽子措施”提供资源对于帮助难民返回原籍社区和协助这些社区收容他们都是十分重要的。要能持久,在回返的同时必须采取重建社区的措施,必须促进重返社会,必须同国家发展方案挂钩。为促进和解,联合国特别注意同发展、金融和人权机构建立伙伴关系。 232. 关于国内流离失所者,联合国着手编制了一份保护和援助国内流离失所者的规范性框架:《关于国内流离失所问题的指导原则》。48 尽管自1951年以来就有了关于难民问题的标准,但这项《指导原则》是有关国内流离失所者的第一份国际标准。该原则强调各国政府的主要职责和责任是确保国内流离失所者自愿、安全和有尊严地返回家园或重新定居,并对充分解决其要之战略提供了指导意见。 233. 已制定了改进对国内流离失所问题作出回应的机制。人们希望,获得关于流离失所人数和需要的更详细资料将改进援助回应的效率并加强为流离失所者进行呼吁的努力。所有解决办法必须注重安全和可持续地重返社会,并注重提高尚无法重返社会的国内流离失所者的自力更生能力。要想使流离失所者、难民和国内流离失所者的返回持久,十分重要的是采取重建社区、促进重返社会并与国家发展方案相结合的措施。 234. 前进战略: 确保各国遵守保护和援助所有难民和流离失所者的法律义务; 使国际援助和发展方案更符合收容社区的需要,并且更有效地减轻对收容社区环境的压力; 国际社会努力协助流离失所者重建生活,使他们能重新自食其力并抚养家庭; 通过传播国际标准,包括《关于国内流离失所问题的指导原则》,以及监测执行这些标准的情况,改进联合国的宣传工作,并使之更加系统化。 目标:鼓励批准和全面执行《儿童权利公约》及其关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书49 和关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品的任择议定书。50
215. The International Steering Committee of the Global Campaign for Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Migrants was formed in 1998, and the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants continued to promote adherence to the Convention within the framework of the mandate entrusted to her by the Commission on Human Rights. States should act to ratify the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families47 so that it enters into force with a minimum of delay, and should enact implementing legislation to give meaning to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Practical strategies for action to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance are critical. Enforcement and administrative structures can be utilized to reduce the vulnerability of migrants, particularly through public information campaigns and human rights training for immigration officials and the police. Effective policy development will be improved through the systematic collection, exchange and analysis of data, disaggregated according to age, race, minority or migrant status at the national, regional and international levels.235. 1989年11月20日,大会一致通过了《儿童权利公约》,1990年9月,《公约》生效。该《公约》是最受欢迎的人权条约,截至2001年8月14日,已交存了191份批准和加入该《公约》的文书。只有两个国家尚未批准该《公约》。1993年在维也纳举行的世界人权会议把1995年年底确定为普遍批准《公约》的目标日期,现在,我们已超过目标日期6年了。
216. The World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance has provided an opportunity to promote greater awareness of these issues. There has been positive cooperation in the Conference process from human rights bodies, such as the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. The challenge is to identify and implement practical and concrete measures to address racism, for example through attention to youth and education.236. 《儿童权利公约》为其他国际公约奠定了基础,例如《关于在跨国收养方面保护儿童和进行合作的海牙公约》、新提出的劳工组织关于禁止和立即行动消除最有害的童工形式公约和建议以及其他区域性文书,例如《非洲儿童权利与福利宪章》。通过签署双边、区域和多边协议,加强了在国际一级实施《儿童权利公约》的力度,这类协议包括消除最有害的童工形式以及禁止和打击贩卖儿童。2000年5月25日,国际社会通过了《公约》的两项任择议定书,即关于儿童卷入武装问题的任择议定书和关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品的任择议定书。
217. Strategies for moving forward include:237. 在国家一级,执行《儿童权利公约》的行动引起了社会变革,包括进行立法和政策改革、制定国家行动计划并设立促进儿童权利的国家机构。此外,《公约》要求促进提高认识的新闻和教育活动,确保尊重所有儿童权利,民间社会开展的活动,例如一个非政府组织——“儿童权利公约团体”的活动,为协助在国家一级监测和执行该《公约》。
Supporting State efforts to ratify and implement the Convention on Migrant Workers;238. 前进战略: 鼓励各国利用大会将于2001年9月召开的儿童问题特别会议,作为批准《儿童权利公约》和《附加议定书》的又一次机会; 确保各国承诺停止利用儿童当兵、让前儿童兵复员和康复,同时考虑到妇女和儿童的特殊需要; 通过促进能力建设活动和加强国家一级的评估制度,通过确保为实现儿童权利拨出适当资源,继续支持政府执行和监测该《公约》并提出有关报告。
Assisting States in developing documentation programmes for their citizens, adults and children alike, which can provide key access to fundamental rights;七. 满足非洲的特殊需要 239. 自千年首脑会议以来,非洲领导人下了更大的决心以掌握和控制非洲的命运。国际社会与非洲接触的特点是开始共同努力对非洲事务采取条理一贯的作法。采取的积极步骤还包括了安全理事会最近作出的努力,例如安理会派团前往非洲冲突地区,更加经常地在秘书处举行简报会介绍冲突局势以及加强从事非洲维持和平等等。
Continuing United Nations work to provide technical advice and training and to lead dialogue on specific policies dealing with migration issues and their implications.240. 非洲领导人已率先阐明区域发展倡议。2001年7月在卢萨卡举行的首脑会议上,决定非洲统一组织将被非洲联盟取代,以便实现非洲更大的经济、政治和体制一体化。非洲联盟将为非洲各国的合作以及制订共同的行动纲要带来新的机会。这次首脑会议的另一个成果是通过了《新非洲倡议》,非洲领导人制订的这项非洲战略是为了在二十一世纪实现可持续发展。这一倡议着重非洲的自主权和管理权,并载有重振非洲的议程。
GOAL: To work collectively for more inclusive political processes, allowing genuine participation by all citizens in all our countries目标:全力支持非洲新兴民主政体的政治和体制结构 241. 据估计,自1990年以来,非洲国家民选政府的数目增长了五倍。非洲各国的政治体制越来越具包容性,并建立在公开选举的基础上。尽管举行选举的国家数目激增,但这一发展本身并不保证政治、公民、社会和经济上的自由。 242. 许多新的民主政体脆弱不堪,需要得到支持和援助,以建立民主体制。这种支持必须具有战略眼光、可持久并建立在有关国家国情的基础之上,必须符合该国优先顺序和国家改革议程。新兴民主国家的过渡安排需要得到援助,以预见潜在的长期影响,并确立必要的改革进程。非洲各国政府、民间社会和整个国际社会都应在改革公共金融体制、确立透明的经济和管理作法等方面发挥作用。 243. 前进战略: 支持《新非洲倡议》的民主和施政方案,其中包括开展有的放矢的能力建设活动,其重点是公共部门的管理、行政和文官制度的改革以及加强议会监督; 鼓励各国政府扶植民主价值、理想和制度,并发展独立的司法和新闻媒介。 目标:鼓励建立和维持可防止冲突并促进政治稳定的区域及分区域机制,并确保非洲大陆的维持和平行动获得可靠的资源流入量 244. 非洲存在着若干区域和分区域预防冲突和促进政局稳定的机制。非统组织预防、管理和解决冲突的机制的任务是观察冲突和停火情况、提出预警并进行调停。该机制开展了一些维持和平和预防冲突的主动行动。非统组织目前正在建立非洲预警系统,以便更迅速地交流有关非洲冲突局势的资料。 245. 分区域促进和平与安全的组织包括:在非洲之角的政府间发展管理局(发展局);西非经共体;以及南部非洲发展共同体(南共体)。尽管该区域的冲突阻碍了建立和平的努力,但在防御和安全事务上开展进一步合作仍有巨大的潜力。 246. 此外,非政府组织行动者日益多样化,它们积极参与整个解决冲突领域的活动,即从预防冲突、政治和体制改革到非军事化、参与社区的和平进程。其他行动者则努力解决冲突以搭建从和平通往发展的桥梁。 247. 自1988年以来,联合国开展的46个维持和平行动中有18个部署在非洲。有若干例子表明,区域和分区域两级对非洲的维持和平行动进行了成功的合作。联合国和西非经共体在西非的维和行动中进行了广泛的合作,联合国也与非统组织合作执行了《卢萨卡协定》。 248. 为确保非洲的维持和平行动获得资源,必须开展双边和多边努力。然而提高非洲能力的努力并能消除安全理事会维持国际和平与安全的主要职责,也不应成为减少参与的理由。非非洲国家对非洲建立和平与维持和平努力的支持,包括部署维持和平行动,仍将是至关重要的。意义深远的改变不仅需要规划,而且需要行动,包括有能力的会员国愿意分享资料和专门知识、提供足够的后勤和财政资源以及不断提供政治上的支持。 249. 各会员国不妨为非洲的维持和平提供支助,其中包括双边的、通过非洲组织的以及通过联合国的支助。如果非洲国家在联合国构架外开展了维持和平行动,各会员国不妨同时部署一个联合国行动;或派遣联合国联络官,以便保持国家社会的参与。 250. 前进战略: 保持国家社会对非洲维持和平行动的参与; 通过向具体的维和行动提供援助或通过逐步提高非洲总的维持和平能力,支持非洲的维持和平行动;
218. Ensuring democracy requires good governance, which in turn depends on inclusive participation, transparency, accountability and the promotion of the rule of law. All national actors, including NGOs and the private sector, must interact constructively to achieve democratic and representative outcomes. The United Nations assists Governments in strengthening their legal frameworks, policies, mechanisms and institutions for democratic governance through support to democratic governing institutions, such as parliaments, judiciaries and electoral management bodies; building human rights institutions and conflict resolution mechanisms and skills, strengthening local government and civil society participation in decision-making processes; strengthening public sector management, transparency and accountability; combating corruption, enhancing the role of the media; and improving electoral and parliamentary systems.提供更多的经费让非洲的军官,特别是在非统组织和分区域安排中的服役的军官参加培训和短期交流机会;
219. There has been increased cooperation between the United Nations and regional bodies. Such mechanisms as the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, the Council of Europe and the OSCE High Commissioner for National Minorities share their experience with United Nations human rights bodies, such as the Commission on Human Rights and the Working Group on Minorities, with respect to supporting the effective participation of minorities in public life. In addition, in July 2000 the Economic and Social Council established the Permanent Forum for Indigenous Issues as an opportunity to offer a coordinated, integrated and holistic approach to tackle the situation of indigenous issues.鼓励非洲各国在联合国待命安排制度内进一步开展合作。
220. Strategies for moving forward include:目标:采取特殊措施来应付非洲消除贫穷、促进可持续发展的挑战,包括取消债务、改善市场准入条件、增加官方发展援助、增加外国直接投资的流入量以及转让技术
Encouraging States to develop and implement programmes that support pluralistic institutions, periodic elections and other democratic processes, in conformity with international human rights standards;251. 尽管一些非洲国家的情况良好,但非洲的贫困状况继续加剧,约有3.4亿民众或占人口半数的民众每日生活费不到1美元。5岁以下儿童的死亡率为140‰,出生时预期寿命仅为54岁。仅有58%的民众可获得安全饮水。尽管预计非洲的经济增长在2001年和2002年将有所增加,但远未达到实现国际社会制定的在2015年之前使贫穷人口减少一半的目标所必要的程度。非洲仅占世界出口量的1.5%,在全球制造业中的份额不到4%。1999年撒南非洲的外债总额为2 160亿美元,约占其国民生产总值的70.5%,及出口总值的210.8%。这是一种不可持续的情况。此外,全世界41个重债穷国中有33个在非洲。
Continuing United Nations work to strengthen parliamentary structures and policy-making processes;252. 至关重要的是使非洲走上可持续发展的道路,实现其经济增长、增加就业、减少贫穷和不平等现象、生产活动多样化、提高国际竞争力和增加出口的目标。《新非洲倡议》是依据必须通过参与性进程编制的各国和区域优先事项和发展计划。该倡议为协助实现其目标,制订了在未来十五年内国内生产总值必须每年增长7%以上的目标。为了实现预计的7%年增长率,非洲必须满足占其国内生产总值12%的资源缺口,即640亿美元。这就必须增加国内储蓄,改进税收制度。然而,大部分所需资源仍必须通过增加官方发展援助、增加私营资本流入和提高出口收益从非洲外部获得。
Providing assistance to government efforts to involve civil society in policy-making decisions;253. 前进战略: 帮助非洲争取增加官方发展援助流入,改革官方发展援助提供制度,以确保非洲受援国更有效地利用流入的资源; 支持制订减少风险的措施,以便吸引和保持外国投资和技术转让; 协助非洲争取进一步减免债务; 通过为非洲出口产品提供开放和地域多样化的市场准入,协助非洲确保积极参与世界贸易体系; 协助非洲实现生产多样化; 提供协助以争取和稳定发达国家提供的优惠待遇。 目标:帮助非洲建立应付艾滋病毒/艾滋病和其他传染病蔓延的能力
Supporting government efforts to strengthen local governance in urban and rural areas.254. 如果我们不遏制艾滋病毒/艾滋病的蔓延,不加以预防,我们将看到全世界,特别是非洲的社会、教育、政治和商业构架遭到悲剧性的和深远的破坏。这种疾病的后果正在毁灭各个部门和各项发展目标——粮食生产、普及教育、善政和消除赤贫。随着政治、社会和经济基础设施的削弱,现有问题将愈演愈烈。我们已经取得了某些成功。塞内加尔在1986年就开始了执行防治艾滋病的方案,得以将其感染率保持在2%以下。乌干达在1990年代初期开始执行方案,当时成人中已有14%被感染,目前的数字是8%,并在继续下降。在整个非洲,特别是这一传染病比较猖獗的国家,需要做的事还很多。
GOAL: To ensure the freedom of the media to perform their essential role and the right of the public to have access to information255. 艾滋病毒/艾滋病并不是在非洲造成重大损失的唯一疾病。艾滋病毒/艾滋病的蔓延加上日益普遍的抗药性,威胁到结核病的防治。1999年,非洲有51.6万人死于结核病。其中30.5万人也感染了艾滋病毒。在所有新的结核病患者中近30%的人呈现艾滋病毒抗体阳性。感染艾滋病毒/艾滋病的患者死亡的主要原因是结核病。
221. Freedom of the media is one of the key tenets of democracy that ensures transparency and accountability. Yet despite widespread international, regional and national legislation guaranteeing freedom of the media, violations ranging from harassment, arbitrary arrest, physical harm and structural censorship continue. To date, the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression of the Commission on Human Rights has filed 16 allegations concerning cases of violations of the right to freedom of opinion and expression and over 100 urgent actions, a procedure for cases that are of a life-threatening nature or other situations where the particular circumstances of the incident require urgent attention. Over 200 cases of violence against journalists, perpetrated by both State and non-state actors, have been recorded in the last five years. In addition, there are a number of worrying attempts to shut down or control Internet access and usage.256. 2001年4月,尼日利亚总统在尼日利亚阿布贾主持了艾滋病毒/艾滋病和其他有关传染病问题非洲首脑会议,并通过了《阿布贾首脑会议宣言》。任务是通过建立全球伙伴关系,找到解决艾滋病毒/艾滋病危机的办法。自阿布贾首脑会议以来,已成立了艾滋病和健康全球基金,我已任命了一位非洲艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题特使。
222. Combating these violations will require further efforts on the part of States, including legislative reform and a re-examination of domestic law enforcement mechanisms, in order to ensure parity with international standards governing the right to freedom of opinion and expression. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights provide the minimum protections and guarantees required for the existence of a free and independent media. Ratification of these instruments is crucial.257. 根据以执行防治艾滋病项目抵债倡议,联合国正协助非洲国家将防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病的政策纳入国家规划进程,例如减贫战略文件。由非洲各国政府、联合国、捐助国、私营部门和非政府组织组成的非洲防治艾滋病国际伙伴联盟的目的是着重加强防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病的集体努力。联合国机构间与艾滋病毒有关药物问题工作队通过了一项关于与艾滋病毒有关药物的战略。2000年5月,联合国各组织和五家大型制药公司发动了一项扩大获得艾滋病毒治疗机会的倡议,这项倡议标志着人们加倍努力协助发展中国家执行全面照顾感染艾滋病毒和艾滋病患者的战略,其中包括降低与治疗艾滋病毒有关药物的价格。尽管这项倡议的主要重点仍然是撒南非洲,但其他发展中国家也可以根据这项倡议获得联合国的技术支助。截至2001年8月,非洲有26个国家为感染艾滋病毒的人制订了照顾和支助计划,13个国家与治疗感染艾滋病毒药物的生产厂家达成了协议。在与最不发达国家签署的协议中,这些药物的价格比在工业化国家的价格减少了85%至90%。
223. At the regional level, the Organization of American States (OAS) approved the Declaration of Principle on Freedom of Expression in 2000. Developed by Special Rapporteurs of the United Nations, OAS and OSCE, it confirms the following rights and freedoms: freedom of expression as an indispensable requirement of democracy; the right to seek, receive and impart information and opinions freely; access to information held by the state, with only exceptional limitations; prohibition of prior censorship; and the right to communicate views by any means and in any form.258. 尽管疟疾不是传染病,但也是一项重大的关切事项;每年有100万人死于疟疾;其中90%的死亡发生在非洲,绝大多数是儿童。1998年开展的击退疟疾运动已促使38个国家编制了行动计划,其中包括制订了防治疟疾的政策、监测和评价指数、提高了区域一级干预的能力以及使用浸泡过杀虫剂的蚊帐。2000年4月在阿布贾举行的击退疟疾非洲首脑会议也支持这些目标,并进一步承诺在2010年年底之前将该病的死亡人数减少50%。
224. Strategies for moving forward include:259. 有许多世界保健需要只有在国际一级通过提供全球公益服务才能得到满足。保健方面最重要的全球公益服务是制作和散播研究知识、进行有效的保健制度改革以及转让新的技术。迫切需要对新药品、疫苗和其他技术进行研究与开发,以预防和控制主要影响贫穷国家的疾病。
Encouraging States to reform legislation that unduly restricts speech on the grounds of national security, libel, defamation and judicial contempt;260. 前进战略:
Reviewing national criminal laws and their enforcement in order to protect the rights to freedom of opinion, expression and information;通过动员工商企业,特别是制药公司促进提供保健方面的全球公益服务;
Continuing United Nations work with Governments to develop a free and independent media through developing corresponding legal frameworks, working with civil society and developing media monitoring mechanisms and capacities for identifying abuses.高度优先重视衡量非洲国家、特别是最不发达国家保健方面的改进情况;
VI. Protecting the vulnerable支助最不发达国家的能力建设,以收集和分析有关议定的健康指数的数据,在区域和全球两级分享资料和经验教训;
225. Protecting the vulnerable in complex emergencies is a fundamental concern for Member States and the international community. Complex emergencies, resulting from armed conflict and in some cases compounded by natural disasters, have intensified in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 75 per cent of those who died in wars in the most recent decades were civilians. Women and children are particularly exposed during conflict. In the 1990s, more than two million children were killed as a result of armed conflict and more than six million were permanently disabled or seriously injured. The vulnerability of civilians is exacerbated by large-scale forced displacement and the specific effects of conflict on women and children, including rape, sexual slavery and human trafficking, and the recruitment and use of child soldiers. The indiscriminate use of landmines and the virtually uncontrolled proliferation of small arms further aggravate the suffering of vulnerable civilian populations.支助非洲各国政府的努力,以减少由于那些影响到穷人的主要疾病,例如艾滋病毒/艾滋病、结核病和其他传染病造成的死亡和残疾。
GOAL: To expand and strengthen the protection of civilians in complex emergencies, in conformity with international humanitarian law八. 加强联合国
226. The primary responsibility for expanding and strengthening the protection of civilians rests with Governments; they are fundamental to building the “culture of protection” called for in my reports on the protection of civilians. Where Governments themselves do not have the means to effectively protect vulnerable populations, they should reach out to all entities that may provide protection, including the United Nations system, non-governmental organizations, regional organizations and the private sector. In regional conflicts, decisive and rapid action often requires political decision makers to move beyond a solely country-specific focus. Nevertheless, it is not only Governments that have this responsibility. According to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and to customary international humanitarian law, armed groups also have a direct responsibility to protect civilian populations in armed conflict.261. 联合国是一个独特的全球性机构,世界各国都是会员。为了继续充当变革的催化剂并提供进行对话和有效行动的论坛,联合国系统将需要振兴和现代化,以便迎接本千年的挑战。特别是,我们需要加强联合国系统携手共事的能力,扩大伙伴关系,确保我们的工作人员在执行联合国任务时的安全。
227. In recent years, Member States and the Security Council have made commitments toward protecting civilians in complex emergencies. The United Nations has adopted policies and taken the first steps to enhance the protection of civilians when it authorizes embargoes and implements sanctions. Independently, regional organizations and arrangements, including OAU, ECOWAS, OAS, EU, OSCE and the Group of Eight Major Industrialized Countries, have taken action to address elements of the question of the protection of children’s rights during armed conflict.目标:重申大会作为联合国主要的议事、决策和代表机构的核心地位,并使它能有效发挥这一作用
228.262.
Strategies for moving forward include: Urging States to prosecute violations of international criminal law through national courts or the International Criminal Court once it is established;《联合国千年宣言》通过之后,大会承诺重振大会的工作,以便承担这些年来议程项目日增的压力。会员国举行一系列不限成员名额的非正式协商,并且同意精简大会议程,大会报告程序以及将议程项目分配给大会各附属机关的工作。已经作出特别努力,以专题方式把议程项目归类,推动将若干议程项目每两年审议一次,并将更多的议程项目分配给各委员会,以便提高辩论效率。
Strengthening national justice systems to ensure the consistent application of international laws that protect civilians;263. 前进战略:
Calling upon all parties to conflicts to ensure access to vulnerable populations;继续大会振兴和精简其工作的努力;
Developing criteria and procedures for identifying and then separating armed elements in situations of forced displacement.继续通过扩大协商和活动范围加强大会主席职能。
GOAL: To strengthen international cooperation, including burden-sharing in and the coordination of humanitarian assistance to countries hosting refugees, and to help all refugees and displaced persons to return voluntarily to their homes in safety and dignity and to be smoothly reintegrated into their societies目标:加紧努力全面改革安全理事会的所有方面
229. In 2001, there are approximately 20 to 25 million persons who have been internally displaced as a result of armed conflict and generalized violence, and over 12 million refugees. Most States have made legal commitments to uphold the basic principles of refugee protection, to respect human rights and to promote international peace and security. These fundamental principles underpin all efforts to protect the displaced, and host countries must be supported in their efforts to provide protection through the provision of increased resources and assistance.264. 改革安全理事会问题不限成员名额工作组于1993年成立。2000年,该工作组就安全理事会决策问题举行了五次实质性会议,议题包括行使否决权。扩大安全理事会,定期审查扩大的安全理事会以及安全理事会的工作方法及其工作的透明度。工作组在2000年建议大会审议安理会席位公平分配问题以及成员数目增加问题。
230. The difficult situation faced by countries hosting refugees, many of which are among the least developed, is now widely recognized. Yet the rhetoric on international solidarity and burden-sharing rarely translates into tangible support to refugee-affected areas. Effective burden-sharing requires concerted action among all actors and should be aimed at reducing pressure on scarce resources. A general consensus exists that while refugees should receive the required level of support, the needs and sensitivities of host communities should be addressed simultaneously. The United Nations seeks to promote the self-reliance of refugees and to facilitate their local integration, while at the same time addressing the basic needs of the host communities and compensating for some of the adverse impacts on the local physical and socio-economic infrastructure. Even when refugees are received with understanding and compassion, large refugee populations can place strains on public services, housing, agricultural land and the environment. Such pressures pose serious obstacles in the search for solutions to refugee problems through voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement.265. 安全理事会改革的设想是要将这个机构扩大,以反映新的政治现实和突显世界上所有区域的公平地域代表性,并通过其工作方法增加其透明度。一般认为应并行处理这些问题。关于扩大的问题,目前尚未就下列若干问题,特别是安理会应增加多少新成员的问题达成协议;此外,还有:是否让任何新成员国具有常任理事国地位;任何新的常任理事国是否享有否决权;以及否决权是否应予限制(例如限于根据第七章采取的行动)、减少并最终取消。
231. Voluntary repatriation has been identified by both Governments and refugees as the preferred durable solution to their plight. The reintegration phase is crucial for both returnees and communities of origin. Comprehensive and broad reintegration assistance works to prevent further refugee outflows. Resources for “reinsertion packages” are vital in helping refugees return to their communities of origin and to assist these communities in receiving them. To be sustainable, return must be accompanied by measures to rebuild communities, must foster reintegration and must be linked to national development programmes. To foster reconciliation, the United Nations has paid special attention to building partnerships with development, financial and human rights institutions.266. 前进战略:
232. With regard to the internally displaced, the United Nations has worked towards the development of a normative framework for the protection and assistance of the internally displaced — the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.48 Standards have existed for refugees since 1951, but the Guiding Principles are the first international standards for the internally displaced. They emphasize the primary duty and responsibility of Governments to ensure the voluntary, safe and dignified return or resettlement of internally displaced persons, and offer guidance on strategies that adequately address their needs.继续在大会审议安全理事会的规模和组成问题;
233. Mechanisms have been developed to improve the response to internal displacement issues. The hope is that better information on the numbers and needs of displaced people will improve assistance response and strengthen advocacy efforts on their behalf. All solutions must focus on safe and sustainable reintegration, or on enhancing the self-reliance capacities of the internally displaced in those situations when reintegration is not yet possible. Measures to rebuild communities, foster reintegration and links to national development programmes are critical if the return of displaced populations, refugees or internally displaced persons is to be sustainable.继续改革安全理事会的工作方法,包括透明度和同部队派遣国的协商;
234. Strategies for moving forward include:加强安全理事会对于事件的预见、预防和即刻作出反应的能力。
Ensuring that States comply with their legal obligations to protect and assist all refugees and displaced persons;目标:在经济及社会理事会最近成就的基础上,进一步加强经济及社会理事会,帮助它发挥《联合国宪章》为其规定的作用
Making international assistance and development programmes more responsive to the needs of host communities and more effective in alleviating pressure on the receiving local environment;267.
Working in the international community to assist the displaced in rebuilding their lives and enable them to resume supporting themselves and their families;在先前改革的基础上,大会于1996年同意在经济、社会和相关领域内采取一系列进一步措施来改组和振兴联合国。理事会年度高级别会议导致关于许多重大发展问题的部长级宣言,诸如2000年关于信息和通信技术促进发展问题的宣言以及2001年关于非洲可持续发展问题的宣言。理事会还成立一个革新的信息和通信技术工作队。它改进了对联合国各机构、基金和方案的发展业务活动的政策监督。此外,经济及社会理事会新设人道主义部门,为该领域内更广泛的政策问题提供一个论坛。它还加强监督其各职司委员会,特别强调推展经济和社会领域内联合国各主要会议和首脑会议成果的协调后续行动。
Improving and making United Nations advocacy work more systematic through the dissemination of international standards, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, monitoring adherence to these standards.268. 关于协调工作,自1998年起,理事会和布雷顿森林机构每年都就国际金融和发展问题举行高级别会议。此外,还同各国际金融和贸易机构主管每年进行政策对话,以审查世界经济状况。经济及社会理事会也同行政协调委员会(行政协调会)成员举行专题会议。理事会能够召开会议,让各国政府、联合国系统以及民间社会和私营部门代表参与讨论各种经济和社会问题,2001年在理事会实质性会议期间举行的非洲促进投资论坛即为例证。该论坛将非洲部长、非洲私营公司、工会、投资者、联合国系统各专门机构以及区域和分区域发展组织聚在一起。最后,理事会同五个区域委员会之间的结构关系也有所改善。目前理事会每年同各执行秘书进行对话,并且各区域委员会向理事会工作提供的针对具体问题的投入日增。
GOAL: To encourage the ratification and full implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols on the involvement of children in armed conflict49 and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography50269. 前进战略:
235. The General Assembly unanimously adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 20 November 1989, and it entered into force in September 1990. The Convention is the most universally embraced human rights treaty, and as of 14 August 2001 191 instruments of ratification or accession have been deposited with respect to the Convention. Only two countries have yet to ratify the Convention. The World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna in 1993, set the end of 1995 as a target for its universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: we are now six years behind this target.继续经济及社会理事会审议如何最有效地履行其任务和精简其工作方法的努力;
236. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has formed the basis for other international conventions, such as the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-Country Adoption, the new ILO convention and recommendation concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour, and several regional instruments, such as the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. The implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child at the international level has been enhanced through bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements, including on the abolition of the worst forms of child labour and preventing and combating child trafficking. On 25 May 2000, the international community adopted two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.将理事会2002年协调部门的重点放在进一步加强并帮助理事会发挥《联合国宪章》为其规定的作用。
237. At the national level, implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child has led to a process of social change, including through legislative and policy reforms, the development of national plans of action and the establishment of national institutions for children’s rights. In addition, the Convention requires the promotion of information and education campaigns to create awareness and ensure respect for the rights of all children. Civil society initiatives, such as those by the non-governmental organization Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, assist in monitoring and implementing the Convention at the national level.目标:加强国际法院,在国际事务中确保正义与法制
238.270.
Strategies for moving forward include:现行大约有100项多边和160项双边条约规定国际法院有管辖权。截至2000年7月31日,189个国家为《国际法院规约》的缔约国,62个国家承认其强制管辖权。约有260项双边或多边条约规定对解决因其适用或解释问题引起的争端国际法院有管辖权。从1999年8月至2000年7月,国际法院举行了29次公开会议以及许多非公开会议和行政及司法会议。
Encouraging States to take advantage of the special session of the General Assembly on children, to be held in September 2001, as a further opportunity to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols;271. 最近国际司法机构增多,诸如国际刑事法庭、国际海洋法法庭以及为解决世贸组织内各种争端而设的准司法机制等带来使国际法支离破碎的危险。国际法院如能得到更多的利用,则在维持国际司法的统一方面可以发挥有益的作用。
Securing state commitments to ending the use of children as soldiers, demobilizing and rehabilitating former child soldiers and taking into account the special needs of women and girls;272. 前进战略:
Continuing to support government efforts to implement, monitor and report on the Convention by promoting capacity-building activities and enhancing assessment systems at the national level and by ensuring the allocation of adequate resources for the realization of children’s rights.鼓励各国更多地利用国际法院来解决其争端;
VII. Meeting the special needs of Africa增加有权要求咨询意见的机关和组织的数目和要求咨询意见的数目。
239. Since the Millennium Summit, there has been a greater resolve in African leadership to take ownership and control over the continent’s destiny. International engagement with Africa has been characterized by the beginning of concerted efforts to move towards a coherent approach in dealing with the continent. Recent Security Council efforts, such as Council missions to conflict areas in Africa, more regular Secretariat briefings on conflict situations and increased engagement in peacekeeping in Africa are also positive steps.目标:鼓励联合国各主要机关在履行其职责时定期进行磋商和协调
240. African leaders have taken the lead in articulating regional development initiatives. At its Summit in Lusaka held in July 2001, it was decided that the Organization of African Unity will be replaced by the African Union in a bid for greater economic, political and institutional integration for the continent. The African Union will bring new opportunities for African countries to work together and forge a common platform of action. The other outcome of the Summit was the adoption of the New African Initiative, a continental strategy developed by African leaders directed to achieving sustainable development in the twenty-first century. The Initiative centres on African ownership and management and contains an agenda for the renewal of the continent.273. 联合国各主要机关的主席已开会讨论共同关注的问题,例如武装冲突、艾滋病毒/艾滋病对非洲的和平与安全的影响以及同维持和平和建设和平相关的更广泛的问题。
GOAL: To give full support to the political and institutional structures of emerging democracies in Africa274. 前进战略:
241. It has been estimated that since 1990 the number of democratically elected national Governments in Africa has grown fivefold. Political systems all over the continent are increasingly inclusive and based on open electoral processes. While there has been a surge in the number of countries that have held elections, that development does not by itself guarantee political, civil, social and economic freedom.大会、经济及社会理事会和安全理事会之间进一步合作与磋商;
242. Many new democracies are fragile, and need support and assistance to build democratic institutions. Support must be strategic, sustained and structured around the contextual realities of the country in question and must be compatible with its priorities and national agenda for reform. Newly democratizing countries require assistance for transitional arrangements, to anticipate potential long-term implications and to establish the necessary processes for reform. African Governments, civil society and the international system as a whole have a role to play in reforming public financial institutions and developing transparent economic and regulatory practices.扩大在联合国各主要机关间进行磋商的问题范围。
243. Strategies for moving forward include:目标:确保以可预期的方式及时为联合国提供其完成任务所需的资源
Supporting the democracy and governance programmes of the New African Initiative, which includes targeted capacity-building focused on public sector management, administrative and civil service reform and strengthening parliamentary oversight;275. 收取本期和欠缴会费的情况有所改善,并且及时全额缴款的会员国数目日增。截至2001年8月15日,103个会员国已全额支付其今年的经常预算会费。不过,有些主要缴款国完全未缴或仅缴纳部分摊款,迫使联合国向维持和平帐户借贷,以抵消目前面临的比往常早、比往常大的赤字。显而易见地,除非所有会员国无条件地及时全额缴付摊款,否则联合国无法有效发挥职能。
Encouraging Governments to nurture democratic values, ideals and institutions and to develop independent judiciaries and media.276. 尽管种种现金流通问题,联合国过去八年来已显示一贯的预算纪律。在过去四个两年期内,预算不仅没有增加,事实上,联合国预算反而减少。联合国承受通货膨胀的后果以及许多没有未列经费的任务。秘书处是通过从低度优先领域和行政事务调拨经费给会员国所确定的高度优先方案来做到这一点。联合国已改革其预算方法,采取一种基于成果预算办法并且改进对现金供应情况和需求的预测。
GOAL: To encourage and sustain regional and subregional mechanisms for preventing conflict and promoting political stability, and to ensure a reliable flow of resources for peacekeeping operations on the continent277. 已经采取重要步骤为维持和平提供与其任务相称的资源。联合国和平行动问题小组以及和平行动特别委员会的建议都侧重于加强一系列的核心职能,包括财政支助在内,以确保联合国有足够资源来履行其维持和平的任务。
244. There are a number of regional and subregional mechanisms in Africa that work to prevent conflict and promote political stability. The OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution is mandated to observe conflict and ceasefire situations and carry on early warning and mediation. It has undertaken a number of peacekeeping and conflict prevention initiatives. OAU is currently establishing an African early warning system to allow for more rapid information exchange on conflict situations in Africa.278. 前进战略:
245. Subregional organizations that enhance peace and security include the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in the Horn of Africa; ECOWAS; and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Although conflict in the region has been an obstacle to peacemaking endeavours, there is great potential for future cooperation in matters of defence and security.确保所有国家无条件地及时全额缴付其摊款;
246. In addition, non-governmental actors are increasingly diverse and active across the whole conflict spectrum, from conflict prevention and political and constitutional reform to demilitarization and community participation in peace processes. Others work on conflict resolution and building the bridge from peace to development.继续努力改革联合国预算方法和做法。
247. Of the 46 peacekeeping operations launched by the United Nations since 1988, 18 were deployed in Africa. There have been a number of examples of successful cooperation at the regional and subregional levels in peacekeeping in Africa. Extensive cooperation has taken place between the United Nations and ECOWAS in operations in West Africa and between the United Nations and OAU to implement the Lusaka Agreement.目标:促请秘书处根据大会商定的明确规则和程序,通过采用现有的最佳管理办法和技术,为所有会员国的利益,尽量使这些资源得到最佳利用
248. Bilateral and multilateral efforts are required to ensure the availability of resources for peacekeeping in Africa. However, efforts to enhance African capacity cannot relieve the Security Council of its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and should not justify reduced engagement. Support by non-African States for African peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts, including through the deployment of peacekeeping operations, will continue to be essential. Meaningful change requires not only plans but action, including readiness on the part of able Member States to share information and expertise and to provide adequate logistical and financial resources and ongoing political support.279. 在全面进行中的改革过程范围内,秘书处已在若干领域加强管理做法。秘书长主持的高级管理小组由秘书处和各方案及基金的高级管理人员组成。该小组以连接日内瓦、内罗毕、罗马和维也纳的电视会议方式每周开会。小组作为顾问团,在联合国内确保政策和管理问题的战略一贯性。此外,还促进联合国大家庭分散各地成员之间的协调。另一有益的程序就是常务副秘书长主持的管理和改革委员会定期审查关于行政、预算和人力资源事项的政策和做法。
249. Member States may wish to provide support to peacekeeping in Africa bilaterally, through organizations on the continent or through the United Nations.280.
Where African countries are undertaking peacekeeping operations outside of the United Nations, Member States may wish to co-deploy a United Nations operation or to dispatch United Nations liaison officers as a means to maintain the engagement of the international community.下列四个执行委员会,在副秘书长一级执行任务,作为内部决策机制,负责秘书处各主要问题领域:和平与安全执行委员会;经济和社会事务执行委员会;联合国发展集团;人道主义事务执行委员会。人权是贯穿这四个委员会的一个主题。此外,已将用以加强维持和平、人道主义、发展和政治职务的规划和协调的部门间协调框架改为侧重于预警和预防行动。
250.281.
Strategies for moving forward include:整个秘书处的所有管理人员继续接受培训。已经同每一个副秘书长制订了一套方案管理计划体制。秘书处于2001年初制订了电子管理报告系统的原型,能够每日提供有用的管理指标(例如,出缺率、性别和地域统计以及支出余额),并将作为监督部门业绩的另一管理工具。该系统将连接现有的综合管理信息系统。2001年6月,大会通过一项决议,核准执行人力资源管理改革,将使管理人员能够选择其工作人员,并通过增加联合国人员调动,使秘书处能够满足其管理需求。
Maintaining the engagement of the international community in peacekeeping in Africa;282. 信息技术在本组织活动中发挥更为有关键的作用。2001年2月,秘书长向大会提出一份题为“秘书处的信息技术:行动计划”的报告,51其中说明通过支助信息技术和分享最佳做法经验,实行有效的内部管理的各项倡议。
Supporting peacekeeping in Africa through assistance to specific operations or through incremental steps to enhance peacekeeping capacity generally in Africa;283. 前进战略:
Providing more funds to allow African military officers, particularly those serving with OAU and subregional arrangements, to participate in training and short-term exchange opportunities;确保拨给信息技术充分的资源并在整个秘书处得到战略性的发展;
Encouraging further cooperation by African States within the United Nations standby arrangements system.在联合国内管理知识,以便向民间社会和其他伙伴提供;
GOAL: To take special measures to address the challenges of poverty eradication and sustainable development in Africa, including debt cancellation, improved market access, enhanced official development assistance and increased flow of foreign direct investment, as well as transfers of technology提供人力资源政策和程序的现代化工作;
251. While some African countries are doing well, poverty in Africa continues to rise, with approximately 340 million people — or half the population — living on less than $1 per day. The mortality rate of children under five years of age is 140 per 1,000, while life expectancy at birth is only 54 years. Only 58 per cent of the population has access to safe water. Although economic growth rates in Africa are projected to increase in 2001 and 2002, they will fall far short of what is necessary to meet the international target of halving poverty by 2015. The continent accounts for only 1.5 per cent of world exports, and its share of global manufacturing is less than 4 per cent. Total external debt in sub-Saharan Africa in 1999 was $216 billion, which is approximately 70.5 per cent of its GNP and 210.8 per cent of its exports. This is unsustainable. Moreover, of the 41 heavily indebted poor countries in the world, 33 are in Africa.继续精简行政程序。
252. It is essential that the continent embark on the path to sustainable development and achieve its goals of economic growth, increased employment, reduction of poverty and inequality, diversification of productive activities, enhanced international competitiveness and increased exports. The New African Initiative is based on national and regional priorities and development plans that must be prepared through participatory processes. The Initiative has set the target of a GDP growth rate of above 7 per cent per annum for the next 15 years to help achieve its goals. To achieve the estimated 7 per cent per annum growth rate, Africa needs to fill a resource gap of 12 per cent of its GDP, or US$ 64 billion. This will require increased domestic savings as well as improvements to the public revenue collection system. However, the majority of the needed resources will have to be obtained from outside the continent through increased ODA, increased private capital flows and higher export earnings.目标:促进遵守《联合国人员和有关人员安全公约》
253.284.
Strategies for moving forward include: Helping Africa seek increased ODA flows and reforming the ODA delivery system to ensure that flows are more effectively utilized by recipient African countries;自1992年以来,200多名文职工作人员在为联合国服务时牺牲了。还有几百名被劫持为人质,或者成为暴力事件的受害者。几乎每个联合国实体都有工作人员丧生,至少有68个国家有国民在为联合国服务时丧生。1990年代的冲突表现出无视国际法对敌对行动规定的义务和限制的危险趋势。大会和安全理事会感到痛惜的是,国家和国际工作人员伤亡人数不断上升,特别是在武装冲突情况下。
Supporting the establishment of measures that reduce risk in order to attract and sustain foreign investment and technology transfers;285. 工作人员的安全是联合国行动有效运作的基本要求。根据国际法,保护他们的首要责任在于东道国政府。在人道主义行动中工作的国际组织和非政府组织人员也遭到杀害和其他形式的暴力。的确,去年这类人道主义人员受到攻击的情况更多。进行这种攻击的大多数肇事者逃之夭夭,而被捕的少数人常常只得到敷衍了事的惩罚。
Helping Africa to secure further debt relief;286. 《联合国人员和有关人员安全公约》52 于1999年1月15日生效。截至2001年8月14日,该公约有54个缔约国,不到会员国的三分之一。自从通过以来,该公约仅适用于联合国行动和有关人员的局限性日益明显。它不适用于大会或安全理事会未宣布为特别危险的联合国行动。实际上,这两个机构从未作出过这种宣布,尽管许多联合国行动确实需要这种宣布。该公约也不适用于尚未与联合国或其专门机构缔结“执行/伙伴关系协定”的人道主义非政府组织,虽然它们实际上同样需要这种保护。最佳的解决办法是订立一项议定书,其中规定就联合国行动而言不再需要作出“宣布”,并且不再要求人道主义非政府组织与联合国建立联系为取得公约保护的条件。
Assisting Africa in ensuring active participation in the world trading system, through open and geographically diversified market access for its exports;287. 根据《国际刑事法院规约》的规定,只要人道主义援助或维持和平特派团所涉人员、设施和设备有权得到武装冲突国际法规给予平民或民用物体的保护,攻击这些人员和物体便被认为“战争罪”。但是《罗马规约》尚未生效。
Helping the continent diversify its production;288.
Providing assistance to secure and stabilize preferential treatment by developed countries.此外,仅批准各项公约还不够,必须实际履行这些义务。冲突各方必须允许人道工作人员安全和无限制地进出,必须遵守1949年《日内瓦四公约》的规定,特别是区别战斗人员和非战斗人员,以及难民营和定居点属于平民及人道主义性质的规定。
GOAL: To help Africa build up its capacity to tackle the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and other infectious diseases289. 改进联合国人员的安全是联合国系统和各会员国的一项核心责任。秘书长为加强联合国安全管理制度和安排提出了一些建议。这些建议包括提供全面、增强的安全与精神压力调控培训;在外地实行最基本的行动安全和电讯标准;增加外地和总部的工作人员。
254. If we do not contain the spread of HIV/AIDS and work on its prevention we will witness a tragic and profound unravelling of social, educational, governance and commercial frameworks all over the world, but most acutely in Africa. The effect of this disease is devastating to every sector and every development target — food production, education for all, good governance and eliminating extreme poverty. And as political, social and economic infrastructures weaken, existing problems will be exacerbated. There have been some successes. Senegal began its anti-AIDS programme in 1986 and has managed to keep its infection rate below 2 per cent. Uganda began its programme in the early 1990s, when 14 per cent of the adult population was already infected, whereas the figure today is 8 per cent and continues to fall. But more needs to be done throughout the continent, especially in those countries where the epidemic is more prevalent.290. 已经采取措施,在联合国系统内与执行伙伴一起改进工作人员安全事务方面的合作。正在采取其他措施,确保问责制和遵守规定成为联合国安全管理制度的关键要素。我们加强和扩大联合国安全管理制度的努力若要获得期望的成果,任命一名专职安全协调员是一项基本要求。
255. HIV/AIDS is not the only disease taking its toll in Africa. The spread of HIV/AIDS, combined with a growing general drug resistance, threaten tuberculosis control. In 1999, 516,000 people in Africa died of tuberculosis, 305,000 of them also infected with HIV. Almost 30 per cent of all new tuberculosis patients are HIV-positive. The leading cause of death in people with HIV/AIDS is tuberculosis.291. 前进战略:
256. On April 2001, the President of Nigeria hosted the African Summit on HIV/AIDS and Other Related Infectious Diseases in Abuja, Nigeria, where the Abuja Summit Declaration was adopted. The mandate is to find solutions to the HIV/AIDS crisis through global partnerships. Since the Abuja Summit, the Global Fund for AIDS and Health has been established and I have appointed a Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa.完全批准该公约,并批准《国际刑事法院罗马规约》;
257. In the framework of the Debt-for-AIDS Initiative, the United Nations is assisting African countries in placing HIV/AIDS policies within national planning processes, such as the poverty reduction strategy papers. The International Partnership against AIDS in Africa, made up of African Governments, the United Nations, donors, the private sector and non-governmental organizations, aims to significantly increase collective efforts against HIV/AIDS. The United Nations Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV-Related Drugs has adopted a strategy on HIV-related drugs. In May 2000, an initiative to expand access to HIV treatment was launched by the United Nations organizations and five major pharmaceutical companies. This initiative represents a redoubling of efforts to assist developing countries in implementing comprehensive care strategies for people living with HIV/AIDS, including a reduction of prices for HIV-related drugs. While its main focus remains sub-Saharan Africa, other developing countries can also avail themselves of United Nations technical support under this initiative. As of August 2001, 26 countries in Africa have formulated care and support plans for people living with HIV infection, and 13 have reached agreements with producers of drugs used to treat HIV infection. In the least developed countries, the latter agreements have reduced the cost of those drugs by 85 to 90 per cent compared to their cost in industrialized countries.核可一项议定书,将《联合国人员和有关人员安全公约》适用范围扩大到所有联合国行动和各类人员;
258. Although malaria is not an infectious disease it is a major concern: one million people die of malaria annually, 90 per cent of them in Africa and the majority of them children. The Roll Back Malaria campaign, which was launched in 1998, has led to the preparation of plans of action in 38 countries, which include developing malaria control policies and indicators for monitoring and evaluation, upgrading intervention capacities at the regional level and using insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets. The African Summit on Roll Back Malaria, held in Abuja in April 2000, supported these goals and reinforced the commitment to roll back deaths from the disease by 50 per cent by 2010.会员国采取更有力的行动,确保将攻击人道主义人员的肇事者绳之以法;
259. Many of the world’s health needs can only be met at the international level through the provision of global public goods. Among the most critical global public goods for health are the generation and dissemination of knowledge of research, effective health system reforms and the transfer of new technologies. Research and development of new drugs, vaccines and other technologies are desperately needed to prevent and control diseases that primarily affect poor countries.在联合国系统内就工作人员安全问题进一步改进问责制并进行有效的协调;
260. Strategies for moving forward include:通过更多、更可靠的供资和任命一名专职安全协调员,进一步加强联合国安全管理制度。
Promoting global public goods for health by mobilizing commercial enterprises, especially pharmaceutical companies;目标:确保联合国、其机构、布雷顿森林机构和世界贸易组织以及其他多边机构之间的政策更加协调一致
Giving high priority to measuring improvements in health in African countries, particularly the least developed countries;292. 可持续发展、建设和平以及人道主义援助与发展合作之间的联系会对部门和机构的界限产生影响。现在比任何时候更需要在处理多层面的问题方面采取全面综合的办法,更需要联合国系统各种实体协调一致,以便加强连贯的行动以及资源的战略性部署。这项要求适用于整个国际体系。
Supporting capacity-building in least developed countries to collect and analyse data on agreed health indicators and to share information and lessons at the regional and global levels;293. 发展筹资问题国际会议的筹备进程已导致联合国、布雷顿森林机构和世贸组织之间的空前合作。一个有活力的合作结构覆盖发展筹资进程的秘书处间和政府间的各方面。布雷顿森林机构已指定高级官员与联合国秘书处不断联络并提供帮助。在政府间一级,该会议筹备委员会主席团成员与布雷顿森林机构各执行董事会成员于2001年2月进行了富有成果的交流。还在2001年4月与世贸组织贸易和发展委员会,2000年与世贸组织总理事会成员举行了会议。此外,每一个利害攸关的主要机构都派高级官员积极参加在联合国总部进行的讨论,并向其政府间监督委员会提供反馈。
Supporting African Governments in their efforts to reduce deaths and disability from the major diseases affecting the poor, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases.294. 新的合作与协调文化正在联合国系统各组织中迅速扎根,正在设立新机制来推动这种努力并使之具体化。行政协调会负责监督和指导系统内协调,最近实施了一些增强政策协调的措施。这些措施包括设立向行政协调会负责的高级别方案委员会和高级别管理委员会。
VIII.295.
Strengthening the United Nations由于这种新的合作精神,行政协调会在布雷顿森林机构和世贸组织的充分参与下,对实现更大程度的政策和战略协调、扩大信息分享以及共同评价和监测进程,表现出强有力的承诺。具体例子包括加强外地一级合作,发展在非洲应付各种挑战的共同对策,处理艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题以及制定全面的全系统除贫战略。
261. The United Nations is a uniquely global institution, with universal membership. In order to continue to act as a catalyst for change and to provide a forum for dialogue and effective action the system will have to be renewed and modernized to cope with the challenges of this millennium. In particular, we need to strengthen the ability of the system to work together, extend our partnerships and ensure the security of our staff as they carry out the mission of the United Nations.296. 联合国国家小组,在联合国驻地协调员的领导下,与各国政府及民间社会密切合作,展开了跨学科的分析进程,即共同国家评估。共同国家评估审查国家局势,查明影响人民福利的关键问题。共同国家评估还审查各国政府制定的国家优先事项,并用这些优先事项作为向各国政府宣传并与之进行政策对话的基础。联合国国家小组然后利用共同国家评估产生的对贫穷起因的共同了解,与各国政府合作拟订联合国发展援助框架(联发援框架)。该框架概述联合国系统如何以战略方式应对国家扶贫优先事项。在几乎所有情况下,这些优先事项包括实现《千年宣言》各项目标的国家努力。目前,84个国家完成了共同国家评估,38个国家还最后定下了联发援框架。为了增强国家一级的一致性,联合国系统正在根据国家当家作主和机构间伙伴关系的关键概念,制定促进国家一级行动的单一共同框架,反映发展与建设和平方面的全面对策。
GOAL: To reaffirm the central position of the General Assembly as the chief deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the United Nations, and to enable it to play that role effectively297. 联合国系统各实体还通过综合发展框架和减贫战略文件进程,合作支持国家扶贫战略。要以尽可能低的代价减少更多贫穷,就需要在国家一级加强伙伴关系。这是综合发展框架的一个关键原则,对拟订减贫战略文件也很重要。综合发展框架是一项国家领导的倡议,它要求各国政府向所有发展伙伴伸出双手。
262. Following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the President of the General Assembly has undertaken to revitalize the work of the Assembly in response to the burden of the increase in agenda items over the years. Member States held a series of open-ended informal consultations and have agreed to streamline the agenda of the General Assembly, its reporting process and the allocation of agenda items to subsidiary organs of the Assembly. Particular efforts have been made to cluster agenda items in a thematic fashion, to promote the biennial consideration of a number of agenda items and to allocate a higher number of agenda items to committees so as to promote more effective debates.298. 前进战略:
263. Strategies for moving forward include:在整个国际体系中改进政策一致性与合作,以便应付当今的全球性挑战;
Continuing the General Assembly’s efforts to revitalize and streamline its work; Continuing to strengthen the office of the President through enhanced consultations and outreach. GOAL: To intensify our efforts to achieve a comprehensive reform of the Security Council in all its aspects 264. The Open-ended Working Group on Reform of the Security Council was established in 1993. In 2000, the Working Group held five substantive sessions on decision-making in the Security Council, including on the use of the veto, the expansion of the Security Council, periodic review of an enlarged Security Council, and working methods of the Security Council, and transparency of its work. The Working Group’s recommendation in 2000 was that the General Assembly consider the issue of equitable representation and an increase in the membership of the Council. 265. Security Council reform envisages a body that is larger to reflect new political realities and underline equal geographical representation of all regions of the world, with a more transparent body through improvements in its working methods. These are considered parallel processes. Regarding enlargement, there is a lack of agreement on a number of issues, particularly the number of new Council members to be added; whether any of the new members would have permanent status; whether any new permanent member(s) would exert the right of veto; and whether the veto should be limited (for example, to Chapter VII operations), curtailed or eventually eliminated. 266. Strategies for moving forward include: Continuing consideration in the General Assembly regarding the size and composition of the Security Council; Continuing reform of the methods of work of the Security Council, including transparency and consultation with troop-contributing countries; Enhancing the Security Council’s ability to anticipate, prevent and react to event on short notice. GOAL: To strengthen further the Economic and Social Council, building on its recent achievements, to help it to fulfil the role ascribed to it in the Charter of the United Nations 267. Building on earlier reforms, the General Assembly agreed in 1996 on a series of further measures for the restructuring and revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social and related fields. The annual high-level segments of the Economic and Social Council have resulted in ministerial declarations on a number of critical development issues, such as on information and communications technologies (ICT) for development in 2000 and on the sustainable development of Africa in 2001. The Council has also established an innovative ICT Task Force. It has improved policy oversight of the operational activities for development of the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes. In addition, the Economic and Social Council has introduced a humanitarian segment to provide a forum for broader policy issues in this area. It has also strengthened the supervision of its functional commissions, with particular emphasis on promoting coordinated follow-up to the outcomes of major United Nations conferences and summits in economic and social fields. 268. With regard to coordination, high-level meetings have been held annually since 1998 between the Council and the Bretton Woods institutions on international financial and development issues. An annual policy dialogue is also held with the heads of the international financial and trade institutions to review the state of the world economy. The Economic and Social Council also holds thematic meetings with members of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC). The Council’s capacity to convene meetings involving Governments, the United Nations system and representatives of civil society and the private sector to address economic and social issues was exemplified by the African Forum for Investment Promotion, which was held during the Council’s substantive session of 2001. The Forum brought together African ministers, African private corporations, trade unions, investors, specialized agencies of the United Nations system and regional and subregional development organizations. Finally, the structural relationship between the Council and the five regional commissions has also been improved. The Council now holds an annual dialogue with the Executive Secretaries, and the regional commissions increasingly provide issue-specific input to the Council’s work. 269. Strategies for moving forward include: Continuing the Economic and Social Council’s efforts to consider how best to fulfil its mandate and streamline its working methods; Focusing its 2002 coordination segment on further strengthening and helping the Council to fulfil the role ascribed to it in the Charter of the United Nations. GOAL: To strengthen the International Court of Justice in order to ensure justice and the rule of law in international affairs 270. There are approximately 100 multilateral and 160 bilateral treaties in force providing for the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). As of 31 July 2000, 189 States are parties to the Statute of the Court and 62 States have recognized its compulsory jurisdiction. Some 260 bilateral or multilateral treaties provide for the Court’s jurisdiction in the resolution of disputes arising out of their application or interpretation. From August 1999 to July 2000, ICJ held 29 public sessions and a large number of private, administrative and judicial meetings. 271. The recent growth of international judicial bodies, such as the International Criminal Tribunals, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and the quasi-judicial mechanism for the settlement of disputes within WTO poses a risk of fragmentation in international law. ICJ could play a useful role in maintaining the unity of international jurisprudence if more use of the Court were made. 272. Strategies for moving forward include: Encouraging States to use the International Court of Justice more frequently for the resolution of their disputes; Increasing the number of organs and organizations entitled to request advisory opinions and the number of advisory opinions requested. GOAL: To encourage regular consultations and coordination among the principal organs of the United Nations 273. The Presidents of the principal organs of the United Nations have met and discussed issues of common concern, such as the prevention of armed conflicts and the impact of HIV/AIDS on peace and security in Africa, and wider issues relating to peacekeeping and peace-building. 274. Strategies for moving forward include: Further cooperation and consultation among the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Security Council; Broadening the range of issues on which consultations are held among the principal organs of the United Nations. GOAL: To ensure that the United Nations is provided on a timely and predictable basis with the resources it needs to carry out its mandates 275. The collection of current and outstanding assessments has improved, and an increasing number of Member States remit their contributions in full and on time. As of 15 August 2001, 103 Member States have paid their regular budget contributions in full for 2001. However, some major contributors have paid none or only part of their dues, forcing the United Nations to cross-borrow from peacekeeping accounts to offset the earlier and larger than usual deficit currently experienced. It is clear that the United Nations cannot function effectively unless all Member States pay their dues, in full, on time and without conditions. 276. Despite cash-flow problems, the United Nations has demonstrated consistent budgetary discipline over the last eight years. Not only has there been no growth in the budget in the last four biennia but there has in fact been a reduction in the United Nations budget. The United Nations has absorbed the effects of inflation as well as a large number of unfunded mandates. The Secretariat has been able to accomplish this by reallocating from low-priority areas and administrative services to high-priority programmes, as identified by Member States. The United Nations has reformed its budget methodology, adopting a results-based budget approach and improving the forecasts of cash availability and needs. 277. An important step has been taken towards providing peacekeeping with the resources commensurate with its mandate. The recommendations of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, together with those of the Special Committee on Peace Operations, have focused on strengthening a range of core capacities, including financial support, to ensure that the United Nations has adequate resource to fulfil its peacekeeping mandates. 278. Strategies for moving forward include: Ensuring that all States pay their dues in full, on time and without conditions; Continuing efforts to reform the budget methodology and practice of the United Nations. GOAL: To urge the Secretariat to make the best use of those resources, in accordance with clear rules and procedures agreed by the General Assembly, in the interests of all Member States, by adopting the best management practices and technologies available 279. Within the ambit of the comprehensive and ongoing reform process, the Secretariat has been strengthening management practices in several areas. The Senior Management Group, which is chaired by the Secretary-General, comprises the top managers in the Secretariat and programmes and funds. The Group meets weekly, with video-conferencing links to Geneva, Nairobi, Rome and Vienna. Functioning as a cabinet, it ensures strategic coherence within the United Nations on policy and management issues. It also facilitates coordination among the far-flung members of the United Nations family. Another useful process is the Management and Reform Committee, chaired by the Deputy Secretary-General, which regularly reviews policies and practices on administrative, budgetary and human resources matters. 280. Four executive committees, operating at the Under Secretary-General level, function as internal decision-making mechanisms covering the key areas of concern for the Secretariat: the Executive Committee for Peace and Security, the Executive Committee for Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Development Group and the Executive Committee for Humanitarian Affairs. Human rights is a cross-cutting theme in all the committees. Further, the Interdepartmental Framework for Coordination to strengthen planning and coordination among peacekeeping, humanitarian, developmental and political functions has been reoriented towards early warning and preventive action. 281. Training continues for all managers throughout the Secretariat. A system of programme management plans has been instituted with each of the Under-Secretaries-General. In early 2001, the Secretariat developed a prototype of an electronic management reporting system, which will enable useful management indicators (e.g., vacancy rates, gender and geographical statistics and spending balances) to be generated on a daily basis and will be extended as a further management tool to oversee departmental performance. The system will be linked with the existing Integrated Management Information System. In June 2001, the General Assembly adopted a resolution authorizing the implementation of human resources management reform, which will empower managers to select their staff and will allow the Secretariat to meet its managerial requirements by increasing the mobility of United Nations personnel. 282. Information technology is playing a more central role in the Organization’s activities. In February 2001, the Secretary-General submitted a report to the General Assembly entitled “Information technology in the Secretariat: a plan of action”,51 which describes initiatives to implement effective internal governance by supporting information technologies and sharing best practices. 283. Strategies for moving forward include: Ensuring that information technologies are allocated sufficient resources and strategically developed throughout the Secretariat; Managing knowledge within the United Nations so that it is made available to civil society and other partners; Continuing the modernization of human resources policies and procedures; Continuing to streamline administrative processes. GOAL: To promote adherence to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel 284. Since 1992, more than 200 civilian staff members have lost their lives in the service of the United Nations. Hundreds more have been taken hostage or have been victims of violent security incidents. Almost every United Nations entity has experienced the loss of personnel, and at least 68 countries have lost their nationals in the service of the United Nations. The conflicts of the 1990s have demonstrated a dangerous disregard of the obligations and restraints imposed by international law on the conduct of hostilities. The General Assembly and the Security Council have deplored the rising toll of casualties among national and international staff, particularly, in situations of armed conflict. 285. The security of staff is a fundamental requirement for the effective functioning of United Nations operations, and the primary responsibility for their protection, under international law, lies with host Governments. Personnel from international organizations and non-governmental organizations who work in humanitarian operations are also subject to killings and other forms of violence. Indeed, in the past year there have been more cases of attacks on these latter categories of humanitarian personnel. The vast majority of perpetrators of such attacks go unpunished, while those few that are arrested tend to receive only cursory penalties. 286. The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel52 entered into force on 15 January 1999. As at 14 August 2001, there are 54 parties to the Convention, accounting for less than one third of the Member States. Since the adoption of the Convention, the limitations of its scope of application to United Nations operations and associated personnel have become apparent. The Convention is not applicable to United Nations operations which have not been declared by the General Assembly or the Security Council to be exceptionally risky. In practice, no declaration has ever been made to that effect by either organ, notwithstanding the actual need for it in many United Nations operations. The Convention is also not applicable to humanitarian non-governmental organizations which have not concluded “implementing/partnership agreements” with the United Nations or its specialized agencies, though in practice they are in no less a need for such protection. The optimal solution would be a protocol that would dispose of the need for a declaration in case of United Nations operations and dispense with a link between a humanitarian non-governmental organization and the United Nations as a condition for protection under the Convention. 287. Under the Statute of the International Criminal Court, attacks against personnel, installations and equipment involved in a humanitarian assistance or a peacekeeping mission are considered “war crimes” as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict. The Rome Statute, however, is not yet in force. 288. Moreover, the ratification of conventions alone is not enough and must be supplemented by the practical implementation of those obligations. Parties to conflicts must allow for the safe and unrestricted access of humanitarian workers, and must respect the provisions of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, particularly with regard to the distinctions between combatants and non-combatants, and the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements. 289. Improving the security of United Nations personnel is a core responsibility for the United Nations system and for Member States. The Secretary-General has submitted a number of recommendations to strengthen the United Nations security management system and arrangements. The proposals include the provision of enhanced and comprehensive security and stress management training; the implementation of minimum operational security and telecommunications standards in the field; and an increase in the number of staff in the field and at Headquarters. 290. Steps have been taken to improve collaboration on staff security matters within the United Nations system and with implementing partners. Additional measures are being taken to ensure that accountability and compliance are key components of the United Nations security management system. The appointment of a full-time Security Coordinator is a fundamental requirement if our efforts to strengthen and expand the United Nations security management system are to yield the desired results. 291. Strategies for moving forward include: Full ratification of the Convention and the ratification of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; Approval of a protocol that would extend the scope of application of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel to all United Nations operations and categories of personnel; Stronger action by Member States to ensure that perpetrators of attacks on humanitarian personnel are brought to justice; Further improvements on accountability and effective coordination on staff security issues within the United Nations system; Further strengthening of the United Nations security management system through increased and more secure financing and the appointment of a full-time Security Coordinator. GOAL: To ensure greater policy coherence and better cooperation between the United Nations, its agencies, the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization, as well as other multilateral bodies 292. Sustainable development, peace-building and linkages between humanitarian assistance and development cooperation have implications for sectoral and institutional boundaries. Now, more than ever, there is a need for a comprehensive and holistic approach in addressing multifaceted problems, and for cohesion among the diverse entities of the United Nations system in order to enhance coherent action and the strategic deployment of resources. This requirement extends to the international system as a whole. 293. The preparatory process for the International Conference on Financing for Development has led to an unprecedented degree of cooperation among the United Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions and WTO. There is a dynamic structure of cooperation that covers both the inter-secretariat and intergovernmental aspects of the financing for development process. The Bretton Woods institutions have appointed senior officials to liaise with and help the United Nations Secretariat on an ongoing basis. At the intergovernmental level, fruitful interactions between the members of the Bureau of the Preparatory Committee for the Conference and the Executive Boards of the Bretton Woods institutions took place in February 2001. Meetings were also held with the Trade and Development Committee of WTO in April 2001, and with members of the General Council of WTO in 2000. Moreover, senior officials of each of the major institutional stakeholders actively engage in discussions at the United Nations Headquarters and provide feedback to their intergovernmental oversight committees. 294. A new culture of cooperation and coordination is fast gaining ground among the organizations of the system, and new mechanisms are being set up to advance and concretize this endeavour. Coordination within the system is overseen and guided by ACC, which has recently undertaken a number of measures to enhance policy coordination. These measures include the establishment of the High-Level Committee on Programmes and the High-Level Committee on Management, which report to ACC. 295. As a consequence of this new spirit of cooperation, ACC, with the full involvement of the Bretton Woods institutions and WTO, has demonstrated a strong commitment to achieving a greater degree of policy and strategy harmonization, enhanced information-sharing and common evaluation and monitoring processes. Concrete examples include strengthening field-level cooperation, developing common approaches to the challenges in Africa, addressing the issue of HIV/AIDS and formulating a comprehensive system-wide strategy for poverty eradication. 296. The United Nations country teams, led by United Nations resident coordinators and in close collaboration with Governments and civil society, undertake an interdisciplinary analytical process, the common country assessment. The common country assessment examines the national situation and identifies key issues affecting the welfare of people. It also examines national priorities as set by Governments, and uses these as a basis for advocacy and policy dialogue with Governments. Using the common understanding of the causes of poverty generated through the common country assessment process, United Nations country teams then work with Governments to prepare the United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs), which outline how the United Nations system will respond to national poverty reduction priorities in a strategic manner. In almost all cases, these priorities include the national efforts to reach the Millennium Declaration goals. Currently, 84 countries have completed the common country assessment, and 38 have also finalized UNDAFs. In order to advance country-level coherence the United Nation system is working towards a single common framework for country-level action, based on the key concepts of country ownership and inter-agency partnerships and reflecting a comprehensive approach to development and peace-building. 297. Entities of the United Nations system also cooperate to support national poverty reduction strategies through the comprehensive development framework and poverty reduction strategy paper processes. Greater poverty reduction at the lowest possible cost requires stronger partnerships at the country level. This is one of the key principles of the comprehensive development framework and is also critical to the development of the poverty reduction strategy papers. The comprehensive development framework is a country-led initiative, which calls for Governments to reach out to all development partners. 298. Strategies for moving forward include: Improving policy coherence and cooperation across the entire international system in order to deal with today’s global challenges; Ensuring that country-level strategies harmonize priorities and work within a common framework for action.确保国家一级的各项战略统一优先事项,在一个共同行动框架中协作。
GOAL: To strengthen further cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union目标:进一步加强联合国同各国议会联盟的合作
299. As of August 2001, the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) had 141 member parliaments and five associate members. In its resolution 55/19, the General Assembly welcomed the efforts made by IPU to provide for a greater parliamentary contribution and enhanced support to the United Nations. The General Assembly also requested the Secretary-General, in consultation with Member States and IPU, to explore ways in which a new and strengthened relationship between IPU, the General Assembly and its subsidiary organs could be established. In the Secretary-General’s recent report on this issue53 a number of recommendations were made to that end.299. 截至2001年8月,各国议会联盟(议会联盟)有141个成员议会,五个准成员。大会第55/19号决议欢迎议会联盟作出努力,向联合国提供更大的议会贡献,增加对联合国的支持。大会还请秘书长与会员国和议会联盟协商,探讨如何在议会联盟同大会及其附属机构之间建立新的、更强的关系。秘书长关于这一问题的最新报告53 为此提出了一些建议。
300.300.
Strategies for moving forward include:前进战略:
Pending the General Assembly’s decision on the recommendations contained in the report, the Secretary-General will initiate a joint review by the United Nations and IPU of the cooperation agreement concluded between the organizations in 1996;在大会就该报告所载各项建议作出决定之前,秘书长将发起联合国和议会联盟的联合审查,审查这两个组织在1996年缔结的合作协定;
More direct engagement of parliaments in substantive issues addressed at the United Nations.各国议会更直接地参与联合国处理的实质性问题。
GOAL: To give greater opportunities to the private sector, non-governmental organizations and civil society in general to contribute to the realization of United Nations goals and programmes目标:使私营部门、非政府组织和广大民间社会有更多的机会协助实现联合国的目标和方案
301. There has been a huge growth in the number, diversity and influence of non-state actors that are now involved in the work of the United Nations, and as a result the last decade has seen significant changes in how the United Nations relates to them. Since relationships between the United Nations and non-state actors are multilevel, multi-issue and multipurpose, there is no single approach for dealing with all relationships. They range from well established procedures for participation in the intergovernmental process to more recent arrangements, such as the Global Environment Facility, a financial mechanism that provides grants to assist developing countries to address international environmental problems; the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships; and the Global Compact, which is designed to engage the private sector, non-governmental organizations and labour in promoting good practices based on human rights, labour rights and the environment.301. 目前参与联合国工作的非国家行为者的数目、多样性和影响力极大增加了,结果使联合国与它们的关系在过去十年中发生了重大变化。由于联合国与非国家行为者之间的关系是多层次、多问题和多目的的,所以没有一个单一的办法可以处理所有关系。这些关系所涉范围从已确立的参加政府间进程的程序到最近的安排,如全球环境基金,一个提供赠款援助发展中国家处理国际环境问题的金融机制;联合国国际伙伴关系基金;和《全球协约》,其目的是使私营部门、非政府组织和劳工参加促进基于人权、劳工权利和环境的良好作法。
302.302.
The report of the Secretary-General entitled “Towards global partnerships”54 discusses these issues in more detail, stressing that the central purpose of cooperation between the United Nations and non-state actors is to enable the Organization to serve Member States and their people more effectively, while remaining true to the principles of the Charter.秘书长题为“走向全球伙伴关系”的报告54 更细致地讨论这些问题,强调联合国同非国家行为者合作的中心目的是使联合国能够更有效地为会员国及其人民提供服务,同时继续忠于《宪章》的各项原则。
303.303.
Strategy for moving forward:前进战略:
Reviewing these relationships in order to bring beneficial results for all parties and forging a new way for the United Nations to “do business” in partnership with non-governmental organizations, the private sector and the rest of civil society.审查这些关系,以便使所有各方获益,开辟联合国与非政府组织、私营部门以及民间社会其他部分协作“办事”的新方式。
IX. The road ahead九. 前面的道路
304. The heads of State and Government at last year’s summit charted a cooperative path to meet the challenges ahead. This road map has attempted to carry forward their vision, identify the areas in which we need to work, and offer suggestions for the future. It has benefited from suggestions from all the departments, funds and programmes in the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and from the other executive agencies represented in the Advisory Committee on Coordination, including the World Bank, IMF and WTO. Non-governmental organizations, civil society and the academic community have also provided suggestions.304. 各国国家元首和政府首脑在去年的首脑会议上制定了迎接今后挑战的合作道路。这幅行进图试图推进他们的远见,查明我们需要工作的领域,并提出有关未来的建议。行进图受益于联合国各部门、基金和方案及其专门机构的建议,并受益于协调咨询委员会代表的其他执行机构,包括世界银行、货币基金组织和世贸组织的建议。非政府组织、民间社会和学术界也提出了建议。
Follow-up reporting后续报告
305. Next year, and each year thereafter, as you have requested, I will submit an annual report — distinct from my annual report on the work of the Organization — which will chart progress, made or not made, in fulfilling the Millennium commitments, and highlight particular themes of special significance for that year.305.
Every five years, my successors and I will submit a comprehensive progress report.明年和以后每年,按你们的要求,我将提交一份年度报告-不同于我关于联合国工作的报告-说明在履行千年承诺方面已取得或未取得的进展,并强调对该年特别重要的具体主题。每五年,我和我的继任人将提交一份全面的进度报告。
306. I propose the following themes for your consideration: For 2002, preventing armed conflict and the treatment and prevention of diseases, including HIV/AIDS and malaria; 2003, financing for development and strategies for sustainable development; 2004, bridging the digital divide and curbing transnational crime. In 2005, five years after the Millennium Summit, I will prepare the first comprehensive report. It will focus on progress made over the preceding five years and review the implementation of decisions taken at the international conferences and special sessions on the least developed countries, HIV/AIDS, financing for development and sustainable development.306. 我提议下列主题供你们考虑:2002年,预防武装冲突和防治疾病,包括艾滋病毒/艾滋病和疟疾;2003年,发展筹资问题和可持续发展战略;2004年,缩小数字鸿沟和制止跨国犯罪。2005年,在千年首脑会议五年以后,我将编写第一份全面的报告。该报告将集中讨论前五年取得的进展,并审查最不发达国家、艾滋病毒/艾滋病、发展筹资和可持续发展问题等各次国际会议和特别会议所作决定的执行情况。
307. When you consider how you will review these annual reports and the comprehensive report, it is my hope that you will use the assessment process as an occasion for strengthening the overall coherence and integration of the reporting system. I look forward to your continuing guidance. Most of all I look forward to our making progress in meeting the goals before us.307. 当你们考虑你们将如何审查这些年度报告和这份全面报告时,我希望你们利用评价进程的机会,加强报告制度的整体连贯性和一致性。我期待你们继续提供指导。我尤其期待我们在实现前面的各项目标方面取得进展。
Notes
1 A/CONF.183/9.1 A/CONF.183/9。
2 ST/SGB/1999/13.2 ST/SGB/1999/13。
3 See General Assembly resolution 55/59, annex.3 见大会第55/59号决议,附件。
4 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 976, No. 14152.4 联合国,《条约汇编》,第976卷,第14152号。
5 See Official Records of the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Psychotropic Substances, Vienna, 25 November-20 December 1988, vol. I (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.XI.5).5 见《联合国关于通过禁止精神药物公约的会议正式记录,1988年11月25日至12月20日,维也纳》,第一卷(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E94.XI.5)。
6 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1019, No. 14956.6 联合国,《条约汇编》,第1019卷,第14956号。
7 General Assembly resolution S-20-2, annex.7 大会S-20/2号决议,附件。
8 General Assembly resolution 55/25, annex I.8 大会第55/25号决议,附件一。
9 Ibid., annex II.9 同上,附件二。
10 Ibid., annex III.10 同上,附件三。
11 See General Assembly resolution 55/25 para. 4.11 大会第55/25号决议,第4段。
12 See General Assembly resolution 48/11.12 见大会第48/11号决议。
13 See General Assembly resolution 55/2, para. 10.13 见大会第55/2号决议,第10段。
14 S/2001/574.14 S/2001/574。
15 A/55/305-S/2000/809 and A/C.4/55/6; see also A/55/502, A/55/507, A/55/551 and A/55/977.15 A/55/305-S/2000/809和A/C.4/55/6;又见A/55/502、A/55/507、A/55/551和A/55/977。
16 A/47/277-S/24111.16 A/47/277-S/24111。
17 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 944, No. 13446.17 联合国,《条约汇编》,第944卷,第13466号。
18 See General Assembly resolution 50/245.18 见大会第50/245号决议。
19 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 729, No. 10485.19 联合国,《条约汇编》,第729卷,第10485号。
20 See The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 18: 1993 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.IX.1), appendix II.20 见《联合国裁军年鉴》,第18卷:1993年(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.94. IX.1),附录二。
21 See Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 26.21 见《以核武器进行威胁或使用核武器的合法性,咨询意见,国际法院的报告》,1996年,第26页。
22 General Assembly resolution 2826 (XXVI).22 大会第2826(XXVI)号决议。
23 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 27 (A/47/27), appendix I.23 见《大会正式记录,第四十七届会议,补编第27号》(A/47/27),附录一。
24 See CD/1478.24 见CD/1478。
25 CCW/CONF.I/16 (Part I), annex B.25 CCW/CONF.I/16(第一部分),附件B。
26 See The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 5: 1980 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.81.IX.4), appendix VII.26 见《联合国裁军年鉴》,第5卷:1980年(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.81. IX.4),附录七。
27 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Report of the World Food Summit, Rome, 13-17 November 1996, Part One (WFS 96/REP) (Rome, 1997), appendix.27 联合国粮食及农业组织,世界粮食首脑会议的报告,1996年11月13日至17日,罗马,第一部分(WFS 96/REP)(1997年,罗马),附录。
28 General Assembly resolution S-26/2.28 大会S-26/2号决议。
29 See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (WTO, 1997).29 见《体现多边贸易谈判乌拉圭回合各项结果的法律文书》(世贸组织,1997年)。
30 Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.I.18 and Corr.1 and 2), chap. I, resolution I, annex II.30 《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展全球会议的报告,4月25日至5月6日,巴巴多斯, 布里奇敦》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.94. I.18以及Corr.1和2),第一章,决议一,附件二。
31 E/2001/L.20.31 E/2001/L.20。
32 FCCC/CP/7/Add.1.32 FCCC/CP/7/Add.1。
33 A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1, annex I.33 A/AC.237/18(第二部分)/Add.1,附件一。
34 United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological Diversity (Environmental Law and Institution Programme Activity Centre), June 1992.34 联合国环境规划署,《生物多样性公约》(环境法和机构方案活动中心),1992年6月。
35 A/49/84/Add.2, annex, appendix II.35 A/49/84/Add.2,附件,附录二。
36 Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted By the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), resolution 1, annex II.36 《联合国环境与发展会议的报告,1992年6月3日至14日,里约热内卢》,第一卷,会议通过的决议(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.93. I.8以及更正),决议一,附件二。
37 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Records of the General Conference, Twenty-ninth Session, vol. I, Resolutions, resolution 16.37 联合国教育、科学及文化组织,《大会记录,第二十九届会》,第一卷,决议,第16号决议。
38 General Assembly resolution 217 A (III).38 大会第217 A (III)号决议。
39 General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.39 大会第2200 A (XXI)号决议,附件。
40 Ibid.40 同上。
41 General Assembly resolution 2106 A (XX), annex.41 大会第2106 A (XX)号决议,附件。
42 General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex.42 大会第34/180号决议,附件。
43 General Assembly resolution 39/46, annex.43 大会第39/46号决议,附件。
44 General Assembly resolution 44/25, annex.44 大会第44/25号决议,附件。
45 A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap. III.45 A/CONF.157/24(第一部分),第三章。
46 General Assembly resolution 54/4, annex.46 大会第54/4号决议,附件。
47 General Assembly resolution 45/158.47 大会第45/158号决议。
48 E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, annex.48 E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2,附件。
49 General Assembly resolution 54/263, annex I.49 大会第54/263号决议,附件一。
50 Ibid., annex II.50 同上,附件二。
51 A/55/780.51 A/55/780。
52 General Assembly resolution 49/59, annex.52 大会第49/59号决议,附件。
53 A/55/996.53 A/55/996。
54 A/56/323.54 A/56/373。
Annex附件
Millennium development goals千年发展目标
1. As part of the preparation of the present report, consultations were held among members of the United Nations Secretariat and representatives of IMF, OECD and the World Bank in order to harmonize reporting on the development goals in the Millennium Declaration and the international development goals. The group discussed the respective targets and selected relevant indicators with a view to developing a comprehensive set of indicators for the millennium development goals. The main reference document was section III of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, “Development and poverty eradication”.1. 为了编写本报告,联合国秘书处成员与货币基金组织、经合组织和世界银行的代表进行了协商,以便协调一致地报告《千年宣言》的发展目标和国际发展目标。该小组讨论了各自的具体目标和特定的有关指标,以便为千年发展目标拟订一整套指标。主要参考文件是《联合国千年宣言》关于“发展与消灭贫穷”的第三节。 2. 千年发展目标一览表绝不影响在1990年代各次全球会议上就其他总体目标和具体目标达成的协议。八个目标体现了发达国家与发展中国家之间的伙伴关系,如《千年宣言》所说,这些国家决心“在国家和全球两级创造有利于发展和消灭贫穷的环境”(见大会第55/2号决议,第12段)。 3. 为了使制定的国家和国际优先目标重点突出,目标和具体目标应数量有限,长期稳定,并且简明易懂。明确而稳定的定量指标有助于激发行动,促成新的发展联盟。我们认识到,有些具体目标的进展情况较难进行定量监测,许多国家不具备(尚不具备)拟订一些指标所需的优质数据。因此我们强调,必须帮助建立国家能力,同时(与经济及社会理事会规定的进程一样)同国家统计专家进一步讨论。为了监测进展情况,具体指标的正常基线年度将是1990年。这一年是1990年代各次全球会议所用的基线年。 4. 联合国将分别在联合国秘书处经济及社会事务部和开发计划署协调下,报告全球和国家两级实现千年发展目标的进展情况。报告将遵循两项原则:(a)与各有关机构,包括联合国发展集团(包括卫生组织和贸发会议)、联合国其他各部、基金、计划署和专门机构、世界银行、货币基金组织和经合组织,以及各区域集团和专家密切协商和合作;(b)利用减贫战略文件、联合国共同国家评估和国家人类发展报告内报告的国家自己的减贫战略,其中强调发展伙伴之间的协商过程。这种合作与协商的主要目的是,确保在全球和国家两级对实现千年发展目标的情况有统一的评估和理解。联合国秘书处将邀请各有关机构参与和帮助全球及国家两级的报告工作,以期每年印发一份联合国报告,这种报告既得到国际社会的普遍支持,又可供其他机构就有关目标定期提出的报告采用。 5. 拟提出的8项目标、18项具体目标和40多项指标列于下文。与具体目标无关的其他特定发展指标包括人口、总和生育率、出生时预期寿命、成人识字率和人均国民总收入等。适当时,应为国家以下各级,即按城市和农村地区、按宗教、按社会经济群体并按年龄和性别计算这些指标。 千年发展目标 目标和具体目标 指标 目标1.消灭极端贫穷和饥饿 具体目标1 在1990年和2015年之间,将每日收入低于1美元的人口比率减半 1. 每日收入低于1美元的人口比率
2. The list of millennium development goals does not undercut in any way agreements on other goals and targets reached at the global conferences of the 1990s. The eight goals represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries determined, as the Millennium Declaration states, “to create an environment — at the national and global levels alike — which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty” (see General Assembly resolution 55/2, para. 12).2. 贫穷差距比(发生率×贫穷严重程度)
3. In order to help focus national and international priority-setting, goals and targets should be limited in number, be stable over time and communicate clearly to a broad audience. Clear and stable numerical targets can help to trigger action and promote new alliances for development. Recognizing that quantitative monitoring of progress is easier for some targets than for others and that good quality data for some of the indicators are simply not (yet) available for many countries, we underscore the need to assist in building national capacity while engaging in further discussion (as in the process mandated by the Economic and Social Council) with national statistical experts. For the purpose of monitoring progress, the normal baseline year for the targets will be 1990, which is the baseline that has been used by the global conferences of the 1990s.3. 最贫穷的五分之一人口在国民消费中所占份额
4. The United Nations will report on progress towards the millennium development goals at the global and country levels, coordinated by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat and UNDP, respectively. Reporting will be based on two principles: (a) close consultation and collaboration with all relevant institutions, including the United Nations Development Group (including WHO and UNCTAD), other United Nations departments, funds, programmes and specialized agencies, the World Bank, IMF and OECD, and regional groupings and experts; and (b) the use of nationally owned poverty reduction strategies, as reported in poverty reduction strategy papers, United Nations common country assessments and national human development reports, which emphasize a consultative process among the development partners. The main purpose of such collaboration and consultation will be to ensure a common assessment and understanding of the status of the millennium development goals at both the global and national levels. The United Nations Secretariat will invite all relevant institutions to participate in and contribute to global and country-level reporting with a view to issuing an annual United Nations report that has the wide support of the international community and that can be used by other institutions in their regular reporting on the goals.具体目标2 在1990年和2015年之间,将挨饿的人口比例减半 4. 体重不足儿童(5岁以下)的普遍性
5. The proposed formulation of the eight goals, 18 targets and more than 40 indicators are listed below. Other selected indicators for development, which are not related to specific targets, include population, total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate and gross national income per capita. Where relevant, indicators should be calculated for subnational levels — i.e., by urban and rural area, by region, by socio-economic group, and by age and gender.5. 低于食物能量消耗最低水平的人口比例
Millennium development goals目标2.普及初等教育
Goals and targets Indicators Goal 1.具体目标3 确保到2015年任何地方的儿童、不论女童或男童,都能完成全部初等教育课程 6.
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger初等教育净入学率
Target 1.7. 一年级学生读到五年级的比例
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1.8.
Proportion of population below $1 per day15至24岁人口的识字率
2. Poverty gap ratio (incidence x depth of poverty) 3.目标3.
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption促进男女平等并赋予妇女权力
Target 2.具体目标4 最好到2005年在初等教育和中等教育中消除两性差距,至迟于2015年在各级教育中消除此种差距 9. 初等、中等和高等教育中女童和男童的比例
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 4.10.
Prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age)15至24岁人口女男识字比例
5.11.
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption妇女在非农业部门挣工资者中所占份额
Goal 2.12.
Achieve universal primary education国家议会中妇女所占席位比例
Target 3.目标4.降低儿童死亡率
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 6.具体目标5 在1990年至2015年之间,将5岁以下儿童的死亡率降低三分之二 13.
Net enrolment ratio in primary education5岁以下儿童死亡率
7.14.
Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5婴儿死亡率
8.15.
Literacy rate of 15-24-year-olds接受麻疹免疫接种的1岁儿童比例
Goal 3.目标5.
Promote gender equality and empower women改善产妇保健
Target 4.具体目标6 在1990年至2015年之间,将产妇死亡率降低四分之三 16. 产妇死亡率
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015 9.17.
Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education由熟练保健人员接生的比例
10.目标6.
Ratio of literate females to males of 15-to-24-year-olds与艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾和其他疾病作斗争
11.具体目标7 到2015年制止并开始扭转艾滋病毒/艾滋病的蔓延 18.
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector15至24岁孕妇感染艾滋病毒的普遍程度
12.19.
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament避孕普及率
Goal 4.20.
Reduce child mortality Target 5.因艾滋病毒/艾滋病而成为孤儿的人数
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 13.具体目标8 到2015年制止并开始扭转疟疾和其他主要疾病的发病率增长 21.
Under-five mortality rate疟疾发病率及与疟疾有关的死亡率
14.22.
Infant mortality rate疟疾风险区使用有效预防和治疗疟疾措施的人口比例
15.23.
Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles肺结核发病率及与肺结核有关死亡率
Goal 5.24.
Improve maternal health Target 6.短期直接观察治疗方案下查出和治愈的肺结核病例比例
Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio 16.目标7.
Maternal mortality ratio确保环境的可持续能力
17.具体目标9 将可持续发展原则纳入国家政策和方案,并扭转环境资源的损失 25.
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel森林覆盖地带所占比例
Goal 6.26.
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases为保持生物多样性而加以保护的地带
Target 7.27. 国内总产值每单位能耗(代表能效)
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 18.28.
HIV prevalence among 15-to-24-year-old pregnant women(人均)二氧化碳排放量[加上全球大气污染的两个体现:臭氧枯竭和全球变暖气体的积累]
19.具体目标10 到2015年将无法持续获得安全饮用水的人口比例减半 29.
Contraceptive prevalence rate可以持续获得改良水源的人口比例
20.具体目标11 到2020年使至少1亿贫民窟居民的生活有明显改善 30.
Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS Target 8.卫生条件改善的人口比例
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 21.31.
Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria享有可靠房地产保有权的人口比例[为监测贫民窟居民生活改善情况,可能应当按城市/农村分列上述几项指标]
22.目标8.
Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures全球合作促进发展a
23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis目标12 进一步发展开放的,遵循规则的、可预测的、非歧视性的贸易和金融体制
24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course包括在国家和国际两级致力于善政、发展和减轻贫穷 [对于最不发达国家、非洲、内陆国和小岛屿发展中国家,下列一些指标将分别予以监测]
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainabilitya官方发展援助
Target 9.32. 官方发展援助净额在经合组织/发援会捐助国国民总收入中所占百分比(指标为共计0.7%,其中0.15%给最不发达国家)
Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources 25.33.
Proportion of land area covered by forest官方发展援助用于基本社会服务(基础教育、初级保健、营养、安全饮水和卫生)的比例
26. Land area protected to maintain biological diversity 27. GDP per unit of energy use (as proxy for energy efficiency)具体目标13 满足最不发达国家的特殊需要
28.包括:对最不发达国家出口免征关税、不实行配额;加强重债穷国的减债方案,注销官方双边债务;向致力于减贫的国家提供更为慷慨的官方发展援助 34.
Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) [Plus two figures of global atmospheric pollution: ozone depletion and the accumulation of global warming gases]不附带条件的官方发展援助的比例
Target 10. Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water 29. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source35. 用于小岛屿发展中国家环境的官方发展援助的比例
Target 11.36. 用于内陆国运输部门的官方发展援助的比例
By 2020 to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 30. Proportion of people with access to improved sanitation市场准入
31.37.
Proportion of people with access to secure tenure [Urban/rural disaggregation of several of the above indicators may be relevant for monitoring improvement in the lives of slum dwellers]免征关税和不实行配额的出口的比例(按价值计算、不包括军火)
Goal 8.38.
Develop a global partnership for developmenta农产品以及纺织品和布料的平均关税和配额
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system具体目标14 满足内陆国和小岛屿发展中国家的特殊需要
Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction — both nationally and internationally(通过《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》和大会第二十二届特别会议的结果) 39. 经合组织国家内销和外销农产品补贴
Target 13.40.
Address the special needs of the least developed countries为帮助建立贸易能力而提供的官方发展援助比例
Includes: tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction具体目标15
Target 14. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing States通过国家和国际措施全面处理发展中国家的债务问题,以便使债务可以长期持续承受 持续承受债务能力
(through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)41. 重债穷国官方双边债务注销的比例
Target 15.42.
Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term [Some of the indicators listed below will be monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked countries and small island developing States]还本付息占商品和劳务出口的百分比
Official development assistance43. 为减免债务而提供的官方发展援助的比例
32.44.
Net ODA as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national product (targets of 0.7% in total and 0.15% for LDCs)达到重债穷国决定点和完成点的国家数目
33.具体目标16 与发展中国家合作,拟订和实施为青年创造体面的生产性就业机会的战略 45.
Proportion of ODA to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)15至24岁人口的失业率
34.具体目标17 与制药公司合作,在发展中国家提供负担得起的基本药物 46.
Proportion of ODA that is untied可以持续获得负担得起的基本药物的人口比例
35.具体目标18 与私营部门合作,普及新技术、特别是信息和通讯的利益 47.
Proportion of ODA for environment in small island developing States每1 000人有多少条电话线
36.48.
Proportion of ODA for transport sector in landlocked countries每1 000人有多少部个人电脑
Market access 37. Proportion of exports (by value and excluding arms) admitted free of duties and quotas 38. Average tariffs and quotas on agricultural products and textiles and clothing 39. Domestic and export agricultural subsidies in OECD countries 40. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Debt sustainability 41. Proportion of official bilateral HIPC debt cancelled 42. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services 43. Proportion of ODA provided as debt relief 44. Number of countries reaching HIPC decision and completion points Target 16. In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth 45. Unemployment rate of 15-to-24-year-olds Target 17. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries 46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis Target 18. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications 47. Telephone lines per 1,000 people 48. Personal computers per 1,000 people [Other indicators to be decided][其他指标待定]
a The selection of indicators for goals 7 and 8 is subject to further refinement.a 目标7和8指标的选择尚待进一步完善。
58* A/56/150。
57---
United Nations12 13 联合国
A/56/326A/56/326
General Assembly大 会
Distr.Distr.
: General: General
6 September 20016 September 2001
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
01-52607 (E) 130901 *0152607*01-52606 (C) 180901 180901
<>N0152607E<>页:1 <>N0152606C<>
<>A/56/326<><>A/56/326<>
<><><><>
A/56/326A/56/326
A/56/326A/56/326