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Fifty-ninth session审查第三次联合国探索
Item 23 of the provisional agenda*及和平利用外层空间会议
Review of the implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space各项建议的执行情况
Note by the Secretary-General秘书长的说明
Pursuant to General Assembly resolutions 56/51 of 10 December 2001, 57/116 of 11 December 2002 and 58/90 of 9 December 2003, the Secretary-General has the honour to transmit, for the attention of the General Assembly, the attached report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on the implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III).联合国
Report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on the implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III)和平利用外层空间委员会关于第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)各项建议执行情况的报告
Summary摘要
A wide range of space applications affects many aspects of daily life throughout the world. In the broadest sense, the capabilities enabled by using space to observe, measure and allow instantaneous communications from any part of the world to any other part have far-reaching practical implications. Space applications provide invaluable tools that can be used to address many of the global tasks facing the world and to improve human living conditions. These applications can be used in such areas as achieving a sustainable world, protecting the environment, enabling all people to benefit from global communications, better managing and alleviating the effects of natural disasters, enhancing capacity-building in all parts of the world, providing for telemedicine and tele-health in underprivileged regions and providing for regional economic development that would otherwise not be possible.空间应用影响到全世界日常生活的许多方面。从最广泛的意义上来看,利用空间进行观察、测量和获得从世界任何地方向另一个地方进行即时通信的能力,具有影响深远的实际意义。空间应用为处理世界面临的许多全球任务及改善人类生活条件提供了有价值的手段。这些应用可用于下述领域:实现世界可持续发展;保护环境;使所有人都能从全球通信获益;更好地管理和缓解自然灾害的影响;加强世界各区域的能力建设;为不发达区域提供远程医疗和远程保健;以及提供用其他手段所无法实现的区域经济发展。
The present report is a manifestation of the efforts made by Member States, entities of the United Nations system, other intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental entities to make a reality of the possibilities enunciated in “The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development”, adopted by the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III), held in Vienna from 19 to 30 July 1999. Under the theme “Space benefits for humanity in the twenty-first century”, UNISPACE III was convened to take advantage of new opportunities for international cooperation in space activities to address the challenges faced by humanity. The primary objectives of UNISPACE III were (a) to promote effective means of using space solutions to address problems of regional or global significance; (b) to strengthen the capabilities of Member States, especially developing countries, to use the results of space research for economic and cultural development; and (c) to enhance international cooperation in space science and technology and its applications. The Vienna Declaration provides a strategy to address global challenges in the future through the use of space science and technology and their applications.本报告体现了各会员国、联合国系统各实体、其他政府间组织以及非政府实体为使1999年7月19日至30日在维也纳举行的第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)所通过的《空间千年:关于空间和人的发展的维也纳宣言》中阐明的可能性化为现实而进行的努力。第三次外空会议以“21世纪人类的空间惠益”为主题,目的是利用空间活动中国际合作的新机会来应对人类所面临的挑战。第三次外空会议的主要目标是:(a)促进利用空间方法解决区域性或全球性问题的各种有效手段;(b)加强会员国特别是发展中国家利用空间研究成果促进经济和文化发展的能力;(c)加强空间科技及其应用方面的国际合作。《维也纳宣言》提供了未来通过利用空间科技及其应用来应对全球挑战的战略。
The implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III supports the overarching development agendas set by the Millennium Summit of the United Nations, the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the World Summit on the Information Society in such areas as the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, education, health and protection of the environment. The accomplishments to date in the follow-up to UNISPACE III provide many specific examples of the contributions of space science and technology and their applications in support of global and regional development agendas and in gaining benefits for society at large.第三次外空会议各项建议的执行支持了联合国千年首脑会议、可持续发展问题世界首脑会议和信息社会问题世界首脑会议在根除极端贫困与饥饿、教育、保健和环境保护等领域所确立的首要发展议程。第三次外空会议后续行动到目前为止所取得的各项成就提供了有关空间科技及其应用为支持全球和区域发展议程以及使全体社会受益而作出贡献的许多具体实例。
World economic activity, when measured in terms of present national economic output, is worth $36 trillion. Annual space expenditure currently stands at about $100 billion, made mostly by government and commercial entities operating at the national, regional and global levels. In terms of their potential for solving global problems, space activities provide high leverage on the investment made. The recommendations for action contained in the present report seek to extend that leverage even further by building on existing capabilities established by government and non-governmental entities to enhance the capacity of space activity with a view to improving human living conditions.世界经济活动以当今国民经济产值计算价值36万亿美元。年度空间支出目前约为1000亿美元,主要由国家、区域和全球一级的政府实体和商业实体出资。从空间活动解决全球问题的潜力来说,空间活动为投资提供了高杠杆率回报。本报告中所载各项行动建议旨在以政府实体和非政府实体所建立的现有能力为基础,进一步扩大这种杠杆作用,以加强空间活动能力,改善人类生活条件。
The establishment of action teams under the voluntary leadership of Member States proved to be a unique and effective mechanism for initiating the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. More than 50 Member States and some 40 intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including 15 entities of the United Nations system, participated in the work of the action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The process of initiating the implementation of the recommendations through the work of action teams permitted progress to be made throughout the year and helped to avoid sole reliance on the resources available to the Secretariat, while ensuring that primary responsibility for providing policy guidance on and coordinating implementation at the global level remained with the Committee and its subsidiary bodies through their consideration of agenda items.成立由各会员国自愿担任领导的行动小组被证明是执行第三次外空会议各项建议的一个独具特色的有效机制。50多个会员国和包括联合国系统15个实体在内的约40个政府间组织和非政府组织参与了和平利用外层空间委员会建立的行动小组的工作。通过行动小组的工作发起执行各项建议的进程使得在全年都可以不断取得进展,并且有助于避免仅仅依靠秘书处的资源,同时确保委员会及其各附属机构的主要职责为通过其对议程项目的审议在全球一级提供政策指导并协调执行活动。
Together with Member States, entities of the United Nations system, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as the private sector, the Committee has set the pace for the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The plan of action presented in chapter VI (paras. 228-316) proposes further specific actions and identifies entities willing to undertake some of those actions, as well as the expected benefits in the following areas:委员会与各会员国、联合国系统各实体、政府间和非政府组织以及私营部门一道,为执行第三次外空会议的各项建议起到了带头作用。第六章(第228-316段)所述行动计划提出了进一步具体行动并指定了愿意采取其中某些行动的实体以及在下列领域预期将获得的惠益:
(a) Use of space to support overarching global agendas for sustainable development;(a) 利用空间支持首要的可持续发展全球议程;
(b) Developing coordinated, global space capabilities;(b) 建立协调的全球空间能力;
(c) Use of space to support specific agendas to meet human development needs at the global level;(c) 利用空间在全球一级支持具体议程以满足民生发展需要;
(d) Overarching capacity development.(d) 首要的能力建设。
A summary of proposed actions, entities to carry out those actions and expected benefits as contained in the plan of action is provided in annex I to the report.本报告附件一提供了该行动计划中所载拟议的行动、执行这些行动的实体以及预期惠益的摘要。
The five-year review of 2004 was called for by the General Assembly in its resolution 54/68 of 6 December 1999 and is a critical milestone in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. By strengthening cooperation and contributing to common goals and objectives, Member States, United Nations entities, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, other national and regional institutions and industry can provide the essential support and political will to enable the space science and technology community to become a driving force to support development agendas.2004年五年期审查是大会1999年12月6日第54/68号决议所呼吁进行的,它是执行第三次外空会议各项建议的一个关键的里程碑。通过加强合作和为共同的目标作贡献,各会员国、联合国实体、政府间组织和非政府组织、其他国家和区域机构以及本行业可以提供关键的支助和政治意愿,以使空间科技界能够成为支持发展议程的推动力量。
The present report provides a road map for the further development of space capabilities to advance human development. The next step involves detailed planning and the declaration of a collective commitment to making space tools more widely available by moving from the demonstration of the usefulness of space technology to a more broadly based operational use of space-based services. The recommendations for further action contained in the present report concern the mechanisms needed for improved global coordination of space activities, the establishment of the necessary frameworks for standards, the further development of existing or planned space systems into global systems and the need for new resources to make space capabilities more readily available to all users. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space seeks the endorsement and the participation of Member States in the activities recommended.本报告提供了进一步发展空间能力以推动民生发展的路线图。下一步涉及详细规划和集体承诺宣言,通过从展示空间技术的效用过渡到天基服务的更广泛实际应用,从而在更广泛的范围内提供空间工具。本报告所载有关进一步行动的建议涉及改进全球空间活动的协调所需机制、建立必要的标准框架、将现有或规划中的空间系统进一步发展成为全球系统以及所需的新资源,以便使空间能力能够更方便地提供给所有用户。和平利用外层空间委员会寻求各会员国对所建议的活动的认可和参与。
Contents目录
Paragraphs Page段次 页次
Introduction导言
1-22 11-22 1
Background to UNISPACE III第三次外空会议的背景情况
4-13 14-13 1
Unique organizational aspects of UNISPACE III第三次外空会议在组织方面的独到之处
14-18 314-18 3
Results of UNISPACE III第三次外空会议的成果 19-22 3
19-22 4执行第三次外空会议建议的机制
Mechanisms for implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III23-35 4
23-35 5科学和技术小组委员会及法律小组委员会经订正的议程结构
Revised structure of the agendas of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee24-25 4
24-25 5外层空间事务厅行动计划
Plan of Action of the Office for Outer Space Affairs26-28 4
26-28 6行动小组的建立
Establishment of action teams29-31 5
29-31 6各国的努力
National efforts32-33 6
32-33 8其他机制
Other mechanisms34-35 7 执行各项建议所取得的进展
34-35 936-129 7
Progress made in implementing recommendations委员会及其附属机构所取得的进展
36-129 936-73 7
Progress made in the Committee and its subsidiary bodies通过国家和区域努力所取得的进展
36-73 974-83 14
Progress achieved through national and regional efforts对执行第三次外空会议各项建议作出贡献的联合国系统各实体的活动
74-83 1784-118 15
Activities of entities of the United Nations system that have contributed to the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III在委员会享有常设观察员地位的政府间组织和非政府组织促进执行第三次外空会议各项建议的活动
84-118 19119-129 21
Activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee that have contributed to the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III第三次外空会议各项建议的执行与在联合国系统内举行的全球会议的成果以及其他全球举措之间的协同效应
119-129 27130-166 23
Synergies between the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III and the results of global conferences held within the United Nations system and other global initiatives与《联合国千年宣言》的协同效应
130-166 29138-145 24
Synergies with the United Nations Millennium Declaration与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》的协同效应
138-145 31146-157 26
Synergies with the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development与信息社会世界首脑会议《行动计划》之间的协同效应
146-157 34158-164 30
Synergies with the Plan of Action of the World Summit on the Information Society与其他全球举措之间的协同效应
158-164 39165-166 32
Synergies with other global initiatives评估第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)各项建议的执行进程
165-166 43167-221 33
Assessment of the process of implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III)使第三次外空会议各项建议的实施得以取得进展的促进性要素
167-221 43170-174 33
Elements that have contributed to the progress made in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III确定在执行第三次外空会议各项建议方面所面临的挑战
170-174 44175-178 34
Identification of challenges faced in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III第三次外空会议有待落实的一些建议
175-178 45179-180 34
Recommendations of UNISPACE III that remain to be addressed第三次外空会议后新出现的问题
179-180 45181-196 35
Emerging issues following UNISPACE III处理与空间有关事务的机构间协调机关
181-196 46197-201 37
Inter-agency coordination bodies dealing with space-related matters为实施第三次外空会议的建议筹措资金
197-201 49202-221 38
Funding and financing implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III展望未来
202-221 50222-323 42
The way ahead概况
222-323 55222-227 42
Overview行动计划
222-227 55228-316 43
Plan of action加强和平利用外层空间委员会、其各小组委员会及其秘书处在实现第三次外空会议的建议方面的作用
228-316 57317-323 59
Strengthening the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its subcommittees and its secretariat in implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III附件
317-323 77一.
Annexes拟议的行动、采取这些行动的实体以及预期惠益概述
Summary of proposed actions, entities to carry out those actions and expected benefits64
83二.
Summary of the implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III)第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)各项建议执行情况简表
9373 三.
Achievements of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies as a result of consideration of issues introduced under the revised agenda structure和平利用外层空间委员会及其附属机构通过审议根据修订后议程结构介绍的问题而取得的成就
10078 四.
Participation of Member States and organizations in action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space会员国和组织参加和平利用外层空间委员会设立的行动小组的情况
10583
Summary of the findings, recommendations and actions taken by the action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space五.
109和平利用外层空间委员会设立的各行动小组的调研结果、建议和采取的行动概述
Appendix I Action Team on the Environmental Monitoring Strategy88
110附录一 环境监测战略行动小组
Appendix II Action Team on the Management of Natural Resources89
113附录二 自然资源管理行动小组
Appendix III Action Team on Weather and Climate Forecasting91
116附录三 天气与气候预报行动小组
Appendix IV Action Team on Public Health93
119附录四 公共卫生行动小组
Appendix V Action Team on Disaster Management95
121附录五 灾害管理行动小组
Appendix VI Action Team on Knowledge-sharing97
125附录六 知识共享行动小组
Appendix VII Action Team on Global Navigation Satellite Systems100
127附录七 全球导航卫星系统行动小组
Appendix VIII Action Team on Sustainable Development102
130附录八 可持续发展问题行动小组
Appendix IX Action Team on Near-Earth Objects104
133附录九 近地物体行动小组
Appendix X Action Team on Capacity-building106
135附录十 能力建设行动小组
Appendix XI Action Team on Increasing Awareness108
137附录十一 提高认识行动小组
Appendix XII Action Team on Innovative Sources of Financing110 附录十二 有创意的供资来源行动小组
139112
List of reference documents六 参考文件一览表
141114
I.一.
Introduction导言
1. The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III), held in Vienna from 19 to 30 July 1999, was convened at the threshold of the new millennium, which presented significant opportunities for human development through advances in space science and technology. However, the global community was also faced with unprecedented challenges to its goal of sustainable development. The States that participated in UNISPACE III resolved to strengthen cooperation to help meet those challenges and to maximize opportunities for human development through the use of space science and technology and their applications.1. 1999年7月19日至30日在维也纳举行的第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)是在新千年到来之际召开的,随着空间科学和技术的进步,新千年为人的发展提供了巨大的机会。然而,人类社会在实现其可持续发展目标方面也面临着史无前例的挑战。第三次外空会议与会国决心加强合作,以帮助迎接这些挑战,并通过使用空间科学和技术及其应用而最大限度地利用人的发展的机会。
2. UNISPACE III addressed a broad range of subjects related to maximizing the benefits of space activities to meet the needs of people, particularly in developing countries, and to promote sustainable development to enhance the human living conditions in all countries. The States participating in UNISPACE III unanimously adopted a resolution entitled “The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development”, which contained the nucleus of a strategy to address global challenges in the future.2. 第三次外空会议涉及许多主题,这些主题关系到最大限度地的提高空间活动的惠益,以满足尤其是发展中国家的人民的需要,促进可持续发展,以改进所有国家人的境遇。第三次外空会议与会国一致通过了题为“空间千年:关于空间和人的发展的维也纳宣言”的决议,其中载有迎接未来全球挑战战略的核心部分。
3. In its resolution 54/68 of 6 December 1999, the General Assembly took note with satisfaction of the report of UNISPACE III and endorsed the Vienna Declaration. The Assembly recognized the contributions made by Member States and civil society, including non-governmental entities and the young generation, to the success of UNISPACE III.3. 大会在其1999年12月6日第54/6808号决议中满意地注意到第三次外空会议的报告,并赞同《维也纳宣言》。大会承认由会员国以及包括非政府实体和年轻一代在内的民间团体对第三次外空会议取得的成功所作出的贡献。
A.A.
Background to UNISPACE III第三次外空会议的背景情况
4. The United Nations accorded importance to the promotion of international collaboration in space activities from as early as the beginning of the space age, which was marked by the successful launch of Sputnik I in 1957. The General Assembly established the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 1959.4. 早在以1957年成功发射第一颗人造卫星为标志的空间时代之初,联合国就已重视促进在空间活动方面的国际合作。大会于1959年设立了和平利用外层空间委员会。
5. The Committee, with its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee, has served as a focal point for international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space. The Committee and its Legal Subcommittee have played a pivotal role in the development and adoption by the United Nations of the five outer space treaties and the five sets of legal principles and declarations, establishing the international legal regime governing outer space activities.5. 委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会及法律小组委员会已成为在和平利用外层空间方面开展国际合作的联络中心。委员会及其法律小组委员会在联合国拟订并通过五项外层空间条约和五套法律原则及宣言上发挥了关键作用,建立起管辖外层空间活动的国际法制度。
6. The Committee has also played a key role in the organization of the United Nations global conferences on outer space. Many initiatives resulted from the United Nations conferences on the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space that were held in 1968 and 1982. One of the most important outcomes was the creation and expansion of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. Under the responsibility of the United Nations Expert on Space Applications, the Programme has carried out a wide range of activities to strengthen the capacity of countries, particularly developing countries, to use and benefit from space science and technology and their applications.6. 委员会还在联合国外层空间国际会议的组织安排上发挥了关键作用。1968和1982年举行的联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议提出了多项举措。所产生最为重要的成果之一是建立并扩大了联合国空间应用方案。由联合国空间应用专家负责的该空间应用方案开展了众多活动,以便加强各国尤其是发展中国家利用空间科学和技术及其应用并从中获益的能力。
7. One of the major accomplishments of the Programme, following the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE 82), was the establishment of regional centres for space science and technology education. International efforts led by the Programme resulted in the inauguration in India, in 1995, of the regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific, followed by regional centres inaugurated in 1998 in Morocco, for French-speaking countries in Africa, in 1998 in Nigeria, for English-speaking countries in Africa, and in 2003 in Brazil and Mexico, for the Latin American and Caribbean region.7. 第二次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(82年外空会议)之后,空间应用方案的主要成就之一是建立了空间科学和技术教育各区域中心。在国际社会由空间应用方案牵头作出努力之后,亚洲和太平洋空间和技术教育区域中心于1995年在印度落成,非洲法语区国家区域中心1998年在摩洛哥落成,非洲英语区国家区域中心在尼日利亚落成,拉丁美洲和加勒比区域中心2003年在巴西和墨西哥落成。
8. In the years that followed UNISPACE 82, space applications and the use of space technology forged rapidly ahead, with new technologies and techniques spawning both greater use and increased effectiveness of existing applications and creating new ones. The number of countries with space capabilities and countries using space technology increased. There have also been major advances in space-based observations of the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, surface and biosphere. Satellite communications have resulted in greater global interdependence and brought distant parts of the world closer together. In addition to services in the field of transportation, new applications of global navigation satellite systems have emerged in such areas as surveying and mapping, Earth sciences, agriculture, environmental monitoring, disaster management, telecommunications and precision timing.8. 在82年外层空间会议后的几年内,空间应用和空间技术的使用迅猛发展,新的技术和工艺层出不穷,既增加了现行应用的用途又提高了其效能,同时推出新的应用。具有空间能力的国家和使用空间技术的国家均有增无减。从空间观测地球大气层、海洋、表层和生物圈也取得了重大进展。卫星通信加深了世界各国的相互依存,使得世界相距遥远的地区彼此之间的关系更为密切。全球导航卫星系统除用于运输领域外,还在测量和制图、地球科学、农业、环境监测、灾害管理、电信和精确定时等领域得到了新的应用。
9. The emerging opportunities for greater cooperation in space activities led to the adoption by the General Assembly, in 1996, of the Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries. The Declaration stresses that States are free to determine all aspects of their participation in international cooperation in space activities, to be carried out on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis, and recognizes commercial space activities as a mode for international cooperation.9. 委员会抓住新的机会努力增进空间活动方面的合作,促使大会于1996年通过了《关于开展探索和利用外层空间的国际合作,促进所有国家的福利和利益,并特别要考虑到发展中国家的需要的宣言》。宣言强调各国均可在公平和可以相互接受的基础上自行决定参加探索和利用外层空间的国际合作的所有方面,还承认商业性的空间活动是进行国际合作的一种方式。
10. At the same time, the Committee has recognized the increasing challenges faced by humanity. Rapid population growth, resulting in the expansion of human activities, in particular industrial activities, and in increasing demand to meet the basic needs of people, continues to have an adverse impact on the condition of the planet. The consequences include land and coastal degradation, air and water pollution, loss of biodiversity, deforestation and degradation of living conditions. Many people, in particular in developing countries, where lives depend on natural resources, are caught in a vicious circle of environmental degradation and poverty. Globally, the health of more than a billion people is affected each year by infectious diseases, some of which are sensitive to weather variability and global climate change. Hundreds of natural disasters have affected populations in many countries around the world every year, causing considerable damage. Their impact on developing countries has been particularly severe. In some instances, disasters have destroyed in a matter of minutes all the progress in social and economic development made by a developing country over a period of years. While the revolution in information and communications technologies has led to many positive effects, the international community has become increasingly concerned that it could lead to widening the gap between those who use the technologies and those who do not. These challenges were addressed in the series of United Nations global conferences held in the 1990s and in the early 2000s, which repeatedly stressed the importance for all humanity of sustainable development.10. 与此同时,委员会承认人类面临的挑战有增无减。人口的迅速增长,由此造成的人类活动,特别是工业活动的扩大以及满足人民基本需要的要求不断增加,继续对地球这颗行星的环境产生不利的影响。所造成的后果包括陆地和海岸退化、空气和水污染、生物多样性丧失和毁坏森林以及生活条件的恶化。许多人,尤其是发展中国家中依赖自然资源为生的人更处于环境退化与贫困的恶性循环之中。从全球来看,每年有10多亿人的健康受到传染病的侵害,其中某些疾病很容易受天气多变和全球气候变化的影响。全世界许多国家的人民每年都受到数以百计的自然灾害的影响,这些灾害造成了巨大的损失。对发展中国家的影响尤为严重。在某些情形下,灾害使发展中国家多年来在社会和经济发展取得的所有进步顷刻之间化为乌有。尽管信息和通信技术革命带来许多积极的影响,但国际社会越来越关注的是,这种革命可能会导致使用这些技术者与无法使用这些技术者之间的差距的扩大。九十年代和二OOO年代初期举行的一系列联合国国际会议均述及这些挑战,这些会议一再强调了全人类可持续发展的重要性。
11. The Committee has recognized that improved space capabilities and increasing opportunities for international cooperation could assist in dealing with those challenges. This led to the decision taken by the General Assembly in 1997 to convene UNISPACE III, under the theme “Space Benefits for Humanity in the Twenty-first Century”, to address the challenges facing humanity and to take advantage of new opportunities through international cooperation in space activities.11. 委员会承认空间能力的加强和开展国际合作的机会的增多可以有助于迎接这些挑战。大会因此于1997年决定召开以“二十一世纪人类的空间惠益”为主题的第三次外空会议,以便通过在空间活动方面开展国际合作来应付人类正在面临的挑战并利用新的机会。
12. The primary objectives of UNISPACE III were:12. 第三次外空会议的主要目标是:
(a) To promote effective means of using space solutions to address problems of regional or global significance;(a) 促进利用空间方法解决区域性或全球性问题的各种有效手段;
(b) To strengthen the capabilities of Member States, especially developing countries, to use the results of space research for economic and cultural development;(b) 加强会员国,特别是发展中国家,利用空间研究成果促进经济和文化发展的能力;
(c) To enhance international cooperation in space science and technology and its applications.(c) 加强空间科技及其应用方面的国际合作。
13. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee acted respectively as the Preparatory Committee and the Advisory Committee for UNISPACE III. An important role was also played by the regional preparatory conferences, held for Asia and the Pacific in Kuala Lumpur in May 1998; held for Africa and Western Asia in Rabat in October 1998; held for Latin America and the Caribbean in Concepción, Chile, in October 1998; and held for Eastern Europe in Bucharest in January 1999. Organized within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, the regional conferences provided opportunities to States that were not members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to become aware of the objectives to be pursued and issues to be discussed at UNISPACE III. More importantly, the regional conferences served to consolidate regional inputs that were reflected in the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The Office for Outer Space Affairs, which serves the Committee and its subsidiary bodies, acted as the executive secretariat of UNISPACE III.13. 和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会分别担任第三次外空会议的筹备委员会和咨询委员会。1998年5月在吉隆坡举行的亚洲和太平洋区域筹备会议、1998年10月在拉巴特举行的非洲和西亚区域筹备会议、1998年10月在康塞普西翁举行的拉丁美洲和加勒比区域筹备会议以及1999年1月在布加勒斯特举行的东欧区域筹备会议等区域筹备会议也发挥了重要的作用。这些区域会议是在联合国空间应用方案的框架内举办的,它们为不是和平利用外层空间委员会成员国的国家提供了了解第三次外空会议的目标和议题的机会。更为重要的是,这些区域会议有助于综合归纳各区域的意见,然后将其反映在第三次外空会议的建议中。为委员会及其附属机构提供服务的外层空间事务厅担任了第三次外空会议的执行秘书处。
B.B.
Unique organizational aspects of UNISPACE III第三次外空会议在组织方面的独到之处
14. The Committee stressed that the Conference should yield concrete results and that realistic and feasible follow-up activities should be planned to implement the recommendations made by the Conference. To that end, it was agreed that the recommendations should be sharply focused, limited in number, and should indicate well-defined goals.14. 委员会强调第三次外空会议应产生具体结果,应规划切实可行的后续活动来实施会议的建议。为此,成员国商定建议应当重点突出,数目有限,并应指出一些界定明确的目标。
15. The agenda of UNISPACE III covered a wide range of thematic areas in which space science and technology and their applications could contribute to promoting sustainable development and enhancing human living conditions. UNISPACE III addressed scientific knowledge of the Earth and its environment and the practical applications of space science and technology, while stressing the importance of education and training, of promoting the potential economic and societal benefits, including commercial benefits, and of furthering international cooperation, including the review of the status of international space law.15. 第三次外空会议的议程涉及空间科学和技术及其应用可有助于促进可持续发展并从而改善人类生活条件的许多主题领域。第三次外空会议述及地球及其环境的科学知识和空间科学技术的实际应用,同时强调教育和培训、促进包括商业效益在内的潜在经济和社会效益和增进包括审查国际法现状的国际合作的重要性。
16. The General Assembly, in its resolution 52/56 of 10 December 1997, encouraged Member States, entities of the United Nations system and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations with space-related activities, space-related industries, as well as young professionals and university students, to contribute actively to achieving the objectives of UNISPACE III.16. 大会在其1997年12月10日第52/56号决议中,鼓励会员国、联合国系统各实体、政府间组织和非政府组织、与空间有关的工业界以及青年专业人员和大学生为实现第三次外空会议的目标作出积极的贡献。
Member States, space agencies, entities of the United Nations system and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations engaged in space-related activities contributed to achieving the objectives of UNISPACE III by addressing various technical issues and policy matters and making recommendations to the main committees through the Technical Forum, which was one of the main bodies of UNISPACE III. The Technical Forum held some 40 workshops, seminars, round-table meetings, special sessions and discussion panels. Its activities included the Space Generation Forum, a global forum organized for and by young professionals and university students interested in space activities. The Technical Forum was open to all UNISPACE III participants and offered a unique opportunity for government representatives, industry managers, researchers and university students freely to exchange ideas and views.17. 会员国、空间机构、联合国系统各实体以及与空间活动有关的政府间组织和非政府组织通过在技术论坛上讨论各种技术问题和政策事项,向各主要委员会提出建议,为实现第三次外空会议的目标作出了贡献,技术论坛是第三次外空会议的主要机构之一,技术论坛举办了大约40个讲习班、研讨会、圆桌会议、特别会议和小组讨论会。其活动包括航天新一代论坛,这是一个由关注空间活动的青年专业人员和大学生举办的以其为对象的全球论坛。技术论坛对第三次外空会议所有与会者开放,为政府代表、工业管理人员、研究人员和大学生自由交流意见和观点提供了一个特别的机会。
UNISPACE III was convened as a special session of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, open to all Member States. Organizing costs were kept to a minimum and no separate conference budget was requested. In the years preceding UNISPACE III, cost-saving measures were introduced by the Committee, including shortening of some of the annual sessions of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies and utilization of unedited verbatim transcripts in lieu of verbatim and summary records. Austria, as the host country, made a significant contribution by covering the costs for meeting facilities and services. The capacity of the executive secretariat was also augmented by volunteer interns and by cash and in-kind voluntary contributions from member States and space-related international organizations and industries. Details of the unique organizational aspects of UNISPACE III can be found in a report on the organizational matters relating to the holding of UNISPACE III (see A/C.4/54/9), which was submitted to the General Assembly at its fifty-fourth session.18. 第三次外空会议是作为和平利用外层空间委员会的一次特别会议召开的,对所有成员国开放。已将组织费用压缩到最低限度并且没有提出单独的会议预算要求。在第三次外空会议之前的几年内,委员会已实施若干种节省费用的措施,包括缩短委员会及其附属机构的某些年会的会期,利用未经编辑的逐字记录誊本代替逐字记录和简要记录。奥地利作为东道国,负担了会议设施和服务的费用,从而作出了重大贡献。自愿见习人员的工作以及成员国和与空间有关的国际组织和工业界所提供的现金和实物自愿捐助也加强了执行秘书处的能力。第三次外空会议在组织方面的独到之处,详见与召开第三次外空会议有关的组织事项报告(A/C.4/54/9),该报告已提交大会第五十四届会议。
C.C.
Results of UNISPACE III第三次外空会议的成果
UNISPACE III was attended by more than 2,500 participants, including representatives of 100 States and 30 international organizations and representatives from the private sector.19. 参加第三次外空会议的有2,500多名与会者,包括100个国家和30个国际组织的代表以及私营部门的代表。
The most important result of UNISPACE III was the adoption of the Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development. In that Declaration, UNISPACE III recommended 33 specific actions that should be taken by the international community to meet the global challenges in protecting the Earth’s environment and managing its resources, using space applications for human security, development and welfare, advancing scientific knowledge of space and protecting the space environment, enhancing education and training opportunities and ensuring public awareness of the importance of space activities, strengthening and repositioning of space activities in the United Nations system and promoting international cooperation.20. 第三次外空会议最为重要的成果是通过了《关于空间和人的发展的维也纳宣言》。在该宣言中,第三次外空会议建议国际社会为迎接下述方面的全球挑战采取33项具体行动,即,保护地球的环境和管理地球的资源,利用各种空间应用促进民生保障、发展和福利,提高对空间的科学认识和保护空间环境,增加教育和培训机会并确保公众认识到空间活动的重要性,加强和调整联合国系统的空间活动并促进国际合作。
In the Vienna Declaration, UNISPACE III also invited the General Assembly to declare the period from 4 to 10 October each year World Space Week, in order to celebrate at the international level each year the contributions that space science and technology can make to the betterment of human living conditions.21. 在《维也纳宣言》中,第三次外空会议还请大会宣布每年10月4日至10日这一期间为世界空间周,以便每年在国际范围庆祝空间科学与技术为改善人类生活条件所作出的贡献。 22. 大会在其第54/68号决议中赞同第三次外空会议通过的《维也纳宣言》。大会促请各国政府、联合国系统内各机关、组织和方案以及从事与空间有关的活动的政府间组织、非政府组织和工业界采取必要行动,有效执行《维也纳宣言》。大会还商定将在其2004年的会议上评价和审查第三次外空会议的成果的执行情况,并考虑采取进一步行动和举措。
In its resolution 54/68, the General Assembly endorsed the Vienna Declaration as adopted by UNISPACE III. The Assembly urged Governments, and organs, organizations and programmes within the United Nations system, as well as intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and industries engaged in space-related activities, to take the action necessary for the effective implementation of the Vienna Declaration. The Assembly also agreed that it would appraise and review, at its session in 2004, the implementation of the outcome of UNISPACE III and consider further actions and initiatives.二. 执行第三次外空会议建议的机制
II. Mechanisms for implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III23. 早在1999年,和平利用外层空间委员会就审议了在委员会及其附属机构的未来工作中反映第三次外空会议成果的一项措施并就此取得了一致意见。委员会建议科学和技术小组委员会重新召开其全体工作组会议,根据第三次外空会议的建议协助小组委员会审议其未来的工作。为了便利其小组委员会审议执行第三次外空会议的成果所涉及的新问题,委员会还通过了科学和技术小组委员会及法律小组委员会订正议程结构。
As early as 1999, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space considered and agreed upon a measure to reflect the outcome of UNISPACE III in the future work of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies. The Committee recommended that the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee reconvene its Working Group of the Whole to assist the Subcommittee in considering its future work in the light of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The Committee also facilitated consideration by its subcommittees of new issues following the outcome of UNISPACE III by adopting a revised structure of the agendas of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal Subcommittee.A. 科学和技术小组委员会及法律小组委员会经订正的议程结构
A. Revised structure of the agendas of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee24. 在其1999年第四十二届会议上,就在第三次外空会议召开之前委员会订正了其小组委员会的议程结构。由于有了这种议程结构,各小组委员会得以在多年期工作计划下提出固定期限内拟实现目标的新的议程项目,或者提出仅供一届会议审议的单项议题/项目。
At its forty-second session, in 1999, immediately preceding UNISPACE III, the Committee revised the structure of the agendas of its subcommittees. The revised structure has enabled the subcommittees to introduce new agenda items either under multi-year work plans, with objectives to be achieved within a fixed period of time, or as single issues or items for discussion, to be considered for one session only.25. 在第三次外空会议以后的第三十七届会议上,科学和技术小组委员会商定,其订正议程结构将有助于审议《维也纳宣言》中所载应付全球挑战的33项具体行动。小组委员会赞同根据多年期工作计划对这些问题进行审议。
At its thirty-seventh session, following UNISPACE III, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee agreed that the revised structure of its agenda would facilitate the consideration of the 33 specific actions contained in the Vienna Declaration that addressed global challenges.B.
The Subcommittee agreed to consider those issues under multi-year work plans.外层空间事务厅行动计划
B. Plan of action of the Office for Outer Space Affairs26. 大会在其第54/68号决议中请秘书长建议措施,以便确保为外层空间事务厅提供足够的资源执行根据第三次外空会议的建议采取该决议第13段所列举的行动。外层空间事务厅根据这一请求编写了其执行第三次外空会议建议的行动计划并于2000年将该计划提交给委员会(见A/AC.105/L.224)。 27. 由外层空间事务厅提交的行动计划包括在下述领域执行第三次外空会议建议的措施:(a)加强和平利用外层空间委员会及其小组委员会在促进利用外层空间上的国际合作的作用;(b)在与空间法有关的领域提出能力建设方案;(c)为提高效能,促进在举办讲习班和培训班、提供技术咨询服务和管理长期研究金方案等方案主要部分上的协调一致,从而加强联合国空间应用方案的活动;(d)在联合国系统的范围内促进使用空间技术;(e)建立并加强与工业界的伙伴关系;(f)加强与政府间组织和非政府组织的伙伴关系;(g)提出公众普及方案和针对年轻人的方案;及(h)加强出版和新闻服务。委员会在其2002年届会上核可了外层空间事务厅提出的行动计划,并建议执行该计划。 28. 大会在其2000年12月8日第55/122号决议中请秘书长确保2002年利用必要资源充分执行该计划,因此,该行动计划中所载的所有各项措施随后列入了外层空间事务厅2002-2003两年期工作方案(见A/56/6(第6节))。 C. 行动小组的建立 29. 科学和技术小组委员会于2001年一致认为,可在个别成员国及其有关政府机构自愿担任领导的情况下,结合《维也纳宣言》中列举的具体行动,评估和执行第三次外空会议的建议。小组委员会还一致认为担任领导的国家和政府机构应在其小组内展开讨论,尽可能争取更多的非政府实体的参与。小组委员会注意到《维也纳宣言》建议作为应对未来全球挑战的战略的组成部分采取33项行动,小组委员会同意在成员国之间展开调查,确定成员国对每一项行动的兴趣和重视程度。2001年初进行的调查请每一个成员国表明其是否愿意成为为执行所建议的行动之目的而设立的小组的领导或成员。还请每一成员国确定希望成为小组成员的非政府实体。外层空间事务厅将汇集调查结果提交委员会2001年的届会审议。 30. 根据2001年初所进行调查得出的结果,委员会设立了11个行动小组,以执行被成员国赋予最高优先的或已有成员国提出担任有关活动牵头人的第三次外空会议的建议。委员会在其2003年届会上设立了12个行动小组。下文表1载列了委员会设立的行动小组,其主席和作为小组成员的国家和组织数目。截至2004年6月初,51个联合国会员国、联合国系统的15个实体、在委员会享有观察员地位的10个国际组织以及13个其他政府间实体和非政府实体作为行动小组的成员参加了一个或多个行动小组的工作。各行动小组成员的完整名单载于本报告附件四。 31. 科学和技术小组委员会及法律小组委员会订正的议程结构(见上文第24和25段)便于这些机构向各行动小组提供政策指导,以执行第三次外空会议的建议。各行动小组所开展的工作是对附属机构就与《维也纳宣言》中所载全球性挑战有关的议程项目所开展的工作的一种补充。
In its resolution 54/68, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to recommend measures to ensure that the Office for Outer Space Affairs was provided with adequate resources to implement the actions listed in paragraph 13 of that resolution, based on the recommendations of UNISPACE III. In response to that request, the Office prepared its plan of action to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III and submitted its plan to the Committee in 2000 (see A/AC.105/L.224).表1
The plan of action submitted by the Office consisted of measures to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III in the following areas: (a) strengthening the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subcommittees in promoting international cooperation in the use of outer space; (b) initiating a capacity-building programme in areas relating to space law; (c) strengthening the activities of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications by increasing synergy among the major components of the Programme such as the organization of workshops and training courses, provision of technical advisory services, including support to the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, and administration of long-term fellowship programmes; (d) promoting the use of space technologies within the United Nations system; (e) establishing and strengthening partnership with industry; (f) strengthening partnership with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; (g) initiating a public outreach programme and a programme for young people; and (h) strengthening publication and information services. The Committee, at its session in 2000, endorsed the plan of action proposed by the Office and recommended its implementation.和平利用外层空间委员会设立的行动小组
In its resolution 55/122 of 8 December 2000, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to ensure the full implementation of the plan with the necessary resources in 2002. Subsequently, all the measures contained in the plan of action were included in the programme of work of the Office for the biennium 2002-2003 (see A/56/6 (Sect. 6)).参加行动小组的国家和
C. Establishment of action teams组织数目
In 2001, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee agreed that the recommendations of UNISPACE III could be assessed and implemented through voluntary leadership by individual Member States and their appropriate governmental institutions in relation to specific actions listed in the Vienna Declaration. The Subcommittee also agreed that the leaders would conduct discussions within their teams to seek the broadest possible participation of non-governmental entities. Noting that 33 actions were recommended in the Vienna Declaration as elements of a strategy to address global challenges in the future, the Subcommittee agreed to conduct a survey among Member States to identify their level of interest and priority for each action. Through the survey, conducted in early 2001, each Member State was invited to indicate whether it wished to be the leader or a member of a team established for the purpose of carrying out a recommended action. Each Member State was also invited to identify non-governmental entities that wished to be members of a team. The Office for Outer Space Affairs compiled the results of the survey for consideration by the Committee at its session in 2001.(截至2004年6月1日)
On the basis of the results of the survey, the Committee established 11 action teams to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III that had been accorded highest priority by Member States or for which there had been an offer by a Member State to lead associated activities. The Committee established the twelfth action team at its session in 2003. The action teams established by the Committee, their chairs and the number of countries and organizations that are members of the action teams are indicated in table 1 below. By the beginning of June 2004, 51 States Members of the United Nations, 15 entities of the United Nations system, 10 international organizations that have observer status with the Committee and 13 other intergovernmental and non-governmental entities had participated as members in one or more action teams. The full list of the membership of all the action teams is contained in annex IV to the present report.建议(按《维也纳宣言》中所列顺序) 主席 国家 组织
Table 11 制订综合性世界环境监测战略 伊朗(伊斯兰共和国)、
Action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space俄罗斯联邦和
Recommendation (in order of appearance in the Vienna Declaration) Chair(s) Number of countries and organizations participating in the action team (as at 1 June 2004)阿拉伯叙利亚共和国 23 11
Countries Organizations2 改进对地球自然资源的管理 印度 27 6
1 Develop a comprehensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy Iran (Islamic Republic of), Russian Federation and Syrian Arab Republic 23 114 加强天气和气候预报 葡萄牙和世界气象组织 25 5
2 Improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources India 27 66 改善公共保健服务 加拿大 19 8
4 Enhance weather and climate forecasting Portugal and World Meteorological Organization 25 57 实施一个综合性全球系统对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理 加拿大、中国和法国 41 14
6 Improve public health services Canada 19 89 促进天基通信服务的普及以及促进知识共享 马来西亚和希腊 10 1
7 Implement an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts Canada, China and France 41 1410 改进天基导航和定位系统的普遍利用和兼容性 美利坚合众国和意大利 38 14
9 Improve knowledge-sharing through the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services Malaysia and Greece 10 111 应用空间研究的结果促进可持续发展 尼日利亚 27 8
10 Improve universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems United States of America and Italy 38 1414 改进与近地物体有关的活动的国际协调 大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国 17 7
11 Promote sustainable development by applying the results of space research Nigeria 27 817 通过人力资源和预算资源的开发加强能力建设 日本 25 7
14 Improve the international coordination of activities related to near-Earth objects United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 17 718 提高决策者和公众对空间活动重要性的认识 美国和奥地利 22 14
17 Enhance capacity-building by developing human and budgetary resources Japan 25 732 查明新的、有创意的供资来源,以支助第三次外空会议建议的实施 法国 15 6
18 Increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of space activities United States and Austria 22 14D. 各国的努力
32 Identify new and innovative sources of financing to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III France 15 632. 各国政府在取得执行第三次外空会议各项建议的进展方面发挥至关重要的作用。科学和技术小组委员会于2001年在审查执行第三次外空会议建议机制方面的提议时考虑到各国政府所发挥的关键作用。和平利用外层空间委员会注意到,有些国家的政府为执行第三次外空会议的各种建议,颁布了国家空间政策。委员会于2003年还回顾到,负责这些建议的是成员国、受委员会及其附属机构指导的外层空间事务厅、负责多边合作的政府间组织以及从事与空间有关的活动的其他实体。
The revised structure of the agendas of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee (see paragraphs 24 and 25 above) has enabled those bodies to provide policy guidelines to the action teams to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The work of the action teams complemented the work conducted by the subsidiary bodies on the agenda items relating to the global challenges set forth in the Vienna Declaration.33. 各成员国的政府为确保执行第三次外空会议的建议取得成功继续发挥至关重要的作用。成员国对委员会及其小组委员会在其年度会议上的工作以及各行动小组的工作作出了贡献。有些成员国还对外层空间事务厅在联合国空间应用方案的框架内为执行第三次外空会议的建议而开展的活动提供了支持。此外,成员国在国家一级,并在落实第三次外空会议的某些建议的国际合作方面采取了行动。成员国为促进国际合作而开展的一些空间活动支持了《维也纳宣言》中所要求的活动。向委员会报告了为促进空间活动方面国际合作而开展的活动的国家名单载于本报告附件六。
D.E.
National efforts其他机制
The role of the Governments of Member States was critical in making progress in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. In examining the proposals on the mechanism to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III in 2001, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee took into account the pivotal role of Governments. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space noted that some Governments were implementing various recommendations of UNISPACE III through the adoption of national space policies. In 2003, the Committee also recalled that the responsibility for implementing the recommendations rested with member States, the Office for Outer Space Affairs under the guidance of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies, intergovernmental organizations for multilateral cooperation and other entities engaged in space-related activities.34. 为响应大会在其第54/68号决议中所发出的号召,有些政府间组织和非政府组织采取了各种举措,以执行第三次外空会议的建议。有些组织召开了国际会议,审查第三次外空会议的建议,查明在其任务授权范围内可采取的后续行动。关于政府间组织和非政府组织落实第三次外空会议活动的进一步材料载于本报告第119-129段。向委员会报告了针对第三次外空会议的建议而开展的活动的政府间组织和非政府组织名单载于本报告附件六。
Governments of Member States continue to play an essential role in ensuring the successful implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. Member States have contributed to the work of the Committee and its subcommittees at their annual sessions and to the work of the action teams. Some member States have also supported activities of the Office for Outer Space Affairs aimed at implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III, within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. In addition, member States have taken action at the national level and in the context of international cooperation to implement some of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. A number of space activities carried out by member States to promote international cooperation have supported actions called for in the Vienna Declaration. The list of countries that have reported to the Committee on their activities to promote international cooperation in space activities is provided in annex VI to the present report.35. 其他一些组织也作出努力,通过设立新的执行机制而提出了一些举措。委员会于2000年还听取了关于在国际宇航联合会(宇航联合会)的主持下所采取的下述举措的简要介绍,即,在“二十一世纪空间活动的优先重点”的主题下让非政府实体参与执行第三次外空会议的某些建议。航天新一代咨询理事会设立了若干小组,以支持执行《维也纳宣言》中所载的许多建议,以及支持和平利用外层空间委员会设立的各行动小组的工作。
E.三.
Other mechanisms执行各项建议所取得的进展
In response to a call by the General Assembly in its resolution 54/68, some intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations have taken initiatives to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III. Some organizations have convened international conferences to examine the recommendations of UNISPACE  III and to identify possible follow-up action that they could take within their mandate. Further information on the activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations as follow-up to UNISPACE III is contained in paragraphs 119-129 of the present report. A list of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations that reported to the Committee on their activities in response to the recommendations of UNISPACE III is contained in annex VI to the present report.A. 委员会其附属机构所取得的进展
Some other organizations have also launched initiatives to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III. For example, in 2000, the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) launched an initiative under the theme “Priorities for space activities in the twenty-first century” to engage non-governmental entities in the implementation of selected recommendations resulting from UNISPACE III. The Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) created teams to support the implementation of many of the recommendations contained in the Vienna Declaration, as well as the work of the action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.1. 委员会及其附属机构审议议程项目所取得的成绩
III. Progress made in implementing recommendations36. 和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会和法律小组委员会通过在其年会上审议及各个议程项目探讨了维也纳宣言所载一些内容。委员会在其1999年的届会上商定对两个小组委员会的议程结构进行修改,这搞活了这两个机构的工作并加强了其在和平利用外层空间方面国际合作中的作用。本报告附件三介绍了委员会及其附属机构由于审查根据经修改的议程结构提出的问题所取得的最新成绩。
A. Progress made in the Committee and its subsidiary bodies(a) 和平利用外层空间委员会
1. Achievements of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies in the consideration of agenda items37. 和平利用外层空间委员会在2002年首先审议了题为“空间和社会”的项目。对这一项目的审议为非政府实体提供了机会,可以向委员会报告其提高一般公众对空间活动重要性的认识所作的努力。自2004年开始,委员会将把其在这一议程项目下的讨论重点放在“空间和教育”方面。根据其三年工作计划,委员会的目标是到2006年制定出将空间问题纳入教育的具体行动计划,加强空间方面的教育以及扩大用于教育的空间工具,由各行动工作组提供知识分享、能力建设和提高认识等方面的投入(第三次外空会议建议9、17和18)。通过对这一问题进行的讨论,委员会还旨在进一步加强和联合国教育、科学及文化组织(教科文组织)的合作。
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee addressed some of the elements contained in the Vienna Declaration through consideration of items on their agendas at their annual sessions. The agreement reached by the Committee at its session in 1999 to revise the structure of the agendas of both subcommittees resulted in a revitalization of the work of those bodies and a strengthening of their role in promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space. Annex III to the present report contains information on the achievements of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies to date as a result of consideration of issues introduced under the revised agenda structure.38. 委员会在其2004年届会上还处理了作为一个新议程项目的“空间和水”。对这一项目进行的审议是及时的,因为委员会的工作可考虑到2003年进行的与国际淡水年有关的各项活动的成果,并还对可持续发展委员会2005年届会关于水问题的讨论作出贡献,这个问题已经被选定为2004-2005年期间将处理的三组主题中的一组(另见第231段)。
(a) Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(b) 科学和技术小组委员会
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space first considered the item entitled “Space and society” in 2002. Consideration of the item provided opportunities for non-governmental entities to inform the Committee of their efforts to increase awareness among the general public of the importance of space activities. Starting in 2004, the Committee will focus its discussions under this agenda item on “Space and education”. In accordance with its three-year work plan, the Committee aims to develop, by 2006, specific and concrete action plans for bringing space issues into education, enhancing education in space and expanding space tools for education, with inputs to be provided by its action teams on knowledge-sharing, capacity-building and increasing awareness (recommendations 9, 17 and 18 of UNISPACE III). Through the discussions on this issue, the Committee also aims to further strengthen cooperation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).39. 科学和技术小组委员会在2000年第三十七届会议上同意,可以通过审查多年工作计划项下的议程项目来处理维也纳宣言载明的要素。小组委员会根据多年工作计划已经审议了维也纳宣言所要求的下列行动,具体目标将在一段固定的时期内实现:(a)加强机构间合作和增加联合国系统各实体内和相互之间空间应用和服务的使用的手段和机制; (b)实施综合天基全球自然灾害管理系统; (c)在外层空间使用核动力源; (d)空间碎片;以及(e)借助空间系统的远程医疗。
At its 2004 session, the Committee also addressed “Space and water” as a new agenda item. The consideration of this item is timely, as the work of the Committee could take into account the results of the activities held in 2003 relating to the International Year of Freshwater and also contribute to the discussions on water, which has been selected as one of the three thematic clusters to be addressed for the period 2004-2005 in the Commission on Sustainable Development at its 2005 session (see also para. 231).40. 下文第84-92段进一步介绍了在关于机构间合作的项目所取得的成果。在有关灾害管理的项目之下,小组委员会确定了可以被当作全球自然灾害管理系统的国家和区域天基系统。小组委员会还认识到各种国际举措的重要性,例如地球观测卫星委员会灾害管理支助特设工作组的工作、国际减灾战略秘书处所作的努力、《在发生自然或技术灾害时协调使用空间设施的合作宪章》(《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》)以及国际搜索救援卫星系统(搜救卫星系统)。小组委员会还审查了可以用来进行灾害管理的现有卫星和数据发送系统。灾害管理问题行动小组目前进行工作补充了小组委员会在这一议程项目下进行的工作,外层空间事务厅提供了支持。
(b) Scientific and Technical Subcommittee41. 在第三次外空会议之前,已将关于在外层空间使用核动力源的项目放在小组委员会的议程上。根据所通过的1998-2003年期间工作计划,小组委员会通过其在外层空间使用核动力源问题工作组,提出了一份审查与在外层空间和平使用核动力源潜在有关的国际文件和国家程序的报告(A/AC.105/781)。小组委员会还进一步采取步骤通过了2003-2006年期间的一项新的工作计划,以制订外层空间核动力源各项应用安全问题的目标和建议的国际技术性框架(A/AC.105/804,附件三)。
The Scientific and Technical Subcommittee agreed at its thirty-seventh session, in 2000, that the elements contained in the Vienna Declaration could be addressed through the consideration of agenda items under multi-year work plans. The following actions called for in the Vienna Declaration have been considered by the Subcommittee under multi-year work plans, with specific objectives to be achieved within a fixed period of time: (a) means and mechanisms for strengthening inter-agency cooperation and increasing the use of space applications and services within and among entities of the United Nations system; (b) implementation of an integrated, space-based global natural disaster management system; (c) use of nuclear power sources in outer space; (d) space debris; and (e) space-system-based telemedicine.42. 在第三次外空会议之前,还将关于空间碎片的项目列入了科学和技术小组委员会的议程。根据所通过的1996-1998年期间的工作计划,小组委员会制订了一份关于空间碎片的技术报告(A/AC.105/720),这份报告反映了委员会成员在空间碎片测量、空间碎片环境建模、风险评估和空间碎片减缓措施方面所取得的集体知识和专门技术。机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)也为报告的编制提供了宝贵的支持。在第三次外空会议之后,小组委员会还采取进一步的措施,审查了机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)就地球同步轨道卫星在其有效寿命结束时的处置问题提出的国际电信联盟(国际电联)标准和建议的国际适用情况。小组委员会还审查了碎片减缓措施以及运载火箭产生的与飞行任务有关的空间碎片的消能和限制问题,包括成本效益方面的问题。根据2002-2005年期间新的工作计划,小组委员会在2004年设立了一个工作组,审议和平利用外层空间委员会各成员国对空间碎片协委会2003年向小组委员会提出的空间碎片减缓建议所作的评论。小组委员会商定的2005年科学和技术小组委员会第四十二届会议临时议程列有含有下述工作方案的空间碎片项目,即小组委员会的报告(A/AC.105/823,附件二,第20段)中所述的:(a)空间碎片;(会员国开始每年自愿就本国为实施关于空间碎片减缓的建议开展的活动提交报告(A/AC.105/761,第130段);(空间碎片工作组根据需要审议关于空间碎片减缓的建议和可能收到的此类进一步的有关评论)。
The results achieved under the item relating to inter-agency cooperation are described further in paragraphs 84-92 below. Under the item relating to disaster management, the Subcommittee identified national and regional space-based systems that could be considered for a global system to manage natural disasters. The Subcommittee also recognized the importance of various international initiatives, such as the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Disaster Management Support of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), efforts of the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the Charter on Cooperation to Achieve the Coordinated Use of Space Facilities in the Event of Natural or Technological Disasters (the “International Charter ‘Space and Major Disasters’”) and the International Satellite System for Search and Rescue (COSPAS-SARSAT). The Subcommittee also examined existing satellite and data distribution systems that could be used for disaster management. The work conducted by the Subcommittee under the agenda item is being complemented by the work of the Action Team on Disaster Management, with support from the Office for Outer Space Affairs.43. 在对空间技术用于医疗科学和公共卫生的情况进行审查之后,小组委员会通过了2004-2006年期间审查天基远程医疗的工作计划。到该工作计划结束时,预期小组委员会将确定用何种方式和方法提高发展中国家使用天基远程医疗系统的能力,并确定一些通过国际合作进一步开发天基远程医疗应用的可能的双边或多边项目。
The item on the use of nuclear power sources in outer space had been on the agenda of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee before UNISPACE III. Under the work plan adopted for the period 1998-2003, the Subcommittee, through its Working Group on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, produced a review of international documents and national processes potentially relevant to the peaceful uses of nuclear power sources in outer space (A/AC.105/781). The Subcommittee took a step further by adopting a new work plan, for the period 2003-2006, for developing an international technically based framework of goals and recommendations for the safety of nuclear power source applications in outer space (A/AC.105/804, annex III).(c) 法律小组委员会
The item on space debris had also been on the agenda of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee before UNISPACE III. Under the work plan adopted for the period 1996-1998, the Subcommittee prepared a technical report on space debris (A/AC.105/720), which reflected the collective knowledge and expertise of the members of the Committee on the measurements of space debris, modelling the space debris environment, risk assessment and space debris mitigation measures. The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) also provided valuable support for the preparation of the report. Following UNISPACE III, the Subcommittee took a further step by reviewing the international application of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards and the recommendations of IADC concerning the disposal of satellites in geosynchronous orbit at the end of their useful life. The Subcommittee also considered debris mitigation measures and the passivation and limitation of mission-related space debris for launch vehicles, including cost-benefit aspects. In accordance with a new work plan covering the period 2002-2005, the Subcommittee established a working group in 2004 to consider comments from States members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on the proposals on space debris mitigation presented by IADC to the Subcommittee in 2003. The provisional agenda for the forty-second session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, in 2005, as agreed upon by the Subcommittee, includes the item on space debris with the following programme of work, as reflected in the report of the Subcommittee (A/AC.105/823, annex II, para. 20): (a) space debris; (Member States begin annual reporting on a voluntary basis of national activities to implement the proposals on space debris mitigation; (A/AC.105/761, para. 130)); (Consideration by the Working Group on Space Debris, as necessary, of the proposals on space debris mitigation and such further related comments as may be received).44. 自从第三次外空会议以来,法律小组委员会一直在审议关于外层空间的定义和定界以及地球静止轨道的性质和利用等事项的项目,包括审议在不妨碍国际电联作用的情况下确保公平和合理地使用地球静止轨道的方式和方法。小组委员会在2000年就使用地球静止轨道的一些问题达成了一项协议(A/AC.105/738,
Following its consideration of the use of space technology for the medical sciences and public health, the Subcommittee adopted a work plan for the period 2004-2006 to consider space-based telemedicine. By the end of the work plan, it is anticipated that the Subcommittee will identify ways and means of enhancing the capacity of developing countries to use space-based telemedicine systems and possible bilateral or multilateral projects to develop further space-based telemedicine applications through international cooperation.附件三),特别包括一项建议,在各国之间为利用卫星轨道,包括为利用地球静止卫星轨道而需进行协调的时候,有关国家应考虑到,对该轨道的利用必须以平等的方式等原则加以安排,并遵照《国际电联无线电条例》。该协定已提交国际电联。
(c) Legal Subcommittee45. 自从第三次外空会议以来,法律小组委员会议程上的另一个项目是关于联合国五项外层空间条约的现状和适用的项目。对这一项目的审议是直接响应第三次外空会议的要求而采取的一项行动,通过请各国批准或加入由委员会制定的各项外层空间条约并请政府间组织宣布接受这些条约来促进委员会制定空间法的工作。第三次外空会议之后,小组委员会设立了一个工作组,于2002年至2004年进行工作,审查各项条约的现状及其执行情况和获得普遍接受的障碍,以及特别通过联合国空间应用方案推广空间法。
Since before UNISPACE III, the Legal Subcommittee has been considering the item on matters relating to the definition and delimitation of outer space and the character and utilization of the geostationary orbit, including consideration of ways and means to ensure the rational and equitable use of the geostationary orbit without prejudice to the role of ITU. The Subcommittee reached an agreement in 2000 on some aspects concerning the use of the geostationary orbit (A/AC.105/738, annex III), including a recommendation, inter alia, that where coordination was required between countries with a view to the utilization of satellite orbits, including the geostationary satellite orbit, the countries concerned should take into account the fact that access to that orbit had to take place, inter alia, in an equitable manner and according to the ITU Radio Regulations. The agreement was transmitted to ITU.46. 在议程结构中加入“根据工作计划进行审议的项目”证明对于在固定的时间范围内实现具体的目标和产生切实成果是一个宝贵的机制。这方面的证明是,在审查“发射国”这一概念的多年工作计划以及为审议该议程项目而设立的工作组所进行的工作方面所取得的成果。2002年,工作组通过了一系列结论(A/AC.105/787,附件四,附录)。根据关于联合国五项外层空间条约的现状和适用的议程项目而设立的工作组进行了有关工作将这些结论转化为一项大会决议草案。工作组在2004年的届会上商定了该决议草案的案文。在该决议草案中,大会将特别建议,各会员国考虑颁布和实施有关的国家法律,批准和不断监督其管辖的非政府实体在外层空间的活动;考虑根据《空间物体所造成损害的国际责任公约(“责任公约”,大会第2777(XXVI)号决议,附件)对共同发射和合作方案订立协定;并主动提供关于在轨道上转让航天器所有权的现行做法的情况。
Another item that has been on the agenda of the Legal Subcommittee since before UNISPACE III is the item on the status and application of the five United Nations treaties related to outer space. Consideration of this item responds directly to one of the actions called for by UNISPACE III, to promote the efforts of the Committee in the development of space law by inviting States to ratify or accede to, and inviting intergovernmental organizations to declare acceptance of, the outer space treaties developed by the Committee. Following UNISPACE III, the Subcommittee established a working group, to conduct its work from 2002 to 2004, to review the status of the treaties, their implementation and obstacles to their universal acceptance, as well as the promotion of space law, especially through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications.47. 在议程结构中提出了“单独问题/讨论项目”也证明对于审议移动设备国际权益公约(2001年11月16日在开普敦开放供签署)关于空间资产特定事项的议定书草案初稿来说是一项宝贵的办法,这导致了与国际统一私法协会(统法会)的进一步合作和互动,以及由法国和意大利主持举行了两次闭会期间会议。在闭会期间,和平利用外层空间委员会和外层空间事务厅的成员还被邀请参加由各国政府专家组成的统法会一个委员会的第一届会议审议议定书初稿。统法会的秘书处在对这一问题进行审议期间,也参加了法律小组委员会的年会。
The introduction of “items to be considered under work plans” in the agenda structure has proved to be a particularly valuable mechanism to achieve specific objectives and yield practical results within a fixed timeframe. This is evidenced by the results achieved under the multi-year work plan on the review of the concept of the “launching State” and the work conducted by the working group established to consider that agenda item. In 2002, the working group adopted a set of conclusions (A/AC.105/787, annex IV, appendix). The work to translate those conclusions into a draft General Assembly resolution was conducted in the working group established under the agenda item on the status and application of the five United Nations treaties relating to outer space. At its session in 2004, the working group agreed on the text of the draft resolution, in which the General Assembly would, among other things, recommend that Member States consider enacting and implementing national laws authorizing and providing continuing supervision of the activities in outer space of non-governmental entities under their jurisdiction; consider the conclusion of agreements in accordance with the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (the “Liability Convention”, General Assembly resolution 2777 (XXVI), annex) with respect to joint launches and cooperation programmes; and submit information on a voluntary basis on their current practices regarding on-orbit transfer of ownership of space objects. The introduction of “single issues/items for discussion” in the agenda structure has also proved to be a valuable mechanism with regard to the examination of the preliminary draft protocol on matters specific to space assets to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment (opened for signature in Cape Town on 16 November 2001), which led to increased cooperation and interaction with the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (Unidroit) and the convening of two intersessional consultative meetings hosted by France and Italy. During the intersessional period, members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the Office for Outer Space Affairs were also invited to participate in the first session of a committee of Unidroit composed of governmental experts for the consideration of the preliminary draft protocol. The secretariat of Unidroit also participated in the annual sessions of the Legal Subcommittee during the consideration of the matter. The cross-participation in the work of the Committee and that of Unidroit contributed not only to making substantial progress in ensuring that international legal regimes being developed by bodies other than the Committee and its Legal Subcommittee that affect space activities would be consistent with the existing United Nations treaties governing outer space, but also to enhancing cooperation between intergovernmental bodies responsible for the development of international law.48. 交叉参加委员会的工作和统法会的工作不仅促进了在确保委员会及其法律小组委员会以外的机构制定的涉及空间活动的国际法律制度与联合国现行有关外层空间的条约保持一致方面取得了重大进展,还加强了负责制定国际法的各政府间机构之间的合作。
Participation by international organizations in the work of the Legal Subcommittee, in particular under the agenda item on information on the activities of international organizations relating to space law, has drawn the attention of the Subcommittee to activities of other international bodies that could be of significance to its work. One example is the report of the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST) of UNESCO, which was brought to the attention of the Subcommittee in 2002. That led to the establishment of the Group of Experts on the Ethics of Outer Space, charged with studying the report of COMEST; the report of the Group of Experts (A/AC.105/C.2/L.240/Rev.1) was submitted to the Subcommittee and transmitted to UNESCO in 2003.49. 各国际组织参与法律小组委员会的工作,特别是国际组织有关空间法方面的活动情况的议程项下的工作,已经使小组委员会注意到可能对其工作具有重要意义的其他国际机构的活动。一个例子是教科文组织世界科学知识和技术伦理学委员会(知识与技术伦理学委员会)的报告,该报告在2002年被提请小组委员会注意。这导致外层空间伦理问题专家组的成立,以研究知识与技术伦理学委员会的报告;该专家组的报告(A/AC.105/C.2/L.240/Rev.1)在2003年已提交给小组委员会并转交给教科文组织。
The consideration of a new agenda item, entitled “Practice of States and international organizations in registering space objects”, under the multi-year work plan for the period 2004-2007, will also contribute to implementing the recommendation of UNISPACE III relating to space law. By the end of the work plan, the Legal Subcommittee is expected to identify common practices and to make recommendations for enhancing adherence to the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the “Registration Convention”, General Assembly resolution 3235 (XXIX), annex).50. 根据2004-2007年期间多年工作计划对新的题为“各国和各国际组织登记空间物体的做法”的议程项目的审议也将促进第三次外空会议有关空间法的各项建议的执行。预计到该工作计划结束时,法律小组委员会将确定共同的做法并就促进加入《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》(“登记公约”,大会第3235(XXIX)号决议,附件)提出建议。
2. Progress achieved by action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space2. 和平利用外层空间委员会设立的各行动小组所取得的进展
The mechanism of implementing some of the recommendations of UNISPACE  III through the establishment of action teams, under the voluntary leadership of Governments, has proved to be very successful.51. 事实证明,通过建立行动小组,在各国政府的自愿领导下执行第三次外空会议的某些建议,是一种极为成功的机制。
Each of the action teams assessed the capability and use of space technology, in particular to meet the needs of developing countries, within the thematic area assigned to it. The assessment conducted by the action teams was unprecedented in both scope and depth. Their analyses of the current situation, their findings on the impediments to making space technology work effectively to solve the most acute problems faced by humanity and their recommendations on how to do so constitute a solid foundation for the implementation phase. A summary of the findings, recommendations, actions taken to date to implement the recommendations and impediments to the implementation is contained in annex V to the present report. The full list of membership of the action teams is contained in annex IV. The action teams brought together both States and international organizations to achieve common objectives by dedicated individuals with diverse expertise from different countries and organizations.52. 每个行动小组都评价了在分配给本小组的主题领域内空间技术特别满足发展中国家需要的能力和使用情况。各行动小组进行的评估无论在范围上还是在深度上都是前所未有的。它们对当前形势的分析,对使用空间技术有效地解决人类面临的最紧迫问题的障碍提出的调查结论,以及它们对如何这样做提出的建议,构成了执行阶段的坚实基础。本报告附件五载有各项调查结论、各项建议、以及迄今为止为执行这些建议而采取的行动和执行障碍的概要。行动小组成员的全部名单载于附件四。行动小组将各国和各国际组织联合起来,由来自不同国家和不同组织具有各种专长和献身精神的个人实现共同目标。
The findings and recommendations of the action teams are oriented towards achieving the following main objectives of UNISPACE III: (a) promoting effective means of using space technology to assist in the solution of problems of regional or global significance; and (b) strengthening the capabilities of Member States, in particular developing countries, to use the applications of space research for economic, social and cultural development. The Committee recognizes the importance of capacity-building, particularly that of developing countries. The findings of and actions proposed by the Committee relating to capacity-building, aimed at meeting the second objective mentioned above, are reflected in paragraphs 228-316 below.53. 各行动小组的研究结论和建议着眼于实现第三次外空会议的下列主要目标:(a)促进用有效手段利用空间技术协助解决具有区域或全球意义的问题;及(b)加强成员国特别是发展中国家利用空间应用研究来促进经济、社会和文化发展的能力。委员会认识到能力建设,特别是发展中国家的能力建设的重要性。委员会就能力建设提出的旨在满足上述第二项目标的研究结论和行动见下文第228-316段。
(a) Methods and organization of the work of the action teams(a) 工作方法和安排
The action teams were established by the Committee in 2001 and 2003 without an increase in the regular budget of the programme on the peaceful uses of outer space to support their activities in the period that followed UNISPACE III. The States, organizations and individuals who contributed to the work of the action teams dedicated their time, expertise and, in some cases, financial resources on a voluntary basis. Those who served as chairpersons, in particular, made extraordinary efforts to ensure progress in their action teams by generating ideas, coordinating the views of the members, preparing a number of documents for use by their teams or responding to numerous requests by the Committee to report on their work and to provide inputs for the work of the Committee and its subcommittees.54. 各行动小组是委员会于2001年和2003年在不增加和平利用外层空间方案经常预算的情况下设立的,以支持其在第三次外空会议之后的期间开展活动。凡是对行动小组的工作作出贡献的国家、组织和个人,都贡献了自己的时间、专长,在有些情况下还自愿提供资金。那些担任小组主席的人尤其作出特殊的努力确保本行动小组的工作取得进展,他们的努力包括提出构想,协调成员的看法,拟定一些供本小组使用的文件,或响应委员会多次提出的报告其工作和为委员会及其小组委员会的工作提供投入的请求。
Most of the work of the action teams has been accomplished by means of electronic mail and teleconferences among members. Many action teams convened their meetings during the annual sessions of the Committee and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, taking advantage of the presence of members participating in those sessions. All the action teams fulfilled their reporting responsibilities by presenting their progress reports to the Committee and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at each of their sessions since 2002.55. 各行动小组的工作大都是通过成员之间互发电子邮件和举行卫星电话会议的方式完成的。许多行动小组在委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会年会期间利用成员出席会议的机会举行会议。所有行动小组都履行了它们的报告职责,自2002年以来在委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会的每届会议上向其提交了本小组的进展情况报告。
Some action teams also met during the workshops organized by the Office for Outer Space Affairs that addressed themes relevant to their work, on the margins of the meetings of the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities or at international space-related conferences organized by other entities. Some of the action teams also convened open forums, in which any interested experts and individuals were invited to participate and contribute their knowledge to the work of the action teams.56. 在外层空间事务厅组织的讨论与其工作有关主题的讲习班期间,在外层空间活动机构间会议的会议空闲时间或由其他实体组织的与空间有关的国际会议期间,一些行动小组也举行了会议。一些行动小组还举行了公开论坛,邀请任何有关的专家和个人参加行动小组的工作并提供他们的知识。
(b) Overview of the major findings of the action teams(b) 各行动小组的主要研究结论概览
The work of the 12 action teams collectively provides a comprehensive picture of the wide range of applications of space technologies. A close review of the products that would result from various applications reveals their complementary nature and the synergies that could be built between them. For instance, in the area of sustainable development, the use of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technologies supports the protection of the environment, the management of natural resources, agriculture, telemedicine and disaster management. Products from programmes undertaken to protect the environment could also be useful in the management of natural resources, disaster management, global health and in many other areas of application. Through the organized and coordinated dissemination and exchange of information on products between different areas of application, the results achieved in one area can serve as a stepping stone for many other areas, thus building synergies and avoiding duplication. The challenge lies in determining whether the products of any given application meet the requirements of other applications.57. 这12个工作组的工作合在一起,提供了极其全面的画面,从中可以看出空间技术的应用范围。同时,对各种应用所能产生的成果进行认真的审查,就会发现它们具有互补性质,并能在它们之间促成协同效应。例如,在可持续发展领域,使用全球导航卫星系统技术,可以为保护环境、管理自然资源、农业、远程医疗和灾害管理提供支助。同时,为保护环境而开展的各种方案所生成的产品对于自然资源管理、灾害管理、全球保健以及其他许多应用领域内也可能很有用。通过在不同的应用领域之间有组织和协调地传播和交换产品信息,一个领域中所取得的成果可以成为进入许多其他领域的跳板,从而产生协同效应并避免重叠。这里的挑战在于确定任何特定应用的产品是否适合其他应用的需要。
(c) Requirements for space technology to become operational(c) 对空间技术投入实际使用的要求
In their assessment of the current situation, the action teams emphasized the usefulness of space technologies for decision-making in areas relating to environmental monitoring strategies, the management of natural resources, public health, disaster management and sustainable development.58. 在评估当前的形势时,各行动小组强调了空间技术对某些领域决策所起的有效作用,这些领域涉及环境监测战略、自然资源管理、公共卫生、灾害管理和可持续发展。
These assessments also showed that, for space technologies to become operational and yield practical benefits in developing countries, the following requirements would need to be met: capacity-building; the exact identification of user needs; the involvement of all stakeholders in the development of space-based systems and services; increased awareness among policy makers; the development of long-term strategies; and political commitment.59. 这些评价还表明,为了使空间技术在发展中国家投入使用并产生实际利益,需要达到以下要求:能力建设;确切查明用户需要;所有利益攸关者参与天基系统和服务的开发;提高政策制定者的认识;拟定长期战略;和政治承诺。
Some action teams indicated the need to move beyond simple efforts to increase awareness towards providing assistance to developing countries in the integration of space technology into basic infrastructure.60. 某些行动小组指出,在所作出努力方面必须不再局限于只是提高认识,在将空间技术纳入基础设施方面向发展中国家提供帮助。
(d) Overview of the recommendations made by the action teams: information, coordination, training and awareness(d ) 各行动小组提出的建议概览:信息、协调、培训和认识
Some of the action teams recognized that the recommendations under their responsibility could best be implemented by supporting existing initiatives and efforts.61. 一些行动小组承认,执行由其负责的各项建议的最佳途径是对现行举措和努力给予支助。 62. 各行动小组的建议中所载的一些共同成份包括对信息传播或信息获取作出改进;加强对现行工作的协调;拟定政策、长期计划和指导方针;加强为提供教育和培训机会所作的努力;提高政策制定者对空间活动惠益的认识。
Some of the common elements found in the recommendations of the action teams included better dissemination of and access to information; better coordination of existing efforts; the development of policies, long-term plans and guidelines; the enhancement of efforts to provide education and training opportunities; and raising awareness of the benefits of space activities among policy makers.63. 在实现进一步协调的措施方面,一些行动小组建议设立国际实体,以应对已查明的目前未通过现行任何协调与合作努力及机制来加强满足的需要,而其他一些行动小组指出了一些可以担任协调作用的现有组织。
Regarding measures to achieve better coordination, some action teams suggested the creation of international entities to respond to identified needs that were not being addressed by any existing coordination and cooperation efforts and mechanisms, while other action teams identified existing organizations that could assume a coordination role.64. 一些行动小组认为有必要拟定长期战略和政策,例如在环境监测领域和将空间研究成果应用于加强可持续发展方面。
The development of long-term strategies and policies was considered necessary by some action teams, such as in the areas of environmental monitoring and in applying results of space research to enhance sustainable development.65. 大多数行动小组已将各自负责的领域中目前所作的努力或成功的事例汇编成册,以便促进提高决策者和一般公众的认识,加强专家和方案管理人员之间的知识分享。
Most of the action teams produced compendiums of existing efforts or success stories in the areas of their responsibility, with the aim of contributing to increasing awareness among policy makers and the general public or enhancing knowledge-sharing among experts and programme managers.66. 一些行动小组还建议为有关的网址或数据库设立一个统一的门户,这将包括有关能力建设努力方面的信息,以用作广泛传播信息并为获取此类信息提供便利的一种手段。一些行动小组提出由外层空间事务厅作为配备最齐全的实体来建立有关的网址并作为这些网址的主机,以旨在传播有关的信息并组织所提议的讲习班或培训班。
The establishment of a single portal of relevant web sites or databases, which would include information on capacity-building efforts as a means of disseminating information widely and of facilitating access to it was also recommended by some action teams. The Office for Outer Space Affairs was identified by some action teams as the entity best equipped to set up and host web site(s) for the purposes of disseminating relevant information and organizing proposed workshops or training courses.3. 委员会新增加的成员和新增加的被赋予和平利用外层空间委员会常设观察员
3. Additional members of the Committee and additional organizations that have been granted permanent observer status with the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space地位的组织
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was established first as an ad hoc body of the General Assembly, in 1958, with 18 members. When it was established as a permanent body, in 1959, membership increased to 24 States. Between 1959 and 1999, when UNISPACE III was convened, its membership was enlarged on five occasions, reaching a total of 61 States.67. 和平利用外层空间委员会最初是作为大会的一个特设机构于1958年成立的,当时有18个成员国。1959年改为常设机构后,成员数目增加到24个国
Since UNISPACE III, the membership of the Committee has expanded, reaching a total of 65 States. In its resolution 56/51 of 10 December 2001, the General Assembly terminated the practice of sharing seats on a rotating basis between Cuba and Peru and between Malaysia and the Republic of Korea. The Assembly also decided to accept the membership of Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Slovakia (Pursuant to Assembly decision 45/315 of 11 December 1990, Yugoslavia ceased to be a member of the Committee.)家。从1959年起,到1999年召开第三次外空会议,其间成员数目扩大了五次,总数达61个国家。
The Committee has continued its customary practice of allowing States that are not members of the Committee to participate in the open meetings of the Committee and of its subcommittees and to address those bodies. The expansion of membership of the Committee resulted in an increased number of States having opportunities to contribute to the work of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies by participating in all meetings and submitting proposals for consideration by those bodies for action.68. 自第三次外空会议以来,委员会的成员数目已有扩大,共计已达65个国家。大会在其2001年12月10日第56/51号决议中终止了古巴和秘鲁以及马来西亚和大韩民国之间的席位轮换做法。大会还决定接纳阿尔及利亚、沙特阿拉伯和斯洛伐克为成员(根据大会1990年12月11日第45/315号决定,南斯拉夫不再是委员会的成员。)
In 1962, the Committee began to invite to its meetings international organizations that promoted the peaceful uses of outer space. At its second meeting, the Committee invited the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), along with the United Nations entities UNESCO, ITU and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to become permanent observers. Organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee have received a standing invitation to its annual sessions and those of its subsidiary bodies and have been given opportunities to address the Committee and its subsidiary bodies in their open meetings. At the time of UNISPACE III, 13 organizations had permanent observer status with the Committee.69. 委员会继续沿用允许非委员会成员的国家参加委员会及其小组委员会的公开会议并在这些机构的会议上发言的惯例。由于委员会的成员数目扩大,有机会通过参加各种会议并提交提案供这些机构审议并付诸行动而对委员会及其附属机构的工作做出贡献的国家数目也相应增加。
Since UNISPACE III, there has been an increase in the number of intergovernmental and non-governmental entities granted permanent observer status with the Committee. As at December 2003, the General Assembly had granted permanent observer status with the Committee to seven more international organizations, increasing the number of organizations with such status to 20.70. 委员会从1962年起开始邀请那些促进和平利用外层空间的国际组织参加其会议。在其第二次会议上,委员会邀请空间研究委员会、以及教科文组织、国际电联和世界气象组织等联合国实体作为常设观察员。在委员会享有常设观察员地位的组织收到了参加委员会及其附属机构年会的长期邀请,并且有机会在委员会及其附属机构的公开会议上发言。在第三次外空会议期间,有11个组织享有委员会常设观察员地位。 71. 自第三次外空会议以来,被赋予委员会常设观察员地位的政府间实体和非政府实体的数目均有所增加。截至2003年12月,大会又赋予另外7个国际组织委员会常设观察员地位,从而使享有此种地位的组织的数目增加至20个。
At its forty-third session, in 2004, the Committee’s Legal Subcommittee noted with concern a decrease in the recent years in the attendance and participation of entities of the United Nations system and organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee in the work of the Legal Subcommittee. In response to a request by the General Assembly, in its resolution 58/89 of 9 December 2003, the Committee is considering measures to enhance the participation of those entities in the work of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies.72. 委员会法律小组委员会2004年第四十三届会议关切地注意到在近年来联合国系统各实
4. Increased number of States parties to the five United Nations treaties on outer space体和享有委员会常设观察员地位的各组织参与法律小组委员会的工作有所减少。根据大会2003年12月9日第58/89号决议的要求,委员会正考虑采取措施以加强这些实体参与委员会及其附属机构的工作。
The Vienna Declaration called for action to promote the efforts of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the development of space law by inviting States to ratify or accede to, and inviting intergovernmental organizations to declare acceptance of, the outer space treaties developed by the Committee. Following UNISPACE III, the number of ratifications of all five treaties on outer space increased. As at January 2004, the number of States that had ratified the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the “Outer Space Treaty”, General Assembly resolution 2222 (XXI), annex) had increased from 95 in 1999 to 98; for the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the “Rescue Agreement”, General Assembly resolution 2345 (XXII)), the figure rose from 85 to 88; for the Liability Convention, from 80 to 82; for the Registration Convention, from 40 to 45; and for the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies (the “Moon Agreement”, Assembly resolution 34/68, annex), from 9 to 10. The Legal Subcommittee, in particular, is continuing its efforts and is considering further measures to increase the number of States that ratify or accede to the outer space treaties and the number of intergovernmental organizations that declare acceptance of them.4. 联合国五项外层空间条约缔约国数目增加
B. Progress achieved through national and regional efforts73. 维也纳宣言呼吁采取行动,推动和平利用外层空间委员会在制订空间法方面作出努力,为此可请各国批准或加入由委员会制订的外层空间条约并请政府间组织宣布接受这些条约。第三次外空会议之后,批准所有五项外层空间条约的国家的数目有所增加。截至2003年1月,批准《关于各国探索和利用外层空间包括月球与其他天体活动所应遵守原则的条约》(“外层空间条约”,大会第2222(XXI)号决议,附件)的国家已从1999年的95个增至98个;《营救宇宙航行员、送回宇宙航行员和归还发射到外层空间的物体的协定》(:营救协定“,大会第2345(XXII)号决议)的批准国从85个增至88个;责任公约的批准国从80个增至82个;登记公约的批准国从40个增至44个;《关于各国在月球和其他天体上活动的协定》(“月球协定”,大会第34/68号决议,附件)的批准国从9个增至10个。尤其是,法律小组委员会还在继续努力并在考虑采取进一步措施,以便使批准或加入各项外层空间条约的国家的数目和宣布接受这些条约的政府间组织的数目均有所增加。
Limited progress was achieved in implementing the recommendations of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE 82). In its resolution 37/90 of 10 December 1982, the General Assembly decided that all new or expanded activities contained in that resolution, which expanded the mandate of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, were to be funded mainly through voluntary contributions from States. The limited progress in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE 82 could be attributed to a reliance mainly on voluntary contributions.B. 通过国家和区域努力所取得的进展
In contrast to the follow-up process of UNISPACE 82, there has been much emphasis on the primary responsibility of Member States for the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, and many of them have indeed carried out activities that contributed to the implementation of various recommendations. Those activities have been carried out through national programmes, or through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. The list of countries that reported to the Committee on their activities to promote international cooperation in space activities that contributed to the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III is provided in annex VI to the present report.74. 在执行第二次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(82年外空会议)的建议方面取得的进展有限。大会1982年12月10日第37/90号决议扩大了联合空间应用方案的任务授权,大会在该决议中决定,该决议所载有的所有新的和扩大的活动都将主要通过由各会员国的自愿捐款来提供资金。执行82年外空会议的建议进展有限可以归因于主要依赖自愿捐款。
There are also many regional entities that have contributed to the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The European Space Agency (ESA), for example, has been playing an important role in promoting the cooperation and coordination of space activities among European countries. ESA has also long been one of the major sponsors of a number of activities organized by the United Nations Programme on Space Applications that respond to recommendations of UNISPACE III. Shortly after UNISPACE III, in November 1999, the International Relations Committee of ESA identified priority areas for follow-up actions of UNISPACE III and the activities organized jointly with the Office for Outer Space Affairs reflect those priority areas. With the signing of the framework agreement on 25 November 2003 to strengthen cooperation with the European Union, it is anticipated that Europe will further strengthen its efforts to respond to societal needs through the use of space science and technology and their applications, which would also respond to many of the actions as called for in the Vienna Declaration.75. 与82年外空会议的后续进程呈对照的是,已经非常强调各成员国对执行第三次外空会议的建议负有主要责任,许多成员国还确实执行了各种活动促进了各种建议的执行。这些活动是通过国家方案或通过双边或多边合作来进行。向委员会报告了各自为促进空间活动方面国际合作而开展的有助于实施第三次外空会议建议的活动的国家名单载于本报告附件六。
The Network of Space Science and Technology Education and Research Institutions for Central-Eastern and South-Eastern Europe provides opportunities for participating countries to enhance cooperation in space activities through joint projects and conferences that contribute to implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III. Some of the countries in the region of Eastern Europe also participate in activities of ESA by concluding cooperation agreements with ESA and carry out space-related activities within the framework of the European Union as its members.76. 还有许多区域实体为第三次外空会议各项建议的实施作出了贡献。例如,欧洲空间局一直在促进欧洲国家间空间活动的合作与协调方面发挥着重要作用。长期以来,欧空局还是由联合国空间应用方案组织的一些与第三次外空会议各项建议相对应的活动的主要赞助方之一。1999年11月第三次外空会议结束后不久,欧空局国际关系委员会就确定了为第三次外空会议采取后续行动的优先领域,与外层空间事务厅联合举办的活动体现了这些优先领域。随着2003年11月25日加强与欧洲联盟合作框架协定的签订,预计欧洲将通过利用空间科学和技术及其应用,来进一步加大对社会需求作出反应的力度,这同维也纳宣言中要求采取的多项行动也是一致的。
In Asia and the Pacific, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) harmonizes various initiatives under the umbrella of the United Nations, including space-related activities, and has contributed to the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III (see para. 110).77. 中东欧和东南欧空间科学技术教育和研究机构网通过有助于实施第三次外空会议的建议的联合项目和会议为参加国加强空间活动方面合作提供机会。东欧区域一些国家也通过同欧空局签订合作协定参与欧空局的活动,并作为欧洲联盟成员国而在联盟框架内开展与空间有关的活动。 78. 在亚洲及太平洋,亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会(亚太经社会)在联合国的统一领导下协调了各种举措,包括与空间有关的活动,促进了第三次外空会议各项建议的执行(见第110段)。
The initiatives of Asia-Pacific Multilateral Cooperation in Space Technology and Applications (AP-MCSTA), originally proposed by China, Pakistan and Thailand in 1992, have evolved to become a regional, intergovernmental mechanism for multilateral cooperation. Through joint projects, AP-MCSTA has contributed to the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III in the region in such areas as the management of natural resources and disaster management. Discussions are currently under way on the institutionalization of AP-MCSTA by establishing an Asia-Pacific space cooperation organization, which would carry out fundamental research in space technology and its applications, execute projects of common interest and organize education and training activities.79. 最先由中国、巴基斯坦和泰国于1992年提议的亚洲太平洋空间和技术应用多边合作倡议(亚太多边合作倡议)已逐渐变成一种区域性政府间多边合作机制。通过联合开展项目,亚太多边合作倡议促进了在该区域的自然资源管理和灾害管理等领域中落实第三次外空会议的各项建议。目前正在就该倡议的机构化进行讨论,其中涉及建立一个亚太空间合作组织,负责空间技术及其应用的基础研究,执行共同感兴趣的项目,以及组织教育和培训活动。
Countries in Asia and the Pacific are also pursuing cooperation in space activities through less formal mechanisms, such as the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF), each meeting of which is hosted by Japan and a co-host country. Since its first meeting in 1993, APRSAF has evolved from a forum for the exchange of general information among countries of the region into an action-oriented entity that addresses specific issues of interest to the region and implements recommendations resulting from its plenary meetings. The tenth APRSAF meeting, held in Thailand in January 2004, agreed to strengthen cooperation in such areas as disaster and environmental monitoring, space communications and space education.80. 亚洲及太平洋各国还通过亚洲−太平洋空间机构论坛(亚太空间论坛)等较不正式的机制开展空间活动方面的合作,该论坛的每次会议都是由日本和另一个国家合办的。该论坛自1993年举行首次会议以来,已经从一个该区域各国之间交流一般信息的论坛演变成一个着眼于行动的实体,致力探讨该区域感兴趣的具体问题并实施由其全体会议提出的建议。2004年1月在泰国举行的亚太空间论坛第十次会议一致同意加强在灾害和环境监测、空间通信和空间教育等领域的合作。
Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean considered the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III at the Fourth Space Conference of the Americas, held in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in May 2002. The Conference adopted the Declaration of Cartagena de Indias, which urged States of the region to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III. A Plan of Action, also adopted by the Conference, instructed the pro tempore secretariat of the Conference to promote cooperation and coordination of programmes or projects in such areas as the protection of the environment, disaster management, space law, education and research and development in science, technology and space applications. In its resolution 58/89, the General Assembly noted the desire of Member States of the region to institutionalize the Space Conference of the Americas.81. 拉丁美洲和加勒比各国在2002年5月于哥伦比亚卡塔赫纳举行的第四次美洲空间会议上审议了第三次外空会议各项建议的实施情况。这次会议通过了《卡塔赫纳宣言》,其中促请该区域各国实施第三次外空会议的各项建议。会议还通过了一项《行动计划》,指示会议的临时秘书处促进环境保护、灾害管理、空间法、教育以及科学技术和空间应用的研究与开发等领域中的方案或项目的合作与协调。大会第58/89号决议注意到该区域会员国希望使美洲空间会议机构化。
Many African countries participate in a number of space-related regional initiatives and forums, such as the Africa Geographic Information System (GIS) Forum and African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment conferences, some of which are organized by subregional groupings. Those initiatives and forums provide opportunities for African countries to discuss and exchange ideas on space science and technology issues, including such issues as enhancing awareness and applications through capacity-building, the provision of infrastructure and data-sharing for the benefit of Africa.82. 许多非洲国家都参加一些与空间有关的区域倡议和论坛,其中包括非洲地理信息系统论坛和非洲环境遥感协会的会议,其中有些会议是由分区域集团组织的。这些倡议和论坛为非洲国家讨论和交换关于空间科学和技术问题提供了机会,此类问题包括通过能力建设增进认识和应用、提供基础设施以及分享数据使非洲受益等问题。
The recently launched New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is, in part, a response to repeated calls from Africa’s scientists to develop and apply science and technology to meet the core challenges of food production, health, energy, information and communications, environmental and disaster management, mining and industrial production. The operation of a joint satellite programme among the key players in Africa is one of the proposals made to meet some of these challenges. The countries involved will collaborate in building capacity to support space programmes in Africa. Through this and other initiatives, NEPAD is providing a platform for scientific excellence in Africa in order to be globally competitive and contributing to the socio-economic development of the continent.83. 最近启动的非洲发展新伙伴关系部分是为了响应非洲科学家的一再呼吁,他们呼吁发展和应用科学技术来满足粮食生产、卫生、能源、信息和通信、环境与灾害管理、采矿和工业生产等方面的核心挑战。在非洲主要行动者中付诸实施的一个联合卫星方案正是为应付其中的一些挑战而提出的建议之一。所涉国家将在能力建设方面开展协作,以支持非洲的空间方案。非洲发展新伙伴关系正在通过这一倡议及其他倡议为非洲科学精华提供一个平台,以便具有全球竞争力,并促进该大陆的社会经济发展。
C.C.
Activities of entities of the United Nations system that have contributed to the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III对执行第三次外空会议各项建议作出贡献的联合国系统各实体的活动
1. Achievements of the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities外层空间活动机构间会议的成就
The Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities, which has been serving as a focal point for inter-agency coordination and cooperation in space-related activities since its establishment in 1975, contributed to the work of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee during its consideration of the agenda item relating to inter-agency coordination and cooperation under a three-year work plan (see paragraph 40) and submitted a set of proposals to the Subcommittee for its consideration. Through this process, the Meeting created synergy between its efforts and those of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee to increase awareness of the contributions that space applications can make towards the economic, social and cultural work programmes of entities of the United Nations system that have not used space applications.84. 外层空间活动机构间会议自1975年成立以来一直在与空间有关的活动中发挥着机构间协调与合作联络点的作用,在科学和技术小组委员会根据三年期工作计划审议与机构间协调与合作有关的议程项目期间,机构间会议对科学和技术小组委员会的工作作出了贡献(见第40段),并向小组委员会提交了一套建议供其审议。通过这一过程,机构间会议使其工作与和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会的工作之间产生了协同效应,从而增进了联合国系统内尚未利用空间应用的实体对于空间科学和技术及其应用可对其经济、社会和文化工作方案作出的重要贡献的认识。
For example, the results of the survey conducted by the Office for Outer Space  Affairs in 2001 (see A/AC.105/C.1/L.241 and Corr.1 and A/AC.105/C.1/L.241/Add.1) indicated that, among the entities of the United Nations system, particularly at the senior management level, there was limited awareness of the relevance of space applications to their mandates, including mandates closely related to the promotion of sustainable development.85. 例如,外层空间事务厅2001年进行的调查的结果(见A/AC.105/C.1/L.241和Corr.1,A/AC.105/C.1/L.241/Add.1)表明,联合国系统各实体中,尤其是在高级管理层,对于空间应用对其授权任务,包括对那些与促进可持续发展密切相关的授权任务的重要意义缺乏认识。
As regards the barriers to the wider use of space applications and services, the Inter-Agency Meeting noted that there were different constituencies in the governing bodies of each organization of the United Nations system. Delegations of the same State to different intergovernmental forums within the United Nations system were not necessarily fully aware of each other’s positions and directions pursued on similar, space-related matters. The Meeting therefore felt that closer coordination and more timely information-sharing among government agencies represented at different forums on issues relating to space activities could be achieved through existing government mechanisms, resulting in coordination efforts similar to those being pursued by the entities of the United Nations system at the secretariat level.86. 关于妨碍更广泛利用空间应用和服务的障碍,机构间会议注意到在联合国系统各组织的理事机构内存在着不同的意见群体。同一个国家参加联合国系统内不同政府间论坛的各代表团未必充分相互了解各自在与空间有关的类似事项上的立场和方针。因此机构间会议认为,派代表参加与空间活动有关的问题的不同论坛的各政府机构之间是可以通过现有的政府机制进行更密切的协调和更及时地交换情况的,从而使协调努力与联合国系统各实体在秘书处一级作出的协调努力相类似。
The Inter-Agency Meeting has further strengthened its role as the body to coordinate space-related activities within the United Nations system, by agreeing, for example, to create a consolidated web site that would contain information on education and training activities in space-related areas organized within the United Nations system. In the preparatory process leading up to the World Radiocommunication Conference, held in 2003, members of the Inter-Agency Meeting concerned agreed to keep each other informed of their positions on the protection of the radio frequency bands necessary for their activities.87. 机构间会议进一步加强了其作为协调联合国系统内与空间有关的活动的机构的作用,例如同意建立一个综合网站,介绍联合国系统内举办的与空间有关的领域中的教育和培训活动。在筹备2003年世界无线电通信会议的过程中,机构间会议的有关成员商定相互通报各自在保护其活动所必需的无线电无线电波段上的立场。
The annual reports of the Secretary-General on the coordination of outer space activities within the United Nations system have provided, since 1975, comprehensive information on space-related activities carried out within the United Nations system. Following UNISPACE III, the Inter-Agency Meeting revised the structure of the annual report a number of times to reflect the structure of the Vienna Declaration, thus allowing readers to identify those entities which were carrying out activities that responded to specific actions called for in the Declaration. The Meeting also took the initiative to use the report to focus its discussions on specific activities and initiatives that should be supported by the United Nations system as a whole.88. 秘书长关于协调联合国系统内外层空间活动的年度报告自1975年起提供了联合国系统内开展的与空间有关的活动的全面的资料。在第三次外空会议之后,机构间会议对年度报告的体例进行了多次修改,以体现《维也纳宣言》的结构,从而使读者明了哪些实体在开展活动,落实《维也纳宣言》要求采取的哪些行动。机构间会议还主动利用该报告重点讨论应由整个联合国系统给予支持的具体活动和举措。
In its resolution 56/51 of 10 December 2001, the General Assembly took note of a letter from the Chairman of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to the Secretary-General drawing his attention to the need to consider the contributions of space science and technology to a greater extent in major United Nations conferences, and invited all entities of the United Nations system to identify recommendations of major United Nations conferences that could benefit from space applications. In response to that invitation, the Inter-Agency Meeting prepared a list of actions recommended in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, to which space science and technology and their applications had direct or potential relevance and agreed to invite United Nations entities to complete the list with their space-related activities and programmes that corresponded to the recommended actions. The Committee endorsed the proposal by the Inter-Agency Meeting that States members of the Committee should conduct a similar exercise. Once completed, the integrated list could serve as a comprehensive survey of the space community’s response to the outcomes of the World Summit.89. 大会在其2001年12月10日第56/51号决议中注意到和平利用外层空间委员会主席致秘书长的信函,其中提请秘书长注意有必要在联合国各主要会议上更多地审议空间科学和技术的贡献,并请联合国系统所有实体指明联合国各主要会议提出的哪些建议可以利用空间应用。根据这一请求,机构间会议拟订了一份由可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》建议的与空间科学和技术及其应用有直接或潜在关系的行动清单,并同意请联合国各实体为完成这一清单而根据所建议的行动列出各自与空间有关的相应活动和方案。委员会核可了机构间会议的提议,即委员会各成员国应开展一项类似的工作。该清单完成后,即可作为空间界落实世界首脑会议成果的情况的一项全面调查。
Following UNISPACE III, some entities of the United Nations system that had not been involved in the Inter-Agency Meeting began to contribute to its work, including the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and the secretariat for the Convention on Biological Diversity. Those entities which had been involved in the Inter-Agency Meeting, such as the Economic Commission for Africa, ESCAP, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), UNESCO, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the World Health Organization (WHO), ITU, WMO, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction continued to contribute to its work.90. 在第三次外空会议之后,一些尚未参与机构间会议的工作的联合国系统实体开始为其工作作出贡献,这些实体包括联合国难民事务高级专员办事处(难民事务专员办事处)、联合国项目事务厅(项目事务厅)和生物多样性公约秘书处。已参与机构间会议的工作的实体则继续为其工作作出贡献,这些实体包括非洲经济委员会、亚太经社会、联合国环境规划署(环境规划署)、联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)、教科文组织、国际民用航空组织、世界卫生组织(卫生组织)、国际电联、世界气象组织(气象组织)、国际原子能机构(原子能机构)和国际减灾战略秘书处。
In order to further increase interactions with member States of the Committee, since its session in 2004, the Inter-Agency Meeting has begun to convene an informal open session to which representatives of member States of the Committee are invited. The first informal session, attended by 10 United Nations entities and 13 member States of the Committee, addressed challenges and opportunities in the United Nations system in education and training in space-related areas.91. 为了从其2004年届会起进一步增加与和平利用外层空间委员会成员国的互动交流,机构间会议开始召开非正式公开会议,邀请委员会成员国代表与会。联合国10个实体和委员会13个成员国的代表出席了第一次非正式届会,并就联合国系统在空间领域教育和培训方面的挑战和机会做了发言。
In the area of capacity-building, the Inter-Agency Meeting took steps, in cooperation with members of the Committee, towards further enhancing inter-agency cooperation to maximize available resources. The Meeting agreed to create, with the participation of States members of the Committee, inventories of equipment, education and training materials, satellite data sets and other capacity-building resources provided by United Nations entities to the beneficiaries of their technical cooperation projects. Once established, the inventories would be made available to all entities of the United Nations system.92. 在能力建设方面,机构间会议在委员会成员的配合下,已采取步骤进一步加强机构间合作,以便最充分地利用现有资源。机构间会议同意在委员会成员的参与下设立关于联合国实体向其技术合作项目受益人提供设备、教学和培训材料、卫星数据集和其它能力建设资源的清册。这个清册完成后将提供给联合国系统的所有实体。
2. Achievements of the Office for Outer Space Affairs2. 外层空间事务厅的成绩
Following UNISPACE III, the Office for Outer Space Affairs developed a plan of action pursuant to General Assembly resolution 54/68 of 6 December 1999. The plan of action was endorsed by the Committee in 2000.93. 在第三次外空会议之后,外层空间事务厅根据大会1999年12月6日第54/68号决议制订了一项行动计划。委员会于2000年核准了这一行动计划。
In the area of strengthening the role of the Committee and its subcommittees in promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, the Office for Outer Space Affairs provided technical and administrative support to the work of all the action teams established by the Committee to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The Office also provided, upon request, including through the activities of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, substantive advice to some action teams.94. 为了加强委员会及其小组委员会对促进和平利用外层空间方面的国际合作的作用,外空事务厅为委员会设立的旨在落实第三次外空会议的建议的所有行动小组的工作提供了技术和行政支助。外空事务厅还应请求向一些行动小组提供了实质性咨询意见,包括通过联合国空间应用方案的活动提供这种意见。
In 2002, the Office for Outer Space Affairs launched a capacity-building programme in space law. To date, the following has been achieved:95. 2002年,外层空间事务厅发起了一个空间法能力建设方案。迄今为止取得了下述成绩:
(a) A series of workshops on space law has been launched. Two workshops have been held, one in The Hague in 2002 and the other in Daejon, Republic of Korea, in 2003, contributing to the work of the Legal Subcommittee in achieving full understanding and acceptance of the five United Nations treaties on outer space;(a) 启动了一系列空间法讲习班。已经举办了两个讲习班,一个于2002年在海牙举办,另一个于2003年在大韩民国举办,都在充分认识和接受联合国的五项外层空间条约方面对法律小组委员会的工作作出了贡献;
(b) Space-law-related documents and publications have been prepared and disseminated, including an annual report on the current status of signatures and ratification of and accession to the various multilateral international agreements on outer space;(b) 编写和传播了与空间法有关的文件和出版物,包括一份关于签署和批准以及加入各项外层空间多边国际协定的现状的年度报告;
(c) A database on national space laws has been developed and maintained;(c) 开发并保持了一个关于各国空间法的数据库; (d) 编拟和定期增补了一个空间法教育机会指南,其中载列关于提供空间法课程和教育的机构的信息。
(d) A directory on educational opportunities in space law, containing information on institutions offering courses and education in space law, has been developed and regularly updated.96. 在对第三次外空会议之后的联合国空间应用方案进行规划和管理方面,联合国空间应用专家为响应大会第54/68号决议第11(d)段中加强方案活动的呼吁,采取了一项新的战略。该方案目前把重点放在对发展中国家具有重大意义的若干主题上,并确立了可在中短期内实现的目标,同时保留几项长期能力建设活动。
In planning and managing the post-UNISPACE III activities of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, the United Nations Expert on Space Applications adopted a new strategy in response to paragraph 11 (d) of General Assembly resolution 54/68, which called for strengthening of the activities of the Programme. The Programme now concentrates on a few themes of major importance for developing countries and establishes objectives that can be achieved in the short and medium term, while maintaining a few long-term capacity-building activities.97. 方案的优先主题是:(a)灾害管理;(b)用于远程教育和远程医疗应用的卫星通信;(c)监测和保护环境,包括预防传染性疾病;(d)自然资源管理;(e)教育和能力建设,包括基础空间科学的研究领域。其他工作领域包括发展使能技术方面的能力,例如利用全球导航和定位卫星系统,空间技术附带利益,应用小型卫星和微型卫星,另外还包括促进私营企业参与方案的活动。在每一优先主题内,方案都致力于下述主要目标:(a)能力建设;(b)提高决策人员的认识水平,以加强本地对空间技术实际利用的支持。
The priority themes of the Programme are (a) disaster management; (b) satellite communications for tele-education and telemedicine applications; (c) monitoring and protection of the environment, including the prevention of infectious diseases; (d) management of natural resources; and (e) education and capacity-building, including research areas in basic space sciences. Other areas of work include developing capability in enabling technologies, such as the use of global navigation and positioning satellite systems, spin-offs of space technology, applications of small satellites and micro-satellites and promoting the participation of private industry in activities of the Programme. Within each priority theme, the Programme pursues the following main objectives: (a) capacity-building; and (b) building awareness among decision makers in order to strengthen local support for the operational use of space technologies.98. 方案启动了由各期区域讲习班和后续活动组成的培训单元。第三次外空会议之后,关于利用空间技术进行灾害管理的区域讲习班于2000年开始,到2003年底,方案共举办了五期这样的讲习班,并已开始为南部非洲和南美洲确定和制订后续试点项目。2001-2003年还举办了关于全球导航卫星系统的使用和应用的四个区域讲习班和两次国际会议。2003年12月举行的第二次国际会议确定了2004-2005年应由方案给予支助的优先后续项目和举措。
The Programme has launched training modules consisting of a series of regional workshops and follow-up activities. Post-UNISPACE III regional workshops in the use of space technology for disaster management started in 2000 and, by the end of 2003, the Programme had convened five such workshops and had begun to define and develop follow-up pilot projects for Southern Africa and South America. Four regional workshops and two international meetings on the use and applications of GNSS were also organized in the period 2001-2003. The second international meeting, held in December 2003, identified priority follow-up projects and initiatives that should be supported by the Programme in the period 2004-2005.99. 过去几年当中,联合国空间应用方案举办的讲习班和培训班有所增加。方案还为亚洲及太平洋区域、非洲区域及拉丁美洲和加勒比区域的联合国附属空间科学和技术教育区域中心举办更多的培训班和讲习班提供了支助。
The number of workshops and training courses organized by the United Nations Programme on Space Applications has increased in the past few years.100.
The Programme also supports additional training courses and workshops organized by the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, for the regions of Africa, Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean.自第三次外空会议以来,外空事务厅所收到的会员国、政府间组织和非政府组织要求提供技术咨询服务的请求的数目有增无减。外空事务厅还扩大了所提供的技术咨询服务的范围,以满足业务上的需要。后者的例子是,外空事务厅通过与空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章订立协定而提供服务,使外空事务厅能够开始全天24小时向需要空间数据和信息应对与灾害有关的紧急情况的联合国系统各实体提供服务。2003年7月至2004年3月期间,联合国实体五次请求启动该宪章,分别涉及:尼泊尔和多米尼加共和国水灾;菲律宾塌方;印度尼西亚和摩洛哥地震。目前已有五个联合国实体(外空事务厅、项目事务厅、难民专员办事处、教科文组织和卫生组织)提供了本机构联系人的联系资料,并参与了这一安排。
Since UNISPACE III, the number of requests received by the Office for Outer Space Affairs from Member States and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations for technical advisory services has continued to increase. The Office has expanded the scope of its technical advisory services to respond to operational needs. An example of the latter is the service provided by the Office through an agreement with the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”, which enabled the Office to start providing services in July 2003 on a round-the-clock basis to entities of the United Nations system that needed spatial data and information to respond to disaster-related emergencies. Between July 2003 and March 2004, United Nations entities have requested the activation of the Charter five times: for floods in Nepal and the Dominican Republic; for landslides in the Philippines; and for earthquakes in Indonesia and Morocco. Currently, five United Nations entities (the Office for Outer Space Affairs, UNOPS, UNHCR, UNESCO and WHO) have provided the contact information of their focal points and are involved in the arrangement.101. 方案还建立起一个向非洲各机构发送整个非洲大陆的卫星数据的网络。利用美国政府的资助,方案开始根据请求发送覆盖非洲各机构所感兴趣的任何地区的大地卫星数据集。
The Programme also established a network to distribute satellite data on the entire African continent to African institutions.102.
With contributions from the Government of the United States, the Programme began to distribute, upon request, sets of Landsat data covering any area of interest to African institutions.方案已加强努力,支持以往培训班的学员为在发展中国家逐步建立起一支在使用空间技术方面训练有素的基本骨干人员所作出的努力。一个例子是,2001年和2004年计划进行后续评价工作,以评估1990年开始的一系列联合国/瑞典教育工作者遥感教育国际培训班对当地的影响。这项工作的目的是评估这些培训班在当地的影响,查明成功的关键要素或障碍,并确定为加强讲习班原学员的工作而应提供支持的性质和范围。
The Programme has strengthened its support to participants of past training courses in their efforts to develop a critical mass of personnel trained in the use of space technologies in developing countries. An example is the follow-up evaluation exercise carried out between 2001 and 2004 to assess the local impact of the series of annual United Nations/Sweden international training courses on remote sensing education for educators, which began in 1990. The exercise was aimed at assessing the local impact of the courses, at identifying key elements of success or impediments and at determining the nature and scope of support that should be provided to strengthen the work of past participants in the courses.103. 方案大大扩大了针对青年人的普及活动的范围。通过2000至2002年在奥地利政府和欧空局的赞助下举办的关于增进年轻人对空间活动的参与的一系列讨论会,方案为年轻专业人员和学生提供了就其促进空间活动的努力交换信息和经验机会。
The Programme expanded its outreach activities for young people.104.
Through a series of symposiums on enhancing the participation of youth in space activities organized from 2000 to 2002 with the sponsorship of the Government of Austria and ESA, the Programme provided opportunities for young professionals and students to exchange information and experiences on their efforts to promote space activities.这些讨论会还加强了由世界各国关心空间活动的年轻专业人员和学生组成的航天新一代咨询理事会。咨询理事会在上述讨论会期间召开了年度大会,以审查其活动,编写今后行动的计划,包括向和平利用外层空间委员会提出作为常设观察员参与委员会工作的请求。大会在其2001年12月10日第56/51号决议中核可了委员会赋予该理事会常设观察员地位的决定。
The symposiums also strengthened the work of the SGAC, consisting of young professionals and students interested in space activities from different countries around the world. SGAC convened its annual assemblies during the symposiums mentioned above to review their activities and prepare plans for future actions, including a request to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to participate in its work as a permanent observer. In its resolution 56/51 of 10 December 2001, the General Assembly endorsed the decision of the Committee to grant permanent observer status to SGAC.105. 自大会宣布10月4日至10日为世界空间周以来,外空事务厅根据第三次外空会议的建议,与空间周国际协会这个在委员会具有常设观察员地位的非政府组织密切合作,在世界各地举办了庆祝空间周的活动,包括组织各种旨在促进和加强全球对空间与人类发展的认识的特别活动。
Since the proclamation by the General Assembly of World Space Week from 4 to 10 October, on the recommendation of UNISPACE III, the Office for Outer Space Affairs has worked closely with the Spaceweek International Association, a non-governmental organization with permanent observer status with the Committee, to celebrate the Week around the world through the organization of special events aimed at promoting and enhancing global awareness of space and human development.106. 外空事务厅于2001年对联合国维也纳办事处的常设空间展览作了整修。目前在展厅展出的有互动式计算机编程、月球上的一块岩石以及来自国际空间站的生物圈试验的复制品、航天器和火箭模型以及卫星图像板。空间展吸引了许多来维也纳国际中心参观的人,尤其是学生的注意,有助于提高公众对空间活动惠益的认识。
In 2001, the Office refurbished the permanent space exhibit in the United Nations Office at Vienna. The exhibit now includes an interactive computer program, a Moon rock and a replica of a biosphere experiment from the International Space Station, models of spacecraft and rockets, as well as panels with satellite images. The exhibit attracts the attention of many visitors to the Vienna International Centre, especially school children, and contributes to increasing public awareness of the benefits of space activities.107. 外空事务厅充实了其国际空间信息服务处,并提供了联合国关于射入外层空间物体登记册的检索索引。外空事务厅的网站还提供联合国五项外层空间条约签署和批准状况的信息。
The Office enhanced its International Space Information Service and made available a searchable index of the United Nations Register of Objects Launched into Outer Space. The web site of the Office also includes an index that provides information on the status of signatures and ratification of the five United Nations treaties on outer space.3. 联合国各实体的成绩
3. Achievements of entities of the United Nations system108. 大会在其第54/68号决议中敦促联合国系统各实体采取必要行动,切实有效地执行《维也纳宣言》。为响应这一号召,联合国系统的某些实体为各行动小组的工作作出了积极的贡献。举例来说,气象组织向天气和气候预测问题行动小组提供了大量帮助,协助其拟订建议,并作为联席主席起草最后报告;国际电联通过主办一个电子留言板为全球导航卫星系统问题行动小组的成员之间交换文件提供了一个重要的工具,并且使该行动小组能够了解世界无线通信会议中有关全球导航卫星系统使用频谱的最新发展情况;包括人道主义事务协调厅、国际减灾战略秘书处、项目事务厅、环境规划署、难民专员办事处、教科文组织和气象组织在内的一些联合国实体对灾害管理问题行动小组的工作作出了实质性的贡献;教科文组织协助拟订了能力建设问题行动小组的各项建议;多个实体积极配合各行动小组的工作,满足了它们提出的了解其活动的请求。
In its resolution 54/68, the General Assembly urged entities of the United Nations system to take the necessary action for the effective implementation of the Vienna Declaration. In response to that call, some entities of the United Nations system actively contributed to the work of the action teams. For example, WMO provided substantial assistance to the Action Team on Weather and Climate Forecasting in developing recommendations and preparing the final report as co-chair; ITU provided an important tool for exchange of documents among members of the Action Team on Global Navigation Satellite Systems by hosting a web board and kept the action team informed of developments concerning the World Radiocommunication Conference relating to the use of frequency spectrums by GNSS; a number of United Nations entities, including the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, UNOPS, UNEP, UNHCR, UNESCO and WMO, provided substantive contributions to the work of the Action Team on Disaster Management; UNESCO was instrumental in drawing up the recommendations of the Action Team on Capacity-building; and many entities cooperated with the action teams by responding to their requests for information on their activities.109. 作为其任务授权的一部分,联合国系统的一些实体开展了有助于执行第三次外空会议的建议的活动,如促进可持续发展。其中许多实体开展了助于发展中国家空间应用方面的能力建设的活动。
As part of their mandates, a number of entities of the United Nations system carry out activities that contribute to implementing recommendations of UNISPACE  III, such as the promotion of sustainable development.110.
Many of them carry out capacity-building activities in space applications for the benefit of developing countries.在第三次外空会议之后,亚太经社会1999年11月在新德里举行的空间应用促进亚洲和太平洋可持续发展问题第二次部长级会议,立即将第三次外空会议的建议落实到区域行动中,包括通过《亚洲及太平洋空间技术应用促进提高新千年生活质量德里宣言》和《新千年空间技术应用促进亚洲及太平洋可持续发展战略和行动计划》。在这次部长级会议之后发起的空间应用促进可持续发展区域方案的第二阶段着眼于在环境和自然资源管理、自然灾害管理和缓减贫困等优先领域中促进区域合作机制和实际利用空间技术应用。亚太经社会还通过2002年7月设立的信息、通信与空间技术司积极促进卫星通信在可持续发展方面的应用和为2003年12月举行的信息社会问题世界首脑会议作准备。能力建设和人力资源开发仍然是空间应用促进可持续发展区域方案第二阶段开展的各项活动中的关键内容。
Immediately following UNISPACE III, the second Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific, organized by ESCAP and held in New Delhi in November 1999, translated the recommendations of UNISPACE III into regional actions by adopting the Delhi Declaration on Space Technology Applications in Asia and the Pacific for Improved Quality of Life in the New Millennium and the Strategy and Action Plan on Space Technology Applications for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific for the New Millennium. The second phase of the Regional Space Applications Programme for Sustainable Development (RESAP II), which was launched following the Ministerial Conference, promotes regional cooperative mechanisms and operational utilization of space technology applications for such priority areas as the environment and natural resource management, natural disaster management and poverty alleviation. Through the Information, Communication and Space Technology Division of ESCAP, established in July 2002, ESCAP has also been active in promoting sustainable development applications of satellite communications and in preparing for the World Summit on the Information Society, held in December 2003. Capacity-building and human resources development continue to be key elements in all activities carried out under RESAP II.111. 关于环境保护和监测战略,环境规划署和生物多样性公约秘书处开展了评估和监督活动。环境规划署通过《全球环境展望》开展这方面的活动,自1995年以来《全球环境展望》是环境评估方面的一个全面国际框架,世界所有区域约40个机构组成的网络进行这种环境评价。第三期《全球环境展望》报告于2002年5月发表,下一期报告计划于2007年发表。《全球环境展望》报告现在用《全球环境展望年鉴》来补充,第一部是2003年年鉴,已于2004年3月印发。
As regards protection of the environment and related monitoring strategies, UNEP and the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity conduct assessment and monitoring activities. UNEP has been carrying out such activities through its Global Environment Outlook process, a comprehensive international framework for environmental assessment conducted since 1995 through a network of about 40 institutions in all regions of the world. The third Global Environment Outlook report was issued in May 2002, and the next report is planned for release in 2007. Global Environment Outlook reports are being supplemented by a Global Environment Outlook Yearbook, the first of which, for the year 2003, was released in March 2004.112. 在有关自然资源管理方面,联合国毒品和犯罪问题办事处非法作物监督方案结合使用地基技术和以遥感为基础的技术协助各国监测其境内非法麻醉品作物的规模和演变过程。粮农组织的非洲土地覆盖物图和地理数据库(非洲覆盖物图数据库)项目开发了一个互动式土地覆盖物分类系统,该系统实际上已成为土地覆盖物绘图的国际标准,现在还在考虑将其作为国际标准化组织(标准化组织)的标准。非洲土地覆盖物图和地理数据库方案在一个涉及七个亚洲国家的叫作“亚洲土地覆盖物图和地理数据库”的类似项目中有一项具体的后续行动。在粮农组织和环境规划署的推动下,亚洲土地覆盖物图和地理数据库项目现在由全球土地覆盖物网络牵头加以执行。粮农组织的高级实时环境监测信息系统使用卫星对植被动态和降雨量分布特点进行长期低分辨率的评价,以此支持粮农组织的全球粮农信息和预警系统。参与综合全球观测战略伙伴关系的各实体在该战略的拟订和执行上取得进一步进展,《维也纳宣言》中的某项建议涉及此项战略。环境规划署、粮农组织、教科文组织和气象组织在综合全球观测战略伙伴关系的活动,特别是下述系统的开发、规划和执行上仍然起着至关重要的作用,这些系统是:全球气候观测系统、全球地面观测系统以及全球海洋观测系统。
In the areas relating to the management of natural resources, the Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime combines ground- and remote-sensing-based techniques to assist Member States in their monitoring of the extent and evolution of illicit narcotic crops in their territories. The Land Cover Map and Geodatabase for Africa (AFRICOVER) project of FAO developed an interactive land cover classification system, which has become a de facto international standard for landcover mapping and is now being considered as an International Organization for Standardization standard. The AFRICOVER programme has a concrete follow-up in a similar project, called ASIACOVER, involving seven countries in Asia. ASIACOVER is being carried out under the Global Land Cover Network initiative, promoted by FAO and UNEP. The FAO Advanced Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Information System provides long-term low-resolution satellite-based assessment of vegetation dynamics and rainfall patterns in support of the FAO Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture. The entities involved in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Partnership (IGOS-P) made further progress in the development and the implementation of IGOS, one of the recommendations contained in the Vienna Declaration. UNEP, FAO, UNESCO and WMO continue to play an essential role in the activities of IGOS-P and in the development, planning and implementation of the Global Climate Observing System, the Global Terrestrial Observing System and the Global Ocean Observing System, in particular.113. 2003年5月为提高天气和气候预测能力而提出气象组织空间方案,目的是协调气象组织所有方案的环境卫星活动,为这些活动以及由多方主办的关于遥感技术在气象学、水文学、相关学科及其应用的潜力的其他方案提供指导。长远目标包括开发全球观测系统,该系统将作为由地面部分和空间部分组成的复合系统,主要侧重于同环境卫星的操作以及研究与开发有关的事项,并促进与卫星有关的高质量教育。
The WMO Space Programme, launched in May 2003 to enhance weather and climate forecasting, aims to coordinate environmental satellite activities throughout all WMO programmes and to provide guidance to these and other multi-sponsored programmes on the potential of remote-sensing techniques in meteorology, hydrology and related disciplines and their applications.114.
The long-term objectives include development of the Global Observing System as a composite system consisting of surface and space-based components, with a primary focus on matters related to both operational as well as research and development environmental satellites and promoting high-quality satellite-related education.国际减灾战略秘书处为减灾问题机构间工作队提供秘书处服务,支持其努力在减灾工作中推介使用地球观测和通信卫星等项空间技术。环境规划署对该工作队的工作作出了重要贡献,拟订并执行了《事故预防、防范、评估、缓减和对策战略框架》,并编制了《预警系统清册》,即以互联网为基础的关于现行预警系统的数据库。除了其预警和评估司在数据和资料分发、脆弱性和风险评估及预警等方面开展的许多活动外,环境规划署还制定了灾害管理体制能力建设综合支助战略并建立了改进灾害事件信息查取情况的非洲区域网。
The secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, which provides secretariat services to the Inter-Agency Task Force on Disaster Reduction, supported the efforts to introduce the use of space technologies, such as Earth observation and communications satellites in disaster reduction. UNEP has made an important contribution to the work of the Inter-Agency Task Force by developing and implementing the Strategic Framework on Emergency Prevention, Preparedness, Assessment, Mitigation and Response and developing the Inventory of Early Warning Systems, an Internet-based database on existing early warning systems. In addition to many activities of its Division of Early Warning and Assessment relating to the dissemination of data and information, vulnerability and risk assessment and early warning, UNEP formulated an integrated support strategy for institutional capacity-building for disaster management and established an African regional network to improve access to information on disaster events.115. 粮农组织于2002年设立了紧急行动与重建司,以应对向受灾害影响的发展中国家的农业、畜牧业和渔业部门提供紧急援助的需要。气象组织2003年5月设立的自然灾害预防和缓减方案旨在确保卓有成效地协调气象组织同国际组织、区域组织和国内组织的活动,将有助于就恶劣的气候和天气事件发布越来越准确而可靠的警报。
In 2002, FAO established an Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division to respond to needs for emergency assistance in the agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors in developing countries affected by disasters, using increasing space-derived information.116.
The WMO Programme for Natural Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, established in May 2003, aims to ensure effective coordination of WMO activities with those of international, regional and national organizations and will promote the delivery of increasingly accurate and reliable warnings of severe weather and climate events.教科文组织通过其2002年提出的空间教育项目为能力建设和提高认识作出了重要贡献,致力于实现下述目标:尤其在发展中国家的学校加强以空间为主题的教育;促进将空间主题纳入本国课程;促进针对教师、教育工作者和年轻专业人员的职业发展方案;协助教师和教育工作者制订适合其需要的教学材料;为培养下一代空间人材作出贡献。
Through its Space Education Project, launched in 2002, UNESCO makes important contributions to capacity-building and increasing awareness and aims to enhance education in space-related subjects in schools, in particular in developing countries; to promote the integration of space subjects in the national curricula; to promote professional development programmes for teachers and educators and young professionals; to assist teachers and educators to develop educational materials adapted to their needs; and to contribute to the preparation of the next generation of the space workforce.117. 作为其2003年结构调整的一部分,卫生组织设立了一个新的电子保健股,有五个工作组组成,其中包括处理遥感和地理信息系统以及远程医疗问题的工作组。电子保健股促进卫生组织与其他联合国实体的协作,是对其在联合国信息和通信技术问题工作队卫生委员会中的工作的补充。卫生组织美洲区域办事处最近支持设立了使用地理信息系统/遥感控制传染病美洲网络。在西亚,卫生组织的盘尾丝虫病防治方案利用卫星技术成功地根除了七个国家的盘尾丝虫病(河盲症), 包括为支持定点喷洒杀灭蚋蚴这种主要传播源而进行水文监测。卫生组织还利用卫星图像所产生的光栅层,例如土地覆盖物、数字高程模型、人口密度和道路及河流网等,来测量利用保健的情况,以便为处境最差的人口重新调配、重新安排并最大限度地使用人力、物力和财政资源。
As part of its restructuring in 2003, WHO established a new E-Health Unit, which consists of five working groups, including those dealing with remote sensing, GIS and tele-health. The E-Health Unit facilitated collaboration between WHO and other United Nations entities, complementing its work in the health committee of the United Nations Task Force on Information and Communication Technologies. The WHO Regional Office for the Americas recently supported the establishment of the Inter-American Network on the Use of GIS/RS to Control Infectious Diseases. In West Asia, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme of WHO, which uses satellite technology, was successful in eliminating onchocerciasis (river blindness) from seven countries through hydrological monitoring to support targeted spraying, which killed the Simulium larvae, the main vector of the disease. WHO also uses raster layers derived from satellite images, such as land cover, digital elevation models, population density and road and river networks, to measure accessibility to health care in order to relocate, reorganize and maximize human, physical and financial resources for the most disadvantaged populations.118. 联合国地理信息问题工作组开展的工作关系到第三次外空会议多项建议的执行。该工作组是于2000年3月由行政协调委员会(现称为联合国系统行政首长协调理事会)设立的,负责协调联合国系统内部有关地理信息问题的活动并拟订这方面的政策。粮农组织正在与世界粮食计划署、环境规划署和其他伙伴共同开发地理信息网(GeoNetwork)这一综合性标准化国际空间信息基础设施。地理信息网的目的是增进粮农组织各部门、会员国、联合国各实体、与国际农业研究资询小组有协作关系的各中心以及其他利害攸关者以动态方式获取并综合使用空间信息的机会,通过将互联网用作联合国各实体、政府间组织、非政府组织以及科学界之间交换信息的一种互通机制,为可持续发展方面的决策提供支助。
The work being carried out by the United Nations Geographic Information Working Group relates to the implementation of many of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The Working Group was established in March 2000 by the Administrative Committee on Coordination (now known as the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination), to coordinate activities and formulate policies concerning geographical information within the United Nations system. FAO is developing its GeoNetwork, a comprehensive international standard-based spatial information infrastructure jointly with the World Food Programme, UNEP and other partners. GeoNetwork aims to improve dynamic access to and the integrated use of spatial information among FAO divisions, member States, United Nations entities, the centres associated with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research and other stakeholders in support of decision-making for sustainable development, by using the Internet as an inter-operable information exchange mechanism between United Nations entities, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the scientific community.D. 在委员会享有常设观察员地位的政府间组织和非政府组织促进执行第三次
D. Activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee that have contributed to the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III外空会议各项建议的活动
In its resolution 54/68, the General Assembly urged intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and industries conducting space-related activities to take the necessary action for the effective implementation of the Vienna Declaration. When it established action teams in 2001, the Committee stressed the importance of involving non-governmental entities in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III and agreed that those teams should identify non-governmental entities that could be invited to participate. As a result, as at June 2004, 10 out of the 20 international organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee, as well as three other intergovernmental organizations and 14 other non-governmental entities, have participated as members in the work of one or more action teams.119. 大会在其第54/68号决议中促请从事与空间有关的活动的政府间组织、非政府组织和业界采取必要的行动,有效执行《维也纳宣言》。委员会2001年设立各行动小组时强调了让非政府实体参与执行第三次外空会议各项建议的重要性,并且一致认为这些行动小组应当对可应邀参加的各非政府实体予以确定。因此,截至2004年6月,在委员会享有常设观察员地位的20个国际组织中已有10个国际组织,以及其他3个政府间组织和14个非政府实体作为行动小组成员参与了一个或数个行动小组的工作。
Through its open meetings, the Action Team on Disaster Management has opened an avenue for commercial entities involved in satellite manufacturing and operation, as well as the insurance industry, to contribute to its work. ESA, the European Commission and the International GPS Service have made an important contribution to the work of the Action Team on Global Navigation Satellite Systems, which also benefited from substantive inputs from such intergovernmental and nongovernmental entities as the International Association of Institutes of Navigation, the International Federation of Surveyors and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in formulating its recommendations. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) and CEOS, through its Working Group on Education and Training, has assisted the Action Team on Capacity-building in formulating its recommendations.120. 通过其公开的会议,灾害管理问题行动小组为参与卫星制造和运营的各商业实体以及保险业协助开展其工作开辟了途径。欧空局、欧洲联盟委员会和全球定位系统国际服务组织对全球导航卫星系统问题行动小组的工作作出了重要的贡献,国际航海研究所协会、国际测量工作者联合会以及国际计量局等政府间和非政府实体也通过提供实质性投入对其拟订建议给予了帮助。天文学联盟以及地球观测卫星委员会通过其教育和培训问题特设工作组协助能力建设问题行动小组拟订其建议。
The Action Team on Near-Earth Objects has benefited from the contributions of COSPAR, IAU and the Spaceguard Foundation, which participated in the Action Team as members. The Action Team also worked with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and built upon the work of the Organization in the framework of its Global Science Forum on matters relating to near-Earth objects (NEOs). A number of international non-governmental entities contributed to the survey conducted by the Action Team on Increasing Awareness by providing information on their outreach activities and suggestions for further increasing awareness of the benefits of space activities among policy makers and the general public.121. 近地物体问题行动小组获益于作为成员参加该行动小组的空间研委会、天文学联盟以及空间卫士基金会所作的贡献。该行动小组还与经济合作与发展组织开展合作并借鉴该组织在其关于近地物体事项全球科学论坛的范围内所开展的工作。一些非政府国际实体通过提供有关其普及活动的信息并就进一步提高政策制订者和一般公众对空间活动惠益的认识提出建议,对提高认识问题行动小组所展开的调查作出了贡献。
SGAC established working groups to examine the implementation of nearly all the recommendations contained in the Vienna Declaration and submitted its proposal and recommendations to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its fortieth session, in 2003, for consideration, as necessary and appropriate, in particular by the action teams.122. 航天新一代咨询理事会设立了若干工作组,以审查《维也纳宣言》所载几乎所有建议的执行情况,并将其意见和建议提交科学和技术小组委员会2003年第四十届会议,以便必要时酌情加以审议,尤其是由各行动小组加以审议。
Some entities, such as ESA and IAU, contributed to the implementation of a number of recommendations of UNISPACE III by providing substantive inputs for the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies in the consideration of issues on their agendas.123. 欧空局和天文学联盟等一些实体对和平利用外层空间委员会及其附属机构审议其议程上所载问题的工作提供了实质性意见,从而为执行第三次外空会议的若干建议作出了贡献。
Many initiatives by intergovernmental and non-governmental entities followed UNISPACE III in the area of environmental monitoring and management of natural resources. For example, in June 2001, ESA and the European Commission launched the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), an initiative to provide independent, operational and relevant information in support of a range of policies serving sustainable objectives in areas such as environment, agriculture, fisheries, transport and regional development. CEOS launched a follow-up programme to the World Summit on Sustainable Development to demonstrate its continuing commitment to sustainable development and the long-term objectives of the World Summit and to provide a common framework for the actions undertaken by CEOS agencies individually in implementing actions called for by the World Summit. As part of this follow-up programme, ESA launched a project entitled “TIGER” to respond to the needs of African countries in water resource management. In order to respond to the growing need for more frequent and comprehensive space-derived data for weather forecasting, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and ESA began the development of the Meteosat Second Generation system. More frequent collection of comprehensive data by the latter should assist significantly in achieving timely recognition and prediction of extreme weather phenomena.124. 在环境监测和自然资源管理方面,政府间实体和非政府实体在第三次外空会议以后采取了许多举措。举例来说,2001年6月,欧空局和欧洲联盟委员会发起了环境和安全全球监测方案,该举措提供了对实现环境、农业、渔业、运输、区域发展等领域中的可持续目标的一系列政策给予支助的具有独立性、实用性和相关性的信息。地球观测卫星委员会为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议发起了一个后续方案,以显示其对可持续发展和世界首脑会议的长期目标所作出的不懈承诺并为地球观测卫星委员会各机构分头执行世界首脑会议要求采取的行动提供一个共同行动框架。作为这个后续方案的一部分,欧空局发起了一个名为“TIGER”的项目,以应对非洲国家在水资源管理方面的需要。为了满足对更频繁、更全面地提供天气预报天基数据的不断增加的需要,欧洲气象卫星应用组织和欧空局已着手开发欧洲气象卫星第二代系统。该系统收集的数据将更频繁、更全面,会大大有助于及时识别并预测极端天气现象。
Announced by ESA and the Centre national d’études spatiales during UNISPACE III, the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” became operational in November 2000 (see also paras. 100 and 193-194). Through the Charter, satellites of the Charter members can be used to provide Earth observation images to civil protection authorities, as well as to United Nations entities responding to a major disaster. As at 1 June 2004, the Charter had been activated 55 times in response to various natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and floods, in a number of countries.125. 由欧空局和法国国家空间研究中心在第三次外空会议期间所公开宣布的“空间和重大灾害”国际宪章已于2000年11月开始实施(另见第100和193-194段)。通过该宪章,可将各宪章成员的卫星用来向应对重大灾害的民防当局提供地球观测图像。为了应对一些国家出现的地震、火山爆发、塌方和水灾等各种自然灾害,截至2004年6月1日该宪章已启用55次。
The International Organization of Space Communications (INTERSPUTNIK) is carrying out a number of projects using communications satellites to help bridge the gap between developed and developing countries, including the establishment of a global fleet of small communications satellites with a view to reducing lease prices and expanding the base of potential users, mainly in developing countries.126.
The activities of INTERSPUTNIK contribute to enhancing knowledge-sharing through the promotion of universal access to space-based satellite communications services.国际空间通信组织(空间通信组织)正在开展若干项目,以便利用通信卫星来弥合发达国家与发展中国家之间的差距,包括建立一个小型通信卫星全球船队,以降低租赁价格,扩大潜在用户基础,主要是发展中国家的用户。空间通信组织的活动将有助于通过促进普遍获得天基卫星通信服务而进一步分享知识。
One of the initiatives taken by the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) is expected to provide new and innovative sources of funding to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III.127.
The Society is developing a foundation to administer an extensive and broad-based international programme that would provide grants, scholarships, training and other forms of scientific assistance to qualified individuals and organizations pursuing or applying knowledge for the advancement of the sciences and technologies associated with disciplines in which ISPRS is active.国际摄影测量和遥感学会所采取的举措之一预计将提供新型和有创意的资金来源,以支持执行第三次外空会议的各项建议。该学会正在筹建一个基金会,目的是实施一个具有广泛基础的国际方案,向正在寻求知识和/或应用知识推进该学会所积极研究的学科的科学和技术进步的符合条件的个人和组织提供助学金、奖学金、培训用品和其他形式的科研帮助。
CEOS played an important role in coordinating the efforts of its members to demonstrate the usefulness of space applications in advancing sustainable development on the occasion of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The presentations and demonstrations made by CEOS members at the World Summit and their information materials helped to increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of space activities in promoting sustainable development by applying results of space research; increasing the use of space-related systems and services by the entities of the United Nations system and by the private sector; and improving the management of the Earth’s natural resources. The follow-up programme established by CEOS contemplates actions to be taken by its members in the following five areas, which would contribute to implementing recommendations of UNISPACE III: (a) education, training and capacity-building; (b) water resource management; (c) disaster management; (d) climate change; and (e) global mapping, land-use monitoring and GIS.128. 地球观测卫星委员会对协调其成员在可持续发展问题世界首脑会议召开之际为展示空间应用对促进可持续发展的益处所作的努力发挥了重要的作用。地球观测卫星委员会的成员在世界首脑会议上所作的专题介绍和展示及其所分发的宣传材料,均有助于提高决策者和一般公众对空间活动重要性的认识,包括应用空间研究成果促进可持续发展;增加联合国系统各实体和私营部门对与空间有关的系统和服务的使用;改进对地球自然资源的管理。地球观测卫星委员会所制订的后续方案考虑由其成员在下述五个领域采取将有助于执行第三次外空会议若干建议的行动:(a)教育、培训和能力建设;(b)水资源管理;(c)灾害管理;(d)气候变化;(e)全球地图绘制、土地利用情况监测和地理信息系统。
Some intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations help implement many of the recommendations of UNISPACE III as part of their continuing, mandated activities. ESA, for example, promotes international cooperation, advances scientific knowledge and enhances education and training opportunities. The activities of the International Law Association, through its Space Law Committee, contribute to the efforts of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the development of space law, as well as possibly several other recommendations, from a legal point of view.129. 一些政府间组织和非政府组织作为其不间断的授权活动的一部分协助执行第三次外空会议的多项建议。举例来说,欧空局促进国际合作、增进科学知识,并增加教育和培训机会。国际法协会通过其空间法委员会开展活动,可以对和平利用外层空间委员会制订空间法的努力以及可能从法律角度执行其他若干建议作出贡献。
IV.四.
Synergies between the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III and the results of global conferences held within the United Nations system and other global initiatives第三次外空会议各项建议的执行与在联合国系统内举行的全球会议的 成果以及其他全球举措之间的协同效应
The Vienna Declaration contains the nucleus of a strategy to address global challenges in the future. When developing that strategy, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space took into account the results of the global conferences held by the United Nations in the 1990s that identified priorities for promoting human development in the twenty-first century. Those priorities provided the basis for the discussions at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000. The goals enshrined in the United Nations Millennium Declaration (General Assembly resolution 55/2) were examined further by subsequent United Nations global conferences in order to develop plans for subsequent actions.130. 《维也纳宣言》载有应对未来全球挑战的核心战略。和平利用外层空间委员会在制定这项战略的过程中,考虑到了联合国在九十年代举行的全球会议的成果,这些会议确立了二十一世纪促进民生发展的优先事项。这些优先事项为2000年联合国千年首脑会议的讨论提供了基础。随后的各次联合国全球会议进一步审查了《联合国千年宣言》(大会第55/2号决议)的各项目标,以便制定拟采取的行动计划。
Many of the actions called for in the Vienna Declaration have relevance to the goals and objectives of the United Nations Millennium Summit, the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the World Summit on the Information Society, all of which were convened after UNISPACE III.131.
The implementation of actions recommended by UNISPACE III would contribute to making progress in the follow-up actions resulting from these global conferences.《维也纳宣言》呼吁采取的许多行动都与联合国千年首脑会议、可持续发展问题世界首脑会议和信息社会问题世界首脑会议的目标有关,这些会议都是在第三次外空会议之后举行的。第三次外空会议所建议的行动的实施将有助于在这些全球会议所产生的后续行动中取得进展。
Following UNISPACE III, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the Office for Outer Space Affairs, as well as individual members of the Committee and their space agencies, increased their efforts to bring to the attention of the global conferences of the United Nations the societal benefits derived from space science and technology and their applications. One example of such efforts is the initiative taken by the Chairman of the Committee to send a letter to the Secretary-General in 2001, drawing his attention to the need to consider the contributions of space science and technology to a greater extent in the implementation of the recommendations of major United Nations conferences (A/56/306). The Committee and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee followed that initiative by developing a statement by the Committee to be presented to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) participated actively in the preparatory process leading to the World Summit and made important contributions to its outcome.132. 继第三次外空会议之后,和平利用外层空间委员会和外层空间事务厅以及委员会各成员国及其空间机构加大努力,以提请联合国各次全球会议注意到空间科技及其应用所产生的社会效益。这些努力之一便是委员会主席在2001年所采取的向秘书长致函的举措,以提请秘书长注意有必要在执行联合国主要会议的建议过程中加强考虑空间科技的贡献(A/56/306)。在该举措之后,委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会编写了一份委员会发言,拟提交可持续发展问题世界脑会议。地球观测卫星委员会积极参与了世界首脑会议的筹备进程,并为会议成果做出了重要贡献。
In its Plan of Implementation, the World Summit on Sustainable Development recognized satellite remote sensing and satellite global positioning as means of implementation of its recommended actions.133.
The World Summit promoted the increased use of satellites, in particular in the areas of water resource management, systematic observation of the Earth’s atmosphere, land and oceans, as well as disaster management.可持续发展问题世界首脑会议在其《执行计划》中将卫星遥感和卫星全球定位视为建议的行动的执行手段之一。世界首脑会议推动了卫星的扩大使用,尤其是在水资源管理、地球大气层、陆地和海洋的系统观测以及灾害管理领域的使用。
The outcome of the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society also reflects the increased efforts of the Committee and the Office to link the societal benefits of space applications to the goals of the global conferences. At its fortieth session, in 2003, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee underlined the importance of the Summit and recommended the active participation of the Committee and the Office in both phases of the Summit (A/AC.105/804, para. 141). As contributions to the discussions in the first phase of the Summit, the Office submitted to the secretariat of the Summit the results of the United Nations/Thailand Workshop on the Contribution of Space Communication Technology to Bridging the Digital Divide, held in September 2003 (A/AC.105/810). During the first phase of the Summit, the Office also organized a panel of experts on the topic of the Workshop as one of the side events of the Summit.134. 信息社会问题世界首脑会议第一阶段的成果也体现了外空委员会和外空事务厅将空间应用的社会效益与全球会议的目标联系起来的不断努力。科学和技术小组委员会2003年第四十届会议强调了首脑会议的重要性,建议外空委员会和外空事务厅积极参与首脑会议的两个阶段(A/AC.105/804,第141段)。作为对首脑会议第一阶段的讨论的贡献,外空事务厅向首脑会议秘书处提交了2003年9月举行的联合国/泰国空间通信技术对弥合数字鸿沟的贡献讲习班的成果(A/AC.105/810)。在首脑会议第一阶段,外空事务厅还组织了有关讲习班这一议题的专家小组讨论,作为首脑会议的辅助活动之一。
In its Plan of Action, the World Summit on the Information Society recognized the role of satellites as a means of developing and strengthening national, regional and international broadband network infrastructure. It called for support to promote the provision of global high-speed satellite services for underserved areas such as remote and sparsely populated areas. The Summit also encouraged the use of unused wireless capacity, including satellites, in developed countries and in particular in developing countries, to provide access in remote areas, especially in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and to improve low-cost connectivity in developing countries.135. 信息社会问题世界首脑会议在其《执行计划》中承认卫星作为制定和加强国家、区域和国际宽带网络基础设施的手段的作用。《执行计划》呼吁支持促进为边远和人口稀少地区等服务欠缺地区提供全球高速卫星服务。首脑会议还鼓励在发达国家和尤其是发展中国家使用尚未使用的包括卫星在内的无线接入容量,以便为尤其是发展中国家和经济转型期国家的边远地区提供接入,并在发展中国家改进低成本连接。
While the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the World Summit on the Information Society identified specific areas where space science and technology and their applications could play an important role, there are many other areas where they could contribute to the implementation of the outcomes of those summits and of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.136.
Synergy between the follow-up activities of UNISPACE III and those of the global conferences of the United Nations system could be further increased.尽管可持续发展问题世界首脑会议和信息社会问题世界首脑会议确认了一些空间科技及其应用可以发挥重要作用的具体领域,但是仍然有其他许多空间科技可以为这些首脑会议的成果和《联合国千年宣言》的执行做出贡献的领域。可以进一步加强第三次外空会议的后续活动与联合国系统全球会议的后续行动之间的协同效应。
The programme budget approved for the programme on the peaceful uses of outer space for the biennium 2004-2005 reflects the importance of increasing such synergies.137.
It indicates that the strategy to address global challenges as articulated in the Vienna Declaration will continue to provide the policy framework for the programme, while placing particular emphasis on promoting the use of space science and technology and their applications in implementing the United Nations Millennium Declaration and follow-up actions of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.经过核准的和平利用外层空间方案2004-2005两年期方案预算体现了加强这种协同效应的重要性。它表明,用以应对《维也纳宣言》中阐述的全球挑战的战略将继续为该方案提供政策框架,同时特别强调在执行《联合国千年宣言》和开展可持续发展问题世界首脑会议后续行动中推动空间科技及其应用的使用。
A.A.
Synergies with the United Nations Millennium Declaration与《联合国千年宣言》的协同效应
The implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III complements the efforts made by the United Nations system as a whole to take follow-up actions to the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The synergies between those efforts are summarized in table 2 below. The Vienna Declaration called for several actions to protect the Earth’s environment and to manage its resources. Those actions are based on respect for nature, one of the fundamental values identified in the Millennium Declaration. Table 2 Synergies between the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and actions called for in the United Nations Millennium Declaration Recommendations of UNISPACE III Actions called for in the United Nations Millennium Declaration (a) Protecting the Earth’s environment and managing its resources:a (i) Environmental monitoring strategy; (ii) Management of natural resources. (a) Values and principles: respect for nature; (b) Development and poverty eradication; (c) Protecting our common environment; (d) Meeting the special needs of Africa. (b) Using space applications for human security, development and welfare:b (i) Public health; (ii) Disaster management; (iii) Tele-education; (iv) Sustainable development. (a) Values and principles: equality; (b) Development and poverty eradication; (c) Protecting our common environment; (d) Meeting the special needs of Africa; (e) Protecting the vulnerable. (c) Enhancing education and training opportunities and ensuring public awareness of the importance of space activities:c (i) Capacity-building; (ii) Information-sharing and spin-offs from space activities; (iii) Opportunities for children and youth to learn about and participate in space activities. (a) Development and poverty eradication; (b) Human rights, democracy and good governance; (c) Meeting the special needs of Africa. (d) Strengthening and repositioning of space activities in the United Nations system:d (i) Reaffirming the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies and secretariat; (ii) Development of space law; (iii) Coordination between the Committee and other United Nations entities; (iv) New and innovative sources of funding; (v) Promotion of the peaceful uses of outer space with all States, international organizations and civil society, including industry. (a) Strengthening the United Nations; (b) Development and poverty eradication; (c) Strengthening respect for the rule of law in international as in national affairs. a As reflected in paragraph 1 (a) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.I.3), chap. I, resolution 1. b As reflected in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.I.3), chap. I, resolution 1. c As reflected in paragraph 1 (d) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.I.3), chap. I, resolution 1. d As reflected in paragraph 1 (e) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.I.3), chap. I, resolution 1.138. 第三次外空会议各项建议的实施与整个联合国系统为对《联合国千年宣言》采取后续行动作出的努力相辅相成。下文表2概述这些努力之间的协同效应。《维也纳宣言》呼吁采取若干行动以保护地球环境和管理地球资源。这些行动建立在尊重自然的基础上,这是《千年宣言》所确认的基本价值观之一。
In particular, the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III to develop a comprehensive worldwide environmental monitoring strategy (recommendation 1) and to improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources (recommendation 2) would directly support many of the actions called for in the Millennium Declaration (para. 23) to protect the common environment. Space applications provide useful tools, for example, for managing forest resources and for supporting the full implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa (A/49/84/Add.2, annex, appendix II). The recommendation of UNISPACE III to improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources through the use of remote sensing data would also support actions called for in the Millennium Declaration to support development and poverty eradication, for example through the development of water management strategies.139. 尤其是,第三次外空会议关于制定综合性全球环境监测战略的建议(建议1)和关于改进地球自然资源管理的建议(建议2)的执行将直接支持《千年宣言》所呼吁采取的许多保护公共环境的行动(第23段)。空间应用提供了有用的工具,例如管理森林资源和支持全面实施《生物多样性公约》和《在发生严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化的公约》(A/49/84/Add.2,附件,附录二)。第三次外空会议关于利用遥感数据改进地球自然资源管理的建议也将支持《千年宣言》中所呼吁采取的通过例如制定水资源管理战略支持发展和根除贫困的行动。
Addressing future global challenges, the Vienna Declaration called for action to be taken using space applications for human security, development and welfare, as contained in paragraph 1 (b). Such action supports global efforts to promote equality, another fundamental value identified in the Millennium Declaration, to ensure that no individual and no nation is denied the opportunity to benefit from social and economic development. It also contributes to social and economic development and poverty eradication, protection of the common environment and protection of the vulnerable in all parts of the world.表2
The implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III to improve public health services by expanding and coordinating space-based services for controlling infectious diseases (recommendation 6), for example, could help achieve the goal indicated in the Millennium Declaration to halt and begin to reverse by 2015 the scourge of malaria and other major diseases (para. 19). Remote sensing could be integrated into disease surveillance systems, to be developed into early warning systems for infectious diseases such as malaria, cholera, hantavirus and Rift Valley fever.第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议各项建议和《联合国千年宣言》所呼吁采取的各项行动之间的协同效应
The implementation of an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts, another recommendation of UNISPACE III (recommendation 7), would reduce the number and effects of natural and man-made disasters and ensure that all civilian populations that suffer disproportionately the consequences of natural disasters are given every feasible assistance and protection (para. 23).第三次外空会议的建议 《联合国千年宣言》中呼吁的行动
The Vienna Declaration called for action to promote literacy and enhance rural education by improving and coordinating education programmes and satellite infrastructure (recommendation 8), which would help achieve another goal of the Millennium Declaration, to provide equal access to all girls and boys by 2015 to all levels of education (para. 19). Providing education and training opportunities to all people is fundamental to economic, social and cultural development and to poverty eradication. Many of the actions recommended in the Vienna Declaration to enhance education and training opportunities, therefore, contribute to poverty eradication. Examples include those actions to enhance capacity-building through the development of human and budgetary resources (recommendation 17) and to encourage all States to provide their children and youth, especially females, through appropriate educational programmes, with opportunities to learn more about space science and technology and their importance to human development (recommendation 21).(a) 保护地球环境和管理地球资源:a
The Vienna Declaration also calls for action to be taken to strengthen and reposition space activities in the United Nations system, such as strengthening the coordination of mutually beneficial activities between the Committee and other United Nations entities (recommendation 29); that would help achieve better coordination between the United Nations and its agencies, an action called for in the Millennium Declaration (para. 30). The involvement of civil society in the work of the United Nations and the strengthening of partnerships with the private sector are areas in which both the Vienna Declaration and the Millennium Declaration call for action.㈠ 环境监测战略;
All the actions called for in the Vienna Declaration would benefit all countries, in particular developing countries, thus contributing to achieving goals enshrined in the Millennium Declaration to also meet the special needs of Africa.㈡ 自然资源管理。 (a) 价值观和原则:尊重自然;
B. Synergies with the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development(b) 发展与根除贫困;
Space science and technology and their applications permeate various levels of sustainable development. They serve as a useful tool for monitoring and conducting assessments of the environment, managing the use of natural resources, providing early warnings, providing education and health services to rural and remote areas and connecting people around the world. Capacity-building in the use and applications of space science and technology provides a foundation for efforts to promote sustainable development in those areas where space-based services and systems could serve as useful tools. Synergies between the recommendations of UNISPACE III and actions called for in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development are summarized in table 3 below.(c) 保护我们的共同环境;
The recommendation of UNISPACE III to assist States, especially developing countries, in applying the results of space research with a view to promoting the sustainable development of all people (recommendation 11) provides an overarching policy framework for linking the follow-up actions of UNISPACE III to the implementation of the outcome of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. That recommendation also has relevance to several actions identified in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as means of implementation, such as encouraging networking with and between centres of scientific excellence in developing countries, establishing regular channels between policy makers and the scientific community to request and receive science and technology advice for the implementation of Agenda 21 and creating and strengthening networks for science and education for sustainable development.(d) 满足非洲的特殊需要。
Table 3(b) 利用空间应用促进人类安全、发展和福利:b
Synergies between the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and actions called for in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development㈠ 公共保健;
Recommendations of UNISPACE III Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development㈡ 灾害管理;
(a)㈢ 远程教育;
Protecting the Earth’s environment and managing its resources:a㈣ 可持续发展。 (a) 价值观和原则:平等;
(i) Environmental monitoring strategy;(b) 发展与根除贫困;
(ii) Management of natural resources;(c) 保护我们的共同环境;
(iii) Integrated Global Observing Strategy;(d) 满足非洲的特殊需要;
(iv) Weather and climate forecasting.(e) 保护易受伤害者。
(a) Poverty eradication;(c) 增加教育和培训机会并确保公众认识到空间活动的重要性:c
(b) Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production;㈠ 能力建设;
(c) Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development:㈡ 信息共享和空间活动的附带利益;
(i) Water resources; (ii) Sustainable fisheries; (iii) Management of oceans, coastal environment, marine and coastal ecosystems; (iv) Climate change, transboundary air pollution, the hole in the ozone layer; (v) Disaster management; (vi) Agriculture; (vii) Desertification and drought; (viii) Mountain ecosystems; (ix) Forest management; (x) Sustainable mining; (d) Sustainable development for Africa; (e) Sustainable development of small island developing States; (f) Means of implementation. (b) Using space applications for human security, development and welfare:b (i) Public health; (ii) Disaster management; (iii) Tele-education; (iv) Knowledge-sharing; (v) Global navigation satellite systems; (vi) Sustainable development. (a) Poverty eradication; (b) Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development: (i) Water resources; (ii) Sustainable fisheries; (iii) Disaster management; (iv) Mountain ecosystems; (c) Health and sustainable development; (d) Sustainable development in a globalizing world; (e) Sustainable development for Africa; (f) Sustainable development of small island developing States; (g) Means of implementation. (c) Enhancing education and training opportunities and ensuring public awareness of the importance of space activities:c (i) Capacity-building; (ii) Information-sharing and spin-offs from space activities; (iii) Opportunities for children and youth to learn about and participate in space activities. (a) Poverty eradication;㈢ 儿童和青年学习空间知识和参加空间活动的机会。 (a) 发展与根除贫困;
(b) Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development:(b) 人权、民主和善政;
(i) Water resources;(c) 满足非洲的特殊需要。
(ii) Disaster management;(d) 加强和调整联合国系统的空间活动:d
(iii) Mountain ecosystems;㈠ 重申和平利用外层空间委员会及其附属机构和秘书处的作用;
(c) Sustainable development for Africa;㈡ 制订空间法; ㈢ 委员会与其他联合国实体之间的协调; ㈣ 新的、有创意的、供资来源;
(d) Means of implementation.㈤ 与各国、国际组织和包括业界在内的民间团体一道促进和平利用外层空间。 (a) 加强联合国;
(d) Strengthening and repositioning of space activities in the United Nations system.d Means of implementation.(b) 发展与根除贫困; (c) 加强国际和国家事务中的法治方面。
a As reflected in paragraph 1 (a) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.a 反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30,维也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(a)段。
b As reflected in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.b反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(b) 段。
c As reflected in paragraph 1 (d) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.c反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(d) 段。
d As reflected in paragraph 1 (e) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.d反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(e) 段。
The recommendations contained in the Vienna Declaration, in particular those relating to the protection and management of the Earth’s environment and its resources, have direct relevance to many of the actions recommended in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation: for example, the recommendations of UNISPACE III to develop a comprehensive, worldwide, environmental monitoring strategy for long-term global observations by building on existing space and ground capabilities (recommendation 1) and to improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources by increasing and facilitating the research and operational use of remote sensing data (recommendation 2) support a number of actions called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to monitor the quality and quantity of water resources and to enhance their use and management. Remote-sensing and satellite technologies were recognized by the World Summit as a means of improving water resource management and scientific understanding of the water cycle. Other actions called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation that have relevance to those two recommendations of UNISPACE III relate to, inter alia, the management of oceans and the coastal environment, as well as marine and coastal ecosystems, desertification and drought, forest management and climate change. The recommendation of UNISPACE III to improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources also supports a number of actions in the area of poverty eradication called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, such as those to develop national programmes that should enable those living in poverty to have increased access to productive resources, in particular land and water.140. 为迎接未来的全球挑战,《维也纳宣言》要求采取第1(b)段所载利用空间应用促进民生保障、发展和福利的行动。这种行动支持全球促进平等的努力,而平等是《千年宣言》中确认的另一个基本价值观,目的在于确保每个人和每个国家都享有从社会和经济发展中受益的机会。这种行动也有助于社会和经济发展和根除贫困、保护共同环境和保护世界各地易受伤害者。
In the area of climate change, for example, the recommendation of UNISPACE  III to develop and implement the IGOS (recommendation 3) has direct relevance to the action called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to strengthen cooperation and coordination among global observing systems and research programmes for integrated global observations (para. 132 (a)).141.
The UNISPACE III recommendation to enhance weather and climate forecasting through international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications (recommendation 4) also has relevance to many actions in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation in the areas of water resource management, disaster management and climate change.例如,第三次外空会议关于通过扩大和协调控制传染病的空基服务来改善公共保健服务的建议(建议6)的执行,可以帮助实现《千年宣言》所述到2015年将疟疾和其他主要疾病祸患减少一半或开始扭转其蔓延的目标(第19段)。可以将遥感纳入疾病监测系统,并进一步发展成为诸如疟疾、霍乱、汉他病毒和里夫特裂谷热等传染病的早期预警系统。
A set of recommendations of UNISPACE III relating to the use of space applications for human security, development and welfare, as contained in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration, supports many actions called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation in the areas of poverty eradication, health and protection and management of the natural resource base of economic and social development. The recommendation of UNISPACE III to improve public health services by expanding and coordinating space-based services for telemedicine and for controlling infectious diseases (recommendation 6) supports several actions called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation in the areas of health and sustainable economic and social development. Space-based services for telemedicine would support actions not only to promote equitable and improved access to affordable and efficient health-care services (para. 54 (b)), but also to promote and develop partnerships to enhance health education, to achieve improved health literacy on a global basis by 2010 (para. 54 (c)). In addition to the use of telemedicine and tele-health, the use of remote sensing and GIS could support the fight against and control of communicable diseases, such as Ebola, and non-communicable diseases (para. 64 (b) and (e)).142. 第三次外空会议关于实施综合性全球系统,对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理的另一项建议(建议7)的实施将有助于减少自然和人为灾害的次数及其影响,并确保所有受较多自然灾害影响的平民能够得到一切可行的援助和保护(第23段)。
An integrated, multi-hazard, inclusive approach to address vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, was identified by the World Summit as an essential element of a safer world in the twenty-first century (para. 37). Many of the actions that were considered necessary by the World Summit in that regard would greatly benefit from the implementation of an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts through Earth observation, communications and other space-based services, making maximum use of existing capabilities and filling gaps in worldwide satellite coverage, a recommendation of UNISPACE III (recommendation 7). The combined use of Earth observation, communications and positioning satellites would support all phases of disaster management.143. 《维也纳宣言》呼吁采取行动,通过改进和协调各种教育方案和与卫星有关的基础设施,以提高识字率和加强乡村教育(建议8),该建议将有助于实现《千年宣言》关于到2015年为所有男女儿童提供获得各级教育的平等机会的另一个目标(第19段)。为所有人提供教育和培训机会对于经济、社会和文化发展以及根除贫困是至关重要的。因此,《维也纳宣言》建议的许多关于增加教育和培训机会的行动有助于根除贫困。例子包括通过人力资源和预算资源的开发加强能力建设(建议17)以及鼓励各国利用适当的教育方案为其儿童和青年,特别是妇女提供机会,使他们学习更多的空间科技知识并认识到空间科技对人的发展的重要性(建议21)。
Applications of communications satellites would enhance not only access to health services but also to education and training opportunities, in particular, in rural and remote areas. They would play an important role in bridging the digital divide. The recommendations of UNISPACE III to promote literacy and enhance rural education by improving and coordinating educational programmes and satellite-related infrastructure (recommendation 8) and to improve knowledge-sharing by giving more importance to the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services (recommendation 9) concern applications of communications satellites and support many actions called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to ensure that children everywhere will have equal access to all levels of education (para. 7 (g)). The implementation of the recommendation of UNISPACE III to improve knowledge-sharing would support sustainable development in a globalizing world. For example, it is directly linked with the action called for in the Plan (para. 52) to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition in narrowing the digital divide and harnessing the potential of information and communication technologies for development, which would support the World Summit on the Information Society (see paras. 158-164).144. 《维也纳宣言》还呼吁采取加强和调整联合国系统的空间活动的行动,例如,加强外空委员会和联合国其他实体间互利活动的协调(建议29),这将有助于在联合国及其机构之间形成更好的协调,这也是《千年宣言》中呼吁的行动(第30段)。民间团体参与联合国的工作和加强与私营部门的伙伴关系是《维也纳宣言》和《千年宣言》都呼吁采取行动的领域。
The use and applications of GNSS support sustainable development not only through enhancing safety of transportation, but also through many other areas, such as the management of environment and disasters, search and rescue, management of natural resources, agriculture, mapping, surveying and Earth sciences. In that regard, the implementation of the recommendation of UNISPACE III to promote the enhancement of, universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems (recommendation 10) would help undertake many of the actions called for in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, in particular those to protect and manage the natural resource base of economic and social development and some of the actions to eradicate poverty. Capacity-building is a fundamental element of sustainable development. Throughout the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, the World Summit on Sustainable Development called for a number of actions in various areas to strengthen institutional capacity and enhance education and training opportunities. UNISPACE III placed emphasis on the importance of capacity-building in the use of space science and technology and their applications, in particular in developing countries. The action called for in the Vienna Declaration, in particular to enhance capacity-building through the development of human and budgetary resources, the training and professional development of teachers, the exchange of teaching methods, materials and experience and the development of infrastructure and policy regulations (recommendation 17), has direct relevance to a number of actions identified in the Plan as means of implementation. The use of remote sensing and satellite technologies and satellite data is also specifically mentioned in the Plan in the areas of water resources management and disaster management (paras. 28 and 37 (c)). Providing equal access to education was identified by the World Summit on Sustainable Development as a means to achieve poverty eradication. In that regard, some of the actions called for in the Plan to eradicate poverty are related to the recommendation of UNISPACE III to enhance capacity-building, mentioned above in paragraph 25, as well as the recommendation to encourage all States to provide their children and youth, especially females, through appropriate education programmes, with opportunities to learn more about space science and technology and their importance to human development (recommendation 21). The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation contains sets of recommendations aimed at sustainable development of small island developing States and sustainable development for Africa. Many of the recommendations of UNISPACE III concerning specific application fields and cross-cutting areas could support many of the actions recommended in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to enhance sustainable development of Africa, in particular recommendations relating to environmental monitoring strategy, management of natural resources and capacity-building (recommendations 1, 2 and 17 of UNISPACE III). Those recommendations relating to the management of natural resources, climate and weather forecasting, public health and disaster management (recommendations 2, 4, 6 and 7) are related to some of the actions recommended in the Plan for sustainable development of small island developing States. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation contains actions to promote sustainable development in a globalizing world (paras. 47-52). The intrinsic nature of space-based systems as a global system contributed to some extent to the globalization of the world, presenting both challenges and opportunities. The strategy presented in the Vienna Declaration is a blueprint for turning the challenges of globalization, in particular for developing countries, into opportunities to accelerate development, reducing the risk of marginalization and vulnerability in a changing world in terms of environmental conditions, pace of commerce and trade, flow of goods and people or the implications of economies and policies beyond national borders. C. Synergies with the Plan of Action of the World Summit on the Information Society Increased connectivity among countries, communities and individuals around the world is one of the aspects of the globalization of the world to which space technology and its applications has contributed significantly. Communication and broadcasting satellites play an important role, particularly in disseminating large amounts of images, data and information from a single point to multiple points around the world. They could also play a significant role in ultimately bridging the digital divide. Some of the recommendations of UNISPACE III aim in particular at facilitating and expanding the use of satellite communications. Their implementation would contribute to carrying out the Plan of Action adopted at the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society, especially to enhance information and communication infrastructure and access to information and knowledge. Synergies between the recommendations of UNISPACE III and actions called for in the Plan of Action of the World Summit on the Information Society are summarized in table 4 below. Table 4 Synergies between the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and actions called for in the Plan of Action of the World Summit on the Information Society Recommendations of UNISPACE III Plan of Action of the World Summit on the Information Society (a) Protecting the Earth’s environment and managing its resources:a (i) Environmental monitoring strategy; (ii) Management of natural resources. (a) Electronic environment (e-environment);145. 《维也纳宣言》所呼吁的所有行动都将使所有国家特别是发展中国家受益,从而有助于实现《千年宣言》中关于也满足非洲的特殊需要的目标。
(b) E-agriculture.B. 与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》的协同效应
(b) Using space applications for human security, development and welfare:b146. 空间科技及其应用已经渗透到可持续发展的各个方面。它们是监测和进行环境评估、管理自然资源的使用、提供早期预警、向乡村和边远地区提供教育和医疗服务以及将世界各地的人们联系起来的有用的工具。空间科技的使用和应用方面的能力建设为促进这些领域的可持续发展的努力奠定了基础,因为在这些领域里,天基服务和系统可以成为有用的工具。下文表3概述第三次外空会议的建议与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》中呼吁采取的行动之间的协同效应。
(i)147. 第三次外空会议关于协助各国特别是发展中国家使用空间研究成果促进各国人民的可持续发展的建议(建议11),为将第三次外空会议的后续行动与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的成果的执行联系起来提供了一个总体政策框架。该建议还作为实施手段与《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中确认的若干行动有关,例如鼓励与发展中国家的优秀科学中心联网和在它们之间建立网络,在决策机构和科学界之间建立经常性渠道以为实施21世纪议程征求和接受科学技术咨询意见,设立和加强科学和教育网络促进可持续发展。
Public health;表3
(ii) Disaster management;第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)的建议与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》中呼吁采取的行动之间的协同效应
(iii) Tele-education;第三次外空会议的建议 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》
(iv) Knowledge-sharing;(a) 保护地球环境和管理地球资源:a
(v) Sustainable development.㈠ 环境监测战略;
(a)㈡ 自然资源管理;
Information and communication infrastructure;㈢ 综合性全球观测战略;
(b) E-health; (c) E-environment; (d) E-agriculture; (e) E-science; (f) Access to information and knowledge; (g) Capacity-building;㈣ 天气和气候预报。 (a) 根除贫困;
(h) Role of Governments and all stakeholders in the promotion of information and communication technologies for development.(b) 改变不可持续的消费形态和生产形态;
(c)(c) 保护和管理经济和社会赖以发展的自然资源基础:
Enhancing education and training opportunities and ensuring public awareness of the importance of space activities:c㈠ 水资源;
Capacity-building.㈡ 可持续渔业;
(a)㈢ 海洋、沿海环境、海洋和沿海生态系统的管理;
Information and communication infrastructure;㈣ 气候变化、跨国界空气污染、臭氧层空洞; ㈤ 灾害管理; ㈥ 农业; ㈦ 荒漠化与干旱; ㈧ 山区生态系统; ㈨ 森林管理; ㈩ 可持续采矿业; (d) 非洲可持续发展; (e) 小岛屿发展中国家的可持续发展; (f) 执行手段。
(b) E-health;(b) 利用空间应用促进[人类安全]、发展和福利:b
(c)㈠ 公共保健;
E-science;㈡ 灾害管理;
(d) Capacity-building;㈢ 远程教育;
(e)㈣ 知识共享;
Role of Governments and all stakeholders in the promotion of information and communication technologies for development;㈤ 全球导航卫星系统;
(f)㈥ 可持续发展。 (a) 根除贫困;
Media;(b) 保护和管理社会和经济赖以发展的自然资源基础;
(g) Digital solidarity agenda.㈠ 水资源; ㈡ 可持续渔业; ㈢ 灾害管理; ㈣ 山区生态系统; (c) 保健与可持续发展; 第三次外空会议的建议 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》
(d) Strengthening and repositioning of space activities in the United Nations system:d(d) 全球化世界中的可持续发展;
Promotion of the peaceful uses of outer space with all States, international organiza-tions and civil society, including industry.(e) 非洲可持续发展;
(a)(f) 小岛屿发展中国家的可持续发展;
Role of Governments and all stakeholders in the promotion of information and communication technologies for development;(g) 执行手段。
(b) International and regional cooperation.(c) 增加教育和培训机会,确保公众认识到空间活动的重要性:c ㈠ 能力建设; ㈡ 信息共享和空间活动的附带成果; ㈢ 儿童和青年学习空间活动知识并参与空间活动的机会。 (a) 根除贫困; (b) 保护和管理经济和社会赖以发展的自然资源基础; ㈠ 水资源; ㈡ 灾害管理; ㈢ 山区生态系统; (c) 非洲可持续发展; (d) 执行手段。 (d) 加强和调整联合国系统的空间活动。d 执行手段。
a As reflected in paragraph 1 (a) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.a 反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30,维也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(a)段。
b As reflected in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.b反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(b) 段。
c As reflected in paragraph 1 (d) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.c反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(d) 段。
d As reflected in paragraph 1 (e) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.d反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(e) 段。
The implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III to develop a comprehensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy (recommendation 1) and to improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources (recommendation 2) would involve the use of satellites to facilitate access to and disseminate information.148. 《维也纳宣言》中的建议,特别是与保护和管理地球环境及其资源有关的建议,与《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中建议的许多行动直接相关:例如,第三次外空会议关于通过加强现有空间和地面能力为长期全球观测制定综合性全球环境监测战略的建议(建议1)以及关于通过加强和促进对遥感数据的研究和实际应用来改进地球自然资源的管理的建议(建议2)支持了《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中所呼吁采取的监测水资源的质量和水量并加强其利用和管理的一系列行动。遥感和卫星技术被世界首脑会议视为改进水资源管理和加强对水循环的科学理解的一种手段。《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中呼吁采取的与第三次外空会议这两项建议有关的行动除其他以外与下列问题有关:海洋和沿海环境的管理以及海洋和沿海生态系统、荒漠化与干旱、森林管理和气候变化。第三次外空会议关于改进地球自然资源管理的建议还支持《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中呼吁采取的在根除贫困领域的一系列行动,诸如制定有关国家方案的行动,以使生活在贫困中的人群能够有机会获得更多生产性资源,特别是土地和水。 149.
Those recommendations have close relevance to the action called for in the Plan of Action of the World Summit to use and promote information and communication technologies as an instrument for environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources as well as to ensure the systematic dissemination of information using information and communication technologies on agriculture, fisheries, forestry and food (paras. 20 (a) and 21 (a)).在气候变化领域,第三次外空会议关于制定和实施综合性全球观测战略的建议(建议3)与《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中呼吁采取的关于在全球观测系统和综合全球观测研究方案之间加强合作与协调的行动(第132(a)段)有关。第三次外空会议关于通过在气象卫星应用领域开展国际合作改进天气和气候预报的建议(建议4)也与《约翰内斯堡执行计划》在水资源管理、灾害管理和气候变化领域的许多行动有关。
Some of the actions called for in the Plan of Action of the World Summit to implement electronic strategies (e-strategies), such as in e-environment, eagriculture, e-health and e-science, would benefit from the use of communications satellites specifically promoted or implied in the recommendations of UNISPACE III for using space applications for human security, development and welfare, as contained in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration. In particular, the recommendation to improve public health services by expanding and coordinating space-based services for telemedicine has direct relevance to the action called for in the Plan of Action to encourage the adoption of information and communication technologies to improve and extend health-care and health-information systems to remote and underserved areas (recommendation 6, para. 18 (c)). In the area of ehealth, the Plan also calls for action to strengthen and expand information and communication technology-based initiatives for providing medical and humanitarian assistance in disasters and emergencies (para. 18 (f)). This action is also related to the recommendation of UNISPACE III to implement an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts (recommendation 7).150. 《维也纳宣言》第1(b)段所载第三次外空会议关于利用空间应用促进民生保障、发展和福利的一套建议《支持《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中呼吁采取的在根除贫困、保健以及保护和管理经济和社会赖以发展的自然资源基础等领域的许多行动。第三次外空会议关于通过扩大和协调远程医疗和传染病控制等空基服务来改善公共保健服务的建议(建议6)支持《约翰内斯堡执行计划》所呼吁的在保健与可持续经济和社会发展领域的一些行动。远程医疗空基服务不仅将支持促进公平和更多地获取负担得起的高效保健服务的行动(第54(b)段),而且将支持推动和发展伙伴关系以加强保健教育并到2010年在全球提高保健知识水平的行动(第54(e)段)。除远程医疗和远程保健的使用以外,遥感和地理信息系统的使用也可以支持消灭并控制诸如伊波拉等传染病和非传染性疾病的斗争(第64(b)和(e)段)。
Tele-education is another area where there is synergy between the recommendations of UNISPACE III and those of the World Summit on the Information Society. In the efforts to enhance information and communication infrastructure, the World Summit, in its Plan of Action, called for an action to provide and improve information and communication technology connectivity for all schools and universities and other institutions accessible to the public (para. 9 (c)). In the Vienna Declaration, UNISPACE III recommended an action to promote literacy and enhance rural education by improving and coordinating educational programmes and satellite-related infrastructure (recommendation 8). The recommendation of UNISPACE III to improve knowledge-sharing by giving more importance to the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services and by devising efficient policies, infrastructure, standards and applications in development projects (recommendation 9) has close links with a number of actions included in the Plan of Action of the World Summit. The implementation of that recommendation, for example, would support the actions called for by the World Summit to devise appropriate universal access policies and strategies, and their means of implementation, as well as to develop and strengthen broadband network infrastructure, including delivery by satellite and other systems, to help in providing the capacity to match the needs of countries and their citizens and for the delivery of new information and communication technology-based services. A number of actions called for in the Plan of Action in the area of capacity-building relate to the use of communications satellites as a tool to enhance education and training opportunities, in particular in rural and remote areas. Some of those actions relate to strengthening the capacity of countries to develop estrategies, which would include the integration of satellite communications into the information and communication infrastructure. The implementation of the recommendation of UNISPACE III to enhance capacity-building in space science and technology and their applications (recommendation 17) could support the efforts to undertake many of the actions called for by the World Summit.151. 一个针对脆弱性、风险评估以及包括防灾、减灾、备灾、救灾和灾后恢复在内的灾害管理的包容各方的综合多风险办法被世界首脑会议确认为在二十一世纪一个更为安全的世界的一个必要成分(第37段)。在这方面,世界首脑会议所认为必要的许多行动都将大大受益于第三次外空会议关于通过地球观测、通信和其他天基服务实施一个综合性全球系统对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理,并最大程度地利用现有能力和填补全球卫星覆盖空白的建议(建议7)。地球观测卫星、通信卫星和定位卫星的共同使用将支持灾害管理的所有阶段。
D.152.
Synergies with other global initiatives通信卫星的应用不仅将增加获得保健服务的机会,还将增加获得教育和培训的机会,特别是在乡村和边远地区。它们将在弥合数字鸿沟方面发挥重要作用。第三次外空会议关于通过改进和协调教育方案和与卫星有关的基础设施来提高识字率和加强乡村教育的建议(建议8)和关于通过更加重视促进空基通信服务的普及来促进知识共享的建议(建议9)与通信卫星的应用有关,并且支持《约翰内斯堡执行计划》关于确保各地儿童都有平等机会接受所有各级教育的许多行动(第7(g)段)。第三次外空会议关于促进知识共享的建议的执行将支持全球化世界中的可持续发展。例如,它直接关系到《执行计划》所呼吁的关于协助发展中国家和经济转型期国家缩小数字鸿沟并利用信息技术和通信技术潜力促进发展的行动(第52段),这一行动将支持信息社会问题世界首脑会议(见第158-164段)。
The implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III could contribute to many global initiatives that are undertaken after UNISPACE III outside the United Nations system with the aim of supporting social, economic and cultural development. One example is GMES: approved by the Ministerial Council of the Agency in November 2001, the Earthwatch GMES Services Element (GSE) is expected to deliver policy-relevant services to end-users primarily, though not exclusively, from Earth observation sources and to enable end-users to become key players in the move from the present generation of Earth observation satellites to future European systems that would deliver vital information on global environment and security. There are currently 10 GSE services covering such applications as urban mapping, water management, forest fire and flood management, crop monitoring, ocean surveillance and ice monitoring. The focus areas of GSE include making GMES global. The activities associated with GMES contribute to the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III, in particular in the areas of environmental monitoring, management of natural resources and disaster management (recommendations 1, 2 and 7).153. 全球导航卫星系统的使用和应用,不仅通过提高运输安全,也通过诸如环境和灾害管理、搜索和救援、自然资源管理、农业、绘图、勘测和地球科学等其他许多领域,支持可持续发展。在这方面,第三次外空会议关于促进空基导航和定位系统的普遍利用和兼容性的建议(建议10)将有助于开展《约翰内斯堡执行计划》所呼吁的特别是关于保护和管理经济和社会赖以发展的自然资源基础的行动和一些根除贫困行动。 154. 能力建设是可持续发展的一个基本要素。可持续发展问题世界首脑会议在整个《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中呼吁在若干领域采取一系列行动,加强机构能力并增加教育和培训机会。第三次外空会议强调使用空间科技及其应用方面的能力建设的重要性,特别是在发展中国家。《维也纳宣言》所呼吁的行动,特别是通过人力资源和预算资源的开发、教师的培训和职业发展、教学方法、材料和经验的交流以及基础设施的开发和政策规范的制定加强能力建设(建议17),作为执行手段与《执行计划》中确认的一系列行动直接相关。《执行计划》中还具体述及遥感及卫星技术和卫星数据在水资源管理和灾害管理领域中的使用(第28和第37(c)段)。 155. 提供平等的教育机会被可持续发展问题世界首脑会议确认为实现根除贫困的一个手段。在这方面,《执行计划》中呼吁采取的一些根除贫困行动与上文第25段中所述第三次外空会议关于加强能力建设的建议以及关于鼓励各国通过适当的教育方案为儿童和青年,特别是妇女提供机会,使他们学习更多的空间科技知识和认识到空间知识对于人类发展的重要性的建议(建议21)有关。 156. 《约翰内斯堡执行计划》载有一系列针对小岛屿发展中国家的可持续发展和非洲可持续发展的建议。第三次外空会议有关具体应用领域和交叉领域的许多建议,特别是有关环境监测战略、自然资源管理和能力建设的建议(第三次外空会议建议1、2和17),可以支持《约翰内斯堡执行计划》中建议的有关加强非洲可持续发展的行动。有关自然资源管理、气候和天气预报、公共保健和灾害管理的建议(建议2、4、6和7)与《执行计划》中建议的有关小岛屿发展中国家的可持续发展的一些行动相关。 157. 《约翰内斯堡执行计划》载有在全球化世界中促进可持续发展的行动(第47-52段)。天基系统作为一种全球系统的本质在某种程度上促成了世界的全球化,这既带来了挑战,也带来了机遇。《维也纳宣言》中阐述的战略为特别是发展中国家将全球化的挑战转化为加快发展的机遇描绘了一幅蓝图,以便在环境状况、商业和贸易的发展速度、货物和人员流动或经济和政策的跨国界影响方面减少在变化的世界中的边缘化和脆弱性风险。 C. 与信息社会世界首脑会议《行动计划》之间的协同效应 158. 世界上各国、各团体和个人之间越来越多的联系是世界全球化的一个方面,在这方面,空间技术及其应用做出了重大贡献。通信卫星和转播卫星发挥着重要作用,特别是在从一点向全球各地多点传送大量图像、数据和信息方面。它们也可以在最终弥合数字鸿沟方面发挥重大作用。下文表4概述第三次外空会议的建议与信息社会世界首脑会议《行动计划》中呼吁采取的行动之间的协同效应。 159. 第三次外空会议的一些建议特别以便利和扩大通信卫星的使用为目标。它们的执行将有助于执行信息社会问题世界首脑会议第一阶段所通过的《行动计划》,特别是在加强信息和通信基础设施并提高信息和知识的获取机会方面。 160. 第三次外空会议关于制订综合全球环境监测战略的建议(建议1)以及关于改进地球自然资源管理的建议(建议2)的执行将涉及利用卫星促进获取和传播信息。这些建议与世界首脑会议《行动计划》所呼吁采取的下列行动密切相关:使用和推行信息通信技术,将其作为保护环境和可持续使用自然资源的手段以及确保有关农业、畜牧业、渔业、林业和食品业的信息得到系统化传播(第20(a)和第21(a)段)。 表4 第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)与信息社会世界首脑会议《行动计划》所呼吁采取的行动之间的协同效应 第三次外空会议的建议 信息社会世界首脑会议《行动计划》 (a) 保护地球环境和管理地球资源:a ㈠ 环境监测战略; ㈡ 自然资源管理。 (a) 电子环境; (b) 电子农业。 (b) 利用空间应用促进[人类安全]、发展和福利:b ㈠ 公共保健; ㈡ 灾害管理; ㈢ 远程教育; ㈣ 知识共享; ㈤ 可持续发展。 (a) 信息通信基础设施; (b) 电子卫生; (c) 电子环境; (d) 电子农业; (e) 电子科学; (f) 信息和知识的获取; (g) 能力建设; (h) 政府和各利益方在推动利用信息通信技术促进发展方面的作用。 (c) 增加教育和培训机会并确保公众认识到空间活动的重要性:c 能力建设。 (a) 信息通信基础设施; (b) 电子卫生; (c) 电子科学; (d) 能力建设; (e) 政府和各利益方在推动利用信息通信技术促进发展方面的作用; (f) 媒体; (g) 数字团结议程。 (d) 加强和调整联合国系统的空间活动:d 与各国、国际组织和包括业界在内的民间团体一道促进和平利用外层空间。 (a) 政府和各利益方在推动利用信息通信技术促进发展方面的作用; (b) 国际和区域合作。 a 反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30,维也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.00.I.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(a)段。 b反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.00.I.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(b) 段。 c反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.00.I.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(d) 段。
Following the agreement of the leaders of partners of the Group of Eight in Evian, France, in June 2003, to the Cooperative Action on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development, the Earth Observation Summit was held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. The Earth Observation Summit launched an initiative to build a comprehensive, coordinated and sustained Earth observation network of systems and established an intergovernmental ad hoc Group on Earth Observations, consisting of more than 30 countries and 20 international entities. This is another example of a global initiative that has relevance to the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The Group on Earth Observations aims to develop, by early 2005, a 10-year implementation plan for building such a system, taking into account the findings and recommendations of its five subgroups on architecture, data utilization, user requirements and outreach, capacity-building and international cooperation. Follow-up actions to be undertaken as part of the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III, in particular in the areas of environmental monitoring strategy, management of natural resources, integrated global observing strategy, weather and climate forecasting, public health, disaster management, sustainable development, capacity-building and increasing awareness (recommendations 1-4, 6, 7, 11, 17 and 18), could complement and create synergies with the efforts to develop and operate such an Earth observation network of systems.d反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.00.I.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(e) 段。
V. Assessment of the process of implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III)161. 世界首脑会议《行动计划》中所呼吁采取的一些执行诸如电子环境、电子农业、电子卫生和电子科学等电子战略的行动,将受益于《维也纳宣言》第1(b)段中所载第三次外空会议关于利用空间应用促进民生保障、发展和福利的建议所具体推动或暗含的通信卫星的使用。特别是,关于通过扩大和协调远程医疗等空基服务来改善公共保健服务的建议与《行动计划》所呼吁采取的关于鼓励采用信息通信技术来改善和扩大对边远地区与服务欠缺地区的医疗保健和医疗信息系统的行动直接有关(建议6,第18(e)段)。在电子卫生领域,《行动计划》还呼吁采取行动,加强并拓展为灾难和突发事件提供医疗和人道主义援助而采取的信息通信技术举措(第18(f)段)。这一行动还与第三次外空会议关于实施综合性全球系统对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理的建议有关(建议7)。 162. 远程教育是第三次外空会议建议与信息社会问题世界首脑会议的建议产生协同效应的另一个领域。为加强信息通信基础设施,世界首脑会议在其《行动计划》中呼吁采取行动,为所有学校和大学以及其他向公众开放的机构提供信息通信技术连接(第9(c)段)。在《维也纳宣言》中,第三次外空会议建议采取行动,通过改进和协调教育方案和与卫星有关的基础设施促进扫肓和加强乡村教育(建议8)。 163. 第三次外空会议关于进一步重视促进天基通信服务的普及,制订切实有效的政策、发展基础设施、制订标准和开展应用开发项目,以促进知识共享的建议(建议9)与世界首脑会议《行动计划》中的一系列行动有密切联系。例如,该建议的执行将支持世界首脑会议所呼吁采取的下列行动:制订适当的普及政策和战略及其执行手段,开发和加强宽带网络基础设施包括卫星和其他系统的传输,帮助提供能够满足各国及其公民的需要和提供新的信息通信技术服务的能力。 164. 《行动计划》所呼吁采取的在能力建设领域的一系列行动与使用通信卫星作为工具,以便特别是在乡村和边远地区增加教育和培训机会有关。其中一些行动与加强各国制订电子战略的能力有关,包括将卫星通信纳入信息通信基础设施。第三次外空会议关于加强空间科技及其应用的能力建设的建议(建议17)的执行将支持开展世界首脑会议所呼吁采取的许多行动。
The successful implementation of any recommendation that involves Governments requires a commitment by policy makers in terms of the level of priority to be assigned and the allocation of financial and human resources.D. 与其他全球举措之间的协同效应
As a result of a limited awareness of space benefits for society at large, space activities have not been assigned a high priority in many States, resulting in limited resources being allocated to support space activities.165.
In spite of this, much has been accomplished and progress has been made through the work on increasing awareness done by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, including its action teams.第三次外空会议各项建议的执行有助于第三次外空会议之后在联合国系统以外开展的旨在支持社会、经济和文化发展的许多全球举措。例如,经欧空局部长理事会于2001年11月核准,地球观测中的环境与安全全球监测服务部分(全球监测部分)预期将向最终用户提供主要但不仅仅是来自地球观测的政策方面的服务,并使最终用户成为在从当前一代地球观测卫星向未来可以提供有关全球环境和安全的关键信息的欧洲系统转变过程中的关键成员。目前有10项全球监测部分服务,涉及诸如城市绘图、水资源管理、森林火灾和洪水管理、作物监测、海洋监测和冰的监测等应用。全球监测系统的重点领域包括使环境与安全全球监测全球化。与环境与安全全球监测有关的活动有助于第三次外空会议各项建议,特别是在环境监测、自然资源管理和灾害管理等领域的建议(建议1、2和7)的执行。
In order for government agencies, research institutions and non-governmental entities to receive broad support from policy makers and the general public for their activities, objectives must be clearly defined, realistic and linked to the priorities of society at large and the benefits to be derived, including short-term benefits, must be well articulated. That is essential for the successful implementation of the recommendations and should be done at an early stage to ensure that the necessary resources are obtained.166. 继八国集团国家领导人于2003年6月在法国埃维昂商定开展利用科学技术促进可持续发展的合作行动之后,2003年7月在华盛顿举行了地球观测问题首脑会议。地球观测问题首脑会议发起了一项关于建立综合性协调和可持续的地球观测系统网的举措,并建立了一个政府间特设地球观测小组,由30多个国家和20多个国际实体组成。这是与第三次外空会议的建议有关的全球举措的另一个范例。地球观测小组的目标是到2005年初制定建立这一系统的10年执行计划,同时考虑到其有关建筑、数据利用、用户要求和宣传、能力建设和国际合作问题的五个分组的结论和建议。作为执行第三次外空会议各项建议的一部分的后续行动,特别是在环境监测战略、自然资源管理、综合全球观测战略、天气和气候预报、公共保健、灾害管理、可持续发展、能力建设和提高认识等领域的后续行动(建议1-4、6、7、11、17和18),将补充建立和运行这一地球观测系统网的工作,并与之产生协同效应。
A. Elements that have contributed to the progress made in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III五. 评估第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)各项建议的执行进程 167. 要成功地执行任何涉及到各国政府的建议就要求有关决策者在拟确定的优先次序级别和拨给财政和人力资源方面作出承诺。
The following elements were important in the initial phase of the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III: prioritization of work; flexibility in conducting work throughout the year; maximizing opportunities to meet and communicate; coordination and distribution of work; and strong leadership and secretariat support.168.
For details concerning implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, see annexes II, III and V to the present report.由于一般社会对空间的惠益了解有限,因此在许多国家并没有给空间活动予以很高的优先地位,这造成拨给支持空间活动的资源有限。尽管如此,通过和平利用外层空间委员会,(包括其行动小组)所进行的提高认识工作已经取得了很大的成绩和进展。
The identification of priority areas and establishment of action teams to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III (see paras. 29-30) was an important element for success.169.
The Committee and its action teams benefited from active participation and substantive contributions by various entities of the United Nations system, in particular when the priority areas coincided with the priorities of those entities, such as in disaster reduction and emergency response to disasters.为了使各政府机构、研究机构和非政府实体能得到决策者和一般公众对其活动的广泛支持,目标必须明确、现实并与一般社会的优先次序相联系,必须明确阐明可以得到的惠益,包括短期的惠益。这对于顺利地执行各项建议是必不可少的,并应在早期阶段就做到,以确保获得必要的资源。
A good coordination mechanism was also important.A.
Coordination at all levels among the action teams, as well as between the Committee, the action teams and the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at their annual sessions, was a key factor for obtaining good results.使第三次外空会议各项的实施得以取得进展的促进性要素
Intersessional work also proved useful and was especially successful when there was strong secretariat support, whether provided by Governments or by the Office for Outer Space Affairs, and good distribution of work among the members involved.170. 以下各要素对于第三次外空会议各项建议的初始实施阶段具有重要意义:对工作排出优先次序;在整个年度进行工作时有灵活性;最大程度地增加开会和交流的机会;协调和分配工作;以及有强有力的领导和文书支持。有关第三次外空会议各项建议执行情况的详细介绍,见本报告附件二、三和五。 171. 确定优先领域和设立行动小组来执行第三次外空会议的各项建议(见第29-30段)是一个重要的成功要素。委员会及其行动小组得益于联合国系统各实体的积极参与和实质性贡献,特别是在优先领域和这些实体的优先次序不谋而合时,例如在减灾和对灾害的应急反应方面。
The action teams provided a flexible and dynamic mechanism for conducting work throughout the year by maximizing opportunities to meet and communicate.172. 有一个良好的协调机制也是重要的。各行动小组之间在各级别上的协调,以及委员会、行动小组和科学和技术小组委员会在其年会期间相互之间的协调对于取得好的成效是一个关键因素。 173.
This mechanism sustained progress while ensuring that the Committee and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee continued to assume the primary responsibility for implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III by providing guidance to the action teams.闭会期间的工作也证明是非常有益的,在得到强有力的秘书处支持时,不管这种支持是由各国政府还是由外层空间事务厅提供的,并且在有关的成员之间有很好分工时,闭会期间的工作特别成功。 174.
The implementation of the priority recommendations through the action teams also led to the development of international action-oriented networks to address the use of space applications as a tool to solve global problems.行动小组为在全年里进行工作提供了一种灵活和有活力的机制,其办法是尽可能多地增加机会举行会议和交流。这一机制使进展得以持续,同时又确保委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会通过向行动小组提供指导继续对执行第三次外空会议的各项建议承担主要的责任。通过行动小组执行各项优先建议也导致建立了各种着眼于行动的国际网络以处理利用各种空间应用作为解决全球性问题一项工具的问题。
B.B.
Identification of challenges faced in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III确定在执行第三次外空会议各项建议方面所面临的挑战
On the basis of the results of a survey conducted among the action teams, the Committee identified limited awareness of the benefits of space activities among policy makers and the general public, limited financial resources and the limited number of experts on space matters as challenges faced in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III; the limitations are interlinked. Some of the action teams indicated that these impediments were also linked to difficulties in calculating the cost-benefit advantages of space applications. The plan of action contained in chapter VI addresses these challenges.175. 根据在各行动小组中进行的一项调查的结果,委员会查明了在执行第三次外空会议各项建议方面所面临的挑战有:决策者和一般公众对空间活动的惠益了解有限、财政资源有限以及空间事务专家人数有限;这些限制之间是相互联系的。一些行动小组指出,这些障碍还与难以估算空间应用在损益方面的好处有关。第六章所载《行动计划》论及这些挑战。
While participation in the work of the action teams was open-ended, allowing any interested State or organization to participate at any point, and while many States had expressed an interest in participating in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, various combinations of the impediments mentioned above constituted major obstacles.176. 虽然参与工作组的工作是不限人数的,允许任何有关的国家或组织在任何时点参与,而且虽然许多国家表示有兴趣参与执行第三次外空会议的各项建议,但上述各种制约因素的种种结合构成了巨大的障碍。
Where space-related activities are carried out by multiple government entities, participation in the work at the international level, such as in the action teams, is often difficult if effective coordination mechanisms at the national level are not fully established or fully utilized. Without such coordination mechanisms, it could also be difficult to identify a focal point to respond in a timely manner to a request or invitation from an international body for action in space-related areas.177. 在由多个政府实体开展与空间有关的活动的情况下,参与国际一级的工作,例如参与行动小组,常常由于没有充分地建立或充分地利用有效的国家一级协调机制而变得困难。没有这种协调机制,也就难以确定一个联络中心,以便及时地对国际机构提出在空间有关的领域采取行动的请求或邀请作出反应。
While the engagement of non-governmental entities in the process of implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III was considered important, engaging the private sector by identifying appropriate and meaningful ways and means for it to work with Governments and international organizations as partners has turned out to be a challenge.178. 虽然非政府实体参与执行第三次外空会议各项建议的进程被认为是很重要的,但是通过确定适当和有意义的方式方法动员私营部门参与,使他们能够与政府和国际组织作为伙伴共同工作却是一项挑战。
C.C.
Recommendations of UNISPACE III that remain to be addressed第三次外空会议有待落实的一些建议
Among the 33 recommendations of the Vienna Declaration, 12 were identified for implementation by the action teams. As part of their agenda items, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subcommittees are implementing 11 more recommendations. In addition to those 23 recommendations, five other recommendations are being implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs or by other international entities. Of the remaining five recommendations, one recommendation calls for action to promote further the peaceful uses of outer space through cooperation between “space-faring” and “non-space-faring” countries, as well as among developing countries, and through the involvement of civil society. This is already being undertaken through a large number of follow-up activities of UNISPACE III. There are therefore four recommendations that remain to be addressed. Those recommendations call for actions (a) to ensure, to the extent possible, that all space activities, in particular those which may have harmful effects on the local and global environment, are carried out in a manner that limits such effects (recommendation 5); (b) to establish or strengthen national mechanisms to coordinate the appropriate development of space activities and foster the participation of all the sectors concerned (recommendation 19); (c) to consider creating awards to recognize outstanding contributions in space activity, in particular for youth (recommendation 23); and (d) to consider, to the extent feasible, the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences for UNISPACE III in appropriate forums (recommendation 30).179. 在维也纳宣言的33项建议中,行动小组确定了12项要执行的建议。和平利用外层空间委员会及其小组委员会作为其议程项目的一部分正在执行另外11项建议。除了这23项建议外,还有其他五项建议正由外层空间事务厅或其他国际实体在执行。在余下的五项建议中,一项建议要求采取行动通过“空间航行”和“非空间航行”国家之间以及各发展中国家之间的合作并通过民间社会的参与进一步促进和平利用外层空间。对于这一点正通过第三次外空会议的大量后续活动来加以进行。因此,还有四项建议有待落实。这些建议要求采取下列行动:(a)尽可能确保所有空间活动,尤其是那些对当地和全球环境可能产生有害影响的空间活动以一种限制这种影响的方式开展(第5号建议);(b)建立或加强国家机制,以便协调空间活动的适当发展并促进所有有关部门的参与(第19号建议);(c)考虑设立各种奖,以表彰特别是青年对空间活动所作的杰出贡献(第23号建议);及(d)尽可能在适当的论坛上审议第三次外空会议各区域筹备会议的建议(第30号建议)。
A survey is expected to be conducted among Member States following the review by the General Assembly at its fifty-ninth session of the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III in order to assess the level of priority given by Member States to the four recommendations yet to be addressed.180. 在大会第五十九届会议审查第三次外空会议各项建议的执行情况以后可望在会员国中进行一项调查,以评估各会员国对这四项有待落实的建议所确定的优先级别。
D.D.
Emerging issues following UNISPACE III第三次外空会议后新出现的问题
While UNISPACE III addressed a broad range of thematic areas where space science and technology and their applications could contribute to enhancing the human living conditions, there are a few issues that have emerged following UNISPACE III.181.
These are described below.虽然第三次外空会议涉及到空间科学和技术及其应用能够促进改善人类生活条件的范围广泛的各种专题领域,但在第三次外空会议后新出现了一些问题。这些问题简介如下。
1. Using space technology to support humanitarian assistance1. 利用空间技术来支持人道主义援助
One of the issues to emerge relates to the use of space technology and its applications in refugee operations.182.
Satellite products are increasingly used in the management of humanitarian and refugee situations around the world, such as to analyse environmental degradation, to assess the extent of destruction of housing and to assist reconstruction activities.新出现的一个问题涉及到在难民行动中使用空间技术及其应用。在管理全世界的人道主义和难民情况方面对卫星产品的利用日益增加,例如,分析环境退化情况、评估房屋的破坏程度以及援助重建活动。
With the arrival of a new generation of satellite imagery at very high resolution, satellite products have become an integral part of the humanitarian response to an international crisis.183.
This is an area where the use of space technologies could significantly contribute to supporting entities of the United Nations system in their operational activities to improve conditions for displaced populations.随着新一代甚高分辨率卫星图像的出现,卫星产品已经成为对国际危机的人道主义反应的组成部分。在这一领域使用空间技术能够大大促进支持联合国系统各实体进行其业务活动以改善流离失所人口的状况。
2. Meeting development goals and time-bound targets2. 实现发展目标和有时间限制的指标
The United Nations Millennium Summit identified global poverty as the most daunting of all the problems facing the world.184.
The United Nations Millennium Declaration adopted by the Summit identified eight development goals and a set of time-bound targets in the fight against poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of education, gender inequality, child and maternal mortality, disease and environmental degradation.联合国千年首脑会议认为,主要挑战是确保全球化成为一股有利于全世界所有人民的积极力量,并确定全球的贫困是世界所面临的所有问题中最为严重的问题。最高级会议在联合国千年宣言中,确定了八项发展目标和在与贫困、文盲、饥饿、缺少教育、性别不平等、婴儿和产妇死亡率、疾病和环境恶化等方面的一系列有时间限制的指标。
The major United Nations conferences and summits that were convened following the Millennium Summit in the economic, social and related fields offered opportunities to review the progress made in implementing the Millennium Declaration and to articulate further actions that would be necessary to achieve the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration.185. 千年首脑会议以后在经济、社会和有关领域所举行的重大联合国会议和首脑会议提供了机会,对执行千年宣言所取得的进展进行审查并阐明为实现国际商定的各项发展目标,包括千年宣言所载的各项目标必须采取的进一步行动。
There has been a convergence of effort towards integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic and social fields. In its resolution 58/291 of 6 May 2004, the General Assembly decided to review in 2005 the progress achieved in implementing all the commitments contained in the Millennium Declaration. It is expected that efforts of bodies to follow up on United Nations conferences and summits would be taken into account in the political process leading to the meeting in 2005.186. 已经共同作出努力以便一体化地协调执行和落实经济和社会领域重大的联合国会议和首脑会议的成果。大会2004年5月6日第58/291号决议决定在2005年审查在执行千年宣言所载的所有承诺方面所取得的进展。据预期在导致2005年会议的政治进程中将考虑各机构为对联合国各次会议和首脑会议采取后续行动所作出的努力。
In its report entitled “Inventing a Better Future: A Strategy for Building Worldwide Capacities in Science and Technology”, the InterAcademy Council identified science and technology as the engine that drives knowledge-based development, which is essential for social and economic inclusion, achieving equity and enhancing participation in social and economic development.187.
Space science and technology is an extremely powerful tool that should be used to achieve some of the goals set by the world summits.国际科学院委员会在其题为“创造一个更美好的未来:在世界范围内构建科学技术能力的策略”的报告中,确定科学技术是推动以知识为基础的发展的发动机,这是社会和经济包容、实现平等并促进参与社会和经济发展所必不可少的,空间科学和技术是一个极其有用的工具,应用于实现世界首脑会议所确定的各项目标。
In fighting poverty, the United Nations has increased its efforts to involve the private sector in developing countries.188.
An initiative of the United Nations Development Programme launched by the Secretary-General in July 2003, the Commission on the Private Sector and Development was established to develop strategic recommendations on how to promote strong domestic private sectors in the developing world as a key strategy towards achieving the targets set at the United Nations Millennium Summit to halve extreme poverty, halt the spread of HIV/AIDS and provide universal primary education by 2015.联合国在其与贫困作斗争的过程中加强了使发展中国家私营部门参与的努力。秘书长在2003年7月启动的联合国开发计划署的一项倡议,私营部门和发展委员会的设立是为了就如何促进在发展中世界建立强大的国内私营部门制定战略性建议,这是为实现联合国千年最高级会议所确定的到2015年将极端贫困减少一半,将艾滋病毒/艾滋病的传播减少一半并普及初等教育等指标的一项关键性战略。
In its report to the Secretary-General entitled Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor, the Commission on the Private Sector and Development offered recommendations on how the major actors—Governments, public development institutions, the private sector and civil society organizations—could modify their actions and approaches to significantly enhance the ability of the private sector to advance the development process.189.
Among other things, in the public-private sphere, the Commission called for action to facilitate access to broader financing options, assist skill and knowledge development and make possible the sustainable delivery of basic services, especially energy and water.私营部门和发展委员会在其给秘书长的题为“开发企业家精神:使企业为穷人服务”的报告中就主要的参与者——政府、公共发展机构、私营部门和民间社会组织——如何调整其行动和方法以便大大加强私营部门促进发展进程的能力提出了有关建议。在公营—私营领域,委员会特别吁请采取行动为取得更广泛的筹资选择提供方便、协助技能和知识的开发并创造条件可持续地提供基本服务,特别是能源和水。
3. Establishing an operational, comprehensive system for Earth observation through global initiatives3. 通过全球性倡议为地球观察建立一个综合性的实际作业系统
Increasingly efforts have been made, in particular by space agencies and satellite operators, to maximize and share the benefits of the existing and planned satellite missions and products, with more focus on meeting societal needs and the requirements of end-users, including those in developing countries. CEOS is one such example (see paras. 124 and 128). The participation of CEOS in the IGOS-P has also served to enhance the dialogue between satellite operators and the global in  situ observing systems for which FAO, the International Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO and WMO are responsible. IGOS-P provides the entities of the United Nations system with an opportunity to indicate their specific needs for satellite products and express their views, in particular in terms of the requirements of members of the scientific community involved in Earth observation.190. 特别是各空间机构和卫星运行商已经加强了努力以便最大程度地提高和分享现有的和计划中的卫星飞行任务和产品的惠益,更加侧重于满足社会的需求和最终用户的要求,包括发展中国家的用户。地球观察卫星委员会就是一个这样的例子(见第124和128段)。地球观测卫星委员会参与综合全球观察战略合作伙伴也起到了作用,加强了卫星经营者和粮农组织、教科文组织国际海洋学委员会和气象组织负责的、全球就地观察系统之间的对话。综合全球观察战略合作伙伴为联合国系统的各实体提供了机会,可指出他们对卫星产品的具体需要并表达他们的意见,特别是参与地球观察的科学界成员的要求。
The GMES initiative and the Earth Observation Summit, which resulted in the establishment of the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations (see paras. 165-166), aim to serve larger communities of end-users in a wide range of human activities that benefit from Earth observations. The idea of creating an international system for Earth observations had been proposed at space-related international meetings prior to UNISPACE III. The scope of the consultative process adopted by the GMES initiative and the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations in terms of the number of participating States and organizations, the level of participation and the frequency of consultative meetings, is, however, unprecedented. The process adopted by the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations, for example, involves many developing countries, as well as a large number of intergovernmental organizations, including entities of the United Nations system, in defining a global Earth observation system of systems that would meet the information needs of global, regional and local research and applications programmes aimed at providing societal benefits called for, for instance, in the United Nations Millennium Declaration and at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, while placing emphasis on capacity-building of developing countries.191. 导致设立了特设地球观察小组(见第165至166段)的全球监测促进环境和安全倡议以及地球观察问题首脑会议旨在为更多的最终用户在范围广泛的各种得益于地球观察的人类活动方面提供服务。建立一个地球观察国际体系的建议是在第三次外空会议以前各种与空间有关的国际会议上提出的。然而,全球监测促进环境和安全倡议和特设地球观测小组所采取的协商进程的范围在参加国和参加组织的数目、参与水平和协商会议的频繁程度方面是空前的。例如,特设地球观察小组采取的进程使许多发展中国家,以及大批政府间组织,包括联合国系统的实体参与确立一个全球性的地球观察系统网络,以满足旨在提供联合国千年宣言和可持续发展问题世界首脑会议所要求的社会效益的各全球性、区域性和地方性研究和应用方案的信息需要,同时强调发展中国家的能力建设。
These initiatives could lead to a globally coordinated and financially sustained mechanism to address user requirements for Earth observations worldwide and across all application areas in a comprehensive manner. This would also increase benefits from Earth observations for developing countries in a wide range of activities. A challenge for the entities of the United Nations system, with limited resources, as well as for developing countries, is to participate meaningfully in and contribute to the emerging high-level coordination initiatives in a significant manner. Each participating entity needs to identify the optimal level of participation in the coordination bodies of similar initiatives without creating adverse impacts on the delivery of their ongoing programmes and outputs.192. 这些举措能够导致一项全球协调的和财政上持续的机制,以便在全球范围内并在所有应用领域以一种综合方式满足用户对地球观察的要求。这还将增加地球观察对发展中国家在范围广泛的各种活动方面带来的惠益。对于资源有限的联合国系统的实体以及发展中国家来说,一个挑战是有意义地参与并以有力的方式促进新出现的高层协调倡议。每一个参与实体都必须确定参与类似倡议的协调机构的最佳程度,而不对其正在进行的方案和投入的执行产生不利影响。
4. The International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”4. “空间与重大灾害”国际宪章
The International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” was announced by ESA and CNES during UNISPACE III and subsequently signed by those agencies in June 2000 and by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) in October 2000. The International Charter, operational since November 2000, aims at providing, through authorized users, a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by disasters. Through the Charter, satellites of the present Charter members, ESA, CNES, CSA, the Indian Space Research Organisation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States and the National Commission on Space Activities of Argentina, can be used to provide Earth observation images to civil protection authorities responding to a major disaster. In addition, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency applied to join the Charter in September 2003 and is participating in Charter activities as an observer.193. “空间与重大灾害”国际宪章是欧空局和法国空间局在第三次外空会议期间宣布的,并随后由这两个机构于2000年6月以及由加拿大空间局于2000年10月作了签署。国际宪章从2000年11月起开始运作,旨在通过经授权的用户向受灾者提供统一的空间数据采集和传送系统。通过宪章,目前的宪章成员、欧空局、法国空间局、加拿大空间局、印度空间研究组织、美国国家海洋和大气层管理局以及阿根廷国家空间活动委员会的卫星都可用于向应对重大灾害的平民保护当局提供地球观测图像。此外,日本航空航天探索局于2003年9月申请加入宪章,并正在以观察员身份参加宪章的活动。
As at 1 June 2004, the Charter had been activated 55 times in response to earthquakes, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, landslides, oil spills, train explosions and volcano eruptions in more than 30 countries around the world. The experience with the Charter so far indicates that it serves as an effective mechanism of response to requests by countries affected by disasters. Its effectiveness would be increased if more countries with space agencies having remote sensing satellite capabilities were to join the Charter. Those countries are, therefore, encouraged to further strengthen the Charter.194. 截至2004年6月1日,宪章已针对全世界30多个国家中的地震、水灾、森林火灾、飓风、山崩、石油溢出、火车爆炸和火山喷发而启用了55次。迄今为此在宪章方面的经历表明,宪章是响应受灾国的请求的一个有效机制。如果更多的设立了具有遥感卫星能力的机构的国家加入宪章,则宪章的效力将会更大。因此,鼓励这些国家进一步加强宪章。
5. The growing impact of globalization5. 全球化日益增长的影响
Over the past decade, the world has experienced the major phenomena of globalization and rapid technological advances. It is now possible to exchange information and act much faster on a global scale and to mobilize resources for much larger profits. There are, however, also challenges associated with globalization. In a global world, anything that happens on the planet could affect the entire international community.195. 过去十年里世界上出现了全球化和快速经济发展的重要现象。现在可以在全球范围内以快得多的速度交流信息和采取行动,并调集资源以获取大得多的利润。然而,全球化也带来一些挑战。在一个全球化的世界内,这个星球上发生的任何事情都可能影响到整个国际社会。
Space technology should be considered a tool to capitalize on the opportunities that globalization offers for economic and social development in a sustainable manner. Space applications, particularly through Earth observations, can provide effective tools for cooperation and coordination of policy at the global level to protect the environment. Satellite communications have significant potential to bridge the digital divide by contributing to the development and strengthening of the information and communication infrastructure as an essential foundation for a knowledge-based society.196. 应将空间技术视为一个工具,借以利用全球化提供的新出现的机会以可持续的方式实现经济和社会发展。空间应用,特别是通过地球观测,能够为全球一级环境保护政策的合作与协调提供有效工具。卫星通信具有巨大的潜力来消灭数字鸿沟,它可以开发和加强信息和通信基础设施作为知识社会的根本基础。
E.E.
Inter-agency coordination bodies dealing with space-related matters处理与空间有关事务的机构间协调机关
Coordination among the entities of the United Nations system is achieved through the work of the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination.197.
While the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities is not part of the machinery of the Board, the Meeting serves as the focal point for inter-agency coordination in space-related activities and reports to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.联合国系统内各实体之间的协调是通过联合国系统行政首长协调理事会的工作来实现的。虽然外层空间活动机构间会议并不是该理事会机制的一部分,但是会议是与空间有关活动的机构间协调的联络中心并向和平利用外层空间委员会报告。
In recent years, new inter-agency coordination bodies that have direct or indirect relevance to space-related activities have started to emerge; one such body is the United Nations Geographic Information Working Group. The Working Group seeks to identify and implement protocols for sharing, maintaining and assuring the quality of geographic information within the United Nations system and to develop and maintain a common geographic database as a crucial capacity-building effort to enhance normative, programme and operational capabilities and efficiencies within the United Nations system (see also para. 118). The Task Group on Remote Sensing of the Working Group, for example, is working towards providing a single point of entry for shareable satellite imagery held by individual United Nations entities, allowing access by the entire United Nations community, and exploring how all United Nations entities could be included in multi-user licenses for use of satellite imagery.198. 在最近几年里,开始出现一些与外层空间方面活动直接或间接有关的新的机构间协调机关,一个这样的机关是联合国地理信息工作组。该工作组致力于确定和执行联合国系统内部地理信息的分享、维护和质量保证规程并开发和维持一个共同的地理数据库作为一项关键性的能力建设努力,以加强联合国系统内的规范、方案和业务能力及效能。(还见第118段)。例如,工作组的遥感工作队致力于为个别联合国实体所持有的可分享的卫星图象提供一个单一的入口,允许整个联合国系统访问,并探索如何可把所有的联合国实体列入使用卫星图像的多用户许可证。
Established by the General Assembly in its resolution 54/219 of 22 December 1999, the Inter-Agency Task Force on Disaster Reduction has been serving since 2002 as the main forum within the United Nations for continued and concerted emphasis on natural disaster reduction, in particular for defining strategies for international cooperation at all levels. The Task Force endeavours to identify gaps in disaster reduction policies and programmes and to recommend remedial action. Currently, the Task Force has four working groups to address the following topics: climate and disasters; early warning; risk, vulnerability and impact assessment; and wild land fires. While the Task Force does not address the use of space technology for disaster reduction as part of its regular work, the secretariat of the Task Force has been working with the Office for Outer Space Affairs to ensure that the use of space technology will be appropriately taken into account in defining future disaster reduction policies and strategies.199. 由大会1999年12月22日第54/219号决议设立的减少自然灾害机构间工作队自2002年以来一直作为联合国内部继续和协调一致地强调减少自然灾害的主要论坛,特别是在确定各个级别进行国际合作的战略方面。该工作队努力查明在减灾政策和方案方面漏洞并提出纠正性行动的建议。目前,该工作队有四个工作组在处理下列主题:气候和灾害;预警;风险、脆弱性和影响评估;以及野火。虽然工作队不将使用空间技术进行减灾作为其日常工作的一部分来处理,但是工作队秘书处一直跟外层空间事务厅合作以确保在确定未来的减灾政策和战略时适当考虑使用空间技术。
In November 2001, the Secretary-General established the United Nations Information and Communications Technologies Task Force pursuant to a request by the Economic and Social Council. The Task Force is intended to provide leadership within the United Nations system by helping to formulate strategies for the development of information and communication technologies and putting those technologies at the service of development. The main areas of the business plan adopted by the Task Force for 2004 include monitoring progress in the application of information and communication technologies for the development goals of the World Summit on the Information Society. Through its five working groups, the Task Force is, for example, supporting the development and applications of information and communication technologies to strengthen health-care systems and infrastructure in developing countries.200. 2001年11月,秘书长根据经济及社会理事会的请求,设立了联合国信息和通信技术工作队。该工作队旨在通过帮助制定开发信息和通信技术的战略并使这种技术为发展服务以便在联合国系统内提供领导。工作队通过的2004年业务计划的主要领域包括,监察应用信息和通信技术实现信息社会世界峰会的发展目标方面的进展。例如,该工作队通过其五个工作组正支持在发展中国家开发和应用信息和通信技术以加强医疗保健系统和基础设施。
These inter-agency coordination bodies could serve to articulate the specific needs of various entities of the United Nations system that could be met by space technology and its applications. Interaction between these bodies and space-based systems and service providers could lead to a better use of existing space-based services and products. At the same time, there might be a need to examine ways to enhance coordination between the inter-agency bodies dealing with space-related matters, to ensure that participation in those bodies does not create an additional burden on the United Nations bodies with space-related activities, while keeping the inter-agency bodies well informed of the ongoing and planned space-related programmes and initiatives. The Committee expressed its support for the Space Education Programme of UNESCO as a contribution to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 to 2014) and joint initiatives might be implemented by member States of the Committee and UNESCO on the issue of education and the use of space tools to support sustainable development.201. 这些机构间协调机关能够起到作用阐明空间技术及其应用能够解决的联合国系统各实体的具体需要。这些机关和天基系统和服务提供商之间的互动能导致现有天基服务和产品的更好利用。与此同时,可能还有必要审查加强处理与空间有关事务的机构间机关之间协调的方法,以便确保参与这些机构并不会对涉足与空间有关活动的联合国机构带来额外的负担,同时又使这些机构间机关很好地了解正在进行和计划中的与空间有关的方案和倡议。委员会表示支持教科文组织的空间教育方案作为对联合国可持续发展教育十年(2005-2014年)的一个贡献,可由委员会成员国和教科文组织成员国实施关于教育问题的联合倡议,并利用空间手段支持可持续发展。
F.F.
Funding and financing implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III为实施第三次外空会议的建议筹措资金
1. Prospects for resources to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III1. 支持执行第三次外空会议各项建议的资源前景
The size of the worldwide space sector was estimated at about Є144 billion (approximately US$ 128 billion) in 2003. This includes the budgets of Governments and space agencies for space-related activities, estimated at about Є43.5 billion (approximately US$ 39 billion), as well as the revenues generated by the commercial space applications in the fields of telecommunication, Earth observation and navigation. The revenue for the space industry involved in or associated with infrastructure (space-based and ground-based infrastructure and launch vehicles), satellite services, use of space-based data and assets as well as support services, was estimated to be US$ 97 billion in 2003 and is forecast to grow to over US$ 130 billion by 2008. Many space-faring countries plan to invest in expanding launch facilities, refurbishing ground facilities and developing launch vehicles, as well as in satellites for Earth observations, weather forecasting, communications and navigation and positioning. Some countries also increased government budgets for civil space activities.202. 2003年全世界空间部门的规模估计约为1,440亿欧元(大约1,280亿美元)。这包括各国政府和空间机构对与空间有关活动的预算,估计约为435亿欧元(大约390亿美元),以及空间在电信、地球观测和导航等领域的商业应用所产生的收入。空间行业参与基础设施(天基和地基基础设施和运载火箭)、卫星服务、使用天基数据和资产以及支持服务,或与这些有关所产生的收入2003年估计为970亿美元,到2008年预计将增长到超过1,300亿美元。许多空间航行国家计划投资于扩大发射设施、整修地面设施和开发运载火箭,以及进行地球观测、天气预报、通信及导航及定位等方面的卫星。一些国家还增加了政府对民用空间活动的预算。
The implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III could rely heavily on the use of existing infrastructure and other resources and services.203.
With a relatively small amount of resources as compared to the total sum of investment in space infrastructure, applications and services, and allowing for the use of space capacities that are not fully utilized, Governments, space industry and the private sector in general could provide significant support to the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III.执行第三次外空会议的各项建议在很大程度上可能依赖于使用现有的基础设施和其他资源及服务。由于与在空间基础设施、应用和服务方面投资的总金额相比,资源相对较少,还考虑到使用未被充分利用的空间能力,各国政府,空间行业和私营部门一般来说能够对执行第三次外空会议的各项决议提供重要的支持。
To achieve the internationally agreed development goals, it is imperative to involve all stakeholders, including multilateral development institutions and bilateral aid agencies, multinational and local corporations and international private sector association, as well as regional players experienced in development efforts. The combination of all these stakeholders could bring additional resources for the use of space science and technology and their applications to provide solutions called for in the United Nations Millennium Declaration in a cost-effective manner. An example of this is the Disaster Response Initiative, which addresses the independent fund provider’s need for increased understanding of grants provided in response to a disaster and provides a set of principles and practical guidelines to assist them in responding to disasters in a more effective and accountable manner.204. 为实现国际商定的发展目标,必须使所有利益攸关者参加,包括多边发展机构和双边援助机构、多国公司和当地公司及国际私营部门协会,以及在发展努力方面富有经验的区域参与者。所有这些利益攸关者联合起来就可以为空间科学和技术及其应用带来额外的资源,以便以一种成本有效的方式提供联合国千年宣言所要求的解决办法。这方面的一个例子是灾害对策倡议,该倡议所针对的是独立基金提供者需要更多地了解针对灾害所提供的赠款并提供一套原则和实际的准则以协助他们以更加有效和负责的方式对灾害作出反应。
The expertise of the stakeholders identified in paragraph 204 above and others should be considered in preparing pilot projects recommended by the action teams to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III. In assisting developing countries to secure sufficient funding, consideration should be given not only to foreign direct investment but also to policies and strategies that allow the participation of the national private sector. There is a need for, and a benefit to, compiling best practices and lessons learned with regard to the participation of the private sector in pilot projects of operational programmes.205. 在制定行动小组为执行第三次外空会议的建议而建议的试点项目时应考虑以上204段所确定的利益攸关者和其他人的专门知识。在协助发展中国家争取足够的资金时,应不仅考虑外国直接投资,还应考虑允许国内私营部门参加的政策和战略。有必要就私营部门参与业务方案的试点项目汇编最佳的做法和吸取的经验教训,这样做也是有利的。
2. Resources to support the United Nations Programme on Space Applications2. 支持联合国空间应用方案的资源
Governments have provided the main sources of funding to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III through cash or in-kind contributions. Member States support the work of the Office for Outer Space Affairs through voluntary contributions and contributions to the regular budget of the United Nations. Other sources of funding include donations from intergovernmental organizations, international and national non-governmental organizations, private companies and individuals.206. 各国政府通过现金或实物捐款提供了执行第三次外空会议各项建议的主要资金来源。各会员国通过自愿捐款和向联合国经常预算缴款支持外层空间事务厅的工作。资金的其他来源包括政府间组织、国际和国内非政府组织、私营公司和个人的捐款。
Regular budget and extrabudgetary resources are the two main sources of funding to support the work of the Office for Outer Space Affairs.207.
The extrabudgetary resources, or voluntary contributions, are allocated to the Office through the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, which was established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 37/90 of 10 December 1982 on UNISPACE 82.经常预算和预算外资源是支持外层空间事务厅工作的两个主要资金来源。通过联合国空间应用方案信托基金给外空事务厅拨给预算外资源或自愿捐款,该信托基金是根据1982年12月10日大会关于82年外空会议的第37/90号决议设立的。
In addition to support provided by the host countries of the activities of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications (see paras. 212-214 below), inkind contributions include providing speakers and lecturers to the workshops, training courses, seminars and symposiums organized within the framework of the Programme.208.
Work conducted on a voluntary basis by members of the action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is also considered an essential in-kind contribution.除了联合国空间应用方案各项活动的东道国所提供的支助外(见下文212-214段),实物捐助还包括向方案框架内组织的各种讲习班、培训班、研讨会和专题讨论会提供发言者和讲课者。由和平利用外层空间委员会建立的行动小组成员自愿进行的工作也被认为是一种必要的实物捐助。
3. Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications3. 联合国空间应用方案信托基金
In direct response to a recommendation contained in the Vienna Declaration to establish a special voluntary United Nations fund for the purpose of implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III, the terms of reference of the existing Trust Fund were revised to include new activities of the Programme to implement those recommendations. As requested by the General Assembly in paragraph 9 of its resolution 54/68 of 6 December 1999, in 2000 the Secretary-General invited Member States to contribute to the Fund and included in his invitation a list of priority project proposals prepared on the basis of recommendations of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space at its fortyfourth session. The following projects and activities were included in the list:209. 作为对《维也纳宣言》所载的为执行第三次外空会议各项建议设立一项特别的联合国自愿基金的建议的直接反应,对现有的信托基金职权范围作了修订,以包括方案执行这些建议的新的活动。根据大会1999年12月6日第54/68号决议第9段的要求,2000年秘书长请各会员国向该基金捐款并在其邀请中列出了根据和平利用外层空间委员会第四十四届会议的建议编制的优先项目提案清单。清单中列入了以下项目和活动:
(a) Support for the operational activities of the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, and the Network of Space Science and Technology Education and Research Institutions for Central-Eastern and South-Eastern Europe;(a) 支持附属于联合国的空间科学和技术教育区域中心以及中东欧和东南欧空间科学和技术教育和研究机构网的业务活动;
(b) Development of disaster-specific modules and implementation of pilot projects in developing countries to introduce the use of space technologies in disaster management;(b) 在发展中国家开发特别针对灾害的模型并执行试点项目以便在灾害管理中推行使用空间技术;
(c) Provision of satellite data, hardware and software to user institutions in developing countries to initiate or strengthen pilot projects that use Earth observation data for protecting the environment and management of natural resources;(c) 对发展中国家的用户机构提供卫星数据、硬件和软件,以便启动或加强利用地球观测数据保护环境和管理自然资源的试点项目;
(d) Development and implementation of a training module on the use of satellite communications for distance education, telemedicine and tele-health applications;(d) 制定和执行一个利用卫星通信进行远程教育、远程医疗和远程保健应用的培训模型;
(e) Organization of outreach activities for young people and the general public.(e) 组织针对青年人和一般公众的推广活动。
The Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the annual report of the Expert on Space Applications, has continued to report to the Committee on the cash and inkind contributions received in support of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. In many cases, cash contributions to the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications are earmarked by donors for specific activities organized within the framework of the Programme. The level of cash contributions varies from year to year, determining the number of workshops, training courses and seminars to be organized, the size of those meetings and the number of projects to be funded with voluntary contributions. Predicting the level of voluntary contributions in any given year makes it difficult to plan activities well in advance. The cash contributions received in the Trust Fund from 2000 to 2003 were as follows:210. 外层空间事务厅通过空间应用专家的年度报告继续向委员会报告已收到的支持联合国空间应用方案的现金和实物捐款情况。在许多情况下,给联合国空间应用方案信托基金的现金捐款被捐款者指定专门用于方案框架内组织的具体活动。现金捐款的水平各年不一样,这决定了拟组织的讲习班、培训班、研讨会的数目,这些会议的规模以及利用自愿捐款资助的项目数量。由于要预测任何特定年度的自愿捐款水平,因此难以提前很早的时间来对活动进行计划。从2000年至2003年,信托基金所收到的现金捐款如下:
20002000年.......... 113 000美元
$113,0002001年.......... 164 600美元
20012002年.......... 705 000美元
$164,6002003年.......... 93 600美元
2002211. 使自愿捐款来源多样化并增加这种来源会减轻依赖少数几个捐助者组织许多活动所产生的负担。然而,使捐款来源多样化也可能增加和接受资金有关的行政工作量,因为不同的捐款者在申请和接受资金方面有不同的行政要求。
$705,0004. 支持联合国空间应用方案和附属于联合国的空间科学和技术教育区域中心的
2003活动
$93,600212. 主办方案讲习班、培训班、研讨会和专题讨论会的国家提供现金和实物捐款的主要办法是支付所有内部活动的费用,例如与会者的膳宿、会议设施、当地的工作人员、当地的交通和为与会者组织社会活动。奥地利政府自1994年以来一直主办了每年的专题讨论会,瑞典政府自1990年以来主办了针对教育工作者的遥感教育国际培训班,支付了组织了这些活动所涉及的所有当地费用,以及与会者的国际机票。
Diversifying and increasing the sources of voluntary contributions reduces the burden of relying on a few donors for the organization of many activities.213.
However, diversifying the sources of contributions could also mean an increased amount of administrative work associated with receiving funds, owing to different administrative requirements by different donors in applying for and receiving funds.组织联合国空间应用方案各项活动所涉及的费用中平均有三分之一由信托基金提供的资源支付。还有三分之一由外层空间事务厅经常预算支付,余下部分由主办各种活动的国家,包括许多发展中国家支付。
4. Support for the activities of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations214. 空间科学和技术教育区域中心的东道国对这些中心的建立和运行作出了重要贡献。区域中心的建立是为了向大学的教育工作者及研究和应用科学家提供包括为期九个月的研究生培训课程的教育方案,然后在其各自的国家从事为期一年的试点项目,以便确保参加者充分利用他们在培训班所学到的技能和知识。与主办国负担的总的活动费用相比,外空事务厅提供的资金水平相对较少,特别是在一年中组织一个以上九个月的培训班的情况下。除了以下所列的由区域中心组织的培训班以外,一些中心还组织了短期讲习班。
States that hosted the workshops, training courses, seminars and symposiums of the Programme made cash and in-kind contributions by, among many other things, defraying the cost of all internal operations, for example, room and board for the participants, meeting facilities, local staff, local transportation and organization of social events for the participants. The Government of Austria has hosted the annual symposium since 1994 and the Government of Sweden has hosted the international training course on remote sensing education for educators since 1990, defraying all local expenses involved in the organization of these activities, as well as the international air travel of participants.区域中心 地点和开办年份 自开办以来组织的九个月
On average, one third of the cost involved in organizing activities of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications has been covered with resources from the Trust Fund. Another third has been covered by the regular budget of the Office for Outer Space Affairs, and the remainder by the States that hosted activities, including many developing countries.研究生课程数目和专题
The host countries of the regional centres for space science and technology education have made significant contributions for the establishment and operation of those centres. The regional centres have been established to provide university educators and research and application scientists with education programmes consisting of postgraduate training courses lasting nine months, followed by pilot projects over a one-year period in their respective countries in order to ensure that the participants make full use of the skills and knowledge gained in the training courses. The level of funding provided by the Office is small compared to the total operational cost covered by the host countries, particularly in cases where more than one nine-month training course is organized in a year. In addition to the training courses organized by the regional centres, as indicated below, some centres have also organized short-term workshops.亚洲和太平洋空间科学和技术教育区域中心 1995年,印度 五期有关遥感和地理信息系统的班
Regional centre Location and year of inauguration Number and subject of nine-month postgraduate courses organized since inauguration四期有关卫星通信的班
Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific India, 1995 Seven courses on remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS)三期有关卫星气象学和全球气候的班
Four courses on satellite communications三期有关空间和大气科学的班
Three courses on satellite meteorology and global climate非洲空间科学和技术区域中心—用英语 1998年,尼日利亚 两期关于卫星通信的班
Three courses on space and atmospheric science两期关于卫星气象学的班
African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology—in English Language Nigeria, 1998 Two courses on satellite communications非洲空间科学和技术区域中心—用法语 1998年,摩洛哥 三期关于遥感和地理信息系统的班
Two courses on satellite meteorology两期期关于卫星气象学和全球气候的班
African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology—in French Language Morocco, 1998 Three courses on remote sensing and GIS拉丁美洲和加勒比空间科学和技术教育区域中心 2003年,巴西和墨西哥 一期关于遥感和地理信息系统的班
Two courses on satellite communications5. 确定新的资金和支助来源
Two courses on satellite meteorology and global climate215. 在第三次外空会议以后,委员会及其秘书处根据第三次外空会议关于确定新的、有创意的供资来源的建议继续重视确定新的资金和支助来源。
Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Brazil and Mexico, 2003 One course on remote sensing and GIS 5. Identifying new sources of funding and support216. 科学和技术小组委员会2000年届会注意到外层空间事务厅关于空间科学和技术教育区域中心可能的资金来源的建议。外空事务厅建议,各国政府和国际发展金融机构的发展方案应通过提供财政援助、专家和设备等方式支持这些中心。各空间机构、大学与空间有关的专门机构支持这些中心的办法可以包括支付有限数量的教育数据、培训的费用以及执行试点项目的费用,提供教材和主办作为这些中心教育方案一部分的个别试点项目。工业界也可以考虑为教育和执行试点项目捐赠硬件和软件和并结成互利的伙伴关系。
Following UNISPACE III, the Committee and its secretariat have continued to place importance on identifying new sources of funding and support in response to a recommendation by UNISPACE III to identify new and innovative sources of funding.217. 2002和2003年,科学和技术小组委员会审议了调集必要的财政资源以发展空间科学和技术应用方面的能力。小组委员会的结论指出,调集这种财政资源的办法可包括在技术机构、捐赠国和组织、私营部门和发展中国家参与可持续发展的用户之间建立伙伴关系。小组委员会认为委员会应提请各发展银行和资助发展中国家发展项目的国际筹资机构注意空间应用的巨大潜力。与小组委员会在这一议程项目下进行的工作相辅相成的是新的有创意的供资来源行动小组,以及2001年举办的联合国/国际宇宙航行联合会讲习班,这些活动审查了试点项目的业务问题,包括筹资战略。新的有创意的供资来源行动小组的建议摘要见本报告附件五,附录十二。
At its session in 2000, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee noted the suggestions by the Office for Outer Space Affairs on possible sources of funding for the regional centres for space science and technology education. The Office suggested that development programmes of Governments and international development financial institutions should support the centres by providing financial aid, experts and equipment. Space agencies, universities and specialized space-related institutions could support the centres by, among other things, defraying the cost of limited amounts of data for education, training and the implementation of pilot projects, providing educational material and sponsoring individual pilot projects that would be part of the education programme of the centres. Industry could also consider donating hardware and software for education and the implementation of pilot projects and entering into mutually beneficial partnerships.218. 必须鼓励发展中国家从拟在空间应用方案和信托基金下启动的试点项目获益。还应鼓励受惠国为这些试点项目的筹资捐款。
In 2002 and 2003, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee considered the mobilization of financial resources to develop capacity in space science and technology applications. The Subcommittee concluded that mobilization of such financial resources could be achieved through, among other things, partnerships between technical agencies, donor countries and organizations, the private sector and users in developing countries involved in sustainable development. The Subcommittee considered it important that the Committee bring the immense potential of space applications to the attention of development banks and other international funding institutions that finance development projects in developing countries. The work conducted by the Subcommittee under the agenda item was complemented by the Action Team on New and Innovative Sources of Funding as well as by the United Nations/International Astronautical Federation Workshop held in 2001, which examined the operational aspects of pilot projects, including strategies for funding. The summary of the recommendations of the Action Team on New and Innovative Sources of Funding can be found in annex V, appendix XII, to the present report.219. 一些在委员会享有常设观察员地位的组织已经对确定能够支持执行第三次外空会议各项建议的资金来源采取了新的办法。例如,欧空局已经采用了一种“试点项目”的办法,这种办法将调集发展援助机构的资金来支持空间应用领域的业务试点项目。欧空局的办法包括两个方面:第一方面是提供专门的培训、技术咨询和研究金等;以及随后支持寻找必要的资金,主要是来自发展援助基金的资金,来支持项目的执行。
Developing countries have to be encouraged to benefit from the pilot projects to be initiated under the space applications programme and trust fund.220.
The benefiting countries should also be encouraged to contribute to the funding of the pilot projects.摄影测量和遥感学会正在建立摄影测量和遥感学会基金以管理一个广泛的基础宽广的国际方案,该方案将向合格的个人和组织提供赠款、培训用品以及其他形式的科学援助,研究和/或应用有关知识以促进摄影测量和遥感学会所体现的各门学科有关的科学和技术的进步,特别是支助发展中国家的那些个人和组织。
Some organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee have taken new approaches to identifying sources of funding that could support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. For example, ESA has adopted a “pilot project” approach, which is to mobilize funding from development aid agencies to support operational pilot projects in the field of space applications. The ESA approach is twofold: first, to provide specialized training, technical advice and fellowships, among other things, then to support the search for the necessary funding, typically from development aid funds, to support the implementation of the project.221. 如何为实施第三次外空会议的建议获得资金仍是一个挑战。和平利用外层空间委员会认为这一问题应当由所有成员国和其他有关组织予以认真处理,以便促进采取为今后计划的进一步行动。
The ISPRS is establishing the ISPRS Foundation, to administer an extensive and broadly based international programme that would provide grants, training supplies and other forms of scientific assistance to qualified individuals and organizations that are pursuing and/or applying knowledge for advancing the sciences and technologies associated with the disciplines embodied by ISPRS, especially in developing countries.六. 展望未来
Obtaining adequate funding and financial resources for implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III continues to be a challenge.A.
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space considers that this issue should be addressed by all Member States and other interested organizations in a serious manner, in order to facilitate further actions planned for the future.概况
VI.222.
The way ahead各种空间应用对全世界日常生活的方方面面产生影响。就广义而言,通过利用空间来观测、测量和实现世界上一个地方向另一个地方的即时通讯而促成的能力具有深远的实际影响。空间应用提供宝贵的手段,可用于处理世界面临的许多全球任务及改善人类生活条件。这些应用可用于列方面:在全世界实现可持续发展、保护环境、使所有人都能够从全球通信获益、更好地管理自然灾害并减轻其影响、加强全世界所有地方的能力建设、在贫困地区提供远程医疗和远程保健以及提供用其他方法可能无法实现的区域经济发展。
A.223.
Overview为了确定提高空间能力是否会大大有助于实现这类重要目标,和平利用外层空间委员会在实施《维也纳宣言》所载第三次外空会议的建议时,审查了联合国千年首脑会议(这是一次盛况空前的国家和政府首脑聚会)、可持续发展问题世界首脑会议和信息社会世界首脑会议通过的各项发展目标。此外,还审查了许多其他资料来源,以确定潜在的需要,并酌情对这些需要作了协调和综合,以便确定加强现有或计划中的空间系统的最佳方法。
A wide range of space applications affects many aspects of daily life throughout the world. In the broadest sense, the capabilities enabled by using space to observe, measure and allow instantaneous communications from one part of the world to another have far-reaching practical implications. Space applications provide invaluable tools that can be used to address many of the global tasks facing the world and to improve human living conditions. These applications can be used in such areas as achieving a sustainable world, protecting the environment, enabling all people to benefit from global communications, better managing and alleviating the effects of natural disasters, enhancing capacity-building in all parts of the world, providing for telemedicine and tele-health in underprivileged regions and providing for regional economic development that would otherwise not be possible.224. 在过去的五年,在将《维也纳宣言》中设想的种种可能性变为现实方面,已经取得了长足的进步,《维也纳宣言》制订了一项工作计划,使各国能与联合国系统各实体、政府间组织和民间社会一道努力,满足人民特别是发展中国家人民的基本需要并提高其生活质量。有关国家在国家一级或在区域或全球一级通过双边或多边合作实施了一些与空间有关的倡议和项目,直接促进开展了《维也纳宣言》中建议的行动。空间机构和与空间有关的政府间组织在引导这种倡议方面发挥了重要作用。它们的努力由非政府组织实体给予了加强,从而促进扩展了在基层一级支持这种倡议的基础,方法是使个人跨国界联网并推动其一道努力实现第三次外空会议确定的目标。
In order to establish whether enhanced space capabilities could significantly contribute to meeting such important goals, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III as set out in the Vienna Declaration, reviewed the development goals adopted by the United Nations Millennium Summit, which was the largest ever gathering of heads of State and Government, the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the World Summit on the Information Society.225.
In addition, many other sources were reviewed to identify potential needs and, where appropriate, those needs have been coordinated and integrated so as to establish the most appropriate enhancements to existing or planned space systems.在国际一级,和平利用外层空间委员会协调了执行第三次外空会议各项建议的努力。委员会通过了建立由成员国自愿领导的行动小组的创新机制,以使优先建议转变成具体行动。行动小组关于展望未来的建议都以与其负责的第三次外空会议各项建议有关的活动现状的全球综合审查为基础。关于第三次外空会议的建议的各行动小组提议的许多行动处理下列问题:协调机制、所需资源、可能需要制订和通过的标准以及关于将现有或计划中的空间系统进一步发展成具有业务上全球覆盖和效用的系统的要求。
Over the past five years, important progress has been achieved in turning into reality the possibilities enshrined in the Vienna Declaration, which offered a programme of work for States to work together with entities of the United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations and civil society to meet the basic needs of people, in particular people in developing countries, and to improve the quality of their lives. A number of space-related initiatives and projects have been undertaken by States at the national level or through bilateral or multilateral cooperation at regional or global levels, directly contributing to carrying out actions recommended in the Vienna Declaration. Space agencies and space-related intergovernmental organizations played an important role in leading such initiatives. Their efforts have been strengthened by non-governmental entities, which contributed to expanding the basis of support for such initiatives at the grass-roots level, by networking individuals across borders and motivating them to work together towards achieving the goals set by UNISPACE III.226. 有关情况表明,空间活动具有大大促进实现许多重要发展目标的能力。有关情况还表明,委员会能够通过其已建立的机制收集和综合可由空间活动加以解决的各种全球发展需要。尽管取得了许多成就,但要使空间活动的经济和社会惠益更多地提供给发展中国家更多的人民,仍需完成更多的工作。下文所述行动计划提出了国际社会在未来几年应该通过有关国际机构采取的主要行动和倡议。
At the international level, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has coordinated the efforts to implement the recommendations of UNISPACE III. The Committee adopted the innovative mechanism of establishing action teams under the voluntary leadership of Member States to translate priority recommendations into specific actions. The recommendations of the action teams on the way forward are based on a comprehensive, global review of the current status of the activities that relate to the recommendations of UNISPACE III under their responsibility. Many of the actions proposed by the action teams on the recommendations of UNISPACE III address coordinating mechanisms, the resources required, standards that may need to be developed and adopted and the requirements for the further development of existing or planned space systems into systems with an operational global reach and utility.227. 完成确定所有潜在需要的任务并实施和运行空间系统来满足这些需要,这超出了委员会的任务授权和能力的范围。但委员会能够在用户与潜在的以空间为基础的发展和服务提供商之间提供一个桥梁,方法是确定和协调成员国的用户要求并提出可满足这些要求的科学和技术系统。大会可在政治上核可这种要求的有效性,以满足通过其各种机制确立的更广泛的全球需要。有关政府空间机构可单独行动或与其他机构、用户组织和私营部门一道行动,建立和控制资源以及开发空间系统,这种系统可随后转给适当的服务组织,由其根据适当的安排加以运行,直接或在由已建立的地面系统加以增扩后向用户提供特定服务,并为此适当收取费用。最后,用户可将这些服务应用于其在各种应用中的需要并为使用这种已开发的空间系统适当收取费用,这将有助于提供新的全球覆盖面、查询和支助。
It has been clearly demonstrated that space activities have the capacity to contribute significantly to meeting many important development goals. It has also been clearly demonstrated that the Committee has the capacity, through mechanisms it has developed, to collect and integrate information on various global development needs that can be addressed by space activities. Much has already been accomplished, but much more needs to be done to make the economic and social benefits of space activities more available to a larger part of the population in the developing world. The plan of action set out below proposes significant actions and initiatives that should be undertaken by the international community through relevant international bodies in the coming years.B. 行动计划
Completing the tasks of identifying all potential needs and implementing and operating the space systems to meet them is beyond the scope of the mandate and capacity of the Committee. However, the Committee is able to provide a bridge between users and potential providers of space-based development and services by identifying and coordinating the user requirements of Member States and suggesting scientific and technical systems that might meet them. The General Assembly could provide its political endorsement of the validity of such requirements to meet broader global needs established through its various mechanisms. Interested government space agencies could then work alone or with other agencies, user organizations and the private sector to establish and control resources and develop space systems that could subsequently be passed to appropriate service organizations to operate, under suitable arrangements, providing specific services to users either directly or after augmentation by already established terrestrial systems and collecting appropriate revenues for so doing. Finally, users could apply the services to their needs in various applications and pay appropriate fees for the use of such developed space systems, which would provide new global reach, access and support1. 利用空间支持核心的全球可持续发展议程
B.228.
Plan of Action在经济和社会领域召开的联合国会议和首脑会议之后举行的联合国千年首脑会议,确定了目标和有时限的指标以加速优先领域的发展速度。这些目标和指标成为核心的全球议程。大会在其第57/270 A和B号决议中认为,促进统筹协调执行联合国各次主要会议和首脑会议的结果及其后续行动的机制是一项优先任务。在秘书长和联合国开发计划署署长(以联合国发展集团主席的身份)全盘指导下,设立了千年项目以帮助确保所有发展中国家都实现《联合国千年宣言》中所载的目标。千年项目在执行分析工作的10个任务组支持下,旨在在2005年之前提出实现千年发展目标的最佳战略。
1. The use of space to support overarching global agendas for sustainable development229. 执行第三次外空会议各项建议方面取得的任何进展也是实现国际议定的发展目标方面的进展。使用业经证实的空间能力,如地球观测系统、地理信息系统、卫星气象学、卫星通信及卫星导航和定位系统,使执行第三次外空会议各项建议的努力产生了协同效应和融合作用,这将有力地支持联合国千年首脑会议、可持续发展问题世界首脑会议和信息社会问题世界首脑会议要求采取的行动。
The United Nations Millennium Summit, followed by United Nations conferences and summits convened in the economic and social fields, set goals and time-bound targets to accelerate the pace of development in the priority areas. These serve as the overarching global agendas. The General Assembly, in its resolutions 57/270 A and B, considered it a priority to advance mechanisms for the integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to the outcomes of those major United Nations conferences and summits. Under the overall guidance of the Secretary-General and the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, in his capacity as Chair of the United Nations Development Group, the Millennium Project was set up to help ensure that all developing countries meet the goals contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration. Supported by 10 task forces to carry out analytical work, the Millennium Project aims to recommend, by 2005, the best strategies for meeting the Millennium Development Goals.230. 在执行第三次外空会议各项建议时,委员会与全球会议和首脑会议所产生的后续行动产生了协同效应。本报告第四章详细介绍了执行第三次外空会议各项具体建议与全球会议和首脑会议要求采取的行动之间的相互关系。下文所列行动小组的工作为联合国千年首脑会议和可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的后续行动取得进一步进展提供了坚实的基础。
Any progress achieved in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III is also progress towards achieving the internationally agreed development goals. The use of proven space capabilities, such as Earth observation systems, GIS, satellite meteorology, satellite communications and satellite navigation and positioning systems, creates the synergy and convergence of efforts to carry out the recommendations of UNISPACE III, which would strongly support the actions called for by the United Nations Millennium Summit, the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the World Summit on the Information Society.调查结果和建议摘要及最后报告
In implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III, the Committee has created synergy with the follow-up action resulting from the global conferences and summits. Chapter IV of the present report provides details on the correlation between the implementation of specific recommendations of UNISPACE III and action called for by the global conferences and summits. The work of the action teams listed below provides a solid basis for making further progress in the followup to the United Nations Millennium Summit and the World Summit on Sustainable Development.补充资料的网址
Action team Recommendation of UNISPACE III Summary of findings and recommendations; and final report Web site for supplementary information行动小组 第三次外空会议的建议
1 Develop a comprehensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy Annex V, appendix I; A/AC.105/C.1/L.275 --1 拟订综合性全球环境监测战略 附件五、附录一;A/AC.105/C.1/L.275 -- 2 改进对地球自然资源的管理 附件五、附录二;
2 Improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources Annex V, appendix II; A/AC.105/L.250 --A/AC.105/L.250 --
11 Promote sustainable development by applying the results of space research Annex V, appendix VIII;11 应用空间研究的结果促进可持续发展 附件五、附录八;
A/AC.105/C.1/L.264 and Corr.A/AC.105/C.1/L.
1 --264和
17 Enhance capacity-building by developing human and budgetary resources Annex V, appendix X; A/AC.105/L.251 www.oosa.unvienna.org/ unisp-3/followup/ action_team_17Corr.1 --
(a) Establishing a closer link with the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development17 通过人力资源和预算资源的开发加强能力建设 附件五、附录十; A/AC.105/L.251 www.oosa.unvienna.org/
Findingsunisp-3/followup/
There should be a closer link between the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, coordinated by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and the work being carried out by the Commission on Sustainable Development, in accordance with the multi-year programme of work covering the period 2004-2017, agreed upon by the Commission at its eleventh session, as indicated below. During the first year in each two-year cycle, the review year, the Commission is to identify obstacles and constraints to implementation. During the second year, the policy year, the Commission is to decide on measures to accelerate implementation and to mobilize action to overcome the obstacles and constraints identified in the review year.action_team_17
Cycle Thematic cluster Cross-cutting issues(a) 与可持续发展委员会的工作建立更密切的联系
2004/2005 (a) Water调查结果
(b) Sanitation231. 如下文所述,按照可持续发展委员会第十一届会议议定的2004-2017年间的多年工作计划,应该在执行和平利用外层空间委员会协调的第三次外空会议各项建议与可持续发展委员会正开展的工作之间建立更密切的联系。在每两年周期的头一年,即审查年,委员会必须确定执行工作的障碍和限制。在第二年,即政策年,委员会必须决定加速执行和动员行动以消除审查年确定的障碍和限制的措施。
(c) Human settlements (a) Poverty eradication周期 主题分组 交叉问题
(b) Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production2004/2005 (a) 水 (b) 卫生 (c) 人类住区 (a) 消灭贫穷 (b) 改变不可持续的生产和消
2006/2007 (a) Energy for sustainable development费模式
(b) Industrial development(c) 保护和管理经济和社会发 展的自然资源基础
(c) Air pollution/atmosphere(d) 全球化世界中的可持续发展 (e) 保健与可持续发展
(d) Climate change (c) Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development(f) 小岛屿发展中国家的可持续
(d) Sustainable development in a globalizing world发展
2008/2009(g) 非洲的可持续发展
(a) Agriculture(h) 其他区域倡议 (i) 执行手段
(b) Rural development(j) 可持续发展的体制框架 (k) 两性平等
(c) Land(l) 教育
(d) Drought2006/2007 (a) 可持续发展所需的能源
(e) Desertification(b) 工业发展 (c) 空气污染/大气层
(f) Africa(d) 气候变化
(e) Health and sustainable development2008/2009 (a) 农业
(f) Sustainable development of small island developing States(b) 农村发展 (c) 土地 (d) 干旱 (e) 荒漠化 (f) 非洲 周期 主题分组 交叉问题
(g) Sustainable development for Africa2010/2011a (a) 运输
(h) Other regional initiatives(b) 化学品 (c) 废物管理 (d) 采矿 (e) 可持续消费和生产模式
(i) Means of implementation10年方案框架 2012/2013a (a) 森林
2010/2011a (a) Transport(b) 生物多样性 (c) 生物技术 (d) 旅游
(b) Chemicals(e) 山区
(c) Waste management2014/2015a (a) 海洋
(d) Mining(b) 海洋资源
(e) Ten-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns (j) Institutional framework for sustainable development(c) 小岛屿发展中国家
(k) Gender equality(d) 灾害管理和脆弱性
(l) Education2016/2017 执行《21世纪议程》b、《进一步执行21世纪议程方案》c和《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》d的全盘评价
---a 除非可持续发展委员会另外达成协定,2010/2011、2012/2013和2014/2015周期的主题分组按照计划仍将是多年期工作计划的组成部分。
2012/2013a (a) Forestsb 《联合国环境与发展会议的报告,1992年6月3日至14日,里约热内卢》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.93.I.8和更正),第一卷:《环发会议通过的决议》,决议1,附件二。
(b) Biodiversityc 大会第S-29/2号决议,附件。
(c) Biotechnologyd 《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的报告,2002年8月26日至9月4日,南非约翰内斯堡》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.03.II.A.1和更正),第一章,决议2,附件。
(d) Tourism建议的行动
(e) Mountains232. 和平利用外层空间委员会应该考虑通过下列措施使其工作与可持续发展委员会的工作趋于一致:(a)审查空间科学和技术及其应用可对委员会选定为一个主题分组的一个或几个问题作出的贡献;和(b)为委员会在政策年的审议提供实质性投入。委员会能够依据各行动小组建议的具体行动为委员会审议开发这种实质性投入。
2014/2015a (a) Oceans and seas233. 空间机构和与空间有关的其他实体应确定《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》所要求的行动,并拟订将与多边和双边发展方案及相关的用户机构,特别是发展中国家的用户机构联合执行的后续行动方案。 预计的惠益 234. 预计建议的行动产生的惠益包括:(a)在采取进一步行动以消除执行《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》中的障碍和限制的过程中,本委员会的工作与可持续发展委员会工作的协力增效作用得到了增强;和(b)为统筹协调执行经济和社会领域的联合国各次主要会议和首脑会议的结果及为其开展后续行动做出更大贡献。
(b) Marine resources(b) 应用空间研究的结果促进可持续发展
(c) Small island developing States调查结果
(d) Disaster management and vulnerability235. 所有国家的福祉和未来与空间技术密切相连,空间技术已经成为应付和解决可持续发展问题和满足人类的许多主要需要,如人类住房、食品、能源、通信、运输、保健、移徙、难民情况、自然灾害和教育的不可或缺的有效工具。对空间技术重要性的认识激发了包括发展中国家在内的多个国家为发展其本国必要的空间能力而投资,以便实现其社会和经济目标。
2016/2017 Overall appraisal of implementation of Agenda 21,b the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21c and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Developmentd236. 利用空间科学和技术及其应用的能力建设对于确保空间活动支持发展议程至关重要。发展空间科学和技术方面所有各级的内部能力并在国家、区域和国际机构之间建立网络,对于实现可持续发展并促进和增加合作研究机会至关重要。
a The thematic clusters for cycles 2010/2011, 2012/2013 and 2014/2015 will remain as part of the multi-year programme of work as scheduled unless otherwise agreed by the Commission on Sustainable Development.建议的行动
b Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 314 June 1992 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.237.
93.I.为了有效地参与上述所有活动并从中受益,各国应该考虑:(a)在与其能力和资源相当的水平上,拟订并致力于执行能从空间技术受益的可持续发展议程;和(b)为了系统收集、准确分析和正确管理空间获得的数据和现场数据采取各种措施,作为实现可持续发展的出发点。 238.
8 and corrigenda), vol. I: Resolutions adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex II.会员国应该利用活跃于与环境有关的领域的国际实体的能力,为建立必要的坚实的科学和技术基础以讨论可持续发展问题提供必要的知识领导。这种国际实体包括外层空间事务厅、环境规划署、粮农组织、教科文组织和气象组织以及非政府组织,如空间研究委员会、国际宇宙航行联合会和摄影测量和遥感学会(另见第299-310段)。
c General Assembly resolution S-19/2, annex.预计的惠益 239. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益,特别是对发展中国家的惠益包括:(a)确定和使用合适的且负担得起的空间技术以支持其可持续发展议程;(b)加强全面而可靠的数据供应,以更好地支持实现可持续发展议程方面的决策;及(c)在建立坚实的科学和技术基础的过程中更好地利用相关国际实体的现有能力,特别是在发展中国家,以更好地解决可持续发展问题。
d Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex.(c) 制订综合性全球环境监测战略
Proposed actions调查结果
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space should consider synchronizing its work with that of the Commission on Sustainable Development by (a) examining the contribution that could be made by space science and technology and their applications to one or more of the issues selected by the Commission as a thematic cluster; and (b) providing substantive inputs for consideration by the Commission during the policy year.240.
The Committee could develop such substantive inputs for consideration by the Commission on the basis of specific actions proposed by the action teams.地球观测方面的各项全球倡议指出,为环境监测制订一项综合性、一体化的可持续战略,是全世界目前都在集中关注的一个问题。为了迎接管理环境的挑战,环境监测战略行动小组提出了一项多年工作计划,发起一项天基全球环境监测战略,确保可持续地利用生态系统并在关键的环境问题上促进区域合作,同时支持地球观测方面现有的和未来的倡议。
Space agencies and other space-related entities should identify actions called for in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and establish follow-up programmes to be carried out jointly with multilateral and bilateral development programmes and relevant user institutions, in particular in developing countries.241. 天基全球战略能够逐渐演变为一个综合的环境监测系统,以提供最佳的、普遍接受的体制机制,确保持续而可靠地监测环境(见附件五,附录一,第4和5节。)
Expected benefits242. 建立具有以下目的的“地球信息中心”能够进一步促进关键环境问题上的区域合作:(a)提供先进技术,将数据组转化为信息和知识,同时特别关注区域的环境问题;(b)在需进一步改进的区域站点试用最先进的信息和计算能力;和(c)加强国内工作人员的知识共享和能力建设。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) increased synergy between the work of the Committee and that of the Commission in taking further action to overcome the obstacles and constraints in carrying out the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development; and (b) increased contribution to the integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to the outcomes of major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic and social fields.建议的行动
(b) Applying the results of space research to promote sustainable development243. 和平利用外层空间委员会同意,在外层空间事务处协助下,委员会应该在全球一级协调工作计划的执行。工作计划的细节载于附件五,附录一,第4节(b)项。委员会还同意,应该邀请气象组织、教科文组织政府间海洋学委员会、地球观测卫星委员会和综合全球观测战略伙伴关系的其他成员以及参与执行全球环境和安全监测倡议的实体和地球观测特设小组执行该工作计划。
Findings244. 委员会赞赏地注意到,担任行动小组主席的成员国,即伊朗伊斯兰共和国、俄罗斯联邦和阿拉伯叙利亚共和国的机构将自愿采取进一步行动,建立第一个地理信息中心。第一个中心的性质和组织方面,包括筹资将由参与建立该中心的有关国家和国际组织界定,同时确保其作用和职能没有与任何现行的倡议或方案重迭。
The well-being and the future of all nations are closely tied to space technology, which has become an indispensable and effective tool in addressing and resolving sustainable development issues and meeting many human critical needs, such as human shelter, food, energy, communications, transportation, health, migration, refugee situations, natural disasters and education. The recognition of the importance of space technology has motivated many States, including developing countries, to invest in developing their own space capabilities, needed for attaining their social and economic goals.预计的惠益
Capacity-building in the use of space science and technology and their applications is vital to ensure that space activities support development agendas.245.
The development of indigenous capability in space science and technology at all levels and the establishment of networks among national, regional and international institutions are critical for achieving sustainable development and will facilitate and enhance collaborative research opportunities.预计建议的行动带来的惠益,特别是给发展中国家带来的惠益包括:(a)环境监测所需的充足、相关的空间技术的可获性得到加强;(b)增强了国内工作人员在环境监测中使用卫星数据的能力;(c)加强了相关的国家、区域和国际机构的伙伴关系,并增强了非政府组织和国内工作人员在环境监测中的参与;和(d)加强了就具体的关键环境问题的区域合作和知识共享。
Proposed actions(d) 改进对地球自然资源的管理
In order to participate effectively in and benefit from all the activities described above, each country should consider (a) developing and committing itself to a sustainable development agenda that can benefit from space technology, at a level commensurate with its capability and resources; and (b) undertaking measures towards the systematic collection, accurate analysis and proper management of space-acquired and in situ data as a starting point towards sustainable development.调查结果
Member States should take advantage of the capacities of international entities that are active in fields relating to the environment to provide the intellectual leadership needed for building a strong scientific and technical foundation for the discussion of sustainable development issues.246.
Such international entities include the Office for Outer Space Affairs, UNEP, FAO, UNESCO and WMO, as well as non-governmental organizations such as COSPAR, the International Astronautical Federation and ISPRS (see also paras. 299-310).特别是由于联合国千年首脑会议和可持续发展问题世界首脑会议,人们越来越认识到地球自然资源管理对于任何全球扶贫战略,特别是发展中国家扶贫战略的重要性。地球观测和地理信息系统的应用,能够通过改进计划和决策并改善指导执行政策的具体行动和提供生计支助所需的信息供应,加强利益有关者在发展中国家自然资源管理中的作用。
Expected benefits建议的行动
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions, in particular for developing countries, include (a) the identification and use of appropriate and affordable space technology to support their sustainable development agendas; (b) the increased availability of comprehensive and reliable data to better support decision-making in achieving sustainable development agendas; and (c) the better use of available capacities of relevant international entities in building a sound scientific and technical foundation, in particular in developing countries, to better address sustainable development issues.247. 在自然资源管理中实际使用或计划使用地球观测的所有国家,都应通过试验项目和示范项目阐明所有各级所涉的所有利益有关者的具体信息需要。为了开发必要的人力资源,各国应该利用现有的能力建设机会和地球观测数据财富、可用于培训的解释和分析工具(见第299-310段)。
(c) Developing a comprehensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy248. 为了促进和宣传地球观测的实际使用及其在自然资源管理中的作用,委员会建议,外层空间事务厅应该在其现有的工作计划框架内:(a)根据自然资源管理行动小组开发的汇编和委员会委员提交的补充资料,维护和传播地球观测数据在自然资源管理中的使用的最佳做法汇编;和(b)同与联合国有联系的空间科学和技术教育区域中心合作,举办地球观测实际使用的专门培训班(另见第299-310段)。
Findings预计的惠益
Various global initiatives on Earth observations indicate that the development of an integrated, comprehensive, sustainable strategy for environmental monitoring is an issue on which the global community is currently focusing.249.
To meet the challenges of managing the environment, the Action Team on the Environmental Monitoring Strategy proposed a multi-year work plan to launch a space-based worldwide strategy for environmental monitoring to ensure sustainable use of ecosystems and to promote regional cooperation on critical environmental issues, while supporting current and future initiatives on Earth observations.预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)改善地球观测的实际使用,以满足参与自然资源管理的所有利益有关者对信息的确切需要;(b)进一步开发地球观测在自然资源管理中的实际使用所必需的人力资源;和(c)与更多的用户分享关于地球观测在自然资源管理中的使用的最佳做法的更多信息。
The space-based worldwide strategy could gradually evolve into a comprehensive environmental monitoring system, to provide the best, universally acceptable institutional mechanism to ensure continuous, reliable monitoring of the environment (see annex V, appendix I, sects. 4 and 5).2. 发展协调的全球空间能力
Regional cooperation on critical environmental issues could be further promoted by establishing “geo-information centres” with the aim of (a) providing advanced technologies to transform data sets into information and knowledge with particular attention to regional environmental problems; (b) testing the most advanced informational and computational capabilities at regional sites for further improvement; and (c) enhancing knowledge-sharing and capacity-building of national staff.250. 协调是使现有的空间能力惠益最大化并以最有效力和效率的方式满足社会需要的关键因素。在利用空间技术管理灾害方面,区域和全球两级发起了一些倡议,以在灾害管理的各个阶段,特别是在危机时期统筹使用卫星数据,这方面的一个例子是《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》(见第100、125、193-194段)。全球导航卫星系统是新的全球设施,对人民的日常生活产生了越来越大的积极影响。越来越多的实体在运输、测绘、农业、电力和电信网络以及灾害预告和对紧急状况的反应领域提供全球导航卫星系统服务。
Proposed actions251. 在将空间技术用于灾害管理和将全球导航卫星系统应用于可持续发展两个领域,建立全球实体以加强服务提供者与终端用户之间的协调和信息交流,将极大改善居民,特别是发展中国家全体居民的社会福利。这些领域目前都没有建立这种实体。没有协调一致的行动,这些差距就不可能消除,并将严重阻碍现有的和计划的空间能力的使用。下列行动小组提出在这方面将采取的具体措施。
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space agreed that, with the assistance of the Office for Outer Space Affairs, it should coordinate the implementation of the work plan at the global level. The details of the work plan can be found in annex V, appendix I, section 4, subparagraph (b). The Committee also agreed that WMO, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, CEOS and other members of IGOS-P, as well as the entities involved in implementing the GMES initiative and the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations, should be invited to implement the work plan.调查结果和建议摘要及最后报告
The Committee noted with appreciation that the institutions of member States that chaired the Action Team, that is, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic, would take further action on a voluntary basis to establish the first geo-information centre. The nature and organizational aspects, including funding, of the first centre would be defined by interested States and international organizations that would participate in the establishment of the centre, while ensuring that its role and functions did not overlap with any existing initiatives or programmes.补充资料的网址
Expected benefits行动小组 第三次外空会议的建议
The benefits expected to result from the proposed action, in particular for developing countries, include (a) increased availability of adequate, relevant space-related techniques for environmental monitoring; (b) enhanced capacity of national staff in the use of satellite data in environmental monitoring; (c) strengthened partnership between relevant national, regional and international institutions and increased participation of non-governmental organizations and national personnel in environmental monitoring; and (d) enhanced regional cooperation and knowledge-sharing on specific, critical environmental issues.7 实施一个综合性全球系统对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理 附件五、附录五;
(d) Improving the management of the Earth’s natural resourcesA/AC.105/C.1/L.273 www.oosa.unvienna.org/
Findingsunisp-3/followup/
As a result, in particular, of the United Nations Millennium Summit and the World Summit on Sustainable Development, recognition has grown of the importance of management of the Earth’s natural resources as to any global strategy to alleviate poverty, especially in developing countries. The operational use of Earth observations and GIS can strengthen the role of stakeholders in the management of natural resources in developing countries, through improved planning and policy-making and better availability of information to guide specific action to implement policies and provide support for livelihoods.action_team_107
Proposed actions10 改进天基导航和定位系统的普遍利用和兼容性 附件五、附录七;
All States that are using or planning to use Earth observations on an operational basis in the management of natural resources should articulate, through pilot and demonstration projects, the exact information needs of all stakeholders involved at all levels.A/AC.105/C.1/L.
To develop the necessary human resources, States should take advantage of existing capacity-building opportunities and the wealth of Earth observation data, interpretation and analysis tools that are available for specialized training (see paras. 299-310).274和
In order to promote and advocate the operational use of Earth observations and its role in managing natural resources, the Committee recommended that, within the framework of its current programme of work, the Office for Outer Space Affairs should (a) maintain and disseminate a compilation of best practices in the use of Earth observation data in natural resource management, building on the compilation developed by the Action Team on the Management of Natural Resources and additional information to be submitted by members of the Committee; and (b) organize specialized training courses on the operational use of Earth observations, in cooperation with the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations (see also paras. 299-310).Corr.1和2 forum.itu.int/~gnss
Expected benefits(a) 使现有的灾害管理空间能力的惠益最大化
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) better operational use of Earth observations to meet the precise information needs of all stakeholders involved in the management of natural resources; (b) further development of the human resources necessary for the operational use of Earth observations in the management of natural resources; and (c) sharing of more information with more users on best practices in the use of Earth observations in natural resources management.调查结果
2. Developing coordinated, global space capabilities252. 灾害影响并阻碍了世界各地的发展;因此,为了最大限度降低其影响需要协调国际努力。需要通过整个一轮的灾害管理进行及时和实时的情形分析,并与地球社会数据库和专题地图建立联系。
Coordination is a key element for maximizing the benefits of existing space capabilities to meet societal needs in the most effective and efficient manner. In the area of the use of space technology for disaster management a number of initiatives have been launched at the regional and global levels to integrate the use of satellite data in various phases of disaster management and, in particular, during the crisis phase; one such is the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” (see paras. 100, 125 and 193-194). GNSS are a new global utility with an increasingly positive impact on people’s daily lives. There is a growing number of entities that provides GNSS services in such areas as transportation, mapping and surveying, agriculture, power and telecommunications networks, and disaster warning and emergency response.253. 空间技术,如地球观测、通信和导航及地球定位系统能够为灾害管理提供必要的信息,为及时向决策者发送这些信息提供了必需的手段。卫星能够以大范围的地面分辨率、光谱特性和时间涵盖期提供图像,这些参数有多种组合形式,对于具体类型的灾害最为理想。设备、服务和卫星转发器通信能力的供应也提供了不同的选择。
The use of space technologies for disaster management and the applications of GNSS for sustainable development are areas where the existence of a global entity to enhance coordination and information exchange among service providers and end-users would significantly increase societal benefits for populations, in particular in developing countries. Such an entity currently does not exist for either of those areas. Without concerted action, those gaps are not likely to be filled and would significantly hinder the use of existing and planned space capabilities. The following action teams proposed specific measures to be undertaken in that regard.254. 全世界已经为这些技术投入巨资。但是,利用这些资产支持灾害管理仍然远远地落后于发展活动。全球灾害管理的所有空间技术应用领域(技术、业务、教育和培训、组织和财政)仍存在着巨大差距,并且可能继续存在。因此,有必要采取更加综合、协调的全球性办法以满足灾害管理界的需要。
Action team Recommendation of UNISPACE III Summary of findings and recommendations; and final report Web site for supplementary information255. 目前,没有一家协调实体能够协助灾害管理当局确定灾害管理的各个阶段(即预防、减轻、预警、对紧急状况的反应和恢复)可能使用的空间技术以减轻灾害的影响。灾害管理行动小组在其最后报告中得出结论,建立“灾害管理国际空间协调组织”(见附件五,附录五)将会消除这一差距。
7 Implement an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts建议的行动
Annex V, appendix V; A/AC.105/C.1/L.273 www.oosa.unvienna.org/ unisp-3/followup/ action_team_07/256. 和平利用外层空间委员会同意,应该研究建立这种国际实体的可行性,以通过充分利用现有的和计划的空基和地基资产和基础设施并涵盖灾害管理的所有阶段,提供协调和最大限度提高灾害管理中的空间服务效率的手段。该研究应该:(a)界定可能的灾害管理国际空间协调实体的关键职能;(b)介绍该机构能为灾害管理界提供的惠益;(c)界定该实体的范围和性质(如政府间和非政府实体);和(d)提议一项执行计划,其中将包括提供建立和经营这种实体的估计费用和可行的经费来源(即自愿捐助或分摊会费)以及资金的预定用途的详细情况。该项研究还应审查在提供可持续资源促进将空间技术用于支持灾害管理以及促进提高公民保护当局利用空间技术的能力方面的选择。委员会还同意,灾害管理行动小组提交的最后报告为开展这种研究提供了基础。
10 Improve universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems Annex V, appendix VII; A/AC.105/C.1/L.274 and Corr.1 and 2 forum.itu.int/~gnss257. 委员会同意,研究报告应由一个特设专家组编写,专家组中的专家由有关成员国和相关国际组织,包括联合国系统参与灾害管理的各实体派出。委员会还同意,这些专家应该以及时完成研究为目的,以便让委员会第四十八届会议审议是否继续实施研究报告中建议的执行计划。委员会还同意,外层空间事务厅应该协调研究的筹备安排和所涉工作,呼吁成员国通过自愿捐助为研究提供支助。
(a) Maximizing the benefits of existing space capabilities for disaster management258. 大会应鼓励会员国为上文第256和第257段提及的研究的准备工作提供现金或实物自愿捐助。委员会同意,在委员会第四十七届会议之后,有关成员国应该为了准备该研究,向外层空间事务厅通报其打算提供这种自愿捐助,包括
Findings向联合国空间应用方案信托基金捐助。委员会敦促有关成员国在2004年底之前将现金捐助转账,以便外空事务厅能够将这些捐款列入其费用计划之内,作为2005年的信托基金资源使用。
Disasters affect and hinder development in all parts of the world; thus, coordinated international efforts are required to minimize their impact.259.
Timely and up-to-date situational analyses are required through the full cycle of disaster management, linked to geo-social databases and thematic maps.委员会同意,一旦外层空间事务厅已经收到足够的自愿捐助来承担与研究准备工作有关的费用之后,研究方面的工作就可以开始。委员会请求外空事务厅向成员国通报工作开始日期并提供有关工作的安排情况,包括专家名单,其中某些专家可能在外空事务厅提供的设施和/或联合国系统有关实体从事全职工作。
Space technology, such as Earth observations, communications and navigation and geo-positioning systems, can provide the necessary information for disaster management and the means to transmit such information to decision makers in a timely manner. Satellites provide images in a large range of ground resolutions, spectral characteristics and temporal coverage and there are combinations of these parameters that are optimal for specific types of disasters. Equipment, services and availability of satellite transponder capacity for communications also offer diverse options.260. 委员会同意,在科学和技术小组委员会第四十二届会议上,外层空间事务厅在题为“以空间系统为基础的灾害管理支助”下,应该向小组委员会报告研究准备情况,说明研究报告能否及时完成以提交委员会第四十八届会议,并说明这方面收到的自愿捐助额。外空事务厅还应将特设专家组的工作范围草案提交给科学和技术小组委员会审查和批准,并就委员会及其附属机构可如何对研究报告加以审查以供委员会作出决定。根据外空事务厅的报告,小组委员会可以就研究的准备工作提供进一步指导。
Considerable investment has already been made worldwide in these technologies. However, the utilization of these assets in support of disaster management continues to lag significantly behind development activity. A considerable gap still exists, and is likely to remain, in all areas of space technology applications (technical, operational, educational and training, organizational and financial) to disaster management on a global basis. Thus, a more global, integrated, coordinated approach is necessary to meet the needs of the disaster management community.261. 委员会同意,特设专家组也应该编写将空间技术用于灾害管理的惠益的个案史,并编写样品目录。特设专家组也应该与外层空间事务厅合作, 研究能否使用自愿捐助在外空事务厅网址上建立网页,以改善地球观测数据库的访问情况。
At present, there is no coordination entity that can assist disaster management authorities in identifying the space technologies that could be used in the various phases of disasters (that is, prevention, mitigation, early warning, emergency response and rehabilitation) to reduce the impacts of disasters.262.
In its final report, the Action Team on Disaster Management concluded that the establishment of a “disaster management international space coordination organization” (see annex V, appendix V) would fill that gap.各国政府和国际组织应考虑:(a)为使用空间技术进行灾害管理划拨与灾害管理有关的部分预算或基金;(b)确定单个联络点以集中其国内的灾害管理工作并在将空间技术用于灾害管理方面与外部努力建立联系。
Proposed actions263. 鼓励设立了具有遥感卫星能力的成员国加入和加强《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》(见第193和194段),以便更有效地利用遥感能力和应用支持灾害管理活动。
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space agreed that a study should be conducted on the possibility of creating such an international entity to provide for coordination and the means of optimizing the effectiveness of space-based services for use in disaster management by fully utilizing existing and planned space- and ground-based assets and infrastructure and covering all phases of disaster management. The study should (a) define the key functions of a possible disaster management international space coordination entity; (b) describe the benefits that it would provide to the disaster management community; (c) define the scope and nature of the entity (for example, intergovernmental or non-governmental); and (d) propose an implementation plan that would include details of the estimated cost of the establishment and operation of such an entity and possible sources of funding (that is, voluntary or assessed contributions), as well as the intended use of the funds. The study should also examine the options of providing sustainable resources for applying space technology in support of disaster management and for building the capacity of civil protection authorities to use space technology. The Committee further agreed that the final report submitted by the Action Team on Disaster Management provides the basis for conducting such a study.预计的惠益
The Committee agreed that the study should be prepared by an ad hoc expert group, with experts to be provided by interested member States and relevant international organizations, including entities of the United Nations system involved in disaster management. The Committee also agreed that those experts should aim at completing the study in time for consideration by the Committee at its forty-eighth session of whether to proceed with the implementation plan to be proposed in the study. The Committee further agreed that the Office for Outer Space Affairs should coordinate the organization of the work involved in preparing the study and called on member States to provide support for the study through voluntary contributions.264. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)确定在天基系统运营商和服务供应商之间加强全球一级协调的最佳机制,以对灾害管理和民间保护机构的需求更好地做出反应,同时提高这些系统和服务的效用;(b)加强现有的支持灾害管理的天基产品的信息分享和将空间技术用于灾害管理的惠益分享;(c)确定改善通过因特网存取用于灾害管理的存档地球观测数据的最佳方法;和(d)增强发展中国家将空间技术用于灾害管理的能力。
The General Assembly should encourage Member States to make cash or in-kind voluntary contributions to the preparation of the study mentioned in paragraphs 256 and 257 above. The Committee agreed that following the forty-seventh session of the Committee, interested member States should communicate to the Office for Outer Space Affairs their intention to make such voluntary contributions, including contributions to the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, for the purpose of preparing the study. The Committee urged interested member States to transfer cash contributions before the end of 2004, so that the Office could include such contributions in its cost plan for use of Trust Fund resources in 2005.(b) 使用和应用全球导航卫星系统支持可持续发展的惠益最大化
The Committee agreed that work on the study could commence as soon as sufficient voluntary contributions had been received by the Office for Outer Space Affairs to cover the costs associated with the preparation of the study. The Committee requested the Office to communicate to member States the date of commencement of the work and to provide information on the organization of work, including the list of experts, some of whom may work on a full-time basis at facilities provided by the Office or by an interested entity of the United Nations system.调查结果
The Committee agreed that, during the forty-second session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under the agenda item entitled “Space-system-based disaster management support”, the Office for Outer Space Affairs should report to the Subcommittee on the status of the preparation of the study, to indicate whether the study could be completed in time for submission to the Committee at its forty-eighth session and the level of voluntary contributions received in that regard. The Office should also submit to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, for its review and approval, draft terms of reference for the ad hoc expert group and propose how the study might be reviewed by the Committee and its subsidiary bodies for a decision to be made by the Committee. On the basis of the report by the Office, the Subcommittee may provide further guidance on the preparation of the study.265. 全球导航卫星系统已经从早期的有限几个方案发展到已有若干个系统而且各系统正在或计划扩充。将来,一些国际和国家方案将同时运作,并将支持各种各样的跨学科活动和国际活动。在国家、区域和国际各级进行的讨论,强调了全球导航卫星系统对于各种经济和科学应用的价值。新的全球导航卫星系统的出现和区域扩充,使人们的注意力放在当前和将来的运营商之间的计划方案协调方面,以便提高全球导航卫星系统服务的效用。
The Committee agreed that the ad hoc expert group should also develop a case history of the benefits of using space technologies for disaster management and establish a sample product catalogue.266.
In cooperation with the Office for Outer Space Affairs, the ad hoc expert group should also study the possibility of establishing pages, with the use of voluntary contributions, on the web site of the Office for improved access to Earth observation data archives.公众和政府及非政府专家都了解全球导航卫星系统提供的导航、地球定位和定时服务的基本效用。尽管当前和将来的全球导航卫星系统运营商处于竞争状态,但预计他们会加强协作,这一进程将导致更好地为用户群提供服务。推广活动必须不仅仅是让公众和专家们提高认识,还要让他们为将全球导航卫星系统纳入到基础设施,尤其是发展中国家的基础设施提供援助。
Governments and international organizations should consider (a) allocating a portion of their disaster-management-related budget or funds to using space technology for disaster management; and (b) identifying single points of contact to focus their internal disaster management efforts and to provide liaison with external efforts with respect to the use of space technology for disaster management.建议的行动
Member States with space agencies having remote sensing satellite capabilities are encouraged to join and strengthen the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” (see paras. 193-194), so that remote sensing capabilities and applications can be more effectively used in supporting disaster management activities.267. 全球导航卫星系统和扩充提供者应该建立全球导航卫星系统国际委员会,该委员会将有适当的国际组织参加,除其他之外,其目的是:(a)使兼容性和互用适用性达成最佳程度;(b)确定在国家、区域和全球各级执行保护信号的可靠性和完整性的措施的机制;(c)协调满足用户需要的现代化活动;(d)为引进全球导航卫星系统服务绘制路线图;和(e)特别是在发展中国家提供全球导航卫星系统的培训机会(另见第299-310段)。建议的全球导航卫星系统国际委员会应该促进全球导航卫星系统用户与供应商之间的信息交流,同时又不损害全球导航卫星系统服务供应商和政府间组织,如国际民用航空组织、国际海事组织和国际电联的作用和职能。
Expected benefits268. 外层空间事务厅应该与全球导航卫星系统和扩充供应商或全球导航卫星系统国际委员会(如果建立的话)合作,开发和维护一个网站,以特别地将全球导航卫星系统纳入国家基础设施和保护国际和区域两级的信号可靠性和整体性方面的近期应用发展势态、培训机会和获得援助来源方面的信息登录在网上(另见第299-310段)。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) identification of the best mechanism to enhance coordination at the global level among space-based system operators and service providers to better respond to the needs of disaster management and civil protection agencies while increasing the utilization of those systems and services; (b) enhanced sharing of information on the available space-based products that support disaster management and the benefits of using space technologies for disaster management; (c) identification of the best ways to improve Internet-based access to archived Earth observation data for use in disaster management; and (d) increased capacity of developing countries in using space technologies for disaster management.预计的惠益
(b) Maximizing the benefits of the use and applications of global navigation satellite systems to support sustainable development269. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)使兼容性和互用适用性达到最优化;(b)确定了执行保护全球导航卫星系统信号可靠性和整体性的措施的机制;(c)加强了满足用户需要的全球导航卫星系统现代化活动的协调工作;(d)尤其是增加了发展中国家使用全球导航卫星系统应用方面的培训机会;(e)加强了全球导航卫星系统用户与供应商之间的信息交流;和(f)更容易地获取有关全球导航卫星系统各项活动、参考资料和获得技术援助的来源的信息。
Findings3. 利用空间支持具体议程以满足全球的民生发展需要
GNSS have evolved from an early period of limited programmes to a point where a number of systems and their augmentation are under way or planned. In the future, a number of international and national programmes will operate simultaneously and support a broad range of interdisciplinary and international activities. Discussions taking place at the national, regional and international levels have underscored the value of GNSS for a variety of economic and scientific applications. The emergence of new GNSS and regional augmentations has focused attention on the need for the coordination of planned programmes among current and future operators in order to enhance the utility of GNSS services.270. 只有采用综合性方法,建立新的合作和协调机制,依靠各个实体做出的一切努力和开展的一切活动,或确定已经提供了最佳合作和协调途径的现有机制,《维也纳宣言》中所载的目标和可能性才能实现。在第三次外空会议各项建议中,只有使用现有的机制或政策框架促进国际合作,与天气和气候预报、公共卫生和近地物体有关的建议才能得到最佳执行,才能满足全球一级的民生发展需要。下文所述行动小组采用了重点鲜明的办法,以确定进一步合作和协调的现有机制。
The general public and governmental and non-governmental experts understand the basic utility of navigation, geo-positioning and timing services offered by GNSS. While current and future GNSS operators are in a competitive mode, collaboration is expected to increase, a process that will serve the user community better. Outreach efforts must move beyond simple awareness among the general public and experts to providing assistance in the integration of GNSS into the basic infrastructure of countries in the developing world in particular.调查结果和建议摘要及最后报告
Proposed actions行动小组 第三次外空会议的建议
GNSS and augmentation providers should establish an international committee on GNSS that would include appropriate international organizations for the purposes of, among other things, (a) optimizing compatibility and interoperability; (b) identifying mechanisms for implementing measures to protect the reliability and integrity of signals at the national, regional and global levels; (c) coordinating modernization activities to meet user needs; (d) developing road maps for the introduction of GNSS services; and (e) providing training opportunities in GNSS, in particular in developing countries (see paras. 299-310). The proposed international committee on GNSS should facilitate the exchange of information among users and providers of GNSS, without prejudice to the roles and functions of GNSS service providers and intergovernmental organizations such as the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization and ITU.4 加强天气和气候预报 附件五、附录三;A/AC.105/C.1/L.269
In cooperation with GNSS and augmentation providers, or the international committee on GNSS if established, the Office for Outer Space Affairs should develop and maintain a web site to include information, inter alia, on recent application developments, training opportunities and sources for obtaining assistance in integrating GNSS into national infrastructure and in protecting signal reliability and integrity at the national and regional levels (see paras. 299-310).6 改善公共保健服务 附件五、附录四;
Expected benefits14 改进与近地物体有关的活动的国际协调 附件五、附录九;
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) optimized compatibility and interoperability; (b) identification of mechanisms to implement measures to protect the reliability and integrity of GNSS signals; (c) enhanced coordination in GNSS modernization activities to meet user needs; (d) increased training opportunities, in particular in developing countries, in the use of applications of GNSS; (e) enhanced exchange of information among users and providers of GNSS; and (f) easier access to information on GNSS activities, reference material and sources for obtaining technical assistance.(a) 扩大气象卫星应用方面的国际合作,加强天气和气候预报
3. The use of space to support specific agendas to meet human development needs at the global level调查结果
The goals and possibilities enshrined in the Vienna Declaration can be achieved by taking a comprehensive approach and by creating a new mechanism for cooperation and coordination, building on all the efforts and initiatives undertaken by various entities, or by identifying an existing mechanism that already offers the best avenues for cooperation and coordination. Among the recommendations of UNISPACE III, those relating to weather and climate forecasting, public health and NEOs can be best implemented to meet human development needs at the global level by using the existing mechanisms or policy framework for international cooperation. The action teams listed below took a sharply focused approach to identifying those existing mechanisms for further cooperation and coordination.271. 气象组织及其伙伴组织在推广可靠的天气和气象预报及评估地球系统的长期变化的原因和过程方面取得了重大进步,同时促进了气象卫星应用领域的国际合作。卫星事务高级别政策协商会议——气象组织内部讨论卫星运营商与气象组织用户群共同感兴趣的事务的机制——以及其他协调机制,如气象卫星协调组和地球观测卫星委员会(气象组织参加该委员会以陈述用户团体的意见)为了将面向气象组织用户群的现有和计划的卫星产品和服务的惠益,包括研发卫星的惠益最大化做出了贡献。
Action team Recommendation of UNISPACE III Summary of findings and recommendations; and final report272. 目前的天基观测系统足以提供满足现在的天气和气候预报需要的数据、产品和服务,所设想的未来系统将顺应进一步加强天气和气候预报方面日益增加的需要。但是,应该继续对发展中国家的需要,特别是它们获取卫星数据、产品和服务及获得适当的教育和培训方案继续给予关注,以确保它们了解卫星产品和服务的进展情况(见第299-310段)。
4 Enhance weather and climate forecasting Annex V, appendix III; A/AC.105/C.1/L.269建议的行动
6 Improve public health services Annex V, appendix IV273. 成员国应该认识到天气和气候预报在发展中的重要作用,并为执行2003年5月第十四届世界气象大会倡议的气象组织空间方案提供支助,包括必要的财政资源。成员国还应该支持执行列入《气象组织第六个长期计划》、涵盖2004-2011年的气象组织空间方案长期战略,该战略除其他之外旨在:(a)为开发世界天气观测方案全球观测系统和气象组织的其他相关观测系统做出越来越大的贡献;(b)由业务和研发卫星持续提供改进的数据、产品和服务;和(c)便利和促进在全世界更广泛的供应和富有意义地利用这些数据、产品和服务。成员国应进一步支持这些提供空间系统并试图满足气象组织需要的国家和国际实体。
14 Improve the international coordination of activities related to near-Earth objects Annex V, appendix IX预计的惠益
(a) Enhancing weather and climate forecasting by expanding international cooperation in meteorological satellite applications274. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)通过提高破坏性天气事件预报的准确性和及时性和更准确的中短期天气预报,减少因天气方面的自然灾害造成的损失;和(b)根据针对区域的水循环年预测、一到两年的厄尔尼诺预测和十年期天气预测以及长期气候变化监测方面的进步所产生的更可靠的信息,就粮食生产、基础设施开发投资和淡水资源管理做出更有效的决策。
Findings(b) 使用空间技术促进医学科学和公共保健服务
WMO and its partner organizations have made major achievements in the extension of reliable weather and climate forecasting and the assessment of the causes and course of longer-term changes to the Earth’s system, while fostering international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications. The Consultative Meetings on High-Level Policy on Satellite Matters, a coordination mechanism within WMO for the discussion of matters of mutual interest between the satellite operators and the WMO user communities, as well as other coordination mechanisms such as the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites and CEOS, in which WMO participates to represent the views of a user group, contribute to maximizing the benefits derived from existing and planned satellite products and services, including those of research and development satellites, for WMO user communities.调查结果
The present space-based observing system is adequate to provide the data, products and services required for present weather and climate forecasting needs and the envisaged future system would respond to the increasing needs to further enhance weather and climate forecasting.275.
However, attention should continue to be paid to the needs of developing countries, in particular to their access to satellite data, products and services and to appropriate education and training programmes, to ensure that they are kept informed of advances in satellite products and services (see paras. 299-310).空间技术及其应用有助于提高远程医疗、流行病、传染病防治、向医务人员和公众传播医疗实践和继续教育领域的信息。特别是,远程医疗在向与地面网络没有连接的边远地区提供医疗专业知识方面具有十分重要的意义。
Proposed actions建议的行动
Member States should recognize the significant role of weather and climate forecasting in development and provide support, including the necessary financial resources, to implement the WMO Space Programme, initiated by the fourteenth World Meteorological Congress in May 2003. Member States should also support the implementation of the WMO Space Programme Long-term Strategy, which was included in the Sixth WMO Long-term Plan, covering the period 2004-2011, and which aims, among other things (a) to make increasing contributions to the development of the Global Observing System of the World Weather Watch Programme and other associated observing systems of WMO; (b) to provide continuously improved data, products and services from both operational and research and development satellites; and (c) to facilitate and promote their wider availability and meaningful utilization around the world. Member States should further support those national and international entities that provide space systems that seek to meet the WMO requirements.276. 委员会同意,在联合国空间应用方案框架内,在有关成员国和国际组织自愿捐助下,外层空间事务厅应该与卫生组织和联合国其他相关实体和国际组织及成员国合作,为专家和政府官员以及决策者,包括来自负责公共卫生的部委的决策者举办远程医疗国际会议。
Expected benefits277. 委员会建议,应请卫生组织在其世界卫生大会上讨论远程医疗问题。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) a reduction in losses due to weather-related natural disasters through enhanced accuracy and timeliness of early warning of destructive weather events and more accurate short- and medium-term weather prediction; and (b) more effective decision-making on food production, investment in infrastructure development and management of freshwater resources based on more reliable information resulting from advances in regionally specific, yearly water cycle predictions, annual to biennial El Niño prediction and decade-scale climate predictions, as well as longer-term climate-change monitoring.278. 委员会同意,在涵盖2004-2006年、以空间系统为基础的远程医疗的议程项目三年工作计划的框架内,科学和技术小组委员会应该通过其扩大的公共卫生行动小组最好是在上述远程医疗会议召开之前编写一份关于远程医疗状况和潜力的报告,该报告将(a)审查全球远程医疗倡议的范围;(b)确定最有前途的执行领域;(c)审查是否需要,特别是发展中国家是否需要远程医疗;和(d)向决策者提出建议。研究报告应该考虑到小组委员会在工作计划的头两年的讨论结果,应该与卫生组织和任何其他相关的国际组织合作编写,以供小组委员会第四十三届会议审议。
(b) Improving medical and public health services through the use of space technologies279. 委员会同意,为了在委员会第四十八届会议之前完成研究,科学和技术小组委员会应该考虑建立一个机制,就建立可行的国际心血管病知识与管理网络或其他试点项目开展可行性研究,为医疗当局的临床决策提供支助工具,以便让它们评估、监测、诊断、预防和治疗心血管病疾病并帮助发展中国家战胜心血管病。该研究除其他之外应确定参与建立网络的实体,阐述给医疗当局带来的益惠、建议时间表、提供成本估算并确定经费来源。
Findings预计的惠益
Space technology and its applications contribute to enhancing medical services and public health in such areas as telemedicine, epidemiology, control of infectious diseases, dissemination of information on medical practices and continuous education for medical professionals and for the general public.280.
In particular, telemedicine could be of great importance in providing medical expertise to remote locations not connected to the terrestrial network.预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)将国际努力集中在执行远程医疗项目的优先领域;(b)以更为综合的方法界定发展中国家在远程医疗中的需要;(c)为建立心血管疾病知识与管理网络制订实用且实际的计划。
Proposed actions(c) 在对整个社会构成威胁的近地物体研究中促进合作
The Committee agreed that, within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and with voluntary contributions made by interested member States and international organizations, the Office for Outer Space Affairs should, in cooperation with WHO and other relevant United Nations entities and international organizations and with Member States, convene an international conference on telemedicine for experts and government officials, as well as decision makers, including those from ministries responsible for public health.调查结果
The Committee recommended that WHO should be invited to address the issue of telemedicine at its World Health Assembly.281. 人们认为,从长期总体情况来看,近地物体对生命和财产造成的威胁可与更熟悉的自然危险,如地震和恶劣天气事件产生的威胁相比。这种危险是全球性的。许多科学领域都需要支助和协调,以便改进对危险的评估和评价。有计划的统一协调为科学工作(调查、研究和减轻计划)以及紧急措施或民间应急行动提出了最符合成本效益的反对办法。
The Committee agreed that, within the framework of the three-year work plan for the agenda item on space-system-based telemedicine, covering the period 2004 to 2006, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee should, through an enlarged Action Team on Public Health, prepare, preferably before the convening of the conference on telemedicine mentioned above, a report on the status and potential of telemedicine that would (a) examine the range of telemedicine initiatives worldwide; (b) identify the most promising areas for implementation; (c) examine the needs for telemedicine, in particular in developing countries; and (d) make recommendations for decision makers. The study should take into account the results of the discussions of the Subcommittee during the first two years of the work plan and should be prepared in cooperation with WHO and any other relevant international organizations, for consideration by the Subcommittee at its forty-third session.建议的行动
The Committee agreed that its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee should consider mechanisms to conduct a study on the feasibility of establishing a possible international cardiovascular-disease knowledge-management network or other pilot projects, to serve as a clinical decision support tool for medical authorities to assess, monitor, diagnose, prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and to assist developing countries in combating cardiovascular disease, with a view to completing the study by the forty-eighth session of the Committee.282.
The study should, among other things, identify entities to be involved in establishing the network, describe the benefits for medical authorities, suggest a timetable, provide cost estimates and identify sources of funding.在科学和技术小组委员会2005至2007年将审议的近地物体议程项目三年工作计划下,委员会应该通过确定国家一级或通过国际合作要采取的行动引导各种努力,以更好地在全球一级协调近地物体的研究、探测、查寻和后续观测及其他相关活动。
Expected benefits283. 国际科学理事会应该考虑并鼓励其成员组织审议关于近地物体主题的各份报告中所载的建议并帮助计划必要的跨学科活动。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) focused international efforts in the priority areas for implementing telemedicine projects; (b) needs in telemedicine of developing countries defined in a more comprehensive manner; and (c) a practical and realistic plan for establishing a cardiovascular- disease knowledge-management network.预计的惠益
(c) Promoting cooperation in the study of near-Earth objects as threats to society at large284. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括在近地物体研究、探测、查询和后续观测方面在全球一级的业经加强的合作和协调。
Findings4. 核心的能力发展
The threat to life and property posed by NEOs, when averaged over long periods of time, is believed to be comparable to that from more familiar natural hazards such as earthquakes and extreme weather events. The risk is global. A range of scientific areas requires support and coordination in order to improve the evaluation and assessment of risk. Planned, integrated collaboration offers the most cost-effective response for scientific efforts (search, study and planning for mitigation), as well as emergency or civil contingency action.285. 提高认识、分享知识和信息、能力建设和筹资等都是彼此相连的交叉问题。这些要素在空间科学和技术及其应用领域等至关重要,此类领域的知识继续快速膨胀,同时给整个社会带来惠益的潜力也在扩大。
Proposed actions286. 第三次外空会议的许多建议都直接指出或暗示需要提高公众对空间活动的重要性的认识,加强知识共享、提高能力,特别是发展中国家的能力及增加对空间活动的经费支助。特别是,委员会在下述领域,包括通过其行动小组完成的工作,都支持并补充了其在其他领域执行第三次外空会议各项建议方面的工作。上文第202-221段详细讨论经费问题。
Under the three-year work plan of the agenda item on NEOs to be considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee from 2005 to 2007, the Committee should lead efforts towards better coordination at the global level of research, detection, search and follow-up observations of NEOs and other relevant activities by identifying action to be taken at the national level or through international cooperation.调查结果和建议摘要及最后报告
The International Council for Science should consider, and encourage its member organizations to consider, the recommendations contained in various reports on the subject of NEOs and help plan the necessary multidisciplinary activity.补充资料的网址
Expected benefits行动小组 第三次外空会议的建议
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include enhanced cooperation and coordination at the global level in research, detection, search and follow-up observation of NEOs.9 促进天基通信服务的普及以促进知识共享 附件五、附录六 www.oosa.unvienna.org/
4. Overarching capacity developmentunisp-3/followup/
Increasing awareness, the sharing of knowledge and information, capacity-building and funding are cross-cutting issues that are interlinked. These elements are essential in an area such as space science and technology and their applications, knowledge of which continues to expand at a rapid pace, with increasing potential for benefits for society at large.action_team_09
Many recommendations of UNISPACE III refer directly to or imply the need to increase public awareness of the importance of space activities, enhancing the sharing of knowledge, strengthening capacity, in particular that of developing countries, and increasing funding support for space activities. In particular, the work of the Committee in the areas listed below, including through its action teams, supports and complements its work on the implementation of recommendations of UNISPACE III in other areas. The issue of funding is dealt with in detail in paragraphs 202-221 above.(查看散发给成员国的调查表所收到的答复)
Action team Recommendation of UNISPACE III Summary of findings and recommendations; and final report Web site for supplementary information17 通过人力资源和预算资源的开发加强能力建设 附件五、附录十;
9 Improve knowledge-sharing through the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services Annex V, appendix VI www.oosa.unvienna.org/unisp-3/followup/ action_team_09 (for replies received in response to the survey circulated to member States)A/AC.105/L.251 www.oosa.unvienna.org/
17 Enhance capacity-building by developing human and budgetary resources Annex V, appendix X; A/AC.105/L.251 www.oosa.unvienna.org/unisp-3/followup/ action_team_17unisp-3/followup/
18 Increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of space activities Annex V, appendix XI; A/AC.105/L.252 www.oosa.unvienna.org/unisp-3/followup/ action_team_18 (for replies received in response to the questionnaire circulated to member States and organizations having observer status with the Committee)action_team_17
32 Identify new and innovative sources of financing to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III Annex V, appendix XII; A/AC.105/L.246 --18 提高决策者和公众对空间活动重要性的认识 附件五、附录十一; A/AC.105/C.1/L.252 www.oosa.unvienna.org/
(a) Increasing awareness of space benefits to improve the economic and social welfare of humanityunisp-3/followup/
Findingsaction_team_17
The internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, and the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences provide a comprehensive basis for action at the national, regional and international levels to achieve the key objectives of poverty eradication, sustained economic growth and sustainable development. They also provide a solid basis for potential outreach activities aimed at increasing awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of peaceful space activities for improving the common economic and social welfare of humanity.(查看散发给成员国和在委员会中拥有观察员地位的组织的问卷所收到的答复)
While the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space increased synergy between its work and the follow-up actions undertaken to implement the relevant outcomes of the United Nations global conferences (see paras. 84-92 and chap. IV), much more can be done. In addition to the need to establish a closer link with the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development (see paras. 231-233 above), whose role includes reviewing and monitoring progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and fostering coherence of implementation, initiatives and partnerships, there is a need to examine ways and means of better contributing to the preparations for United Nations global conferences to be held in the future and to the implementation of the outcomes of past conferences.32 查明新的、有创意的供资来源,以支助第三次外空会议建议的实施 附件五、附录十二;
Proposed actionsA/AC.105/L.246 ...
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space agreed that the agenda of its future sessions should include items to consider its contributions to the work of those entities that are responsible for convening United Nations conferences and/or for implementing their outcomes, in order to bring to their attention the contributions that space science and technology and their applications could make to achieving their objectives, bearing in mind the needs of developing countries. The Committee also agreed that, at its forty-eighth session, its agenda should include an item to consider its contribution to the work to be conducted by the World Summit on the Information Society during its second phase, to be held in Tunis in November 2005.(a) 提高对空间惠益的认识改善人类的经济和社会福利
In order to increase the awareness of policy planners and decision makers, involving all sectors at all levels of decision-making, the Committee agreed that ECA, the Economic Commission for Europe, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia should be invited to consider integrating the use of space science and technology and their applications into their work towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, taking into account the accomplishments of RESAP of ESCAP.调查结果
The Committee agreed that international and national space-related organizations, including non-governmental organizations, should promote awareness of the role of space science and technology and their applications in support of achieving the internationally agreed development goals and should be invited to provide the Committee with information on their efforts in that regard.287. 国际议定的发展目标,包括《联合国千年宣言》中所载的目标和联合国各次主要会议的结果,为国家、区域和国际各级的行动提供了全面的基础,以便实现消灭贫穷、持久的经济增长和可持续发展这些关键目标。它们还为旨在提高决策者和公众对和平的空间活动对于改善人类共同经济和社会福利重要性的认识的潜在推广活动提供了坚实基础。
The Committee also agreed that UNESCO should be invited to consider promoting awareness of the human development benefits of space activities as part of its activities as the lead agency for the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, during the 10-year period beginning on 1 January 2005 (see General Assembly resolution 57/254), and to inform the Committee, at its forty-eighth session, on the activities planned during the Decade.288. 尽管和平利用外层空间委员会提高了委员会工作与为执行联合国全球会议的相关结果所采取的后续行动之间的协同效应(见第84-92段和第四章),但要做的工作多得多。除了需要与可持续发展委员会的工作(见上文第231至第233段)建立更密切的联系之外,还需要审查为将来要举行的联合国全球会议筹备工作及过去会议结果的执行做出更大贡献的方法和手段,可持续发展委员会的作用包括审查和监测执行《21世纪议程》的进展和促进执行、倡议和伙伴关系的一致性。
The Office for Outer Space Affairs, in cooperation with UNESCO, should disseminate, electronically through its home page, information on efforts to increase awareness of the importance of space activities and should continue to update the information, building on the compilation of the results of the Internet-based survey conducted by the Action Team on Increasing Awareness among Member States and the organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee.建议的行动
Expected benefits289. 和平利用外层空间委员会同意,其未来会议议程应该包括审议其对负责举办联合国会议和/或执行其结果的实体的工作所做的贡献,以便让这些实体关注空间科学和技术及其应用能够为实现其目标所做的贡献,同时铭记发展中国家的需要。委员会还同意,在其第四十八届会议上,其议程应该包括一个项目:审议其对将于2005年11月在突尼斯举行的信息社会问题世界首脑会议第二阶段开展的工作所做的贡献。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) increased synergy between the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and that of those entities which are responsible for convening United Nations conferences and/or for implementing their outcomes; (b) increased contributions to the integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to the outcomes of major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic and social fields; and (c) increased awareness of the importance of space activities in contributing to the promotion of sustainable development.290. 为了提高各级决策部门涉及的政策规划者和决策者的认识,委员会同意,应该请非洲经委会、欧洲经济委员会、拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会及西亚经济社会委员会考虑将空间科学和技术及其应用的使用纳入其实现《千年发展目标》的工作中,同时考虑到亚太经社会空间应用促进可持续发展区域方案。
(b) Improving knowledge-sharing by promoting universal access to space-based communication services291. 委员会同意,国际和国家空间组织,包括非政府组织应该促进人们认识空间科学和技术及其应用在支持实现国际议定的发展目标中的作用,应该请这些组织为委员会提供关于其在这方面所做努力的信息。
Findings292. 委员会还同意,应请教科文组织考虑促进人们对空间活动的民生发展惠益的认识,作为其在2005年1月1日起的10年期里作为联合国教育促进可持续发展十年的领导机构开展活动的一部分(见大会第57/254号决议),并在委员会第四十八届会议上通报该十年期间计划的活动情况。
Science and technology serves as the engine that drives knowledge-based development, which is essential for social and economic inclusion (see paras. 184-189). In view of the globalization of the economy (see paras. 195-196) and rapid advances in science and technology, it is essential for any State to create and apply new scientific and technological knowledge, in particular to strengthen its economy. The ability to access such knowledge and to use it could determine the State’s competitiveness in the global market.293. 外层空间事务处应该与教科文组织合作,用电子手段通过其主页传播关于提高对空间活动重要性的认识工作的信息,应该继续根据提高成员国认识行动小组和在委员会中具有永久观察员地位的组织开展的因特网上调查的结果汇编更新其资料。
In particular in developing countries, there are many areas where access to knowledge and information is hindered, as their geographical isolation often makes it difficult to provide communication services using terrestrial means. Space-based communication becomes the only option for many such communities. However, providing space-based communication services could be a challenge, owing to the fact that large-scale projects are often required because the focus of private service providers is often driven by market forces and to the disparity that exists in the technologies used to provide such services.预计的惠益
Proposed actions294. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)增强了和平利用外层空间委员会工作与负责举行联合国会议和/或执行其结果的实体工作之间的协同效应;(b)为统筹协调执行经济和社会领域的联合国各次主要会议和首脑会议的结果及为其采取后续行动做出更大的贡献;(c)提高了人们对空间活动有助于促进可持续发展的重要性的认识。
In order to ensure that space-based communication services contribute to improving knowledge-sharing and bridging the digital divide, the Committee agreed that its Action Team on Knowledge-sharing could (a) identify existing and planned space-based communication infrastructures committed to universal access; (b) identify the barriers to the implementation of space-based communication systems; (c) promote the usage of space-based communication systems to assist in improving knowledge-sharing; (d) identify priority areas and target groups for knowledge-sharing; and (e) start developing pilot programmes for implementation in the near future.(b) 促进天基通信服务的普及以促进知识共享
Expected benefits调查结果
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions are increased international cooperation, through the work of the Committee, in better utilization of space-based communication systems to meet the needs of the target groups identified by the Committee for improving knowledge-sharing.295. 科学和技术是推动以知识为本的发展的发动机,它对于社会和经济包容至关重要(见第184-189段)。鉴于经济的全球化(见第195-196段)加上科学和技术的进步,任何国家都必须创造和应用新的科学和技术知识,特别是为了加强其经济实力。获得和利用这种知识的能力能够决定国家在全球市场的竞争力。 296. 尤其是在发展中国家,要获得知识和信息在许多地区受到阻碍,因为这些地区与世隔绝,使用地球手段通常难以向它们提供通信服务。天基通信成为其中许多社区的唯一选择。但是,由于通常需要大型项目,提供天基通信服务构成一个挑战,因为私人服务供应商的着眼点通常受市场力量驱动,而且提供这种服务所采用的技术也存在着差距。
(c) Enhancing capacity-building in space-related activities建议的行动
Findings297. 为了确保天基通信服务促进提高知识共享并消除数字鸿沟,委员会同意,其知识共享行动小组可:(a)确定现有和计划的、致力于普及的天基通信基础设施;(b)确定执行天基通信系统的障碍;(c)促进天基通信系统的使用以帮助提高知识共享;(d)确定知识共享的优先领域和目标群体;和(e)开始拟订在不久的将来执行的试验方案。
The exchange of experiences and information, as well as coordination of capacity-building efforts, in a systematic manner at the global and regional levels would significantly benefit many States, in particular those without a critical mass of skilled personnel, professionals and trainers or without a solid institutional framework to support the development of human resources in space-related areas. Further action should be taken to achieve a systematic exchange of experiences and information and coordination of capacity-building efforts.预计的惠益
The recommendations of the Action Team on Capacity-building provide the basis for such action.298.
It was recommended that further action should be taken (a) to promote the sharing of educational materials and information; (b) to coordinate international activities on capacity-building; (c) to increase assistance to activities of the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations; (d) to enhance opportunities for the ongoing exchange of ideas on capacity-building; (e) to facilitate the augmentation of budgetary resources and fellowships; and (f) to prepare and distribute education booklets.预计建议的行动带来的惠益是,通过委员会的工作加强了更好地利用天基通信系统方面的国际合作,以便满足委员会确定的目标群体提高知识分享的需要。
Proposed actions(c) 增强空间活动方面的能力建设
In order to enhance the capacity of developing countries in the development and wider use of Earth observation technologies, including satellite remote sensing and GIS, member States should be encouraged to support the initiatives taken by the Working Group on Education, Training and Capacity-Building of CEOS, with assistance from the Office for Outer Space Affairs, to develop an Earth observation education and training Internet web portal and provide their Earth observation data free of charge or at the lowest possible cost for educational purposes.调查结果
Member States that have established space agencies could support the activities of the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, including the possible organization of a series of capacity-building activities in the States of their respective regions, by developing a database of experts from space agencies who could assist the regional centres by providing specialized training, as well as making space-related education and training materials available for use by the regional centres.299. 在全球和区域两级系统地交流经验和信息以及协调能力建设工作将使许多国家,特别是没有足够数量技术人员、专业人员和培训者或没有坚实的体制框架来支持空间领域的人力资源开发的国家受益匪浅。应该采取进一步行动以系统地交流经验和信息并协调能力建设活动。
The Office for Outer Space Affairs and UNESCO, in cooperation with the regional centres for space science and technology education, could assist in the international efforts to coordinate capacity-building activities by disseminating, through their web sites, a list of international activities held around the world to strengthen the capacity of developing countries, in particular those organized by developing countries seeking assistance.300. 能力建设行动问题小组的建议为这种行动奠定了基础。建议采取进一步的行动,以:(a)促进分享教材和资料;(b)协调能力建设方面国际活动;(c)增加对联合国所属空间科学和技术教育区域中心活动的援助;(d)增加持续交流能力建设想法的机会;(e)促进增加预算资源和助研金;及(f)编印和分发教育小册子。
The Committee agreed that its member States, in cooperation with the Office for Outer Space Affairs, could implement capacity-building activities, focusing particularly on teachers, young professionals and decision makers, in order to support the Space Education Programme of UNESCO as a contribution of the Committee and the Office to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 to 2014).建议的行动
The Committee agreed that the entities of the United Nations system participating in the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities and members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space could discuss ways and means of coordinating capacity-building activities in space-related areas at the policy level.301. 为了增强发展中国家发展和更广泛地利用地球观测技术,包括卫星遥感和地球信息系统的能力,应该鼓励成员国支持地球观测卫星委员会教育、培训和能力建设工作组在外层空间事务厅协助下采取的倡议,以开发地球观测教育和培训因特网门户,并免费或尽可能以最低价格提供满足教育目的的地球观测数据。
In order to encourage the participation of youth in space activities as part of capacity-building efforts, the Committee agreed that the Office for Outer Space Affairs and relevant organizations could hold workshops and symposiums on a regular basis with the participation of youth in order to provide opportunities at the regional level for the exchange of experiences in capacity-building efforts.302. 设立了空间机构的成员国应该可与联合国有联系的各区域空间科学和教育中心的活动,包括在其各自区域的国家里可能组织一系列的能力建设活动,开发能够援助各区域中心的空间机构专家的数据库,并提供专业培训及与空间相关的教育和培训材料供各区域中心使用。
The Committee recommended that space agencies could develop and distribute educational booklets covering the fundamentals of space science that could serve as educational tools for young people in all countries.303. 外层空间事务厅和教科文组织可与各区域空间科学和技术教育中心合作,协助各种国际努力以协调能力建设活动,通过其网址传播为了增强发展中国家的能力在世界各地举行的国际活动,特别是寻求援助的发展中国家组织的国际活动一览表。
The Office for Outer Space Affairs should organize a meeting of interested Member States and space agencies to identify parties willing to undertake the actions listed in paragraph 300 and developed in paragraphs 301-307 above.304. 委员会同意,其成员国可与外层空间事务厅合作开展能力建设活动,特别侧重于教师、青年专业人员和决策者,以便支持教科文组织的空间教育方案,作为委员会和外空事务厅对联合国教育促进可持续发展十年(2005-2014年)的一个贡献。 305. 委员会同意,参加外层空间活动机构间会议的联合国系统各实体及和平利用外层空间委员会成员国可讨论在政策一级协调空间领域的能力建设活动的方法和手段。
The Committee noted that some of the satellite images that had been kept in the archives over years had become out of date without being utilized. In that regard, the Committee encouraged those countries that have satellite-imaging techniques and possess archives of satellite images to distribute those images, upon request, free of charge or at the lowest possible cost, for use particularly by developing countries as basic material for space research and studies.306. 为了鼓励青年参与空间活动作为能力建设工作的一部分,委员会同意,外层空间事务厅和相关组织可定期举办有青年参加的讲习班和专题讨论会,以便在区域一级提供能力建设工作的经验交流机会。
Expected benefits307. 委员会建议,空间机构可编写和散发介绍空间科学基础知识的教育小册子,这种小册子能够成为所有国家青年人的教育工具。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) enhanced access by developing countries to training and educational resources to build their capacity in the use of Earth observation technologies; (b) strengthened capacity of the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, to provide education and training for the benefit of developing countries; (c) enhanced coordination at the global level in organizing activities to strengthen the capacity of developing countries; (d) identification of possible ways and means of coordinating capacity-building activities in space-related areas at the policy level; (e) increased opportunities to integrate substantive inputs from youth in capacity-building efforts in space-related areas; and (f) increased availability of educational materials in space science for young people around the world.预计的惠益
(d) Identifying sources of financing to support development activities with space applications308. 外层空间事务厅应组织一次有关成员国和空间机构会议,以确定愿意采取上文第300段所列并在第301-307段中加以发展的行动的各当事方。
Findings309. 委员会注意到,数年来保存在档案中的一些卫星图像已经过时,未被使用过。就此,委员会鼓励那些拥有卫星成像技术和卫星图像档案的国家根据请求免费或以最低价格分发这些图像,特别是供发展中国家用作空间研究的基本资料。
The question of funding should be considered together with the need to enhance regional cooperation, for example by developing and strengthening institutional mechanisms, as well as the need to enhance knowledge-sharing, to increase awareness of policy makers of the human development benefits to be gained from such funding and to strengthen capacity-building. In order to obtain appropriate funding for projects in the use of space technology and its applications, it is important to investigate all kinds of funds that might be available to support the projects. When applying for funds, it is important to be aware of the priorities established by the donors for providing funds and to fulfil any requirements to receive funds. In general for projects concerned with the use of space technologies, it is also important to convince decision makers and users of the cost-effectiveness of space application techniques.310. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)增加了发展中国家获得培训和教育资源的途径,以建立它们使用地球观测技术的能力;(b)加强了与联合国有联系的各区域空间科学和技术教育中心的能力,以为了发展中国家的利益提供教育和培训;(c)改善了在全球一级为增强发展中国家的能力而组织的活动的协调工作;(d)确定了在政策一级协调空间领域的能力建设活动的可行方法和手段;(e)增加了将青年人的重要投入纳入空间领域能力建设活动的机会;和(f)向全世界青年人提供教育材料的情况得到改善。
In order to obtain funds from aid agencies and development banks, meeting the criteria for funding is essential. In addition, in order to seek support from aid agencies and development banks, space-related projects should be user-driven and application-oriented, to demonstrate that space technologies can offer practical, operational and cost-effective alternatives to conventional tools to solve specific development problems and should be supported by Governments if projects are to be carried out at the national level. Proposals should indicate the conditions for and methods of sustaining the space application aspect on an operational basis after the demonstration phase has been completed, taking into account the needs of developing countries for education and training in all areas of space science and technology.(d) 确定经费来源支助具有空间应用的发展活动
Proposed actions调查结果
Development banks and aid agencies are not fully aware of the potential and possibilities offered by space applications.311. 经费问题应该与需要加强区域合作,例如通过拟订和加强体制机制一并来考虑,也应该与加强知识共享的需要一并来考虑,以便提高决策者对从这种筹资和加强能力建设中获得的民生发展惠益的认识。为了使利用空间技术及其应用的项目获得适当的经费,重要的是要调查为了支助这些项目可能提供的所有种类资金。当申请资金时,重要的是要知道捐助方对提供资金和满足领取资金的任何要求所确定的优先次序。总的说来,对于涉及使用空间技术的项目,重要的还是要让决策者和用户相信空间应用技术的成本效益。 312.
In order to enhance access by developing countries to funding support provided by the development banks and aid agencies to carry out development projects with the use of space technology and its applications, the Committee agreed to implement the following actions through its Action Team on Innovative Sources of Funding:为了获得援助机构和开发银行的资金,符合筹资标准也相当重要。此外,为了寻求援助机构和开发银行的支助,空间项目应该由用户推动、面向应用,以证明空间技术能够为解决具体的发展问题提供传统工具实用的、符合成本效益的业务替代工具,如果在国家一级实施项目,应得到各国政府的支持。建议应表明,在示范阶段之后在业务上支持空间应用方面的条件和方法都已完成,并且考虑到发展中国家对空间科学和技术所有领域的教育和培训的需要。
(a) Organize workshops for experts in development banks and aid agencies to learn about the possibilities offered by space applications;建议的行动 313. 开发银行和援助机构不完全知道空间应用提供的潜力和机会。为了增强发展中国家获得开发银行和援助机构提供的经费资助的途径以利用空间技术及其应用完成发展项目,委员会同意通过其有创意的供资来源行动小组执行下列行动:
(b) Identify specific measures to promote the inclusion of training components in projects to be funded and to encourage formal commitment from the Governments concerned to maintain the structures that have been developed and to retain the personnel trained as a result of the project;(a) 为开发银行援助机构的专家举办讲习班,了解空间应用提供的机会;
(c) Identify ways to promote the inclusion of funds for the necessary investment in a specific budget and the amortization of that investment in subsequent budgets, in order to allow for the reimbursement of the initial investment, and to provide guarantees for foreseeable internal return in the projects in order to ensure their operational nature in the long term.(b) 确定具体措施以促进培训内容纳入将要得到经费的项目,并鼓励有关政府做出正式承诺以维护已经发展的结构并保留因该项目而培训的人员;
The Committee agreed that States that receive official development assistance funds should (a) consider placing a higher priority on capacity-building initiatives in the fields of space science and technology; and (b) use official development assistance funds to help achieve their capacity-building goals. The countries that provide official development assistance funds should make efforts to build partnerships with countries requesting assistance and directly support their capacity-building through exchanges of information and experience (see also paras. 299-310).(c) 确定为具体预算的必要投资促进融资并在后面预算中摊还该投资的具体措施,以便保证偿还初期投资,并为各个项目可预见的内部收益提供担保,以确保项目的长期运作性。
As a way of increasing the predictability of voluntary contributions to support the activities of the Office for Outer Space Affairs (see paras. 209-211), the Committee agreed that the overall number of donors contributing to the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications should increase.314.
Donors were encouraged to contribute to the Trust Fund, while allowing full flexibility for the Office for Outer Space Affairs to carry out activities in accordance with the priorities set by the Committee.委员会同意,接收官方发展援助资金的国家应该:(a)考虑将空间科学和技术领域的能力建设倡议放在更为优先的地位;和(b)利用官方发展援助资金帮助实现其能力建设目标。提供官方发展援助资金的国家应该努力与请求援助的国家建立伙伴关系,并通过交流信息和经验直接支持其能力建设(另见第299-310段)。
Expected benefits315. 作为提高支持外层空间事务厅活动的自愿捐助的可预测性的一种途径(见第209-211段),委员会同意,为联合国空间应用方案信托基金捐助的捐助方总数应有所增加。鼓励捐助方向信托基金捐款,从而使外层空间事务厅在根据委员会确定的优先事项开展活动方面具有充分的灵活性。
The benefits expected to result from the proposed actions include (a) increased possibility of development banks and aid agencies providing funds to support projects with the use of space applications for development purposes; (b) increased effectiveness of funds provided for projects for development purposes to strengthen local capacity-building; and (c) increased predictability of contributions to the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and increased possibility of advance planning leading to an increase in the number of individuals from developing countries to benefit from the activities of the Programme.预计的惠益 316. 预计建议的行动带来的惠益包括:(a)增加了开发银行和援助机构提供资金支助为了发展目的使用空间应用项目的可行性;(b)提高了提供给满足发展目的的项目的资金效力以增强当地的能力建设;和(c)提高了联合国空间应用方案信托基金捐助的可预测性,并增强了事先规划的可行性以增加发展中国家从该方案活动中受益的人数。
C.C.
Strengthening the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its subcommittees and its secretariat in implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III加强和平利用外层空间委员会、其各小组委员会及其秘书处在实现第三次
1. Encouraging the participation of members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the work of the Committee and its subcommittees外空会议的建议方面的作用
The General Assembly, in its resolution 58/89 of 9 December 2003, requested the Committee to consider ways to improve participation by member States and entities with observer status in its work, with a view to agreeing on specific recommendations in that regard at its forty-eighth session.1. 鼓励和平利用外层空间委员会成员参与委员会及其小组委员会的工作 317. 大会在其2003年12月9日第58/89号决议中,请委员会考虑改善成员国和在其工作中具有观察员地位的实体参与的方法,以便在第四十八届会议上议定这方面的具体建议。
In order to encourage the participation of developing countries, in particular in its work, the Legal Subcommittee should support the efforts made by the Office for Outer Space Affairs and individual member States to continue to organize and sponsor annual workshops on space law in various regions by, among other things, encouraging members of the Committee to send experts as lecturers to the workshops and providing the Office with informational material and background documentation or publications.318. 为了鼓励发展中国家参与,特别是参与其工作,法律小组委员会应该支持外层空间事务厅和个别成员国为在各个区域组织组织空间法年度讲习班所做的努力,除其他之外,鼓励委员会成员派遣专家担任讲习班讲师并为外空事务厅提供新闻资料和背景文件或出版物。
2. Encouraging the participation of international organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee in the work of the Legal Subcommittee2. 鼓励在委员会中拥有永久观察员地位的国际组织参与法律小组委员会的工作
The Legal Subcommittee has benefited from the participation of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations with activities in space law, including those that do not have permanent observer status with the Committee, such as Unidroit and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites. Entities of the United Nations system and other international organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee have an important role to play in strengthening the work of the Legal Subcommittee. For example, close collaboration with the International Civil Aviation Organization is indispensable to the consideration by the Subcommittee of the definition and delimitation of outer space, in particular with regard to the legal status of aerospace objects. The Subcommittee should consider how to strengthen the role of such organizations in its work and identify specific actions or mechanisms to encourage and facilitate their participation.319. 法律小组委员会得益于开展空间法活动的政府间组织和非政府组织的参与,这些组织也包括在委员会中没有永久观察员地位的组织,如统一私法协会和欧洲气象卫星利用组织。联合国系统各实体和在委员会具有永久观察员地位的其他国际组织可以在加强法律小组委员会的工作中起到重要作用。例如,与国际民用航空组织密切合作有助于小组委员会考虑外层空间的定义和划界,特别是关于航空航天物体的法律地位。小组委员会应该考虑如何加强这些组织在其工作中的作用并确定鼓励和便利其参与的具体行动或机制。
To date, only three international intergovernmental organizations conducting space activities have declared their acceptance of the rights and obligations under the Rescue Agreement, the Liability Convention and the Registration Convention. International intergovernmental organizations conducting space activities should be encouraged to declare their acceptance of the rights and obligations under those treaties. Relevant international intergovernmental organizations should also be requested to encourage their member States that are not yet parties to the international treaties governing the uses of outer space to give consideration to ratifying or acceding to the treaties in order to enable those international organizations to declare their acceptance of the rights and obligations under those treaties.320. 迄今只有三家从事空间活动的国际政府间组织宣布它们接受《营救协定》、《责任公约》和《登记公约》项下的权利和义务。应该确定具体行动以确保这些从事空间活动的国际政府间组织宣布它们接受这些条约项下的权利和义务。还应请相关的国际政府间组织鼓励其尚未批准或加入管制外层空间利用的国际条约的成员国考虑批准或加入条约,以便使这些国际组织能够宣布它们接受了这些条约项下的权利和义务。
3. Strengthening the role of the Office for Outer Space Affairs in implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III3. 加强外层空间事务厅在执行第三次外空会议各项建议中的作用
The Office for Outer Space Affairs should strengthen its capacity-building activities in space law and should continue to organize the series of workshops on space law within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. To that end, the Office should assist the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, in organizing short-term workshops on space law. In consultation with the regional centres and with assistance from States members of the Committee, the Office should develop a model education curriculum for a short-term training course on space law that could be integrated into the education programme of the regional centres.321. 外层空间事务厅应该加强其在空间法方面的能力建设活动并应继续在联合国空间应用方案的框架内组织空间法系列讲习班。外空事务厅应该协助与联合国有联系的各区域空间科学和技术教学中心组织空间法短期讲习班。外空事务厅应该与各区域中心协商并在委员会成员国的协助下,拟订空间法短期培训班的示范教学课程,该课程可以纳入到各区域中心的教学计划中。
The Office for Outer Space Affairs should strengthen its technical advisory services to support the operational use of space technologies, in particular in response to action called for in the plan of action contained in the present report (see paras. 228-249) in such areas as environmental monitoring, the management of natural resources, disaster management, global navigation satellite systems and telemedicine.322.
The proposal to be submitted to the Committee, as indicated in paragraph 323 below, should include specific measures to strengthen the technical advisory services with assistance sought from members of the Committee.外层空间事务厅应该加强其技术咨询服务以支持空间技术的实际使用,特别是针对本报告中所载的行动计划(见第228-249段)要求的以下领域的行动:环境监测、自然资源管理、灾害管理、全球导航卫星系统和远程医疗。按照下文第323段所示,提交给委员会的建议应该包括在委员会成员寻求的援助协助下加强技术咨询服务的具体措施。
The Office for Outer Space Affairs should review the activities that are included in the plan of action for implementation by the Office and submit its proposal to the Committee at its forty-eighth session on how those activities could be included in its programme of work.323.
The proposal should indicate any major activities currently included in the programme of work, as approved in the programme budget for the biennium 2004-2005 (A/56/6 (sect. 6)), that should be replaced with new activities recommended in the plan of action.外层空间事务厅应该审查列入供外空事务厅执行的行动计划的活动,并向委员会第四十八届会议提交其关于如何将这些活动纳入其工作计划的建议。该建议应该指明目前已列入该工作计划、已获2004-2005两年期方案预算(A/56/6(sect.6))批准并应由行动计划中建议的新活动来代替的任何重大活动。
Annex I附件一
Summary of proposed actions, entities to carry out those actions and expected benefits拟议的行动、采取这些行动的实体以及预期惠益概述
A.A.
Proposed actions and expected benefits from using space to support global agendas for sustainable development拟议的行动和利用空间支持全球可持续发展议程的预期惠益
Proposed action Entities to carry out action Expected benefit拟议的行动 采取行动的实体 预期惠益
Establishing a closer link with the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development与可持续发展委员会的工作建立更密切的联系 审查空间科学和技术及其应用可对可持续发展委员会在处理选定为主题分组的问题方面的工作做出的贡献和提供的实质性投入。 和平利用外层空间委员会 1. 在采取进一步行动以消除可持续发展委员会查明的在执行《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》中的障碍和限制的过程中,本委员会的工作与可持续发展委员会的工作的协同效应得到增强。 2. 为统筹协调执行经济和社会领域的联合国各次主要会议和首脑会议的结果及为其采取后续行动做出更大贡献。 确定《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》所要求的行动并拟定后续行动方案。 空间机构和其他与空间有关的实体 应用空间研究的结果促进可持续发展 考虑在与其能力和资源相当的水平上拟定能从空间技术受益的可持续发展议程。 考虑为了系统收集、准确分析和正确管理空间获得的数据和现场数据采取各种措施。 利用活跃于与环境有关的领域的国际实体的能力为讨论可持续发展问题建立坚实的科学和技术基础。 成员国 1. 确定和使用合适的且负担得起的空间技术以支持可持续发展议程。 2. 加强全面而可靠的数据供应,以更好地支持实现可持续发展议程方面的决策。 3. 在建立坚实的科学和技术基础的过程中更好地利用相关国际实体的现有能力,特别是在发展中国家,以更好地解决可持续发展问题。 制定综合性全球环境监测战略
Examine the contributions that space science and technology and their applications can make and provide substantive inputs for the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in addressing the issues selected as thematic clusters. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 1. Increased synergy between the work of the Committee and that of the Commission on Sustainable Development in taking further action to address the obstacles and constraints identified by the Commission in carrying out the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.在全球一级协调环境监测战略行动小组拟定的工作计划的执行,以发起一项天基全球环境监测战略。 和平利用外层空间委员会 1. 环境监测所需的充足、相关的空间技术的可获性得到加强。
2. Increased contribution to the integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to the outcomes of major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic and social fields2. 增强了国内工作人员在环境监测中使用卫星数据的能力。
Identify actions called for in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and establish follow-up programmes. Space agencies and other space-related entities3. 加强了相关的国家、区域和国际机构的伙伴关系,并增强了非政府组织和国内工作人员在环境监测中的参与。
Applying the results of space research to promote sustainable development4. 加强了在具体的关键环境问题方面的区域合作和知识共享。
Consider developing a sustainable development agenda that can benefit from space technology, at a level commensurate with its capability and resources改进对地球自然资源的管理 通过实施实验项目和示范项目阐明所有各级所涉的所有利益攸关者的确切信息需要。 利用现有能力建设机会和资源进行专门培训。 在自然资源管理中从实用角度使用或计划使用地球观测的成员国 1. 改善地球观测的实际使用,以满足参与自然资源管理的所有利益攸关者对信息的确切需要。
Consider undertaking measures towards the systematic collection, accurate analysis and proper management of space-acquired and in situ data.2. 进一步开发地球观测在自然资源管理中的实际使用所必需的人力资源。 3. 与更多的用户分享关于地球观测在自然资源管理中的使用的最佳做法的更多信息。 维护和传播地球观测数据在自然资源管理中的使用的最佳做法。 举办地球观测实际使用方面的专门培训班。 为自然资源管理中地球观测数据的使用的最佳做法汇编提供补充资料。 外层空间事务厅 成员国 B. 拟议的行动和发展协调的全球空间能力的预期惠益 拟议的行动 采取行动的实体 预期惠益 使现有的灾害管理空间能力的惠益最大化 研究有否可能建立一个国际实体以提供协调和最大限度提高天基服务在灾害管理中的使用效率。 编写将空间技术用于灾害管理的惠益的个案史,并编写样品目录。
Take advantage of the capacities of international entities that are active in fields relating to the environment to build a strong scientific and technical foundation for the discussion of sustainable development issues. Member States 1. Identification and use of appropriate and affordable space technology to support sustainable development agendas.研究能否在外层空间事务厅网址上建立一个网站以改善地球观测数据库的访问情况。 由和平利用外层空间委员会通过一个特设专家组实施,该专家组由有关成员国和国际组织提供专家,由外层空间事务厅加以协调。 1. 确定在天基系统运营商和服务供应商之间加强全球一级协调的最佳机制,以对灾害管理和民间保护机构的需求更好地作出反应,同时提高这些系统和服务的效用。
2. Increased availability of comprehensive and reliable data to better support decision-making in achieving sustainable development agendas.2. 加强现有支持灾害管理的天基产品的信息的分享和将空间技术用于灾害管理的惠益的分享。
3. Better use of available capacities of relevant international entities in building a sound scientific and technical foundation, in particular in developing countries, to better address sustainable development issues.3. 确定改善通过因特网存取用于灾害管理的存档地球观测数据的最佳方法。
Developing a comprehensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy4. 增强发展中国家将空间技术用于灾害管理的能力。 考虑为使用空间技术划拨本国或由各国际组织负责的国家用于灾害管理的部分资源和基金。
Coordinate the implementation, at the global level, of the work plan developed by the Action Team on the Environmental Monitoring Strategy to launch a space-based worldwide strategy for environmental monitoring. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 1. Increased availability of adequate, relevant space-related techniques for environmental monitoring.考虑确定单个联络点以集中其国内的灾害管理工作并在将空间技术用于灾害管理方面与外部努力建立联系。
2. Enhanced capacity of national staff in the use of satellite data in environmental monitoring.加入和加强《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》。 政府和国际组织
3. Strengthened partnership between relevant national, regional and international institutions and increased participation of non-governmental organizations and national personnel in environmental monitoring.设立了具有遥感卫星能力的空间机构的成员国
4. Enhanced regional cooperation and knowledge-sharing on specific, critical environmental issues.使利用和应用全球导航卫星系统支持可持续发展的惠益最大化 建立全球导航卫星系统国际委员会 全球导航卫星系统和扩充供应商同适当的国际组织 1. 使兼容性和互用适用性达到最优化。
Improving the management of the Earth’s natural resources2. 确定了执行保护全球导航卫星系统信号可靠性和整体性的措施的机制。 3. 加强了满足用户需要的全球导航卫星系统现代化活动的协调工作。
Articulate the exact information needs of all stakeholders involved at all levels by implementing pilot and demonstration projects.4. 尤其是增加了发展中国家使用全球导航卫星系统应用方面的培训机会。 5. 加强了全球导航卫星系统用户与供应商之间的信息交流。 6. 更容易地获取有关全球导航卫星系统各项活动、参考资料和获得技术援助的来源的信息。 开发和维护一个网站,以传播关于全球导航卫星系统活动的信息,包括获得将全球导航卫星系统纳入国家基础设施方面援助的培训机会和来源。 外层空间事务厅 C. 拟议的行动和利用空间支持具体议程以满足全球的民生发展需要的预期惠益 拟议的行动 采取行动的实体 预期惠益 加强天气和气候预报 为执行气象组织空间方案及其长期战略提供支持,包括必要的财政资源。 支持那些提供设法满足气象组织要求的空间系统的国家和国际实体。 成员国 1. 通过提高破坏性天气事件预报的准确性和及时性和更准确的中短期天气预报,减少因天气方面的自然灾害造成的损失。 2. 根据针对区域的水循环年预测、一到两年的厄尔尼诺预测、十年期天气预测和较长期气候变化监测所产生的更可靠的信息,就粮食生产、基础设施开发投资和淡水资源管理做出更有效的决策。 使用空间技术促进医疗和公共保健服务
Take advantage of existing capacity-building opportunities and resources for specialized training. Member States that use or plan to use Earth observations on an operational basis in the management of natural resources 1. Better operational use of Earth observations to meet the precise information needs of all stakeholders involved in the management of natural resources.为专家、政府官员和决策者,包括负责公共卫生的部委的决策者召开一次关于远程医疗的国际会议 外层空间事务厅同卫生组织和其他有关联合国实体和国际组织以及成员国合作 1. 将国际努力集中在执行远程医疗项目的优先领域。
2. Further development of human resources necessary for the operational use of Earth observations in the management of natural resources.2. 以更为综合的方法界定发展中国家在远程医疗方面的需要。
3. Sharing of more information with more users on best practices in the use of Earth observation data in natural resources management.3. 为建立心血管疾病知识与管理网络制订实用且实际的计划。
Maintain and disseminate a compilation of best practices in the use of Earth observation data in natural resources management.请卫生组织在世界卫生大会上讨论远程医疗问题。
Organize specialized training courses on the operational use of Earth observations. Office for Outer Space Affairs编写一份关于远程医疗现况和潜力的报告。
Contribute additional information to the compilation of best practices in the use of Earth observation data in natural resources management. Member States考虑建立机制以研究建立一个可能的国际新血管疾病知识与管理网络的可行性。 大会
B. Proposed actions and expected benefits in developing coordinated, global, space capabilities由科学和技术小组委员会通过一个扩大的公共卫生行动小组实施
Proposed action Entities to carry out action Expected benefit科学和技术小组委员会
Maximizing the benefits of existing space capabilities for disaster management在对整个社会构成威胁的近地物体的研究方面促进合作
Conduct a study on the possibility of creating an international entity to provide for coordination and the means of optimizing the effectiveness of space-based services for use in disaster management.确定国际一级或通过国际合作要采取的对近地物体的研究、探测、查询和后续观测采取的行动及开展其他有关活动。
Develop a case history of the benefits of using space technologies for disaster management and establish a sample product catalogue.审议关于近地物体的各份报告中所载的建议并帮助计划必要的跨学科活动。 由和平利用外层空间委员会通过其科学和技术小组委员会实施
Conduct a study on the possibility of establishing a web site on the web site of the Office for Outer Space Affairs for improved access to Earth observation data archives. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, through an ad hoc expert group, with experts to be provided by interested member States and relevant international organizations with coordination by the Office for Outer Space Affairs. 1. Identification of the best mechanism to enhance coordination at the global level among space-based system operators and service providers to better respond to the needs of disaster management and civil protection agencies while increasing the utilization of those systems and services.国际科学理事会 全球一级对近地物体的研究、探测、查询和后续观测的合作与协调得到加强。
2. Enhanced sharing of information on the available space-based products that support disaster management and the benefits of using space technologies for disaster management.D. 拟议的行动和加强核心的能力建设的预期惠益
3. Identification of the best ways to improve Internet-based access to archived Earth observation data for use in disaster management.拟议的行动 采取行动的实体 预期惠益
4. Increased capacity of developing countries in using space technologies for disaster management.提高对空间惠益的认识以改善人类的经济和社会福利
Consider allocating some resources and funds for disaster management in own countries, or in countries for which the international organizations are responsible, to using space technology.审议其对负责举行联合国会议和/或执行其结果的实体的工作所做的贡献。 和平利用外层空间委员会 1. 增强了和平利用外层空间委员会的工作与负责举行联合国会议和/或执行其结果的实体的工作之间的协同效应。
Consider identifying single points of contact to focus internal disaster management efforts and to provide liaison with external efforts with respect to the use of space technology for disaster management. Government and international organizations2. 为统筹协调执行经济和社会领域的联合国各次主要会议和首脑会议的结果及为其采取后续行动做出更大的贡献。
Join and strengthen the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” Member States with space agencies having remote sensing satellite capabilities3. 提高了人们对空间活动有助于促进可持续发展的重要性的认识。
Maximizing the benefits of the use and applications of global navigation satellite systems to support sustainable development考虑将空间科学和技术的使用及其应用纳入所开展的工作中以实现千年发展目标。
Establish an International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) GNSS and augmentation providers with appropriate international organizations 1. Optimized compatibility and interoperability.促进人们认识空间科学和技术及其应用在支持实现国际议定的发展目标中的作用。
2. Identification of mechanisms to implement measures to protect the reliability and integrity of GNSS signals.考虑促进人们对空间活动的民生发展惠益的认识,作为联合国教育促进可持续发展十年领导机构开展活动的一部分。
3. Enhanced coordination in GNSS modernization activities to meet user needs.用电子手段通过其主页传播关于提高对空间活动重要性的认识工作的信息。 非洲经济委员会、欧洲经济委员会、拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会以及西亚经济社会委员会
4. Increased training opportunities, particularly in developing countries, in the use of applications of GNSS.国际和国家与空间有关的组织
5. Enhanced exchange of information among users and providers of GNSS.联合国教育、科学及文化组织
6. Easier access to information on GNSS activities, reference material and sources for obtaining technical assistance.外层空间事务厅与教科文组织合作
Develop and maintain a web site to disseminate information on GNSS activities, including training opportunities and sources for obtaining assistance in integrating GNSS into national infrastructure. Office for Outer Space Affairs促进天基通信服务的普及以促进知识共享
C. Proposed actions and expected benefits in the use of space to support specific agendas to meet human development needs at the global level确定现有和计划的、致力于普及的天基通信基础设施并查明执行天基通信系统的障碍。
Proposed action Entities to carry out action Expected benefit确定知识共享的优先领域和目标群体并促进天基通信系统的使用以帮助增进知识共享。
Enhancing weather and climate forecasting拟定促进执行的试验方案。 和平利用外层空间委员会知识共享行动小组 增进了国际合作以更好地利用天基通信系统满足和平利用外层空间委员会确定的目标群体对增进知识共享的需要。
Provide support, including the necessary financial resources, for the implementation of the WMO Space Programme and its Long-term Strategy. Support those national and international entities that provide space systems that seek to meet the WMO requirements. Member States 1. Reduction in losses due to weather-related natural disasters through enhanced accuracy and timeliness of early warning of destructive weather events and more accurate short- and medium-term weather prediction. 2. More effective decision-making on food production, investment in infrastructure development and management of freshwater resources based on more reliable information resulting from regionally specific, yearly water cycle predictions, annual to biennial El Niño prediction, decade-scale climate predictions and longer-term climate-change monitoring. Improving medical and public health services through the use of space technologies Convene an international conference on telemedicine for experts, government officials and decision makers, including those from ministries responsible for public health. The Office for Outer Space Affairs, in cooperation with WHO and other relevant United Nations entities and international organizations, as well as Member States 1. Focused international efforts in the priority areas for implementing telemedicine projects. 2. Needs in telemedicine of developing countries defined in a more comprehensive manner. 3. Practical and realistic plan for establishing a cardiovascular-disease knowledge-management network. Invite WHO to address the issue of telemedicine at the World Health Assembly. General Assembly Prepare a report on the status and potential of telemedicine. Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, through an enlarged Action Team on Public Health Consider mechanisms to conduct a study on the feasibility of establishing a possible international cardiovascular-disease knowledge-management network. Scientific and Technical Subcommittee Promoting cooperation in the study of near-Earth objects as threats to society at large Identify action to be taken at the national level or through international cooperation to research, detect, search for and make follow-up observations of NEOs and other relevant activities. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space through its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee Enhanced cooperation and coordination at the global level in research, detection, search and follow-up observations of NEOs. Consider the recommendations contained in various reports on NEOs and help plan the necessary multidisciplinary activity. International Council for Science D. Proposed actions and expected benefits in strengthening overarching capacity development Proposed action Entities to carry out action Expected benefit Increasing awareness of space benefits to improve the economic and social welfare of humanity Consider its contributions to the work of those entities that are responsible for convening United Nations conferences and/or for implementing their outcomes. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 1. Increased synergy between the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and that of the entities responsible for convening United Nations conferences and/or for implementing their outcomes. 2. Increased contributions to the integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to the outcomes of major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic and social fields. 3. Increased awareness of the importance of space activities in contributing to promoting sustainable development. Consider integrating the use of space science and technology and their applications in work carried out with a view to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Economic Commission for Africa, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Promote awareness of the role of space science and technology and their applications in support of achieving the internationally agreed development goals. International and national space-related organizations Consider promoting awareness of the human development benefits of space activities as part of activities as the lead agency for the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Disseminate, electronically through its homepage, updated information on efforts to increase awareness of the importance of space activities. Office for Outer Space Affairs, in cooperation with UNESCO Improving knowledge-sharing by promoting universal access to space-based communication services Identify existing and planned space-based communication infrastructures committed to universal access and barriers to the implementation of space-based communication systems. Identify priority areas and target groups for knowledge-sharing and promote the usage of space-based communication systems to assist in improving knowledge-sharing. Develop pilot programmes for implementation. Action Team on Knowledge-Sharing of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Increased international cooperation in better utilizing space-based communication systems to meet the needs of the target groups identified by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space for improving knowledge sharing. Enhancing capacity-building in space-related activities Support the initiatives taken by the Working Group on Education, Training and Capacity-Building of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), with assistance from the Office for Outer Space Affairs, to develop an Earth observation education and training discovery web portal and to provide Earth observation data free of charge or at the lowest possible cost for educational purposes. Members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 1. Enhanced access by developing countries to training and educational resources to build their capacity in the use of Earth observation technologies. 2. Strengthened capacity of the regional centres for space science and technology education to provide education and training for the benefit of developing countries. 3. Enhanced coordination at the global level in organizing activities to strengthen the capacity of developing countries. 4. Increased support to the UNESCO Space Education Programme as a contribution to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. 5. Coordinate capacity-building activities in space-related areas at the policy level. 6. Increased opportunities to integrate substantive inputs from youth in capacity-building efforts in space-related areas. 7. Increased availability of educational materials in space science for young people around the world. 8. Better utilization of archived satellite images and increased access by developing countries to archived satellite images as basic material for space research and studies. Support the activities of the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, by developing a database of experts from space agencies who could assist the regional centres by providing space-related education and training materials for the regional centres. Members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space that have established space agencies Assist in the international efforts to coordinate capacity-building activities by disseminating a list of international activities to strengthen capacity of developing countries, in particular those organized by developing countries seeking for assistance. The Office for Outer Space Affairs and UNESCO, in cooperation with the regional centres for space science and technology education Implement capacity-building activities, focusing particularly on teachers, young professionals and decision makers, in order to support the Space Education Programme of UNESCO as a contribution of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the Office for Outer Space Affairs to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). Members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in cooperation with the Office for Outer Space Affairs Discuss ways and means of coordinating capacity-building activities in space-related areas at the policy level. Entities of the United Nations system and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Hold workshops and symposiums on a regular basis with the participation of youth to provide opportunities at the regional level for the exchange of experiences in capacity-building efforts. The Office for Outer Space Affairs and relevant organizations Develop and distribute educational booklets covering the fundamentals of space science that could serve as educational tools for young people in all countries. Space agencies Organize a meeting of interested Member States and space agencies to identify parties willing to undertake the actions proposed in the present section on enhancing capacity-building in space related activities. The Office for Outer Space Affairs, in cooperation with interested Member States and space agencies Distribute, upon request, free of charge or at the lowest possible cost, satellite images kept in archives over years for use particularly by developing countries. Countries that have satellite imaging techniques and that possess archives of satellite images Identifying sources of financing to support development activities with space applications Organize workshops for experts in development banks and aid agencies to learn about possibilities offered by space applications.增强空间活动方面的能力建设
Identify ways to promote the inclusion of funds for necessary investment in a specific budget and the amortization of that investment in subsequent budgets. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, through its Action Team on Innovative Sources of Funding 1. Increased possibility of development banks and aid agencies providing funds to support projects with the use of space applications for development purposes.支持地球观测卫星委员会教育、培训和能力建设工作组在外层空间事务厅协助下采取的举措,以开发地球观测教育和培训发现网络门户并免费或以最低价格提供满足教育目的的地球观测数据。 和平利用外层空间委员会成员 1. 增加了发展中国家获得培训和教育资源的途径,以建立它们使用地球观测技术的能力。
Identify specific measures to promote the inclusion of training components in projects to be funded and to encourage formal commitment from the Governments concerned to maintain the structures developed and to retain the personnel trained as a result of the project. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, through its Action Team on Innovative Funding2. 加强了各区域空间科学和技术教育中心的能力,以为了发展中国家的利益提供教育和培训。
Consider placing a higher priority on capacity-building initiatives in the fields of space science and technology and use official development assistance funds to help achieve capacity-building goals. Member States receiving official development assistance funds 2. Increased effectiveness of funds provided for projects for development purposes to strengthen local capacity-building.3. 改善了在全球一级为增强发展中国家的能力而组织的活动的协调工作。
Make efforts to build partnerships with countries requesting assistance and directly support their capacity-building through exchanges of information and experience. Member States providing official development assistance funds4. 增加了对教科文组织空间教育方案的支助,作为对联合国教育促进可持续发展十年的贡献。
Consider making contributions while allowing full flexibility for the Office of Outer Space Affairs to carry out activities in accordance with the priorities set by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Contributors to the United Nations Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications 3. Increased predictability of contributions to the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and increased availability of resources for activities in areas identified as priorities by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.5. 在政策一级对空间领域的能力建设活动进行了协调。
Annex II6. 增加了将青年人的重要投入纳入空间领域能力建设活动的机会。
Summary of the implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III)7. 向全世界青年人提供空间科学教育材料的情况得到改善。 8. 更好地利用已存档的卫星图像并增加发展中国家获得以存档卫星图像用作空间研究基本资料的机会。 支持附属于联合国的各区域空间科学和技术教育中心的活动,开发能够援助各区域中心的空间机构专家的数据库,并向各区域中心提供与空间相关的教育和培训材料。
Recommendationa Action team establishedb Relevant agenda item of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies Other activities and remarks协助各种国际努力以协调能力建设活动,传播为了增强发展中国家的能力而开展的国际活动,特别是寻求援助的发展中国家举办的国际活动清单。 开展能力建设活动,特别侧重于教师、青年专业人员和决策者,以便支持教科文组织的空间教育方案,作为和平利用外层空间委员会和外层空间事务厅对联合国教育促进可持续发展十年(2005-2014年)的一个贡献。 讨论在政策一级协调与空间有关的领域的能力建设活动的方法和手段。 定期举办有青年参加的讲习班和专题讨论会,以在区域一级提供能力建设工作经验的交流机会。 编写和散发介绍空间科学基础知识的教育小册子,这种小册子能够成为所有国家青年人的教育工具。 组织一次有关成员国和空间机构会议,以确定愿意采取本节中提议的关于加强空间活动方面能力建设的行动的各当事方。 根据请求免费或以最低价格分发数年来保存在档案中的卫星图像,以特别是供发展中国家使用。 已设立了空间机构的和平利用外层空间委员会成员国 外层空间事务厅和教科文组织,与各空间科学和技术教育区域中心合作 和平利用外层空间委员会成员与外层空间事务厅合作 联合国系统各实体和和平利用外层空间委员会 外层空间事务厅和有关组织 空间机构 外层空间事务厅,与有关成员国和空间机构合作 拥有卫星成像技术和卫星图像档案的国家 确定经费来源以支助具有空间应用的发展活动 为开发银行和援助机构中的专家了解空间应用提供的可能性举办讲习班。 确定为具体预算的必要投资而促进融资并在后面预算中摊还该投资的具体措施。 确定具体措施以促进培训内容纳入将要得到经费的项目,并鼓励有关政府做出正式承诺以维护已经建立的结构并保留因该项目而培训的人员。 考虑将空间科学和技术领域的能力建设倡议放在更为优先的地位并利用官方发展援助资金帮助实现能力建设目标。 努力与请求援助的国家建立伙伴关系,并通过交流信息和经验直接支持其能力建设。 考虑提供捐款,同时让外层空间事务厅在根据和平利用外层空间委员会确定的优先事项开展活动方面拥有充分的灵活性。 和平利用外层空间委员会通过其有创意的供资来源行动小组实施 和平利用外层空间委员会,通过其有创意的供资来源行动小组实施 接受官方发展援助资金的成员国 提供官方发展援助资金的成员国 用于联合国空间应用方案的联合国信托基金的捐款者 1. 增加了开发银行和援助机构提供资金支助为了发展目的使用空间应用项目的可能性。 2. 提高了为项目提供的用于发展目的的资金的效能,以加强当地能力建设。 3. 提高了联合国空间应用方案信托基金捐款的可预测性,并增加了用于和平利用外层空间委员会确定为优先领域的活动的资源可获量。 附件二 第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)各项建议执行情况简表 建议a 是否已成立行动小组b 委员会及其附属机构的相关议程项目 其他活动及说明
1 Develop a comprehensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy Yes “Matters relating to remote sensing of the Earth by satellite” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its annual session). Activities relating to monitoring and protection of the environment (priority theme of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications). The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/C.1/L.275).1 制订综合性世界环境监测战略 是 “关于用卫星遥感地球的事项”(由科学和技术小组委员会年会审议)。 与监测和保护环境有关的活动(联合国空间应用方案的一个优先主题)。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/C.1/L.275)。
2 Improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources Yes Same as for recommendation 1 above; and “Space and society”; and “Space and water” (considered by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 2004 and in 2005). Activities relating to management of natural resources (priority theme of the Programme). The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/L.250).2 改进对地球自然资源的管理 是 与上文建议1相同;“空间与社会”及“空间与水”(已由和平利用外层空间委员会于2004和2005年作了审议)。 与自然资源管理有关的活动(方案的优先主题)。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/L.250)。
3 Develop and implement the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) No Same as for recommendation 1 above. At the invitation of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, the IGOS Partnership made a presentation on its activities at the fortieth session of the Subcommittee. In 2002, the Subcommittee noted that the activities of the IGOS Partnership had direct relevance to the recommendation and agreed that there was no need to establish an action team.3 制订并实施综合性全球观测战略 否 与上文建议1相同。 应科学和技术小组委员会邀请,综合全球观测战略伙伴关系在小组委员会第四十届会议上就其活动作了介绍。2002年,小组委员会注意到综合性全球观测战略伙伴关系的活动与建议有直接关系,因此同意没有必要建立行动小组。
4 Enhance weather and climate forecasting Yes Same as for recommendation 1 above.4 加强天气和气候预报 是 与上文建议1相同。 行动小组提交了其最后报告(A/AC.
The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/C.1/L.269).105/
5 Minimize harmful effects of space activities on the local and global environment NoC.1/L.269)。 5 最大限度减少空间活动对当地和全球环境的有害影响 否
6 Improve public health services Yes “Use of space technology for the medical sciences and public health” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee as a single issue at its 2003 session); “Space-system-based telemedicine” (considered by the Subcommittee under a work plan for the period 2004-2006). Activities relating to telemedicine (priority theme of the Programme).6 改善公共保健服务 是 “使用空间技术促进医学科学和公共健康”(由科学和技术小组委员会2003年届会作为一个单独议题审议);“以空间系统为基础的远程医疗”(由小组委员会根据 2004-2006年工作计划审议)。 与远程医疗有关的活动(方案的优先主题)。
7 Implement an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts Yes “Implementation of an integrated, space-based global natural disaster management system” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee under a work plan covering the period 2001-2003 and as a single issue at its 2004 session); and “space-system-based disaster management support” (to be considered by the Subcommittee under a work plan for the period 2005-2007). Activities relating to disaster management (priority theme of the Programme, which launched a training module consisting of regional workshops on the subject). The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/C.1/L.273).7 实施一个综合性全球系统对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理 是 “实施综合性天基全球自然灾害管理系统”(已由科学和技术小组委员会根据2001-2003年工作计划并在其2004年届会上作为一个单独议题审议);及“以空间系统为基础的灾害管理支助”(拟由小组委员会根据2005-2007年工作计划进行审议)。 与灾害管理有关的活动(方案的优先主题,启动了培训单元,包括举办有关该议题的区域讲习班)。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/C.1/L.273)。
8 Promote literacy and enhance rural education through tele-education No “Space and education” (to be considered by the Committee under a work plan for the period 2004-2006 under the agenda item “Space and society”); the work plan for 2005 includes examination of space-based services and systems for providing educational opportunities in developing countries, including tele-education. Activities relating to tele-education (priority theme of the Programme).8 通过远程教育促进扫盲和加强乡村教育 否 “空间与教育”(拟由委员会根据2004-2006年工作计划在“空间与社会”议程项目下审议);2005年工作计划包括审查用于在发展中国家提供教育机会,包括远程教育的空间服务和系统。 与远程教育有关的活动(方案的优先主题)。
9 Improve knowledge-sharing through the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services Yes9 促进天基通信服务的普及以促进知识共享
Activities relating to satellite communications under the Programme.是 方案项下与卫星通信有关的活动。
10 Improve universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems Yes10 改进天基导航和定位系统的普遍利用和兼容性 是
The Programme has launched a training module consisting of regional workshops and international meetings of experts on the use and applications of global navigation satellite systems. The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/C.1/L.274 and Corr.1 and Corr.2)方案已启动由区域讲习班和国际专家会议组成的培训单元,内容是全球导航卫星系统的使用和应用。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/C.1/L.274)和Corr.1及Corr.2。
11 Promote sustainable development by applying results of space research Yes11 应用空间研究的结果促进可持续发展 是
One of the main goals of the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities and the Programme; a new series of symposiums of the Programme in the period 2003-2005 on space applications for sustainable development: supporting the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/C.1/L.264 and Corr.1).机构间外层空间活动会议会议和方案的一项主要目标;方案在2003至2005年举办关于空间应用促进可持续发展:支持可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》的新的系列专题讨论会。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/C.1/L.264和Corr.1)。
12 Improve scientific knowledge of near and outer space through cooperative activities No “Support to proclaim 2007 as the International Geophysical and Heliophysical Year” (to be considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its 2005 session). Series of workshops on basic space science organized by the United Nations and the European Space Agency.12 通过合作活动提高对近空和外空科学的认识 否 “支持宣布2007年为国际地球物理和太阳物理年”(拟由科学和技术小组委员会2005年届会审议)。 联合国与欧洲航天局举办的基础空间科学系列讲习班。
13 Improve the protection of the near-Earth space and outer space environments through mitigation of space debris No Space debris has been considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee since before UNISPACE III, including through the Working Group on Space Debris since 2004, and is part of the work plan for the period 2002-2005.13 通过缓减空间碎片改进对近地空间和外层空间环境的保护 否 空间碎片问题自第三次外空会议之前一直由科学和技术小组委员会,包括自2004年起由空间碎片问题工作组审议,是2002-2005年工作计划的一部分。
14 Improve the international coordination of activities related to near-Earth objects Yes “Near-Earth objects” (to be considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee under a work plan for the period 2005-2007).14 改进与近地物体有关的活动的国际协调 是 “近地物体”(拟由科学和技术小组委员会根据2005-2007年工作计划进行审议)。
15 Protect the near and outer space environments through further research on the use of nuclear power sources No The use of nuclear power sources in outer space has been considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee since before UNISPACE III, including through the Working Group under the item, and is part of the work plans for the periods 2000-2003 and 2003-2006.15 通过对使用核动力源的进一步研究来保护近空和外空环境 否 科学和技术小组委员会自第三次外空会议之前已审议外层空间使用核动力源议题,包括通过该项目的工作组进行审议,该议题是2000-2003年和2003-2006年的工作计划的一部分。
16 Minimize interference with bands in the electromagnetic spectrum No16 尽量减少对电磁谱段的干扰 否
Information was provided by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) at the thirty-eighth and thirty-ninth sessions of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee on their activities concerning the narrower subject of frequency interference with radio astronomy.在科学和技术小组委员会第三十八和第三十九届会议上,国际电信联盟(国际电联)、经济合作与发展组织(经合组织)和国际天文学联盟(天文学联盟)介绍了其就无线电天文学的频率干扰这一范围较窄的议题开展的活动的情况。
17 Enhance capacity-building by developing human and budgetary resources Yes “Mobilization of financial resources to develop capacity in space science and technology applications” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its thirty-ninth and fortieth sessions); “Space and education” (to be considered by the Committee under a work plan for the period 2004-2006 under the agenda item “Space and society”). One of the main objectives of the Programme in carrying out its activities under each priority theme. The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/L.251).17 通过人力资源和预算资源的开发加强能力建设 是 “调动财政资源发展空间科技应用能力” (由科学和技术小组委员会第三十九届和第四十届会议作了审议);“空间与教育”(将由委员会根据2004-2006年工作计划在“空间与社会”议程项目下审议)。 方案在执行每个优先主题活动方面的主要目标之一。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/L.251)。
18 Increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of space activities Yes “Space and society” (considered by the Committee). One of the main objectives of the Programme in carrying out activities under each priority theme. The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/L.252).18 提高决策者和公众对空间活动重要性的认识 是 “空间与社会”(已由委员会作了审议)。 方案在执行每个优先主题活动方面的主要目标之一。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/L.252)。
19 Establish/strengthen national mechanisms for the coordination of space activities No19 建立/加强协调空间活动的国家机制 否
20 Improve the sharing of information on and use of spin-offs from space activities No Spin-off benefits of space technology (review of current status has been considered by the Committee since before UNISPACE III).20 改善空间活动附带利益信息的交流和对此种附带利益的利用 否 空间技术的附带利益(已由委员会自第三次外空会议之前作了审议)。
21 Provide educational opportunities for youth to learn more about space science and technology and participate in space activities No “Government and private activities to promote education in space science and engineering” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its thirty-eighth session); “Space and society” (to be considered by the Committee, with a special focus on “Space and education”, under the work plan for the period 2004-2006).21 为青年提供受教育机会,学习更多的空间科技知识,并参加空间活动 否 “政府和私营部门为促进空间科学和工程教育开展的活动”(已由科学和技术小组委员会第三十八届会议作了审议);“空间与社会”(将由委员会根据2004-2006年工作计划加以审议,特别将重点放在“空间与教育”上)。
22 Create within the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space a consultative mechanism to facilitate the participation of youth in cooperative space-related activities No22 在和平利用外层空间委员会内建立一个协商机制,以促进青年人参加与空间有关的合作活动 否
The Space Generation Advisory Council was granted permanent observer status with the Committee by the General Assembly in its resolution 56/51; the Programme has held a series of symposiums on enhancing the participation of youth in space activities, supporting the work of the Space Generation Advisory Council.大会第56/51号决议准予航天新一代咨询理事会委员会常驻观察员地位;方案举办了一系列加强青年人参加空间活动的专题讨论会,支持航天新一代咨询理事会的工作。
23 Create awards to recognize outstanding contributions in space activity No23 设立各种奖项,以表彰对空间活动所作的杰出贡献 否
24 Reaffirm the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its subcommittees and its secretariat in the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space No24 重申和平利用外层空间委员会、小组委员会和秘书处在探索及和平利用外层空间方面的作用 否
Ongoing work of the Committee and its subcommittees through consideration of the items on their agendas.委员会及其各小组委员会通过审议其议程项目而持续开展的工作。
25 Ensure sustainable funding mechanisms for regional centres affiliated with the United Nations and enhance support for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications No25 确保为联合国所属各区域中心提供可持续的供资机制,加强对联合国空间应用方案的支助 否
Fund-raising activities by the Office for Outer Space Affairs to support activities of the Programme.外层空间事务厅举办筹资活动,以支持方案的活动。
26 Encourage the increased use of space-related systems and services by the organizations of the United Nations system and by the private sector No “Means and mechanisms for strengthening inter-agency cooperation and increasing the use of space applications and services within and among entities of the United Nations system” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee under the work plan for the period 2001-2003); the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities reports annually to the Subcommittee on the matter.26 鼓励联合国系统各组织和私营部门更多地利用空间系统和服务 否 “加强机构间合作和增加联合国系统各实体内部和彼此间利用空间应用与服务的方法和机制”(已由科学和技术小组委员会根据2001-2003年工作计划作了审议);外层空间活动机构间会议每年向小组委员会提出有关这一事项的报告。
27 Invite States to ratify or accede to, and invite intergovernmental organizations to declare acceptance of, the outer space treaties No Status and application of the five United Nations treaties on outer space (considered by the Legal Subcommittee at its annual sessions). Workshops on space law organized by the Office for Outer Space Affairs within the framework of the Programme.27 请各国批准或加入并请各政府间组织宣布接受外空条约 否 联合国五项外空条约的现状和适用情况(已由法律小组委员会的年会作了审议)。 外层空间事务厅在方案框架内举办了数期空间法讲习班。
28 Further consider the agenda structure and working methods of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subcommittees No Agenda items of both of the subcommittees of the Committee; considered under other matters by the Committee.28 进一步审议和平利用外层空间委员会及其小组委员会的议程结构和工作方法 否 委员会下属两个小组委员会的议程项目,已由委员会在其他事项下作了审议。
29 Strengthen the coordination of mutually beneficial activities between the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other United Nations entities No “Means and mechanisms for strengthening inter-agency cooperation and increasing the use of space applications and services within and among entities of the United Nations system” (considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee under the work plan for the period 2001-2003); the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities reports annually to the Subcommittee on the matter; “Ways and means of maintaining outer space for Organization of the open, informal session of the Inter-Agency Meeting; preparation by the Meeting and Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space members of the list of space-related initiatives and programmes that respond to the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.29 加强和平利用外层空间委员会和联合国其他实体间互利活动的协调 否 “加强机构间合作和增加联合国系统各实体内部和彼此间利用空间应用与服务的方法和机制”(已由科学和技术小组委员会根据2001-2003年工作计划作了审议); 举办机构间会议的公开非正式会议;机构间会议和和平利用外层空间委员会成员编拟响应可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》的与空间有关的倡议和方案清单。
peaceful purposes” (considered by the Committee since before UNISPACE III); the role that space technology could play in the implementation of recommendations of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (considered by the Committee at its annual sessions under the agenda item on “Ways and means of maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes”).外层空间活动机构间会议每年向小组委员会提出有关这一事项的报告;“保持外层空间用于和平目的的方式和方法”(自第三次外空会议以前起一直由委员会审议);空间技术在落实可持续发展问题世界首脑会议方面可发挥的作用(已由委员会在其年度届会上在“保持外层空间用于和平目的的方式和方法”议程项目下作了审议)。
30 Call upon the international community to consider the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences for UNISPACE III No30 呼吁国际社会考虑第三次外空会议区域筹备会议的建议 否
31 Establish a special voluntary United Nations fund for the implementation of UNISPACE III recommendations No31 设立一项联合国特别自愿基金,以实施第三次外空会议的各项建议
Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 54/68, the terms of reference of the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications have been revised to include the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III.按照大会第54/68号决议,联合国空间应用方案信托基金的授权内容有所修改,以包括执行第三次外空会议建议的内容。
32 Identify new and innovative sources of financing to support the implementation of UNISPACE III recommendations Yes Related to mobilization of financial resources to develop capacity in space science and technology applications, considered by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its thirty-ninth and fortieth sessions. The workshops organized by the United Nations and the International Astronautical Federation since 2001 include a session to address this subject. The Action Team has submitted its final report (A/AC.105/L.246).32 查明新的、有创意的供资来源,以支助第三次外空会议建议的实施 是 与调动财政资源发展空间科学和技术应用能力有关的项目,由科学和技术小组委员会第三十九届和第四十届会议作了审议。 自2001年起由联合国和国际宇航联合会举办的讲习班包括一次讨论此题目的专题会议。行动小组已提交其最后报告(A/AC.105/L.246)。
33 Promote further the peaceful uses of outer space through cooperation between “space-faring” and “non-space-faring” countries, as well as among developing countries, and involving civil society, including industry No33 通过促进“航天”国家和“非航天”国家间以及发展中国家间的合作,并争取包括业界在内的民间社会的参与,进一步促进对外层空间的和平利用 否
a The recommendations have been numbered in accordance with their order of appearance in the resolution entitled “The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development” adopted by the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III).a 建议的编号是根据第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)通过的题为“空间千年:关于空间和人的发展的维也纳宣言”中的顺序排列的。
b For more information on the action teams, see annex V.b 关于行动小组的详情,见附件四。
Annex III附件三
Achievements of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies as a result of consideration of issues introduced under the revised agenda structure和平利用外层空间委员会及其附属机构通过审议根据修订后
Issues introduced under the revised agenda structure Achievements议程结构介绍的问题而取得的成就
Issue Body and type of consideration (regular item, single issue or item under work plan) Session (year)根据修订后的议程结构介绍的问题
International Satellite System for Search and Rescue (COSPAS-SARSAT) Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2002 (a) Reporting by Member States on the activities of COSPAS-SARSAT to the Committee;问题 审议机构和审议类型
(b) Acknowledgement of the achievement on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary;(经常项目、单一问题或
(c) New issue considered as part of the item on the report of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.工作计划项下项目)
Space and society Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2002-2003 New issue considered as an agenda item.届会(年份)
Space and education Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2004-2006 (a) New issue addressed as a special theme of focus under the work plan as part of the consideration of “Space and society”;成就
(b) Synergy with the work of action teams on knowledge-sharing, capacity-building and increasing awareness.国际卫星搜索和救援系统 和平利用外层空间委员会 2002- (a) 会员国向委员会报告国际卫星搜索和救援系统的活动; (b) 在二十周年之际承认取得的成就;
Space and water Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2004 and 2005 (a) New issue considered as an agenda item;(c) 新问题被视为关于科学和技术小组委员会报告的项目的一部分。 空间与社会 和平利用外层空间委员会 2002-2003 新问题被视为一个议程项目。 空间与教育 和平利用外层空间委员会 2004-2006 (a) 新问题已被视为作为“空间与社会”审议工作一部分的工作计划下一个特别重点主题; (b) 与知识共享行动小组、能力建设行动小组和提高认识行动小组的工作相协同。 空间与水 和平利用外层空间委员会 2004 (a) 新问题将被视为一个议程项目;
(b) Coordination of work of the Committee with that of the Commission on Sustainable Development, which will address “water” as one of the three thematic clusters for the first two-year cycle, 2004-2005, under its multi-year programme of work (2004-2017).(b) 使委员会的工作与可持续发展委员会的工作相协调,后者将把“水”视为其多年期工作方案(2004-2017年)下第一个两年(2004-2005年)期周期三个组合主题之一。
Symposium Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2001 Human dimension of space activities was addressed through the organization of a symposium: “The human dimension in space science and technology applications”.专题讨论会 和平利用外层空间委员会 2001 通过举办题为“空间科学和技术应用的人的方面”的讨论会探讨空间活动的人的方面。
Other matters Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2001 Agreement to grant the Space Generation Advisory Council permanent observer status with the Committee (establishment of a consultative mechanism in the Committee to facilitate the participation of youth in space activities).其他事项 和平利用外层空间委员会 2001 同意准予航天新一代咨询理事会委员会常驻观察员地位(在委员会中建立一个协商机制以促进青年人参加空间活动)。
Status and application of the five United Nations treaties on outer space Legal Subcommittee, regular item 2000 (a) Recommendations by the Legal Subcommittee and its Working Group on the issue, with terms of reference from 2002 to 2004 and follow-up action;五项联合国外层空间条约的现况和应用情况 法律小组委员会,经常项目 2000 (a) 法律小组委员会及其关于这一议题的工作组的建议,以及2002至2004年的工作范围和后续行动;
(b) Results and follow-up activities of the United Nations workshops on space law organized by the Office for Outer Space Affairs.(b) 外层空间事务厅举办的联合国空间法讲习班的结果和后续活动。
Information on the activities of international organizations relating to space law Legal Subcommittee, regular item 2000 (a) Increased interaction between the Committee and the Legal Subcommittee and other entities in the field of space law;各国际组织与空间法有关的活动的情况 法律小组委员会,经常项目 2000 (a) 委员会和法律小组委员会与空间法领域的其他实体之间的互动交流有所增加;
(b) Report of the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization brought to the attention of the Legal Subcommittee in 2002;(b) 联合国教育、科学及文化组织世界科学知识和技术伦理学委员会的报告于2002年引起法律小组委员会的注意;
(c) Group of Experts on the Ethics of Outer Space formed to study the World Commission report; report of the Group of Experts was presented to the Legal Subcommittee in 2003 (A/AC.105/C.2/L.240/Rev.1);(c) 设立了外层空间伦理学专家组以研究世界委员会的报告;该专家组的报告于2003年提交给了法律小组委员会(A/AC.105/C.2/L.240/Rev.1);
(d) New issue considered as an agenda item.(d) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
Matters relating to: (a) the definition and delimitation of outer space; (b) the character and utilization of the geostationary orbit, including consideration of ways and means to ensure the rational and equitable use of the geostationary orbit without prejudice to the role of the International Telecommunication Union. Legal Subcommittee, regular item 2000 Agreement of the Legal Subcommittee reached in 2000 on some aspects concerning the use of the geostationary orbit (A/AC.105/738, annex III).与下列方面有关的事项:(a)外层空间的定义和定界;(b)静止轨道的性质和利用,包括考虑在不妨碍国际电信联盟发挥作用的情况下以何种方式方法确保对地球静止轨道加以公平合理的使用。 法律小组委员会,经常项目 2000 法律小组委员会于2000年就涉及地球静止轨道使用的一些方面达成了一致意见(A/AC.105/738,附件三)。
Review of the concept of the “launching State” Legal Subcommittee, under work plan 2000-2002 (a) Concept of “launching State”: results of the work accomplished by the Working Group on the issue and the set of recommendations presented to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the General Assembly in 2002;审查“发射国”概念 法律小组委员会,工作计划项下 2000-2002 (a) “发射国”概念:关于这一议题的工作组所取得的工作结果以及于2002年提交和平利用外层空间委员会和大会的一套建议;
(b) New issue considered as an agenda item.(b) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
Examination of the preliminary draft protocol on matters specific to space assets to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment (opened for signature in Cape Town on 16 November 2001) Legal Subcommittee, single issue 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 (a) Increased cooperation and interactions with the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (Unidroit);审查《移动设备国际利益公约》(于2001年11月16日在开普敦开放签署)关于空间资产特有事项的议定书初稿 法律小组委员会,单一问题 2001、2002、2003、2004、2005 (a) 与国际统一私法协会(统法会)的合作与互动交流有所增加;
(b) Results of the intersessional informal meetings held in 2001 and 2002 and progress achieved in the examination of the matter by the Legal Subcommittee and its Working Group on the issue, established in 2003;(b) 2001和2002年举行的闭会期间非正式会议的结果以及法律小组委员会及其2003年设立的关于这一议题的工作组在审查该事项中取得的进展;
(c) New issue considered as an agenda item.(c) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
Practice of States and international organizations in registering space objects Legal Subcommittee, under work plan 2004-2007 New issue to be considered as an agenda item.各国和各国际组织登记空间物体的做法 法律小组委员会,工作计划项下 2004-2007 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
Symposiums Legal Subcommittee 2000-2004 Organization of symposiums by the International Institute of Space Law and the European Centre for Space Law on the following themes:专题讨论会 法律小组委员会 2000-2004 国际空间法研究所和欧洲空间法中心就以下专题组织专题讨论会:
2000: Legal aspects of commercialization of space activities2000:空间活动商业化所涉法律问题
2001: Methods of peaceful settlement of space law disputes2001:空间法争端和平解决方法
2002: Prospects for space traffic management2002:空间交通管理的前景
2003: Reinforcing the Registration Convention2003:加强《登记公约》
2004: New developments and the legal framework covering the exploitation of the resources of the Moon2004:月球资源利用方面的新动态和法律框架
International cooperation in human spaceflight Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2000 (a) Information on the activities in human spaceflight provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee;载人空间飞行方面国际合作 科学和技术小组委员会, 单一问题 2000 (a) 向科学和技术小组委员会提供了载人空间飞行活动的信息;
(b) New issue considered as an agenda item.(b) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 关于新的发射系统与风险的专题介绍 科学和技术小组委员会,
Presentation on new launch systems and ventures Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2000 (a) Information on new launch systems and ventures provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and to the Legal Subcommittee for its Working Group on the item on the review of the concept of the “launching State”;单一问题 2000 (a) 向科学和技术小组委员会和法律小组委员会关于审查“发射国”概念项目的工作组提供了新的发射系统与风险的信息;
(b) New issue considered as an agenda item.(b) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 政府和私人开展的促进空间科学和工程学教育的活动 科学和技术小组委员会,
Government and private activities to promote education in space science and engineering Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2001 (a) Reporting by Member States on the subject;单一问题 2001 (a) 会员国关于这一议题的报告;
(b) Compilation of reports by Member States on the activities for young people (A/AC.105/755 and Add.1 and 2);(b) 会员国关于为青年人开展的活动的报告汇编(A/AC.105/755和Add.1和2);
(c) New issue considered as an agenda item.(c) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 核动力源 科学和技术小组委员会,
Nuclear power sources Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under work plan 2000-2003, 2003-2006 (a) Report of the Working Group on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space on a review of international documents and national processes potentially relevant to the peaceful uses of nuclear power sources in outer space;工作计划下 2000-2003,2003-2006 (a) 在外层空间使用核动力源问题工作组关于审查与在外层空间和平使用核动力源潜在有关的国际文件和国家进程的报告;
(b) Advancement of the work to be conducted on the use of nuclear power sources in outer space by adopting the work plan for the period 2003-2006, including intersessional work;(b) 通过采用2003-2006年工作计划推进拟进行的有关在外层空间使用核动力源的工作,包括闭会期间工作。
(c) Possible organizational plans for potential co-sponsorship of an effort to develop an international space nuclear power source technical safety standard and potential advice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee in the preparation of such a standard, prepared by the Office for Outer Space Affairs and IAEA (A/AC.105/C.1/L.268);(c) “为可能共同赞助制定国际空间核动力源技术安全标准的努力以及在制定这样的标准的过程中国际原子能机构(原子能机构)向科学和技术小组委员会可能提出的建议拟定可能的组织计划”,外层空间事务厅和原子能机构合作编写的文件(A/AC.105/C.1/L.268);
(d) Increased cooperation between IAEA and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Office for Outer Space Affairs.(d) 原子能机构与和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会以及外层空间事务厅之间的合作有所增加。
Inter-agency coordination and cooperation Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under work plan机构间协调与合作 科学和技术小组委员会,
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 2001-2003 (a) Letter from the Chairman of the Committee to the Secretary-General to bring to his attention the need to consider the contributions of space science and technology to a greater extent in achieving the objectives of major United Nations conferences (A/56/306), following which the General Assembly invited the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities to consider the recommendations of major conferences, resulting in an analysis of the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and follow-up exercise by the Inter-Agency Meeting in 2003;工作计划下 和平利用外层空间委员会 2001-2003 (a) 委员会主席致函秘书长以提请其注意有必要审议空间科学和技术在更大程度上对实现联合国各主要会议的目标的贡献(A/56/306),大会据此请外层空间活动机构间会议审议各次主要会议的建议,从而对可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的结果和机构间会议在2003年开展的后续工作进行了分析; (b) 和平利用外层空间委员会核可了机构间会议提出的一套建议,其中包括:㈠机构间会议举行一次公开非正式会议,已邀请委员会成员与会;和㈡由机构间会议和委员会共同拟定针对世界首脑会议《执行计划》所载各项建议的与空间有关的举措和方案清单; (c) 机构间会议工作与委员会工作之间的协同有所增加; (d) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 灾害管理 科学和技术小组委员会, 工作计划项下 2001-2003、2004、2005-2007 (a) 确定了可视为自然灾害管理全球系统一部分的国家和/或区域天基系统; (b) 2004年通过2005-2007年多年期工作计划; (c) 与灾害管理行动小组的工作相协同; (d) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 空间碎片 科学和技术小组委员会, 工作计划项下 2000、2001、2002-2005 (a) 推进拟在空间碎片方面进行的工作;2001年:缓减碎片措施的成本和效益问题;以及与飞行任务有关的运载火箭空间碎片的钝化和限制;
(b) A set of recommendations by the Inter-Agency Meeting, endorsed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, including (i) an open, informal session of the Inter-Agency Meeting to which members of the Committee were invited; and (ii) joint preparation by the Meeting and the Committee of the list of space-related initiatives and programmes that respond to the recommendations contained in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit;(b) 于2001年通过了2002-2005年多年期工作计划;
(c) Increased synergy of the work of the Inter-Agency Meeting and the Committee;(c) 审议机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)关于缓减碎片的提案,包括讨论以何方式核可对缓减空间碎片提案的利用。
(d) New issue considered as an agenda item.近地物体 科学和技术小组委员会, 工作计划项下 2005-2007 (a) 拟作为一个议程项目审议的新议题;
Disaster management Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under work plan 2001-2003, 2004, 2005-2007 (a) Identified national and/or regional space-based systems that could be considered as part of a global system for managing natural disasters;(b) 同近地物体问题行动小组工作的协同效应。 基于空间系统的远程医疗 科学和技术小组委员会, 工作计划项下 2004-2006 (a) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题; (b) 与公共卫生行动小组的工作相协同。 在限制干扰性空间广告方面的国际合作 科学和技术小组委员会, 单一问题 2002 (a) 向科学和小组委员会提供了会员国就此议题开展的活动的信息;
(b) Adoption of the multi-year work plan in 2004 for the period 2005-2007;(b) 向小组委员会提交了国际电信联盟、国际天文学联盟和经济合作与发展组织的报告;
(c) Synergy with the work of the Action Team on Disaster Management;(c) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
(d) New issue considered as an agenda item.调动财政资源 科学和技术小组委员会,
Space debris Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under work plan 2000, 2001, 2002-2005 (a) Advancement of the work to be conducted on space debris; in 2001: question of the costs and benefits of debris mitigation measures; and passivation and limitation of mission-related space debris for launch vehicles;单一问题 2002和2003 (a) 2001年联合国和国际宇宙航行联合会关于实际利用空间应用技术的讲习班(供资问题会议)的结果;
(b) Adoption of the multi-year work plan in 2001 for the period 2002-2005;(b) 与有创意的供资来源行动小组的工作相协同;
(c) Consideration of Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) proposals on space debris mitigation, including discussions on ways of endorsing utilization of IADC proposals on space debris mitigation.(c) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
Space-system-based telemedicine Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under work plan 2004-2006 (a) New issue considered as an agenda item;空间技术用于医学科学和公共卫生 科学和技术小组委员会,
(b) Synergy with the work of the Action Team on Public Health.单一问题 2003 (a) 科学和技术小组委员会关于空间技术用于医学科学和公共卫生的调研结果;
Near-Earth objects Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, under work plan 2005-2007 (a) New issue to be considered as an agenda item;(b) 与公共卫生行动小组的工作相协同;
(b) Synergy with the work of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects.(c) 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。
International cooperation in limiting obtrusive space advertising Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2002 (a) Information on the activities of Member States on the subject provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee;日地物理学 科学和技术小组委员会,
(b) Reports by the International Telecommunication Union, the International Astronomical Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development presented to the Subcommittee;单一问题 2004 作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 支持宣布2007年为国际地球物理和太阳物理年 科学和技术小组委员会, 单一问题 2005 拟作为一个议程项目审议的新议题。 专题讨论会 科学和技术小组委员会 2000-2004 组织了关于下列主题的行业专题讨论会:
(c) New issue considered as an agenda item.2000年:互动式多媒体卫星服务:对二十一世纪的影响 2001年:全球导航卫星系统的新应用:一种具有全球惠益的新的效用 2002年:扩大甚高分辨率遥感的实际应用:民用应用技术的潜力与挑战
Mobilization of financial resources Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2002 and 2003 (a) Results of the United Nations and International Astronautical Federation Workshop 2001 on Making Space Applications Operational, session on funding;2004年:规模虽小但用途广泛:小卫星在农业、卫生和人类安全方面的应用
(b) Synergy with the work of the Action Team on Innovative Sources of Funding;附件四
(c) New issue considered as an agenda item.会员国和组织参加和平利用外层空间委员会设立的行动小组的情况
Use of space technology for the medical sciences and public health Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2003 (a) Findings of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee on the use of space technology for the medical sciences and public health;建议a 主席 加入行动小组的国家
(b) Synergy with the work of the Action Team on Public Health;(截至2004年6月1日) 参加行动小组的联合国系统各组织、具有
(c) New issue considered as an agenda item.和平利用外层空间委员会观察员地位的
Solar-terrestrial physics Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2004 New issue considered as an agenda item.组织和其他组织(截至2004年4月1日)
Support to proclaim 2007 International Geophysical and Heliophysical Year Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, single issue 2005 New issue to be considered as an agenda item.数目 国家 数目 组织
Symposiums Scientific and Technical Subcommittee 2000-2004 Organization of industry symposiums on the following themes: 2000: Interactive multimedia satellite services: implications for the twenty-first century 2001: Emerging applications of global navigation satellite systems: a new utility with global benefits 2002: Expanding operational applications of very high resolution remote sensing: potential and challenges in civilian applications 2004: Smaller size, wider use: small satellite applications in agriculture, health and human security. Annex IV Participation of Member States and organizations in action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Recommendationa Chair(s) Countries that are members of the action team (as at 1 June 2004) Organizations of the United Nations system, organizations with observer status with the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other organizations participating in the action team (as at 1 June 2004) Number List of countries Number List of organizations 1 Develop a compre-hensive, worldwide environmental monitoring strategy Iran (Islamic Republic of), Russian Federation and Syrian Arab Republic 23 Argentina, Australia, Belarus, China, France, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America 11 DESA, UNDCP, ECE, ESCAP, UNEP, UNESCO,b ESA, ISPRS, SGAC, AEHMS, Manila Observatory 2 Improve the management of the Earth’s natural resources India 27 Australia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, France, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom, United States 6 ECE, ESCAP, UNESCO,b SGAC, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society 4 Enhance weather and climate forecasting Portugal and WMO 25 Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United States 5 ESCAP, UNESCO,b WMO, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society 6 Improve public health services Canada 19 Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Cuba, France, Hungary, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United States 8 ESCAP, WHO,c SGAC, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society, Telesat Canada, Memorial University, IDRC 7 Implement an integrated, global system to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts Canada, China and France 41 Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States 14 OCHA, ISDR secretariat, UNHCR, ESCAP, UNEP, UNOPS, FAO, UNESCO, WHO,c ESA, EURISY, SGAC, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society 9 Improve knowledge-sharing through the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services Malaysia and Greece 10 Belarus, Dominican Republic, Finland, Greece, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Malaysia, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey 1 SGAC 10 Improve universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems United States and Italy 38 Australia, Austria, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, Zambia 14 ESCAP, ITU, ESA, European Commission, Eurocontrol, CGSIC, EURISY, AIAA, IAIN, BIPM, IAG, ICA, FIG, IGS1 制订综合性世界环境监测战略 伊朗伊斯兰共和国、俄罗斯联邦和阿拉伯叙利亚共和国 23 阿根廷、澳大利亚、白俄罗斯、中国、法国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、墨西哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国 11 经济和社会事务部、药物管制署、欧洲经委会、亚太经社会、环境规划署、教科文组织b、欧空局、摄影测量和遥感学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、水生态系统卫生与管理学会、马尼拉天文台
11 Promote sustainable development by applying the results of space research Nigeria 27 Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Lebanon, Malaysia, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States 8 ESCAP, UNESCO,b ISPRS, EURISY, NSS, SGAC, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society2 改进对地球自然资源的管理 印度 27 澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、智利、中国、捷克共和国、法国、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、联合王国、美国 6 欧洲经委会、亚太经社会、教科文组织b、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会
14 Improve the international coordination of activities related to near-Earth objects United Kingdom 17 Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Finland, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom, United States 7 ESA, COSPAR, IAU, NSS, SGAC, The Spaceguard Foundation, ESSC-ESF4 天气和气候预报 葡萄牙和气象组织 25 阿根廷、澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、中国、古巴、捷克共和国、匈牙利、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、美国 5 亚太经社会、教科文组织b、气象组织、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会
17 Enhance capacity-building by developing human and budgetary resources Japan 25 Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United States 7 ESCAP, UNESCO, ESA, COSPAR, IAU, SGAC, Manila Observatory6 改善公共保健服务 加拿大 19 澳大利亚、保加利亚、加拿大、古巴、法国、匈牙利、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、南非、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、美国 8 亚太经社会、卫生组织c、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会、加拿大电信卫星公司、纪念大学、国际发展和研究中心
18 Increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of space activities United States, Austria 22 Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United States 14 ESCAP, UNESCO,a ESA, COSPAR, ILA, ISPRS, ISU, EURISY, NSS, SGAC, Spaceweek International Association, Austrian Space Agency, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society7 实施一个综合性全球系统对缓减自然灾害、救灾和防灾工作进行管理 加拿大、中国和法国 41 阿根廷、澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、白俄罗斯、玻利维亚、加拿大、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、古巴、捷克共和国、厄瓜多尔、埃及、芬兰、法国、德国、希腊、匈牙利、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、墨西哥、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、泰国、土耳其、联合王国、美国 14 人道主义事务协调厅、国际减灾战略秘书处、难民专员办事处、亚太经社会、环境规划署、项目事务厅、粮农组织、教科文组织、卫生组织c、欧空局、欧洲国际空间年协会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会
32 Identify new and innovative sources of financing to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III France 15 Algeria, Australia, Colombia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Syrian Arab Republic 6 ESCAP, ESA, NSS, SGAC, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society9 促进天基通信服务的普及以促进知识共享 希腊和
Note: The following abbreviations are used in the table:马来西亚 10 白俄罗斯、多米尼加共和国、芬兰、希腊、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、马来西亚、俄罗斯联邦、泰国、土耳其 1 航天新一代咨询理事会
AEHMS Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society ESSC-ESF European Space Science Committee of the European Science Foundation AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics EURISY European Association for the International Space Year BIPM International Bureau of Weights and Measures Eurocontrol European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation CGSIC Civil GPS Service Interface Committee FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations10 改进天基导航和定位系统的普遍利用和兼容性 意大利和美国 38 澳大利亚、奥地利、白俄罗斯、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、捷克共和国、埃及、法国、德国、匈牙利、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、墨西哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、波兰、葡萄牙、大韩民国、罗马尼亚、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、美国、赞比亚 14 亚太经社会、国际电联、欧空局、欧洲联盟委员会、欧洲航安组织、民用全球定位系统服务界面委员会、欧洲国际空间年协会、美国航空航天研究所、航研协会、国际计量局、国际大地测量学协会、制图协会、测量工作者联合会、国际全球定位系统服务组织
COSPAR Committee on Space Research FIG International Federation of Surveyors DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat IAG International Association of Geodesy11 应用空间研究的结果促进可持续发展 尼日利亚 27 阿塞拜疆、白俄罗斯、巴西、智利、中国、捷克共和国、埃及、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、摩纳哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、南非、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、联合王国、美国 8 亚太经社会、教科文组织b、摄影测量和遥感学会、欧洲国际空间年协会、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会
ECE Economic Commission for Europe IAU International Astronomical Union14 改进与近地物体有关的活动的国际协调 联合王国 17 澳大利亚、巴西、中国、捷克共和国、芬兰、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、巴基斯坦、波兰、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、联合王国、美国 7 欧空局、空间研委会、天文学联盟、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、空间卫士基金会、欧洲科学基金会(欧洲空间科学委员会
ESA European Space Agency ICA International Cartographic Association17 通过人力资源和预算资源的开发加强能力建设 日本 25 阿根廷、阿塞拜疆、玻利维亚、巴西、加拿大、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔、埃及、法国、匈牙利、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、墨西哥、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、美国 7 亚太经社会、教科文组织、欧空局、空间研究委员会、天文学联盟、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific IAIN International Association of Institutes of Navigation18 提高决策者和公众对空间活动重要性的认识 美国和奥地利 22 澳大利亚、奥地利、玻利维亚、巴西、捷克共和国、埃及、法国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、美国 14 亚太经社会、教科文组织、b欧空局、空间研究委员会、国际法协会、国际空间大学、摄影测量和遥感学会、欧洲国际空间年协会、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、国际空间周协会、奥地利航天局、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会
IDRC International Development Research Centre SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council32 查明新的、有创意的供资来源,以支助第三次外空会议建议的实施 法国 15 阿尔及利亚、澳大利亚、哥伦比亚、捷克共和国、法国、德国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、哈萨克斯坦、墨西哥、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、南非、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国 6 亚太经社会、欧空局、马尼拉天文台、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、菲律宾天文学会
IGS International GPS Service UNDCP United Nations International Drug Control Programme注:表中所用简称如下:
ILA International Law Association UNEP United Nations Environment Programme英文简称 中文全称 中文简称
ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationAEHMS 水生态系统卫生与管理学会
ISPRS International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesAIAA 美国航空航天研究所
ISU International Space University UNOPS United Nations Office for Project ServicesBIPM 国际计量局
ITU International Telecommunication Union WHO World Health OrganizationCGSIC 民用全球定位系统服务界面委员会
NSS National Space Society WMO World Meteorological OrganizationCOSPAR 空间研究委员会 空间研委会
OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations SecretariatDESA 联合国经济和社会事务部 经济和社会事务部
a The recommendations have been numbered in accordance with their order of appearance in the resolution entitled “The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration for Space and Human Development”, adopted by UNISPACE III.ECE 欧洲经济委员会 欧洲经委会
b To be communicated through the Office for Outer Space Affairs.ESA 欧洲航天局 欧空局
c Only to receive information.ESCAP 亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会 亚太经社会
Annex VESSC-ESF 欧洲科学基金会欧洲空间科学委员会
Summary of the findings, recommendations and actions taken by the action teams established by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer SpaceEURISY 欧洲国际空间年组织
At its forty-fourth session, in 2001, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space established 11 action teamsa to implement the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) that had been accorded the highest priority by Member States or for which there had been an offer by a Member State to lead associated activities. At its forty-fifth session, in 2003, the Committee established one additional action team to implement the recommendation relating to knowledge-sharing through the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services. Appendices I-XII of the present annex contain a summary of the work conducted by the 12 action teams, including their findings, recommendations, actions already taken and expected benefits.Eurocontrol 欧洲航行安全组织 欧洲航安组织
NoteFAO 联合国粮食及农业组织 粮农组织
a See Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/56/20), paras. 50 and 55.FIG 国际测量工作者联合会 测量工作者联合会
Appendix IIAG 国际大地测量学协会
Action Team on the Environmental Monitoring StrategyIAU 国际天文学联盟 天文学联盟
Action team number: 1 Chairpersons: Parviz Tarikhi (Islamic Republic of Iran), Abdul Rahim Loulou (Syrian Arab Republic) and A. Movlyav (Russian Federation)ICA 国际制图协会 制图协会
Secretariat: Islamic Republic of IranIAIN 国际航海研究所协会 航研协会
1. Membership:IDRC 国际发展和研究中心
(a) Countries: Argentina, Australia, Belarus, China, France, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America;IGS 国际全球定位系统服务组织
(b) Organizations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,a Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society, European Space Agency, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Space Generation Advisory Council and Manila Observatory.ILA 国际法协会
2. Brief mission statement:ISDR 国际减灾战略
(a) Address the needs and requirements for use and protection of the environment through improved monitoring methods approved by different countries and organizations;ISPRS 国际摄影测量和遥感学会 摄影测量和遥感学会
(b) Develop a comprehensive worldwide environmental monitoring strategy for long-term global observations by building on existing space and ground capabilities.ISU 国际空间大学
3. Findings:ITU 国际电信联盟 国际电联
(a) In order to implement a comprehensive environmental monitoring strategy, the available and produced data should be shared between countries and organizations for better efficiency and economy;NSS 国家空间学会
(b) The developed countries can support setting up the strategy technically, while developing countries can provide field and ground data and information;OCHA 人道主义事务协调厅
(c) The partnership between relevant national, regional and international institutions should be enhanced and the needed capacity should be built;SGAC 航天新一代咨询理事会
(d) Space-based observations have proven to be an effective and strong tool for environmental monitoring. The use of satellite data for environmental reporting has increased, but the full potential remains untapped. Data management and the setting up of databases with acquired monitoring data are the next step towards establishing an environmental monitoring system. The availability of data for planners, decision makers, specialists and scientists involved in the issues related to environmental monitoring is also essential.UNDCP 联合国国际药物管制规划署 药物管制署
4. Recommendations for further action:UNEP 联合国环境规划署 环境署
(a) The Action Team is proposing a work plan to launch a worldwide strategy for environmental monitoring, ensuring the sustainable use of ecosystems and promoting regional cooperation on critical environmental issues. The work plan should concentrate resources and efforts on achieving greater technical and scientific cooperation, enhancing knowledge and exchange of experience among countries and organizations, developing policies leading to sustainable environmental development and building upon the current development and national environmental action plans and rural development strategies;UNESCO 联合国教育、科学及文化组织 教科文组织
(b) The work plan consists of the following four technical components: (i) networking and knowledge-sharing; (ii) capacity-building of national and regional organizations; (iii) regional systems for collection and distribution of information; and (iv) space technology applications for environmental monitoring. Each of these components will consist of a set of outputs, which will be delivered through specific activities;UNHCR 联合国难民事务高级专员办事处 难民专员办事处
(c) The most effective solution for the continuation of reliable, integrated comprehensive environmental monitoring is to develop an institutional mechanism, consisting of interdisciplinary activities with scientific, technical, economic, political and legal aspects and that is constantly active on a global scale in the interests of environmental protection and for the benefit of all countries. This should gradually evolve towards the creation of a united environmental monitoring system, with the following key features: (i) globally acceptable, integrated and comprehensive; (ii) supported by well-structured data collection systems at the national, regional and global levels and coordinated with socio-economic information systems; (iii) containing effective tools for data analysis and processing to produce information and generate knowledge accessible to officials and the general public; (iv) well known to policy and decision makers for its presentation of data and information in an easily understandable format;UNOPS 联合国项目事务厅 项目事务厅
(d) The first step in creating such a system could be a resolution of the General Assembly that defines the status of the monitoring system. At the early stages of establishing the monitoring system, a strategy for integrated, comprehensive environmental monitoring could be implemented through pilot projects, which would allow local communities to take practical steps and to test and practise the main technological approaches and basic ideas.WHO 世界卫生组织 卫生组织
5. Implementation already initiated:WMO 世界气象组织 气象组织
(a) A questionnaire on the environmental monitoring and observation capabilities and possibilities of the member countries and organizations was prepared and distributed among members of the Action Team;a 建议按第三次外空会议通过的题为“空间千年:关于空间和人的发展的维也纳宣言”的决议中的顺序编号。
(b) The Action Team made efforts to expand and develop its activities and coverage of work by accepting new members, such as the Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Society;b 拟通过外层空间事务厅联系。
(c) The Action Team reviewed existing global monitoring organizations and strategies, including the Integrated Global Observing Strategy, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, the World Meteorological Organization, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative and others, in order to study overlaps, gaps and divergences;c 仅接收信息。
(d) Keeping in mind recommendation (c) above, the Action Team has initiated two pilot projects: one for remote sensing applications for monitoring of desertification and the other for the establishment of an institute on the use of integrated comprehensive data in environmental monitoring, with a series of workshops and training activities as well as regional centres for environmental monitoring.附件五 和平利用外层空间委员会设立的各行动小组的调研结果、建议和 采取的行动概述 和平利用外层空间委员会在其2001年第四十四届会议上设立了11个行动小组,a以落实已被成员国列为最高优先的或已由某一成员国为之提出领导相关活动的第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)的建议。委员会2003年第四十五届会议新设立了一个行动小组,以落实关于通过促进普遍获得天基通信服务改善知识共享的建议。本附件附录一至十二载有12个行动小组开展的工作概述,其中包括其调研结果、建议、已采取的行动和预期惠益。 注 a 见《大会正式记录,第五十六届会议,补编第20号》(A/56/20),第50和55段。 附录一 环境监测战略行动小组 行动小组编号:1 主席:Parviz Tarikhi(伊朗伊斯兰共和国)、Abdul Rahim Loulou(阿拉伯叙利亚共和国)、A. Movlyav(俄罗斯联邦) 秘书处:伊朗伊斯兰共和国 1. 成员: (a) 国家:阿根廷、澳大利亚、白俄罗斯、中国、法国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、墨西哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国; (b) 组织:联合国秘书处经济和社会事务部、联合国毒品和犯罪问题办事处、欧洲经济委员会、亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国环境规划署、联合国教育、科学及文化组织a、水生生态系统健康与管理学会、欧洲航天局、国际摄影测量和遥感学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台。 2. 任务简述: (a) 研究借助各国和各组织核准的经过改进的监测方法使用和保护环境的需要和要求; (b) 制订通过利用现有空间和地面能力进行长期的全球观测的综合性世界环境监测战略。 3. 调研结果: (a) 为了实施综合性环境监测战略,已生产的现有数据应在各国和各组织之间共享,以便提高效率和经济性; (b) 发达国家可以在技术上支持制定战略,而发展中国家可以提供实地和地面数据和信息; (c) 有关国家、区域和国际机构之间的伙伴关系应当加强,所需要的能力应当建立起来; (d) 天基观测已证明是监测环境的强有力的有效工具。环境报告对卫星数据的使用有所增加,但尚未充分挖掘潜力。进行数据管理及建立含有所需监测数据的数据库,是为建立环境监测系统采取的下一个步骤。为涉足与环境监测有关的问题的规划者、决策者、专家和科学家提供数据是必不可少的。
6. Indication of impediments to implementation: Limited contributions to the work of the Action Team from its members. 7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:4. 进一步行动的建议:
(a) Ensuring the sustainable use of ecosystems through (i) the implementation of an operational system for the monitoring of the dynamics of the desertification phenomenon in arid and semi-arid areas on selected sites; (ii) adaptation and assessment of relevant space techniques for the monitoring of degraded areas at test sites; (iii) provision of guidelines for the effective implementation of desertification monitoring at the selected test sites in the light of their particular conditions; (iv) support to the capacity-building of national institutions in the field of monitoring and evaluation of desertification; (v) enhancement of the partnership between the relevant subregional and national organizations and institutions;(a) 行动小组将为启动一项全球环境监测战略提出一项工作计划,以确保生态系统的可持续利用和促进关键性环境问题方面的区域合作。工作计划应将资源和精力集中于以下方面:加强科学和技术合作、增进国家间和组织间及其相互之间的知识和经验交流、制订有助于实现可持续的环境发展的政策、利用现有的发展与国家环境行动计划和农村发展战略;
(b) Promoting national, regional and global cooperation on critical environmental issues. The monitoring technology presented in the report of the Action Team (A/AC.105/C.1/L.275) provides a comprehensive and economically effective structure for the organization of work, bringing together all modern infrastructure for receiving, processing and distributing data and information, including satellite, aerial and ground equipment for data collection, Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite System applications, communication support, software for data processing and integration into geographical information systems and other information systems.(b) 工作计划由下述四个技术构成部分组成:㈠联网与知识共享;㈡国家和区域间组织的能力建设;㈢收集和分发信息的区域系统;㈣空间技术应用于环境监测。其中每一构成部分均由一套产出组成,这些产出将通过具体活动予以交付;
8. Progress made by the Action Team:(c) 进行可靠的、一体化的综合性环境监测的最有效的解决办法是发展体制机制,由一些为了环境保护和所有国家的利益而一直在全球范围内开展的、涉及科学、技术、经济、政治和法律方面的跨学科活动组成。这种情况的逐步发展的结果将是统一环境监测系统的建立。在建立监测系统时将考虑到下列基本特点:㈠是得到全球性接受的、综合、全面的;㈡在国家、区域和全球各级得到具有良好结构的数据收集系统的支持,并得到社会经济信息系统的协调;㈢应当包括一些用以进行数据分析和处理的有效工具,以生成信息和形成可供官员和一般公众利用的知识;㈣因其能以简明易懂的形式介绍数据和信息而为决策者所熟知;
(a) The Action Team held four meetings in Vienna during the sessions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee;(d) 建立这样一个系统的第一步可以是由大会通过一项界定监测系统状况的决议。在建立监测系统的早期阶段,可通过试点项目实施一项综合全面的环境监测战略,这有助于当地社区采取切实可行的步骤并试验和实践主要技术方法和基本想法。 5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
(b) The Action Team continues the compilation of comprehensive information on an environmental monitoring strategy provided by its members and is exploring possibilities and developing plans for implementation.(a) 编写并向行动小组成员分发成员国家和成员组织环境监测和观测能力和可能性调查表; (b) 行动小组通过接纳水生生态系统卫生和管理学会等新成员努力扩大和发展其活动和工作范围; (c) 行动小组审查了现有的全球监测组织和战略,包括综合全球观测战略、地球观测卫星委员会、世界气象组织、全球环境与安全监测倡议等等,以便研究重叠、差距和分歧等问题;
a To be contacted through the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat.(d) 考虑到上述建议(c),行动小组发起了两项试点项目,即一个项目是遥感应用于荒漠化监测,另一个项目是建立一个关于综合全面的数据用于环境监测的研究所,并举办了一系列讲习班和培训活动以及设立了若干环境监测区域中心。
Appendix II6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
Action Team on the Management of Natural Resources行动小组成员对小组工作的投入有限。
Action team number: 2 Chairperson: V. Jayaraman (India)7. 执行工作带来的好处:
1. Membership:(a) 确保可持续利用生态系统,方法是:㈠为监测干旱和半干旱地区选定地点的荒漠化现象动态实施一个运作系统;㈡为监测退化地区测试地点改造和评估有关空间技术;㈢为根据选定测试地点的特定条件有效实施对该地点的荒漠化监测制订准则;㈣支助国家机构在荒漠化监测和评估领域的能力建设;㈤增进有关分区域组织和机构与有关国家组织和机构之间的伙伴关系; (b) 促进就关键的环境问题开展国家、区域和全球合作。行动小组的报告(A/AC.105/C.1/L. 275)中介绍的监测技术提供了全面的和经济上有效的工作安排结构,为接收、处理和分发数据和资料汇集了所有现代基础设施,其中包括卫星、用于收集数据的空中和地面设备、全球定位系统/全球导航卫星系统应用、通信支助、用于数据处理和纳入地理信息系统及其他信息系统的软件。 8. 行动小组取得的进展:
(a) Countries: Australia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, France, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America;(a) 行动小组在和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会届会期间在维也纳举行了四次会议;
(b) Organizations: Economic Commission for Europe, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,a Space Generation Advisory Council, Manila Observatory and Philippine Astronomical Society.(b) 行动小组继续汇编其成员提供的环境监测战略资料,正在探索付诸实施的可能性并正在制订实施计划。
2. Brief mission statement:a 拟通过联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅联系。 附录二 自然资源管理行动小组 行动小组编号:2 主席:V. Jayaraman(印度) 1. 成员: (a) 国家:澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、智利、中国、捷克共和国、法国、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国; (b) 组织:欧洲经济委员会、亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国教育、科学及文化组织a、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会。 2. 任务简述:
Natural resources support the livelihoods of the vast majority of the population in developing countries. The Millennium Development Goals (A/56/326, sect. III) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development have provided the framework for managing natural resources through the ecosystem approach, community participation and “Green governance”. The report of the Action Team harmonizes the recommendations of UNISPACE III on natural resource management in line with the perspectives of the Millennium Development Goals and the World Summit.发展中国家绝大多数人依靠自然资源维持生计。《千年发展目标》(A/56/326,第三节)和可持续发展问题世界首脑会议提供了通过生态系统办法、社区参与和“绿色治理”来管理自然资源的框架。行动小组的报告根据《千年发展目标》和世界首脑会议的看法来协调第三次外空会议关于自然资源管理的建议。
3. Findings:3. 调研结果:
(a) Earth observation technologies (remote sensing, geographic information systems and modelling) have increasingly been providing valuable information, in spatial and spectral domains, to improve understanding of social processes in relation to the complex interactions between human beings, natural resources and the environment. Examples include deforestation and regrowth in Brazil, population-environment interactions in Thailand, ancient and modern rural development in Guatemala and land use and land cover dynamics in developing countries;(a) 地球观测技术(遥感、地理信息系统和制模)一直在提供空间和光谱领域中有价值的资料,以增进对人类、自然资源和环境相互之间复杂互动关系方面社会进程的了解。这方面的实例包括:巴西的滥伐森林与植树造林,泰国的人口与环境之间互动关系,危地马拉的古代与现代农业发展,以及发展中国家的土地使用和土地复盖动态学;
(b) In recent years, Earth observation technologies have been used in some countries to put into context the ecosystem approach towards policy formulation and planning, working out suitable interventions and implementation mechanisms and supporting directly the basis of livelihoods for poor fishermen and farmers;(b) 近几年,地球观测技术在一些国家得到使用,使生态系统办法得以用于政策制订和计划、制定适当的干预措施和发展执行机制并直接支助贫困渔民和农民的生活基础;
(c) Promoting large-scale operationalization of Earth observation technologies by Governments, private agencies and non-governmental organizations and at the community and stakeholder levels is of great significance. In order to achieve this and for information to be useful at all levels, it is essential to understand the exact needs that could be addressed through Earth observation technologies. The use of Earth observation technologies, however, must involve all stakeholders in order to become participatory in nature. One way of bringing together all stakeholders could be through pilot or demonstration projects. The results of such projects are more likely to be accepted if a “bottom-up” approach is followed. The involvement of non-governmental organizations helps in integrating concerns at the grass-roots level. The use of Earth observation technologies as information support for “Green governance” and for the implementation of international protocols and conventions holds considerable promise and its success has already been demonstrated in some of the developing countries in the region of Asia and the Pacific;(c) 促进政府、私营机构、非政府组织及社区和利害攸关者大规模应用地球观测技术,具有非常重要的意义。为了做到这一点并使信息对所有各级都有用,必须确切了解可通过地球观测技术加以解决的需要。然而,使用地球观测技术,必须让所有利害攸关者成为实实在在的参与者。试点或示范项目是所有利害攸关者携手合作的一种方法。采用“自下而上”的办法,这种项目的成果更容易被接受。非政府组织的参与有助于汇集基层的意见。作为对“绿色治理”和执行各项国际议定书和公约的信息支助,地球观测技术的使用大有前途,而且亚洲和太平洋区域一些发展中国家的成功经验已经印证了这一点;
(d) The use of Earth observation technologies involves a considerable amount of expertise as well as institutional mechanisms to deliver the services and products to the end-users. Among the capacity-building mechanisms, specialized training and institutional partnerships are important. Considering the urgent need for specialized training in the use of Earth observation applications in natural resource management, it is important to promote specialized training opportunities and disseminate best practices through capacity-building activities.(d) 使用地球观测技术,需要大量专门知识和机构机制才能把服务和产品提供给最终用户。在能力建设机制中,专门培训和机构伙伴关系起着重要的作用。考虑到对使用地球观测应用技术管理自然资源方面专门培训的迫切需要,必须促进专门培训机会并通过能力建设活动传播最佳做法。
4. Recommendations for further action:4. 进一步行动的建议:
(a) The use of Earth observation technologies in natural resource management is important for the success of UNISPACE III, as well as for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the implementation of the recommendations of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat could play the role of a catalyst in promoting and advocating the operational use of Earth observation technologies in building the natural resources base, especially in the framework suggested by the World Summit. The Office is an ideal platform to promote such a concept by advocating the enabling policies among Member States. This should make it possible to conduct proof-of-concept projects aimed at stakeholders and to establish a framework for international cooperation to promote the operational use of Earth observation technologies;(a) 使用地球观测技术管理自然资源对于第三次外空会议取得成功以及实现《千年发展目标》和执行可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的建议有着重要的意义。联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅可以在促进和倡导实际使用地球观测技术建设自然资源基地方面发挥催化剂的作用,特别是在世界首脑会议建议的框架内。外空事务厅是通过在会员国倡导有利的政策而促进这一概念的理想平台。此举应为开展针对利害攸关者的概念证明项目和建立促进实际使用地球观测技术的国际合作框架创造条件;
(b) It is important to develop a compendium highlighting best practices in Earth observation applications in natural resource management in line with the recommendations of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. With the analysis of experience and lessons learned based on the success stories gathered from different parts of the world—representing the diversity of the context and variety of the applications—the compendium will provide insights on the various operational issues and demonstrate the benefits of using Earth observation technologies to the stakeholders. The Action Team should take up this assignment as soon as possible;(b) 重要的是编写一份概要,重点介绍按照可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的建议将地球观测应用于自然资源管理的最佳做法。概要将从应用情况和种类的多样性着眼,分析从世界不同地区的成功事例中吸取的经验教训,深入介绍各种业务问题并展示使用地球观测技术给利害攸关者带来的利益。行动小组应尽早着手这项任务;
(c) Earth observation applications in the natural resource sector require an interdisciplinary approach, involving database technologies, modelling frameworks, a multiplicity of themes and development of a decision support system. The interdisciplinary nature of Earth observation applications calls for focused and specialized training, taking into account the new paradigms emanating from recommendations of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The Office for Outer Space Affairs could take the initiative to organize specialized training courses, taking advantage of the expertise and infrastructure available in the regional centres for space science and technology education affiliated to the United Nations in different parts of the world.(c) 自然资源领域中的地球观测应用要求采取跨学科办法,其中涉及数据库技术、制模框架、多种不同主题和发展决策支持体系。因此,地球观测应用的跨学科性质要求考虑到从可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的建议中产生的新模式,进行重点突出的专门培训。外层空间事务厅可以采取行动举办专门培训班,利用在世界不同地区设立的附属于联合国的空间科学和技术区域中心现有的专门知识和基础设施。
5. Implementation already initiated:5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
The Action Team has initiated the process of compiling the compendium documenting best practices.行动小组已开始编写概要,介绍最佳做法。
6. Indication of impediments to implementation:6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
The limited inputs from members of the Action Team on success stories, lessons learned and expert opinions representing the diversity of the context and variety of Earth observation applications on the subject hampered finalization of the report of the Action Team. Therefore, the report, in its present form, could not document the views and wisdom of all the members of the Team.行动小组成员就这一主题提供的反映地球观测应用不同种类和情况的成功事例、经验教训和专家意见的投入有限,妨碍了行动小组报告的最后完成。因此,报告按目前形式不能反映行动小组所有成员的观点和智慧。
7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:7. 执行工作带来的好处: (a) 按照第三次外空会议的建议,行动小组报告所载建议的执行将促使舆论赞成使用地球观测技术管理自然资源,特别是在发展中国家; (b) 将地球观测纳入自然资源管理,除了支持世界各国政府和利害攸关者在管理自然资源方面的决策之外,还将加强目前为实现《千年发展目标》和执行可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的建议所作的努力。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: 行动小组正在努力编写一份概要,介绍世界各地区管理自然资源的最佳做法。 a 拟通过联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅联系。 附录三 天气与气候预报行动小组 行动小组编号:4 主席:F. D. Santos(葡萄牙)、D. Hinsman(世界气象组织) 秘书处:A. Antunes(葡萄牙) 1. 成员:
(a) In line with the recommendations of UNISPACE III, the implementation of recommendations contained in the report of the Action Team will lead to mobilization of public opinion in favour of using Earth observation technologies in natural resource management, especially in developing countries;(a) 国家:阿根廷、澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、中国、古巴、捷克共和国、匈牙利、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、美利坚合众国;
(b) Integration of Earth observation in natural resource management will strengthen ongoing efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals and implement recommendations of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, besides supporting decisions of Governments and stakeholders worldwide on managing natural resources.(b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、 联合国教育、科学及文化组织a、世界气象组织、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会。
8. Progress made by the Action Team:2. 任务简述: 通过扩大气象卫星应用领域的国际合作,应对加强天气和气候预报方面的全球挑战。
The Action Team is making efforts to compile a compendium documenting best practices drawn from different parts of the world in managing natural resources.3. 调研结果:
a To be contacted through the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat.(a) 联合国系统内的现有计划,特别是世界气象组织(气象组织)的规划进程,直接提出了通过扩大气象卫星应用领域的国际合作加强天气和气候预报工作所需开展的活动;
Appendix III(b) 行动小组还同意,联合国系统的内外部机制是实现气象组织规划进程中设定的目标的有效国际合作方式。
Action Team on Weather and Climate Forecasting4. 进一步行动的建议:
Action team number: 4 Chairpersons: F. D. Santos (Portugal) and D. Hinsman (World Meteorological Organization)(a) 在气象组织长期计划的执行过程中,加强对成员国的气象和水文服务的支助,包括必要的财务资源;
Secretariat: A. Antunes (Portugal)(b) 支持那些(在运营和研发方面)提供空间系统以努力满足气象组织观测要求的国家和国际组织。
1. Membership:5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
(a) Countries: Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey and United States of America;现在使用的天基观测系统足以提供目前天气与气候预报所需的数据、产品和服务,对未来系统的设想则考虑到对天气与气候预报要求的提高。两个具体的国际组织是气象卫星协调组和地球观测卫星委员会。协调组作为一个非正式团体成立于1972年,是为了在卫星供应商中协调第一个全球地球静止系统。欧洲航天研究组织、美利坚合众国国家海洋与大气层管理局和日本气象厅都是创始成员。2002年,参与制造全球观测系统天基部分的各空间研发机构成为气象卫星协调组的成员。地球观测卫星委员会是根据七大工业国集团经济首脑会议的建议于1984年成立的。现在是各空间机构与空间有关的地球观测活动的国际协调中心。地球观测卫星委员会鼓励通过协调飞行任务规划、促进全面非歧视性数据准入、确定数据产品标准和开发兼容数据产品、服务和应用,促进实验和实用天基地球观测系统之间的互补性和兼容性。
(b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,a World Meteorological Organization, Manila Observatory and Philippine Astronomical Society.6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
2. Brief mission statement:用于支助国家和国际组织及提供足够的培训的资源有限,尤其是在发展中国家。
To address global challenges to enhance weather and climate forecasting through expanded international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications.7. 执行工作带来的好处:
3. Findings:可靠天气和气候预报范围的扩大,对地球系统较长期变化的原因和过程的评估,是气象组织及其伙伴组织的两大重要成就,对人类具有显著价值。而且,它们还打开了未来通向更广阔前景的大门。自然灾害每年都造成损失,其中大部分与天气有关,平均死亡人数超过5万人,平均财产损失上百亿美元。一些研究活动表明,较长期气候变化将影响严重天气事件的分布、频度和强度。仅以食物和纤维生产、基础设施开发多年期投资及淡水资源管理这几个当今社会经济问题为例,每年关于这些问题的决定都会大大受益于推广可靠的服务和产品,例如:
(a) The plans existing within the United Nations system and in particular the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) planning process directly address activities needed to enhance weather and climate forecasting through expanded international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications;(a) 严重破坏性天气事件的30分钟预警:例如,提前10分钟以上龙卷风预报一直是个老大难问题,但在多灾地区又非常必要;
(b) The Action Team agreed that mechanisms within and outside of the United Nations system constituted an effective means for international cooperation to achieve the goals set forth in the WMO planning process.(b) 5日内30公里误差飓风轨迹预报:减少由于目前3日内400公里着陆点误差而造成的预警误报次数;
4. Recommendations for further action:(c) 10-14日内天气预报:新的测量方法,特别是对流层气流和建模能力方面的重大进展,可使中短期天气预报达到极限;
(a) Strengthen support for member States through their national meteorological and hydrological services in the implementation of the WMO long-term plan, including the necessary financial resources;(d) 12月期区域降雨率:近期全球水循环建模工作表明了通过全球水循环观测确定区域性水循环预测的潜力;
(b) Support for national and international organizations providing space systems (operational as well as research and development) that seek to meet WMO observational requirements.(e) 15-20月期厄尔尼诺预测:近两次厄尔尼诺事件的“后报”表明,凭借充分的天基系统和实地观测能力,加上有重点的建模努力,这种预测是可以做到的;
5. Implementation already initiated:(f) 10年期气候预测:随着目前部署的研究系统发展成未来的实用系统,从理论上说,十年期气候预测是可能的。
The present space-based observing system is adequate to provide the data, products and services required for the present weather and climate forecasting needs and the vision for the future system responds to the increased needs for weather and climate forecasting. Two specific international groups are the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. The Coordination Group started as an informal group in 1972, to coordinate the first global geostationary system among satellite providers. The European Space Research Organization, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States of America and the Japan Meteorological Agency were founder members. In 2002, research and development space agencies contributing to the space-based component of the global observing systems became members of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites was created in 1984 as a result of recommendations from the Economic Summit of the Group of Seven major industrialized countries. It serves as the focal point for international coordination of space-related, Earth observation activities among space agencies and encourages complementarity and compatibility among experimental and operational space-borne Earth observing systems through coordination in mission planning, promotion of full and non-discriminatory data access, setting of data product standards and development of compatible data products, services and applications.8. 行动小组取得的进展: 行动小组自成立以来举办了数次讲习班和会议,其中包括在和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会会议期间举办的讲习班和会议。行动小组的审查已经完成,上述建议的执行将通过扩大气象卫星应用领域的国际合作进一步加强天气和气候预报。 a 拟通过联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅联系。 附录四 公共卫生行动小组 行动小组编号:6 主席:J. Hamilton(加拿大) 1. 成员: (a) 国家:澳大利亚、保加利亚、加拿大、古巴、法国、匈牙利、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、南非、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、美利坚合众国; (b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、 世界卫生组织a、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会、加拿大卫星通讯公司、纪念大学、国际发展研究中心。 2. 任务简述: 通过扩大和协调远程医疗天基服务改进公共卫生服务。 3. 调研结果: (a) 不论是在八国集团成员国还是在欠发达国家,都存在对远程医疗天基服务的正当需求; (b) 除远程医疗以外,天基技术还有其他用于改进公共卫生的应用领域,例如: ㈠ 查明并监测导致产生某些疾病的情况; ㈡ 进行全国范围内的调查,以查明并监测传染性疾病的传播; ㈢ 保持有关最佳医疗办法的资料,并将此资料在全球范围传播; ㈣ 利用天基技术为公众和医疗专业人员提供连续教育; (c) 以上所列天基技术的用途除可以改进公共卫生以外,还可以特别用于灾害监测和减灾。 4. 进一步行动的建议: (a) 建立一心血管疾病知识管理网络; (b) 为远程医疗专家和政府官员召开联合国远程医疗国际会议,探讨提供远程医疗服务方面的最佳做法和经验。 (c) 汇编关于全球远程医疗现状和潜力的报告,该报告将:㈠审查全球远程医疗举措的范围;㈡查明最有希望的执行领域;㈢审查远程医疗需要,尤其是在发展中国家;㈣向决策者提出应采取的步骤,并制定有关建议。 5. 已开始进行的执行工作: (a) 由于缺乏资金,建立心血管疾病网络的倡议(建议(a))处于停滞状态。仍在努力查明启动资金来源,以开展可行性研究和试点项目; (b) 已经收到一系列提议,表示愿意利用预定会议的间隙举办远程医疗研讨会,例如将在卢森堡召开的远程医疗会议,将在拉巴特召开的国际空间年欧洲联合会会议,将在意大利的米兰召开的心血管疾病会议;阿拉伯叙利亚共和国还答应举办一次由卫生部长主持的全面会议。对这些提议,都在考虑之中; (c) 经济合作与发展组织(经合组织)起草了一份关于远程医疗全球现状的报告,正在各国卫生当局之间传阅,征求意见;一旦经合组织的最后报告发表,航天新一代咨询理事会同意扩展该报告,以纳入上述建议(c)中尚未得到处理的任何要点; (d) 科学和技术小组委员会在一项涉及2004年至2006年的三年期工作计划中,列入了一个“天基系统远程医疗”的项目,以便成员国交流其远程医疗经验和看法;这将补充经合组织和航天新一代咨询理事会正在编写的报告。
6. Indication of impediments to implementation:6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
Limited resources to support national and international organizations and to provide adequate training, especially in developing countries.(a) 难以保证建立心血管疾病知识管理网络的初始项目的资金;
7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:(b) 加拿大答应牵头实施心血管疾病网络倡议,已请行动小组其他成员国为执行上述建议(b)和 (c)完成其他两项行动;
The extension of reliable weather and climate forecasting and assessment of the causes and course of longer-term Earth system change were two major accomplishments of WMO and its partner organizations that have a demonstrable value to humanity. However, they also opened a door towards a greater range of possibilities in the future. Annual losses due to natural disasters, most of which are weather-related, exceed on average 50,000 lives and tens of billions of dollars. Some research activities indicate that longer-term climate change would have an impact on the distribution, frequency and intensity of severe weather events. Annual decisions on food and fibre production, multi-year investments in infrastructure development and management of freshwater resources, to name just a few contemporary socio-economic issues, could benefit significantly from reliable, extended services and products, such as:(摩洛哥同意在2004年7月召开的会议中纳入远程医疗议题(行动小组主席正在协助这一努力);还收到了其他一些补充提议(见上文第5(b)段)。尚无行动小组成员答应牵头汇编建议(c)中的报告。不过,经合组织和航天新一代咨询理事会的报告应能满足这一特定的行动项目(上文第5(c)段)。) 7. 执行工作带来的好处: (a) 全面改善全球居民的福利; (b) 在各国和全球范围内更好地进行疾病监测和管理; (c) 为公众和医疗专业人员提供更好的教育机会。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: (a) 到目前为止,进展甚微。由于缺乏资金,心血管疾病知识管理网络概念仍处于停滞状态; (b) 行动小组主席目前与将在拉巴特召开的国际空间年欧洲联合会会议的组织者直接合作,以将远程医疗的主题纳入会议中。其他就远程保健会议提出的邀请正在考虑中; (c) 建议行动小组推行新的项目,或侧重于科学和技术小组委员会的工作计划。 a 仅限于接收资料。 附录五 灾害管理行动小组 行动小组编号:7 主席:Li Chuanrong(中国)、J. Breton(法国)、 S. Parashar(加拿大) 秘书处:加拿大、中国和法国 1. 成员: (a) 国家:阿根廷、澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、白俄罗斯、玻利维亚、加拿大、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、古巴、捷克共和国、厄瓜多尔、埃及、芬兰、法国、德国、希腊、匈牙利、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、墨西哥、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、泰国、土耳其、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国; (b) 组织:联合国难民事务高级专员办事处、联合国秘书处人道主义事务协调厅、国际减灾战略秘书处、亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国环境规划署、联合国项目事务厅、联合国粮食及农业组织、联合国教育、科学及文化组织、世界卫生组织a、欧洲航天局、欧洲国际空间年协会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会。 2. 任务简述: 研究并建议执行一个综合性全球运作系统,特别是通过国际合作进行,以通过地球观测、通信和其他与空间有关的服务来管理自然灾害的减灾、救济和预防工作,最大限度地利用现有能力并填补全球覆盖面的空白。 3. 调研结果:
(a) A 30-minute warning of very destructive weather events: for example, tornado prediction beyond 10 minutes is notoriously difficult but necessary in susceptible areas;(a) 水灾、地震、火灾、石油泄漏、旱灾和火山爆发等灾害不加区别地影响到世界所有地区。因此,需要做出协调一致的国际努力来最大程度地降低其影响。救灾要求在灾害管理的整个周期,即在防灾、减灾、备灾、救灾和恢复的全部过程中,提供及时和最新的地理–社会数据库或专题地图,并进行及时和最新的情况分析;
(b) A 5-day hurricane track prediction to +/-30 km: to reduce the number of false warnings resulting from the present landfall location uncertainty of 400 km at 3 days;(b) 空间技术,如地球观测(包括气象卫星)、通信和导航与定位,可提供灾害管理所必需的信息和向决策者及时传输这种信息的手段。全球已经或正计划投入大量资源,用于在上述领域建设空间资产及其相关地面基础设施;
(c) A 10-14 day weather forecast: new measurements, especially tropospheric winds, and substantial advances in modelling capability can push short- and medium-term weather prediction to the limits;(c) 不过,这些资产在支持灾害管理方面的适用性和利用率仍然大大落后于开发活动,这仍是世界几乎所有地区面临的一项重大挑战。已作出一些引人注目的国际努力,例如《在发生自然和技术灾害时协调使用空间设施的合作宪章》(又称《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》、灾害监测星座、全球环境与安全监测倡议、综合全球观测战略以及最近的地球观测组进程,这些努力旨在关注发展需要和较适合于灾害管理的空间资产的使用;所有这些持续进行中的举措都必要继续下去并予以加强;
(d) A 12-month regional rain rate: recent efforts in global water cycle modelling indicate the potential to determine regionally specific water cycle projections from global-scale water cycle observations;(d) 在空间技术应用于全球灾害管理的所有领域(技术、操作、教育和培训、组织和财政)都存在着并可能继续存在巨大差距,除非采取更加综合性、更加协调一致的做法。这是因为面临的挑战多种多样而且非常巨大,缺乏持续不断、重点突出和协调一致的努力来满足灾害管理界的需要;
(e) A 15-20 month El Niño prediction: “hindcasting” of the two most recent El Niño events indicates that this is possible with an adequate system of space-based and in situ observing capability paired with focused modelling efforts;(e) 在几乎所有国家中,管理灾害的责任是有分工的,负责平民保护的机关缺乏对空间技术给其带来的惠益的认识。他们缺乏例如工具、基础设施和专门知识等必要的能力,因此无法知晓或评价需要什么样的空间派生信息,无法产生所需的来自空间资产的信息并及时地对该信息加以传输、吸收或利用。
(f) A 10-year climate prediction: decade-scale climate prediction is theoretically possible with the extension of the research systems now being deployed to future operational systems.4. 进一步行动的建议:
8. Progress made by the Action Team:(a) 建议1。应设立一个国际空间协调机构,名称确定为“灾害管理国际空间协调组织”,以便:㈠通过充分利用现有和规划中的天基和陆基资产和基础设施,在现有组织和机制(包括灾害管理机关)充分参与的情况下,提供可支付得起、全面和普遍受益的天基服务交付,以支持灾害管理;㈡使综合性全球灾害管理空间支助系统得以发展、实施和运营,该系统涉及灾害管理的所有阶段,包括防灾、减灾、备灾、救灾和恢复,并将包括所有利害攸关者,例如空间运营者、增值提供者和国家能力。
Since its formation, the Action Team has held several workshops and meetings, including those held during sessions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee. The review by the Action Team is complete and the implementation of the recommendations listed above will further enhance weather and climate forecasting through expanded international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications.行动小组建议采取实用的做法,在救灾阶段利用现有作业倡议的经验,例如《空间和重大灾害国际宪章》,并将拟建立的组织的作用扩展到灾害管理的整个周期。
a To be contacted through the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. Appendix IV Action Team on Public Health Action team number: 6 Chairperson: J. Hamilton (Canada) 1. Membership: (a) Countries: Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Cuba, France, Hungary, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey and United States of America; (b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, World Health Organization,a Space Generation Advisory Council, Manila Observatory, Philippine Astronomical Society, Telesat Canada, Memorial University and International Development Research Centre. 2. Brief mission statement: To improve public health services by expanding and coordinating space-based services for telemedicine. 3. Findings: (a) There is a legitimate need for space-based services for telemedicine, whether in countries that are members of the Group of Eight or in less developed countries; (b) In addition to telemedicine, space-based technologies have other applications to improve public health, for example: (i) To identify and monitor situations conducive to emergence of specific diseases; (ii) To conduct surveillance at the national level to identify and monitor spread of infectious diseases; (iii) To maintain data on best medical practices and disseminate that information on a global basis; (iv) To use space-based technologies for continuing education for the general public and for medical professionals; (c) The uses of space-based technologies listed above are specifically applicable to disease monitoring and mitigation in addition to improving general public health. 4. Recommendations for further action: (a) Establishment of a cardiovascular-disease knowledge-management network; (b) Holding of an international global United Nations conference for telemedicine specialists and government officials to discuss such issues as best practices and experience in providing telemedicine services; (c) Compilation of a report on the status and potential of telemedicine worldwide; the report would: (i) examine the range of telemedicine initiatives worldwide; (ii) identify the most promising areas for implementation; (iii) examine the needs for telemedicine, especially in developing countries; and (iv) propose steps and develop recommendations for decision makers. 5. Implementation already initiated: (a) The initiative to establish a cardiovascular network (recommendation (a)) is at a standstill owing to lack of funding. Efforts are still being made to identify seed funding, in order to initiate feasibility studies and pilot projects; (b) There have been a number of offers to hold a telemedicine workshop on the margins of scheduled conferences, such as Med-e-Tel, to be held in Luxembourg, a European Association for the International Space Year (EURISY) conference, to be held in Rabat, and a cardiovascular conference to be held in Milan, Italy; an offer has also been received to convene a full conference to be hosted by the Ministry of Health of the Syrian Arab Republic. All these options are under consideration; (c) The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has drafted a report on the global status of telemedicine and circulated it among national health authorities for comments; once the final report of OECD is published, the Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) has agreed to expand that report to cover any points from recommendation (c) above that are not addressed; (d) The Scientific and Technical Subcommittee has included an item on “Space-systems-based telemedicine” under a three-year work plan, covering the period 2004 to 2006, for member States to share their experiences and views on telemedicine; this should complement the report being prepared by OECD and SGAC. 6. Indication of impediments to implementation: (a) Difficulty of securing funding for the initial project of establishing a cardiovascular-disease knowledge-management network; (b) While Canada had offered to lead the cardiovascular network initiative, other members of the Action Team were invited to complete the other two actions, to implement recommendations (b) and (c) above. (Morocco has agreed to include the subject of telemedicine in a conference taking place in July 2004 (the Chair of the Action Team is assisting this effort); various additional offers were also received (see para. 5 (b) above). No member of the Action Team has offered to lead the compilation of the report under recommendation (c). However, the report prepared by OECD and SGAC should satisfy this specific action item (see para. 5 (c) above).) 7. Benefits to be derived from implementation: (a) Overall improvement of the well-being of people worldwide; (b) Better disease monitoring and management at both national and global levels; (c) Improved educational opportunities for the general public and for medical professionals. 8. Progress made by the Action Team: (a) Little progress has been made to date. The cardiovascular disease knowledge management network concept is still on hold owing to lack of funding; (b) The Chair of the Action Team is now working directly with the organizers of the EURISY conference to be held in Rabat to have an element of telemedicine included. Other invitations for a tele-health conference are under consideration; (c) It is recommended that the Action Team pursue a new project or focus on the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee’s work plan. a Only to receive information. Appendix V Action Team on Disaster Management Action team number: 7 Chairpersons: Li Chuanrong (China), J. Breton (France) and S. Parashar (Canada) Secretariat: Canada, China and France 1. Membership: (a) Countries: Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America; (b) Organizations: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Office for Project Services, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization,a European Space Agency, European Association for the International Space Year, Space Generation Advisory Council, Manila Observatory and Philippine Astronomical Society. 2. Brief mission statement: Studying and recommending the implementation of an integrated operational global system, especially through international cooperation, to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts through Earth observation, communications and other space-related services, making maximum use of existing capabilities and filling gaps in worldwide coverage. 3. Findings: (a) Disasters such as floods, earthquakes, fires, oil spills, droughts and volcanic eruptions indiscriminately affect all parts of the globe; thus, coordinated international efforts are required to minimize their impact. Disaster relief requires timely and up-to-date geo-social databases or thematic maps and situational analyses through the full cycle of disaster management, namely prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery; (b) Space technology such as for Earth observation (including meteorological satellites), communications, as well as navigation and positioning, can provide the necessary information for disaster management and the means to transmit that information to decision makers in a timely manner. Considerable investment has been made and is planned globally to build up space assets in the above areas as well as their associated ground infrastructure; (c) However, the applicability and utilization of such assets in support of disaster management continue to lag significantly behind development efforts and remain a major challenge in almost all parts of the world. There are some notable international efforts such as the Charter on Cooperation to Achieve the Coordinated Use of Space Facilities in the Event of Natural or Technological Disasters (also known as the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative, the Integrated Global Observing Strategy and the recent Group on Earth Observations process, which aim to address the development needs and use of space assets more suited to disaster management; all these ongoing initiatives need to continue and be strengthened; (d) A considerable gap, however, exists and is likely to remain in all areas of space technology application (technical, operational, educational/training, organizational and financial) to disaster management on a global basis unless a more integrated, coordinated approach is taken. This is because of the diversity and enormity of the challenge and the lack of sustained, focused and coordinated efforts to meet the needs of the disaster management community; (e) In virtually all countries, the responsibility for managing disasters is distributed and authorities responsible for civil protection lack understanding of the benefits that space technologies bring to them. They lack the capacities, for example tools, infrastructure and expertise, necessary for knowing or evaluating what space-derived information is required, generating the required information from space assets and transmitting, absorbing or utilizing the information in a timely manner. 4. Recommendations for further action: (a) Recommendation 1. Establish an international space coordination body, nominally identified as the “disaster management international space coordination organization”, (i) to provide affordable, comprehensive and universally beneficial space-based service delivery in support of disaster management by fully utilizing the existing and planned space- and ground-based assets and infrastructures, with the full participation of existing organizations and mechanisms, including disaster management authorities; and (ii) to achieve the development, implementation and operation of an integrated global disaster management space support system that will address all phases of disaster management, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, and will include all stakeholders, such as space operators, value-added providers and national capabilities. The Action Team recommends a pragmatic approach, building on the experience of existing operational initiatives such as the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” in the response phase and expanding the role of the proposed organization to the full cycle of disaster management. The proposed organization would support (i) the efforts of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy, the Earth Observation Summit, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative and others in developing space infrastructure more suited to the needs of the disaster management community and filling information and observational gaps; and (ii) education and training efforts of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and others to ensure progressive enhancement of disaster management; (b) Recommendation 2. Establish a fund to provide sustainable resources that can be used to apply space technology in support of disaster management and to build the capacity of civil protection authorities to use space technology. The primary contributors to the fund should be development and relief agencies and those who would be the main beneficiaries of disaster reduction, such as insurance companies, lending institutions and end-users; (c) Recommendation 3. Strongly encourage Member States to allocate a portion of their disaster management resources and funds to using space technology and to identify single points of contact to focus their internal disaster management efforts and provide liaison with external efforts. 5. Implementation already initiated: The Action Team developed proposals for action plans to implement each recommendation as indicated below: For recommendation 1: (a) Secure critical support for the start-up of the proposed organization; (b) Set up a small coordination office composed of seconded personnel from member States; (c) Define key functions of the proposed organization (administration, policy coordination, product standardization, capacity-building for developing countries, provision of education and training for end-users and stakeholders and analysis and promotion of space benefits); (d) Establish a web site for centralized access to Earth observation data archives; (e) Establish a sample product catalogue; (f) Establish a case history of benefits; (g) Within six months, develop an implementation plan to define: (i) Management and organizational structure; (ii) Functionality requirements; (iii) Resource requirements; (h) Secure approval of the implementation plan; (i) Achieve the goal to have a fully functioning organization within three to five years. For recommendation 2: (a) Secure critical support to study the concept behind the fund; (b) Set up a working group to establish needs, develop options, propose preferred solutions and recommend an implementation plan; (c) Achieve the goal to set up preliminary funds one year after approval and full funds in three years. For recommendation 3: (a) Raise awareness of issues and needs; (b) Promote benefits, namely education efforts, pilot projects for developing countries and proof of concept for space-based response. 6. Indication of impediments to implementation: In order to realize this important initiative and the recommendations of the Action Team, there should first be a commitment and willingness on the part of the space agencies that have sponsored the work of the Action Team to coordinate and utilize their various space assets for the said purpose. Secondly, they should contribute, along with other stakeholders, to start the implementation process towards the proposed disaster management structure. 7. Benefits to be derived from implementation: (a) Easier access to space-derived information in all phases of disasters for all countries; (b) Establishment of an international entity dealing with space and natural and technological disasters in a coherent, coordinated fashion; (c) In the long term, significant reduction of the price paid by each country as a result of natural disasters, having adopted enhanced policies in the disaster prevention phase for urban planning and land use, established a more accurate and credible information base for risk prediction and early warning and built a more comprehensive capability to utilize space services fully in the emergency response phase. 8. Progress made by the Action Team: The Action Team completed its final report. a Only to receive information. Appendix VI Action Team on Knowledge-sharing Action team number: 9 Chairpersons: M. Othman (Malaysia) and V. Cassapoglou (Greece) Secretariat: Malaysia 1. Membership: (a) Countries: Belarus, Dominican Republic, Greece, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Malaysia, Russian Federation, Thailand and Turkey;拟议建立的组织将支助:㈠综合全球观测战略、地球观测高峰会议、全球环境与安全监测倡议以及其他机制在发展更适合灾害管理界需要的空间基础设施以及填补信息和观测的空白方面的努力;㈡联合国亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国教育、科学及文化组织和其他机构为确保逐步加强灾害管理而作出的教育和培训上的努力;
(b) Organization: Space Generation Advisory Council.(b) 建议2。应设立一项基金,以提供可持续资源,用于应用空间技术支持灾害管理,提高平民保护机关使用空间技术的能力。这项基金的主要捐资者应是发展和救援机构,以及将成为减灾的主要受益人的各方,例如保险公司、借贷机构和最终用户;
2. Brief mission statement:(c) 建议3。应大力鼓励各会员国拨出部分灾害管理资源和资金用于利用空间技术,并确定各自国家的单一联络点,以便突出其国内灾害管理活动的重点并提供与外部活动的联系。
Promotion of the use of space-based communication services to improve knowledge-sharing.5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
3. Findings:行动小组为执行各项建议拟订了下列行动计划: 为建议1:
(a) The ability to communicate is fundamental to development for many communities in the world. Serving isolated areas such as islands and mountainous areas using terrestrial means is often not possible. Space-based communication services are not restricted by geography and, as such, become the only option for many communities;(a) 为建立拟议的组织争取必要的支助;
(b) Space-based communication systems are capable of providing high-end technology such as broadband communications, mobile telephony and bandwidth on demand;(b) 建立由从会员国借调的人员组成的小型协调办公室;
(c) Space-based communication services have always been large-scale projects and are generally undertaken by the private sector in response to competitive market forces;(c) 界定拟建立的组织的主要职能(管理、政策协调、产品标准化、发展中国家的能力建设、为最终用户和利害攸关者提供教育和培训、分析和宣传空间惠益);
(d) The creation and application of new knowledge is essential to the survival of almost any economy and can be used to generate future economic benefits. In order to make knowledge-sharing a reality, appropriate information and communication technology infrastructure should be available. Space-based communication services could provide the connectivity to improve such knowledge-sharing.(d) 建立一个网站,供集中访问地球观测数据档案;
4. Recommendations for further action:(e) 建立一个样品目录; (f) 编写惠益专题资料; (g) 在六个月内制订实施计划,以界定: ㈠ 管理和组织结构; ㈡ 运作方面的要求; ㈢ 资源方面的要求; (h) 争取实施计划获得批准; (i) 在三至五年内实现建立一个完全运作起来的组织的目标。 为建议2: (a) 为研究支持这一基金的概念获得必要的支助; (b) 建立一个工作组,确定需要、制定选择方案、提出优先解决办法实施计划; (c) 实现在批准一年之后筹集初步资金以及三年后得到充分资金的目标。 为建议3: (a) 提高对问题和需要的认识; (b) 宣传惠益,即开展教育活动,为发展中国家开展试点项目,以及证明天基救灾概念。 6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍: 为了实现行动小组的这一重要倡议和各项建议,首先,那些赞助行动小组工作的空间机构应承诺并愿意为所所述目的协调和利用其各种空间资产。其次,这些空间机构应同其他利害攸关者一起促进启动旨在建立拟议的灾害管理结构的实施进程。 7. 执行工作带来的好处:
(a) Identify existing and planned space-based communication infrastructure that is committed to universal access;(a) 更易于所有国家在灾害的各个阶段获得外空资料;
(b) Identify the barriers to the implementation of a space-based communication system;(b) 建立一个以连贯、协调的方式处理空间以及自然和技术灾害问题的国际实体;
(c) Develop policies and strategic plans that could lead to promoting the use of space-based communication systems in improving knowledge-sharing.(c) 从长期看,可通过下述办法大大减少各国由于自然灾害而付出的代价:在灾害预防阶段改善城市规划和土地使用政策,建立更准确和更可靠的风险预测和早期预警信息基础;以及建立更全面的在救灾阶段充分利用空间服务的能力。
5. Implementation already initiated:8. 行动小组取得的进展: 行动小组完成了其最后报告。 a 仅限于接收资料。 附录六 知识共享行动小组 行动小组编号:9 主席:M. Othman(马来西亚)、V. Cassapoglou(希腊) 秘书处:马来西亚 1. 成员:
A survey is currently being conducted to assess the current space-based communication capabilities within Member States. A questionnaire has been prepared and, with the assistance of the Office for Outer Space Affairs, circulated to Member States.(a) 国家:白俄罗斯、多米尼加共和国、希腊、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、马来西亚、俄罗斯联邦、泰国、土耳其;
6. Indication of impediments to implementation:(b) 组织:航天新一代咨询理事会。
Impediments have not been identified as the survey findings have yet to be reviewed.2. 任务简述:
7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:促进利用天基通信服务改善知识共享。
Promoting national, regional and global cooperation on using space-based communication services to improve knowledge-sharing.3. 调研结果: (a) 通信能力对于世界上许多社区的发展有着根本的重要性。利用地球上的手段为岛屿和山区等孤立地区提供服务常常不可能做到。而天基通信服务不受地理情况的限制,因此成为许多社区的唯一选择;
8. Progress made by the Action Team:(b) 天基通信系统能够提供高端技术,例如宽带通信、移动电话和按请求设置的频带宽度; (c) 天基通信服务总是大型项目,一般是由私营部门针对有竞争力的市场力量进行的; (d) 新知识的创立和应用对于几乎任何经济都是必不可少的,可用于产生未来的经济效益。为了使知识分享成为现实,应有适当的信息和通信技术基础设施。天基通信服务可为改进这种知识共享提供连接。 4. 进一步行动的建议:
(a) The Action Team held two meetings in Vienna during the sessions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee;(a) 查明现有和计划中的已承诺供普遍利用的天基通信基础设施;
(b) The Action Team held a meeting in Bangkok in conjunction with the Workshop on the Contribution of Space Communication Technology to Bridging the Digital Divide, which was organized for the benefit of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region;(b) 查明妨碍实施天基通信系统的障碍;
(c) The Action Team is in the process of compiling information on space-based communication infrastructure within Member States.(c) 制订有助于促进利用天基通信系统改进知识共享的政策和战略计划。
Appendix VII5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
Action Team on Global Navigation Satellite Systems目前正在进行一项调查,以评估会员国内当前的天基通信能力。已拟订一份调查问卷,并在外层空间事务厅的协助下,将其分发给了会员国。
Action team number: 10 Chairpersons: K. Hodgkins (United States of America) and M. Caparole (Italy)6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
Secretariat: India, Malaysia (for compilation of the report) and International Telecommunication Union (for the web board management)由于尚未对调查结果加以审查,因此尚未查明障碍。 7. 执行工作带来的好处: 促进就利用天基通信服务改进知识共享开展国家、区域和全球合作。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: (a) 在和平利用外层空间委员会及其科学和技术小组委员会举行届会期间,行动小组在维也纳举行了两次会议; (b) 在为亚洲及太平洋区域国家举办空间通信技术对弥合数码鸿沟的贡献讲习班的同时,行动小组在曼谷举行了一次会议; (c) 行动小组正在汇编会员国内天基通信基础设施的资料。 附录七 全球导航卫星系统行动小组 行动小组编号:10 主席:K. Hodgkins(美利坚合众国),M. Caporale(意大利) 秘书处:印度、马来西亚(编写报告)、国际电信联盟(管理电子留言板)
1. Membership:1. 成员:
(a) Countries: Australia, Austria, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United States of America and Zambia;(a) 国家:澳大利亚、奥地利、白俄罗斯、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、捷克共和国、埃及、法国、德国、匈牙利、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、墨西哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、波兰、葡萄牙、大韩民国、罗马尼亚、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、乌克兰、美利坚合众国、赞比亚;
(b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Telecommunication Union, European Space Agency, European Commission, European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol), Civil GPS Service Interface Committee, European Association for the International Space Year, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, International Association of Institutes of Navigation, International Association of Geodesy, International Bureau of Weights and Measures, International Cartographic Association, International Federation of Surveyors and International GPS Service.(b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、国际民用航空组织(民航组织)、国际电信联盟、欧洲航天局、欧洲联盟委员会、欧洲空中导航安全组织、全球定位系统民用服务界面委员会、欧洲国际空间年协会、美国航空航天研究所、国际航海研究所协会、国际大地测量学协会、国际计量局、国际制图协会、国际测量工作者联合会、全球定位系统国际服务组织。
2. Brief mission statement:2. 任务简述:
(a) Survey current efforts to achieve a seamless satellite-based radio navigation and positioning system;(a) 调查目前为实现以卫星为基础的无缝隙无线电导航和定位系统所作的努力;
(b) Assess current models of international cooperation and identify those with potential applicability to evolving global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and services;(b) 评估目前的国际合作模式并查明那些有可能用于发展全球导航卫星系统和服务的国际合作模式;
(c) Propose specific recommendations for entities of the United Nations, its Member States and other international organizations on actions to promote GNSS user interests, increase the level of awareness and improve the quality and facilitate the utilization of GNSS services, in particular in developing countries.(c) 就采取行动促进全球导航卫星系统用户利益、增进认识水平、提高特别是发展中国家的全球导航卫星系统服务的质量及便利这种服务的利用,向联合国各实体及其会员国以及其他国际组织提出具体建议。
3. Findings:3. 调研结果:
(a) GNSS and their augmentations are generally recognized as being useful for a wide range of societal, civil and commercial applications. System providers are working to increase awareness among policy makers of the benefits of this technology, but the task is beyond the resources of any individual operator. A coordination mechanism involving operators of GNSS and their augmentations, as well as appropriate international organizations, could easily be established for this purpose;(a) 普遍确认全球导航卫星系统及其增扩装置对于各种社会、民用和商业应用是有益的。系统提供商正在努力增进政策制定者对这种技术的好处的认识,但这一任务超出了任何个别运营者的资源范围。为此目的不难建立涉及全球导航卫星系统及其增扩装置的运营者以及适当的国际组织的协调机制; (b) 广大公众以及政府和非政府专家似乎都了解全球导航卫星系统提供的导航、定位和定时服务的基本功用。虽然全球导航卫星系统目前和未来的运营者都处于竞争状态,但完全可以预料,协调将会不断增加,以便更好地为用户服务。宣传工作绝不能限于提高公众和专家的一般认识水平,而应有助于全球导航卫星系统纳入各国的基础结构(政府、商业、科学),特别是在发展中国家。为此有必要举办经常性的区域讲习班(类似于联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅最近举办的讲习班)、制定“路线图”以及为发展中国家采用全球导航卫星系统服务编写技术报告; (c) 不论采用何种应用,全球导航卫星系统信号的安全性和完整性是全球用户最关心的问题之一。迫切需要协助国家和区域当局(特别是在发展中国家)建立机制,以查明和消除可能会削弱全球导航卫星系统及其增扩装置的信号的干扰源。 4. 进一步行动的建议: (a) 全球导航卫星系统及其增扩装置提供商应成立一个有适当的国际组织参加的全球导航卫星系统协调委员会,目的是:㈠鼓励优化兼容性和互用性;㈡查明在国家、区域和全球各级实施保护信号可靠性和完整性的措施的机制;㈢建立用户信息中心;㈣为采用全球导航卫星系统服务制定“路线图”和编写技术报告;㈤举办区域讲习班;㈥提供全球导航卫星系统方面的培训机会,特别是在发展中国家。有必要为拟议中的委员会设立一个秘书处。秘书处的目标是促进在全球导航卫星系统的用户和供应商中交流信息,但并不妨碍全球导航卫星系统服务提供商以及国际民用航空组织(民航组织)、国际海事组织和国际电信联盟(国际电联)等政府间组织发挥作用和职能; (b) ㈠ 外层空间事务厅应继续通过联合国空间应用方案举办区域讲习班,促进全球导航卫星系统及其增扩装置在发展中国家的使用; ㈡ 联合国附属空间科学和技术教育区域中心应考虑将全球导航卫星系统方案纳入其培训活动; ㈢ 外空事务厅应通过与全球导航卫星系统及其增扩装置供应商或拟建立的国际委员会合作,维持一个拟建立的网站,在其中登载下列方面的信息:系统说明、最近的应用动态、培训机会、为将全球导航卫星系统纳入国家基础设施及保护国家和区域两级的信号可靠性和完整性提供的援助的来源。拟议中的委员会可开发该网站的概念和结构并查明定期收集和更新这种信息的工作方法。这方面的工作完成后,该网站即可成为外层空间事务厅网站的一部分,由外空事务厅与拟议中的委员会合作维持,但须有充足的资源。 5. 已开始进行的执行工作: 上述建议4 ((b)㈠)的实施工作已经开始,首先举办了四期系列区域讲习班(在奥地利、智利、马来西亚和赞比亚举办)以及与联合国、美国和欧洲航天局合作于2001-2003年期间举行了两次关于全球导航卫星系统促进可持续发展国际专家会议。2003年12月举行的一次国际讲习班审查了2002年11月在维也纳举行的国际专家会议所提建议的实施进展情况。该讲习班着重于制订拟议中的委员会的工作范围。计划于2004年在维也纳再举行一次会议。 6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍: 关于需由外层空间事务厅采取行动的建议,主要障碍之一是包括人员在内的资源有限,无法特别是在联合国空间应用方案框架内开展额外工作。对于那些需要系统提供商提供额外资源的建议来说,情况也是如此。虽然通过民航组织对全球导航卫星系统的民用航空应用作了良好的协调,但拟成立的委员会将在促进全球导航卫星系统非民航领域应用的使用中面临艰巨的任务。这主要是因为有些用于提供准确定位和导航服务的非民航应用依赖于一国的电信和其他基础设施。目前尚无任何国际机构来监督和协调这些领域的设备和服务的规格。 7. 执行工作带来的好处: 执行上述第4(a)节中的建议带来的好处包括:提高政策制定者对全球导航卫星系统的好处的认识并随后使政治支持得到增加,从而使政府为全球导航卫星系统纳入国家基础设施提供资金。执行上述第4(b)节中的建议带来的好处包括:发展中国家全球导航卫星系统培训计划会增加,发展中国家有更多的机会获得关于全球导航卫星系统和增扩装置及其应用和现有服务的信息,发展中国家在其发展活动中使用全球导航卫星系统的相关技术咨询服务得到改进。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: 行动小组举行了八次会议,开展的工作包括:㈠汇编关于全球导航卫星系统和增扩装置的综合信息,包括政策、系统说明和通过国际合作开展的相关活动;㈡进行关于全球导航卫星系统领域现有培训机会的全球调查;㈢查明全球导航卫星系统在各区域的特殊应用。目前正在根据行动小组的初步调研结果和建议进行成立拟议中的委员会的工作。 附录八
(b) It appears that the general public and governmental and non-governmental experts understand the basic utility of navigation, positioning and timing services offered by GNSS. While current and future GNSS operators are in a competitive mode, it is fully expected that collaboration will increase in order to serve the user community better. Outreach efforts must move beyond simple awareness among the general public and experts to provide assistance in the integration of GNSS into the basic infrastructure (government, commercial and scientific) of countries, in particular in the developing world. This requires the convening of regular regional workshops (similar to those recently organized by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat) and the development of “road maps”, as well as the preparation of technical reports for the introduction of GNSS services in developing countries;可持续发展问题行动小组
(c) GNSS signal security and integrity are one of the top priorities for the global user community, regardless of application. There is an urgent need for assistance to national and regional authorities, in particular in developing countries, to establish mechanisms for identifying and eliminating sources of interference that could degrade signals from GNSS and their augmentations.行动小组编号:11 主席:A. A. Abiodun(尼日利亚) 秘书处:尼日利亚 1. 成员: (a) 国家:阿塞拜疆、白俄罗斯、玻利维亚、智利、中国、捷克共和国、埃及、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、摩纳哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、南非、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国; (b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国教育、科学及文化组织a、国际摄影测量和遥感学会、欧洲国际空间年协会、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会。 2. 任务简述: (a) 审查那些突显空间技术作为任何可行的可持续发展议程的不可或缺组成部分的特征,具体论述空间技术如何增进人类对基本生命支持系统―空气、陆地和水―的了解和管理的问题,包括评估和管理诸如农业和粮食安全、保障、环境、教育、运输、保健和减轻灾害等问题; (b) 确定每个国家为取得必要的空间能力以支持其可持续发展目标而应采取的关键步骤。 3. 调研结果: (a) 收集和分析从空间获得的数据,包括使用地理信息,是通向可持续发展的道路的起点。许多社会之所以无法进行可持续的发展努力,原因是数据的收集、组织和管理质量低下; (b) 空间技术使全世界在可持续发展问题上的相互依赖性更加突出。这方面有下述实例:《关于从外层空间遥感地球的原则》 ( 大会第41/65号决议,附件)、1991年皮纳图博山火山喷发以及2000年11月1日生效的《在发生自然和技术灾害时协调使用空间设施的合作宪章》(又称《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》); (c) 各会员国,特别是发展中国家,由于认识到空间技术是可行的可持续发展工具,因此正在日益增加对空间活动的投资和参与。 4. 进一步行动的建议: (a) 各国均应根据本国的能力,为空间方面的可持续发展方案紧急制订必要的政策,并应通过举办适当的国家和区域会议经常使决策者了解空间科学对人类发展的价值和贡献。各国均应立即着手通过参加空间科学和技术人才区域中心来培养本国人员并建立国家和区域机构间网络,以便促进和加强合作研究机会; (b) 为了在环境活动中提供积极的协调,联合国环境规划署和联合国粮食及农业组织等国际机构应在坚实的科学和技术基础上向会员国提供知识指导。为了提供可靠的决策基础,应当在现有的与可持续发展有关的公约与国际摄影测量和遥感学会、空间研究委员会和国际宇宙航行联合会等全世界其他空间机构之间建立牢固的联系,并应扩展其科学咨询机构的范围,使之包括空间科学和技术领域的专家; (c) 在政治领导层一级,非洲和西亚国家应当立即奋起直追,在区域一级安排类似于美洲空间会议和亚洲及太平洋空间应用促进可持续发展部长级会议等活动的方案。大会应找到定期评价会员国对全球商定的可持续目标的遵守情况的方式。
4. Recommendations for further action:5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
(a) GNSS and augmentation providers should establish an international committee on GNSS that would include appropriate international organizations for the purposes of (i) encouraging compatibility and interoperability; (ii) identifying mechanisms for implementing measures to protect the reliability and integrity of signals at the national, regional and global levels; (iii) establishing user information centres; (iv) developing “road maps” and preparing technical reports for the introduction of GNSS services; (v) organizing regional workshops; and (vi) providing training opportunities in GNSS, in particular in developing countries. It could be necessary to have a secretariat for the proposed committee. It would aim to facilitate the exchange of information among users and providers of GNSS, without prejudice to the roles and functions of GNSS service providers and intergovernmental organizations such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Maritime Organization and the International Telecommunication Organization;(a) 建立附属于联合国的空间科学和技术教育区域中心;
(b) (i) The Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, should continue to hold regional workshops for promoting the use of GNSS and their augmentations in developing countries;(b) 联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅、欧洲航天局、地球观测卫星委员会和国际宇宙航行联合会与会员国合作,继续组织可持续发展活动;
(ii) The regional centres for space science and technology education affiliated to the United Nations should consider including GNSS programmes in their training activities;(c) 《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》于2000年11月1日生效。
(iii) In cooperation with GNSS and augmentation providers, or the proposed international committee, the Office should maintain a web site to be developed to include information on systems descriptions, recent application developments, training opportunities, sources for assistance in integrating GNSS into national infrastructure as well as in protecting signal reliability and integrity at the national and regional levels. The proposed committee could develop a concept and structure for the web site, as well as identify working methods to collect and update the information on a regular basis. Once that has been done, the web site could become part of the web site of the Office for Outer Space Affairs, to be maintained by the Office in cooperation with the proposed committee, subject to the availability of sufficient resources.6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
5. Implementation already initiated:(a) 空间活动,特别是那些可持续发展的支助方案,未定为本国的优先事项;
The implementation of recommendation 4 (b) (i) above has already started with a series of four regional workshops (held in Austria, Chile, Malaysia and Zambia) and two international expert meetings on GNSS for sustainable development, held in the period 2001-2003 with co-sponsorship of the United Nations, the United States and the European Space Agency. An international workshop held in December 2003 reviewed progress on the implementation of recommendations made by the international meeting of experts that was held in November 2002. That workshop focused on the establishment of terms of reference for the proposed committee. Another meeting is planned for December 2004 in Vienna.(b) 未能在国家一级提供必要的政治支持以及国家未能对以空间为基础的可持续发展方案作出必要的财政和其他承诺。 7. 执行工作带来的好处: (a) 获得有技能的人材,从而有助于产生和使用科学和技术知识以及在现有机构安排中作出调整; (b) 以可支持可持续发展努力的空间活动合作领域为侧重点,订立区域和国际协定,包括建立适当的网络; (c) 建立可支持与可持续发展相关的各种现有国际公约的空间问题咨询小组; (d) 每个国家与联合国开发计划署、世界银行和国际货币基金组织等供资实体之间订立侧重于为本国发展议程中强调可持续发展的那些方面提供支持的协定。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: (a) 通过编写行动小组报告和参加各种国际会议,行动小组成员对不断提高全球对空间科学和技术在可持续发展中的作用的认识作出了贡献; (b) 行动小组正在与外层空间事务厅、联合国教育、科学及文化组织、地球观测卫星委员会和欧洲航天局等国际组织合作开展其可持续发展造福于会员国的活动; (c) 行动小组正在使会员国认识到弥补各区域集团内部和相互之间的数码差距的必要性以及《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》的作用和重要性。 a 拟通过联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅联系。 附录九 近地物体行动小组 行动小组编号:14 主席:R. Tremayne-Smith(大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国) 秘书处:联合王国,由美利坚合众国、空间研究委员会、国际天文学联盟和空间卫士基金会协助 1. 成员: (a) 国家:澳大利亚、巴西、中国、捷克共和国、芬兰、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、巴基斯坦、波兰、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国; (b) 组织:欧洲航天局、空间研究委员会、国际天文学联盟、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、空间卫士基金会、欧洲科学基金会欧洲空间科学委员会。 2. 任务简述: (a) 审查近地物体领域进行中工作的内容、结构和组织安排; (b) 确定进行中的工作存在的必须加强协调和/或其他国家或组织可作出贡献的任何空白之处; (c) 提出配合专门机构改进国际协调的步骤。 3. 调研结果: (a) 近地物体构成的威胁据认为相当于人类比较了解的危害,其危险是全球性的; (b) 为改进对风险评价和评估需要在多个科学领域提供支助和协调; (c) 有计划的全面合作为科研工作(探查、研究和缓减计划)以及紧急行动或平民应急行动提供了最具成本效益的对策。 4. 进一步行动的建议: (a) 鼓励加强国际合作解决这些问题,并加深对危险的性质的了解;2005年之前拟就风险管理组织方法改进准则。 (b) 国际科学理事会应审议并鼓励其成员组织审议各种报告所载建议(见工作计划及其他参考文件,例如联合王国政府委托进行的潜在危害性近地物体工作队的报告、经济合作与发展组织(经合组织)全球科学论坛2003年1月在意大利弗拉斯卡蒂举办的关于近地物体:风险、政策和行动讲习班的调查结果和结论),同时协助规划必要的多学科活动(已计划了国际科学理事会在2004年的活动,详情有待提供); (c) 需在国家、区域和国际各级尽可能通过使用并改进现行机制进一步协调有关活动。此种活动的协调可由和平利用外层空间委员会负责,可能的话在科学和技术小组委员会2005和2006年第42届和43届会议上列入一个有关这一问题的议程项目。行动小组将为配合该议程项目提供一份报告,以便鼓励讨论。2004年小组委员会第四十一届会议将讨论工作计划草案。 5. 已开始进行的执行工作: 国际科学理事会发起的近地物体方面的活动也将审议在意大利弗拉斯卡蒂举行的经合组织全球科学论坛讲习班提出的问题。与近地物体有关的飞行任务日益在国际范围得到协调。经合组织全球科学论坛工作组正在安排一项国际一级近地物体风险分析,作为对工作组的后续行动。
6. Indication of impediments to implementation:6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍:
As for the recommendations that require action by the Office for Outer Space Affairs, one of the major impediments would be limited resources, including staff resources, to carry out additional work, in particular within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The same would hold true for those recommendations requiring additional resources from system providers. Whereas the civil aviation applications of GNSS are well coordinated through ICAO, the proposed committee would face an uphill task in promoting the use of GNSS for applications in fields other than civil aviation. This is primarily because some of the non-civil aviation applications for providing accurate position location and navigation services are dependent on telecommunications and other infrastructure available in the country. As yet, there is no international body to oversee and coordinate the specifications of the equipment and services in these areas.(a) 探索和发现活动重叠,相互竞争,许多情况下观测结果无自动跟进措施。
7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:(b) 全面的解决办法需要政府和科学界的参与。各学科需更多的配合并考虑平民应急行动工作人员的需要。
Benefits from the implementation of recommendation 4 (a) above would include increased awareness on the part of policy makers of the benefits of GNSS and a subsequent increase in the political support that would result in government funding for the integration of GNSS into the national infrastructure. Benefits from the implementation of recommendations listed under 4 (b) above would include increased training opportunities in GNSS for developing countries, enhanced access by developing countries to information on GNSS and augmentations, as well as their applications and available services, and enhanced technical advisory services for developing countries to use GNSS in their development activities.7. 执行工作带来的好处:
8. Progress made by the Action Team:(a) 加强协调与合作有助于增进在利用发现和后续活动所用的望远镜和有关资源方面的探寻能力和效率;
The Action Team has held eight meetings and has (i) compiled comprehensive information on GNSS and augmentations, including policies, system descriptions and associated activities carried out through international cooperation; (ii) conducted a global survey on the existing training opportunities in the field of GNSS; and (iii) identified GNSS applications unique to regions. On the basis of the preliminary findings and recommendations of the Action Team, work is now under way to establish the proposed committee.(b) 将给政府需求和研究目标设定一个共同参考框架,并将其与长期需求相联系。将在政府应急规划与相关学术研究之间建立起共同理解,从而达到沟通。这将有助于了解对适当及时的数据利用的需求以及资源影响。
Appendix VIII8. 行动小组取得的进展:
Action Team on Sustainable Development通过行动小组成员在科学和技术小组委员会最近几届会议上所作的专题介绍,在增进行动小组以及和平利用空间委员会对近地物体问题的了解方面取得进展。
Action team number: 11 Chairperson: A. A. Abiodun (Nigeria)附录十
Secretariat: Nigeria能力建设问题行动小组
1. Membership:行动小组编号:17 主席:T. kurasaki(日本)
(a) Countries: Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Lebanon, Malaysia, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America;秘书处:日本
(b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,a International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, European Association for the International Space Year, National Space Society, Space Generation Advisory Council, Manila Observatory and Philippine Astronomical Society.1. 成员:
2. Brief mission statement:(a) 国家:阿根廷、阿塞拜疆、玻利维亚、巴西、加拿大、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔、埃及、法国、匈牙利、印度、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、日本、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、墨西哥、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国和美利坚合众国;
(a) Examine the features that single out space technology as an indispensable component of any viable sustainable development agenda and specifically address how space technology can enhance human understanding and management of fundamental life-support systems—air, land and water—including the assessment and management, for example, of agriculture and food security, safety, the environment, education, transportation, health care and disaster mitigation;(b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国教育、科学及文化组织、欧洲航天局、地球观测卫星委员会、空间研究委员会、国际宇宙航行联合会、国际天文学联盟、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台。
(b) Determine the critical steps that each country should take in order to achieve the space capability necessary to support its sustainable development goals.2. 任务简述:
3. Findings:通过以下方面加强能力建设活动:(a)交流关于研究金方案等现有基础设施的资料;(b)确定如何增加教育和培训机会;(c)组织和发展能力建设信息交流机制,包括既定的教学方法、培训教材和专门知识。
(a) The collection and analysis of space-acquired data, including the use of geographical information, is a starting point on the path towards sustainable development. The inability of many societies to undertake development efforts that are sustainable is rooted in poor quality collection, organization and management of data;3. 调研结果:
(b) Space technology has brought into sharper focus the interdependence of the world on sustainable development issues. This is exemplified by the Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (General Assembly resolution 41/65, annex), the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and the entry into force, on 1 November 2000, of the Charter on Cooperation to Achieve the Coordinated Use of Space Facilities in the Event of Natural or Technological Disasters (also known as the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”);(a) 为了加强总体能力建设,必须缩小航天国家与发展中国家之间的差距。重点应放在增加发展中国家的教育和培训机会上,办法是提供更多获得教育和培训信息的机会,例如提供关于航天国家最佳做法事例的资料。在这方面,应当促进更加有效地利用联合国系统内提供的现有培训机会,如联合国附属各空间科学和技术教育区域中心提供的培训机会 ,并应建立区域间信息交流网络;
(c) There is growing investment and participation by Member States, in particular by developing countries, in space activities as a result of their recognition of the role of space technology as a viable sustainable development tool.(b) 应当促进各个层面的教育和培训机会,从儿童开始,直到博士后研究员、教师和专家。为此,应传播和分享各级教育和培训资料,同时,由于有效的能力建设,特别是发展中国家空间应用方面的能力建设意义重大,应注意把重点放在发展中国家大学一级的能力建设上;
4. Recommendations for further action:(c) 就真正的能力建设而言,有必要为当今的挑战找出长期解决办法,而且更重要的是,空间界和各国政府应为支持地方和区域与空间有关的教育和培训活动作出更多的承诺。
(a) Each country should urgently develop the necessary policy, commensurate with its capability, for space-related sustainable development programmes and should periodically sensitize its decision makers to the value and contribution of space science to human development through the organization of appropriate national and regional conferences. Each country should urgently develop its indigenous personnel through participation in regional centres of excellence in space science and technology and establish networks among national and regional institutions in order to facilitate and enhance collaborative research opportunities; (b) In order to provide active coordination in environmental activities, international institutions, such as the United Nations Environment Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, should provide Member States with intellectual leadership that is built on a strong scientific and technical foundation. In order to provide a reliable basis for decision-making, existing conventions relating to sustainable development should forge stronger links with science-based institutions worldwide, such as the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the Committee on Space Research and the International Astronautical Federation, and their scientific advisory bodies should be expanded to include experts in the fields of space science and technology; (c) At the level of political leadership, African and West Asian countries should urgently emulate the organization of programmes at the regional level similar to the activities of the Space Conference of the Americas and the Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific. The General Assembly should find a way to evaluate regularly the compliance of Member States with globally agreed sustainable goals. 5. Implementation already initiated: (a) Establishment of regional centres for space science and technology education affiliated to the United Nations; (b) The ongoing organization of sustainable development activities by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, the European Space Agency, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites and the International Astronautical Federation, in cooperation with Member States; (c) The entry into force of the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” on 1 November 2000. 6. Indication of impediments to implementation: (a) Space activities, in particular those which can support sustainable development programmes, are not being identified as a national priority; (b) Failure to provide the necessary political support at the national level and to make the necessary national financial and other commitments for space-based sustainable development programmes. 7. Benefits to be derived from implementation: (a) Availability of skilled personnel who can contribute to the generation and use of scientific and technical knowledge and the making of adjustments in existing institutional arrangements; (b) Establishment of regional and international agreements focusing on areas of cooperation in space activities that could support sustainable development efforts, including the establishment of appropriate networks; (c) Availability of space-related advisory panels that can support the various existing international conventions relevant to sustainable development; (d) Establishment of agreements between each country and funding entities, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, focusing on providing support for those aspects of the country’s development agenda which emphasize sustainable development. 8. Progress made by the Action Team: (a) Through the development of the Action Team’s report and participation in international meetings and conferences, members of the Action Team have contributed to the ongoing global awareness of the role of space science and technology in sustainable development; (b) The Action Team is cooperating with international organizations, such as the Office for Outer Space Affairs, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites and the European Space Agency, in their activities on sustainable development for the benefit of Member States; (c) The Action Team is sensitizing Member States to the need to bridge the digital divide within and across regional blocks and to the role and importance of the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”. a To be contacted through the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. Appendix IX Action Team on Near-Earth Objects Action team number: 14 Chairperson: R. Tremayne-Smith (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) Secretariat: United Kingdom, with assistance from the United States of America, the Committee on Space Research, the International Astronomical Union and the Spaceguard Foundation 1. Membership: (a) Countries: Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Finland, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America; (b) Organizations: European Space Agency, Committee on Space Research, International Astronomical Union, National Space Society, Space Generation Advisory Council, Spaceguard Foundation and European Space Science Committee of the European Science Foundation. 2. Brief mission statement: (a) Review the content, structure and organization of ongoing efforts in the field of near-Earth objects (NEOs); (b) Identify any gaps in the ongoing work where additional coordination is required and/or where other countries or organizations could make contributions; (c) Propose steps for the improvement of international coordination in collaboration with specialized bodies. 3. Findings: (a) The threat posed by NEOs is believed to be comparable to more familiar hazards and the risk is global; (b) A range of scientific areas require support and coordination in order to improve the evaluation and assessment of risk; (c) Planned, integrated collaboration offers the most cost-effective response for scientific efforts (search, study and planning for mitigation), as well as emergency or civil contingency action. 4. Recommendations for further action: (a) Encourage increased international collaboration to address the issues and improve understanding of the nature of the threat; write improved guidelines for risk management organizations by 2005; (b) The International Council for Science should consider, and encourage its member organizations to consider, the recommendations contained in various reports (see the work plan and other reference documents, such as the report of the task force on potentially hazardous NEOs commissioned by the Government of the United Kingdom and the findings and conclusions of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum Workshop on Near Earth Objects: Risks, Policies and Actions, held in Frascati, Italy, in January 2003), and help plan the necessary multidisciplinary activity (International Council for Science activity planned for 2004, details to be provided); (c) Relevant activity needs to be better coordinated at the national, regional and international levels using and enhancing existing mechanisms wherever possible. Such activity could be coordinated by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, possibly by including an agenda item on the subject in the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its forty-second and forty-third sessions, in 2005 and 2006. The Action Team will provide a report in support of the agenda item in order to stimulate discussion. The draft work plan will be discussed at the forty-first session of the Subcommittee, in 2004. 5. Implementation already initiated: Activity initiated by the International Council for Science in the NEO area will also consider the issues arising from the OECD Global Science Forum Workshop held in Frascati, Italy. Missions related to NEOs are increasingly being coordinated internationally. The OECD Global Science Forum working group is developing a country-level risk analysis for NEOs as a follow-up to the Workshop. 6. Indication of impediments to implementation: (a) Overlap and competition exist in search and discovery activity and there is no automatic follow-up of observations in many cases; (b) An overall solution requires the involvement of government as well as science. Scientific disciplines need to work together more and also to address the needs of civil emergency staff. 7. Benefits to be derived from implementation: (a) Greater coordination and cooperation will lead to improved search capability and increased efficiency in the utilization of the telescopes and related resources used for discovery and follow-up activities; (b) Government needs and research objectives will be given a common frame of reference and will be related to longer-term needs. Common understanding and, thus, communication will be established between government planning for emergencies and relevant academic research. This should lead to an understanding of the need for appropriate and timely data access together with the resource implications. 8. Progress made by the Action Team: Progress has been made in developing the understanding of the Action Team and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on NEO issues, through presentations made by members of the Action Team at the recent sessions of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Committee. Appendix X Action Team on Capacity-building Action team number: 17 Chairperson: T. Kurasaki (Japan) Secretariat: Japan 1. Membership: (a) Countries: Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic and United States of America; (b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, European Space Agency, Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, Committee on Space Research, International Astronautical Federation, International Astronomical Union, National Space Society, Space Generation Advisory Council and Manila Observatory. 2. Brief mission statement: To enhance capacity-building activities through (a) sharing information on existing infrastructure such as fellowship programmes; (b) determining how to enhance education and training opportunities; and (c) organizing and developing mechanisms for the exchange of capacity-building information, including established teaching methods, training materials and expertise. 3. Findings: (a) In order to enhance capacity-building as a whole, it is necessary to reduce the gap between space-faring countries and developing countries. Emphasis should be placed on enhancing educational and training opportunities in developing countries by improving access to educational and training information, such as on best-practice cases of space-faring countries. In this regard, more effective utilization of existing training opportunities offered within the United Nations system, such as those by the regional centres for space science and technology education affiliated to the United Nations, should be promoted and an interregional network should be established for information exchange; (b) All levels of educational and training opportunities, from children to post-doctoral fellows, teachers and experts, should be promoted. For this purpose, educational and training information for all levels should be disseminated and shared, bearing in mind the emphasis placed in developing countries on capacity-building at the university level because of the importance of effective capacity-building, especially in space applications for those countries; (c) For true capacity-building, it is necessary to look for long-term solutions to today’s challenges and, more importantly, greater commitment should be made by the space community and Governments to support local and regional space-related education and training activities. 4. Recommendations for further action: (a) Promote the sharing of educational materials and information; (b) Coordinate international activities on capacity-building; (c) Increase assistance to activities of the regional centres; (d) Enhance opportunities for the ongoing exchange of ideas on capacity-building; (e) Facilitate the augmentation of budgetary resources and fellowships; (f) Prepare and distribute educational booklets. 5. Implementation already initiated: (a) Various types of capacity-building activities are being carried out, such as the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Programme, Eduspace of the European Space Agency, the Space Education Programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Space Generation Advisory Council activities, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Earth Observation Education and Training of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, the Space Technology Applications and Research (STAR) programme of the Asian Institute of Technology and the activities of the Subgroup on Capacity Building of the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations. These activities are summarized in the final report of the Action Team; (b) A forum for capacity-building was organized by the Action Team in Houston, Texas, United States, on 15 October 2002, with 52 participants from 17 countries and organizations. The results of the forum are available on the web site of the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (www.oosa.unvienna.org/unisp3/followup/action_team_17/houston2002/ index.html). 6. Indication of impediments to implementation:4. 进一步行动的建议:
(a) There is a large gap in capacity-building between space-faring countries and developing countries;(a) 促进分享教材和教学资料;
(b) The language problem is one of the barriers that must be taken into account, especially in space education for very young students, as most of the information is available only in English; countries are expected to translate various materials into their own languages, by using the multilingual space dictionary of the International Academy of Astronautics;(b) 协调能力建设方面国际活动;
(c) Member States and organizations should contribute to the efforts by the Office for Outer Space Affairs in cooperation with UNESCO to enhance coordination at the international level of activities on capacity-building.(c) 增加对各区域中心的援助;
7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:(d) 增加持续交流能力建设方面想法的机会; (e) 促进增加预算资源和研究金;
Capacity-building activities would be facilitated, especially in developing countries, and capacity-building would be enhanced at all levels and in all regions, contributing to the enhancement of peaceful uses of outer space.(f) 编写和分发教学手册。
8. Progress made by the Action Team:5. 已开始进行的执行工作:
The Action Team has already held nine coordination meetings. On the basis of input provided in response to the questionnaire circulated by the Action Team and other input from member countries, member organizations and other interested cooperating countries, the Action Team has prepared and submitted its final report, which proposes concrete action plans that should be implemented, for the time being, through international coordination of capacity-building efforts.(a) 正在开展各类能力建设活动,例如全球环保学习和观测方案、欧洲航天局的航天教育活动、联合国教育、科学及文化组织的空间教育项目、航天新一代咨询理事会开展的活动、地球观测卫星委员会地球观测教育和培训特设工作、亚洲理工学院的空间技术、应用和研究方案以及特设地球观测组能力建设分组的活动。行动小组的最后报告中对这些活动作了概述;
Appendix XI(b) 行动小组于2002年10月15日在美国得克萨斯州休斯敦举办了能力建设论坛(有52名来自17个国家和组织的参会者)。论坛成果可在联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅的网站上查阅:www.oosa.unvienna.org/unisp-3/followup/action_team_17/houston2002/index.html。
Action Team on Increasing Awareness6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍: (a) 航天国家与发展中国家之间在能力建设方面存在巨大差距; (b) 语言问题是必须考虑的障碍之一,特别是青少年学生的空间教育,因为大多数资料只有英文;期望各国利用国际宇宙航行科学院的多语种航天词典将各种材料译成本国语文; (c) 会员国和各组织应促进外层空间事务厅努力与教科文组织合作加强在国际一级对能力建设活动的协调。 7. 执行工作带来的好处: 特别有利于在发展中国家开展能力建设活动,并加强所有区域各级能力建设,从而对加强和平利用外层空间作出贡献。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: 行动小组已举行了九次协调会议。根据对行动小组分发的调查表的答复中提供的意见以及各成员国、成员组织和其他有关协作国的意见,行动小组编写并提交了最后报告,其中提出了目前应通过能力建设努力方面国际协调来加以执行的具体行动计划。 附录十一 提高认识行动小组
Action team number: 18 Chairpersons: L.行动小组编号:18 主席:L.
Sperry (United States of America) and J.Sperry(美利坚合众国)、J.
Wimmer (Austria)Wimmer(奥地利)
1. Membership:1. 成员:
(a) Countries: Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic and United States of America;(a) 国家:澳大利亚、奥地利、玻利维亚、巴西、捷克共和国、埃及、法国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、哈萨克斯坦、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、美利坚合众国;
(b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,a European Space Agency, Committee on Space Research, International Law Association, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, International Space University, European Association for the International Space Year, National Space Society, Space Generation Advisory Council, Spaceweek International Association, Austrian Space Agency, Manila Observatory and Philippine Astronomical Society.(b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国教育、科学及文化组织a、欧洲航天局、空间研究委员会、国际法协会、国际摄影测量和遥感学会、国际空间大学、欧洲国际空间年协会、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、国际空间周协会、奥地利航天局、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会。
2. Brief mission statement:2. 任务简述:
(a) Evaluate ongoing efforts to increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the value of space activities and the role space activities can play;(a) 对提高决策者和广大公众对空间活动的价值以及空间活动所起作用的认识而不断做出的努力进行评价;
(b) Prepare a report on illustrative examples of successful outreach activities, containing also:(b) 编写成功普及活动示例报告,包括:
(i) Observations and recommendations on potential outreach activities and potential target audiences, in particular with regard to the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat;㈠ 关于可能的普及活动和潜在的目标对象的意见和建议,特别着眼于同和平利用外层空 间委 员会和联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅的工作有关的方面;
(ii) Recommendations on future outreach activities and potential target audiences.㈡ 对今后普及活动和潜在目标对象的建议。
3. Findings:3. 调研结果:
(a) Recommendation 18 of UNISPACE III to “increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of space activities” is being implemented at various levels (the intergovernmental, governmental and non-governmental levels), partly within the framework of specifically designed activities;(a) 第三次外空会议的建议18“提高决策者和广大公众对空间活动重要性的认识”正在各级(政府间、政府以及非政府各级)执行,部分是在特别设计的活动框架内执行的;
(b) As it was considered impossible to compile a complete list of relevant activities worldwide, the Action Team is focusing on examining and selecting illustrative examples;(b) 由于据认为不可能编制一份关于在全世界开展的有关活动的完整清单,行动小组正在重点审查并挑选一些说明性例子;
(c) Considerable differences remain as to the emphasis placed by the various relevant actors on increasing awareness.(c) 对于各有关行动方在提高认识方面的侧重点,仍存在相当大的分歧。
4. Recommendations for further action:4. 进一步行动的建议: (a) 和平利用外层空间委员会在审查执行第三次外空会议建议的进展情况的过程中进行评估; (b) 委员会和大会2004年就建议的执行情况和各有关行动方未来可能采取的各类行动提出意见和建议; (c) 提出关于委员会和外层空间事务厅未来在联合国框架内开展活动的切实可行的建议。 5. 已开始进行的执行工作: (见上文“调研结果”,第3(a)节) 6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍: 由于这一主题涉面广,工作多样,全面评价和评估非常困难。 7. 执行工作带来的好处: 提高认识将有助于更好地理解空间活动如何特别能够以具有成本效益的方式促进国际商定的发展目标尤其是千年发展目标、环境保护和人类安全。b 8. 行动小组取得的进展: 由外层空间事务厅协助的行动小组,采取网络调查方式,向全体会员国以及在和平利用外层空间委员会享有常设观察员地位的组织发送了一份特别设计的调查表,调查它们作出了哪些努力,提高对空间活动重要性的认识。有关资料汇编将可通过电子方式提供,并将不断修订,成为一个关于提高认识工作的全面和动态的资料来源。 a 拟通过联合国秘书处外层空间事务厅联系。 b 反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E. 00. I. 3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(b)段。 附录十二 有创意的供资来源行动小组 行动小组编号:32 主席:M. Laffaiteur(法国) 1. 成员:
(a) Assessment by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the course of its work on reviewing the progress made in the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III;(a) 国家:阿尔及利亚、澳大利亚、哥伦比亚、捷克共和国、法国、德国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、哈萨克斯坦、墨西哥、摩洛哥、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、菲律宾、南非和阿拉伯叙利亚共和国;
(b) Observations and recommendations by the Committee and the General Assembly in 2004 regarding the state of implementation of the recommendation and types of possible future action for all relevant actors;(b) 组织:亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、欧洲航天局、国家空间学会、航天新一代咨询理事会、马尼拉天文台、菲律宾天文学会。
(c) Practical suggestions for future activities of the Committee and the Office for Outer Space Affairs in the framework of the United Nations.2. 任务简述: 多年来,主要是发展中国家在利用空间应用方面遇到种种问题,包括缺少合格的人员和设备,特别是缺乏实施这一过程的财政资源。空间技术的利用范围广阔―主要是在地球观测领域,这在过去20年期间已得到验证。然而,这些前景看好的技术并没有起到它们本应起到的支持发展的作用。
5. Implementation already initiated:在这方面,第三次外空会议决定进行一项研究,以采取措施查明在国际一级,包括私营部门,新的有创意的供资来源,支助在发展中国家实施第三次外空会议的建议。科学和技术小组委员会在其2002年第三十九届会议上通过了行动小组2002和2003年工作计划。
(See “Findings”, section 3 (a), above.)3. 调研结果: 行动小组已查明涉及利用空间应用的任何发展项目的三大先决条件的要素:
6. Indication of impediments to implementation:(a) 资金:缺乏资金往往是将空间技术用于业务发展方案或项目的重大障碍。这一障碍通常与以下方面有关:㈠对确保充足的财政资源用以支助优先方案的可能性和必要性认识不足;㈡在向决策者和潜在用户提供具有成本效益优势的空间应用技术方面存在困难。负责这些方案或项目的决策者必须确保向开发银行或援助机构提供充分的资料;
The vastness of the subject and the diversity of efforts made a comprehensive evaluation and assessment very difficult.(b) 政治承诺:政府支助对于全国范围的项目或方案和需获得国际资金的项目来说是不可或缺的。凡参与那些使用空间应用的试点项目或示范项目的机构,均应在现金和(或)实物方面为项目的实施作出坚定承诺,以此增加项目建议的可信度。项目建议中已被定为用户的机构,应在项目的成本效益得到证实后明确作出使用此种空间应用的承诺;
7. Benefits to be derived from implementation:(c) 教育和培训:迫切需要向发展中国家提供空间科学和技术各个领域的进修教育和培训机会。训练有素的人员是空间技术纳入业务方案的基本条件。
An increase of awareness would lead to a better understanding on how space activities can, in particular, contribute in a cost-effective manner to meeting the internationally agreed development goals, especially the Millennium Development Goals, environmental protection and human security.b4. 进一步行动的建议:
8. Progress made by the Action Team:(a) 密切联系空间工业认真研究它如何能够对联合国空间应用方案现有信托基金作出贡献。此项工作应由行动小组进行,以便向科学和技术小组委员会2004年第四十一届会议提出建议;
The Action Team, assisted by the Office for Outer Space Affairs, conducted an Internet-based survey by circulating specially designed questionnaires among all Member States as well as organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on their efforts to increase awareness of the importance of space activities. The compilation will be made available electronically and continue to be updated, so as to become a comprehensive, dynamic source of information on awareness increasing efforts.(b) 联合国应当紧急请求所有会员国向联合国空间应用方案信托基金捐款。这将是一个严格适用第三次外空会议通过的决议的相关规定的问题,该决议规定,秘书长应每年致函各国,请其提供资金或实物支助,秘书长应在函中特别指明旨在加强和援助技术合作活动,特别是促进人力资源发展的优先项目建议a;
a To be contacted through the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat.(c) 为了促使空间工业界关注伙伴关系问题,科学和技术小组委员会应编写一份提交空间工业界的“白皮书”。该文件应介绍第三次外空会议主要建议和今后几年需要; (d) 研究如何促进非政府实体包括空间工业和个人为自然灾害后果综合管理系统作出贡献; (e) 开发银行或援助机构的专家并不总是认识到空间应用技术的可能性。一种可能有用的做法是,在联合国空间应用方案中为这些专家安排举办短期讲习班,以便利用试点项目的成果或应用方案已采用的方法介绍空间应用支助发展的可能性。 5. 已开始进行的执行工作: 尚未采取任何具体行动。 6. 指出执行过程中存在的障碍: (a) 在说服开发银行和援助机构为利用空间应用的发展方案提供支助方面有困难; (b) 训练有素的人员必不可少,但他们需要良好的前景。为此需要作出长期的政治承诺。 7. 执行工作带来的好处: 用于执行第三次外空会议的建议的财源有所增加。 8. 行动小组取得的进展: 行动小组编写的报告(A/AC.105/L.246)应有助于进一步认识到发展中国家利用空间应用所面临的困难。该报告应有助于决策者,包括开发银行和援助机构的决策者利用空间应用来实施发展项目。由于资金问题是第三次外空会议多项建议必然遇到的问题,该报告所载提议肯定对加强这些建议的执行有所助益。
b As reflected in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.a 《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3),第一章,决议1,第一节,第1(f)段。
Appendix XII附件六
Action Team on Innovative Sources of Financing参考文件一览表
Action team number: 32 Chairperson: M.A.
Laffaiteur (France)会员国的报告
1. Membership: (a) Countries: Algeria, Australia, Colombia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa and Syrian Arab Republic; (b) Organizations: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, European Space Agency, National Space Society, Space Generation Advisory Council, Manila Observatory and Philippine Astronomical Society. 2. Brief mission statement: For many years, the use of space applications, mainly by developing countries, encountered various problems, including the lack of qualified personnel and equipment and especially the absence of financial resources for the implementation of the process. The large scope of the utilization of space technologies, mainly in Earth observation, has been demonstrated during the last 20 years. However, these promising technologies have not supported development as much as they should have. In this regard, it was decided at UNISPACE III to conduct a study to adopt measures aimed at identifying new and innovative sources of financing at the international level, including in the private sector, in order to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III in developing countries. The work plan of the Action Team for 2002 and 2003 was adopted by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its thirty-ninth session, in 2002. 3. Findings: The Action Team has identified three main prerequisite elements for any development project that involves the use of space applications: (a) Funding: Lack of funding is often the major obstacle in introducing space technology into operational development programmes or projects. That obstacle is generally linked to (i) limited awareness of the possibilities and requirements for securing adequate financial resources to support priority programmes; and (ii) difficulty in proving the cost-benefit advantage of space application techniques to decision makers and potential users. Decision makers responsible for these programmes or projects must ensure they provide adequate information to the development banks or aid agencies; (b) Political commitment: Government support is essential for projects or programmes of national scope and for projects for which international funding will be sought. The institutions that would participate in a pilot or demonstration project using space applications should make a firm commitment, in cash and/or in kind, to the implementation of the project, as this will add credibility to the project proposal. The institutions that have been identified as users in the project proposal should clearly indicate their commitment to using the space application upon demonstration of its cost-effectiveness; (c) Education and training: There is a pressing need to provide developing countries with further education and training opportunities in all areas of space science and technology. Trained personnel are essential if space technologies are to be integrated into operational programmes. 4. Recommendations for further action: (a) To study carefully, in close liaison with the space industry, how it can contribute to the existing Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. This should be done by the Action Team in order to present proposals to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee at its forty-first session, in 2004; (b) The United Nations should urgently request all Member States to contribute to the Trust Fund for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. It would be a matter of a strict application of the corresponding provisions of the resolution adopted at UNISPACE III, which stipulates that all States should be invited to support financially or in kind in an annual letter from the Secretary-General that will, inter alia, identify priority project proposals for enhancing and assisting technical cooperation activities, in particular for human resources development;a (c) In order to mobilize space industry on the partnership issue, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee should prepare a “white paper” that should be submitted to space industry. The document should contain a presentation of the main recommendations of UNISPACE III and the needs for the coming years; (d) To study how to promote contributions by non-governmental entities, including space industry and individuals, to an integrated system for the management of natural disaster consequences; (e) Experts in development banks or aid agencies are not always aware of the possibilities of space application techniques. It could be useful to include in the United Nations Programme on Space Applications the organization of short workshops for such experts in order to present the possibilities offered by space applications to support development, utilizing the results of pilot projects or techniques already used in application programmes. 5. Implementation already initiated: No concrete action has been undertaken. 6. Indication of impediments to implementation: (a) The difficulty to convince development banks and aid agencies to support development programmes using space applications; (b) Well-trained people are necessary, but they need good prospects. This requires a long-term political commitment. 7. Benefits to be derived from implementation: Increased availability of funding sources for the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III. 8. Progress made by the Action Team: The report prepared by the Action Team (A/AC.105/L.246) should lead to greater awareness of the difficulties faced by developing countries in the utilization of space applications. The report should help decision makers, including those in development banks and aid agencies, in the use of space applications for the implementation of development projects. As the funding problem is inherent in a large number of recommendations of UNISPACE III, the proposals contained in the report should certainly be useful for enhancing the implementation of the recommendations. a Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 19-30 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.I.3), chap. I, resolution 1, sect. I, para. 1 (f). Annex VI List of reference documents A. Reports by Member States 1. The following documents contain reports submitted by Member States on their activities to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, including information on new mechanisms and initiatives that they have implemented in response to the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III): A/AC.105/752 and Adds.1-3, A/AC.105/778 and Add.1, A/AC.105/788, A/AC.105/816 and Adds. 1-4.1. 下述文件载有会员国提交的关于其为促进和平利用外层空间方面国际合作而开展的活动的报告,其中包括会员国为响应第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议(第三次外空会议)的建议而实施的新的机制和举措:A/AC.105/752 和Add.1至3、A/AC.105/778和Add.1、A/AC.105/788、A/AC.105/816和Add.1至4。
2. The following countries submitted their reports in the period that followed UNISPACE III: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America.2. 下列国家在第三次外空会议之后的期间提交了其报告:阿尔及利亚、阿根廷、澳大利亚、奥地利、阿塞拜疆、白俄罗斯、巴西、加拿大、古巴、捷克共和国、芬兰、法国、德国、匈牙利、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、日本、马来西亚、墨西哥、挪威、巴基斯坦、巴拿马、秘鲁、菲律宾、波兰、葡萄牙、大韩民国、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、斯洛伐克、斯洛文尼亚、南非、瑞典、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、泰国、土耳其、乌克兰、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国。
B.B.
Reports by international organizations国际组织的报告
1. The following documents contain reports submitted by entities of the United Nations system and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations having permanent observer status with the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on their activities in response to the recommendations of UNISPACE III: A/AC.105/819 and Add.1.1. 下述文件载有联合国系统各实体以及具有和平利用外层空间委员会常驻观察员地位的政府间组织和非政府组织提交的关于其为响应第三次外空会议的建议而开展的活动的报告:A/AC.105/819和Add.1。
2. The following organizations submitted their reports in the period that followed UNISPACE III: the United Nations Office for Project Services, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the United Nations Environment Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Astronautical Federation, the Regional Centre for Remote Sensing of the North African States, the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, the Committee on Space Research and the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.2. 下列组织在第三次外空会议之后的期间提交了其报告:联合国项目事务厅、亚洲及太平洋经济及社会委员会、联合国环境规划署、联合国粮食及农业组织、国际宇宙航行联合会、北非国家遥感区域中心、世界卫生组织、世界气象组织、联合国训练研究所、空间研究委员会、国际摄影测量和遥感学会。
* A/59/150.
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Notes 139 139 United Nations77
A/59/174A/59/174
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Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 19-30 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.见《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维也纳》,(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3),第一章,决议1。
The five outer space treaties are the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (General Assembly resolution 2222 (XXI), annex); the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Assembly resolution 2345 (XXII), annex); the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Assembly resolution 2777 (XXVI), annex); the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Assembly resolution 3235 (XXIX), annex); and the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Assembly resolution 34/68, annex); the five declarations and legal principles are the Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space (Assembly resolution 1962 (XVIII)); the Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting (Assembly resolution 37/92, annex); the Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (Assembly resolution 41/65, annex); the Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (Assembly resolution 47/68) and the Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries (Assembly resolution 51/122, annex).五项外层空间条约是:《关于各国探索和利用外层空间包括月球与其他天体活动所应遵守原则的条约》(大会第2222(XXI)号决议,附件);《营救宇宙航行员、送回宇宙航行员和归还发射到外层空间的物体的协定》(大会第2345(XXII)号决议,附件);《空间物体所造成损害的国际责任公约》(大会第2777(XXVI)号决议,附件);《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》(大会第3235(XXIX)号决议,附件);和《关于各国在月球和其他天体上活动的协定》(大会第34/68号决议,附件);五项宣言和法律原则是:《各国探测和利用外层空间活动的法律原则宣言》(大会第1962(XVIII)号决议);《各国利用人造地球卫星进行国际直接电视广播所应遵守的原则》(大会第37/92号决议,附件);《关于从外层空间遥感地球的原则》(大会第41/65号决议,附件);《关于在外层空间使用核动力源的原则》(大会47/68号决议)和《关于开展探索和利用外层空间的国际合作,促进所有国家的福利和利益,并特别要考虑到发展中国家的需要的宣言》(大会第51/122号决议,附件)。
UNISPACE 82 expanded the mandate of the Programme to include, in particular, the following elements: (a) promotion of greater exchange of actual experiences with specific applications; (b) promotion of greater cooperation in space science and technology between developed and developing countries and among developing countries; (c) development of a fellowship programme for in-depth training of space technologists and applications specialists; (d) organization of seminars on advanced space applications and new system developments for managers and leaders of space application and technology development activities, as well as seminars for users in specific applications; (e) stimulation of the growth of indigenous nuclei and an autonomous technological base, with the cooperation of other United Nations organizations and/or States Members of the United Nations or members of the specialized agencies; (f) dissemination of information on new and advanced technology and applications; (g) provision or arrangements for provision of technical advisory services on space applications projects, upon request by Member States or any of the specialized agencies.82年外空会议扩大了空间应用方案的任务授权尤其包括以下要素:(a) 推动进一步交流具有具体用途的实际经验;(b)促进发达国家和发展中国家之间以及发展中国家之间在空间科学与技术方面加强合作;(c)拟订深入培训空间技术人员和应用问题专家的研究金方案;(d)为空间应用和技术开发活动的管理人员和领导者组织举办关于先进空间应用和新系统开发的研讨会并组织举办针对具体应用用户的研讨会;(e)与联合国其他组织和/或联合国会员国或专门机构的成员合作促进当地核心技术的发展,推动建立自主的技术基地;(f)传播有关新的和先进技术和应用的信息;(g)按照会员国或任何专门机构的请求提供或安排提供有关空间应用项目的技术咨询服务。 大会第51/122号决议,附件。
General Assembly resolution 51/122, annex.反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告》第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(a)、(b)、(c)、(d)、(e)和(f)段。
As reflected in paragraph 1 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.反映在《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维 也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
00.I.00.I.
3), chap. I, resolution 1.3)第一章决议1所载《维也纳宣言》的第1(b) 段。
As reflected in paragraph 1 (b) of the Vienna Declaration as contained in Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 1930 July 1999 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.I.3), chap. I, resolution 1. Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 20 and corrigendum (A/54/20 and Corr.1), annex I.见《大会正式记录,第五十四届会议,补编第20号》和更正(A/54/20和Corr.1),附件一。
Ibid., Fifty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/57/20), para. 47.见《大会正式记录,第五十七届会议,补编第20号》(A/57/20),第47段。
The following 21 entities of the United Nations system and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations reported on their activities that contributed to implementing recommendations of UNISPACE III: the United Nations Office for Project Services, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the United Nations Environment Programme, the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, the Committee on Space Research, the European Association for the International Space Year, the European Space Agency, the International Astronautical Federation, the International Astronomical Union, the International Law Association, the International Organization of Space Communications, the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the Regional Centre for Remote Sensing of the North African States and the Space Generation Advisory Council.下列21个联合国系统实体以及政府间和非政府组织报告了它们促进执行第三次外空会议建议的活动:联合国项目事务厅、联合国毒品和犯罪问题办事处、亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、联合国环境规划署、生物多样性公约秘书处、联合国粮食及农业组织、国际民用航空组织、世界卫生组织、世界气象组织、联合国训练研究所、地球观测卫星委员会、空间研究委员会、欧洲国际空间年协会、欧洲空间局、国际宇宙航行联合会、国际天文学联盟、国际法协会、国际空间通信组织、国际摄影测量和遥感学会、北非国家遥感区域中心、航天新一代咨询理事会。
Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 20 and corrigendum (A/54/20 and Corr.1), annex.见《大会正式记录,第五十四届会议,补编第20号》及更正(A/54/20和Corr.1),附件。
Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告.
.......
, chap. I, resolution 1, para. 1 (e) (iii).》,第一章,第1号决议,第1(e)㈢段。
Ibid., para. 1 (b) (ii).同上,第1(b)㈡段。
Ibid., para. 1 (c) (iv).同上,第1(c)㈣段。 同上,第1(c)㈡段。
Ibid., para. 1 (c) (ii).同上,第1(b)㈠段。
Ibid., para. 1 (b) (i). As at December 2003, the membership of the Committee consisted of the following 65 States: Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela and Viet Nam.截至2003年12月,委员会成员为下列65个国家:阿尔巴尼亚、阿尔及利亚、阿根廷、澳大利亚、奥地利、比利时、贝宁、巴西、保加利亚、布基纳法索、喀麦隆、加拿大、乍得、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、古巴、捷克共和国、厄瓜多尔、埃及、法国、德国、希腊、匈牙利、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、意大利、日本、哈萨克斯坦、肯尼亚、黎巴嫩、马来西亚、墨西哥、蒙古、摩洛哥、荷兰、尼加拉瓜、尼日尔、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、菲律宾、波兰、葡萄牙、大韩民国、罗马尼亚、俄罗斯联邦、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、塞拉利昂、斯洛伐克、南非、西班牙、苏丹、瑞典、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、土耳其、乌克兰、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国、乌拉圭、委内瑞拉和越南。
Those 20 organizations are: the Association of Space Explorers, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, the Committee on Space Research, the European Association for the International Space Year, the European Space Agency, the International Academy of Astronautics, the International Astronautical Federation, the International Astronomical Union, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, the International Law Association, the International Mobile Satellite Organization, the International Organization of Space Communications, the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the International Space University, the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, the National Space Society, the Planetary Society, the Regional Centre for Remote Sensing of the North African States, the Space Generation Advisory Council and the Spaceweek International Association. Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex.这20个组织是:空间探索者协会、地球观测卫星委员会、空间研究委员会、欧洲国际空间年协会、欧洲空间局、国际宇航科学院、国际宇航联合会、国际天文学联盟、国际应用系统分析研究所、国际法协会、国际移动卫星组织、国际摄影测量和遥感学会、国际空间大学、国际空间通信组织、国际通信卫星组织、国家空间学会、行星学会、北非国家区域遥感中心、航天新一代咨询理事会、空间周国际协会。
Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/57/20), annex III.《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议报告,2002年8月26日至9月4日,南非约翰内斯堡》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.03.II.A.1和更正),第一章,决议2,附件。
Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development ... , chap. I, resolution 2, paras. 110 (b), 132 (a) and 133 (b) and (c).《大会正式记录,第五十七届会议,补编第20号》(A/57/20),附件三。
Ibid., paras. 28, 37 (c) and 38 (g).《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议报告,2002年8月26日至9月4日,南非约翰内斯堡》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.03.II.A.1),第一章,决议2,第110(b)、132(a)和133(b)和(c)段。
WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/5-E.同上,第28、37(c)和38(g)段。
Ibid., para. 9 (d).WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/5-E。
Ibid., para. 9 (i).同上,第9(d)段。
Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-eighth Session, Supplement No. 6 (A/58/6/Rev.1), part II, sect. 6.同上,第9(i)段。
Ibid., paras. 6.6 and 6.7.《大会正式记录,第五十八届会议,补编第六号》(A/58/6/Rev.1),第二部分,第6节。
United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological Diversity (Environmental Law and Institution Programme Activity Centre), June 1992.同上,第6.6和6.7段。
Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 314 June 1992 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), vol. I: Resolutions Adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex II.见联合国环境规划署,《生物多样性公约》(环境法和机构方案活动中心),1992年6月。
Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.《联合国环境与发展会议,1992年6月3日至14日,里约热内卢》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
..93.I.
, chap. I, resolution 2, paras. 108 and 111.8和更正),第一卷:《会议通过的决议》,决议1,附件二。
Ibid., para. 7 (c).《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议报告......》,第一章,决议2,第108和111段。
Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space ..., chap. I, resolution 1, annex.同上,第7(c)段。
Ibid., resolution 1, para. 1 (a) (v), (d) (iii) and (vii) and (f) (i).《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告......》,第一章,决议1,附件。
Those summits and global conferences included the World Summit on Sustainable Development, which adopted the Plan of Implementation (Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development ... , (chap. I, resolution 2, annex), the International Conference on Financing for Development, which adopted the Monterrey Consensus (Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.02.II.A.7), chap. I, resolution 1, annex) and the World Summit on the Information Society, the first phase of which adopted a Plan of Action (WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/5-E).同上,决议1,第1(a)㈤、(d)㈢和㈣以及(f)㈠段。
InterAcademy Council (Amsterdam, Netherlands, January 2004).这些首脑会议和全球性会议包括:可持续发展问题世界首脑会议,会议通过了执行计划(《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议报告......》,第一章,决议2,附件)、发展筹资问题国际会议,会议通过了蒙特雷协商一致意见(《发展筹资问题国际会议报告,2002年3月18日至22日,墨西哥,蒙特雷》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E. 02. II. A. 7),第一章,决议1,附件)和信息社会世界首脑会议,会议第一阶段通过了一项行动计划(WSIS-03/GENEVA/DOC/5-E)。
The InterAcademy Council was created in 2000 by 90 of the world’s science academies to provide expert knowledge to international bodies such as the United Nations and the World Bank.国际科学院委员会(2004年1月,荷兰,阿姆斯特丹)。
Commission on the Private Sector and Development, Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor (United Nations Development Programme, New York, March 2004).国际科学院委员会是于2000年由全世界90个科学院建立的,以便向联合国和世界银行等国际机构提供专家的知识。
Such proposals include: an international mapping and remote sensing satellite system, presented at the sixteenth Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (Kyoto, Japan, July 1988); “Mission Peace”, to conduct, among other things, land and ocean monitoring, global ozone monitoring and measurement of air pollution and aerosol, proposed by the Indian Space Research Organization to the Second Meeting of the Space Agency Forum for International Space Year (Frascati, Italy, May 1989); and a World Environment and Disaster Observation Satellite System, an initiative of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies presented at the United Nations/Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific/United Nations Disaster Relief Office Workshop on the Applications of Space Techniques to Combat Natural Disasters (Beijing, September 1991).私营部门和发展委员会,“开发企业家精神:使企业为穷人服务”(联合国开发计划署,2004年3月,纽约)。
European Space Agency, The European Space Sector in a Global Context: ESA’s annual analysis 2003, ESA/C(2004)32 (Paris, 2004).这些建议包括:在国际摄影测量和遥感学会第十六届大会上提出的(1988年7月,日本,京都)国际测绘和遥感卫星系统;“和平任务”,以便按照印度空间研究组织对国际空间年空间机构论坛第二次会议(1989年5月,意大利,弗拉斯卡蒂)的建议进行土地和海洋监察、全球臭氧监测和空气污染及气溶胶测定等活动;以及一个世界环境与灾害观测卫星系统,这是在联合国/亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会/联合国救灾事务办事处关于将空间技术应用于克服自然灾害的讲习班上提出的日本航空航天公司协会的一项倡议(1991年9月,北京)。
For example, in the series of the European Commission’s framework programmes for research and technical development, consisting of networks of excellent and integrated projects, aeronautics and space was included for the first time as one of the thematic priorities in the Sixth Framework Programme, covering the period 2002-2006. Space-related projects are expected to receive €300 million.见欧洲空间局,全球背景中的欧洲空间部门:欧空局2003年年度分析,ESA/C(2004)32(2004年,巴黎)。
Examples of international private sector associations include the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, the World Economic Forum, the Sustainable Development Initiative, the Global Mining Initiative and the Sustainable Fisheries Foundation.例如,在欧盟委员会研究和技术开发的系列框架方案中(这些方案由优秀和一体化的项目网络组成),首次将航空学和空间列为2002-2006年期间第六个框架方案中优先主题项目之一。与空间有关的项目可望得到3亿欧元。
Examples of such regional players include the West African Business Network, the Commonwealth Business Forum, the Council on Foundations and the European Foundation Centre.国际私营部门协会的例子包括促进可持续发展世界商业理事会、世界经济论坛、可持续发展倡议、世界采矿倡议和可持续渔业基金。
Report of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.这种区域参与者的例子包括西非企业网络、英联邦企业论坛、基金理事会以及欧洲基金中心。 《第三次联合国探索及和平利用外层空间会议的报告,1999年7月19日至30日,维也纳》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.
..00.I.
, chap. I, resolution 1, para. (f) (ii).3),第一章,决议1,第(f)㈡段。
Reports of the Expert on Space Applications issued since 2000 are contained in the following documents: A/AC.105/730, A/AC.105/750, A/AC.105/773, A/AC.105/790 and Corr.1 and A/AC.105/815.2000年以来发表的空间应用专家的报告见下列文件:A/AC.105/730,A/AC.105/750,A/AC.105/773,A/AC.105/790和Corr.1及A/AC.105/815。
The increase in funding in 2002 was due to a one-time contribution of a significant amount made by one member State.2002年资金增加是由于 一个成员国作了一次性大笔捐款。
Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-eighth Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/58/20), para. 138.见《大会正式记录,第五十八届会议,补编第20号》(A/58/20)。第138段。
Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.《联合国环境与发展会议的报告.
.......
, vol. I: Resolutions adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex II.》,第一卷:《环发会议通过的决议》,决议1,附件二。
Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.见《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的报告.
.......
, chap. I, resolution 2, annex, para. 145.》,第一章,决议2,附件,第145段。
The portal aims to provide free access to Earth observation education and training resources and to establish an effective coordination and partnership mechanism among CEOS agencies and institutions. Once developed, the portal should provide an interface to a comprehensive database useful both as a reference source and as an educational tool.该门户旨在保证免费获得地球观测教育和培训资源并在地球观测卫星委员会机构和组织之间建立有效的协调和伙伴机制。一旦开发完毕,该门户应该提供与既可用作参考来源又可用作教育工具的综合数据库的界面。
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