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Sixty-third session第六十三届会议
Agenda items 27 and 118议程项目27和118
Effects of atomic radiation原子辐射的影响
Programme budget for the biennium 2008-20092008-2009两年期方案预算
Financial and administrative implications of increased membership of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, staffing of the professional secretariat of the Scientific Committee and methods to ensure sufficient, assured and predictable funding联合国原子辐射影响问题科学委员会增加成员所涉财政和行政问题、科学委员会专业化秘书处人员配置问题以及确保得到充足、有保证和可预测资金的方法
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
Summary摘要
In its resolution 62/100, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to provide a comprehensive and consolidated report to the Assembly at its sixty-third session, to be prepared in consultation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, as appropriate, addressing the financial and administrative implications of increased membership of that Committee, staffing of its professional secretariat and methods to ensure sufficient, assured and predictable funding.大会第62/100号决议请秘书长酌情与联合国原子辐射影响问题科学委员会协商拟定一份全面合并报告提交大会第六十三届会议,以处理委员会成员增加所涉财政和行政问题、委员会专业化秘书处人员配置问题以及确保得到充足、有保证和可预测的资金的方法。
Several States have expressed a desire to become a member of the Committee, which comprises scientists from 21 States Members of the United Nations and undertakes broad scientific reviews of the sources of ionizing radiation and its effects on human health and the environment. The Committee is fundamental to the international radiation safety regime. The Committee has expressed its view that, considering the support it requires from the secretariat, the current critical financial and resource issues should be addressed prior to reaching a decision on the question of membership. The Committee has meanwhile suggested flexible arrangements whereby, for reasons of efficiency, the maximum number of members would remain at about the present level. In order to provide up-to-date and continuing high-quality assessments in a timely manner, to improve dissemination of the findings and to ensure the technical infrastructure to support the Committee effectively, the current staffing of the Secretariat of the Scientific Committee would need to be strengthened with an additional Professional post at the P-4 level (estimated at $169,600 per biennium). Although the Committee has recommended that its membership remain at about the present number, if the membership were to be increased by six members, it is estimated that additional resources of $90,000 in non-posts requirements per biennium would be required.一些国家表示希望成为委员会的成员国。委员会由来自21个联合国会员国的科学家组成,对电离辐射源及其对人类健康和环境的影响进行广泛的科学审查。委员会对于国际辐射安全制度十分重要。委员会表示认为,考虑到委员会需要秘书处提供支助,因此应该先处理目前重要的财政和资金问题,然后再就成员问题做出决定。同时,委员会提出了灵活安排建议,即为了效率起见,成员数目最多保持在目前水平。 为了及时提供最新而且连续的高质量评价,改善调研结果的传播,及确保技术基础设施有效地支持委员会的工作,需要加强科学委员会秘书处目前的人员配置,增设一名P-4职等的专业人员员额(估计每两年期需要169 600美元)。尽管委员会建议其成员数目保留在目前水平上,但如果增加六名成员,估计每两年期的非员额经费需要额外增加90 000美元。
I.一.
Introduction导言
1.1.
The present report is submitted in response to General Assembly resolution 62/100, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to provide a comprehensive and consolidated report to the Assembly at its sixty-third session, to be prepared in consultation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, as appropriate, addressing the financial and administrative implications of increasing the membership of the Committee, staffing of its professional secretariat and methods to ensure sufficient, assured and predictable funding.本报告根据大会第62/100号决议的规定提交,大会在该决议中请秘书长酌情与联合国原子辐射影响问题科学委员会协商拟定一份全面合并报告提交大会第六十三届会议,以处理委员会成员增加所涉财政和行政问题、委员会专业化秘书处人员配置问题以及确保得到充足、有保证和可预测的资金的方法。
2.2.
The report has been prepared following consultations with the Scientific Committee during its fifty-sixth session, held from 10 to 18 July 2008 in Vienna.本报告是在2008年7月10日至18日科学委员会于维也纳举行第五十六届会议期间与委员会磋商之后编写的。
3. The General Assembly established the Scientific Committee by its resolution 913 (X) of 3 December 1955 to undertake broad scientific reviews of the sources of ionizing radiation and its effects on human health and the environment. Since 1955, the Committee has played an important role in improving international scientific understanding of the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation and its health and environmental effects. The evaluations of the Committee have often underpinned significant actions at the governmental level, such as (a) the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water; (b) the preparations for the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which established the first global principles for environmental protection and led to the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); (c) substantial reductions in the radiation exposure limits for workers and the public; (d) international action plans to improve protection of workers, patients and the environment; and (e) recovery from the 1986 Chernobyl accident.3. 大会通过其1955年12月3日第913(X)号决议设立了科学委员会,以对电离辐射源及其对人类健康和环境的影响进行广泛的科学审查。自1955年以来,委员会在提高国际社会对电离辐照水平及其对健康和环境的影响的科学认识方面起了重要作用。委员会的评价通常成为政府一级采取重要行动的基础,例如:(a) 1963 年《禁止在大气层、外层空间和水下进行核武器试验条约》;(b) 1972年联合国人类环境会议的筹备工作,会议制定了第一批全球环境保护原则,并最终建立了联合国环境规划署(环境署);(c) 大幅度降低了可允许的工人和公众辐照限度; (d) 改善工人、病人和环境保护的国际行动计划;(e) 1986年切尔诺贝利事故之后的复原工作。
4. The Committee’s assessments are conducted on behalf of all Member States and are used for evaluating the effects of using radiation in medicine, research, agriculture and industry and of nuclear power production. Moreover, the Committee’s scientific consensus is fundamental to the international radiation safety regime, critically underpinning the international standards2 for protecting the public, workers and patients against ionizing radiation. In turn, these standards are linked to important national and international programmes and legislative instruments.4. 委员会的评估以所有成员国的名义进行,并用于评价医疗、研究、农业和工业以及核电生产中使用辐射的影响。此外,委员会的科学共识对于国际辐射安全制度十分重要,成为公众、工人和病人电离辐射防护国际标准2 的重要基础。反过来,这些标准也与国家和国际的重要方案和立法文书有关。
5.5.
The General Assembly, in its resolutions 53/44 and 62/100, has reaffirmed the desirability of the Committee continuing this work and the decision to maintain the present functions and independent role of the Scientific Committee.大会第53/44号和62/100号决议重申期望委员会继续工作并决定维持科学委员会的现行职能和独立作用。
6. For the annual sessions, more than 100 scientific advisers from the 21 States members of the Committee and observers from relevant international organizations scrutinize the scientific content of several lengthy, highly specialized documents. The secretariat, provided under arrangements with UNEP and located in Vienna, arranges the annual sessions and coordinates the development of these documents, which are meticulously based on scientific and technical information obtained from Member States and the scientific literature, according to the Committee’s requests. Historically, the Committee has approved a substantive report supported by several detailed scientific annexes every four to five years. The secretariat arranges for the dissemination of the Committee’s findings to the General Assembly, the scientific community and the public.6. 在每届年会上,来自委员会21个成员国的100多名科学顾问以及相关国际组织的观察员审查几份篇幅巨大而且专业性极强的文件的科学内容。根据与环境署的安排建立、设在维也纳的秘书处负责安排年会和协调这些文件的编制工作。按照委员会的要求,这些文件均一丝不苟地以成员国提供的科学和技术资料以及科学文献为基础。从历史上看,委员会每四五年批准一份附带若干详细科学附件的实质性报告。秘书处安排向大会、科学界和公众传播委员会的调研结果。
7. In the past decade there has been a marked acceleration in the pace of global communication and of specialized scientific developments (such as in molecular biology and genetics). Moreover, there is growing interest in the Committee’s work, in part because of (a) renewed consideration of nuclear power in response to concerns about energy security and global warming; (b) apprehension about the potential human and environmental impact of accidents and of radioactive waste; (c) threats related to nuclear and radiological weapons; (d) new applications of radiation in medicine, research, agriculture and industry; and (e) the effects of radiation at low rates of exposure. In addition, more States are submitting information for the Committee’s assessments and several have expressed interest in becoming members.7. 最近十年里,全球通信和专门科学(如分子生物学和遗传学)发展速度明显加快。另外,人们对委员会的工作也越来越感兴趣,其部分原因是:(a) 针对人们对能源保障和全球变暖的关切,重新考虑核能的问题;(b) 思考事故和放射性废物对人类和环境的潜在影响;(c) 与核武器和放射性武器有关的威胁;(d) 辐射在医学、研究、农业和工业中新的应用;(e) 低剂量辐照的影响。此外,有更多的国家提交材料让委员会评估,几个国家还表示希望成为成员国。
Strategic plan and future programme of work for the period 2009 to 20132009-2013年期间的战略计划和今后的工作方案
8.8.
At its fifty-sixth session the Scientific Committee adopted a strategic plan to provide the vision and direction for its activities during the period 2009 to 2013, to facilitate results-based programming by the secretariat, to help foster management of sufficient, assured and predictable resources and to improve planning and coordination among the various parties involved.科学委员会第四十六届会议通过了一项战略计划,为2009-2013年期间的活动提供远景和指导,为秘书处编制注重结果的方案提供便利,帮助推动充足、有保证和可预测资金的管理,以及改善有关各方的规划和协调。
9.9.
The Committee considered that its strategic objective for the period was to increase awareness and deepen understanding among authorities, the scientific community and civil society with regard to levels of ionizing radiation and the related health and environmental effects as a sound basis for informed decision-making on radiation-related issues.委员会认为,这一时期的战略目标是提高有关当局、科学界和民间社会对电离辐射水平及相关的健康和环境影响的认识并加深其对这方面的理解,将此作为就辐射方面的问题做出知情决定的坚实基础。
10. While still conducting comprehensive oversight and evaluations consistent with its overall mandate, the Committee identified the following thematic priorities for the period: (a) medical exposures of patients, radiation levels and effects of energy production; (b) exposure to natural sources of radiation; and (c) improved understanding of the effects from exposure to ionizing radiation at low dose rates.10. 委员会仍在按照其总体任务进行全面监督和评估,同时它确定了这一时期的以下优先主题领域:(a) 病人的医疗照射、能源生产产生的辐射水平和影响;(b) 自然辐射源的照射;(c) 以及增强人们对低剂量电离辐射照射的影响的了解。
11.11.
In order to implement the strategic plan, the Committee assumed that its intersessional work would increase and that actions would have been taken to address its concerns about staffing and funding.为了执行该战略计划,委员会假定其闭会期间的工作将有所增加,必须采取一些行动来解决它对人员配置和供资问题的关切。
12. For its future programme of work, the Committee decided to initiate work immediately on (a) assessments of levels of radiation from energy production and the effects on human health and the environment; (b) uncertainty in radiation risk estimation; (c) attributability of health effects to radiation exposure (in response to General Assembly resolution 62/100); (d) updating its methodology for estimating exposures resulting from discharges from nuclear installations; (e) a summary of radiation effects; and (f) improving data collection, analysis and dissemination.12. 有关其今后的工作方案,委员会决定立即启动以下方面的工作:(a) 评估能源生产产生的辐射水平及其对人类健康和环境的影响;(b) 辐射风险估算的不确定性;(c) 健康影响与辐照的因果关系(根据大会第62/100号决议);(d) 更新其估算核设施排放造成的照射的方法;(e) 总结辐射影响,以及改善数据收集、分析和传播。
13.13.
Depending on the availability of resources, specifically in the Committee secretariat, other work might be undertaken on the biological effects of key internal emitters, medical exposures of patients, enhanced exposures to natural sources of radiation due to human activities, public information and development of a knowledge base on radiation levels and effects.视资源提供情况,尤其是委员会秘书处的资源提供情况而定,委员会可能开展一些其他工作,如重要的内部发射体的生物影响、病人的医疗照射、由于人类活动自然辐射源的照射增强、宣传工作及建立辐射水平和影响的知识库。
II.二.
Background on support to the Committee给委员会的支助的背景资料
14. Resolution 913 (X) requested the Secretary-General to provide the Committee with appropriate assistance in organizing and conducting its work and to provide a Secretary of the Committee.14.
Subsequently, in addition to the Secretary, a number of scientific staff were recruited on a rotational basis to the secretariat, then based in New York, who were responsible for presenting, in a form suitable for consideration by the Committee, the large body of information submitted by Governments.第913(X)号决议请秘书长对委员会予以必要的协助,以便筹划并进行工作,并供给委员会秘书一人。其后,除了秘书外,还在轮换基础上征募了一些科学工作人员,提供给当时以纽约为总部的秘书处,后者负责以适合委员会审议的方式提供由政府提交的大量资料。
15. In 1974, the secretariat of the Scientific Committee was transferred from New York to Vienna and in 1976, the organizational responsibility for servicing the Committee was transferred from the office of the Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs to UNEP. From then onwards, the General Assembly in its annual resolutions on the subject has requested UNEP to continue providing support for the effective conduct of the Scientific Committee’s work and for the dissemination of its findings to the Assembly, the scientific community and the public. The staffing and operational resources of the Scientific Committee are provided under section 14 of the programme budget of the United Nations. Since 1979, local administrative services have been provided by the United Nations Office at Vienna.15. 1974年,科学委员会的秘书处从纽约迁移到维也纳。1976年,向委员会提供服务的组织责任从主管特别政治事务副秘书长办公室转到环境署。此后,大会每年关于这一主题的决议都要求环境署继续提供支助,以便有效进行科学委员会的工作,并向大会、科学界和公众传播其工作结果。科学委员会的人员配置和业务资源根据联合国方案预算第14款提供。自1979年以来,当地行政服务由联合国维也纳办事处提供。
16. In contrast to when the Scientific Committee was established, the present secretariat of the Committee comprises 1 Professional post at the D-1 level for the Secretary of the Committee and 2 General Service posts (1 principal level and 1 other level). The responsibilities of the Secretary of the Committee are as follows: (a) to provide the strategic direction, programmatic and day-to-day management of the secretariat, including oversight of the staff, and to supply the scientific, technical and administrative assistance for the Committee to discharge its responsibilities and mandate; (b) to direct the preparation, conduct and administrative follow-up of the annual sessions, including the preparation of relevant parliamentary documentation; (c) to coordinate the preparation of several extremely technical documents for timely scrutiny by the Committee; (d) to develop and maintain communication networks for liaison and coordination with the Committee, scientists, the diplomatic community, UNEP headquarters and other relevant organizations, as appropriate; (e) to prepare strategic papers for consideration by the Committee and/or Member States; (f) to maintain systems for collecting, reviewing and disseminating relevant scientific information; (g) to represent the Committee at relevant scientific and diplomatic forums (the General Assembly, conferences, seminars, meetings etc.), including presenting the Committee’s detailed scientific findings; and (h) to prepare correspondence, promotional and public information material, respond to inquiries from the public and scientific community and manage the overall (and in particular the administrative) content of the website of the Scientific Committee.16. 与科学委员会成立时不同,委员会目前的秘书处由1个D-1职等的专业员额(担任委员会秘书)和2个一般事务员额(1个特等和1个其他职等)组成。委员会秘书的职责如下:(a) 提供秘书处的战略方向、方案和日常管理,包括监督工作人员,提供科技和行政支助,以便委员会能够履行责任和任务;(b) 指导年会的准备、进行和行政后续工作,包括准备有关的议会文件;(c) 协调编制一些技术性极强的文件,供委员会及时审议;(d) 开发和维持通信网络,以便酌情同委员会、科学家、外交界、环境署总部及其他有关组织联络和协调;(e) 准备战略文件,供委员会和(或)成员国审议;(f) 维持收集、审查和传播有关科学信息的系统;(g) 代表委员会参加有关的科学和外交论坛(大会、各种会议、讨论会等),包括介绍委员会详细的科学研究结果;和(h) 准备通讯、宣传和新闻资料,答复公众和科学界的询问,并管理科学委员会网站的整体内容(特别是行政方面的内容)。
17. The General Service (principal level) post provides for an Editorial/ Administrative Assistant. The incumbent (a) arranges consultant contracts and travel of representatives in connection with yearly sessions; (b) fulfils the responsibilities of the secretariat regarding the programme budget, monitoring of the programme of work, expenditure certification and budget/programme performance reporting and administers its human resources; (c) provides general administration and office management support; (d) assists in the finalization of detailed scientific documentation (tables and figures) for scrutiny at the annual sessions of the Committee; and (e) directly assists the Secretary of the Committee in drafting of correspondence and papers of a non-routine nature and raising awareness of the Committee’s work (preparing briefings and promotional activities and materials). The General Service (other level) post provides for a Reference Assistant. The incumbent is responsible for (a) the organization and accuracy of extensive bibliographic citations of scientific papers in the reports of the Committee; (b) filing and retrieval of references from the Committee’s reference collection (over 10,000 physical volumes); (c) reformatting and word-processing of detailed scientific documents for scrutiny by the Committee; and providing secretarial support to the Secretary of the Committee.17. 一般事务(特等)员额提供一个编辑/行政助理。任职者(a) 安排咨询人的合同和代表出席年会的差旅;(b) 履行秘书处在以下方面的责任:编列方案预算,监测工作方案,核证支出和编写预算/方案业绩报告,以及管理其人力资源;(c) 提供一般行政和办公室管理支助;(d) 协助详细的科技文件(表格和数字)的定稿,供科学委员会年度会议审议;(e) 直接协助委员会秘书起草非日常性的通信和文件及提高对科学委员会工作的认识(编写简报、筹备促进活动/材料)。一般事务(其他职等)员额提供一个参考资料助理。任职者负责(a) 组织委员会报告引用的广泛科学文献书目及确保其准确性;(b) 科学委员会参考资料(超过1万卷)的归档和检取;(c) 改变供委员会审议的详细科学文献的格式和并对其进行文字处理;向委员会秘书提供秘书方面的服务。
18. The assessments prepared by the Scientific Committee have increased dramatically, nearly seven times greater in size over the years, from just 230 pages in the 1958 report of the Scientific Committee to some 1,600 pages for the 2006 and 2008 reports.18.
To illustrate the increased workload, table 1 compares key work elements for developing the most recent 2006 and 2008 reports of the Committee to those for developing similar reports 20 years earlier, in 1986 and 1988.科学委员会编制的评估报告已大大增加,多年来增幅几乎增加7倍。1958年,科学委员会的报告只有一份,仅230页,而在2006年和2008年,科学委员会已经有多份报告,共约1 600页。为了说明增加的工作量,表1就最近2006年和2008年编制科学委员会报告的主要工作组成部分与20年以前即1986年和1988年编制类似报告的主要工作组成部分加以比较。
Table 1 Indicators of key work elements for development of the 1986 and 1988 reports and the 2006 and 2008 reports表1 编制1986年和1988年的报告和编制2006年和2008年的报告的主要工作组成部分的指标
Development period编制时期
Work element 1982-1988 (covering 1986 and 1988 reports) 2001-2008 (covering 2006 and 2008 reports)工作组成部分 1982年-1988年 (涵盖1986年和1988的报告) 2001年-2008年 (涵盖2006年和2008的报告)
Prepare, conduct and follow-up annual sessions, including preparation of relevant parliamentary documentation. 73 delegates, 10 observers from international organizations and 8 consultants attended the thirty-seventh session (91 in total). 82 delegates, 11 observers from international organizations, 6 consultants, 1 specific focal point for Chernobyl matters and 7 observers from Member States attended the fifty-sixth session (107 in total).年会的筹备和进行以及后续行动,包括编制有关会议文件 73名代表、10名国际组织观察员和8名咨询人参加第三十七届会议(共91人) 82名代表、11名国际组织观察员、6名咨询人、1名切尔诺贝利事项特别协调人和来自会员国的7名观察员参加第五十六届会议(共107人)
Coordinate preparation of highly technical documents (typically more than 1,000 pages for a session) and conduct meticulous scientific editing and finalization. Direction of work usually by single experts, but often supported by a national institute.协调编写高度技术性的文件(一届会议通常超过1 000页)和进行仔细的科学编辑和定稿工作。 工作通常由单独的专家指导,但往往获得国家机构的支助
The 1986 and 1988 reports in 2 volumes amounted to some 1,000 pages, including more than 710,000 words, 4,797 references, 370 tables and 162 figures, were prepared between 1982 and 1988 and were published in 1986 and 1988. Scientific developments are increasingly complex and diverse. Increased coordination of groups of specialists. Limited support from national institutes.1986年和1988年的报告分2卷,约1 000页,包括710 000多字、4 797项参考书目、370个表格和162个图表;1982-1988年期间编制;1986年和1988年出版 科学发展日益复杂和多样化。需要对专家组作出更多的协调。国家机构提供有限度的支助。
Coordination of intersessional reviews of documents in 2007-2008, involving some 112 sets of written comments and responses to them.协调2007至2008年闭会期间的文件审查,涉及约112套书面意见和有关的答复
The 2006 and 2008 reports in 4 volumes amount to some 1,600 pages, including some 810,000 words, 5,085 references, 406 tables, 243 figures and 31 electronic worksheets. They were prepared during 2001-2008 and were partly published in 2008. They are expected to be fully published only in 2009.2006和2008年的报告分4卷,约1 600页,包括约810 000字、5 085项参考书目、406个表格和243个图表和31个电子表格;2001-2008年期间编制;2008年部分出版,预期在2009年全部出版。
Maintain systems for collecting, reviewing and disseminating data: Principal information derived from specific scientific journals and 83 national reports submitted by States. Principal information derived from vast literature available electronically. Increased information and data flows from States, institutes and experts. Discharges from nuclear facilities; 13 States; 232 facilities 31 States; more than 430 facilities Occupational exposures; 14 States; 10 occupations 52 States; some 30 occupations Medical diagnosis and therapy; 13 States; 19 procedures 53 States; some 90 procedures Exposure to natural radiation; 25 States 56 States Scientific reference collection. About 5,000 volumes managed. Over 10,000 volumes held. Prepare correspondence, promotional and public information material; respond to inquiries and manage website.a Public information booklet on “Radiation doses, effects and risks” published 1985 (and updated in 1993). Secretary manages content of some 90 web pages constituting the Committee’s websitea and in 2007-2008 responded to some 100 inquiries from the media, public and scientific community, many involving research. a http://www.unscear.org. 19. The resources approved for the Scientific Committee under the programme budget for the biennium 2008-2009 for non-post costs amount to $446,400 (including $155,400 for travel of representatives) as compared with $301,800 (including $92,400 for travel of representatives) in final expenditure approved for the biennium 2006-2007. Regarding the resources for the activities of the secretariat of the Scientific Committee itself (excluding the provision for travel of representatives), as can be seen from table 2, the total non-post resources of $544,900 appropriated for the period 2002 to 2007 were much lower than the appropriation of $699,300 for the period 1982 to 1987. While the magnitude, diversity and complexity of the workload of the Committee has increased significantly over the years, there has not been a commensurate increase in the level of resources available to it. Moreover, the staffing strength of the secretariat was reduced by one staff member when the P-5 post was abolished in the biennium 1994-1995, consistent with the redeployment measures instituted in the programme budget for the biennium 1992-1993, when the post was redeployed to the Department of Political Affairs in line with the treatment of vacancies in force at that time. 20. Moreover, in the 1990s some national scientific institutes assisted the secretariat on a cost-free or cost-sharing basis. However, budgetary constraints in many States have prevented institutes from offering assistance on such a basis and magnitude. This downward trend has an impact on the ability of the secretariat to deliver its programme of work, as well as on the level of extrabudgetary resources at the disposal of the secretariat. In this regard, additional resources were approved by the General Assembly in the programme budget for the biennium 2008-2009 for the Scientific Committee relating to consultants and printing requirements. Table 2 Comparison of available resources at the time of preparation of the 1986 and 1988 reports and the 2006 and 2008 reports (United States dollars) Development period Item 1982-1988 2001-2008 Staffing 1 D-1, 1 P-5a 2 GS (1 PL, 1 OL)维持收集、审查和传播数据的系统: 从特定科学杂志以及各国提交的83份国家报告得出主要信息。 从大量以电子形式提供的文献中得出主要信息。从国家、机构和专家获得的信息和数据流有所增加。
Secretary’s term of office was unbroken 1980-1988 1 D-1核设施排放物 13国家;232个设施 31国家;超过430个设施
2 GS (1 PL, 1 OL)职业照射 14国家;10项职业 52国家;约30项职业
Continuityb problems owing to staff changes and medical-related absences医疗诊断和治疗 13国家;19个程序 53国家;约90个程序 自然辐照 25国家 56国家 收集科学参考资料 管理约5 000卷 保存1万多卷
Programme budget 1982-1987 2002c-2007撰写通信、制作宣传和新闻稿;答复问题;管理网站。a 1985年出版的关于“辐射剂量、影响和危险”的宣传小册子(并于1993年增订) 秘书管理构成委员会网站的约90页网页的内容;a 2007-2008年答复了新闻界、公众或科学界的100项询问,其中许多涉及研究的议题
Consultants 381 100 387 700a http://www.unscear.org。
Other staff costs 26 600 30 10019. 在2008-2009两年期方案预算非员额费用项下为科学委员会核定的资源数额为446 400美元(包括代表差旅费155 400美元),而2006-2007两年期核定的最后支出为301 800美元(包括代表差旅费92 400美元)。关于科学委员会秘书处本身活动的资源(不包括向代表提供的差旅费),如表2所示,2002-2007年期间核拨的非员额资源总额544 900美元远低于1982至1987年期间的拨款699 300美元。尽管过去多年科学委员会的工作在数量、多样性和复杂程度上大大增加,但所得资源没有相应增加。此外,秘书处的工作人员编制减少了1名:依照1992-1993两年期方案预算制订的员额调动措施,1994-1995两年期配合当时生效的处理空缺措施,裁撤了有关的P-5员额,将其调到政治事务部。
Staff travel 44 900 69 70020. 此外,在1990年代,一些国家科学机构以免费或共同负担费用的方式协助秘书处。不过,许多国家由于预算拮据,已经不允许其机构以这种方式和程度提供支助。这种缩减趋势影响到秘书处执行工作方案的能力以及秘书处可用的预算外资源的数量。在这方面,大会在2008-2009两年期方案预算中就科学委员会有关咨询人和印刷的需要核准了额外资源。
Contractual expenses, general operating expenses, furniture and equipment 246 700 57 400d表2 对编制1986年和1988年报告时所得资源与编制2006年和2008年报告时所得资源的比较 (美元) 编写时期 项目 1982-1988年 2001-2008年
Miscellaneous人员配置 1个D-1、1个P-5 a 2个一般事务人员(1个特等、1个其他职等) 1个D-1 2个一般事务人员(1个特等、1个其他职等)
Subtotal 699 300 544 9001980–1988年期间秘书的任期没有中断 工作人员变动以及病假造成有关连续性的问题b
Travel of representativese 375 100 262 200方案预算 1982–1987年 2002 c–2007年 咨询人 381 100 387 700
Total 1 074 400 807 100其他工作人员费用 26 600 30 100
Contributions in kind National institutes provided significant cost-free contributions. National institutes provided limited cost-free contributions.工作人员差旅费 44 900 69 700 合同费用、一般业务费用 家具和设备 杂项 246 700 57 400 d 小计 699 300 544 900 代表差旅费e 375 100 262 200 共计 1 074 400 807 100 实物捐助 国家机构提供大量的免费捐助。 国家机构提供有限的免费捐助。
a Post was abolished in the biennium 1994-1995.a 1994-1995两年期里裁撤的员额。
b Continuity is to be interpreted as the maintenance of operational capability of the secretariat to adequately service the Committee and to fulfil its administrative functions, in the short, medium and long term.b 连续性系指维持秘书处的业务能力,使它在短期、中期和长期都能够向委员会提供充分服务及履行其行政职能。
c No session was held in 2002 owing to insufficient financial resources (see General Assembly resolution 57/115).c 由于资金不足,2002年没有举行届会(见大会第57/115号决议)。
d Excludes $49,000 made available to the Scientific Committee by UNEP.d 不包括环境署向科学委员会提供的49 000美元。
e Resources for travel of representatives reflected separately in order to allow realistic comparison of secretariat operational requirements.e 代表旅费的资源单独开列,以便能够对秘书处的所需业务经费进行实际比较。
21.21.
The level of resources for the preparation of the Committee’s 2006 and 2008 reports, in particular in the light of the increased workload, contributed to the following:编写委员会2006年和2008年报告的资源水平,尤其是在工作量增加的情况下造成了以下情况:
(a) Delays in producing the 2006 and 2008 reports, parts of which were originally estimated for completion and publication by 2005 (see A/56/46, para. 10), are, for example, affecting the revision of the international Basic Safety Standards, and media reporting in 2006 on the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident led to considerable confusion over projections of numbers of deaths caused by the accident, some of which could have been avoided by timely availability of the Committee’s assessments;(a) 2006年和2008年的报告推迟印发,而原估计其中有些部分可在2005年底前完成和出版(见A/56/46,第10段)。 例如,这些延误影响到《国际基本安全标准》的修订工作; 对2006年切尔诺贝利事故二十周年的新闻报道给估计这起事故的死亡人数造成极大混乱,如果委员会及时提供评估结果,其中有些混乱本可能避免;
(b) Lack of spare capacity to maintain or overhaul some of the technical infrastructure that supports the Committee’s work in the long term (for example, over 10,000 physical volumes of scientific references are no longer being actively managed and the Secretary has minimal time to develop further the functionality, content and usefulness of the Committee’s website or to enhance data collection, analysis and dissemination), to respond adequately to unforeseen events or opportunities that may arise, or to prepare papers for scientific journals, make presentations at conferences, develop public information material and respond adequately to media interest, as part of fulfilling the mandate to disseminate the findings of the Committee;(b) 缺少后备能力,不能维持或全面检查长期辅助委员会工作的一些技术基础设施(例如,10 000多卷科学参考资料不再继续得到积极的管理;秘书没有最低限度的时间进一步发展科学委员会网站的功能、内容和用途,或者加强数据的收集、分析和分发工作),不能适当应对可能产生的意外事件或机会,或者不能履行传播委员会研究成果这一任务,例如不能编写文章在科学学报上发表、在会议上演讲、编写新闻材料或者适当答复新闻界感兴趣的问题;
(c) An increased risk of errors that might fundamentally damage the Committee’s reputation for authoritative scientific evaluations.(c) 出错的风险增加,这可能从根本上损害委员会权威科学评价的威望。
22. Starting in 2002, the Committee has conveyed its concern about the inadequate provision of support funds in its annual reports to the General Assembly, most recently in the report of the Committee on its fifty-fifth session (A/62/46). The Assembly, in its resolution 57/115 and subsequent resolutions, the latest of which is resolution 62/100, has urged UNEP to review and strengthen the funding of the Scientific Committee. A proposal submitted for the establishment of a P-5 post in the context of the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2004-2005, to provide additional specialized scientific capacity to support the ongoing work programme (see A/56/6 (sect. 14)/Rev.1, para. 14.32), was not endorsed by the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions and was not approved by the Assembly. The Advisory Committee at the time was of the view that requests for additional resources should be made only after full account had been taken of whether additional capacity could be found through new technologies, more efficient work processes or redeployment as a result of reprioritization or reorganization (see A/58/7, para. 81 and part IV, para. IV.64).22. 从2002年开始,委员会在提交给大会的年度报告中一直在传达对支助基金经费不足的担忧,最新的一次是在委员会第五十五届会议的报告(A/62/46)中。大会第57/115号决议和随后的决议(最新的决议为第62/100号决议)促请环境署审查和加强科学委员会的供资工作。2004-2005两年期拟议方案预算中拟议新设一个P-5职等员额,以提供更多的专门科学能力,支持正在进行的工作方案(见A/58/6(Sect.14)/Rev.1,第14.32段),但是没有得到行政和预算问题咨询委员会的认可,也没有得到大会的核准。咨询委员会当时认为,只有在充分考虑到能否通过新技术、效率较高的工作流程或重定优先事项或改组所产生的调动而获得更多能力之后,才应提出追加资源的请求(见A/58/7,第81段和第四部分,第IV.64段)。
23.23.
While the level of resources was increased under the programme budget for the biennium 2008-2009 for the Scientific Committee to carry out its work with regard to non-post resources, this did not address the need to strengthen the staffing capacity of the Committee secretariat.虽然在2008-2009两年期方案预算中,科学委员会在非员额资源方面开展工作的资源水平增加了,但是这并没有满足增强委员会秘书处人员配置能力的需要。
24.24.
In response to General Assembly resolution 61/109, in which the Assembly urged UNEP to continue to seek out and consider alternative funding mechanisms to complement existing ones, the Executive Director of UNEP established a general trust fund for voluntary contributions in respect of the Scientific Committee.大会第61/109号决议促请环境署继续寻找和考虑补充现有资助机制的其他机制,环境署执行主任按照大会这项决议的规定,成立了向科学委员会自愿捐款的普通信托基金。
25. In its resolution 62/100, the General Assembly took note of the establishment of the general trust fund and again urged UNEP to continue to seek out and consider such temporary funding mechanisms to complement existing ones. It also noted the deep concern of the Scientific Committee (see A/62/46) that reliance on a single post at the professional level in its secretariat had left the Committee seriously vulnerable and had hampered the efficient implementation of its approved programme of work. The Assembly appealed to the Secretary-General to take appropriate administrative measures so that the secretariat could adequately service the Scientific Committee in a predictable and sustainable manner and effectively facilitate the use of the invaluable expertise offered to the Committee by its members in order that the Committee might discharge its responsibilities and mandate.25. 大会第62/100号决议注意到已设立普通信托基金的情况,并再次促请环境署继续寻找和考虑补充现有资助机制的临时资助机制。大会还注意到科学委员会对委员会秘书处依赖仅有的一名专业人员职等员额的状况深表关切(见A/62/46),因为这使得委员会人力极为薄弱,并妨碍有效执行其核定工作方案。大会呼吁秘书长采取适当行政措施,使科学委员会秘书处能以可预测和可持续的方式为委员会提供适当服务,切实协助利用其成员向委员会提供的宝贵专门知识,使委员会可履行其职责和任务。
26. Although UNEP is organizationally responsible for servicing the Committee and has taken reasonable steps within its authority to support the programme of work, there have been difficulties in addressing staffing and funding issues of the Committee within the resources provided to UNEP.26.
Moreover, the Committee’s mandate covers additional issues other than environment, such as radiation exposures at work, radiation for medical purposes and radiation health effects.虽然环境署在组织上负责向委员会提供服务并且在其权限内已采取了支持工作方案的合理步骤,但是在向环境署提供的资源范围内解决委员会的人员配置和经费问题尚有许多困难。还有,委员会的任务涉及除环境之外的其他问题,如工作中的辐照、用于医疗目的的辐射和辐射对健康的影响。
III.三.
Professional staffing of the secretariat of the Scientific Committee科学委员会秘书处的专业人员配置
27. Reliance on a sole Professional post has hampered the work of the Committee and left the Committee vulnerable to continuity problems on a daily and long-term basis. Bearing in mind the current workload of the secretariat as detailed in table 1 above, it is estimated that an additional Professional post of a Scientific Officer at the P-4 level would be needed to: (a) support increasingly extensive, complex and diverse assessments, ensuring their timeliness without compromising on quality; (b) improve dissemination of the Committee’s findings and coordination with other international organizations; and (c) develop and maintain support infrastructure for the longer term. Taking into account the Committee’s proposed strategic plan and programme of work, for which some additional work months are anticipated, it is considered that the additional staffing capacity is further justified.27. 依赖仅有的一个专业人员员额妨碍了委员会的工作,并且使委员会缺少人手,不能处理日常和长期的连续问题。考虑到上文表一详细叙述的秘书处目前的工作量,估计需要增设一个P-4职等的科学干事专业人员员额,以便:(a) 支助越来越广泛、复杂和多样的评价工作,在不牺牲质量的情况下确保评价工作的及时完成;(b) 改善委员会研究成果的传播和与其他国际组织的协调工作;以及(c) 发展和维持较长期的支助基础设施。考虑到完成委员会拟议的战略计划和工作方案要增加一些工作月,认为这将进一步证明有理由增加工作人员设置能力。
28. In response to issues previously raised by the Advisory Committee (see A/58/7, para. 81 and part IV, para. IV.64), consideration has been given to whether new technologies could reduce the effort needed. However, while these may be used to make some of the support processes more efficient, the limiting factor remains the need for additional capacity for thorough professional review, analysis and editing in the Committee’s secretariat.28. 针对咨询委员会以前提出的问题(见A/58/7,第81段和第四部分,第IV.64段),已考虑到新技术能否减少所需的工作。不过,虽然这些技术可以用来提高一些支助进程的效率,但是限制因素依然是委员会秘书处需要进行更多全面的专业性审查、分析和编辑。
29. The functions of the Scientific Officer post would be (a) to assist the Secretary of the Committee in developing the programme of work, programme monitoring and general trust fund promotion and fund-raising; (b) assist in the technical preparation, conduct and follow-up of the annual sessions, including the preparation of relevant parliamentary documentation; (c) coordinate the preparation of several extremely technical documents for scrutiny by the Committee (in particular on the biological effects of radiation exposures), maintaining the Committee’s high standards of academic and scientific excellence; and (d) recommend the engagement of and provide support to consultants with first-class expertise, conduct scientific editing of the documents and prepare complex graphics. The Scientific Officer would also (a) help to liaise and coordinate work with the Committee, scientists, the diplomatic community, UNEP headquarters, and other relevant organizations, as appropriate to avoid duplication of effort and inconsistencies; (b) help to prepare strategic papers for consideration by the Committee and/or Member States; (c) develop and help to maintain systems for collecting, reviewing and disseminating relevant scientific information; (d) prepare regular reviews of new data and information; (e) represent the secretariat at relevant general and scientific forums (General Assembly, conferences, seminars, meetings etc.); (f) prepare correspondence, promotional and public information material, related in particular to the biological effects of radiation, respond to inquiries from the public and scientific community and manage the technical pages of the website; and (g) act as a back-up to the Secretary of the Committee.29. 科学干事员额的职能是:(a) 协助委员会秘书编写工作方案、进行方案监测和普通信托基金的宣传/资金筹措工作;(b) 协助年会的技术筹备、召开和后续工作,包括编写有关的会议文件;(c) 协调几份技术性很强的文件编写工作,供委员会审查(特别是有关辐照的生物影响问题的文件),保持委员会最佳学术和科学水平的高标准;(d) 建议具有顶尖专门知识的咨询人参与工作并向他们提供支助,从事文件的科学编辑工作和编制复杂的图表。科学干事还将(a) 协助与委员会、科学家、外交界、环境署总部和其他有关组织的联络和协调工作,酌情避免工作重复和不一致现象;(b) 帮助编写战略文件,供委员会和(或)会员国审议;(c) 发展和帮助维持收集、审查和分发有关科学信息的系统;(d) 定期审查新的数据和信息;(e) 代表秘书处出席有关的普通论坛和科学论坛会议(大会、各种会议、和讨论会等);(f) 编写尤其与辐照的生物影响有关的信函、宣传材料和新闻材料,答复公众和科学界的询问和管理网站的技术页面;(g) 担任委员会秘书的后备人员。
30. In addition to the proposal for a new P-4 post, there is a need to engage consultants with the highest levels of expertise to conduct complex work over several years.30.
Additional resources for consultants have, however, already been provided in the context of the programme budget for the biennium 2008-2009.除了新设一名P-4员额的提议外,还需要聘请具有极高专门知识水平的咨询人多年从事复杂的工作。不过,2008-2009两年期方案预算中已经增拨了咨询人的资源。
IV.四.
Methods to ensure sufficient, assured and predictable funding确保得到充足、有保证和可预测资金的方法
31. Since 2002, the General Assembly had urged UNEP to review and strengthen the present funding of the Committee.31.
In response, the following steps have been taken:大会自2002年以来,促请环境署审查和加强目前对委员会的资助情况。为此采取了如下步骤:
(a) In November 2006, UNEP provided $49,000 on an exceptional basis for publishing the 2006 substantive report;(a) 2006年11月,环境署作为特例提供了49 000美元,用于出版2006年实质性报告;
(b) In May 2007, UNEP established a general trust fund for voluntary contributions in respect of the Scientific Committee.(b) 2007年5月,环境署设立了一个普通信托基金,接受给科学委员会的自愿捐款。
32. The terms of reference of the general trust fund have three objectives: (a) accelerate the finalization and publication of delayed scientific reviews; (b) improve awareness of the Committee and its findings; and (c) prepare for the future programme of work. In the initial appeal for contributions to the fund, an amount of $250,000 over two years was requested from the 21 States members of the Committee. The target of $90,000 for the year 2007 was reached in December 2007. However, in 2008 the amount pledged by 1 July was only $30,000 (8 per cent of the target). Given the voluntary nature of the funds, these contributions are not sufficient, assured or predictable.32. 普通信托基金的职权范围分三个方向:(a) 加快被拖延的科学审查结果的定稿和出版;(b) 提高对委员会及其研究结果的认识;(c) 制定未来工作方案。在向该基金捐款的最初呼吁中,请求委员会21个成员国在两年中捐款250 000美元。2007年捐款90 000美元的目标于该年12月份达到。然而在2008年,截至7月1日,对该年的认捐额只有30 000美元(占目标的8%)。鉴于这种基金是自愿性的,这些捐款不是充足、有保证和可预测的。
33. The contributions to the trust fund are intended to provide for the implementation of projects approved by the Committee that it may not otherwise be able to undertake. The Committee has authorized its secretariat to take appropriate action to implement the strategic plan and programme of work. Accordingly, the Secretary will adjust resource requirements in line with detailed workplans and consult with the Committee’s officers regarding the appropriate level of voluntary contributions to the trust fund. Subsequently, the Secretary would invite Member States to consider contributing to the trust fund to accelerate the implementation of the strategic plan and the programme of work. However, these efforts require additional work for the Secretary to prepare and execute fund-raising plans.33. 对信托基金的捐款旨在用于实施经委员会批准、否则可能无法实施的项目。委员会授权其秘书处采取适当行动,执行战略计划和工作方案。秘书因此将按照详细的工作计划调整所需资源,并与委员会的干事就对信托基金自愿捐款的适当额度进行协商。随后,秘书请各会员国考虑向信托基金捐款,以加速执行战略计划和工作方案。然而,这些举措需要秘书开展额外工作,制定和执行筹资计划。
V.五.
Committee membership委员会的成员
A.A.
Background to Committee membership委员会成员的背景
34. The founding General Assembly resolution 913 (X) established the Scientific Committee with a fixed membership, consisting of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, India, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.34.
Each Government was to designate one scientist, with alternates and consultants, as appropriate, to be its representative on the Committee.授权成立委员会的大会第913(X)号决议规定,科学委员会由阿根廷、澳大利亚、比利时、巴西、加拿大、捷克斯洛伐克、埃及、法国、印度、日本、墨西哥、瑞典、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国、苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟组成之。各国政府各派科学家一人,为该国出席委员会的代表,并于必要时酌情派副代表及咨询人。
35. The General Assembly, in its resolution 3154 (XXVIII), decided to increase the membership of the Scientific Committee to a maximum of 20 and invited Governments that desired to participate in the Committee and were able to contribute to its work to inform the President of the General Assembly.35.
Subsequently, the following States were appointed Committee members: Federal Republic of Germany, Indonesia, Peru, Poland and Sudan.大会第3154(XXVIII)号决议决定,增加科学委员会成员至20名最高额,并请有意参加委员会并能对其工作作出贡献的政府告知大会主席。随后,下列国家被任命为委员会成员:德意志联邦共和国、印度尼西亚、秘鲁、波兰和苏丹。
36. In its resolution 41/62 B the Assembly expressed that it was conscious of the continued need for the Governments of Member States to commit themselves to giving to the Scientific Committee the greatest possible cooperation in order that its work might be more effective. It emphasized, in that connection, that the five permanent members of the Security Council were in a position to make particularly valuable contributions to the work of the Committee. The Assembly was convinced that the participation of China would enhance the effectiveness of the Scientific Committee, and decided to increase the membership of the Committee to a maximum of 21 and invited China to become a member.36. 大会第41/62号决议表示,大会意识到继续需要各会员国政府承诺向科学委员会尽可能提供合作,以使其工作更加有效。它强调在这方面,安全理事会五个常任理事国可以对委员会的工作做出特别宝贵的贡献。大会深信中国的参加能增进科学委员会的效能,决定将科学委员会的成员最高额增至21名,并邀请中国成为委员会成员。
37. Between 2002 and 2005, the General Assembly has annually noted with satisfaction that some Member States have expressed particular interest in becoming members of the Scientific Committee, and has expressed its intention to consider the issue further at each successive session. However the issue was not addressed formally until 2006, when the Assembly, in its resolution 61/109, invited Member States that desired to join the Scientific Committee to inform the President of the General Assembly, before 28 February 2007, of their interest. The Assembly decided to consider further the question of membership of the Scientific Committee in all its aspects, including financial implications, at its sixty-second session.37. 2002年至2005年,大会每年满意地注意到一些会员国表示特别有兴趣成为科学委员会成员,并表示打算在以后历届会议上进一步审议该问题。然而,大会直到2006年才正式处理这一问题,当时,大会第61/109号决议请希望加入科学委员会的会员国在2007年2月28日之前将其兴趣告知大会主席。大会决定在其第六十二届会议上进一步审议科学委员会成员各方面的问题,包括所涉经费问题。
38. In its resolution 62/100 the Assembly welcomed that Belarus, Finland, Pakistan, the Republic of Korea, Spain and Ukraine had declared their desire to become members of the Committee and invited each of those six Member States to designate one scientist to attend, as observers, the fifty-sixth session of the Committee.38.
Subsequently, all six countries nominated scientists to attend the session (10-18 July 2008) as observers.大会第62/100号决议欢迎白俄罗斯、芬兰、巴基斯坦、大韩民国、西班牙和乌克兰宣布希望成为委员会成员,并请这六个会员国各指定一名科学家作为观察员出席委员会第五十六届会议。所有六个国家 随后任命科学家作为观察员出席了该届会议(2008年7月10日至18日)。
39. The views of the Scientific Committee expressed during consultations held during its fifty-sixth session are recorded in the annex to the present report. Its stated views are (a) that the matter of staffing and financing should be addressed before questions of membership; and (b) that the maximum number of members should remain at about the present number in order to assure scientific quality, effectiveness and efficiency. The Committee offered two proposals for consideration of new members.39. 本报告的附件中记录了科学委员会在第五十六届会议期间举行的磋商中所表达的观点。它表明的观点如下:(a) 人员配置和资金筹措问题应在成员问题之前处理;(b) 成员最高额应保持在目前数额上下,以保证科学质量、实效和效率。委员会对审议新的成员问题提出两项提议。
B.B.
Financial and administrative implications of increased Committee membership委员会成员增加的所涉财政和行政问题
40.40.
For the fifty-sixth session of the Committee, participants from the six countries mentioned in paragraph 38 above were considered observers.就第五十六届会议而言,上文第38段提到的六个国家是作为观察员出席委员会会议的。此举构成的与额外印刷和类似费用相关的所需经费较小,在2008-2009两年期方案预算核定资源内均支(见A/C.
This generated minor requirements related to additional printing and similar costs, which were accommodated within resources already approved under the programme budget for the biennium 2008-2009 (see A/C.4/62/SR.12, paras.4/62/SR.
62 and 64).12,第62和64段)。
41. If all six States were to become new members of the Committee, the membership would be increased by about 29 per cent and about 24 new participants would attend the annual sessions (an increase of about 24 per cent).41.
The travel costs for six new representatives to attend the annual session amounts to an additional $32,000 per biennium.如果所有六个国家均成为委员会的新成员,成员数目将增加29%,大约24名新的与会者将出席年会(增加约24%)。六名新代表出席年会的旅费每两年期会增加32 000美元。
42. In order to accommodate an estimated additional 24 participants at the annual sessions, a larger conference facility would probably be needed, which could be provided within the capacity of the United Nations Office at Vienna. Considering the view of the Committee (see annex) that a larger Committee would reduce the time available for adequate scientific discussion, it is assumed that the length of the annual sessions would be extended from five days to six days, which would lead to additional costs of $50,000 per biennium. It is also estimated that there would be an increase of some 25 to 30 per cent in the photocopying and printing costs for the annual session, estimated at $8,000 per biennium.42. 为了在年度会议上容纳估计将增加的24名与会者,可能需要更大的会议设施,将在联合国维也纳办事处的能力范围内提供这种设施。考虑到委员会认为(见附件)规模更大的委员会将减少可用于进行充分科学讨论的时间,设想年会的会期将从5天延长到6天,此举将导致每两年期费用增加50 000美元。另外估计年会的照相复制和印刷费用将增加25%到30%左右,预计每两年期为8 000美元。
43.43.
As can be noted from paragraphs 41 and 42 above, should the membership of the Scientific Committee be increased the total additional requirements would amount to approximately $90,000 per biennium.从上文第41和42段可以看出,如果增加科学委员会成员数目,所需经费的增加总数将达到每两年期约90 000美元。
44.44.
In addition, increased membership of the Committee would mean additional work for the secretariat to manage additional correspondence, additional submissions of scientific data and references for review and additional written comments on drafts of the technical documents.此外,委员会成员数目的增加将意味着秘书处如下工作的增加:管理更多的往来公文、需要审查的科学数据和参考呈件增加,有关技术文件草稿的书面意见增加。
45. The United Nations Secretariat concurs with the Committee’s view that a larger Committee would be likely to require lengthier discussions to achieve consensus on interpretation of scientific information. To address this, there would be a need to (a) hold longer and/or more complex sessions; (b) prepare more discussion papers in advance of the session; and/or (c) develop more formal arrangements than the current rather informal, collegiate and very efficient methods of reaching consensus. This would entail a workload of about 1.5 person-months at the P-4 level, which could be added to the workload of the additional P-4 post proposed in paragraphs 27 and 29. It could not, however, be absorbed into the workload of the current staffing without significantly impeding the implementation of the Committee’s programme of work. It should be noted that there would be only minor additional costs incurred for accepting observers to the sessions, whose travel costs would not be provided, yet who would be considered to provide many of the benefits for the Committee’s work.45. 联合国秘书处同意委员会的观点,即更大的委员会很可能需要更长的讨论时间来对科学资料的解释取得共识。为了解决这一问题,需要:(a) 举行时间更长和(或)更复杂的会议;(b) 在会议之前编写更多的讨论文件;(c) 与目前相当非正式、学院式和效率很高的取得共识的方法相比,做出更正式的安排。这将形成大约1.5个P-4级人/月工作量,可计入第27和29段拟议增设的P-4级员额的工作量。然而,无法做到将其计入目前人员配置的工作量,又不严重影响委员会工作方案的执行。应当指出,接受观察员参加会议只会造成很小的额外费用,不用为他们提供旅费,但他们却被认为为委员会的工作提供了很多好处。
VI.六.
Conclusions结论
46. The work of the Scientific Committee is fundamental to the international radiation protection regime as its work affects decisions on the energy debate, waste management, radiation medicine and protection of the public, workers and the environment.46.
Its expertise is also highly relevant in the case of possible deployment of nuclear or radiological weapons.科学委员会的工作对国际辐射防护制度极其重要,因为委员会的工作影响到在能源辩论、废物管理、放射医学以及对公众、工人和环境的保护方面做出决定。委员会的专门知识在可能部署核武器和放射性武器的情况下具有高度重要性。
47. In 1958, the Secretary of the Committee and a small number of Professional staff serving on a rotating basis supported a Committee with 15 member States, which published some 230 pages; the present Secretary supports a Committee with 21 member States, which publishes significantly more complex and diverse reports with some 1600 pages. The work of the Committee has a reputation for being highly efficient in producing high quality assessments. However, the increasing magnitude, complexity and diversity of the workload has not been matched by commensurate resources; this mismatch is seriously reducing the effectiveness of the Committee’s work.47. 1958年,委员会的秘书和在轮换基础上服务的少量专业人员为一个有15个成员国的委员会提供支助,委员会发表的报告约230页。目前的秘书支助一个有21个成员国的委员会,委员会发表的报告约为1 600页,内容更为复杂多样。委员会的工作一向有高效编制高质量评估的名声。但并没有相称的资源来匹配工作量大幅增加、内容更加复杂多样的情况。这种情况严重降低了委员会工作的效力。
48. In response to the request of the General Assembly in its resolution 62/100 that it be advised as to what further strengthening in the capacity of the secretariat of the Scientific Committee would be needed, it should be noted that in order to (a) support the timely production of increasingly extensive, complex and diverse evaluations; (b) enable the secretariat to consistently engage consultants with the highest levels of expertise; (c) improve dissemination of the Committee’s findings; and (d) assure the support infrastructure for the longer term, an additional Scientific Officer at the P-4 level would be required at an estimated biennial cost to the programme budget amounting to $169,600 (current rates).48. 大会第62/100号决议要求就需要如何进一步加强科学委员会秘书处的能力向其提供意见。对此应指出,需要增设一个P-4职等的科学干事,以便:(a) 支助及时编制愈来愈广泛、复杂和多样性的评估;(b) 使秘书处能够始终聘用具有最高专业知识水平的咨询人员;(c) 改进委员会研究成果的传播情况;(d) 较长期地确保支助基础设施。对方案预算来说,这样做的两年期估计费用为169 600美元(现行汇率)。
49. Although six countries have declared their interest in becoming members of the Committee, the General Assembly may wish to consider the Scientific Committee’s stated views that (a) the matter of staffing and financing should be addressed before questions of membership;49.
and (b) the maximum number of members should remain at about the present number in order to assure scientific quality, effectiveness and efficiency together with the two proposals of the Committee for consideration of new members in the annex to the present report.虽然有六个国家宣布有兴趣成为委员会成员,大会不妨审议科学委员会所表示的观点:(a) 应在讨论成员问题之前解决人员配置和供资问题;(b) 成员数目最多应保持在现有数目左右,以确保科学质量、效力和效率,以及载于本报告附件的委员会关于审议新成员问题的两个提议。
50.50.
The financial implications of an increase in membership of the Committee by the six States who have declared their interest is estimated at $90,000 per biennium in addition to the secretariat support identified in paragraph 48 above.除了上文第48段确定的秘书处支助费用外,估计如果委员会增加六个表示有兴趣的国家作为成员,所涉经费问题为每两年期90 000美元。
51.51.
Accordingly, should the General Assembly decide on both the strengthening of the secretariat of the Scientific Committee and the increase in the membership of the Committee, the total estimated biennial requirement would amount to $259,600 (current rates).因此,如果大会决定既加强科学委员会秘书处,又增加委员会的成员,估计两年期所需经费总额为259 600美元(现行汇率)。
Annex附件
Views of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation on membership, staffing and financing as expressed in consultations held during its fiftysixth session (10-18 July 2008)联合国原子辐射影响问题科学委员会在其第五十六届会议(2008年7月10日至18日)期间举行的协商中就成员、工作人员配置和供资所表示的意见
1. The present United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is composed of 21 member States with representatives and their accompanying scientific advisers. At the fifty-sixth session, there were over 100 participants, including observers from an additional 10 international organizations and from the six States that have expressed interest in membership on the Committee. The Committee is aware of similar interest by other States in addition to the present six.1. 联合国原子辐射影响问题科学委员会由21个成员国的代表及其陪同他们的科学顾问组成。100多名与会者,包括来自10个国际组织的观察员和表示有兴趣成为委员会成员的六个国家的观察员,出席了委员会第五十六届会议。据委员会了解,除了目前的六个国家外,其他国家也有同样的兴趣。
2. The Committee has functioned very effectively over more than 50 years with essentially its current membership and size and has been able to discharge its mandate successfully. The Committee is concerned, for a number of reasons, about increasing its size. The primary issues concern efficiency and quality. A larger committee with additional advisers would reduce the number of topics able to be considered, reduce the time available for adequate scientific discussion and reduce the quality of the Committee’s reports. Additional concerns include increased expenses, which would reduce the resources available to engage critical scientific consultants. Addition of more members would reduce available meeting dates and also require a larger meeting room, likely an auditorium format, which also would reduce efficiency.2. 五十多年来,委员会基本上保持目前的成员和规模,一直运作得很有效,并能够成功地履行其任务规定。出于若干原因,委员会对扩大规模感到担忧。主要的问题关系到效率和质量。委员会规模扩大,顾问增加,将减少能够审议的专题数目,减少可用于进行充分科学讨论的时间,并降低委员会报告的质量。其他担忧包括费用增加,这将导致可用于聘用重要科学咨询人员的资源减少。增加更多的成员可减少现有的会议日期,还需要更大的会议室,很可能是礼堂形式的会议室,这将降低效率。
3. While in principle the Committee welcomes the interest shown by six States in becoming members of the Committee, it must first recall and re-emphasize its previous statement (see A/62/46, para.3.
9) where it “stressed that a solution should be found to the financial and resource issues before any discussion took place in the Assembly in relation to the possibility of expanding the membership of the Committee”.尽管原则上说,委员会欢迎六个国家表示有兴趣成为委员会成员,但它必须首先回顾和再次强调其以前的声明(见A/62/46,第9段),其中强调“在大会就扩大委员会成员数目的可能性进行任何讨论之前,应找到解决财政和资源问题的办法。”
4. Moreover, the Committee believes that solutions can be found to the membership issue without necessarily increasing the size of the Committee. The development of this proposal requires a brief recapitulation of the historical requirements for membership as set by the General Assembly. The Committee was formed in 1955 with a requirement in its founding resolution (Assembly resolution 913 (X)) that Governments of States members of the Committee were to designate one scientist, with alternates and consultants, as appropriate, to be their representatives on the Committee.4. 此外,委员会认为,可以找到解决成员问题的办法,但不一定要扩大委员会的规模。编写这一提案需要简短概述大会规定的对成员的历史要求。委员会成立于1955年,授权其成立的决议(大会第913(X)号决议)要求委员会成员国的政府各派科学家一人,为该国出席委员会之代表,并于必要时酌派副代表及咨询人。
5.5.
Subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly relating to membership included the following elements:大会有关委员会成员的其后决议包括下列成分:
(a) That those Governments which desire to participate in the Scientific Committee should be able to contribute to its work (resolutions 3154 (XXVIII) and 41/62);(a) 希望出席科学委员会会议的政府应能够对委员会的工作做出贡献(第3154(XXVIII)号和41/62号决议);
(b) That extending membership to China would increase the effectiveness of the Committee (resolution 41/62).(b) 给予中国委员会成员资格将增加委员会的效能(第41/62号决议)。
6. The Committee considers that the principal objective of membership is the contribution that can be made to the work of the Committee and re-emphasizes (see A/62/46, para. 10) that “in a spirit of effectively contributing to the work of the Committee, States members of the Committee need to field active scientists as representatives, alternates and advisers, so that the Committee could fulfil its mandate as set out in General Assembly resolution 913 (X). In this regard, essential elements for the Committee were: sustainable knowledge on a broad range of issues in the field of radiation levels and effects; the capability to compile, prepare and evaluate scientific reports; competent assessment of draft scientific documents; and capability to summarize and synthesize the material for the Assembly, the scientific community and the public”.6. 委员会认为,成员的主要目标是能够为委员会的工作做出贡献,并再次强调(见A/62/46,第10段)“本着有效促进委员会工作的精神,委员会成员国需要派遣活跃的科学家作为代表、副代表和顾问,以便委员会能够履行大会第913(X)号决议所赋予的各项任务。在这方面,对委员会来说必要的是:对辐射水平和影响领域一系列范围广泛的问题的持续了解;汇编、编写和评估科学报告的能力;对科学文件草稿的适当评估;以及为大会、科学界和公众归纳综合材料的能力。”
7. With the resurgence of nuclear power, global concerns about nuclear weapons and significantly increasing radiation exposure of the world’s population, the Committee does recognize the reasons why States desire to be members. The Committee would like to respond to that desire while maintaining quality, scientific integrity and efficiency. The Committee is developing evaluation criteria reflecting the foregoing elements, the availability of expert scientists in the fields of the Committee’s work and (for present States members of the Committee) attendance and participation at Committee sessions, contributions to work of the secretariat and contributions in kind. The criteria would be applicable, as far as possible, to both existing and potential future members.7. 随着核能的再次兴起、全球对核武器和世界人口受到辐射的危险大大增加的担忧,委员会认识到各国有理由希望成为委员会的成员。委员会希望在回应这一希望的同时,保持质量、科学完整性和效率。委员会正在制订评估标准,以反映出上述因素、在委员会工作的各领域提供科学专家的情况,以及(委员会目前成员国)参加和出席委员会会议,对秘书处工作做出的贡献和实物捐助的情况。这些标准将尽量适用于现有成员和潜在的未来成员。
8. The Committee suggests that the maximum number of members should remain at about the present number, in order that the scientific quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of the Committee are not compromised.8.
However, this should not be seen as a constraint, in itself, to consideration of new members.委员会认为成员的数目最多应保持在现有数目左右,以便不损害委员会的科学质量、效力和效率。然而,不应将其本身作为限制考虑新成员的一个因素。
9. The Committee therefore offers two proposals. The first is to replace some existing States members of the Scientific Committee with new permanent members (the Secretary-General may wish to consult with existing members that have not been attending the Committee’s sessions regularly on their interest in continuing to be members, with a view to their replacement with other interested States). The second proposal would be to designate some member States with permanent status and a number of others with rotating status. Selection of the member States, in either case, should rest upon the aforementioned evaluation criteria.9. 因此,委员会提出两个方案。第一个是以新的永久成员取代科学委员会现有的某些成员国:秘书长不妨与未定期参加委员会届会的现有成员协商,讨论它们是否有兴趣继续担任成员,以期由其他有兴趣的成员取代它们。第二个方案是指定某些成员国有常任地位,其他一些成员国在轮换基础上担任。在两种情况下,成员国的选择都应以前述评价标准为基础。
10.10.
The Committee recognizes that the General Assembly will make the final decision and appreciates the opportunity to provide its input.委员会确认大会将做出最后决定,并感谢有机会提供自己的投入。
The report of the Scientific Committee is contained in the Official Records of the General Assembly, Sixty-third Session, Supplement No. 46 (A/63/46).科学委员会的报告载于《大会正式记录,第六十三届会议,补编第46号》(A/63/46)。
International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 115 (Vienna, 1996), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Labour Organization, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. Other standards are linked to the Basic Safety Standards.由联合国粮食及农业组织、国际原子能机构、国际劳工组织、经济合作与发展组织的核能机构、泛美卫生组织和世界卫生组织联合资助的《国际电离辐射防护和辐射源安全的基本安全标准》,国际原子能机构安全丛书第115号,维也纳,1996年。其他标准与《辐射防护基本安全标准》相关。
The first of two volumes of the 2006 report was eventually published in July 2008; the second volume is now envisaged to be published at the end of 2008. The 2008 report will not be published before 2009.2006年报告两卷中的第一卷最终于2008年7月出版;第二卷预计于2008年底出版。但2008年报告将不会在2009年前出版。
See International Atomic Energy Agency resolution GC(51)/RES/11 of 21 September 2007.见国际原子能机构2007年9月21日GC(51)/RES/11号决议。
Pakistan’s nominated scientist did not attend; a minister from its Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Vienna observed the session.巴基斯坦任命的科学家没有出席会议;其常驻维也纳国际组织代表团的一名公使作为观察员出席会议。
It should be noted that: (a) the Scientific Committee has engaged in official collaboration with Belarus and Ukraine to assist in work on the Chernobyl accident and experts from those two States have participated in the relevant technical discussions at several past sessions; and (b) scientists from some States that are not members of the Committee regularly participate as members of delegations of States members of the Committee. Moreover, for the observer countries themselves, observer status may provide many of the same benefits as full membership (for example, interaction with world-class experts at the annual sessions, ensuring key national data are not overlooked and participation in the technical discussions).应当指出:(a) 科学委员会已同白俄罗斯和乌克兰进行了正式的协作,协助有关切尔诺贝利事故的工作;这两个国家的专家参加了过去若干届会议的相关技术讨论;(b) 一些来自非委员会成员国家的科学家确实作为委员会成员国代表团成员而定期参加会议。此外,对观察员国家来说,观察员地位可能会提供很多与正式成员相同的好处(例如,在年会上与世界级专家进行互动,保证重要的国家数据不被忽视,并参加技术讨论)。
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United Nations联合国
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General Assembly大 会
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