Correct misalignment Corrected by roman.boyko on 4/24/2014 1:58:50 PM Original version Change languages order
A/AC.105/C.1/108 V1387714.doc (English)A/AC.105/C.1/108 V1387713.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
General Assembly大 会
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
13 November 201313 November 2013
Original: English/SpanishOriginal: English/Spanish
V.13-87714 (E) 201113 211113V.13-87713 (C) GH 251113 251113
Committee on the Peaceful和平利用外层空间委员会
Uses of Outer Space科学和技术小组委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee第五十一届会议
Fifty-first session2014年2月10日至21日,维也纳
Vienna, 10-21 February 2014临时议程*项目8
Reissued for technical reasons on 17 January 2014. Item 8 of the provisional agenda因技术原因于2014年1月17日重新印发。
Space debris空间碎片
National research on space debris, safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris各国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全
Note by the Secretariat及其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究 秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
1. In its resolution 68/75, the General Assembly expressed its concern about the fragility of the space environment and the challenges to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, in particular the impact of space debris; which is an issue of concern to all nations; considered that it was essential that States pay more attention to the problem of collisions of space objects, including those with nuclear power sources, with space debris, and other aspects of space debris; called for the continuation of national research on that question, for the development of improved technology for the monitoring of space debris and for the compilation and dissemination of data on space debris; considered that, to the extent possible, information thereon should be provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee; and agreed that international cooperation was needed to expand appropriate and affordable strategies to minimize the impact of space debris on future space missions.大会在第68/75号决议中关切空间环境的脆弱性和外层空间活动长期可持续性面临的挑战,尤其是空间碎片的影响;这个问题事关所有国家;认为各国必须更加关注包括携载核动力源物体在内的空间物体与空间碎片碰撞的问题和空间碎片所涉其他方面问题;呼吁各国继续研究这个问题,开发更完善技术来监测空间碎片,汇编和传播关于空间碎片的数据;认为应尽可能向科学和技术小组委员会提供这方面的资料;还同意需要通过国际合作推广适当且负担得起的战略,以尽量减少空间碎片对未来空间飞行任务的影响。
2. At its fiftieth session, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee agreed that research on space debris should continue and that Member States should make available to all interested parties the results of that research, including information on practices that had proved effective in minimizing the creation of space debris (A/AC.105/1038, para.科学和技术小组委员会第五十届会议一致认为,应当继续开展空间碎片研究,各会员国应当向所有利益相关方提供研究成果,包括介绍在尽可能减少空间碎片的产生方面证明行之有效的做法(A/AC.105/1038,第104段)。
In a note verbale dated 16 July 2013, the Secretary-General invited Governments and international organizations with permanent observer status with the Committee to provide by 14 October 2013 reports on research on space debris, the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to the collision of such space objects with space debris, so that the information could be submitted to the Subcommittee at its fifty-first session.本文件由秘书处根据五个会员国即加拿大、墨西哥、瑞士、泰国和大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国以及在委员会享有常驻观察员地位的非政府组织即空间研究委员会(空间研委会)、世界安全基金会和航天新一代咨询理事会提供的资料编写。
3. The present document has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from five Member States — Canada, Mexico, Switzerland, Thailand and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland — and from three non-governmental organizations with permanent observer status with the Committee — the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the Secure World Foundation and the Space Generation Advisory Council. Information provided by Thailand, entitled “Thailand space debris management (2013)”, which includes pictures, tables and figures related to space debris, will be made available in English only on the website of the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat (www.unoosa.org) and as a conference room paper at the fifty-first session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.泰国提供的题为“泰国空间碎片管理(2013年)”的资料包括与空间碎片有关的图片、表格和图表,该资料仅以英文刊载于秘书处外层空间事务厅网站(www.unoosa.org),并将作为科学和技术小组委员会第五十一届会议的会议室文件提供。
II. Replies received from Member States二. 从会员国收到的答复
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[4 November 2013][2013年11月4日]
Space debris threatens the long-term sustainability of space activities of all nations.空间碎片威胁所有国家空间活动的长期可持续性。
Canada remains convinced of the importance of the international community’s work in the coordination of space debris research activities, and will continue to actively work with its partners.加拿大始终坚信国际社会开展工作以协调空间碎片研究活动非常重要,并将继续积极地与各合作伙伴进行合作。
In February 2013, Canada launched its first dedicated defence satellite, Sapphire, as a contributing sensor to the United States space surveillance network.2013年2月,加拿大发射了首颗专用军事卫星Sapphire,作为为美国空间监视网作贡献的传感器。
Sapphire is a space-based, electro-optical sensor designed to track man-made space objects in high Earth orbit in order to improve Canada’s space situational awareness.Sapphire是一个空基电子光学传感器,用来跟踪高地球轨道的人造空间物体,以改进加拿大对空间状况的认知。
On the same day, the Canadian satellite NEOSSat was launched to further contribute to the detection of orbital debris and asteroids.同一天,还发射了加拿大卫星NEOSSat,以进一步为轨道碎片和小行星探测作出贡献。
The capacities of NEOSSat include the monitoring and tracking of both satellites and debris, where ground-based telescopes have difficulty detecting and tracking.NEOSSat的能力包括对地面望远镜难以探测和跟踪的卫星和碎片进行监测和跟踪。
Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee机构间空间碎片协调委员会
Since joining the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) in 2011, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has been collaborating and exchanging information with IADC members to facilitate cooperation in space debris research and activities.加拿大空间局(加空局)于2011年加入机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会),自那时起,加空局一直与空间碎片协委会成员相互协作并交流信息,以促进协作开展空间碎片研究和活动。
IADC is an international governmental forum composed of 12 member agencies for the worldwide coordination of activities related to the issues of man-made and natural debris in space.空间碎片协委会是一个国际政府间论坛,由12个成员机构组成,目的是在全球范围内协调与空间人造和自然碎片问题有关的活动。
Canada’s priorities as a member of IADC are to share information on space debris issues, to establish cooperative activities in space debris research (e.g. high-velocity impact research) and to consider debris mitigation options.加拿大作为空间碎片协委会成员,优先事项是分享关于空间碎片问题的信息,确定空间碎片研究合作活动(例如高速撞击研究)并审议减少碎片的选项。
Canada hosted the thirtieth meeting of IADC in Montreal in 2012 and, as such, also chaired the Steering Group from April 2012 to April 2013.加拿大于2012年在蒙特利尔主办了空间碎片协委会第三十次会议,因此,也在2012年4月至2013年4月担任指导小组主席。
CSA contributes actively to the Steering Group and its working groups, and is the Vice-Chair of Working Group 3, on Protection.加空局积极为指导小组及各工作组作出贡献,并担任关于保护问题的第3工作组的副主席。
Canadian space debris mitigation research activities加拿大的空间碎片减缓研究活动
Working with academia and other government departments, CSA leads space debris science and technology initiatives within Canada.加空局与学术界和其他政府部门合作,负责领导加拿大境内的空间碎片科学和技术举措。
The development of an implosion-driven hypervelocity test facility, providing a unique capability to accelerate masses to debris velocities allowing full impact regimes to be investigated, has put Canada in a leadership position in this domain.内爆驱动超高速测试设施的开发使加拿大在这一领域处于领先地位,这种设施具有将物质加速到碎片速度的独特能力,为研究全面的撞击机理创造了条件。
Canada is now developing fibre-optic-based sensors that will be incorporated into self-healing composites to assess the impacts of space debris as they occur, while mitigating secondary debris propagation.加拿大目前在开发纤维光学传感器,将把这种传感器嵌入自愈合复合材料,以评估发生的空间碎片撞击,同时减少二级碎片的产生。
Canada will also participate in the European Union ACCORD survey on orbital debris covering spacecraft design and spacecraft operations.加拿大还将参加欧洲联盟为实现减少碎片目的而协同相关能力项目轨道碎片调查,调查涵盖航天器设计和航天器作业。
In 2013, Canada and the Czech Republic, with the support of the German Aerospace Center, initiated the development of a compendium of standards adopted by States and international organizations to mitigate the creation of space debris.2013年,加拿大和捷克共和国在德国航空航天中心支助下开始编写各国和国际组织为减缓空间碎片产生而采纳的标准汇编。
That activity is a contribution to the space debris-related initiatives pursued by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.这项活动是对和平利用外层空间委员会推动的空间碎片相关举措的一项贡献。
It is expected that the compendium will be presented under the agenda item “General exchange of information and views on legal mechanisms relating to space debris mitigation measures” of the Legal Subcommittee at its fifty-third session, in 2014, for the review and information of all members of the Committee.预期将在2014年法律小组委员会第五十三届会议上,在议程项目“与空间碎片减缓措施有关的法律机制方面的一般信息和意见交流”下介绍该汇编,供委员会所有成员审查和参考。
Current operational practices现行业务做法
Throughout 2013, CSA continued to witness an increasing number of collision threats to Canadian space assets necessitating further analysis and, when applicable, spacecraft debris collision avoidance manoeuvres.整个2013年内,加空局仍然发现加拿大空间资产遇到碰撞威胁的次数日益增多,使得有必要进行进一步分析,并在适用情况下实施避免航天器碎片碰撞机动操作。
The CSA Space Debris Centre of Expertise has developed a number of procedures related to close approaches of space debris and links with satellite operators in Canada, providing value-added analysis within minutes of reception of close-approach warnings.加空局空间碎片专门知识中心制定了与空间碎片近距离接近有关的一些程序,并与加拿大的卫星运营者建立联系,在接到近距离接近警报数分钟内提供增值分析。
Close collaboration with the Department of National Defence Canadian Space Operations Cell has been established in the context of space debris threat analysis, whereby critical space enablers are provided to strategic partners within the Canadian Government, in close cooperation with Canada’s allies around the world.在空间碎片威胁分析方面与国防部加拿大空间行动小分队建立了密切协作,籍此与加拿大在世界各地的盟国紧密合作,向加拿大政府内的各战略合作伙伴提供关键的空间活动辅助人员。
On 29 March 2013, Canada’s first Earth observation satellite, RADARSAT-1, experienced a major technical anomaly.2013年3月29日,加拿大首颗地球观测卫星RADARSAT-1发生重大技术异常现象。
An extensive investigation was conducted, which concluded that the satellite could not recover from the problem, as a consequence of which it is no longer operational.经过全面调查,结论是卫星不能从该问题中恢复,结果导致卫星不再能够工作。
During its 17 years of exceptional service, RADARSAT-1 provided hundreds of thousands of images to more than 600 users in Canada and in 60 countries worldwide.RADARSAT-1在其提供卓越服务的17年内,向加拿大和全世界60个国家的600多个用户提供了数十万计图片。
It provided images to assist in relief efforts during 244 disaster events, and literally mapped the world, providing complete coverage of the world’s continents, continental shelves and polar icecaps.它曾提供图片协助244起灾害事件的救灾工作,真实地测绘整个世界,全面覆盖世界各大洲、大陆架和极地冰盖。
Among its many accomplishments, RADARSAT-1 conducted two Antarctic Mapping Missions, in 1999 and 2000, and delivered the first-ever high-resolution maps of the entire frozen continent.RADARSAT-1完成许多任务,其中,RADARSAT-1曾于1999年和2000年进行两次南极洲测绘任务,并提供了整个冰冻大洲的第一批高分辨率地图。
It also delivered the first stereo-radar coverage of the planet’s landmass and the first high-resolution interferometric coverage of Canada, and produced complete single-season snapshots of all continents.它还对地球的大陆进行了第一次立体雷达测绘,对加拿大进行了第一次高分辨率干涉测量,并提供了所有大洲完整的单季快照。
Canada will continue to perform space debris threat assessments with the support of our international partners, and recently initiated internal debris-related investigations on the satellite.加拿大将继续在国际伙伴支持下开展空间碎片威胁评估,最近启动了该卫星内部碎片相关调查。
[Original: Spanish][原文:西班牙文]
[14 October 2013][2013年10月14日]
National research on space debris, the safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris本国对空间碎片、携载核动力源空间物体的安全
Space debris及其与空间碎片碰撞问题的研究
Mexico is deeply involved in the question of the sustainability of space activity, one of the main aspects of which is space debris.空间碎片
The complexity of the topic is such that it will be difficult to find short-term solutions.墨西哥大力参与探讨空间活动可持续性问题,这个问题的主要方面之一就是空间碎片。
Mexico is represented in the four expert groups of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.该议题非常复杂,难以找到短期解决办法。
It should be noted that the National Autonomous University of Mexico is conducting a study into a satellite re-entry procedure.墨西哥参加了和平利用外层空间委员会空间活动长期可持续性工作组的四个专家组。
The relevant document has been submitted to the Committee.应当指出的是墨西哥国立自治大学正在对卫星重返程序进行研究。
Our country’s space activities started in 1985, with the launch of the geostationary satellites Morelos I and Morelos II.相关文件已提交委员会。
There are currently five satellites in operation, and it is hoped that two others will be launched in the same orbit in 2014 and 2015.我国的空间活动始于1985年,当时发射了地球静止卫星Morelos I和Morelos II。
In accordance with the practice on the elimination of space debris, Mexican policy on the orbit of geostationary satellites has consisted in retaining enough fuel to ensure that, at the end of its lifespan, the satellite will automatically de-orbit.目前有五颗卫星在运行中,另外两颗可望于2014年和2015年发射进入相同轨道。
This is the procedure used in Satmex 5.按照消除空间碎片的做法,墨西哥关于地球静止卫星轨道的政策包括留足燃料,以确保卫星在寿命结束时自动脱轨。
All the procedures referred to above take into account the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the regulations issued in this regard by various countries with significant space programmes.这是Satmex 5采用的程序。
Safety of space objects with nuclear power sources on board and problems relating to their collision with space debris上述所有程序考虑到《和平利用外层空间委员会空间碎片缓减准则》和有重要空间方案的各国在这方面颁布的条例。
This topic is covered in the Guidelines.携载核动力源空间物体的安全及其与空间碎片碰撞问题 该议题为《准则》所涵盖。
In accordance with the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Mexico has maintained its position on the non-militarization of outer space and the peaceful uses of outer space.按照《关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》,墨西哥坚持外层空间非军事化及和平利用外层空间的立场。
The use of nuclear power sources does not form part of any space programme in our country.使用核动力源并不构成我国任何空间方案的组成部分。
Their use is governed by the regulations issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency.其使用受国际原子能机构颁布条例的制约。
It is therefore implicitly understood that, in everything involving the use of nuclear sources of power, the safety of human beings in outer space and the space environment is of fundamental importance.因此,一种不言而喻的理解是,在涉及使用核动力源的每件事情中,人在外层空间的安全和空间环境是重中之重。
In that regard, the Guidelines provide an essential framework as regards safety.在这方面,《准则》提供了关于安全的必不可少框架。
Neither the Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space nor the Guidelines are binding.《关于在外层空间使用核动力源的原则》和《准则》都没有约束力。
A measure of protection, albeit relative, is provided by article IV of the Outer Space Treaty.《外层空间条约》第四条提供了一定程度的保护,不过只是在相对意义上。
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[14 October 2013][2013年10月14日]
The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) continues its research efforts to better understand the near-Earth space debris environment.伯尔尼大学天文学研究所(伯大天文所)继续开展研究工作,以便更好地认识近地空间碎片环境。
AIUB uses its 1-metre telescope ZIMAT and a small robotic telescope ZimSMART, both located at the Zimmerwald Observatory, near Bern, to discover and physically characterize small-size debris.伯大天文所使用1米长的望远镜ZIMAT和一台小型机器人望远镜ZimSMART发现小型碎片并确定其物理性质,两台望远镜均设在伯尔尼附近的齐美尔瓦尔德天文台。
A major result of this research is a unique catalogue of high area-to-mass ratio debris in geostationary and highly elliptical orbits, which is built up and maintained in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics in Moscow.这项研究的一项主要成果是与欧洲空间局(欧空局)和莫斯科克尔德什应用数学研究所合作,逐步建设并维持关于地球静止轨道和高椭圆轨道高面积质量比率碎片的独一目录。
The latter operates the International Scientific Optical Observation Network (ISON), with which AIUB has been sharing observation data in the context of a scientific collaboration for many years.克尔德什应用数学研究所负责运营国际科学光学观测网,伯大天文所多年来与该网开展科学协作,分享观测数据。
ISON has recently started cooperating with the Basic Space Science Initiative of the Office for Outer Space Affairs.国际科学光学观测网最近开始与外层空间事务厅的基础空间科学举措合作。
Recent studies of AIUB focused on deep surveys for small debris objects in highly elliptical orbits, including geostationary transfer, and Molniya-type orbits.伯大天文所最近的研究重点是深入调查包括地球同步转移轨道在内的高椭圆轨道和“闪电”类轨道的小型碎片物体。
First results indicate a substantial population of “unknown” objects in those orbital regions, i.e.第一批结果表明,这些轨道区有大量“未知”物体,即任何可公开获得的轨道目录中未包含的物体。
objects that are not contained in any of the publicly available orbit catalogues.确定这些物体的性质非常重要,有助于查明碎片的来源,并最终设计高效且经济上可行的减缓措施。
Characterizing those objects will be of great importance in order to identify the sources of the debris and eventually design efficient and economically viable mitigation measures.为支持有关从低地球轨道主动清除大型物体的讨论,伯大天文所启动了一个观测方案,通过光变曲线评估700至1,000公里高度轨道上大型碎片物体的翻滚速度。
In support of the discussion on the active removal of large objects from low Earth orbits, AIUB has started an observation programme to assess the tumbling rates of large debris objects in orbits of an altitude of 700 to 1,000 kilometres by means of optical light curves.洛桑联邦理工学院的瑞士空间中心与其合作伙伴继续在Clean-mE方案下开展主动清除碎片领域的研究和开发工作。
The Swiss Space Center at the Federal Polytechnic Institute of Lausanne (EPFL) and its partners have continued research and development in the area of active debris removal under its Clean-mE programme.最近的重点是开发捕获机制和技术(纯机械或使用高级软性电介质弹性体夹具)。
The recent focus has been on the development of capture mechanisms and technologies (purely mechanical or with advanced soft dielectric elastomer grippers).作为该方案的一部分,“清洁空间一”项目的目的是将SwissCube卫星移离轨道。
As part of that programme, the CleanSpace One project is aimed at de-orbiting the SwissCube satellite.最近活动的重点主要是提高飞行任务和碎片清除卫星设计的精确性。
The recent activities focused mainly on increasing the fidelity of the mission and remover satellite design.最近已获得用于该飞行任务的资金。
Funding for the mission has recently been secured.2013年,洛桑联邦理工学院还参加了由法国国家空间研究中心资助的欧洲研究,目的是评价飞行任务和行动的体系结构、碎片清除器的设计和每年清除5至10个大型碎片物体的相关费用。
In 2013 EPFL also participated in European studies funded by the Centre national d’études spatiales of France to evaluate mission and campaign architectures, debris remover designs and costs associated with removing 5 to 10 large debris objects per year.在这方面,洛桑联邦理工学院设计了一个工具,用来评价主动清除碎片飞行任务的体系结构和技术。
In this context, EPFL designed a tool for evaluating the architecture and technology of active debris removal missions. The publication of the results is pending.有关成果尚未公布。
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[14 October 2013][2013年10月14日]
Thailand Earth Observation System space debris monitoring泰国地球观测系统空间碎片监测 泰国地球观测系统地面站有两个空间碎片监测来源:联合空间业务中心和空间数据协会。
The Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) ground station has two sources of space debris surveillance: the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and the Space Data Association (SDA). JSpOC has provided notifications for space debris approaches to THEOS with a miss distance of less than 1 kilometre, while SDA has given notifications for any space debris coming within 5 kilometres of THEOS.联合空间业务中心在空间碎片接近泰国地球观测系统、接近距离小于1公里时发出通知,而空间数据协会在任何空间碎片距离泰国地球观测系统5公里以内时发出通知。
Thailand Earth Observation System close approaches近距离接近泰国地球观测系统
THEOS has experienced several close approaches, since it has been operated at an altitude of 822 kilometres, where space debris density is the highest.泰国地球观测系统进入822公里高度运行以来数次被近距离接近,这里的空间碎片密度最高。
There are two criteria the THEOS ground station uses to consider the necessity of a collision avoidance manoeuvre:泰国地球观测系统地面站采用两个标准考虑是否有必要进行避撞机动:
(a) Radial miss distance < (primary object error in radial) + 3 (secondary object error in radial) + primary object radius + secondary object radius;(a) 径向接近距离<(主物体径向误差)+3(次物体径向误差)+主物体半径+次物体半径;以及
(b) Radial miss distance < 100 m, in-track miss distance < 300 m, and cross-track miss distance < 100 m. Thailand Earth Observation System experiences in collision avoidance manoeuvres(b) 径向接近距离<100米,在轨接近距离<300米,跨轨接近距离<100米。
So far, three manoeuvres have been performed to avoid collision, once for IRIDIUM 33DEB and twice for COSMOS 2251 DEB.泰国地球观测系统避撞机动经历
An unanticipated or collision avoidance manoeuvre has two impacts on a THEOS operation: propellant usage and operation interference.迄今为止进行了三次避撞机动,一次针对IRIDIUM 33DEB,两次针对COSMOS 2251 DEB。
Once the altitude adjustment has been executed so as to avoid the collision, the controlled parameter (ground track error) tends to evolve beyond defined windows at a greater rate.预期外机动或避撞机动对泰国地球观测系统的运行有两种影响:推进剂使用和干扰运行。
Therefore, altitude correction has to be done sooner than it was supposed to be, which leads to the use of more propellant.一旦为避免碰撞而调整高度,控制参数(地面航迹误差)往往很快超出设定的窗口。
Thailand Earth Observation System de-orbit plan因此,必须以快于预期的速度进行高度校正,从而导致使用更多推进剂。
There are two possible reasons for an increase in the number of space debris objects: satellite self-explosion and collision between satellites that are no longer used.泰国地球观测系统脱轨计划
For this reason, 24.1 kilogrammes of propellant has been reserved for de-orbiting THEOS when its operation is terminated.空间碎片物体数目增加可能有两个原因:卫星自爆和不再使用卫星之间的碰撞。
In order not to create more space debris, the THEOS semi-major axis will be decreased from 7,200 km to 7,030 km, which not only will allow THEOS de-orbitation within 25 years, according to the low Earth orbit disposal standard, but will also remove the satellite from an altitude congested with space objects, thereby reducing the risk of collision with other space objects later on.因此,预留24.1公斤推进剂,用于泰国地球观测系统运行终止时脱轨。
In the example depicted in the conference room paper to be made available at the fifty-first session of the Subcommittee, a distance of 7,040 kilometres for the semi-major axis does not allow a de-orbitation of the spacecraft within 25 years.为了不致产生更多空间碎片,泰国地球观测系统半长轴将从7,200公里缩减到7,030公里,这将不仅使该系统按照低地球轨道弃星标准在25年内脱离轨道,而且使卫星移离有空间物体拥挤的高度,从而降低以后与其他空间物体碰撞的风险。
Therefore, a 7,030-kilometre semi-major axis is a good compromise that satisfies the de-orbitation requirements while using as little propellant as possible.在向小组委员会第五十一届会议提供的会议室文件所描绘的例子中,7,040公里的半长轴不能够使该航天器在25年内脱轨。
In order to reach this target orbit, ∆a = 170 kilometres will be needed, for which ∆V = 87.8 m/s is required.因此,7,030公里的半长轴是在尽可能少用推进剂的情况下满足脱轨要求的不错的折中办法。
As the specific impulse at end of life is 210.6 seconds, the corresponding mass decrement, or ∆m, is 24.1 kilogrammes.为了到达该目标轨道,需要∆a = 170公里,这就要求∆V = 87.8米/秒。
All of the propellant will be depleted during de-orbitation in order to prevent self-explosion of the satellite, which could lead to an increase in the number of space debris objects.由于寿命结束时的具体冲动是210.6秒,因此相应的质量减损或∆m是24.1公斤。
Based on the remaining propellant, 46 kilograms, THEOS operation can be supported for more than 16 more years.所有推进剂将在脱轨时耗尽,以防卫星自爆,卫星自爆可能导致空间碎片数目增加。
Research and projects related to collision avoidance剩余的46公斤推进剂可支持泰国地球观测系统再运行16年以上。
THEOS collision avoidance software与避免碰撞有关的研究和项目
The development of software for illustrating the conjunction between space objects in 3-D is aimed at facilitating the close-approach analysis.泰国地球观测系统避撞软件
It enables the satellite operators to make a better decision on whether or not a collision avoidance manoeuvre is required, helping to avoid wasting propellant, unnecessary manoeuvres and risk of collision.开发用三维方式图示空间物体之间会合的软件,目的是便利进行近距离接近分析。
Space environment surveillance system该软件使卫星运营方能够就是否需要进行避撞机动作出更妥善的决定,有助于避免浪费推进剂、避免不必要的机动并避免碰撞风险。
The future project for enhancing the capabilities of THEOS collision avoidance software focuses on two segments:空间环境监视系统
In-house space debris monitoring software将在以后开展的增强泰国地球观测系统避撞软件功能项目侧重于两个部分:
At present, since the THEOS ground station has been relying on other space debris surveillance systems, we plan to develop our own redundant one.内部空间碎片监测软件
The monitoring software will retrieve two-line elements for space debris from the North American Aerospace Defense Command, then propagate their positions with respect to time and determine the miss distance.目前,由于泰国地球观测系统依赖其他空间碎片监视系统,我们计划开发自己的系统以作备份。
Improved collision avoidance manoeuvre criteria and develop methodology for conjunction analysis该监测软件将检索北美航空航天防御司令部提供的空间碎片双线要素,然后生成其随着时间变化的位置,并确定接近距离。
The current criteria are quite sensitive; three collision avoidance manoeuvres have already been performed in the past five years of operation.改进避撞机动标准并开发会合分析方法
The new criteria may take international criteria for robotic spacecraft into consideration (if the probability of collision is greater than 10-4, a collision avoidance manoeuvre should be performed), along with the concrete direction of conjunction analysis.目前的标准很敏感;过去5年的运行中已进行过三次避撞机动。
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland新的标准可能参考机器人航天器国际标准(碰撞概率大于10-4时,应进行避撞机动),并需要提供会合分析方面的具体指导。
[Original: English]大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国 [原文:英文]
[14 October 2013][2013年10月14日]
Many countries have reflected their obligations under the outer space treaties through the enactment of national legislation.许多国家通过颁布国家法律体现本国在各项外层空间条约下的义务。
When the outer space treaties were developed, there was no understanding of space debris.在各项外层空间条约制定之时,人们尚未认识空间碎片。
However, the treaties and national regulations are flexible enough to address the issue in an effective manner, relying upon best practice and codes and principles to encourage the adoption of space debris mitigation measures.不过,这些条约和国家条例非常灵活,足以有效应对这一问题,可以依靠最佳做法、规范和原则鼓励采取空间碎片减缓措施。
A number of standards and guidelines for minimizing debris production and protecting spacecraft now exist at both the national and the international level.如今,国家和国际两级均有一些关于尽量减少碎片产生和保护航天器的标准和准则。
The importance of such mitigation measures is recognized by all spacefaring nations.所有航天国都承认这类减缓措施的重要性。
This is a key step in managing the future evolution of the orbital environment in a fair and equitable manner, as there is a cost associated with many mitigation practices.这是迈向以公平、公正的方式管理轨道环境今后演变的重要一步,因为许多减缓做法牵涉费用。
To ensure that their application will not penalize operational competitiveness, such mitigation measures must be recognized and applied by all users of space in a coordinated manner.为确保适用这类减缓措施不致妨碍业务竞争力,所有空间使用者都必须承认并协调统一地适用这类措施。
To be effective, mitigation practices will need to become an intrinsic and consistent element of in-orbit operations rather than a piecemeal, ad hoc practice.减缓做法要想行之有效,就需要始终作为在轨作业的一个固有要素,而非作为支离破碎的临时性做法。
If these practices can be embodied within national legislation, then operators will be obliged to consider space debris mitigation during all phases of a mission, from initial definition and feasibility to final disposal.如能将这些做法纳入国家立法,那么运营方就有义务在飞行任务的所有阶段考虑空间碎片减缓问题,从最初的定义和可行性研究,直至最后的弃置,均包括在内。
The Outer Space Act is the basis for licensing the activities of United Kingdom nationals in space, and technical assessments have recently been adapted to include consideration of space debris mitigation practices when deciding whether to issue a licence to an applicant.联合王国《外层空间法》是向联合王国国民颁发空间活动许可证的依据,最近对技术评估作了修改,以便在决定是否向申请人发放许可证时将空间碎片减缓措施考虑在内。
United Kingdom Outer Space Act联合王国《外层空间法》
The Outer Space Act 1986 is the legal basis for the regulation of activities in outer space (including the launch and operation of space objects) carried out by persons connected with the United Kingdom.1986年《外层空间法》是规范与联合王国相关人员开展的外层空间活动(包括发射和运行空间物体)的法律依据。
The Act confers licensing and other powers on the Secretary of State, acting through the United Kingdom Space Agency.该法将颁发许可证的权力和其他权力赋予通过联合王国航天局行事的大臣。
The Act ensures compliance with United Kingdom obligations under the international conventions covering the use of outer space to which the United Kingdom is a signatory.该法确保遵守联合王国在其签署的使用外层空间相关国际公约下的各项义务。
Those conventions are:这些公约有:
(a) The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies, 27 January 1967 (Outer Space Treaty);1967年1月27日《关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体在内外层空间活动的原则条约》(《外层空间条约》);
(b) The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space, 22 April 1968 (Rescue Agreement);1968年4月22日《营救宇宙航行员、送回宇宙航行员和归还发射到外层空间的物体的协定》(《营救协定》);
(c) The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 29 March 1972 (Liability Convention);1972年3月29日《空间物体所造成损害的国际责任公约》(《赔偿责任公约》);
(d) The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, 14 January 1975 (The Registration Convention).1975年1月14日《关于登记射入外层空间物体的公约》(《登记公约》)。
Under the legislation of the Outer Space Act, the Secretary of State shall not grant a licence unless he is satisfied that the activities authorized by the licence will not jeopardize public health or the safety of persons or property, will be consistent with the international obligations of the United Kingdom and will not impair the national security of the United Kingdom.根据《外层空间法》的规定,除非大臣确信许可证授权的活动不会危及公共卫生或人身财产安全,与联合王国的国际义务一致,也不会损害联合王国的国家安全,否则他不应颁发许可证。
Further, the Secretary of State requires the licensee to conduct its operations in such a way as to prevent the contamination of outer space or adverse changes in the environment of the Earth, and to avoid interference with activities of others in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space.此外,大臣要求被许可人开展作业时避免污染外层空间或使地球环境产生不利变化,并避免干扰他人和平探索及利用外层空间的活动。
The Secretary of State requires the licensee to insure itself against liability incurred in respect of damage or loss suffered by third parties, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, as a result of the activities authorized by the licence.大臣要求被许可人针对由许可证授权活动造成的、因在联合王国或其他地方的第三方遭受损害或损失而招致的责任投保。
Further, the licensee shall indemnify Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom against any claims brought against the government in respect of damage or loss arising out of activities carried on by the licensee to which the Act applies.此外,如联合王国女王陛下政府因被许可人开展该法适用的活动引起的损害或损失而被提出任何索赔,被许可人应对政府作出赔偿。
The Outer Space Act provides the necessary regulatory oversight to consider public health and safety, and the safety of property; to evaluate the environmental impact of proposed activities; to assess the implications for national security and foreign policy interests; and to determine financial responsibilities and international obligations.《外层空间法》在下列方面提供必要监管:审议公共卫生及安全和财产安全;评价拟议活动的环境影响;评估对本国安全和外国政策利益的影响;确定财政责任和国际义务。
Licensing process and technical evaluation许可证颁发程序和技术评价
Safety evaluation is aimed at determining whether an applicant can safely conduct the launch of the proposed launch vehicle or vehicles and any payload.安全评价旨在确定申请人是否能够安全地发射拟议的运载火箭和任何有效载荷。
Because the licensee is responsible for public safety, it is important that the applicant demonstrate an understanding of the hazards involved and discuss how the operations will be performed safely.因为被许可人要对公共安全负责,所以申请人务必要证明对所涉危险有所认识并说明如何安全地开展作业。
There are a number of technical analyses, some quantitative and some qualitative, that the applicant must perform in order to demonstrate that the commercial launch operations will pose no unacceptable threat to the public.有若干技术分析,有些是定量分析,有些是定性分析,申请人必须开展这些分析以证明商业性发射操作不会对公众构成不可接受的威胁。
The quantitative analyses tend to focus on the reliability and functions of critical safety systems, the hazards associated with the hardware and the risk those hazards pose to public property and individuals near the launch site and along the flight path, to satellites and to other on-orbit spacecraft.定量分析往往侧重于关键安全系统的可靠性和功能以及与硬件有关的危险,还侧重于这些危险对发射场附近和航迹沿线的公共财产和个人以及对卫星和其他在轨航天器构成的风险。
The qualitative analyses focus on the organizational attributes of the applicant, such as launch safety policies and procedures, communications, qualifications of key individuals, and critical internal and external interfaces.定性分析则侧重于申请人的组织属性,如发射安全政策和程序、通信、关键个人的资质以及重要的内部和外部界面。
The launch of a payload into orbit and the hazards associated with such an operation can be categorized into the general mission phases of:发射有效载荷进入轨道和与此类操作有关的危险可归类为飞行任务几个大的阶段:
(a) Pre-launch;发射前;
(b) Launch;发射;
(c) Orbit acquisition;轨道捕获;
(d) Re-entry.重返。
In the technical submissions for a licence under the Outer Space Act 1986, an applicant must provide an assessment of the risk to public safety and property, covering each phase of the mission relevant to the proposed operations and licensed activity.在申请1986年《外层空间法》下许可证的技术呈件中,申请人必须提供对公共安全和财产所造成风险的评估,其中要涵盖与拟议作业和许可活动有关的飞行任务的每一个阶段。
That assessment should include:评估应当包括:
(a) Discussion of possible vehicle and payload failures that could affect safety (including the safety of other active spacecraft);讨论可能影响安全(包括其他运行中航天器的安全)的发射器和有效载荷故障;
(b) Estimation of the likelihood of their occurrence, supported by vehicle reliability data, both theoretical and historical;借助发射器可靠性的理论和历史数据,估计故障发生的可能性;
(c) Consideration of the effects of such failures.审议此类故障的影响。
As appropriate, the assessment should address:评估应当酌情涉及:
(a) Launch range risks;射程风险;
(b) Risk to downrange areas owing to the impact of discarded mission hardware;因废弃的飞行任务硬件影响而对下段射程区域造成的风险;
(c) Overflight risks;飞越风险;
(d) Orbital risks, including the risk of collision and/or debris generation, owing to intermediate and final orbits of vehicle upper stages and payloads;轨道风险,包括因发射器末级和有效载荷中间和最终轨道而引起的碰撞和(或)碎片产生风险;
(e) Re-entry risks of vehicle upper stages and payloads.发射器末级和有效载荷的重返风险。
This risk assessment is then used as a basis for the review conducted by assessors to determine if the applicant’s proposed activities are compliant with the requirements of the Outer Space Act.然后该风险评估将被用作评估人员为确定申请人拟议的活动是否符合《外层空间法》要求而进行审查的依据。
The qualitative and quantitative criteria used for that evaluation are based on standards and practices employed by a variety of formal bodies.该评价所用的定性和定量标准以多个正式机构采用的标准和做法为依据。
In each case, the assessor seeks to understand the approach proposed by the licence applicant, to judge the quality of that process, to check the degree of consistency within the project, to consider the effectiveness of the proposed technology or process and to establish its conformance with industry or Agency norms, and the requirements of the Outer Space Act.评估人员每次都力求理解许可证申请人提议的方法,评判程序的质量,检查项目内部的一致程度,审议拟议技术或程序的有效性,并确定其是否符合行业或本国航天局各项规范和《外层空间法》各项要求。
Space debris mitigation and interpretation within the Outer Space Act空间碎片减缓及《外层空间法》给出的解释
In developing the technical evaluation framework to reflect space debris mitigation issues, the particular issues of physical interference and contamination referred to in the Outer Space Act are employed.在制定反映空间碎片减缓问题的技术评价框架时,用到《外层空间法》提及物理干扰和污染等具体问题。
Although the problem of space debris was not recognized when the Outer Space Act was enacted in 1986, the Act is flexible enough to allow interpretation to cover this aspect in the technical evaluation.虽然在1986年颁布《外层空间法》时人们尚未认识空间碎片问题,但是该法足够灵活,可以解释为技术评价涵盖这个方面。
Thus, “physical interference” is used to address the probability of collision with other objects in orbit and “contamination” to address safe disposal at end of life.这样,“物理干扰”被用来述及与其他在轨物体的碰撞概率,而“污染”被用来述述寿命终止时的安全处置问题。
As regards the actual measures that are used to evaluate a licence application, use is made of the growing number of guidelines, codes and standards that are being developed to deal with space debris mitigation.关于用来评价许可证申请的实际措施,则利用正在制定的处理空间碎片减缓问题的越来越多的准则、规范和标准。
The IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines and the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space provide qualitative and quantitative measures that are used to assess the compliance of licence applicants’ proposed activities and measures with recognized best practice within the community.空间碎片协委会《空间碎片减缓准则》与和平利用外层空间委员会《空间碎片减缓准则》提供定性和定量措施,可用来评估许可证申请人的拟议活动和措施是否遵守业界公认的最佳做法。
The most common licence that the UK Space Agency processes is a payload licence.联合王国航天局最常处理的许可证是有效载荷许可证。
In the case of a payload licence, the safety assessors check the satellite platform’s specifications (e.g. attitude control system, orbit, power storage mechanism, launcher interface and separation mechanism) and the safety processes (plans and procedures) to assess their effectiveness at space debris mitigation.就有效载荷许可证而言,安全评估人员检查卫星平台的各项规格(如:姿态控制系统、轨道、动力存储机制、发射装置接口和分离机制)和安全流程(计划和程序),以评估在空间碎片减缓方面是否有效。
Examples are given below:举例如下:
Attitude control system.姿态控制系统。
Initial determination of the nature of a system and whether it is fit for purpose.初步确定系统性质及是否符合用途。
Is the technology cold gas thrusters or reaction/momentum wheels, is there a potential for stored energy at end of life? If so, consider the likelihood of fragmentation occurring and if so, recommend passivation measures at end of life.技术是采用冷气推进器、反作用/动量轮吗?寿命终止时是否可能有剩存能源?如有,考虑发生碎裂的可能性,这种情况下,建议在寿命终止时采取钝化措施。
Basic understanding of the orbital elements of the proposed trajectory.对拟议轨道的轨道要素有基本了解。
Consider natural lifetime, stability of orbit under the influence of natural perturbations, degree of crowding at a particular altitude, any unique aspects of orbit configuration.考虑自然寿命、自然摄动影响下的轨道稳定性、某一高度的拥挤程度、轨道配置的任何独特方面。
Power storage mechanism.动力存储机制。
General review of technology and suitability.对技术和适当性作一般性审查。
Is it physical (flywheel) or electric, are fuel cells standard technology, are there any unique or exotic elements (e.g. radioisotope thermal generator), is the system scaled for platform power requirements and charge cycles (account for eclipse characteristics), is there a potential overcharge problem at end of life, passivation consideration?它是物理的(飞轮)还是电动的?是燃料电池标准技术吗?有独特/外来元件(如放射性同位素热能发电机)吗?系统根据平台电力要求和充电周期(可以解释星食特征)划分等级了吗?在寿命终止时可能出现过度充电的问题吗?有无钝化考虑?
Launcher interface and separation mechanism.发射装置接口和分离机制。
Understand the nature of the coupling and ejection process.了解耦合和抛射过程的性质。
Is the interface dictated by the launcher or payload, is the launch environment very demanding, is the launch environment well understood, specified and payload-qualified? How many objects are introduced into orbit in addition to the upper stage and payload, does the separation process minimize debris production?接口由发射装置还是由有效载荷支配?发射环境要求很高吗?搞清楚、详细说明并结合有效载荷审查发射环境了吗?除末级和有效载荷外,还有多少物体被送入轨道?分离过程把产生的碎片降到最低了吗?
Safety processes and procedures.安全流程和程序。
Determine the existence and consideration of safety issues.确定安全问题是否存在并予以考虑。
Where relevant to the launch phase, consider safety implications of the payload for the launcher: are there unique risks associated with the payload, if a multiple payload launch, does payload deployment pose a risk to others?与发射阶段有关,考虑有效载荷对发射装置的安全影响;有与有效载荷有关的独特风险吗?若是多有效载荷发射,那么有效载荷部署对其他有效载荷构成风险吗?
With regard to contamination of the environment, the impact on both the debris and radiation environment is assessed (for example, frequency interference).关于环境污染,评估对碎片环境和辐射环境的影响(如频率干扰)。
Impact on the debris environment.对碎片环境的影响。
Safety assessors consider the likelihood of collision of the payload with other operational payloads and general debris environment.安全评估人员考虑有效载荷与其他运作中有效载荷碰撞的可能性和总体的碎片环境。
This is determined by orbital configuration, orbital lifetime, physical size and spatial density of objects at the proposed altitude.这由拟议高度上的轨道配置、轨道寿命、物理尺寸和物体的空间密度决定。
De-orbit or re-orbit plans.脱轨计划或变轨计划。
Regarding the operator’s ability to comply with safety requirements, the applicant is asked about its de-orbit/re-orbit plans, whether plans exist to remove the satellite from the operational orbit should an irrecoverable failure occur, whether such capability is available, etc.关于运营方遵守安全要求的能力,询问申请人其脱轨/变轨计划,一旦发生无可挽救的故障,是否有将卫星清除出运行轨道的计划,是否有此种能力等。
Safety assessors need to understand whether plans exist and if so, whether they are effective.安全评估人员需要了解计划是否存在,如果存在,它们有效吗?考虑过这个问题吗?运行轨道在何等高度?是否需要处置?是否计划变轨进入更高轨道或脱轨进入较低轨道?弃星轨道有效吗?它们遵守现行标准/准则(如使用空间碎片协委会关于地球静止轨道卫星的变轨规则,2,000千米以下为最长不超过25年的弃星轨道寿命)吗?平台技术有何可行之处?在无地面干涉情况下,航天器上执行脱轨/变轨的自主程度?用何标准确定寿命终止?作业程序经一致同意了吗?是否在常规作业前制定好作业程序?
Has the issue been considered, at what altitude is operational orbit, is disposal necessary, is re-orbit to a higher altitude or de-orbit to a lower altitude planned, are disposal orbits effective, do they comply with existing standards and guidelines (e.g. use of IADC re-orbiting formula for geostationary Earth orbit satellites, 25-year maximum disposal orbit lifetime below 2,000 km), what is feasible with platform technology, extent of autonomy on board to conduct de-orbit or re-orbit without ground intervention, what criteria are used to determine end of life? Are operational procedures agreed or will they be put in place prior to regular operations?摘要
The United Kingdom has implemented space debris mitigation measures in its evaluation of licence applications under the United Kingdom Outer Space Act 1986 to ensure compliance with the established outer space treaties and conventions and the emerging set of guidelines, codes and standards.除了规定遵守方面的要求,联合王国还进行遵守情况监测活动,包括利用地面的空间监视系统如Starbrook光学望远镜,监测联合王国许可的在轨卫星的位置。
In addition to setting the requirements for compliance, the United Kingdom performs compliance monitoring activities, including the use of ground-based space surveillance systems such as the Starbrook optical telescope to monitor the position of United Kingdom-licensed satellites in orbit.三. 从国际组织收到的答复
III. Replies received from international organizations空间研究委员会
Committee on Space Research [Original: English][原文:英文]
[8 October 2013][2013年10月8日]
The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) has been addressing the topic of space debris for more than a quarter of a century.空间研究委员会(空间研委会)处理空间碎片专题已超过四分之一世纪。
For many years the COSPAR Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space (PEDAS) has held multiple space debris sessions at each biannual COSPAR Scientific Assembly.多年来,空间研委会对环境构成潜在危害太空活动问题小组在每次两年一度的空间研委会科学大会期间多次举行空间碎片会议。
Those sessions address (a) the characterization of the space debris environment through measurements and modelling, (b) risks posed to spacecraft by collisions with space debris, (c) the means to protect spacecraft and (d) strategies and policies to curtail the creation of new space debris.这些会议探讨:(a)通过测量和建模确定空间碎片环境的性质,(b)与空间碎片碰撞给航天器造成的风险,(c)保护航天器的手段,(d)抑制产生新的空间碎片的战略和政策。
In 2012 the theme of the PEDAS sessions was “Space debris — steps towards environmental control”.2012年,对环境构成潜在危害太空活动问题小组会议的主题是“空间碎片问题——迈向环境控制”。
At the fortieth COSPAR Scientific Assembly, in 2014, the theme of the PEDAS sessions will be “Space debris — responding to a dynamic environment”.在2014年空间研委会第四十次科学大会上,该小组的会议主题将是“空间碎片问题——应对动态环境”。
Four half-day sessions will address advances in ground- and space-based observations and methods for their exploitation, in situ measurement techniques, debris and meteoroid environment models, debris flux and collision risk for space missions, on-orbit collision assessment, re-entry risk assessments, debris mitigation and debris environment remediation techniques and their effectiveness with regard to long-term environment stability, and national and international debris mitigation standards and guidelines.为期四天半的会议将探讨:地面和空间观测的进步及其利用方法,现场测量技术,碎片与流星体环境模型,碎片通量及空间飞行任务的碰撞风险,在轨碰撞评估,重返风险评估,碎片减缓和碎片环境恢复技术及其对环境长期稳定性的有效性,以及各国和国际碎片减缓标准和准则。
Prior to 2007, more than 95 per cent of all hazardous space debris was created in accidental or deliberate explosions of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages.2007年以前,所有危险空间碎片中有95%以上是航天器和运载火箭轨道级意外或故意爆炸产生的。
The major spacefaring nations and organizations recognized the threat of the continued growth of the space debris population to the numerous space systems serving vital needs on Earth and adopted first national and then international space debris mitigation policies.主要航天国家和组织认识到空间碎片数量不断增长给在满足地球上的重要需求的许多空间系统造成的威胁,先是在国内、然后在国际上采取了空间碎片减缓政策。
In 2002 IADC established the first consensus set of space debris mitigation guidelines for the world’s leading national space agencies.2002年,空间碎片协委会在共识基础上为世界主要国家空间机构确立了第一套空间碎片减缓准则。
Those guidelines were used as the foundation for the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of 2007.这些准则被用作2007年外层空间委员会《空间碎片减缓准则》的基础。
Collisions among resident space objects can not only be potentially catastrophic, but can also generate large numbers of new debris objects that could further degrade the near-Earth space environment.现有空间碎片间的碰撞不仅可能造成灾难,而且可能产生大量新的碎片,这些碎片可能导致近地空间环境进一步退化。
This threat was first discussed in the 1970s, but new studies in 2005 indicated that some parts of the low Earth orbit region, i.e.1970年代首次讨论这种威胁,但在2005年,新的研究表明,低地球轨道区即低于2,000公里高度的某些部分已经变得不稳定了。
altitudes below 2,000 km, had already become unstable.换言之,意外碰撞产生碎片的速度超出了通过大气阻力自然清除的速度。
In other words, the rate of debris generation by accidental collisions exceeded the natural removal rate by atmospheric drag.这样,这些区域的空间碎片数量将继续增加,即使在未部署新的卫星的情况下。
Hence, the space debris population in those regimes will continue to increase even in the absence of new satellite deployments.这种状况称作凯斯勒症侯群,是影响外层空间活动长期可持续性的主要问题之一。
This condition is known as the Kessler syndrome and is one of the major issues affecting the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.近期而言,运行中航天器遇到的最大威胁是有大量5毫米至10厘米的碎片。
In the near term, the greatest threat to operational spacecraft is the very large population of debris with sizes of 5 mm to 10 cm. With very high collision velocities, those small debris objects carry sufficient energy to penetrate and to damage vital spacecraft systems.这些小型碎片物体的碰撞速度非常高,具有足够的能量,可以穿透和损坏重要的航天器系统。
For the long-term, the principal threat arises from the collision of larger objects, which in turn will generate significant numbers of new space debris objects.长期而言,主要威胁来自大型物体的碰撞,这些碰撞反过来又产生大量新的空间碎片物体。
Even if all newly launched satellites comply with international recommendations for limiting stays in low Earth orbit, the large number of derelict spacecraft, launch vehicle orbital stages and moderate-sized debris objects already in orbit will collide with one another with increasing frequency and create new hazardous debris.即使所有新发射卫星都遵守关于限制在低地球轨道停留时间的建议,已经在轨道的大量废弃航天器、运载火箭轨道级和中等大小的碎片物体将越来越频繁地相互碰撞,并产生新的危险碎片。
Consequently, the removal of existing space debris objects, both small and large, is of great importance for the preservation of near-Earth space for the use of future generations.因此,清除现有的不管是大的还是小的空间碎片物体,对于保护近地空间以供子孙后代使用非常重要。
Several countries are now evaluating the technical and economic potential of a wide variety of space debris removal concepts.有几个国家正在评估多种清除空间碎片构想在技术和经济上的可能性。
Those proposals range from conventional space tugs to innovative ideas employing drag augmentation devices, electrodynamic tethers, solar sails and many other imaginative devices.这些建议从传统的空间拖车到利用阻力助增装置、电动绳系、太阳帆和许多其他有想象力的装置的各种创新想法,应有尽有。
The challenges of active space debris removal are substantial, but spacefaring nations and international scientific organizations such as COSPAR are devoting considerable efforts to promoting the long-term sustainability of operations in near-Earth space for the benefit of all. COSPAR continues to be a leader in promoting a better understanding of the nature and risks of the space debris environment and in encouraging spacefaring nations and organizations to act responsively in space through each mission phase, including deployment, operations and disposal.主动清除空间碎片的挑战是艰巨的,但航天国家和国际科学组织如空间研委会为促进近地空间用业的长期可持续性以造福全人类作出了巨大努力。
Secure World Foundation空间研委会继续牵头增进提高对空间碎片环境性质及风险的认识,并鼓励航天国家和组织在空间负责任地行事,这种态度要贯穿包括部署、作业和处置在内的飞行任务各个阶段。
[Original: English]世界安全基金会 [原文:英文]
[18 October 2013][2013年10月18日]
The Secure World Foundation (SWF) has a keen interest in the long-term sustainability of the space environment and considers space debris mitigation to be an important topic.世界安全基金会对空间环境的长期可持续性抱有浓厚的兴趣,并认为空间碎片减缓是一个重要专题。
In 2013, the Secure World Foundation completed a two-year series of international events on issues of on-orbit satellite servicing and active debris removal.2013年,世界安全基金会完成了为期两年的关于在轨卫星维护和主动清除碎片问题的系列国际活动。
On-orbit satellite servicing and active debris removal are part of an emerging category of future on-orbit activities that are critical for taking the next leap in our use of Earth orbit and could play a critical role in mitigating orbital debris and preventing collisions between orbital debris and active satellites.在轨卫星维护和主动清除碎片是正在出现的一类对于使用地球轨道方面实现下一步跨越至关重要的未来在轨活动的组成部分,可在减缓轨道碎片并防止轨道碎片与活动卫星碰撞方面发挥关键作用。
Those activities also raise a host of diplomatic, legal, safety, operational and policy challenges that need to be tackled for that future to be possible.这些活动还提出许多外交、法律、安全、作业和政策挑战,需要克服这些挑战以使这种未来成为可能。
Working with partners, SWF organized a series of international events to bring in the perspectives and viewpoints of all stakeholders on non-technical challenges of active debris removal and on-orbit satellite servicing.世界安全基金会与合作伙伴一道,举办了一系列国际活动,以汇集所有利益相关者对于主动清除碎片和在轨卫星维护和的非技术性挑战的观点和看法。
The series of events began with a scenario-based workshop in Washington, D.C.系列活动始于2012年11月5日在华盛顿特区举办的一次基于情景的讲习班,这次讲习班召集来自美国政府机构、私营部门和民间社会的专家,针对今后私营部门可能开展活动的四种不同情景,审查了国家在监管主动清除碎片和在轨卫星维护方面的挑战。
on 5 November 2012, which convened experts from United States government agencies, the private sector and civil society to examine the national regulatory challenges of active debris removal and on-orbit satellite servicing across four different scenarios of possible future private sector activities.2012年10月30日,世界安全基金会与法国国际关系研究所合作,在布鲁塞尔举行了一次在轨卫星维护和主动清除碎片公开会议,以促使欧洲各国参与。
On 30 October 2012, in partnership with the French Institute of International Relations, SWF held a public conference on on-orbit satellite servicing and active debris removal in Brussels in order to engage the European community.讨论的具体专题包括轨卫星维护和主动清除碎片技术的双重用途性、开展在轨卫星维护和主动清除碎片活动的行为规范以及旨在降低这类活动被视作威胁的风险的透明度和建立信任措施。
Specific topics that were addressed included the dual-use nature of on-orbit satellite servicing and active debris removal technologies, norms of behaviour for conducting on-orbit satellite servicing and active debris removal activities, and transparency and confidence-building measures to reduce the risk of such activities being seen as threats.2013年2月19日,世界安全基金会在新加坡举行了另一次主动清除碎片和在轨卫星维护情景讲习班。
On 19 February 2013, SWF held another active debris removal and on-orbit satellite servicing scenario workshop in Singapore.参加者包括来自澳大利亚、加拿大、中国、德国、印度、日本、瑞士和美国的空间政策、空间法和空间业务领域专家。
Attendees included experts in the fields of space policy, space law and space operations from Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Japan, Switzerland and the United States.2013年2月20日,世界安全基金会与新加坡空间与技术协会合作举行了一整天的公开会议。
On 20 February 2013, SWF held a full-day public conference in partnership with the Singapore Space and Technology Association.这次会议继续以前在比利时和美国举行的会议上进行的讨论。
The conference was a continuation of the discussions previously held at the conferences in Belgium and the United States.会上讨论得出的总体结论是,进行一次或多次主动清除碎片或在轨卫星维护演示任务以处理法律和政策挑战非常重要。
The overall conclusion from the discussions at those events was the importance of one or more active debris removal or on-orbit satellite servicing demonstration missions for tackling legal and policy challenges.此类演示任务最好让不止一个国家参与,并且不仅让政府行为者也让私人部门行为者参与。
Ideally, such demonstration missions would involve more than one country and both government and private sector actors.演示任务将提供此类活动以及特定法律和政策挑战的具体例子。
The demonstration missions would provide concrete examples of such activities with specific legal and policy challenges.演示任务将迫使相关行为者解决这些挑战,并籍此为建立机制、明度和建立信任措施及必要规范奠定基础,以便今后的主动清除碎片和在轨卫星维护以安全、可靠和可持续的方式进行。
The demonstration missions would force the relevant actors to resolve those challenges, and in doing so lay the groundwork for establishing the mechanisms, transparency and confidence-building measures, and norms necessary for future active debris removal and on-orbit satellite servicing activities to be carried out in a safe, secure and sustainable manner.所有参加讨论人员都指出,需要更多地进行对话和开展工作,以处理主动清除碎片和在轨卫星维护的挑战。
All of the participants in those discussions noted that much more dialogue and work were needed to addresses the challenges of active debris removal and on-orbit satellite servicing.一致认为这些活动将成为今后人类空间活动的一个重要组成部分。
There was consensus that those activities would be a key part of future human activities in space.处理这些活动造成的法律和政策挑战至关重要,不仅有利于为这些活动创造条件,而且有利于确保它们增进而不是减损空域的安全、可靠和长期可持续性。
Addressing the legal and policy challenges that those activities pose is critical not only for enabling them but also for ensuring that they contribute to the safety, security and long-term sustainability of the space domain instead of detracting from it.9月份,国际宇航联合会年轻专业人员方案邀请新一代航天专业人员出席空间碎片问题招待会,这是在北京举行的第六十四届国际宇航大会的组成部分。
In September, the International Aeronautical Federation Young Professional Programme invited the next generation of aerospace professionals to a reception about space debris as part of the 64th International Astronautical Congress, in Beijing.该活动由世界安全基金会和洛桑联邦理工学院赞助。
That event was sponsored by SWF and the Federal Polytechnic Institute of Lausanne.逾100名代表听取了专家就空间碎片的威胁和减缓此类威胁的挑战所作的发言,并以提出问题和发表评论的方式提出了自己的意见。
Over 100 delegates listened to experts discussing the threats of space debris and the challenges to mitigating them and brought their own opinions to the table by asking questions and providing comments.空间新一代咨询理事会
Space Generation Advisory Council [Original: English][原文:英文]
[15 October 2013][2013年10月15日]
Design of an active space debris removal mission based on priority targets基于优先目标设计主动清除碎片任务
With more than 93 per cent of the catalogued in-orbit population consisting of space debris, the safety of operational spacecraft, including those with on-board nuclear power sources, is threatened by possible collisions that could result in structural damage or complete disintegration.在编入目录的在轨物体中,超过93%是空间碎片,可能发生的碰撞威胁运行中航天器的安全,包括携载核动力源的航天器的安全,这些碰撞可能导致结构损坏或彻底解体。
Several research programmes have assessed the current and future state of the space environment, with studies indicating the urgent need for active debris removal programmes to ensure long-term space sustainability.有几个研究方案评估了当前和未来的空间环境状况,研究表明迫切需要开展主动清除碎片方案,以确保空间的长期可持续性。
In order to design an effective active debris removal mission, high-priority targets for future active debris removal missions need to be first identified on the basis of deterministic data of top conjunction objects from daily satellite conjunction alerts.为了设计有效的主动清除碎片任务,需要首先基于来自平时卫星会合警告的最可能会合物体的确定性数据,确定今后主动清除碎片任务的高度优先目标。
The accurate representation of high-risk objects and regions in space allows for the continual development and implementation of active debris removal solutions that are capable of remediating space debris in low Earth orbit.准确确定空间的高风险物体和区域,将有利于不断制定和执行能够修复低地球轨道空间碎片的主动清除碎片解决方案。
Design of technically feasible active debris removal missions设计技术上可行的主动清除碎片任务
While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that they will not be enough to ensure humanity’s access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long term.虽然为缓解当前状况和限制产生新的碎片作出了有益的国际努力,但最近进行的预测碎片演变情况的研究表明这些还不够,从长期而言不能确保人类有机会使用和实际使用近地环境。
Rather, active debris removal must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities.相反,要想继续受益于空间活动和开展空间活动,就必须主动清除碎片。
A programme capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, establishing physical contact, stabilizing its altitude and finally de-orbiting the object is recommended.建议开展的方案能够:通过近距离交会接近碎片物体、建立物理接触、稳定其高度并最终使物体脱离轨道。
Research undertaken at the Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) has shown that a modified launch vehicle upper stage equipped with the addition of an electrodynamic tether system could be used to de-orbit large debris objects from polar orbit while also delivering an acceptable payload to orbit.航天新一代咨询理事会进行的研究表明,可以使用增配电动绳系的经改装运载火箭末级将大型碎片物体从极轨道脱轨,同时还可以将可接受的有效载荷运至轨道。
The feasibility of the proposed concept allows the upper stage of the launch vehicle to act as a “hunter system” after delivery of its primary payload.提议构想的可行性允许运载火箭的末级在运送主要有效载荷之后发挥“猎人系统”的作用。
Measures relating to an economically, legally and politically viable active debris mission与经济上、法律上和政治上可行的主动清除碎片任务有关的措施
While the concept of active debris removal is not new, there are a host of economic, legal, regulatory and political issues associated with debris remediation.主动清除碎片的构思并非新近提出,但碎片修复牵涉许多经济、法律/监管和政治问题。
An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.具有国际性、合作性的公私伙伴关系构想可解决其中许多问题,并且具有经济可持续性,同时也推动建立一套完善的条例、标准和最佳做法。
A method of objective evaluation based on a scorecard with criteria in each of these non-technical areas is proposed to make a multidisciplinary assessment of active debris removal concepts in a Space Safety and Sustainability Project Group paper presented at the 64th International Astronautical Congress, in Beijing.在北京第六十四届国际宇航大会上宣读了空间安全与可持续性项目组的论文,其中提出一种按照上述每个非技术领域的标准进行打分的客观评价方法,对主动清除碎片构想进行多学科评估。
The scorecard method is a strategic performance tool that is used to keep track of criteria considered important to the performance of the system, based on a project’s effectiveness in a specific field, including legal, policy, technical and economic frameworks.打分方法是一种战略性性能工具,用来基于项目在特定领域包括在法律、政策、技术和经济框架内的有效性,跟踪被视为对系统性能重要的各项标准。
In order to fully comprehend the extent of the space debris issue, help to avoid collisions and eventually manage active debris removal, continual research into a framework for international debris removal efforts is crucial.为了充分理解空间碎片问题的程度,帮助避免碰撞并最终对主动清除碎片进行管理,必须继续研究国际碎片清除努力的框架。
The Space Safety and Sustainability Project Group, on behalf of SGAC, encourages active participation among students and young professionals in space safety and sustainability-related debates and activities to expand on the current knowledge in order to minimize the risk of orbital collisions.空间安全与可持续性项目组代表航天新一代咨询理事会,鼓励学生和年轻专业人员积极参与空间安全与可持续性相关辩论和活动,以增进目前的知识,从而尽可能降低轨道碰撞的风险。