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<>N9877395E<>联合国联合国联合国联合国 A 大 会 Distr. GENERAL
<><> UNITED A NATIONS General Assembly Distr. GENERAL A/RES/S-20/3 8 September 19988 September 1998
Twentieth special session98-77394
Agenda items 9, 10 and 11第二十届特别会议 议程项目9 10和11
[without reference to a Main Committee (A/S-20/11)][未经发交主要委员会而通过(A/S-20/11)]
Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction减少毒品需求指导原则宣言
The General Assembly大会
Adopts the Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction annexed to the present resolution.通过本决议所附减少毒品需求指导原则宣言
9th plenary meeting1998年6月10日
10 June 1998 ANNEX Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction I. THE CHALLENGE 1. All countries are affected by the devastating consequences of drug abuse and illicit trafficking: adverse effects on health; the upsurge in crime, violence and corruption; the draining of human, natural and financial resources that might otherwise be used for social and economic development; the destruction of individuals, families and communities; and the undermining of political, cultural, social and economic structures. 2. Drug abuse affects all sectors of society and countries at all levels of development. Therefore, drug demand reduction policies and programmes should address all sectors of society. 3. A rapidly changing social and economic climate, coupled with increased availability and promotion of drugs and the demand for them, have contributed to the increasing magnitude of the global drug abuse problem. The complexity of the problem has been compounded by changing patterns of drug abuse, supply and distribution. There has been an increase in social and economic factors which make people, especially the young, more vulnerable and likely to engage in drug use and drug-related risk-taking behaviour. 4. Extensive efforts have been and continue to be made by Governments at all levels to suppress the illicit production, trafficking and distribution of drugs. The most effective approach to the drug problem consists of a comprehensive, balanced and coordinated approach, by which supply control and demand reduction reinforce each other, together with the appropriate application of the principle of shared responsibility. There is now a need to intensify our efforts at demand reduction and to provide adequate resources towards that end. 5. Programmes to reduce the demand for drugs should be part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce the demand for all substances of abuse. Such programmes should be integrated to promote cooperation among all concerned, should include a wide variety of appropriate interventions, should promote health and social well-being among individuals, families and communities and should reduce the adverse consequences of drug abuse for the individual and for society as a whole. 6. The present Declaration is an important initiative of the United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse, covering the period from 1991 to 2000. It responds to the need for an international instrument on the adoption of effective measures at the national, regional and international levels against the demand for illicit drugs. It builds and expands upon a number of related international conventions and recommendations, which are referred to in the appendix to the present Declaration. II. THE COMMITMENT 7. We the States Members of the United Nations: (a) Undertake that the present Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction shall direct our actions; (b) Pledge a sustained political, social, health and educational commitment to investing in demand reduction programmes that will contribute towards reducing public health problems, improving individual health and well-being, promoting social and economic integration, reinforcing family systems and making communities safer; (c) Agree to promote, in a balanced way, interregional and international cooperation in order to control supply and reduce demand; (d) Adopt measures as provided for in article 14, paragraph 4, of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, which states, inter alia, that parties should adopt "appropriate measures aimed at eliminating or reducing illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances" and may enter into bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements aimed at eliminating or reducing that demand. III. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 8. The following principles shall guide the formulation of the demand reduction component of national and international drug control strategies, in accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law, in particular, respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, human rights and fundamental freedoms and the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the principle of shared responsibility: (a) There shall be a balanced approach between demand reduction and supply reduction, each reinforcing the other, in an integrated approach to solving the drug problem; (b) Demand reduction policies shall: (i)Aim at preventing the use of drugs and at reducing the adverse consequences of drug abuse; (ii)Provide for and encourage active and coordinated participation of individuals at the community level, both generally and in situations of particular risk, by virtue, for example, of their geographical location, economic conditions or relatively large addict populations; (iii) Be sensitive to both culture and gender; (iv) Contribute towards developing and sustaining supportive environments. IV. CALL FOR ACTION A. Assessing the problem 9. Demand reduction programmes should be based on a regular assessment of the nature and magnitude of drug use and abuse and drug-related problems in the population. This is imperative for the identification of any emerging trends. Assessments should be undertaken by States in a comprehensive, systematic and periodic manner, drawing on results of relevant studies, allowing for geographical considerations and using similar definitions, indicators and procedures to assess the drug situation. Demand reduction strategies should be built on knowledge acquired from research as well as lessons derived from past programmes. These strategies should take into account the scientific advances in the field, in accordance with the existing treaty obligations, subject to national legislation and the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control. B. Tackling the problem 10. Demand reduction programmes should cover all areas of prevention, from discouraging initial use to reducing the negative health and social consequences of drug abuse. They should embrace information, education, public awareness, early intervention, counselling, treatment, rehabilitation, relapse prevention, aftercare and social reintegration. Early help and access to services should be offered to those in need. C. Forging partnerships 11. A community-wide participatory and partnership approach is crucial to the accurate assessment of the problem, the identification of viable solutions and the formulation and implementation of appropriate policies and programmes. Collaboration among Governments, nongovernmental organizations, parents, teachers, health professionals, youth and community organizations, employers' and workers' organizations and the private sector is therefore essential. Such collaboration improves public awareness and enhances the capacity of communities to deal with the negative consequences of drug abuse. Public responsibility and awareness and community mobilization are of paramount importance to ensuring the sustainability of demand reduction strategies. 12. Demand reduction efforts should be integrated into broader social welfare and health promotion policies and preventive education programmes. It is necessary to secure and sustain an environment in which healthy choices become attractive and accessible. Efforts to reduce the demand for drugs should be part of a broader social policy approach that encourages multisectoral collaboration. Such efforts should be comprehensive, multifaceted, coordinated and integrated with social and public policies that influence the overall health and social and economic well-being of people. D. Focusing on special needs 13. Demand reduction programmes should be designed to address the needs of the population in general, as well as those of specific population groups, special attention being paid to youth. Programmes should be effective, relevant and accessible to those groups most at risk, taking into account differences in gender, culture and education. 14. In order to promote the social reintegration of drug-abusing offenders, where appropriate and consistent with the national laws and policies of Member States, Governments should consider providing, either as an alternative to conviction or punishment, or in addition to punishment, that abusers of drugs should undergo treatment, education, aftercare, rehabilitation and social reintegration. Member States should develop within the criminal justice system, where appropriate, capacities for assisting drug abusers with education, treatment and rehabilitation services. In this overall context, close cooperation between criminal justice, health and social systems is a necessity and should be encouraged. E. Sending the right message 15. Information utilized in educational and prevention programmes should be clear, scientifically accurate and reliable, culturally valid, timely and, where possible, tested with a target population. Every attempt should be made to ensure credibility, avoid sensationalism, promote trust and enhance effectiveness. States should, in cooperation with the media, seek to raise public consciousness about the hazards of drug use and to promote prevention messages, countering the promotion of drug use in popular culture. F. Building on experience 16. States should place appropriate emphasis on training policy makers, programme planners and practitioners in all aspects of the design, execution and evaluation of demand reduction strategies and programmes. Those strategies and programmes should be ongoing and should be aimed at meeting the needs of participants. 17. Demand reduction strategies and specific activities should be thoroughly evaluated to assess and improve their effectiveness. The evaluations should also be appropriate to the specific culture and programme involved. The results of these evaluations should be shared with all those interested. APPENDIX Supplementary reference material for Governments considering national drug control strategies 1. Under article 38 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol and article 20 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, parties to those conventions are required to take all practicable measures for the prevention of abuse of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances and "for the early identification, treatment, education, aftercare, rehabilitation and social reintegration of the persons involved". Article 14, paragraph 4, of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 states that parties "shall adopt appropriate measures aimed at eliminating or reducing illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, with a view to reducing human suffering and eliminating financial incentives for illicit traffic." 2. Taking into account the fact that the rise in global concern about the extent, nature and effects of drug abuse has created an opportunity and the will to intensify action, States reaffirm the validity and importance of the international agreements and declarations in the area of demand reduction that have been elaborated. The importance of demand reduction was confirmed by the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, held at Vienna from 17 to 26 June 1987, which adopted the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control. The Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline sets out fourteen targets in the field of demand reduction, as well as the types of activities needed to achieve them at the national, regional and international levels. The General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs have all adopted resolutions endorsing the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline and emphasizing the need to pay increasing attention to demand reduction. Moreover, at its seventeenth special session, on international cooperation against illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, the General Assembly, by its resolution S-17/2 of 23 February 1990, adopted the Political Declaration and Global Programme of Action. The Global Programme of Action, in paragraphs 9 to 37, addresses issues related to the prevention and reduction of drug abuse with a view to elimination of the illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and to the treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug abusers. Further attention was directed to demand reduction by the World Ministerial Summit to Reduce the Demand for Drugs and to Combat the Cocaine Threat, held in London from 9 to 11 April 1990. 3. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in article 33, emphasizes the need to protect children from the abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. A similar point is made in the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, which, in paragraphs 77 and 78, includes proposals for involving youth organizations and young people in demand reduction activities. Also of significance is the Code of Practice on the Management of Alcohol- and Drug-related Issues in the Workplace, adopted by a tripartite meeting of experts and subsequently endorsed by the Governing Body of the International Labour Organization at its two hundred and sixty-second session, in 1995. The principles of equality of opportunity and treatment contained in the Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation (No. 111) adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1958 are also directly relevant to demand reduction. The term "drug demand reduction" is used to describe policies or programmes directed towards reducing the consumer demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances covered by the international drug control conventions (the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol [United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 976, No. 14152], the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 [ibid., vol. 1019, No. 14956] and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 [see Official Records of the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Vienna, 25 November-20 December 1988, vol. I (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.XI.5)]). The distribution of these narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances is forbidden by law or limited to medical and pharmaceutical channels. Resolution 217 A (III). See Report of the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, Vienna, 17-26 June 1987 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.87.I.18), chap. I, sect. A. See A/45/262, annex. Resolution 44/25, annex. Resolution 50/81, annex. International Labour Office, Geneva, 1996. 98-77395 /... 98-77395 /...第9次全体会议
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A/RES/S-20/3附 件 减少毒品需求指导原则宣言 1 一. 挑战挑战挑战挑战 1. 药物滥用和非法贩运所造成的破坏性后果使各国均受到影响 这种后果是 有害健 康 犯罪 暴力和腐败现象日益严重 消耗本可用于社会和经济发展的人力资源 自然资 源和财政资源 个人 家庭和社会被毁 政治 文化 社会和经济结构受到破坏 2. 药物滥用影响到社会各阶层和处于各个发展阶段的国家 因此 减少毒品需求政策 和方案应当涉及社会所有阶层 3. 社会和经济环境条件的迅速变化 加上药物的提供和推销及其需求的有增无减 致 使全球药物滥用问题日益严重 药物滥用 供应和分销的不断变化格局进一步增加了问题 的复杂性 有越来越多的社会和经济因素使人们 尤其是年轻人更易受到影响 更易吸毒 和进行涉毒冒险行为 4. 各国政府在各级已经作出并将继续作出广泛的努力 以制止非法生产 贩运和分销 药物 解决毒品问题最有效的是采用全面 均衡和协调的做法 通过控制供应和减少需求 使两者相辅相成 同时适当实施责任分担原则 目前须更加努力减少需求 并为此提供充 分的资源 5. 减少毒品需求的方案应当作为旨在减少对所有各种被滥用物质的需求的全面战略 的一部分 此种方案应结合起来 促进各有关方面的合作 应包括广泛的各种适当的干预 1 减少毒品需求一词用于描述旨在是减少消费者对国际药物管制公约(经1972 年议定书修正的 1961 年麻醉品单一公约 [联合国,条约汇编,第 976卷,第14152号] 1971年精神药物公约 [同上,第1019 卷,第14956 号]和 1988年禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约 [见 联合国关于通过禁止非法贩 运麻醉药品和精神药物公约的会议正式记录,1988年11月25日至12月20 日,维也纳 ,第一卷(联合 国出版物,出售品编号:C.94.XI.5)]所涉及的麻醉药品和精神药物需求的政策或方案 这些麻醉药品和 精神药物的分销受法律禁止或限于医疗和制药渠道 A/RES/S-20/3
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98-77395 /...措施 应增进个人 家庭和社区的健康和社会福利 并应减少药物滥用对个人和整个社会
98-77395 /...的不利后果 6. 本宣言是1991年至 2000 年联合国禁止药物滥用十年中的一项重要举措 它响应了 人们对一项关于在国家 区域和国际各级采取有效措施打击非法药物需求的国际文书的需 要 它以本宣言附录所列各项有关国际公约和建议为基础 同时增加了内容 二. 承诺承诺承诺承诺 7. 我们联合国会员国: (a) 承诺以此项 减少毒品需求指导原则宣言 来指导我们的行动 (b) 保证在政治 社会 保健和教育领域作出持续坚定不移的努力 对有助于减少 公共健康问题 增进个人安康 促进社会和经济一体化 加强家庭体系和增强社区安 全的减少需求方案给予投资 (c) 同意为了控制供应和减少需求而以统筹兼顾的方式促进区域间合作和国际合 作 (d) 采取 1988年联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约 第14条第4款 规定的措施 其中指出缔约方应采取 适当措施 消除或减少对麻醉药品和精神药物 的非法需求 并可达成旨在消除或减少这种需求的双边或多边协定或安排 三. 指导原则指导原则指导原则指导原则 8. 根据 联合国宪章 和国际法的原则 特别是尊重国家的主权和领土完整 根据人 权和基本自由及 世界人权宣言 2 的原则 并根据责任分担原则 应以下述原则作为制定 国家和国际药物管制战略中有关减少需求部分的指导原则 (a) 在综合处理解决毒品问题时 应采取均衡方法 兼顾减少需求和减少供应相辅 相成的两个方面 (b) 减少需求的政策应 致力于防止毒品使用和减少药物滥用的有害后果 2
A/RES/S-20/3第217A(III)号决议 A/RES/S-20/3
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A/RES/S-20/3促进鼓励社区一般公众和处于特定危险情况下的人根据其所处的地理位置 经 济条件或吸毒成瘾的人相对较多等情况积极协调地参与 切合文化习俗和性别敏感性 促进开创并保持支助性环境 四. 呼吁采取行动呼吁采取行动呼吁采取行动呼吁采取行动 A.A.A.A. 评估问题评估问题评估问题评估问题 9. 减少需求方案应立足于在人口之中就毒品使用和滥用及与毒品有关问题的性质和 严重程度所作的定期评估 这对于确定任何新出现的趋势来说是必不可少的 各国应全面 系统 定期地进行这类评估 利用有关研究成果 考虑到地域因素并采用相同的定义 指 标和程序来评估药物滥用状况 减少需求战略应以调查得来的知识和以往方案取得的经验 教训为依据 这种战略应当考虑到这个领域的科学进步 符合现有条约义务 国家立法和 管制药物滥用今后活动的综合性多学科纲要 3 B.B.B.B. 处理问题处理问题处理问题处理问题 10. 减少需求方案应当涉及预防工作的各个方面 从劝阻初次使用到减少药物滥用对健 康和社会的有害后果 这类方案应当包括宣传 教育 提高公众认识 早期干预 咨询 治疗 康复 防止复发 疗后护理和重新融入社会 应当向那些有需要者提供早期帮助和 服务 C.C.C.C. 建立伙伴关系建立伙伴关系建立伙伴关系建立伙伴关系 11. 采用全社区参与和建立伙伴关系的方法对准确评估有关问题 确定可行的解决办法 及制定和实施适当的政策和方案至关重要 因此 各国政府 非政府组织 家长 教师 保健专业人员 青年和社区组织 雇主组织 工人组织以及私营部门之间的通力合作是必 不可缺的 这类合作有助于提高公众认识 增强社区对付药物滥用有害后果的能力 公众 责任 公众意识和社区动员对确保减少需求战略的可持续性具有头等重要意义 3 见 药物滥用和非法贩运问题国际会议的报告,1987 年6月17日至26日,维也纳 (联合国出版物, 出售品编号: C.87.I.18),第一章,A节 A/RES/S-20/3
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..减少需求工作应融入更广泛的社会福利和公共保健政策及预防性教育方案之内 有
/...必要创造并保持一种使各种有利健康的选择既具有吸引力又便于得到服务的环境 减少药 物需求的努力应成为促进多部门合作的较大范围社会政策方法的一部分 这类努力应当是 综合 多层面和协调一致的 并应与关系到人民的总体健康和社会 经济福利的社会和公 共政策结合起来 D.D.D.D. 注重特殊需要注重特殊需要注重特殊需要注重特殊需要 13. 减少需求方案应当做到既要针对一般人的需要 又要针对特定人口群体的需要 对 青少年要给予特别的注意 方案应当讲求实效 有的放矢和深入到风险最大的群体 同时 考虑到性别 文化和教育上的差异 14. 为了促进滥用药物的罪犯重新融入社会 各会员国政府应视情况并根据本国的法律 和政策 作为定罪或处罚的替代办法 或在处罚的同时 考虑规定药物滥用者应接受治疗 教育 疗后护理 康复和重新融入社会的一些措施 各会员国应视情况在刑事司法系统内 开发提供教育 治疗和康复服务以帮助药物滥用者的能力 在这一总体情况下 需要并应 当鼓励刑事司法 卫生保健和社会系统之间紧密合作 E.E.E.E. 传送正确信息传送正确信息传送正确信息传送正确信息 15. 教育和预防方案中使用的资料应明白易懂 具有科学准确性和可靠性 合乎文化习 惯 及时 并在可能的情况下 经过预定对象的试用 应尽一切努力确保可信性 避免耸 人听闻 争取信任和提高成效 各国应同新闻界合作 努力提高公众对吸毒危险的认识 促进预防宣传 抵制在大众文化中对吸毒加以渲染 F.F.F.F. 积累经验积累经验积累经验积累经验 16. 各国应当适当强调在制订 执行和评价减少需求战略和方案的各个方面培训政策制 订者 方案规划者和从业人员 这种战略和方案应当是经常性的 并应力求满足参与者的 需要 17. 应当对减少需求战略和具体活动进行深入评价 借以评定和提高其效力 此种评价
A/RES/S-20/3还应当切合于与之有关的特定文化和方案 评价的结果应当与各有关方分享 A/RES/S-20/3
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A/RES/S-20/3附 录 供考虑制定国家药物管制战略的政府 使用的补充参考资料 1. 根据经1972年议定书修正的 1961年麻醉品单一公约 第38条和 1971年精神 药物公约 第 20 条 这两个公约的缔约方应当采取一切确实可行的措施预防麻醉药品或 精神药物滥用 对关系人早作鉴别 治疗 教育 善后护理 复建及使之重新与社会融 为一体 1988年联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约 第14条第4段规定 缔约方 应采取适当措施 消除或减少对麻醉药品和精神药物的非法需求 以减轻个人痛 苦并消除非法贩运的经济刺激因素 2. 鉴于全球对药物滥用的程度 性质和后果更为关注,为进一步采取行动提供了机会 和意愿 因此各国重申在减少需求领域业已制定的国际协定和宣言的有效性和重要性 1987 年 6 月 17 日至 26 日在维也纳举行的药物滥用和非法贩运问题国际会议确认了减少需求的 重要性 通过了 管制药物滥用今后活动的综合性多学科纲要 综合性多学科纲要 在减少需求领域提出了14项目标以及为实现这些目标而需要在国家 区域和国际各级开展 的活动类型 联合国大会 经济及社会理事会和麻醉药品委员会都通过了有关决议 赞同 综合性多学科纲要 和强调有必要进一步注意减少需求问题 此外 联合国大会在其讨 论国际合作取缔麻醉药品和精神药物的非法生产 供应 需求 贩运和分销问题的第十七 届特别会议上通过了1990 年 2 月 23 日S-17/2号决议所载的 政治宣言 和 全球行动纲 领 全球行动纲领 第 9 至 37 段谈到有关预防和减少毒品滥用以消除对麻醉药品和精 神药物的非法需求以及吸毒者的治疗 康复和重新参与社会的问题 1990年4月9日至11 日在伦敦举行的世界减少毒品需求和打击可卡因威胁部长级高层会议也进一步注意到了减A/RES/S-20/3
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少需求问题 4 3. 此外 儿童权利公约 5 第 33 条强调了保护儿童不受滥用麻醉药品和精神药物危 害的必要性 到2000 年及其后世界青年行动纲领 6 同样指出了这一点 其中第77和78 段列入了让青年组织和青年参与减少需求活动的建议 处理工作场所有关酒精和毒品问题 的行为守则 7 也具有重要意义 这项守则是由一个三方专家组会议通过的 其后于 1995 年 获得国际劳工组织理事会第二百六十二届会议认可 国际劳工组织于1958年通过的关于就 业及职业歧视的公约(第三号)中所载的机会和待遇平等原则也与减少需求直接有关 4 见A/45/262,附件 5 第44/25号决议,附件 6 第50/81号决议,附件 7 国际劳工局, 日内瓦,1996年