A_AC_105_C_1_106_EC
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Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Fiftieth session第五十届会议
Vienna, 11-22 February 20132013年2月11日至22日,维也纳
Item 12 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目12
Near-Earth objects近地天体
Information on research in the field of near-Earth objects carried out by Member States, international organizations and other entities各会员国、国际组织和其他实体在近地物体领域开展研究的情况
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.
In accordance with the multi-year workplan adopted by the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space at its forty-fifth session, in 2008 (A/AC.105/911, annex III, para. 11), and extended by the Subcommittee at its forty-eighth session in 2011 (A/AC.105/987, annex III, para. 9), Member States, international organizations and other entities were invited to submit information on research in the field of near-Earth objects for the consideration of the Working Group on Near-Earth Objects, to be reconvened at the fiftieth session of the Subcommittee.1. 按照和平利用外层空间委员会科学和技术小组委员会2008年第四十五届会议通过(A/AC.105/911,附件三,第11段)并经该小组委员会2011年第四十八届会议延期(A/AC.105/987,附件三,第9段)的多年期工作计划,各会员国、国际组织和其他实体被邀请提供在近地天体领域开展研究的情况,供将于小组委员会第五十届会议上重新召集的近地天体工作组审议。
2. The present document contains information received from Germany and Japan, and the Committee on Space Research, the International Astronomical Union and the Secure World Foundation.2. 本文件载有从德国和日本以及空间研究委员会、国际天文学联盟和世界安全基金会收到的资料。
II. Replies received from Member States二. 从会员国收到的答复
Germany德国
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[29 October 2012][2012年10月29日]
The national activities listed below are based on the strong involvement of the Institute of Planetary Research of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR).下文所列的国家活动均以德国航空航天中心(德国航天中心)行星研究所大力参与为基础。
DLR uses the Spitzer SpaceTelescope of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for an infrared survey (“ExploreNEOs”) of the physical properties of 750 near-Earth objects, as part of an international team.德国航天中心作为一个国际小组的组成部分,利用美国国家航空和航天局(美国航天局)的斯皮策空间望远镜,对750颗近地天体的物理特性进行红外巡测(“近地天体探索项目”)。
A major contribution of DLR in the field of near-Earth object research is the development and verification of asteroid thermal models and analysis procedures, to facilitate the derivation of object sizes and albedos. Procedures developed at DLR are used in both the Spitzer ExploreNEOs and the NASA NEOWISE projects. An analysis of the Spitzer data, together with published results from the NEOWISE project of NASA, is currently under way to provide insight into the physical properties of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects for the purposes of the NEOShield project.德国航天中心在近地天体研究领域的一大贡献是开发并验证热模型和分析程序,以便利得出天体的尺寸和反照率。德国航天中心开发的程序被用于斯皮策近地天体探索项目和美国航天局广域红外探测器项目。目前正在对斯皮策数据连同美国航天局广域红外探测器项目发布的结果进行分析,以便为了近地天体近地盾牌项目而深入了解可能造成危险的近地天体的物理特性。
In cooperation with the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain), DLR has signed a contract to operate, for 100 nights per year for three years, the remotely controlled 1.2 m telescope for optical photometric and astrometric observations of near-Earth objects and other asteroids and comets.德国航天中心与卡拉阿托天文台(西班牙)合作,签署了一项合同,目的是操作一架1.2米遥控望远镜,对近地物体及其他小行星和慧星进行光度测定观测和天体测量观测,每年100个夜晚,为期三年。
The first observing run started in April 2009.第一个观测期始于2009年4月。
A second observing period, from 2012 to 2015, was successfully negotiated.已就2012年至2015年第二个观测期进行了成功洽谈。
The NEOShield project (see www.neoshield.net), coordinated by DLR, was kicked off in January 2012.由德国航天中心协调的近地天体盾牌项目(见www.neoshield.net)已于2012年1月启动。
It is a major new international research initiative on near-Earth objects, funded by the European Commission within its Seventh Framework Programme (2007-2013).这是一个关于近地天体的新的大型国际研究举措,由欧盟委员会在第七框架方案(2007-2013年)内供资。
The main aim of NEOShield is to prepare the way for a space mission to test our ability to prevent the impact with the Earth of a threatening near-Earth object.近地天体盾牌项目的主要目的是为一项旨在测试我们防止有威胁近地天体与地球碰撞的能力的空间飞行任务作准备。
The NEOShield Consortium consists of 13 partners and includes leading United States and Russian space organizations.近地天体盾牌联盟由13个合作伙伴组成,包括领先的美国和俄罗斯空间组织。
Besides DLR, the Fraunhofer Ernst Mach Institute and Astrium GMBH are involved on the German side.除德国航天中心外,弗劳恩霍夫恩斯特马赫研究所和Astrium公司也作为德国一方参与其中。
While an actual mitigation demonstration mission is financially beyond the scope of the present NEOShield project, the goal is to provide the first detailed designs of appropriate demo missions for the kinetic impactor, gravity tractor and, possibly, other mitigation concepts, sufficiently detailed to facilitate the rapid development of actual demo missions in subsequent rounds of project funding within a European or international framework.虽然实际的减缓演示飞行任务超出目前近地天体盾牌项目的财力,但目标是为适当的演示飞行任务提供动能撞击器、重力牵引机和可能的其他减缓概念的第一批详细设计,这些设计要足够详细,以便利在欧洲或国际框架内随后的几轮项目供资中迅速制定实际的演示飞行任务。
An online database of physical properties of near-Earth objects is maintained at DLR (see http://earn.dlr.de/nea).德国航天中心负责维护一个近地天体物理特性网上数据库(见http://earn.dlr. de/nea)。
Physical data for near-Earth objects, such as size, albedo and rotation period, derived from appropriate publications, are entered into the database as they become available, on a daily basis.每天,从相关出版物中得到的近地天体物理数据被尽快输入该数据库,如尺寸、反照率和旋转周期。
Work on the database is supported by the Space Situational Awareness programme of the European Space Agency (ESA).有关该数据库的工作得到欧洲空间局(欧空局)提高对空间情况认识方案的支助。
Close cooperation with the NEOShield Project has been established.与近地天体盾牌项目建立了密切的合作关系。
As at September 2012, the database contains data on the physical properties of about 10 per cent of the known near-Earth object population, and a literature dataset of more than 1,200 entries.截至2012年9月,该数据库载有大约10%的已知近地天体的物理物性,以及包含1200多个条目的文献数据集。
In cooperation with the Technical University of Braunschweig and the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur in Nice, France, DLR is participating in a project to generate a new model for a synthetic near-Earth object population (NEO-POP) under an ESA contract, starting in July 2012.根据欧空局一项合同,德国航天中心与布伦瑞克技术大学和位于法国尼斯的科特达祖尔天文台合作,从2012年7月开始参加了一个创建人造近地天体群新模型的项目。
DLR is involved in the operation of a network of all-sky cameras that record the tracks of large meteoroids colliding with the Earth.德国航天中心参加了一个全天空照相机网络的运作,该网络记录与地球发生碰撞的大型流星体的轨迹。
The European Fireball Network (see www.dlr.de/pf/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623) provides data for studies of the meteoroid mass flux near Earth and the probability of collisions with larger bodies.欧洲火球网(见www.dlr.de/pf/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623)为研究近地流星体质量通量和与较大型物体发生碰撞的概率提供数据。
The cameras routinely monitor the night sky over Central Europe.这些照相机规律性地对中欧的夜空进行监测。
The network comprises 11 camera stations in the Czech Republic, 2 in the Slovak Republic, 2 in Austria and 17 camera stations in Germany, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, deployed at approximately 100-km intervals to cover a total area of 106 km2.网络包括部署在捷克共和国的11个照相机台站、在斯洛伐克共和国的2个、在奥地利的2个以及在德国、法国、卢森堡和荷兰的17个照相机台站,这些台站相距大约100公里,覆盖106平方公里的总面积。
In 2011, the German-supervised part of the network detected 59 fireballs, significantly above average.2011年,网络由德国负责的部分探测到59个火球,远高于平均数。
As part of a German-French contribution to the Japanese asteroid sample-return mission Hayabusa-2, DLR provides the Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT), which is an asteroid hopping lander vehicle, and two of its four science payloads.作为德国-法国对日本小行星样本送回飞行任务隼鸟2号所作贡献的一部分,德国航天中心提供了移动式小行星表面探测器(MASCOT)和四个科学研究有效载荷中的两个,前者是一种小行星跳跃式着陆车。
Surface data generated by the MASCOT instrument suite will serve to provide information for the improvement of models characterizing the physical properties of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects, in particular regarding the development and verification of asteroid thermal models, porosity models and analysis procedures, to facilitate the derivation of object sizes and albedos, as well as density and mass estimates from remote observations.MASCOT成套仪器产生的表面数据将提供信息,有助于改进用来分析可能造成危险的近地天体的物理特性的模型,尤其是对于开发和验证小行星热模型、孔隙度模型和分析程序,以便利从远程观测中得出天体尺寸和反照率,以及密度和质量估计数。
Detailed and sound knowledge of asteroid surface properties is vital to every kind of mitigation activity.关于小行星表面特性的详尽、可靠知识对于每一种减缓活动都非常重要。
More information on MASCOT is available from www.dlr.de/irs/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-7902/13482_read-34316.关于MASCOT的更多信息,可查阅www.dlr.de/irs/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-7902/13482_read-34316。
Japan日本
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[18 October 2012][2012年10月18日]
Project on near-Earth objects近地天体项目
Japanese near-Earth object activities started with the establishment of the Japan Spaceguard Association (JSGA) in 1996.日本的近地物体活动是1996年日本空间护卫协会(空间护卫协会)成立时开始的。
JSGA constructed a 1-metre-wide field telescope for near-Earth object detection, which became operational in 2002 and was used mainly for follow-up observations.空间护卫协会建造了一台1米广域望远镜用于近地天体探测,该望远镜于2002年启用,主要用于跟踪观测。
JSGA improved the telescope in 2006, and it is now able to detect near-Earth objects down to a magnitude of 20.5, which is comparable to detections by the Catalina Sky Survey and the Spacewatch programme in the United States of America.空间护卫协会于2006年对这座望远镜进行了改进,现在该望远镜能够探测到20.5星等的近地天体,与美利坚合众国的卡特琳娜巡天方案和太空观察方案的探测等级相当。
A list of near-Earth object follow-up observations is shown in the table below.下表列有近地天体跟踪观测清单。
Near-Earth object observations by the Japan Spaceguard Association (as at August 2012)日本空间护卫协会的近地物体观测(截至2012年8月)
Near-Earth asteroid近地小行星
Comets彗星
Year
Number of observed objects观察到的 天体数量
Number of position measurements位置测量 次数
Sum of position measurements Number of observed objects位置测量 总数 观察到的 天体数量
Sum of position measurements位置测量 总数
20002000
2323
205205
4 2404 240
2020
113113
20012001
2929
560560
5 9075 907
1616
275275
20022002
2424
243243
2 0182 018
1313
339339
20032003
5454
567567
4 9384 938
1818
165165
20042004
2323
233233
2 9082 908
44
2020
20052005
88
4242
2 4312 431
00
00
20062006
2525
297297
3 2243 224
55
6666
20072007
3434
408408
7 2197 219
1515
108108
20082008
3131
162162
4 5344 534
1414
110110
20092009
2626
138138
5 7965 796
77
3737
20102010
135135
924924
3 5453 545
1010
5050
20112011
248248
1 7401 740
3 2293 229
2323
229229
20122012
106106
705705
387387
1313
7373
Total合计
766766
6 2246 224
50 37650 376
158158
1 5851 585
JSGA has performed various research and educational activities over the past 10 years. Among them, light curve observations and multiband photometry for 107P/Wilson-Harrington of near-Earth objects were presented, and the results have shown the physical properties of candidate objects for future asteroid exploration. JSGA also presented a new Wi filter, which is optimized for the imaging of small solar system bodies.空间护卫协会在最近十年内开展了各种研究和教育活动。其中包括,介绍了近地天体107P/威尔逊-哈灵顿的光变曲线观测和多波段测光情况,其结果表明了将在今后进行小行星探测的候选天体的物理特征。空间护卫协会还介绍了一种新的Wi过滤器,该过滤器已经优化,可用来生成太阳系小天体的图像。
In addition, for public outreach, JSGA has produced a practical educational package, which is available in Japanese, English and Spanish, on near-Earth object detection and has published two books, as well as many articles in journals and newspapers on the topic. A lecture was held to mark the first anniversary of the Hayabusa capsule returning to Earth. In 2012, the “Annular solar eclipse festival in Ebina” took place to promote further understanding of the importance of the Spaceguard programme among the public. JSGA organized lectures on the theme “Spaceguard 2012” in four different locations in Japan (in Kumamoto, Okayama, Nagoya and Ibaraki) and published the fifth issue of its bulletin, Spaceguard Research.此外,为开展公众宣传,空间护卫协会制作了近地天体探测实用教育套件,有日文、英文和西班牙文版,并出版了两本书,还在杂志和报纸了发表了多篇关于该主题的文章。举行了一次演讲,庆祝隼鸟太空舱返回地球一周年。2012年,举行了“海老名市日环食节”,以促进公众进一步认识空间护卫方案的重要性。空间护卫协会在日本四个不同地点(熊本、冈山、名古屋和茨城)举办了主题为“2012年空间护卫方案”的演讲,并出版了公报“空间护卫问题研究”的第五期。
Hayabusa mission隼鸟飞行任务
Another important near-Earth object activity was the Hayabusa mission to the near-Earth object Itokawa. The scientific purpose of the mission was to acquire information on the mysteries behind the genesis of the solar system and on possible evidence of life; to achieve this, technology to bring back samples of asteroids was essential. Hayabusa reached Itokawa in 2005 and collected many images and other scientific data;近地天体方面另一项重要活动是向近地天体“丝川”派出的隼鸟飞行任务。这次飞行任务的科学目的是获得有关太阳系起源之迷和可能存在的生命证据的信息;为此,必须具备从小行星取样返回的技术。隼鸟于2005年抵达“丝川”,收集了大量图像和其他科学数据;还尝试着陆并收集表面材料。
it also attempted to touch down and collect surface material. On 13 June 2010, the asteroid-sample capsule of the Hayabusa spacecraft returned to Earth containing the surface material of Itokawa. The material was analysed by the analysis team of the Hayabusa Science Team. The results of the mission are important not only for science but also for Spaceguard, as Itokawa is an asteroid of the type that may come close to the Earth and this mission is the first to have studied such an asteroid.2010年6月13日,装有“丝川”表面材料的隼鸟航天器小行星样本舱返回地球。隼鸟科学小组的分析人员对材料进行了分析。这次飞行任务的结果不仅对于科学而且对于空间护卫方案有着重要意义,因为“丝川”是可能接近地球的小行星,而这次飞行任务是对此类小行星的首次研究。
In January 2012, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) issued a worldwide announcement of opportunity concerning research on the sample. Out of 31 research proposals, 17 were selected. The involvement of experts throughout the world is expected to bring groundbreaking results.2012年1月,日本宇宙航空研究开发机构在世界范围内发布了关于该样本研究的机会的公告。在31份研究建议中选定了17份。全世界专家参与其中预期将带来突破性结果。
JAXA is now developing another near-Earth object sample return mission, Hayabusa-2, which could provide information about another type of near-Earth object, the assumed C-type asteroid, which is a different type of near-Earth object from Itokawa. Hayabusa-2 is planned for launch in 2014, with an expected arrival at the target asteroid in 2018 and an expected return to Earth in 2020.日本宇宙航空研究开发机构目前正在制定另一个近地天体样本送回飞行任务即隼鸟-2号,该飞行任务能够提供另一类近地天体即假定的C类小行星的信息,这类小行星是与“丝川”不同的一类近地天体。隼鸟-2号计划于2014年发射,预期于2018年抵达目标小行星,并预期于2020年返回地球。
III. Replies received from international organizations and other entities三. 从国际组织和其他实体收到的答复
Committee on Space Research空间研究委员会
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[18 October 2012][2012年10月18日]
Near-Earth objects are objects orbiting the Earth at perihelion distances of less than 1.3 astronomical units.近地天体是环绕地球轨道运行的近日距离小于1.3个天文单位的天体。
The near-Earth object population is constantly evolving and being replenished from the main asteroid belt and cometary reservoirs.近地天体群不断发生变化,主要小行星带和彗星库不断有天体加入其中。
It consists of objects with a variety of compositions and internal structures.近地天体群中的天体在成分和内部结构上各不相同。
As at 18 October 2012, 9,196 near-Earth objects had been discovered.截至2012年10月18日,已经发现了9,196颗近地天体。
Among them, some 981 were asteroids with a diameter of approximately 1 km or more, and 1,335 had been classified as potentially hazardous asteroids, indicating a possibility that they might threaten the Earth.其中约有981颗是直径约为1公里或以上的小行星,有1,335颗被归类为可能造成危险的小行星,表示有可能对地球造成威胁。
The number of near-Earth objects discovered per year is shown in the original document submitted by the Committee on Space Research, which can be found on the website of the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat (www.unoosa.org).每年发现的近地天体数量见空间研究委员会提交的原始文件,该文件可在秘书处外层空间事务厅的网站(www.unoosa.org)上查阅。
Nowadays, near-Earth objects are discovered through automated, ground-based observational programmes. The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is an astronomical survey that is continuously conducting astrometry and photometry of much of the sky to detect near-Earth objects that could threaten the Earth.现在,近地天体是通过自动化地面观测方案发现的。全景巡天望远镜和迅速反应系统是一种天文测量方案,不断对天空中大片区域进行天文测量和光度测定,以探测有可能威胁地球的近地天体。
The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), although designed primarily for astrophysics science objectives, is providing a large amount of data on small objects. The WISE all-sky survey is also detecting most of the known main belt asteroids, providing accurate radii and albedos for over 100,000 objects and detecting many new ones. The NEOWISE programme, which is a supplementary analysis programme, is also discovering and characterizing many new near-Earth objects on a daily basis.美国航天局的广域红外探测器主要是为天文物理科学目的设计的,但目前正在提供关于小型天体的大量数据。广域红外探测器的全天空巡测还正在探测大部分已知的主带小行星,提供100,000多颗天体的准确半径和反照率,并探测到许多新天体。广域红外探测器探测近地天体的方案(NEOWISE)是一个补充性分析方案,该方案每天也发现许多新的近地天体,并确定其性质。
Space missions involving near-Earth objects涉及近地天体的空间飞行任务
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer project was among the three missions selected by NASA in 2010 for the second round of the next New Frontiers mission competition. It is designed to orbit a primitive near-Earth asteroid, 1999 RQ36, and bring a sample back to Earth for study.起源光谱资源阐释安全风化层辨认探测器项目是2010年美国航天局选定的竞争参加下一次新疆域(New Frontier)飞行任务第二轮的三个飞行任务之一。其目的是环绕一颗原始近地小行星1999 RQ36的轨道运行,并将样本带回地球以供研究。
The MarcoPolo-R mission has been selected for the assessment phase for the third medium-class mission of the European Space Agency. The primary objective of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return a sample from a near-Earth asteroid. Potentially hazardous asteroidsMarcoPolo-R飞行任务已入选欧洲空间局第三次中级飞行任务的评估阶段。MarcoPolo-R飞行任务的主要目标是从一颗近地小行星取样返回。
可能造成危险的小行星
As at October 2012, two potentially hazardous asteroids, classified with level 1 (no unusual level of danger) under the Torino Impact Hazard Scale, are known and are being monitored: 2011 AG5 and 2007 VK184.截至2012年10月,已知有两颗小行星可能造成危险,根据杜林撞击危险指数将它们归类为1级(非不寻常危险级别),正在对它们进行监测:即2011 AG5和2007 VK184。
International Astronomical Union国际天文学联盟
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[11 November 2012][2012年11月11日]
Activities of the International Astronomical Union Minor Planet Center国际天文学联盟小行星中心的活动
In 2012, there were many activities at the Minor Planet Center (MPC).
By November 2012, MPC had 95,800,000 observation lines on minor planets in its database.
The orbits of over 595,000 objects have been determined. The optical ground-based near-Earth object surveys vigorously continued their operations. By 1 November 2012, the number of near-Earth objects in the MPC database was 9,254. The near-Earth object discovery rate is about 900 per year, of which about 2 per cent are larger than 1 km in diameter.2012年,小行星中心开展了许多活动。截至2012年11月,小行星中心数据库中有95,800,000条小行星观测线。超过595,000颗天体的轨道已经确定。近地天体地面光学巡测在有力地继续进行。截至2012年11月1日,小行星中心数据库中的近地天体数量为9,254颗。发现近地天体的速度约为每年900颗,其中大约2%直径大于1公里。
MPC web pages (see www.minorplanetcenter.org/iau/mpc.html) continue to be served by a high-powered LINUX cluster.小行星中心网页(见www.minorplanetcenter.org/iau/mpc.html)继续由一个高性能LINUX集群提供服务。
This has reduced latency to nearly zero for the return of ephemerides, observations and orbits.查阅星历表、观测数据和轨道数据时,等待时间降到几乎为零。
MPC is currently capable of serving a few million page views per day with no delay.目前,小行星中心每天能够毫不耽搁地提供数百万浏览页面。
Its two blogs continue: one to assist the worldwide follow-up to discoveries of new near-Earth objects; and the other as the main blog for MPC.其两个博客在继续运作:一个用来帮助世界范围内跟踪发现新近地天体的情况;另一个作为小行星中心的主博客。
MPC continues improving operations, particularly in the area of short-term impact monitoring.小行星中心不断改进其运作,特别是在短期撞击监测方面。
The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) survey project in Hawaii (United States) has been receiving more telescope time for observing near-Earth objects and, as such, the discovery rate of all objects is increasing (see http://pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu/public).位于夏威夷(美国)的全景巡天望远镜和迅速反应系统观测项目得到了更多的使用望远境时间以观测近地天体,因此,所有天体的发现速度都在提高(见http://pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu/public)。
The Catalina Sky Survey in California (United States) plans to have a new 1-m follow-up telescope online that should augment its capabilities (www.lpl.arizona.edu/css).位于加利福尼亚(美国)的卡特琳娜巡天方案计划安装一个新的一米跟踪望远境,这应当增强其能力(www.lpl.arizona.edu/css)。
The Siding Spring Survey in Australia (www.mso.anu.edu.au/~rmn), which is one of the best near-Earth object surveys worldwide, might be out of funding for near-Earth object research and observations starting in calendar year 2013.位于澳大利亚的赛丁泉巡天方案(www.mso.anu.edu.au/~rmn)是全世界最好的近地天体观测方案之一,从2013日历年开始用于近地天体研究和观测的经费可能用完。
The Siding Spring Survey has been the only active near-Earth object survey in the southern hemisphere.赛丁泉巡天方案是南半球唯一在运作的近地天体观测方案。
Twenty-eighth General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union国际天文学联盟第二十八届大会
At the twenty-eighth General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, held in Beijing from 20 to 31 August 2012, a special session on “The impact hazard: current activities and future plans” was organized by the IAU Division III Working Group on Near-Earth Objects, covering astronomical aspects of the hazards of near-Earth objects (see http://adams.dm.unipi.it/iausps7).国际天文学联盟第二十八届大会于2012年8月20日至31日在北京举行,在此期间,天文学联盟第三司近地天体工作组举办了一次“撞击危险:目前的活动和未来的计划”特别会议,探讨了近地天体危险所涉天文学问题(见http://adams.dm.unipi.it/iausps7)。
The twenty-eighth IAU General Assembly also adopted resolution B3, on the establishment of an international near-Earth object early warning system, as proposed by the Working Group, in which it recognized that there was now ample evidence that the probability of catastrophic impacts of near-Earth objects with the Earth, potentially highly destructive to life, and for humankind in particular, was not negligible and that appropriate actions were being developed to avoid such catastrophes; that, for the largest near-Earth objects, thanks to the efforts of the astronomical community and of several space agencies, the cataloguing of the potentially hazardous ones, the monitoring of their impact possibilities and the analysis of technologically feasible mitigations were reaching a satisfactory level; that even the impact of small- to moderate-sized objects represented a great threat to our civilizations and to the international community; and that knowledge of the number, size and orbital behaviour of smaller objects was still very limited, thus not allowing any reasonable anticipation of the likelihood of future impacts.天文学联盟大会还如工作组建议,通过了关于建立近地天体国际预警系统的决议B3,天文学联盟大会在该决议中认识到,现在已有足够证据表明,近地天体与地球发生灾难性撞击的概率并非微不足道,有可能对生命特别是对人类具有高度毁灭性,正在制定适当的行动以避免此类灾难;就最大型近地天体而言,由于天文学界以及几家航天机构的努力,可能造成危险的近地天体的编目、对其撞击可能性的监测以及对技术上可行的减缓办法的分析已达到令人满意的水平;即使中小型天体撞击也对人类文明和国际社会构成巨大威胁;对较小型天体的数量、尺寸和轨道表现的认识仍然非常有限,因此不能对今后撞击的可能性作出任何合理的预期。
Also in resolution B3, the IAU General Assembly noted that near-Earth objects were a threat to all nations, and therefore that all nations should contribute to averting that threat.天文学联盟大会还在决议B3中指出,近地天体对所有国家造成威胁,因此,所有国家应为避免这种威胁作出贡献。
It recommended that IAU national members work with the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Council for Science to coordinate and collaborate on the establishment of an international near-Earth object early warning system, relying on the scientific and technical advice of the relevant members of the astronomical community, the main purpose of which was the reliable identification of potential collisions of near-Earth objects with the Earth and the communication of the relevant parameters to suitable decision makers of the State(s) involved (see http://info.bao.ac.cn/download/astronomy/IAU2012/newspaper/IHissue09.pdf, p. 4).天文学联盟大会建议,天文学联盟所有会员国与联合国和平利用外层空间委员会和国际科学理事会合作,依赖天文学界相关人员的科学和技术建议,就建立近地天体国际预警系统进行协调和协作,主要目的是可靠地查明近地天体与地球可能发生的碰撞,并将相关参数告知有关国家适当的决策人员(见http://info.bao.ac.cn/download/astronomy/IAU2012/ newspaper/IHissue09.pdf,第4页)。
Web page on near-Earth asteroids近地小行星网页
The International Astronomical Union website continues to have a page on near-Earth asteroids (www.iau.org/public/nea/), which includes information on past and future approaches of near-Earth asteroids close to the Earth, milestones in NEA research and related conferences, as well as scientific literature.国际天文学联盟网站仍然有一个近地小行星网页(www.iau.org/public/nea/),其中包括近地小行星以前和未来接近地球的情况,近地小行星研究中的重大事件和相关会议,以及科学文献。
Secure World Foundation世界安全基金会
[Original: English][原件:英文]
[26 September 2012][2012年9月26日]
The Secure World Foundation (SWF) has been working to facilitate discussions on governance issues related to the deflection and mitigation of potentially threatening near-Earth objects.世界安全基金会一直致力于促进就可能有威胁近地天体的偏移和减缓相关管理问题进行讨论。
During the past year, SWF, in support of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, hosted a workshop on near-Earth objects and the media, which examined how an information, analysis and warning network for near-Earth objects might best communicate with policymakers and with the general public.过去一年,世界安全基金会为支持和平利用外层空间委员会近地天体行动小组,主办了近地天体与媒体讲习班,这次讲习班探讨了近地天体信息、分析和预警网络如何最佳地与决策人员和一般公众进行交流。
The report from that workshop was presented at the forty-ninth session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, in 2012.该讲习班的报告已在科学和技术小组委员会2012年第四十九届会议介绍。
The full report was distributed during the fifty-fifth session of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in June 2012, and is available on SWF website (http://swfound.org).报告全文已在和平利用外层空间委员会2012年6月第五十五届会议期间分发,并可在世界安全基金会网站(http://swfound.org)上查阅。
During 2012, SWF participated fully in the deliberations of the Action Team on Near-Earth Objects. It also presented the results of the workshop on near-Earth objects and the media at the 2012 International Astronautical Congress in Naples, Italy.2012年,世界安全基金会充分参与了近地天体行动小组的审议工作。世界安全基金会还在2012年于意大利那不勒斯举行的国际宇航大会上介绍了近地天体与媒体讲习班的成果。