CONVENTION ON THE LIMITATION PERIOD IN THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS_EC
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CONVENTION ON THE LIMITATION PERIOD IN THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS V1184228.doc (English)CONVENTION ON THE LIMITATION PERIOD IN THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS V1184227.doc (Chinese)
I. Introductory Note一、介绍性说明
1. The Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods (hereinafter called the 1974 Limitation Convention) was concluded at New York on 14 June 1974.1. 《国际货物销售时效期公约》(以下称为1974年时效公约)是于1974年6月14日在纽约订立的。
A Protocol to the 1974 Limitation Convention (hereinafter called the 1980 Protocol) was concluded at Vienna on 11 April 1980.有关1974年时效公约的一项议定书(以下称为1980年议定书)是于1980年4月11日在维也纳订立的。
2. The 1974 Limitation Convention and the 1980 Protocol both entered into force on 1 August 1988, in accordance with articles 44/(1) of the 1974 Limitation Convention and IX (1) of the 1980 Protocol.2. 1974年时效公约和1980年议定书按照1974年时效公约第44条第1款和1980年议定书第玖条第1款均于1988年8月1日生效。
3. In accordance with paragraph 2 of article XIV of the 1980 Protocol, the text of the 1974 Limitation Convention as amended by the 1980 Protocol has been prepared by the Secretary-General and will be found hereinafter.3. 按照1980年议定书第拾肆条第2款,经1980年议定书修正的1974年时效公约的条文,已由秘书长编就,并将附于本说明之后。
4. The present text includes the relevant amendments to the articles of the 1974 Limitation Convention, as provided for by the 1980 Protocol.4. 本案文包括1980年议定书提供的对1974年时效公约条文的各项有关的修正案。
For ease of reference, the text of the original provisions of the 1974 Limitation Convention which have been amended by the 1980 Protocol are reproduced in footnotes.为便于参考,经1980年议定书修正的1974年时效公约各个条文的原文均载列于脚注之中。
Footnotes have also been added to reflect corrections communicated by depositary notifications.还添加了一些脚注(中文本不适用),以反映交存通知所函告的更正。
The present text also incorporates substantive provisions (final clauses) of the 1980 Protocol as required, including editorial additions.本案文也按照需要,载入了1980年议定书的实质性规定(最后条款),其中包括编辑性的增补。
The relevant articles of the 1980 Protocol which have been incorporated in the present text of the 1974 Limitation Convention as amended have, for clarity, been assigned bis numbers with the indication in parenthesis of the corresponding number of the 1980 Protocol.纳入经修正的1974年时效公约现有条文的1980年议定书的有关条文,为了清楚起见,均编成“之二”的条文,并在括号中注明在1980年议定书中的相应条文号款。
Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods《国际货物销售时效期公约》
Contents目录
Page页次
一、介绍性说明
1.1
Introductory Note
i
2.
Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods as Amended by the Protocol Amending the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods二、经修正国际货物销售时效期公约的议定书修正的国际货物销售时效期公约
15
PREAMBLE序言
15
Part I. Substantive provisions第一部分 实质性条款
15
SPHERE OF APPLICATION适用范围
15
Article 1第1条
15
Article 2第2条
26
Article 3第3条
26
Article 4第4条
36
Article 5第5条
37
Article 6第6条
37
Article 7第7条
47
THE DURATION AND COMMENCEMENT OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期与时效期的开始
47
Article 8第8条
47
Article 9第9条
48
Article 10第10条
48
Article 11第11条
48
Article 12第12条
58
CESSATION AND EXTENSION OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期的中断和延长
58
Article 13第13条
58
Article 14第14条
59
Article 15第15条
69
Article 16第16条
69
Article 17第17条
69
Article 18第18条
69
Article 19第19条
710
Article 20第20条
710
Article 21第21条
710
MODIFICATION OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD BY THE PARTIES当事人变更时效期
710
Article 22第22条
710
GENERAL LIMIT OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期的一般限制
811
Article 23第23条
811
CONSEQUENCES OF THE EXPIRATION OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期届满的后果
811
Article 24第24条
811
Article 25第25条
811
Article 26第26条
811
Article 27第27条
911
CALCULATION OF THE PERIOD时效期的计算
911
Article 28第28条
911
Article 29第29条
912
INTERNATIONAL EFFECT国际效力
912
Article 30第30条
912
Part II.第二部分 实施
Implementation 912
Article 31第31条
912
Article 32第32条
1012
Article 33第33条
1013
Part III. Declarations and reservations第三部分 声明和保留
1013
Article 34第34条
1013
Article 35第35条
1113
Article 36第36条
1113
Article 36 bis (Article XII of the Protocol)第36条之二(议定书第拾贰条)
1114
Article 37第37条
1114
Article 38第38条
1214
Article 39第39条
1214
Article 40第40条
1214
Part IV. Final clauses第四部分 最后条款
1215
Article 41第41条
1215
Article 42第42条
1315
Article 43第43条
1315
Article 43 bis (Article X of the Protocol)第43条之二(议定书第拾条)
1315
Article 43 ter (Article VIII (2) of the Protocol)第43条之三(议定书第捌条第(2)款)
1315
Article 44第44条
1315
Article 44 bis (Article XI of the Protocol)第44条之二(议定书第拾壹条)
1315
Article 45第45条
1416
Article 45 bis (Article XIII (3) of the Protocol)第45条之二(议定书第拾叁条第(3)款)
1416
Article 46第46条
1416
3. Explanatory note by the UNCITRAL Secretariat on the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods and the Protocol amending the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods三. 联合国国际贸易法委员会秘书处关于《国际货物销售时效期公约》和《修正国际货物销售时效期公约的议定书》的说明
1517
A. IntroductionA. 导言
1517
B. Scope of applicationB. 适用范围
1618
C. Duration and commencement of limitation periodC. 时效期与时效期的开始
1718
D. Cessation and extension of limitation periodD. 时效期的中断和延长
17
E. Overall limit of limitation period 1919 E. 时效期的总限制
20
F. Consequences of expiration of limitation periodF. 时效期期满的后果
1920
G. Other provisions and final clausesG. 其他条款和最后条款
19
H. Complementary texts 2020 H. 补充性法规
II.21 经
Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods as amended by the Protocol amending the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale Of Goods修正国际货物销售时效期公约的议定书 修正的 国际货物销售时效期公约
PREAMBLE序言
The States Parties to the present Convention,本公约各缔约国,
Considering that international trade is an important factor in the promotion of friendly relations amongst States,鉴于国际贸易是促进各国间友好关系的一个重要因素,
Believing that the adoption of uniform rules governing the limitation period in the international sale of goods would facilitate the development of world trade,深信制定关于国际货物销售时效期的统一规则将有助于世界贸易的发展;
Have agreed as follows:经协议如下:
Part I. Substantive provisions第一部分 实质性条款
SPHERE OF APPLICATION适用范围
Article 1第1条
(1) This Convention shall determine when claims of a buyer and a seller against each other arising from a contract of international sale of goods or relating to its breach, termination or invalidity can no longer be exercised by reason of the expiration of a period of time.1. 本公约应确定由于国际货物销售合同所引起的或与此种合同的违反、终止或无效有关的买方和卖方的相互要求权于何时因一定期间的届满而不得行使。
Such a period of time is hereinafter referred to as “the limitation period”.此种期间以下称为“时效期”。
(2) This Convention shall not affect a particular time-limit within which one party is required, as a condition for the acquisition or exercise of his claim, to give notice to the other party or perform any act other than the institution of legal proceedings.2. 本公约应不影响作为取得或行使其要求权的条件,当事一方必须通知当事他方或从事提起法律程序以外任何行为的特定时限。
(3) In this Convention:3. 在本公约内:
(a) “buyer”, “seller” and “party” mean persons who buy or sell, or agree to buy or sell, goods, and the successors to and assigns of their rights or obligations under the contract of sale;(a) “买方”、“卖方”和“当事人”是指买进或卖出、或同意买进或卖出货物的人,以及根据销售合同承受权利或义务的继承人和受让人;
(b) “creditor” means a party who asserts a claim, whether or not such a claim is for a sum of money;(b) “债权人”是指提出要求权的当事人,不论此种要求权的标的是否为金钱;
(c) “debtor” means a party against whom a creditor asserts a claim;(c) “债务人”是指债权人向其提出要求权的当事方;
(d) “breach of contract” means the failure of a party to perform the contract or any performance not in conformity with the contract;(d) “违反合同”是指当事方未履行合同或未依合同行事;
(e) “legal proceedings” includes judicial, arbitral and administrative proceedings;(e) “法律程序”包括司法程序、仲裁程序和行政程序;
(f) “person” includes corporation, company, partnership, association or entity, whether private or public, which can sue or be sued;(f) “人”包括可为原告或被告的私营或公营股份有限公司、公司、合伙公司、社团法人或实体;
(g) “writing” includes telegram and telex;(g) “书面”包括电报和用户电报;
(h) “year” means a year according to the Gregorian calendar.(h) “年”是指阳历年。
Article 2第2条
For the purposes of this Convention:为本公约的目的:
(a) a contract of sale of goods shall be considered international if, at the time of the conclusion of the contract, the buyer and the seller have their places of business in different States;(a) 如在订立货物销售合同时,卖方和买方营业地在不同国家的,其所订立的合同应视为国际货物销售合同;
(b) the fact that the parties have their places of business in different States shall be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between, or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract;(b) 当事人营业地在不同国家的事实,如果从合同、或从订立合同前任何时候或订立合同时当事人之间的任何交易或当事人透露的资料均看不出,应不予考虑;
(c) where a party to a contract of sale of goods has places of business in more than one State, the place of business shall be that which has the closest relationship to the contract and its performance, having regard to the circumstances known to or contemplated by the parties at the time of the conclusion of the contract;(c) 货物销售合同当事人在一国以上有营业地时,应以对合同及其履行有最密切关系的营业地为营业地,同时考虑到订立合同时为各当事人已知或预期的情况;
(d) where a party does not have a place of business, reference shall be made to his habitual residence;(d) 当事人如无营业地,应以其常居地为营业地;
(e) neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercial character of the parties or of the contract shall be taken into consideration.(e) 当事人的国籍和当事人或合同的民事或商业性应不予考虑。
Article 3第3条
(1) This Convention shall apply only1. 本公约仅在下列情况下适用:
(a) if, at the time of the conclusion of the contract, the places of business of the parties to a contract of international sale of goods are in Contracting States;(a) 如果订立合同时,国际货物销售合同当事人营业地位于缔约国内;或
or
(b) if the rules of private international law make the law of a Contracting State applicable to the contract of sale.(b) 如果根据国际私法规则某一缔约国的法律适用于销售合同。
(2) This Convention shall not apply when the parties have expressly excluded its application.2. 本公约于各当事人明示排除其适用时即不适用。
Article 4第4条
This Convention shall not apply to sales:本公约不适用于以下的销售:
(a) of goods bought for personal, family or household use, unless the seller, at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract, neither knew nor ought to have known that the goods were bought for any such use;(a) 购供私人、家人或家庭使用的货物的销售,除非卖方在订立合同前任何时候或订立合同时不知道而且没有理由知道这些货物是购供任何这种使用;
(b) by auction;(b) 经由拍卖的销售;
(c) on execution or otherwise by authority of law;(c) 根据法律执行令状或其它令状的销售;
(d) of stocks, shares, investment securities, negotiable instruments or money;(d) 公债、股票、投资证券、流通票据或货币的销售;
(e) of ships, vessels, hovercraft or aircraft;(e) 船舶、船只、气垫船或飞机的销售;
(f) of electricity.(f) 电力的销售。
Article 5第5条
This Convention shall not apply to claims based upon:本公约不适用基于下列事项的要求权:
(a) death of, or personal injury to, any person;(a) 任何人的死亡或身体伤害;
(b) nuclear damage caused by the goods sold;(b) 售出货物造成的核损害;
(c) a lien, mortgage or other security interest in property;(c) 财产的留置权、抵押或其他物权担保;
(d) a judgement or award made in legal proceedings;(d) 法律程序中所作的判决或裁定;
(e) a document on which direct enforcement or execution can be obtained in accordance with the law of the place where such enforcement or execution is sought;(e) 如在某地要求直接强制执行或执行,按照当地的法律可获得此种执行的文件;
(f) a bill of exchange, cheque or promissory note.(f) 汇票、支票或本票。
Article 6第6条
(1) This Convention shall not apply to contracts in which the preponderant part of the obligations of the seller consists in the supply of labour or other services.1. 本公约不适用于卖方的绝大部分义务在于供应劳力或其他服务的合同。
(2) Contracts for the supply of goods to be manufactured or produced shall be considered to be sales, unless the party who orders the goods undertakes to supply a substantial part of the materials necessary for such manufacture or production.2. 供应尚待制造或生产的货物的合同应视为销售合同,除非订购货物的当事人保证供应此种制造或生产所需的大部分原料。
Article 7第7条
In the interpretation and application of the provisions of this Convention, regard shall be had to its international character and to the need to promote uniformity.在解释和适用本公约各项规定时,应考虑到本公约的国际性质以及促进其统一性的必要。
THE DURATION AND COMMENCEMENT OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期与时效期的开始
Article 8第8条
The limitation period shall be four years.时效期应为四年。
Article 9第9条
(1) Subject to the provisions of articles 10, 11 and 12 the limitation period shall commence on the date of which the claim accrues.1. 在第10、第11和第12条的规定限制下,时效期应自要求权发生之日起算。
(2) The commencement of the limitation period shall not be postponed by:2. 时效期的起算不因下列事实而推迟:
(a) a requirement that the party be given a notice as described in paragraph 2 of article 1, or(a) 当事一方必须接获第1条第2款所指的通知;或
(b) a provision in an arbitration agreement that no right shall arise until an arbitration award has been made.(b) 仲裁协定规定在作出仲裁裁定前不发生任何权利。
Article 10第10条
(1) A claim arising from a breach of contract shall accrue on the date on which such breach occurs.1. 因违反合同而发生的要求权应于违约之日产生。
(2) A claim arising from a defect or other lack of conformity shall accrue on the date on which the goods are actually handed over to, or their tender is refused by, the buyer.2. 因货物有瑕疵或其他不符规定而产生的要求权应于货物实际交付买方或买方拒绝接受之日发生。
(3) A claim based on fraud committed before or at the time of the conclusion of the contract or during its performance shall accrue on the date on which the fraud was or reasonably could have been discovered.3. 因合同订立前或订立时、或在履行此项合同期间所犯欺诈行为而产生的要求权应于发现或理应发现该项欺诈行为之日发生。
Article 11第11条
If the seller has given an express undertaking relating to the goods which is stated to have effect for a certain period of time, whether expressed in terms of a specific period of time or otherwise, the limitation period in respect of any claim, arising from the undertaking shall commence on the date on which the buyer notifies the seller of the fact on which the claim is based, but not later than on the date of the expiration of the period of the undertaking.如卖方就货物提出明示保证,说明在某一段期间内有效,不论是否定有具体起讫日期或其他期限,其由于此种保证而产生的要求权的时效期,应自买方将要求权所根据的事实通知卖方之日起算,但不得迟于保证期间届满之日。
Article 12第12条
(1) If, in circumstances provided for by the law applicable to the contract, one party is entitled to declare the contract terminated before the time for performance is due, and exercises this right, the limitation period in respect of a claim based on any such circumstances shall commence on the date on which the declaration is made to the other party.1. 在适用于合同的法律所规定的情况下,如当事一方有权在合同开始履行前宣告合同终止,并行使此项权利,根据此种情况的要求权的时效期应自向当事他方作此宣告之日起算。
If the contract is not declared to be terminated before performance becomes due, the limitation period shall commence on the date on which performance is due.如合同在开始履行前未经宣告终止,则时效期应自开始履行之日起算。
(2) The limitation period in respect of a claim arising out of a breach by one party of a contract for the delivery of or payment for goods by instalments shall, in relation to each separate instalment, commence on the date on which the particular breach occurs.2. 因当事一方违反分期交货或分期付款合同所产生的要求权的时效期,就每一期来说,应自该特定违约行为发生之日起算。
If, under the law applicable to the contract, one party is entitled to declare the contract terminated by reason of such breach, and exercises this right, the limitation period in respect of all relevant instalments shall commence on the date on which the declaration is made to the other party.如根据适用于合同的法律,当事一方有权因此种违约情事而宣告合同终止,并行使此项权利,则有关全部分期交货或付款的时效期应自向当事他方作此宣告之日起算。
CESSATION AND EXTENSION OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期的中断和延长
Article 13第13条
The limitation period shall cease to run when the creditor performs any act which, under the law of the court where the proceedings are instituted, is recognized as commencing judicial proceedings against the debtor or as asserting his claim in such proceedings already instituted against the debtor, for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction or recognition of his claim.凡债权人从事任何行为,根据起诉法院的法律,此项行为业经承认为开始对债务人提起司法诉讼或承认为在已对债务人提起的诉讼中主张其要求权,以求使该要求权获得满足或承认者,时效期应予中止。
Article 14第14条
1. Where the parties have agreed to submit to arbitration, the limitation period shall cease to run when either party commences arbitral proceedings in the manner provided for in the arbitration agreement or by the law applicable to such proceedings.1. 在当事双方约定交付仲裁的情形下,时效期应于当事任何一方依仲裁协定所定方式或依适用于此种程序的法律开始进行仲裁程序时中止。
2. In the absence of any such provision, arbitral proceedings shall be deemed to commence on the date on which a request that the claim in dispute be referred to arbitration is delivered at the habitual residence or place of business of the other party or, if he has no such residence or place of business, then at his last known residence or place of business.2. 如无任何此种规定,在将有关要求权交付仲裁的请求送达当事他方的常居地或营业地之日,或在他方无常居地或营业地时送达其所知最后居所或营业地之日,仲裁程序应被视为业已开始。
Article 15第15条
In any legal proceedings other than those mentioned in articles 13 and 14, including legal proceedings commenced upon the occurrence of:凡债权人在第13和第14条所述法律程序以外的任何法律程序,包括因发生下列情事之一而开始的法律程序:
(a) the death or incapacity of the debtor,(a) 债务人死亡或丧失行为能力,
(b) the bankruptcy or any state of insolvency affecting the whole of the property of the debtor, or(b) 债务人破产或无清偿债务能力,因而影响到债务人的全部财产,
(с) the dissolution or liquidation of a corporation, company, partnership, association or entity when it is the debtor,(c) 作为债务人的股份有限公司、公司、合伙公司、社团法人或实体的解散或清算,
the limitation period shall cease to run when the creditor asserts his claim in such proceedings for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction or recognition of the claim, subject to the law governing the proceedings.主张其要求权以求使该要求权获得满足或承认者,时效期应予中止,但须受支配此种程序的法律的限制。
Article 16第16条
For the purposes of articles 13, 14 and 15, any act performed by way of counterclaim shall be deemed to have been performed on the same date as the act performed in relation to the claim against which the counterclaim is raised, provided that both the claim and the counterclaim relate to the same contract or to several contracts concluded in the course of the same transaction.就第13、第14和第15条而言,为提出反要求权而从事的任何行为,均应视为与提出该反要求权所针对的要求权所从事的行为同日发生,但要求权和反要求权均须涉及同一合同,或涉及在同一交易中订立的数项合同。
Article 17第17条
(1) Where a claim has been asserted in legal proceedings within the limitation period in accordance with article 13, 14, 15 or 16, but such legal proceedings have ended without a decision binding on the merits of the claim, the limitation period shall be deemed to have continued to run.1. 如在时效期内按照第13、第14、第15或第16条通过法律程序主张要求权,但此种法律程序结束时并未就要求权的实质作出有拘束力的判决,时效期应视为仍未中止。
(2) If, at the time such legal proceedings ended, the limitation period has expired or has less than one year to run, the creditor shall be entitled to a period of one year from the date on which the legal proceedings ended.2. 如在此种法律程序结束时时效期业已届满或所余期间不到一年,债权人应有权自法律程序结束之日起另有一年的期限。
Article 18第18条
(1) Where legal proceedings have been commenced against one debtor, the limitation period prescribed in this Convention shall cease to run against any other party jointly and severally liable with the debtor, provided that the creditor informs such party in writing within that period that the proceedings have been commenced.1. 如已对某一债务人开始进行法律程序,本公约规定的时效期对与该债务人负有连带责任的任何其他当事人应告中止,但债权人须在该期间内以书面通知各该当事人该项程序已经开始。
(2) Where legal proceedings have been commenced by a subpurchaser against the buyer, the limitation period prescribed in this Convention shall cease to run in relation to the buyer’s claim over against the seller, if the buyer informs the seller in writing within that period that the proceedings have been commenced.2. 如转买方已对买方开始进行法律程序,本公约规定的时效期就买方对卖方的要求权而言应告中止,但买方须在该期间内以书面通知卖方该项程序已经开始。
(3) Where the legal proceedings referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article have ended, the limitation period in respect of the claim of the creditor or the buyer against the party jointly and severally liable or against the seller shall be deemed not to have ceased running by virtue of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, but the creditor or the buyer shall be entitled to an additional year from the date on which the legal proceedings ended, if at that time the limitation period had expired or had less than one year to run.3. 如本条第1和第2款所指法律程序已经结束,债权人或买方对负有连带责任的当事人或卖方所提要求权的时效期,应视为不因本条第1和第2款而告中止,但如法律程序结束时时效期业已届满或所余期间不到一年,债权人或买方应有权自法律程序结束之日起另有一年的期限。
Article 19第19条
Where the creditor performs, in the State in which the debtor has his place of business and before the expiration of the limitation period, any act, other than the acts described in articles 13, 14, 15 and 16, which under the law of that State has the effect of recommencing a limitation period, a new limitation period of four years shall commence on the date prescribed by that law.债权人于时效期届满前在债务人营业地所在国家内,从事第13、第14、第15和第16条所列者以外的任何行为,且依该国法律有重新开始原时效期的效力者,应自该法律规定的日期起,开始新的四年时效期。
Article 20第20条
(1) Where the debtor, before the expiration of the limitation period, acknowledges in writing his obligation to the creditor, a new limitation period of four years shall commence to run from the date of such acknowledgement.1. 如债务人在时效期届满前以书面向债权人承认其所负债务,应自作此承认之日起开始新的四年时效期。
(2) Payment of interest or partial performance of an obligation by the debtor shall have the same effect as an acknowledgement under paragraph 1 of this article if it can reasonably be inferred from such payment or performance that the debtor acknowledges that obligation.2. 债务人给付利息或部分履行债务,应与本条第1款所述的承认具有同样效力,但须能从此种给付或履行合理地推定债务人承认该项债务。
Article 21第21条
Where, as a result of a circumstance which is beyond the control of the creditor and which he could neither avoid nor overcome, the creditor has been prevented from causing the limitation period to cease to run, the limitation period shall be extended so as not to expire before the expiration of one year from the date on which the relevant circumstance ceased to exist.如由于债权人无法控制且不能避免或克服的情况,因而债权人无法使时效期中止,该时效期应予延长,以便不致在有关情况消失之日起一年届满前时效期即告届满。
MODIFICATION OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD BY THE PARTIES当事人变更时效期
Article 22第22条
(1) The limitation period cannot be modified or affected by any declaration or agreement between the parties, except in the cases provided for in paragraph 2 of this article.1. 除本条第2款规定的情形外,当事人之间不能以任何声明或协议更改或影响时效期。
(2) The debtor may at any time during the running of the limitation period extend the period by a declaration in writing to the creditor.2. 债务人可在时效期未届满之前随时向债权人提出书面声明延长时效期。
This declaration may be renewed.此项声明可予展期。
(3) The provisions of this article shall not affect the validity of a clause in the contract of sale which stipulates that arbitral proceedings shall be commenced within a shorter period of limitation than that prescribed by this Convention, provided that such clause is valid under the law applicable to the contract of sale.3. 销售合同如有条款规定仲裁程序应在比本公约所规定者更短的时效期内开始进行,本条规定不应影响该条款的效力,但须这种条款根据适用于销售合同的法律是有效的。
GENERAL LIMIT OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期的一般限制
Article 23第23条
Notwithstanding the provisions of this Convention, a limitation period shall in any event expire not later than ten years from the date on which it commenced to run under articles 9, 10, 11 and 12 of this Convention.虽有本公约的规定,时效期在任何情形下都应在根据本公约第9、第10、第11和第12条开始起算之日起十年内届满。
CONSEQUENCES OF THE EXPIRATION OF THE LIMITATION PERIOD时效期届满的后果
Article 24第24条
Expiration of the limitation period shall be taken into consideration in any legal proceedings only if invoked by a party to such proceedings.在任何法律程序中,只有在程序的当事方援引时效期届满为理由时,才应考虑时效期届满问题。
Article 25第25条
(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this article and of article 24, no claim shall be recognized or enforced in any legal proceedings commenced after the expiration of the limitation period.1. 在本条第2款和第24条规定的限制下,凡在时效期届满后开始的任何法律程序,任何要求权均不应予以承认或强制执行。
(2) Notwithstanding the expiration of the limitation period, one party may rely on his claim as a defence or for the purpose of set-off against a claim asserted by the other party, provided that in the latter case this may only be done:2. 即使时效期届满,当事一方仍可凭借其要求权作为辩护或用以抵消当事他方主张的要求权,但抵消他方要求权仅可在有下列情形之一时为之:
(a) if both claims relate to the same contract or to several contracts concluded in the course of the same transaction;(a) 双方的要求权均涉及同一合同,或涉及同一项交易中订立的数项合同;
or
(b) if the claims could have been set-off at any time before the expiration of the limitation period.(b) 该要求权本来即可在时效期届满前随时抵消者。
Article 26第26条
Where the debtor performs his obligation after the expiration of the limitation period, he shall not on that ground be entitled in any way to claim restitution even if he did not know at the time when he performed his obligation that the limitation period had expired.债务人在时效期届满后仍履行其债务者,即使在履行其债务时对时效期业已届满并不知情,亦不应因此而有权要求归还付款。
Article 27第27条
The expiration of the limitation period with respect to a principal debt shall have the same effect with respect to an obligation to pay interest on that debt.主要债务时效期的届满对给付该项债务的利息的义务应有同样效力。
CALCULATION OF THE PERIOD时效期的计算
Article 28第28条
(1) The limitation period shall be calculated in such a way that it shall expire at the end of the day which corresponds to the date on which the period commenced to run.1. 时效期的计算应规定时效期于其起算日的对应日终了时届满。
If there is no such corresponding date, the period shall expire at the end of the last day of the last month of the limitation period.无此种对应日时,应规定于时效期最后一个月的最后一天终了时届满。
(2) The limitation period shall be calculated by reference to the date of the place where the legal proceedings are instituted.2. 时效期应按照提起法律程序地的日期计算。
Article 29第29条
Where the last day of the limitation period falls on an official holiday or other dies non juridicus precluding the appropriate legal action in the jurisdiction where the creditor institutes legal proceedings or asserts a claim as envisaged in article 13, 14 or 15, the limitation period shall be extended so as not to expire until the end of the first day following that official holiday or dies non juridicus on which such proceedings could be instituted or on which such a claim could be asserted in that jurisdiction.时效期的最后一日如为法定假日或其他休庭日,因而在债权人提起第13、第14或第15条所规定的法律程序或主张其中规定的要求权的管辖地无法采取适当法律行动时,该时效期应予延长,使其至法定假日或休庭日的次日终了时始告届满,以便能在该管辖地提起此种程序或主张此种要求权。
INTERNATIONAL EFFECT国际效力
Article 30第30条
The acts and circumstances referred to in articles 13 through 19 which have taken place in one Contracting State shall have effect for the purposes of this Convention in another Contracting State, provided that the creditor has taken all reasonable steps to ensure that the debtor is informed of the relevant act or circumstances as soon as possible.缔约国内发生的第13至第19条所指的行为或情况,就本公约而言,应在另一缔约国内发生效力,但债权人须采取一切合理步骤保证尽快将有关行为或情况告知债务人。
Part II.第二部分 实施
Implementation
Article 31第31条
(1) If a Contracting State has two or more territorial units in which, according to its constitution, different systems of law are applicable in relation to the matters dealt with in this Convention, it may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare that this Convention shall extend to all its territorial units or only to one or more of them, and may amend its declaration by submitting another declaration at any time.1. 如缔约国有两个或两以上的领土单位,而按照该国宪法,对本公约规定的事项可适用不同的法律制度,该国可在签署、批准或加入时声明本公约应适用于该国全部领土单位或仅适用于其中的一个或数个单位,并可随时提出另一声明修改已作的声明。
(2) These declarations shall be notified to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall state expressly the territorial units to which the Convention applies.2. 此种声明应通知联合国秘书长,并应明白指出本公约适用的领土单位。
(3) If a Contracting State described in paragraph 1 of this article makes no declaration at the time of signature, ratification or accession, the Convention shall have effect within all territorial units of that State.3. 如本条第1款所指的缔约国在签署、批准或加入时并未作出声明,本公约应在该国所有领土单位内有效。
(4) If, by virtue of a declaration under this article, this Convention extends to one or more but not all of the territorial units of a Contracting State, and if the place of business of a party to a contract is located in that State, this place of business shall, for the purposes of this Convention, be considered not to be in a Contracting State, unless it is in a territorial unit to which the Convention extends.4. 如依据本条作出的声明,本公约适用于缔约国的一个或数个但不是全部领土单位,又如合同一方的营业地位于该国境内,则就本公约而言,该营业地除非位于本公约适用的领土单位内,应视为不在缔约国内。
Article 32第32条
Where in this Convention reference is made to the law of a State in which different systems of law apply, such reference shall be construed to mean the law of the particular legal system concerned.本公约发提到一国的法律,而该国却适用数种不同的法律制度,应被解释为是指某一有关法律制度的法律。
Article 33第33条
Each Contracting State shall apply the provisions of this Convention to contracts concluded on or after the date of the entry into force of this Convention.每一缔约国应将本公约的规定适用于在本公约生效之日或该日以后订立的合同。
Part III. Declarations and reservations第三部分 声明和保留
Article 34第34条
(1) Two or more Contracting States which have the same or closely related legal rules on matters governed by this Convention may at any time declare that the Convention shall not apply to contracts of international sale of goods where the parties have their places of business in those States.1. 对属于本公约范围的事项具有相同或非常近似的法律规则的两个或两个以上的缔约国,可随时声明本公约不适用于其营业地在这些缔约国的当事人之间的国际货物销售合同。
Such declarations may be made jointly or by reciprocal unilateral declarations.此种声明可联合作出,也可以相互单方面声明的方式作出。
(2) A Contracting State which has the same or closely related legal rules on matters governed by this Convention as one or more non-Contracting States may at any time declare that the Convention shall not apply to contracts of international sale of goods where the parties have their places of business in those States.2. 对属于本公约的范围的事项具有与一个或一个以上非缔约国相同或非常近似的法律规则的缔约国,可随时声明本公约不适用于其营业地在这些非缔约国的当事人之间的国际货物销售合同。
(3) If a State which is the object of a declaration under paragraph 2 of this article subsequently becomes a Contracting State, the declaration made shall, as from the date on which this Convention enters into force in respect of the new Contracting State, have the effect of a declaration made under paragraph 1, provided that the new Contracting State joins in such declaration or makes a reciprocal unilateral declaration.3. 作为根据本条第2款所作声明的客体的国家,如果后来成为缔约国,已作的声明应从本公约对该新缔约国生效之日起,具有根据第1款所作声明的效力,但须该新缔约国加入该声明或作了相互单方面的声明。
Article 35第35条
A Contracting State may declare, at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, that it will not apply the provisions of this Convention to actions for annulment of the contract.缔约国在交存其批准书或加入书时可声明该国不会将本公约的规定适用于废止合同的行动。
Article 36第36条
Any State may declare, at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, that it shall not be compelled to apply the provisions of article 24 of this Convention.任何国家可在交存其批准书或加入书时声明不得强制它适用本公约第24条的规定。
Article 36 bis (Article XII of the Protocol)第36条之二(议定书第拾贰条)
Any State may declare at the time of the deposit of its instrument of accession or its notification under article 43 bis that it will not be bound by the amendments to article 3 made by article I of the 1980 Protocol. A declaration made under this article shall be in writing and be formally notified to the depositary.任何国家在交存其加入书或根据第43条之二作了通知时,可声明不受1980年议定书第壹条对第3条的修正的约束。根据本条作出的声明,应以书面提出,并应正式通知保管人。
Article 37,第37条
This Convention shall not prevail over any international agreement which has already been or may be entered into and which contains provisions concerning the matters governed by this Convention, provided that the seller and buyer have their places of business in States parties to such agreement.本公约不应优于业已缔结或可能缔结并载有与属于本公约范围的事项有关的条款的任何国际协定,但须卖方和买方的营业地均位于这种协定的缔约国内。
Article 38第38条
(1) A Contracting State which is a party to an existing convention relating to the international sale of goods may declare, at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, that it will apply this Convention exclusively to contracts of international sale of goods as defined in such existing convention.1. 缔约国如已为现行国际货物销售公约的缔约国,在交存其批准书或加入书时,可声明将只对该现行公约所规定的国际货物销售合同适用本公约。
(2) Such declaration shall cease to be effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of twelve months after a new convention on the international sale of goods, concluded under the auspices of the United Nations, shall have entered into force.2. 这种声明应于联合国主持缔结的新的国际货物销售公约发生效力满十二个月后第一个月的第一天失效。
Article 39第39条
No reservation other than those made in accordance with articles 34, 35, 36, 36 bis and 38 shall be permitted.除按照第34、第35、第36、第36条之二和第38条作出的保留外,不得作出任何其他保留。
Article 40第40条
(1) Declarations made under this Convention shall be addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall take effect simultaneously with the entry of this Convention into force in respect of the State concerned, except declarations made thereafter.1. 根据本公约作出的声明应致送联合国秘书长,并应与本公约对有关国家生效时同时生效,但在公约生效后所作的声明不在此限。
The latter declarations shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of their receipt by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.公约生效后所作的声明应于联合国秘书长收到该项声明之日起满六个月后的第一个月的第一天生效。
Reciprocal unilateral declarations under article 34 shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the receipt of the latest declaration by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.*根据第34条规定作出的相互单方面声明,应于联合国秘书长收到的最后一份声明之日起满六个月后的第一个月的第一天生效。 ***
(2) Any State which has made a declaration under this Convention may withdraw it at any time by a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.2. 根据本公约作出声明的任何国家可随时向联合国秘书长致送通知撤回其声明。
Such withdrawal shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of the receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.此种撤回应于秘书长收到通知之日起满六个月后的第一个月的第一天生效。
In the case of a declaration made under article 34 of this Convention, such withdrawal shall also render inoperative, as from the date on which the withdrawal takes effect, any reciprocal declaration made by another State under that article.如为根据本公约第34条所作的声明,此种撤回应自撤回生效之日起使另一国根据该条所作的相互声明无效。
Part IV. Final clauses第四部分 最后条款
Article 41第41条
This Convention shall be open until 31 December 1975 for signature by all States at the Headquarters of the United Nations.本公约应在联合国总部听由一切国家签署,至1975年12月31日为止。
Article 42第42条
This Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.本公约*须经批准。批准书应交存于联合国秘书长。
Article 43第43条
This Convention* shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.本公约*听由一切国家加入。加入书应交存于联合国秘书长。
Article 43 bis (Article X of the Protocol)第43条之二(议定书第拾条)
If a State ratifies or accedes to the 1974 Limitation Convention after the entry into force of the 1980 Protocol, the ratification or accession shall also constitute a ratification of or an accession to the Convention as amended by the 1980 Protocol if the State notifies the depositary accordingly.在1980年议定书生效后批准或加入1974年时效公约的国家,如果该国将批准或加入通知保管人,其批准或加入应亦构成批准或加入经1980年议定书修正的公约。
Article 43 ter (Article VIII (2) of the Protocol)第43条之三(议定书第捌条第(2)款)
Accession to the 1980 Protocol by any State which is not a Contracting Party to the 1974 Limitation Convention shall have the effect of accession to that Convention as amended by the Protocol, subject to the provisions of article 44 bis.任何非1974年时效公约缔约国加入1980年议定书,应具有加入经议定书修正的该公约的效力,但以不违反第44条之二的规定为限。
Article 44第44条
(1) This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification or accession.1. 本公约应于第十份批准书或加入书交存之日起满六个月后的第一个月的第一天生效。
(2) For each State ratifying or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification or accession, this Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.2. 对于在第十份批准书或加入书交存后批准或加入本公约的国家,本公约应于各该国家交存批准书或加入书之日起满六个月后的第一个月的第一天生效。
Article 44 bis (Article XI of the Protocol)第44条之二(议定书第拾壹条)
Any State which becomes a Contracting Party to the 1974 Limitation Convention, as amended by the 1980 Protocol, shall, unless it notifies the depositary to the contrary, be considered to be also a Contracting Party to the Convention, unamended, in relation to any Contracting Party to the Convention not yet a Contracting Party to the 1980 Protocol.凡成为经1980议定书修正的1974年时效公约缔约国的任何国家,除非对保管人有相反的通知,在其对尚未成为本议定书缔约国的公约缔约国关系上,也应视为未经修正的公约的缔约国。
Article 45第45条
(1) Any Contracting State may denounce this Convention by notifying the Secretary-General of the United Nations to that effect.1. 任何缔约国可声明退出本公约,退约以通知联合国秘书长的方式为之。
(2) The denunciation shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of twelve months after receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.2. 该项退约应于联合国秘书长收到此项通知满十二个月后的第一个月的第一天生效。
Article 45 bis (Article XIII (3) of the Protocol)第45条之二(议定书第拾叁条第(3)款)
Any Contracting State in respect of which the 1980 Protocol ceases to have effect by the application of paragraphs (1) and (2) of article XIII of the 1980 Protocol shall remain a Contracting Party to the 1974 Limitation Convention, unamended, unless it denounces the unamended Convention in accordance with article 45 of that Convention.因适用1980年议定书第拾叁条第(1)和第(2)款而使1980年议定书对其停止生效的任何缔约国,仍为未经修正的1974年时效公约的缔约国,除非它依照该公约第45条规定,声明退出未经修正的该公约。
Article 46第46条
The original of this Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.本公约正本应交存于联合国秘书长,其中文、英文、法文、俄文及西班牙文各文本均有同等效力。 ---- 三. 联合国国际贸易法委员会秘书处关于
II.
Explanatory Note by the UNCITRAL Secretariat on the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods and the Protocol amending the Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods《国际货物销售时效期公约》和 《修正国际货物销售时效期公约的议定书》的说明
This note has been prepared by the secretariat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law for informational purposes; it is not an official commentary on the Convention.本说明由联合国国际贸易法委员会秘书处编写供参考用;并非对公约的正式评论。
A commentary on the unamended Convention prepared at the request of the United Nations Conference on Prescription (Limitation) in the International Sale of Goods appears in A/CONF.63/17 (reprinted in Yearbook of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, vol. X:1979 (United Nations Publication, Sales No. E.81.V.2), part three, chap. I).应联合国国际货物销售时效会议的要求编写的评论见A/CONF.63/17(转载于《联合国国际贸易法委员会年鉴第十卷:1979年》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.81.V.2),第三篇,第一章)。
A. IntroductionA. 导言
1. The Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods (New York, 1974) provides uniform international legal rules governing the period of time within which a party under a contract for the international sale of goods must commence legal proceedings against the other party to assert a claim arising from the contract or relating to its breach, termination or invalidity.1. 《国际货物销售时效期公约》(1974年,纽约)就国际货物销售合同的当事一方必须开始法定程序向当事他方提出由于该合同引起的或与该合同的违反、终止或无效有关的权利要求的期限,规定了国际统一法律规则。
This period is referred to in the Convention as the “limitation period”.本公约称此种期限为“时效期”。
The basic aims of the limitation period are to prevent the institution of legal proceedings at such a late date that the evidence relating to the claim is likely to be unreliable or lost and to protect against the uncertainty and injustice that would result if a party were to remain exposed to unasserted claims for an extensive period of time.时效期的基本目的是为了防止提起诉讼日期过晚而使有关该权利要求的证明很可能变成不可靠或丧失,并为了避免由于使当事方长时间承受尚未提出的权利要求的风险所可能带来的不确定性和不公正。
2. The Limitation Convention grew out of the work of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) towards the harmonization and unification of international sales law, which also resulted in the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna, 1980) (hereinafter referred to as the “United Nations Sales Convention”).2. 《时效公约》是在联合国国际贸易法委员会(贸易法委会)为协调和统一国际销售法的工作中逐渐形成的,其工作成果还有《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》(1980年,维也纳)(下称《联合国销售公约》)。
During that work it was observed that, while most legal systems limited or prescribed a claim from being asserted after the lapse of a specified period of time, numerous disparities existed among legal systems with respect to the conceptual basis for doing so.在上述工作中人们注意到,虽然大多数法律制度限制或规定在一段指定时间以内提出权利要求,但是各法律制度关于作出这种限制的概念依据悬殊众多。
As a result there were disparities in the length of the period and in the rules governing the limitation or prescription of claims after that period.因此,在期限长短和关于此期限届满以后的权利要求时效规则方面也互不一致。
Those disparities created difficulties in the enforcement of claims arising from international sales transactions, and thus burdened international trade.这种不一致在行使由于国际销售交易所引起的权利方面制造了困难,从而造成了国际贸易的负担。
3. In view of those problems UNCITRAL decided to prepare uniform international legal rules on the limitation period in the international sale of goods.3. 鉴于这些问题,贸易法委员会决定拟订关于国际货物销售时效期的国际统一法律规则。
On the basis of a draft Convention prepared by UNCITRAL, a diplomatic conference convened in New York by the General Assembly adopted the Limitation Convention on 14 June 1974.在贸易法委会拟订的公约草案的基础上,联大在纽约召开了一次外交会议,于1974年6月14日通过了时效公约。
4. The Limitation Convention was amended by a Protocol adopted in 1980 by the diplomatic conference that adopted the United Nations Sales Convention, in order to harmonize the Limitation Convention with the latter Convention, in particular, with regard to scope of application and admissible declarations.4. 1980年外交会议通过了联合国销售公约,并通过了修正时效公约的议定书,以便协调时效公约与联合国销售公约,特别是在适用范围和允许作出的声明方面。
As a result, the scope of application of the amended Limitation Convention and that of the United Nations Sales Convention are identical.因此,经修正的《时效公约》的适用范围与《联合国销售公约》的适用范围完全一致。
5. The Limitation Convention entered into force on 1 August 1988.5. 时效公约于1988年8月1日生效。
As of 1 July 2011, 28 States are parties to the unamended Convention and 21 of those 28 States are parties to the amended Convention.截至2011年10月1日,未经修正的公约有29个缔约国,其中21个是经修正的公约的缔约国。
The current updated status of the Convention is available on the UNCITRAL website.贸易法委员会网站提供公约的最新现状。
Authoritative information on the status of the Convention, as well as on related declarations, including with respect to territorial application and succession of States, may be found on the United Nations Treaty Collection on the Internet.关于公约以及相关声明的状况,包括各国的领土适用情况和继承情况,可以在互联网联合国条约汇编上查到权威资料。
B. Scope of applicationB. 适用范围
6. The Convention applies to contracts for the sale of goods between parties whose places of business are in different States if both of those States are Contracting States.6. 本公约适用于其营业所位于两个均为缔约国的不同国家内的当事方之间订立的货物销售合同。
Under the 1980 Protocol the Convention also applies if the rules of private international law make the law of a Contracting State applicable to the contract.根据1980年议定书,如果国际私法规则使缔约国法律适用于该合同,则本公约也适用。
However, in becoming a party to the Protocol a State may declare that it will not be bound by that provision.但是,一国在成为议定书的缔约国时,可声明它不受该规定的约束。
Each Contracting State must apply the Convention to contracts concluded on or after the date of the entry into force of the Convention.各缔约国必须对本公约生效之日或之后缔结的合同适用本公约。
7. The application of the Convention is excluded in certain situations.7. 本公约在某些情况下不适用。
Firstly, the Convention will not apply if the parties to a sales contract expressly exclude its application.第一,如果销售合同当事各方明示排除适用本公约时,本公约即不适用。
This provision gives effect to the basic principle of freedom of contract in the international sale of goods.这一规定实行了国际销售货物合同自由的基本原则。
Secondly, the Convention will not apply in certain cases where matters covered by the Convention are governed by other Conventions.第二,在某些情况下,本公约所涉事项属其他公约管辖时,本公约不适用。
Thirdly, Contracting States are permitted to deposit declarations excluding the application of the Convention in the following situations: two or more Contracting States may exclude the application of the Convention to contracts between parties having their places of business in those States when the States apply to those contracts the same or closely related legal rules.第三,缔约国可交存声明或保留意见,排除在下述情况下适用本公约:两个或两个以上缔约国可排除对在各该国内在营业所的当事方之间订立的合同适用本公约,如果各该国对该合同适用同样的或密切有关的法律规则的话。
So far, one State has made that declaration.迄今为止,只有一个国家作此声明。
In addition, a State may exclude the application of the Convention to actions for annulment of the contract.此外,一国可排除本公约适用于废除该合同的行动。
No State has thus far availed itself of such a declaration.迄今无任何国家作出此种声明。
8. Since the Convention applies only in respect of international sales contracts, it clarifies whether contracts involving certain services are covered.8. 由于本公约仅对国际销售公约适用,澄清了本公约是否适用于某些服务合同的问题。
A contract for the supply of goods to be manufactured or produced is considered to be a sales contract unless the party who orders the goods undertakes to supply a substantial part of the materials necessary for their manufacture or production.关于供应待制造或待生产货物的合同,应视为销货合同,但订货方承担供应制造或生产此类货物所需物资的重大部分者除外。
Furthermore, when the preponderant part of the obligations of the party who furnishes the goods consists in the supply of labour or other services, the Convention does not apply.此外,如果供货方义务的主要部分是供应劳动力或其他劳务则不适用本公约。
9.
The Convention contains a list of types of sales that are excluded from the Convention, either because of the purpose of the sale (goods bought for personal, family or household use (under the 1980 Protocol sales of those goods are covered by the Convention if the seller could not have known that they were bought for such use)), the nature of the sale (sales by auction, on execution or otherwise by law) or the nature of the goods (stocks, shares, investment securities, negotiable instruments, money, ships, vessels, aircraft or electricity (the 1980 Protocol adds hovercraft)).9. 本公约载有由于下述原因而排除适用本公约的各类销售一览表,由于销售目的(为个人、家人或家庭使用而购买的货物(根据1980年议定书,如果卖方无法知道购买此类货物为供此种用途,则此类货物销售属本公约范围))、销售性质(拍卖、执行或其他依法销售)、或货物性质(公债、股票、投资证券、流通票据、货币、船只、船艇或电力(1980年议定书增列气垫船))。
10. The Convention makes it clear that it applies only to the usual type of commercial claims based on contract.10. 本公约阐明其仅适用于基于合同的通常类型商业权利要求。
It specifically excludes claims based on death or personal injury; nuclear damage; a lien, mortgage or other security interest; a judgment or award;本公约具体排除基于下列各项的权利要求:死亡或人身伤害;核损害;留置权、抵押、物权担保;判决或裁决;能够据以获得强制执行或执行的文件;和汇票、支票或本票。
a document on which direct enforcement or execution can be obtained;
and a bill of exchange, cheque or promissory note.
The limitation periods for those claims are generally subject to particular rules and it would not necessarily be appropriate to apply in respect of those claims the rules applicable to ordinary commercial contractual claims.上述权利要求的时效期一般受特定规则制约,如果对上述权利要求适用对普通商业合同权利要求所适用的规则,就未必合适。
C. Duration and commencement of limitation periodC. 时效期与时效期的开始
11. The duration of the limitation period under the Convention is four years.11. 根据本公约规定,时效期为四年。
The period cannot be modified by agreement of the parties, but it can be extended by a written declaration of the debtor during the running of the period.当事各方不能过协议来修改这一期限,但是债务人可在时效期持续期间以书面声明延长这一期限。
Also, the contract of sale may stipulate a shorter period for the commencement of arbitral proceedings, if the stipulation is valid under the law applicable to the contract.销售合同也可以为开始仲裁程序规定一个短于此的期限,只要这种规定根据适用于销售合同的法律是有效的。
Rules are provided as to how the limitation period should be calculated.关于如何计算时效期限另有规则规定。
12. A limitation period of four years’ duration was thought to accomplish the aims of the limitation period and yet to provide an adequate period of time to enable a party to an international sales contract to assert his claim against the other party.12. 为期四年的时效期是为了达到时效期的目的,并为了规定充分时间使国际销售合同的当事一方能向当事他方提出权利要求。
Circumstances where an extension or recommencement of the limitation period would be justified are dealt with in particular provisions of the Convention.本公约的具体条款规定中涉及了能作为正当理由延长或重新开始时效期的各种情况。
13. With respect to the time when the limitation period commences to run, the basic rule is that it commences on the date on which the claim accrues.13. 关于时效期的起算时间,基本规则是时效期自权利要求发生之日起算。
The Convention establishes when claims for breach of contract, for defects in the goods or other lack of conformity and for fraud are deemed to accrue.本公约确定了有关违约、货物有缺陷或其他不符规定之处和欺诈行为等方面的权利要求各应视为何时发生的。
Special rules are provided for the commencement of the limitation period in two particular cases: where the seller has given the buyer an express undertaking (such as a warranty or guarantee) relating to the goods which is stated to have effect for a certain period of time, and where a party terminates the contract before the time for performance is due.特定规则规定了在以下两种特定情况下时效期的起始时间:一是卖方就货物向买方作了明示保证(诸如保单或保证书)说明在某一期间有效;一是合同的当事一方在该合同的履行时间到期以前就终止该合同。
Rules are also provided in respect of claims arising from the breach of an instalment contract and claims based on circumstances giving rise to a termination of an instalment contract.还对由于违反分期付款合同而产生的权利要求和基于引起终止分期付款合同的有关情况的权利要求规定了规则。
D. Cessation and extension of limitation periodD. 时效期的中断和延长
14. Having established the time of commencement and the length of the limitation period, the Convention sets forth rules concerning the cessation of the period.14. 本公约在确定了时效期的起始时间和长短以后,规定了关于时效期中断的规则。
The period ceases to run when the claimant commences judicial or arbitral proceedings against the debtor, or when he asserts his claim in existing proceedings.当债权人对债务人提起的诉讼程序或仲裁程序开始时,或当债权人在现行程序中提出其权利要求时,即停止计算时效期。
A counterclaim is deemed to have been asserted on the same date as the date when the proceedings in which the counterclaim is asserted were commenced, if the counterclaim and the claim against which it is raised relate to the same contract or to several contracts concluded in the course of the same transaction.如果反要求和据以提出反要求的权利要求均与同一合同或与同一项交易中所订立的若干合同有关,该反要求应视为在提出该反要求的有关程序开始之日的同日提出的。
15. Judicial or arbitral proceedings commenced by a claimant within the limitation period might terminate without a binding decision on the merits of the claim, for example, because the court or arbitral tribunal lacks jurisdiction or because of a procedural defect.15. 债权人在时效期内开始的诉讼程序或仲裁程序结束时可能未就该权利要求的是非曲直作出有约束力的决定,例如由于法院或仲裁庭没有管辖权或由于程序上的缺陷所致。
The creditor would normally be able to pursue his claim by commencing new proceedings.债权人通常可开始新的程序继续提出其权利要求。
Thus, the Convention provides that if the original proceedings end without a binding decision on the merits the limitation period will be deemed to have continued to run.因而,本公约规定如原程序结束时未就是非曲直作出决定,应认为时效期一直持续未予中断。
However, by the time the original proceedings have ended, the limitation period might have expired, or there might remain insufficient time for the claimant to commence new proceedings.但是,到原程序结束之时,时效期也可能届满,或者无足够时间让债权人来开始新的程序。
To protect the claimant in those cases the Convention grants him an additional period of one year to commence new proceedings.在这种情况下,本公约为保护债权人,规定再给予他一年时间以开始新的程序。
16. The Convention contains rules to resolve in a uniform manner questions concerning the running of the limitation period in two particular cases.16. 本公约载有以统一方式解决在两种特定情况下计算时效期问题的规则。
Firstly, it provides that where legal proceedings have been commenced against one party to the sales contract, the limitation period ceases to run against a person jointly and severally liable with him if the claimant informs that person in writing within the limitation period that the proceedings have been commenced.第一,本公约规定,在对销售公约当事一方开始诉讼程序的情况下,如果债权人在时效期内将诉讼程序已开始一事书面通知与该当事方负有连带责任的人,则对该人即停止计算时效期。
Secondly, it provides that where proceedings have been commenced against a buyer by a party who purchased the goods from him, the limitation period ceases to run in respect of the buyer’s recourse claim against the seller if the buyer informs the seller in writing within the limitation period that the proceedings against the buyer have been commenced.第二,本公约规定,在向买方购货的当事方对买方开始诉讼程序的情况下,如果买方在时效期限内将对买方开始诉讼一事以书面通知卖方,则就买方向卖方的追偿要求而言,即停止计算时效期限。
Where the proceedings in either of those two cases have ended, the limitation period in respect of the claim against the jointly and severally liable person or against the seller will be deemed to have continued to run without interruption, but there will be an additional year to commence new proceedings if at that time the limitation period has expired or has less than a year to run.当上述任一情况下的诉讼程序结束时,就对负有连带责任的人或对卖方的权利要求而言,应视为时效期一直持续未予中断,但届时如果时效期已满或尚有不足一年时间届满,则将再增加一年时间以开始新的诉讼程序。
17. One effect of the provision mentioned above relating to the buyer is to enable him to await the outcome of the claim against him before commencing an action against the seller.17. 上述规定所具有的与买方有关的一个效应是使买方能够等待对其提出的权利要求有了结果以后再开始采取对卖方的行动。
This enables the buyer to avoid the trouble and expense of instituting proceedings against the seller and the disruption of their good business relationship if it turns out that the claim against the buyer was not successful.如果对买方提出的权利要求结果未获胜诉,这样做就可使买方避免因对卖方提起讼诉而招致的麻烦和费用,也可避免破坏彼此间的良好商业关系。
18. Under the Convention the limitation period recommences in two cases: if the creditor performs in the debtor’s State an act that, under the law of that State, has the effect of recommencing a limitation period, or if the debtor acknowledges in writing his obligation to the creditor or pays interest or partially performs the obligation from which his acknowledgement can be inferred.18. 根据本公约规定,时效期在以下两种情况下重新开始:如果债权人在债务人国家内进行某种行动根据该国法律具有重新开始时效期的效力者,或是,如果债务人以书面承认其对债权人的义务或支付利息或部分履行其义务,并可由此推定为债务人承认其义务者。
19. The Convention protects a creditor who was prevented from taking the necessary acts to stop the running of the limitation period in extreme cases.19. 本公约保护在非常情况下无法采取必要行动以停止计算时效期的债权人。
It provides that when the creditor could not take those acts as a result of a circumstance beyond his control and which he could neither avoid nor overcome, the limitation period will be extended so as to expire one year after the date when the circumstance ceased to exist.本公约规定当债权人由于其无法控制和不能防止或克服的情况而不能采取必要行动时,时效期将予延长以使在有关情况消失之日起一年之后届满。
E. Overall limit of limitation periodE. 时效期的总限制
20. Since the limitation period may, under the circumstances noted above, be extended or recommence, the Convention establishes an overall time period of 10 years, from the date on which the limitation period originally commenced to run, beyond which no legal proceedings to assert the claim may be commenced under any circumstances.20. 由于在上述情况下,时效期可予延长或重新开始,本公约规定了自时效期最初开始起算之日起为期十年的总期限,超过此期限后任何情况下都不得开始任何诉讼程序来提出权利要求。
The theory behind that provision is that enabling proceedings to be brought after that time would be inconsistent with the aims of the Convention in providing a definite limitation period.这一规定所依据的原理是:如果在这一期限以后还能提起诉讼就不符公约关于规定确定时效期的宗旨。
F. Consequences of expiration of limitation periodF. 时效期届满的后果
21. The principal consequence of the expiration of the limitation period is that no claim will be recognized or enforced in legal proceedings commenced thereafter.21. 时效期届满的主要后果是在时效期届满后开始的诉认程序中将不承认或不执行任何权利要求。
The expiration of the limitation period will not be taken into consideration in legal proceedings unless it is invoked by a party to the proceedings.在诉讼程序中将不考虑时效期的届满,但由诉讼一方提出请求者除外。
However, in light of views expressed at the diplomatic conference that adopted the Convention that the limitation or prescription of actions was a matter of public policy and that a court should be able to take the expiration of the limitation period into account on its own initiative, a Contracting State is permitted to declare that it will not apply that provision.但是,鉴于通过本公约的外交会议上所发表的意见认为限制或规定采取行动的时效属公共政策问题,法院应能主动考虑时效期的届满,因此允许缔约国声明其将不适用这一规定。
No State has thus far made such a declaration.迄今无任何国家作此声明。
22. Even after the limitation period has expired a party can in certain situations raise his claim as a defence to or set-off against a claim asserted by the other party.22. 即使在时效期届满之后,当事一方可在一定情况下提出其权利要求作为对当事他方提出的权利要求的答辩或抵消。
G. Other provisions and final clausesG. 其他规定和最后条款
23. Other provisions of the Convention deal with implementation of the Convention in States having two or more territorial units where different legal systems exist.23. 本公约其他规定涉及在具有两个或两个以上领土单位存在不同法律制度的国家执行本公约的问题。
A series of provisions deals with declarations and reservations permitted under the Convention and with procedures for making and withdrawing them.一些规定涉及根据本公约规定所允许提出的声明和保留及其提出和撤回的程序。
The permitted declarations and reservations have been mentioned above; no others may be made under the Convention.除上文所述允许提出的声明和保留以外,对本公约不得提出任何其他声明或保留。
24. The final clauses contain the usual provisions relating to the Secretary-General of the United Nations as depositary of the Convention.24. 最后条款载有关于联合国秘书长作为本公约保存人的通常规定。
The Convention is subject to ratification by States that signed it before 31 December 1975 and for accession by States that did not do so.本公约须经1975年12月31日前签署本公约的各国批准,并供尚未加入的国家加入。
The Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of the Convention are equally authentic.本公约的阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文、西班牙文各文本具有同等效力。
25. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is also the depositary of the 1980 Protocol amending the Convention, which is open for accession by all States.25. 联合国秘书长也是修正本公约的1980年议定书的保存人,议定书现开放供各国加入。
Since the Protocol had already received the necessary number of accessions, the Convention as amended by the Protocol entered into force on the same date as the unamended Convention on 1 August 1988.由于议定书已获必要数目的国家加入,经议定书修正的本公约与未经修正的本公约于1988年8月1日同日生效。
26. A State that ratifies or accedes to the Convention after the Convention and Protocol come into force will become a party to the unamended Convention as well unless it notifies the depositary to the contrary.26. 在本公约和议定书生效后批准或加入本公约的国家将成为未经修正的本公约的缔约国,除非该国向保存人作了相反的通知。
The Convention as amended will enter into force for that State on the first day of the month following the expiration of 6 months after the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.经修正的本公约将于该国交存批准书或加入书之日起6个月届满以后的该月1日对该国生效。
Accession to the Protocol by a State that is not a Contracting Party to the Convention constitutes accession to the Convention as amended by the Protocol.非本公约缔约国的国家加入议定书,即构成加入经议定书修正的本公约。
H. Complementary textsH. 补充性法规
27. The Limitation Convention is complemented by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (the United Nations Sales Convention, also known as “CISG”).27. 《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》(联合国销售公约,又称销售公约)是对时效公约的补充。
Adopted by a diplomatic conference on 11 April 1980, the United Nations Sales Convention establishes a comprehensive code of legal rules governing the formation of contracts for the international sale of goods, the obligations of the buyer and seller, remedies for breach of contract and other aspects of the contract.联合国销售公约于1980年4月11日由外交会议通过,就国际货物销售合同的订立、买方和卖方的义务、违约救济以及合同的其他方面确立了一整套法律规则。
28. The Limitation Convention is also complemented, with respect to the use of electronic communications, by the United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts, 2005 (the Electronic Communications Convention).28. 在电子通信的使用方面,2005年《联合国国际合同使用电子通信公约》(《电子通信公约》)也是对时效公约的补充。
The Electronic Communications Convention aims at facilitating the use of electronic communications in international trade by assuring that contracts concluded and other communications exchanged electronically are as valid and enforceable as their traditional paper-based equivalents.《电子通信公约》旨在便利国际贸易使用电子通信,为此而保证以电子方式订立的合同和交换的其他通信与其他传统纸介等同物一样有效和可执行。
In particular, certain formal requirements contained in widely adopted international trade law treaties may hinder the legal recognition of the use of electronic communications.特别是,广为采用的国际贸易法条约中包含某些形式要求,可能会妨碍对使用电子通信的法律承认。
The Electronic Communications Convention is an enabling treaty whose effect is to remove those formal obstacles by establishing the requirements for functional equivalence between electronic and written form.《电子通信公约》是一种赋权条约,其作用在于通过确立电子形式与书面形式功能等同的要求,消除这些形式上的障碍。
Further information can be obtained from:可按以下地址索取更详细资料:
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* Article 2 of the authentic English text is reproduced as corrected in depositary notification C.N.106.1991.Treaties-2 of 29 February 1992.
** Text as amended in accordance with article I of the 1980 Protocol. States that make a declaration under article 36 bis (article XII of the 1980 Protocol) will be bound by article 3 as originally adopted in the Limitation Convention, 1974. Article 3 as originally adopted reads as follows: “Article 3 (1) This Convention shall apply only if, at the time of the conclusion of the contract, the places of business of the parties to a contract of international sale of goods are in Contracting States.* 按照1980年议定书第壹条修正的案文。根据第36条之二(1980年议定书第柒条)作出声明的国家将受原来通过的1974年时效公约第3条的约束。第3条原文如下:
(2) Unless this Convention provides otherwise, it shall apply irrespective of the law which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of the rules of private international law.
(3) This Convention shall not apply when the parties have expressly excluded its application.”
* Text of paragraphs (a) and (e) as amended in accordance with article II of the 1980 Protocol. Paragraphs (a) and (e) of article 4 as originally adopted in the Limitation Convention, 1974, prior to its amendment under the 1980 Protocol, read as follows: “(a) of goods bought for personal, family or household use;** (a)和(e)款是按照1980年议定书第贰条修正的案文。根据1980年议定修正之前,1974年时效公约第4条(a)和(e)款原文如下:
(e) of ships, vessels, or aircraft;”.
* Article 15 of the authentic English text is reproduced as corrected in depositary notification C.N.106.1991.Treaties-2 of 29 February 1992.
* Article 22 of the authentic English text is reproduced as corrected in depositary notification C.N.106.1991.Treaties-2 of 29 February 1992.
* New paragraph 4, added in accordance with article III of the 1980 Protocol.* 按照1980年议定书第叁条增加的新的第4款。
** Text as amended in accordance with article IV of the 1980 Protocol. Article 34 as originally adopted in the Limitation Convention, 1974, prior to its amendment under the 1980 Protocol, read as follows: “Article 34 Two or more Contracting States may at any time declare that contracts of sale between a seller having a place of business in one of these States and a buyer having a place of business in another of these States shall not be governed by this Convention, because they apply to the matters governed by this Convention the same or closely related legal rules.”* 按照1980年议定书第肆条修正的案文。在根据1980年议定书修正前,1974年时效公约第34条原文如下:
* Such a State will then be bound by article 3 of the unamended Convention. For its text, see footnote under article 3. ** Text as amended in accordance with article V of the Protocol.* 这种国家因而将受未经修正的公约第3条的约束,该条条文见第3条的脚注。
Article 37 as originally adopted in the Limitation Convention, 1974, prior to its amendment under the 1980 Protocol, read as follows: “Article 37 This Convention shall not prevail over conventions already entered into or which may be entered into, and which contain provisions concerning the matters covered by this Convention, provided that the seller and buyer have their places of business in States parties to such a convention.” *** Article 37 of the authentic English text is reproduced as corrected in depositary notification C.N.106.1991.Treaties-2 of 29 February 1992.** 按照议定书第伍条修正的条文。根据1980年议定书修正之前,1974年时效公约第37条原文如下:
* Last sentence of paragraph 1 of article 40 (between asterisks) added in accordance with article VI of the 1980 Protocol. ** Refers to the 1974 Limitation Convention.*** 第40条第1款最后一句(两个*号之间的一句)是按照1980年议定书第陆条添加的。
* Refers to the 1974 Limitation Convention.* 指1974年时效公约。
** Article 43 bis of the authentic English text is reproduced as corrected in depositary notification C.N.106.1991.Treaties-2 of 29 February 1992.
* Article 45 bis of the authentic English text is reproduced as corrected in depositary notification C.N.106.1991.Treaties-2 of 29 February 1992.
** Paragraphs (1) and (2) of article XIII of the Protocol read as follows: “(1) A Contracting State may denounce this Protocol by notifying the depositary to that effect.* 议定书第拾叁条第(1)和第(2)款全文如下:
(2) The denunciation shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of twelve months after receipt of the notification by the depositary.”
1 Available at: www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/ 1974Convention_status.html.1 查阅网址:www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/1974Convention_ status.html。
2 Available at: http://treaties.un.org/.