A_69_350_EC
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A/69/350 V1405680.doc (English)A/69/350 V1405679.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
A/69/350A/69/350
General Assembly大 会
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
8 September 20148 September 2014
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
A/69/350A/69/350
A/69/350A/69/350
V.14-05680 (E) 201014 211014V.14-05679 (C) GP 161014 161014
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Sixty-ninth session第六十九届会议
Item 48 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目48
**
A/69/100.A/69/100。
Effects of atomic radiation原子辐射的影响 联合国原子辐射影响问题科学委员会成员扩充所产生的影响
Impact of the increase in the membership of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and possible approaches to further increases以及进一步扩充成员的可能办法
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
Summary内容摘要
The present report has been prepared pursuant to paragraph 18 of General Assembly resolution 66/70, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to it at its sixty-ninth session “on the experience of the increase in the membership of the Scientific Committee to 27 States regarding its effectiveness, quality of work and equitable geographical distribution, as well as on options for further increase procedures”.本报告系根据大会第66/70号决议第18段编写,其中大会请秘书长向大会第六十九届会议提交一份报告,“介绍科学委员会成员扩充到27国后在效率、工作质量和公平地域分配方面的经验,以及说明若要确定进一步扩充成员的程序有着哪些备选方案”。
The General Assembly has increased the membership of the Scientific Committee only three times since it was created in 1955: in 1974, in 1986 and in 2011.自科学委员会于1955年成立以来,大会仅三次扩充了委员会成员:1974年、1986年和2011年。
Overall, the period considered (2012-2014) was too short to draw firm conclusions on the impact of the latest increase in membership to 27 States on the effectiveness and quality of the Committee’s work.总体而言,目前所审议的时期(2012-2014年)过短,因此无法针对委员会成员数目最新扩充到27国对委员会效率和工作质量的影响问题得出确切的结论。
Moreover, the number of States members of the Committee has almost doubled since its creation, yet the geographical distribution has remained essentially stable.此外,委员会成员国数目自其成立以来几乎增加了一倍,不过地域分配基本上保持稳定。
Because the Committee is scientific in nature, changing membership is not the most pertinent means to enhance the effectiveness and quality of the Committee’s work.由于该委员会的科学性,改变成员组成并不是提高委员会效率和工作质量的最为恰当的手段。
Access to data from and links to institutions in Member States of the United Nations at large that can provide the Committee with the necessary expertise and data are much more important.更加重要的是从整个联合国会员国中可为委员会提供必要专门知识和数据的机构获得数据并访问这些机构的链接。
The secretariat has envisaged possible changes to the management and organization of the Committee that could include soliciting contributions from more scientists and institutions.秘书处设想了可能对委员会的管理和组织工作做出的改变,这可能包括向更多科学家和机构征求意见。
To achieve this, the Committee has decided to set out, at its sixty-second session, long-term strategic directions to help inform future deliberations of the Assembly on the Committee’s membership.为此,委员会决定在其第六十二届会议上制定长期战略方向,以便帮助在大会今后的审议工作中报告委员会的成员组成情况。
Contents目录
Page页次
Introduction导言
33
Background背景
33
Impact of the increase in the membership of the Scientific Committee to 27 States科学委员会成员扩充到27国的影响
44
Effectiveness效率
54
Quality of work工作质量
87
Equitable geographical distribution公平地域分配
87
Possible approaches to further membership increases进一步扩充成员的可能办法
109
Conclusions结论
1311
I. Introduction一. 导言
The General Assembly, in its resolution 66/70 of 9 December 2011, requested the Secretary-General to report to it at its sixty-ninth session “on the experience of the increase in the membership of the Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to 27 States regarding its effectiveness, quality of work and equitable geographical distribution, as well as on options for further increase procedures”.1. 大会在其2011年12月9日第66/70号决议中请秘书长向其第六十九届会议提交一份报告,“介绍科学委员会成员扩充到27国后在效率、工作质量和公平地域分配方面的经验,以及说明若要确定进一步扩充成员的程序有着哪些备选方案”。
The present report is submitted in response to that request.本报告系根据该请求而提交。
II. Background二. 背景
The General Assembly, in resolution 913 (X) of 3 December 1955, established the Scientific Committee and tasked it with making broad scientific assessments of the sources of ionizing radiation and its effects on human health and the environment.2. 大会在其1955年12月3日第913 (X)号决议中设立了科学委员会,并规定委员会的任务是对遭受各种来源的电离辐射问题及其对人类健康和环境的影响进行广泛的科学评估。
Since 1955, the Committee has played an important role in improving international scientific understanding of the levels and trends of exposure to ionizing radiation, for example, in medicine, research, agriculture and industry and from nuclear power production, as well as of exposure to natural sources of radiation.3. 自1955年以来,委员会在以下方面发挥着重要作用:增进国际从科学角度了解医疗、研究、工农业和核电生产等领域电离辐射来源以及天然辐射来源的照射的程度和照射趋势。
Notable examples include the Committee’s evaluations of the levels of exposure from atmospheric weapons testing, and from the accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations.著名的例子包括委员会对大气层武器试验、切尔诺贝利及福岛核电站事故造成的照射的程度进行评价。
The Committee has also fostered an international consensus on the state of knowledge of the health and environmental effects of radiation exposure.4. 委员会还促进就辐射照射对健康和环境的影响的了解状况形成了国际共识。
That scientific consensus is fundamental to the international framework for radiation safety, underpinning the international standards for protecting the public, workers and patients against ionizing radiation.这个科学共识对于国际辐射安全框架非常重要,为保护公众、工人和病人免受电离辐射的国际标准奠定了基础。
Member States then use those international standards to develop important programmes and enact legislation in the field of radiation protection.会员国随后利用这些国际标准制定重要的方案并颁布辐射防护领域的立法。
The Committee’s reports, with their detailed scientific annexes, also serve as important references for the scientific community.委员会的报告及其中详细的科学附件也可为科学界提供重要的参考。
Governments, international organizations and the scientific community hold the Committee in high regard for its valuable contribution to wider knowledge and understanding in this highly specialized field, and for its scientific authority and independence of judgement.5. 由于在推广对这一高度专业化领域的认识和了解方面做出了宝贵贡献,以及由于其科学权威和独立判断,各国政府、国际组织和科学界对委员会给予了高度评价。
The General Assembly has reaffirmed its decision to maintain the current functions and independent role of the Scientific Committee.大会重申其决定维护科学委员会的现有职能和独立作用。
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has the organizational responsibility for servicing the Committee, and provides it with a secretariat, located in Vienna.6. 联合国环境规划署(环境署)负有向委员会提供服务的组织责任,并在维也纳为委员会设立了秘书处。
The secretariat arranges the annual sessions and, in accordance with the Committee’s requests, coordinates the drafting of several detailed and highly specialized documents based on scientific and technical information obtained from Member States of the United Nations at large and the scientific literature.秘书处负责安排年度会议,并应委员会请求,依据从广大联合国会员国获得的科学和技术资料及科学文献,协调若干详细和高度专业化的文件的起草工作。
In recent years more than 100 scientific advisers from the 27 States members of the Committee and observers from international organizations have scrutinized the scientific content of technical documents in preparation for the annual sessions.7. 近年来,来自委员会27个成员国的100多名科学顾问和国际组织的观察员审查了为年度会议所准备的技术文件的科学内容。
The work is divided between two informal subgroups, one responsible for analysing the levels of radiation exposure, and one responsible for assessing the effects of exposure on human health.此项工作由两个非正式小组分担,其中一个负责分析辐射照射的程度,一个负责评估照射对人类健康的影响。
The first subgroup consists of specialists in dosimetry and statistics, the second is highly specialized and requires experts of world standing in fields such as radiobiology and epidemiology.第一个小组由剂量测定和统计专家组成,第二个小组专业性极高,需要放射生物学和流行病学等领域的世界一流专家。
In the last decade or two, new challenges have arisen owing to the marked acceleration of global communications and of specialized scientific developments, such as the rapid development and implementation worldwide of new practices and techniques in medical uses of radiation, and in molecular biology and genetics.8. 过去十年或二十年里,由于全球通信和专门科学发展速度的明显加快,如医用辐射、分子生物和遗传学领域新实践和技术的快速发展及在全世界的推行,新的挑战应运而生。
This important trend is likely to continue.这一重要的趋势可能将持续。
Moreover, there is growing interest in the Committee’s work, in part because of renewed consideration of nuclear power in response to concerns about energy security and global warming (tempered by apprehension about the human and environmental impact of accidents and of radioactive waste); threats related to nuclear and radiological weapons; new applications of radiation in medicine, research, agriculture and industry; and an evolving understanding of the effects of radiation at low rates of exposure, including the fact that those effects depend on age, sex, lifestyle and genetic factors.此外,人们对委员会工作的兴趣愈加浓厚,其部分原因是针对人们对能源安全与全球变暖(因认识到事故和放射性废物对人类和环境影响而有所缓和)的关切,重新考虑了核能问题;与核武器和放射性武器有关的威胁;辐射在医学、研究、农业和工业中新的应用;以及对低剂量照射的辐射影响逐步形成的认识,包括这些影响取决于年龄、性别、生活方式和遗传因素的事实。
The Assembly decided to enlarge the Committee three times from the original 15 members of 1955: in 1973, in 1986 and most recently in December 2011 (see A/66/254, sect.9. 1955年委员会最初有15个成员,自此大会三次决定扩充委员会成员:1973年、1986年,以及最近的2011年12月(见A/66/254,第三部分),当时大会第66/70号决议决定将成员从21国增加到27国,但有一项谅解,即成员增加可通过利用2012-2013两年期的现有资源来实现。
III), when in resolution 66/70 the Assembly decided to increase the membership from 21 to 27 States, on the understanding that the increase could be achieved using existing resources for the biennium 2012-2013. It also requested the Secretariat and Member States to use the budget and the meeting time allocated to the Scientific Committee in the most efficient manner in order to avoid additional expenditure caused by future increases in membership.大会还请秘书处和会员国以最有效的方式利用为科学委员会分配的预算和会议时间,以避免因成员今后进一步增加而产生额外支出。
See A/66/524, sect.了解成员变化的更详细历史,见A/66/524,第三部分。
III, for a more detailed history of the changes in membership.三. 科学委员会成员扩充到27国的影响
III. Impact of the increase in the membership of the Scientific Committee to 27 States10. 大会请提交一份报告,介绍委员会成员扩充到27国对委员会的效率、工作质量和公平地域分配的影响。
The General Assembly has requested a report on the impact of the increase in the membership of the Committee to 27 States on its effectiveness, quality of work and equitable geographical distribution.11. 自大会2011年12月决定扩充成员以来,委员会举行了三届会议。
Since the Assembly’s decision in December 2011 to increase the membership, the Committee has held three sessions.在这一相对较短的时间内,很难采用完全客观的标准评估成员扩充对委员会效率和工作质量的影响。
It is difficult, over this relatively short period, to use completely objective criteria to assess the impact of the increase on the effectiveness and quality of the Committee’s work.此外,这期间委员会的工作方案不具备典型性,原因是方案将首要事项放在了评估日本东部大地震和海啸后核事故造成的辐射照射程度和影响之上。
Moreover, the Committee’s programme of work over the period was atypical, as it was dominated by its assessment of the levels and effects of exposure to radiation due to the nuclear accident after the great east-Japan earthquake and tsunami.不过,委员会还对辐射照射对儿童的影响、将对健康的影响归结为辐射照射并推断风险以及电离辐射照射致癌风险估计值的不确定性进行了评价。
Nevertheless, it has also conducted evaluations on the effects of radiation exposure on children, on attributing health effects to radiation exposure and inferring risks, and on uncertainties in risk estimates for cancer due to exposure to ionizing radiation.12. 显然,成员组成的改变提供了机会,但也带来了一些挑战。
Clearly, a change in membership offers opportunities, but also raises some challenges.本报告介绍了成员扩充如何影响委员会的效率和工作质量。
The present report illustrates how the increase in membership has affected the effectiveness and quality of the Committee’s work.接着报告就其他较不易量化的方面提出了评论,并对迄今为止的经验做了全面评估。
The report then provides commentary on other less quantifiable aspects, and an overall assessment of the experience thus far. That is followed by a discussion of equitable geographical distribution.之后报告讨论了公平地域分配问题。
A. EffectivenessA. 效率
As a rule, the United Nations has covered travel costs for the representatives of each State member to attend the Committee’s annual session in Vienna.13. 作为一项规定,联合国一直承担了每一成员国的代表出席委员会在维也纳举行的年度会议的旅费。
The secretariat had previously forecast that the travel costs for each additional member would amount to $5,300 for the biennium ($15,900 per annual session for six additional members).秘书处此前的预测是,本两年期内每增加1名代表所涉旅费为5,300美元(每届年度会议6名新增代表的旅费相应为15,900美元)。
Table 1 presents the cost of travel for representatives for the period 2010–2014.表1列出了2010-2014年时期代表的旅费情况。
The average travel costs (including in-kind contributions) per session amounted to $65,550 for the period 2010-2011 (21 members) and are $74,400 for the period 2012-2014 (27 members).2010-2011年时期每届会议(共21名代表)的平均旅费(包括实物捐助)为65,550美元,而2012-2014年时期(共27名代表)则为74,400美元。
This comparison shows that, since membership was increased from 21 to 27 in 2012, the additional cost has been $8,900 for the sessions with six new members.经在二者之间进行对比后可以看出,自2012年成员数目从21国扩充至27国后,每届会议六名新增成员的实际增加费用为8,900美元。
Since 2006, the secretariat has requested States members of the Committee to nominate their representatives no later than about six weeks before the annual session.自2006年以来,秘书处便一直请求委员会各成员国至迟于年度会议之前提前约六周提交其代表的提名。
That practice has enabled the secretariat to secure better rates for travel.这一做法使秘书处能够获得更优惠的旅费折扣率。
Particularly in 2014, favourable airfares resulted in considerable savings.特别是2014年间,因机票方面的优惠而节省下来相当多的资金。
However, travel costs have been fluctuating over the period concerned, mainly owing to rapidly changing and complex airline pricing or force majeure causing re-bookings at short notice.然而,在所涉时期内,旅费一直不断上下波动,这主要是由于航空公司的定价方式变化频乃且错综复杂或出现了不可抗情况,因此不得不在很短时间内重新定票。
Moreover, a few States members have made in-kind contributions by arranging their representatives’ travel at no cost to the United Nations.此外,若干成员国还通过包办其代表的机票的方式向联合国提供了实物捐助。
It was thus possible to absorb the extra cost of travel for the six new representatives using the existing resources for the biennium 2012-2013.因此,才有可能利用2012-2013两年期的既有资源为新增的这6名代表提供额外旅费。
The secretariat expects that by continuing the practice of early nomination of representatives, and in anticipation of continuing in-kind contributions from some States, the Committee will stay within its travel budget for representatives.秘书处预计,通过继续及早提交代表提名以及有望继续从一些国家获得实物捐助,委员会将能够把各位代表的旅费控制在其预算范围之内。
See ST/SGB/107/Rev.6.见ST/SGB/107/Rev.6。
See A/66/524, table 4.见A/66/524,表4。
Table 1表1
Cost of travel for representatives in the period 2010-20142010-2014年时期代表的旅费 (单位:千美元)
(Thousands of United States dollars)届会
Session成员
Members支出
Expenditure实物捐助
In-kind contributions费用总额 (实际+实物捐助)
Total cost (actual + in-kind contributions)拨款额 (初步)
Allocation (initial)第五十七届会议 (2010年)
Fifty-seventh session (2010)21
21 60 600 7 300 67 90060 600
78 4007 300
Fifty-eighth session (2011)67 900
2178 400
56 700第五十八届会议 (2011年)
6 50021
63 20056 700
75 6006 500
Fifty-ninth session (2012)63 200
2775 600
65 900第五十九届会议 (2012年)
6 50027
72 40065 900
82 7006 500
Sixtieth session (2013)72 400
2782 700
72 900第六十届会议 (2013年)
13 00027
85 90072 900
79 60013 000
Sixty-first session (2014)85 900
2779 600
52 900第六十一届会议 (2014年)
12 00027
64 90052 900
83 60012 000
Table 2 shows average numbers of delegates (comprising representatives, alternates and advisers) from States members of the Committee for its last five annual sessions.64 900
It includes an average for the two years (2010-2011) when there were 21 States members (the pre-existing members) and an average for the three years (2012-2014) when there were 27 members (the 21 pre-existing members and the 6 new members).83 600
Observers and international organizations are not included.14. 表2列示了过去五届年度会议委员会成员国代表的平均人数(包括代表、副代表和顾问)。
There were on average 37 more delegates for the period 2012-2014 than for the period 2010-2011, an increase of 41 per cent. That included 17 more delegates from the 21 pre-existing members, almost certainly a result of delegations’ heightened interest in the Committee’s deliberations on the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station.这包括成员数为21国(原有成员)时两年(2010-2011年)的平均数及成员数为27国(21个原有成员和6个新成员)时三年(2012-2014年)的平均数。
The other 20 extra delegates were from the six new members, somewhat fewer than the number (24) that had been forecast by the secretariat based on the number of States members alone.其中不包括观察员和国际组织。 同2010-2011年相比,2012-2014年平均增加了37名代表,增幅为41%。 这包括21个原有成员增加了17名代表,原因几乎无疑是代表团更加关注委员会审议福岛核电站事故的工作。 其他20名另外的代表来自六个新成员,略少于秘书处仅根据成员国数量预测的数目(24个)。
See A/63/478, para.见A/63/478,第4段。
4. In order to accommodate the additional participants at the annual sessions (regardless of whether their attendance was due to the increase in membership or to the heightened interest in the Committee’s deliberations), larger rooms for the Committee’s plenary and for meetings of technical subgroups were required.15. 为容纳更多的年度会议与会者(不论是因成员扩充还是因更加关注委员会审议工作而出席会议),需为委员会全体会议和技术小组会议提供更大的会议室。
Those changes were accommodated by the Conference Management Service in Vienna.这些变动事宜由维也纳的会议管理处负责安排。
The plenary room had to be changed from the more collegial, round-table format to a more distant classroom-style format.全体会议室必须从更具合议性质的圆桌形式转变为距离更远的教室形式。
However, the meetings of the technical subgroups continue to be convened in collegial style, albeit in larger rooms; the collegial format is preferred by the Committee.不过,尽管会议室更大,但技术小组会议仍以合议形式举行;委员会倾向于合议形式。
Additional photocopying and printing costs for the enlarged Committee were offset by a decline in the numbers of documents printed and an increase in the use of electronic means.委员会扩充后增加的复印及印刷费用为打印文件数量减少及更多地使用电子手段所抵消。
Table 2表2
Average numbers of delegates from States members to the last 5 sessions of the Scientific Committee参加科学委员会过去五届会议的成员国代表的平均人数
Average number of delegates代表平均人数
Fifty-seventh and fifty-eighth sessions (2010-2011)第五十七届和 第五十八届会议 (2010-2011年)
Fifty-ninth, sixtieth and sixty-first sessions (2012-2014)第五十九届、第六十届和 第六十一届会议 (2012-2014年)
From the 21 pre-existing States members来自原有21个成员国
9090
107107
From the six new States members来自六个新成员国
-a-a
2020
Total (excluding observers and international organizations)共计(不包括观察员和国际组织)
9090
127127
a The six new States members sent observers to the fifty-seventh and fifty-eighth sessions.a 六个新成员国派出观察员参加了第五十七届和第五十八届会议。
The Committee’s evaluation of the levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation following the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was a major element in the Committee’s programme of work over the period under consideration.16. 委员会评价2011年福岛核电站事故后电离辐射照射的程度和影响的工作,是审议期间委员会工作方案的主要内容。
It required special ad hoc arrangements for securing and managing relevant expertise to obtain, review and analyse data, conduct the study, and write and review the report.这需为获得和管理相关专门知识做出专门的特设安排,以获取、审查和分析数据,开展研究,并撰写和审查报告。
In total, 18 of the 27 States members provided some 77 experts, 66 from 13 of the 21 pre-existing States members and 11 from five of the six new members.总体而言,在27个成员国中,18个成员国提供了约77名专家,其中66名专家来自21个原有成员国中的13个,11名专家来自6个新成员中的5个。
With regard to providing formal written comments on drafts of the report between the annual sessions, 19 of the 27 States members provided a total of 1,861 comments.17. 关于就年度会议间的报告草案提供正式书面评论的问题,27个成员国中的19个成员国共提供了1,861条评论。
Of these, 15 of the 21 pre-existing States members provided 1,755 comments, and four of the six new States members provided 106 comments.其中,21个原有成员国的15个提供了1,755条评论,六个新成员国中的四个提供了106条评论。
While there was more work for the secretariat and Committee owing to the evaluation of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, these figures imply that the work also grew to some degree because of the increase in membership of the Committee.虽然评价福岛核电站事故导致秘书处和委员会的工作量增加,但这些数字显示委员会工作的增加在一定程度上也是由于委员会成员的扩充。
Most of the new States members of the Committee have contributed actively to the sessions and to the work between sessions.18. 多数委员会新成员国都为届会和各届会议之间的工作做出了积极贡献。
It would also appear that the past discussions on membership to some degree triggered a reawakening of interest and increased contributions from some pre-existing members, including the fostering by some States of better networks of expertise to support their delegations.之前关于成员组成的讨论也似乎在一定程度上再次激发了原有成员的兴趣并增加了其贡献,包括一些国家促进完善专门知识网络以支持其代表团。
Nevertheless there is still scope for some States members (at least one pre-existing and one new) to enhance their contributions to the work, perhaps by improving the scientific support to their representatives, or selecting the representative with more appropriate qualifications.尽管如此,对一些成员国(至少一个原有成员国和一个新成员国)而言,或许通过增强对其代表的科学支持或遴选具有更恰当资格的代表,仍有增进对委员会工作做出贡献的余地。
Technical documents at the last three sessions have apparently required lengthier discussions than they did prior to 2011.19. 同2011年前的技术文件相比,最近三届会议的技术文件显然需要更长的讨论时间。
This may partly be the result of the changes made to the timetable to ensure the completion of high-priority work (such as the radiological assessment of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power accident, and of the evaluation of the effects of radiation exposure on children), though it may also partly be ascribed to slower progress as a result of having more delegates.部分原因可能是为确保完成高度优先的工作对调整时间表做了改动(如对福岛核电站事故的放射性评估,以及对辐射照射对儿童的影响的评价),不过这也可能部分归因于由于代表增加进展放缓的缘故。
Before the change in membership in 2011, the delegations to the Committee had a more implicit understanding and experience of the tradition of scientific approaches and working arrangements for the sessions of the Committee, and were more aware of its earlier reports.20. 2011年成员组成改变之前,驻委员会的代表团对委员会届会的传统科学方法和工作安排的了解和经验比较含糊,它们更加了解其先前的报告。
This has not been the case for the six new members, nor indeed for some pre-existing members that recently replaced their representatives or made other changes to their delegations.六个新成员的情况并非如此,最近更换其代表或对其代表团做出其他变动的一些原有成员的情况也并非如此。
Moreover, there was an apparent tendency to raise more procedural matters, possibly as a result of the change in membership.另外,一个明显的趋势是产生了更多程序性问题,这可能是成员组成改变所致。
In addition, a few States members did not have a clear understanding of the criteria for selecting new representatives.此外,少数成员国并未清楚了解遴选新代表的标准。
It was important for the sake of Committee’s effectiveness to manage these tendencies.为了委员会的效率起见,有必要管理这些趋势。
As previously foreseen, more formal arrangements were needed to clarify these matters for the new States members, but formal arrangements were also needed in a more general sense.21. 如之前所设想,需做出更多正式安排,以向新成员国澄清这些事项,但从更普遍意义上讲也需要做出正式安排。
The officers of the Committee and the secretariat have recently fostered the agreement of the Committee on governing principles, which outline some of the basic operational arrangements of the Committee, and on the principles of ethics in science on which the Committee’s scientific evaluations are to be based.最近委员会干事和秘书处促进委员会就指导原则及科学领域的道德原则达成了一致意见,前者列出了委员会的一些基本业务安排,后者是委员会开展科学评估的依据。
In addition, terms of reference for the Committee’s Bureau, a written communications policy and arrangements for declaring conflicts of interest have been developed.此外,还拟定了委员会主席团的职权范围、书面函件政策和申报利益冲突的安排。
It is expected that further policies and procedures will be needed in the future.预计今后将需制定进一步的程序。
While this increases the workload for the secretariat, the development of such arrangements will facilitate the operations of a larger Committee if there are further changes to the membership in the future.虽然这增加了秘书处的工作量,不过如果今后成员有进一步变化,拟定此类安排的拟定将便利规模更大的委员会开展业务。
See A/63/478, para.见A/63/478,第45段。
45. Overall, the period considered (2012-2014) was too short to gain sufficient experience allowing firm conclusions to be drawn on the impact of the increase in membership to 27 States on the effectiveness of the Committee in the long term.22. 总体而言,目前所审议的时期(2012-2014 年)过短,因此无法获得足够的经验,据以针对把成员数目扩充到27国对委员会效率的长期影响问题得出确切的结论。
The cost increase for travel of representatives ($8,900 between the periods 2010-2011 and 2012-2014 for all six additional members) and the additional post for the secretariat granted in 2011 have allowed the enlargement to be managed relatively easily.代表旅费的增加幅度(2010-2011年时期和2012-2014年时期为六名新增成员提供的平均费用为 8,900 美元)、以及2011年间准许秘书处增设的相关员额,都使得成员数目扩充后的管理工作相对比较容易。
B. Quality of workB. 工作质量
It is even more difficult to assess objectively the impact of increased membership on the quality of the Committee’s work.23. 客观评估成员增加对委员会工作质量的影响更加困难。
Some examples can serve to provide insight into the matter.一些实例可使人们深入了解这一事项。
When considering the formal written comments on the Committee’s assessment of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, some of the comments from the six new members reinforced comments from the 21 pre-existing members, while some were novel and helped improve the quality of the report.24. 在审议关于委员会对福岛核电站事故评估的正式书面评论时,来自六个新成员的一些评论补充了21个原有成员的评论,同时其中一些评论有所创新,有助于改进了报告的质量。
In implementing the special ad hoc arrangements needed to manage the large number of experts put at the Committee’s disposal to conduct the Fukushima assessment, it became clear that there was no common understanding of: (a) the approaches needed to ensure quality of data, analysis, and reporting; (b) the need for standard and consistent terminology; and (c) the need to write succinctly, clearly and precisely.25. 在落实委员会为评估福岛事故而出台的管理大量专家所需的专门特设安排时,显然未在以下方面达成共识:(a)确保数据、分析和报告质量所需的办法;(b)制定标准和一致术语的必要性;以及(c)简洁、清晰和准确撰写的必要性。
This was relevant to experts both from the six new States members and the pre-existing members.这同来自六个新成员国和原有成员的专家均相关。
One problem with a larger Committee is that the implicit care taken and responsibility of drafters for accuracy and quality has been more and more perceived as a shared responsibility of the Committee and the secretariat.规模更大的委员会存在的一个问题在于人们越来越多地将采取暗示的谨慎态度和起草者确保准确和质量的责任视为委员会和秘书处的共同责任。
This trend undermines efficiency, and formal procedures and arrangements for ensuring quality, consistent terminology and improved guidance for writers need to be developed.这一趋势有损效率,以及确保质量、术语一致及撰写者所需拟定的经改进的指南的正式程序和安排。
It would be premature to consider further expansion of membership until such arrangements are in place and functioning properly.在此类安排到位及正常运转之前便考虑进一步扩充成员,为时尚早。
Overall, the period considered (2012-2014) was too short to gain sufficient experience allowing firm conclusions to be drawn on the impact of the increase in membership to 27 States on the quality of the Committee’s work in the long-term.26. 总体而言,目前所审议的时期(2012-2014年)过短,因此无法获得足够的经验,据以针对把成员数目扩充到27国对委员会的工作质量的长期影响问题得出确切的结论。
Any impact during this period has been marginal.这一时期内产生的任何影响都是微乎其微的。
C. Equitable geographical distributionC. 公平地域分配
To provide insight into the effect of the Committee’s enlargement on its equitable geographical distribution, the changes in the distribution of Committee members among the five United Nations regional groups are summarized in the figure.27. 为使人们深入了解委员扩充对其公平地域分配的影响,下图汇总了委员会成员在联合国五个区域组的分配变化情况。
This shows that there has been no dramatic change.该图显示没有出现显著变化。
Figure图 委员会成员国在各区域组的分配情况
Distribution of States members of the Committee among the regional groupings28. 成立委员会的第913 (X)号决议或大会关于原子辐射影响的任何后续决议规定的委员会任务授权,都从未明确把成员的地域分配作为一项考虑因素。
Geographical distribution of membership has never been explicitly expressed as a consideration in the mandate of the Committee, either under its founding resolution, resolution 913 (X), or any subsequent resolutions of the Assembly on the effects of atomic radiation.虽然公平地域分配是联合国的一项原则,但对成员的公平地域分配的考虑也许不应仅依据政治分组,还应考虑成员帮助委员会实现其科学目标的程度。
While equitable geographical distribution is a principle of the United Nations, consideration of equitable geographical distribution of membership perhaps ought not to be based solely on political groupings, but also on the extent to which it will help the Committee to fulfil its scientific objectives.29. 委员会早期阶段的主要关切是大气层中的核武器试验,在当时,由于科学原因和政治原因,成员覆盖全球非常重要。
In the early days of the Committee, when the major concern was the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, it was important for both scientific and political reasons that the membership cover the globe.很快,关切转移到了全球的辐射照射程度和趋势,委员会的评估重点也相应地发生改变。
Soon concern shifted to global levels of and trends in exposure to radiation, and the focus of the Committee’s assessments changed accordingly.今天,秘书处负责管理联合国所有会员国的调查事宜。
Today the secretariat manages surveys of all United Nations Member States.此项工作由两个非正式小组组织开展,一个小组分析全世界范围内辐射照射的程度,另一个小组研究辐射照射的影响。
The work is organized in two informal subgroups, one analysing the levels of radiation exposure worldwide and the other studying the effects of radiation exposure.让各国参与第一小组的工作从而能够提供来自各个来源的辐射照射数据及世界各地主要人口、土地面积和环境的数据,仍有其价值。
There will continue to be merit in having countries in the first subgroup that can contribute data on radiation exposure from various sources, and for major populations, land areas and environments around the world.这样,公平的地域分配将有助于确保委员会的评价和结论获得广泛接受。
Here, equitable geographical distribution would help to ensure broad acceptance of the Committee’s evaluations and findings.最新调查是委员会的医用和辐射照射问题全球调查。
The latest of these is the Committee’s Global Survey of Medical Usage and Exposures.30. 关于负责研究辐射照射的影响的第二个小组,地域分配则没有那么重要。
With regard to the second subgroup, which studies the effects of radiation exposure, geographical distribution is less relevant.如果委员会要维护其作为辐射照射的健康影响领域世界主要权威机构的信誉,就必须能够依靠放射生物学、无线电辐射流行病学、基因组学、分子生物学、免疫学和类似的高度专业化领域的顶级专家团队小组。
If the Committee is to maintain its credibility as the world’s leading authority on the health effects of radiation exposure, it must be able to rely on a team of top-level experts in radiobiology, radio-epidemiology, genomics, molecular biology, immunology and similar, highly specialized fields.重要的并不是专家的地域来源,而是其在科学界的地位。
What matters is not so much the experts’ geographical origin but their standing in the scientific community.他们需获得要这些领域高学历专业人士的协助,并且应该能够在没有不必要干扰的情况下执行其任务。
They require the assistance of professionals with advanced degrees in these fields and should be able to perform their task without unnecessary distractions.31. 因此,对于什么是“公平”地域分配以及根据第66/70号决议扩充成员如何对其产生影响,尚不清楚。
Thus, it is not clear what constitutes “equitable” geographical distribution and how it has been affected by the increase in membership under resolution 66/70.此外,也不清楚公平地域分配在政治集团内是否应适用,更不要说政治集团之间的分配了。
In addition, it is not clear whether equitable geographical distribution should be applied within the political groups, let alone between them.例如,从纯粹的地域角度来看,值得注意的是,没有撒哈拉以南非洲任何国家的代表。
For example, from a purely geographical perspective, it is noteworthy that there is no representation of any country from sub-Saharan Africa.32. 总体而言,可得出的结论是,自委员会成立以来的近60年期间,成员国数目几乎增加了一倍,不过地域分配基本上保持稳定。
Overall it is possible to conclude that, over the nearly 60 years of the Committee’s existence, it has almost doubled in terms of States members, yet the geographical distribution has remained essentially stable.四. 进一步扩充成员的可能办法
IV. Possible approaches to further membership increases大会第66/70号决议决定接下来在其第七十二届会议上考虑到秘书长在大会第六十六届至第七十二届会议之间收到的有意加入为成员的新的表示,大会以往的各项决议,并酌情考虑到秘书长关于科学委员会的所有报告,以及公平地域分配原则和确保科学委员会效率和工作质量的必要性,考虑对增加科学委员会成员的可能性进行审查,以便在第七十三届会议上确定可能进一步增加成员的程序。
The General Assembly, in its resolution 66/70, decided to next consider reviewing the possible increase in the membership of the Scientific Committee at its seventy-second session, taking into account new expressions of interest in membership received by the Secretary-General between the sixty-sixth and seventy-second sessions of the General Assembly, all previous resolutions of the Assembly and, as appropriate, all relevant reports of the Secretary-General on the Scientific Committee as well as the principle of equitable geographical distribution and the need to ensure the effectiveness and the quality of work of the Scientific Committee, with a view to establishing a procedure at the seventy-third session for the possible further increase in the membership.34. 成立委员会的第913 (X)号决议和大会的任何其他决议,均未就应如何处理提议的扩充委员会成员的问题提出明确的指导。
Neither the Committee’s founding resolution 913 (X), nor any other General Assembly resolution provides explicit guidance on how proposed increases in the Committee’s membership should be handled.1974年、1985年和2011年的成员扩充均以不同方式进行。
The enlargements of 1974, 1985 and 2011 were each handled in a different way.虽然并未明确说明,但1974年接纳的五名新成员经推选产生,以便每个政治集团均有一名成员。
It was not explicitly stated, but it would appear that the five new members admitted in 1974 were chosen so that one came from each of the political groups.1985年,接纳中国为成员,给出的理由非常简单,即中国可为委员会的工作做出重大贡献。
In 1985, when China was admitted, the reason given was simply that China could contribute significantly to the work of the Committee.第一个程序直截了当。
The first process was straightforward.第二个显然是一项特设程序,但却很简单。
The second was apparently ad hoc but simple.2005年启动的程序很不理想。
The process initiated in 2005 was far from optimal.在解决所涉预算问题方面存在拖延,迟迟不能就评估候选国为委员会工作做出贡献的能力的程序和标准达成一致,候选国有一些挫折感,以及秘书处、委员会和大会花费了大量的时间。
There were delays in resolving the budgetary implications, delays in reaching agreement about the process and criteria for assessing the candidates’ capacity to contribute to the Committee’s work, some frustration on the part of the candidate countries, and considerable time expended by the secretariat, the Committee and the Assembly. The development of a clear agreed process is highly recommended to avoid such problems in the future.极力建议拟定一项明确商定的程序,以避免今后出现此类问题。
See A/66/524, sect.见A/66/524,第三部分。
III.35. 虽然承认许多联合国会员国可能期望成为委员会成员,但增加任何成员的主要目标都应为提高委员会开展其科学工作的能力。
While acknowledging the possible aspirations of many United Nations Member States to become members of the Committee, the primary purpose of any increase should be to enhance the capability of the Committee to conduct its scientific work.36. 2010年,委员会对成员可能大幅增加表示关切,并对增加成员问题提出了一些替代建议。
In 2010 the Committee expressed its concerns about a potentially large increase, and made proposals that were alternatives to increasing the membership. It proposed the engagement of experts from other States, as appropriate, in drafting the session documents, the invitation of experts as observers for specific agenda items, and bilateral arrangements under which some countries would send their experts as part of another country’s delegation.委员会提议在编写会议文件时酌情让其他国家的专家参与,邀请专家作为具体议程项目和双边安排的观察员,在这种安排下一些国家将派专家加入其他国家的代表团。
See A/65/46/Add.1.见A/65/46/Add.1。
For the Committee’s recent evaluation of the Fukushima accident, a State that was not a member of the Committee contributed its expertise while a component of the evaluation was being prepared.关于委员会最近对福岛事故的评价,在筹备评价的一个组成部分时一个非委员会成员的国家提供了其专门知识。
This practice is already used by two States members of the Committee.委员会的两个成员国已经采用这一做法。
The Netherlands and the Czech Republic regularly contribute advisers to the delegations of Belgium and Slovakia respectively.荷兰和捷克共和国分别定期向比利时代表团和斯洛伐克代表团提供顾问。
The secretariat could envisage other options that would involve reconfiguring the Committee’s organization.37. 秘书处可设想涉及调整委员会组织情况的其他备选方案。
For example, it could envisage formalizing the two subgroups, one on levels of exposure, and one on effects of exposure.例如,可设想将两个小组正规化,一个为照射程度问题小组,一个为照射影响问题小组。
One could argue that a working group on levels of exposure might benefit from a larger, geographically balanced membership covering expertise on various sources of exposure and having access to exposure data worldwide.一方面可认为,照射程度问题工作组会受益于更为广泛且地域均衡的成员组成,这样便会拥有关于各种照射源的专门知识并获得全世界范围的照射数据。
A working group on the effects of exposure, on the other hand, would be more effective as a smaller group that had the highly specialized scientific knowledge and expertise it needed, and that had access to the results of the relatively few specialized research programmes available.另一方面,照射影响问题工作组将更加高效,其规模较小,拥有所需的高度专业的科学知识和专门知识并会获得现有相对较少专业研究方案的结果。
For both those working groups, the Committee’s work would be better served by establishing formal links to relevant scientific and technical institutions in Member States of the United Nations at large, rather than just the States members of the Committee.对于上述两个工作组而言,通过与联合国所有会员国的相关科学和技术机构,而不仅仅是委员会的成员国建立正式联系,将会更好地为委员会的工作提供服务。
One could envisage that the Committee itself might then keep more or less the same number of States members as it has now, in order to reach a consensus efficiently on, for example, the exact wording of findings of evaluations reported to the Assembly, or the future programme of work.可以设想,委员会可保持与当前几乎相同的成员国数量,以便有效地就向大会报告的评价结论的确切措辞或今后的工作方案达成共识。
The secretariat could also envisage new ways of working that could involve virtual participation in the Committee’s work; this might dramatically affect the desired organizational structure.秘书处还可设想可能涉及以虚拟方式参与委员会工作的新的工作方式;这可能会极大地影响预想的组织结构。
One element might be to build on the arrangements recently initiated with regard to its coming surveys (i.e.一个相关要素可能是要立足最近就其今后的调查而做出的安排(即联合国所有会员国确定一名国家联络人,便利协调其本国的数据收集和提交工作),并建立专门的网络。
that all Member States of the United Nations identify a national contact person to facilitate coordination of data collection and submission within their country), and to establish specialized networks. It would therefore be appropriate to consider these and other creative approaches, such as rotating membership or limiting the size of delegations, in combination with the Committee’s expected needs and constraints in terms of budgetary requirements and operational factors.38. 因此,应当结合委员会在所需预算经费和业务因素方面的预期需要和制约考虑这些和其他创新办法,如进行成员轮换或限制代表团的规模。
The Committee has already decided to set out, at its sixty-second session, long-term strategic directions beyond the period covered by its present strategic plan (2014-2019), so as to help inform future deliberations of the Assembly on the Committee’s membership.委员会决定在其第六十二届会议制定其现行战略计划(2014-2019年)时期之后的长期战略方向,以便帮助在大会今后的审议工作中报告委员会的成员数情况。
See A/69/46.见A/69/46。
Some of the obstacles to a change in membership or configuration would be financial in nature or related to available accommodation at the present conference facilities.39. 困扰成员或配置改变的一些障碍是资金问题或者同现有会议设施的可容纳量有关。
Those might be addressed by altering the rules for funding the travel of representatives to the annual session and by limiting the size of delegations attending those sessions, provided that this did not adversely affect the participation of the best experts.这些障碍可通过修改为代表出席年度会议提供旅费的细则和限制参加这些会议的代表团的规模予以解决,但前提是这不会对最出色专家的参与造成不利影响。
It may also be appropriate to consider requesting all States members to reconfirm their willingness to contribute to the work of the Committee before making changes to the membership.在改变成员组成之前,可能还应当考虑请所有成员国再次确认其为委员会工作做出贡献的意愿。
This would allow for the possibility of States whose national priorities have changed withdrawing from the Committee and thus freeing up capacity so that other States could be admitted as members.这样本国优先事项发生改变的国家便能够退出委员会,从而留出空间接纳其他国家成为成员。
It is obvious that the Committee can optimally be enlarged only up to a certain point, beyond which any further members would bring only marginal benefit.40. 显然最佳状态是委员会只能进行某种程度的扩充,如果超出,今后任何的成员扩充便只会带来微乎其微的效果。
This is borne out by studies showing that decision making becomes less effective beyond seven participants, while for information, review and presentation meetings a group should have about 30 members to promote interaction and participation.这一点已为研究证实,研究显示,参与者超过七名决策就变得不那么有效,而对于情况通报、审查和专题介绍会议而言,一个小组应有约30名成员,以促进互动和参与。
Moreover, there is a limit to the number of States members with which the Committee’s secretariat at its present size could reasonably cope — perhaps about 30 — without affecting its ability to support the substantive scientific work of the Committee.此外,对成员国的数量设有限制,这样现有规模的委员会秘书处可在不影响其支持委员会实质性科学工作的能力的情况下予以合理应对——可能为30个左右。
Significantly more than that would require further strengthening of the secretariat’s human resources.比这更重要的是需进一步加强秘书处的人力资源。
All this indicates that more thought should be given to efficient management structures rather than membership per se.所有这些均表明,应更多地考虑有效的管理结构而非成员本身。
The past increases in membership were 17, 13 and 26 years apart.41. 过去成员扩充的间隔时间分别为17年、13年和26年。
The latest increase effectively took five years to finalize; the first invitation to States to express their interest was made in 2006, and the invitation to join the Committee was confirmed in 2011.最近一次的成员扩充实际花费了五年时间完成;第一次邀请各国表达其兴趣是2006年,2011年确认应邀加入委员会。
Given the burden placed on the Secretariat and Committee during this time, it is not recommended that changes in membership be considered more frequently than every 10 years in the long term.考虑到这一期间给秘书处和委员会造成的负担,长期而言不建议每十年考虑改变一次成员组成。
On the other hand, it is almost certain that there will be changes in circumstances over a period of 20 years and thus that it will be appropriate that membership be considered at a frequency of not more than 20 years.另一方面,几乎肯定的是20年间情况会发生变化,因此考虑成员组成情况的频率不超过20年将比较妥当。
It would appear premature to consider procedures for increasing membership in any detail before considering and agreeing on any change in the Committee’s configuration to enhance the effectiveness and quality of the Committee’s work.42. 在考虑为提高委员会效率和工作质量而对委员会配置做出任何改变并就此达成一致之前,详细考虑扩充成员的程序似乎为时尚早。
Key issues to decide in developing any procedures would include: (a)决定拟定任何程序的主要问题包括:
When and how often further changes in membership should be considered;(a) 应考虑进一步改变委员会成员组成的时间和频率;
(b) The maximum size of the Committee’s membership;(b) 委员会的最大成员数目;
(c) The process by which aspirant Member States should express their interest;(c) 有意愿的会员国表达其兴趣的程序;
(d) How and by whom the decision and/or recommendations on membership changes should be made;(d) 应如何以及由谁就成员变化做出决定和(或)提出建议;
(e) The criteria to be used in making such decisions and/or recommendations.(e) 在做出此类决定和(或)提出建议时拟采用的标准。
See A/66/524.见A/66/524。
V. Conclusions五. 结论
Overall, the period considered (2012-2014) was too short to gain sufficient experience allowing firm conclusions to be drawn on the impact of the increase in membership to 27 States on the effectiveness and quality of the Committee’s work in the long term.43. 总体而言,目前所审议的时期(2012-2014年)过短,因此无法获得足够的经验,据以针对把委员会成员最新扩充到27国对委员会效率和工作质量的长期影响问题得出任何确切的结论。
Moreover, over the nearly 60 years of the Committee’s existence, while the number of States members has almost doubled, the geographical distribution has essentially remained stable.此外,自委员会成立以来的近60年期间,成员国数目几乎增加了一倍,不过地域分配基本上保持稳定。
Because the Committee is scientific in nature, it needs experts of worldwide standing in the relevant fields.44. 由于该委员会的科学性,需要相关领域的世界一流专家。
Enlarging the Committee is therefore not the most pertinent means to enhance the effectiveness and quality of its work.因此扩充委员会成员并不是提高委员会效率和工作质量的最恰当手段。
What matters much more is whether the Committee has access to the data and expertise that institutions in Member States of the United Nations at large can provide.更加重要的是委员会是否能从联合国会员国中可提供数据和专门知识的机构获得这些数据和知识。
Consideration of this issue would open up more opportunities to enhance the work and reputation of the Committee.考虑这个问题将为加强委员会的工作和声誉带来更多机会。
The secretariat can envisage changes to the Committee’s management and organization that could effectively involve more specialized scientists and institutions from many Member States, which could contribute markedly to the Committee’s work.秘书处可设想对委员会的管理和组织做出改变,这实际上可能会让来自许多会员国的更专业的科学家和机构参与其中,这样做能够大大推动委员会的工作。
Such an approach would require more flexibility than currently exists, given that membership has to be negotiated formally in the General Assembly.鉴于成员组成问题须在大会进行正式谈判,这一做法与现有做法相比需要更多的灵活性。
The Committee has decided to set out, at its sixty-second session, long-term strategic directions beyond the period covered by its present strategic plan (2014-2019), so as to help inform future deliberations of the Assembly on the Committee’s membership.关于这一点,委员会决定在其第六十二届会议上制定其现行战略计划(2014-2019年)时期之后的长期战略方向,以便帮助在大会今后的审议工作中报告委员会的成员数情况。