CAC_COSP_IRG_I_3_1_ADD_20_EC
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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.20 V1502147.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.20 V1502146.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
31 March 201531 March 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20
V.15-02147 (E) 160415 170415V.15-02146 (C) GP 270415 270415
*1502147**1502146*
<>V1502147<>实施情况审议组
<>CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.20<> <><> Implementation Review Group Sixth session第六届会议
Vienna, 1-5 June 20152015年6月1日至5日,维也纳
Item 2 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目2
**
CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1.CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1。
Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption审议《联合国反腐败公约》的实施情况
Executive summary提要
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Addendum增编
Contents目录
Page页次
Executive summary提要
22
Sri Lanka斯里兰卡
22
II. Executive summary二. 提要
Sri Lanka斯里兰卡
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Sri Lanka in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:斯里兰卡在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和体制框架概述
Sri Lanka signed the Convention on 15 March 2004 and ratified it on 31 March 2004.斯里兰卡于2004年3月15日签署了《公约》,并于2004年3月31日批准《公约》。
It entered into force for Sri Lanka on 14 December 2005.《公约》于2005年12月14日在斯里兰卡生效。
The Roman Dutch Law remains the common law of the country, while the impact on the common law system derived from the English law has had a much greater influence on the laws of Sri Lanka than the Roman tradition.《罗马荷兰法》仍然是该国的普通法,而斯里兰卡法律受由英国法衍生而来的普通法制度的影响大于罗马法传统。
The common law has been modified, both expressly and by implication by statutory law and judicial decisions.普通法由成文法和司法裁判经过明示或默示方式修订。 刑事条款由《刑法典》来规定,而与斯里兰卡刑事诉讼相关的法律由《刑事诉讼法典》来规范;民事诉讼则由《民事诉讼法》来规定。 对执行《反腐败公约》而言,最重要的法律包括《反贿赂法》[第26章]、1994年第19号《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》、经2011年第40号法案修正的2006年第5号《防止洗钱法》、《刑法典》[第25章]、1979年第15号《刑事诉讼法典》[第26章]、1978年第2号《司法法》、1975年第1号《申报资产和负债法》、2006年第6号《金融交易报告法》、《编制法典》、1997年第30号《保释法》、经1999年第48号法案修正的1977年第8号《引渡法》以及2005年第25号《刑事事项互助法》。 《司法法》第2条对一审法院的层级做了阐述。 初级法院、法案法院、区法院和高等法院都是一审法院。
The penal provisions are set out in the Penal Code and the law relating to criminal procedure in Sri Lanka is governed by the Criminal Procedure Code; civil procedure is set out in the Civil Procedure Code.高等法院在某些事项上行使上诉和复议管辖权。
The most important legislation with regard to the implementation of the Convention includes the Bribery Act [Cap.上诉法庭和最高法院为上诉法院。 参与反腐败的机构网络包括调查贪污贿赂情事委员会、警方、检察长办公室、金融情报中心、国内税务局、公营企业委员会、司法事务委员会和公务员制度委员会。 2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法 2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述 贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)
26], Commission to Investigate Allegations of Bribery or Corruption (CIABOC) Act No. 19 of 1994, Prevention of Money Laundering Act No. 5 of 2006, as amended by Act No. 40 of 2011, Penal Code [Cap.《贿赂法》第14(a)条、第16(a)条、第17(a)条、第19(a)条、第20(a)和(b)条、第21(a)和(b)条、第22(a)和(b)条、第88条、第89条和第90条将行贿定为刑事犯罪。 《贿赂法》第14(b)条、第15条、第16(b)条、第17(b)条、第19(b)条、第20(b)条、第21(c)条、第22(c)条、第22(d)条、第24条、第89条和第89A条涵盖了受贿行为。 《贿赂法》第90条中“报酬”一词的宽泛定义涵盖各种形式的不当好处。 此外,该条(e)款进一步澄清,报酬包括“要约、保证和承诺”,因此涵盖《联合国反腐败公约》第十五条所要求的承诺和要约要素。 该结论也得到相关判例法案例的支持。 《贿赂法》涵盖不同类别的公职人员,包括司法人员和议员(第14条),以及不同种类的公务员(第16条和第19条)。 斯里兰卡未将贿赂外国公职人员或国际公共组织官员定为刑事犯罪;但目前正在讨论实施相关措施的可能性。 斯里兰卡立法未将影响力交易明确定为刑事犯罪,尽管《贿赂法》部分条款(第17条和第19条)可被视为已涵盖这一罪行的某些要素。 斯里兰卡未将私营部门的贿赂行为定为刑事犯罪,尽管《贿赂法》部分条款(关于政府标书投标人之间贿赂行为的第18条)涉及到私营部门贿赂行为的某些方面。 为解决这一问题,已在调查贪污贿赂情事委员会一级设立了三个委员会,以考虑可能的立法修正。
25], Code of Criminal Procedure Act No. 15 of 1979 [Cap.洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)
26], Judicature Act No. 2 of 1978, Declaration of Assets and Liabilities Law No. 1 of 1975, Financial Transactions Reporting Act No. 6 of 2006, Establishments, Code, Bail Act No. 30 of 1997, Extradition Law No. 8 of 1977, as amended by Act 48 of 1999, and Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act No. 25 of 2005.《防止洗钱法》(如第3条)涵盖了洗钱罪行的主要要素,但尚未提供实施方面的任何实例。
The hierarchy of Courts of first instance is set out in Section 2 of the Judicature Act.除其他外,上游犯罪包括《贿赂法》(《防止洗钱法》第35(c)条)所规定的罪行和可处以死刑或五年及五年以上监禁的罪行,以及《刑法典》某些条款中所列的部分罪行,后者似乎涵盖了《公约》所规定的所有犯罪。
Primary Courts, Magistrate’s Courts, District Courts and High Courts are Courts of first instance.两国共认犯罪不是将在斯里兰卡境外实施的罪行视为上游犯罪的必要条件。
High Courts exercise appellate and review jurisdiction in some matters.斯里兰卡法律不排除一人可同时被控洗钱罪和上游犯罪。
The Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court are the Appellate Courts.《防止洗钱法》第3(1)(b)条涵盖了窝赃行为。 贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条) 《刑法典》第386条(关于不诚实挪用财产)、第388条和第389条(均关于违反信托的刑事犯罪)将包括公职人员在内任何人转移财产的行为定为刑事犯罪。 1982年第12号《公共财产刑事犯罪法》第392条(关于公务员或银行家、商人或代理人违反信托的刑事犯罪)和第5(1)条规定对公职人员贪污公共财产的行为加倍处罚。 判例法在起诉公共和私营部门贪污行为方面也适用类似原则。 《贿赂法》第70条(关于腐败)对滥用职权做了规定,较全面地覆盖了《公约》第十七条所定罪行的所有要素。 《贿赂法》第23A条包含有关资产非法增加的具体条款,涵盖公职人员及其家庭成员。 斯里兰卡法院假定,任何资产非法增加均来自贿赂行为,即使它可能是另一种腐败犯罪的产物,包括贪污或滥用职权。 斯里兰卡也制订了一套公职人员资产申报的业务制度,这有利于有效实施第23A条。 妨害司法(第二十五条) 《贿赂法》第73条(关于干扰证人)将干扰证人或阻挠证人对贿赂案作证定为刑事犯罪。 《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》第23条、《贿赂法》第74(1)、(2)和(3)条和第75(1)条以及《刑法》第183条至第187条将使用暴力、威胁或恐吓以干扰司法或执法人员执行公务的行为定为刑事犯罪。 法人责任(第二十六条) 《刑法典》第8条中“人”的定义包括法人和自然人。 但是,目前还不清楚《贿赂法》提到的“人”是否适用同样的概念。
The institutional network of agencies involved in the fight against corruption include the CIABOC, the police, the Attorney General’s Office, Financial Intelligence Unit, Inland Revenue, Committee on Public Enterprises, Judicial Service Commission and the Public Service Commission.根据可适用的普通法原则,法人可承担民事和行政责任,这方面也有一些法院惯例。
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement但是,并无法人被控腐败相关罪行的判例法案例。
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review参与和未遂(第二十七条)
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)《贿赂法》第25条将参与和未遂(以教唆和共谋方式)定为刑事犯罪。
Sections 14(a), 16(a), 17(a), 19(a), 20(a), (b), 21(a), (b), 22(a), (b), 88, 89 and 90 of the Bribery Act criminalize active bribery.此外,《刑法典》(第100条(关于教唆)和第113A(1)条(关于共谋)也载有相关条款。
Passive bribery is covered by sections 14(b), 15, 16(b), 17(b), 19(b), 20(b), 21(c), 22(c), 22(d), 24, 89 and 89A of the Bribery Act.起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
The broad definition of “gratification” in section 90 of the Bribery Act covers various forms of undue advantage.《贿赂法》规定,相关犯罪可处以最多七年监禁、腐败罪行可处以最多十年监禁(第70条)。
Item (e) of the section additionally clarifies that gratification includes “offer, undertaking and promise”, thus covering the elements of promising and offering as required by article 15 of United Nations Convention against Corruption.一些犯罪被处以最低限度的强制性刑罚(如《防止洗钱法》第3条)。
That conclusion is also supported by relevant case law examples.法官在处以刑罚时会考虑犯罪情节的严重性。
The Bribery Act covers different categories of public officials including judicial officers and parliamentarians (section 14), and different types of public servants (section 16, section 19).只有斯里兰卡总统被准予免于刑事起诉。
Sri Lanka has not criminalized the bribery of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations; however, the possibility of the adoption of relevant measures is currently being discussed.其他公职人员不享有刑事豁免权。
Sri Lankan legislation does not expressly criminalize trading of influence, although some sections of the Bribery Act (sections 17 and 19) may be regarded as covering certain elements of that offence.根据《贿赂法》第30A(2)和(4)条以及第73(2)条,涉嫌受贿和阻挠证人作证的人只有在特殊情况下才被保释。
Sri Lanka did not criminalize bribery in the private sector, although some provisions of the Bribery Act (section 18 on bribery among bidders for government tenders) touch upon certain aspects of bribery in the private sector.《监狱条例》第58条允许减刑和对服刑表现良好者给予奖励。
To address the issue three committees were established at the level of CIABOC to consider possible legislative amendments.并无根据相关犯罪情节的严重性而批准早释或假释的措施。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)《编制法典》(第31:1:3条和第4条)规定,被控犯有贿赂或腐败罪的公职人员可被暂停公职。
The main elements of the offence of money-laundering are covered in the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (e.g. section 3), although no practical examples of implementation were provided.《编制法典》第13分条对起诉前的初步调查做了规定。
Predicate offences include, inter alia, the offences prescribed in the Bribery Act (section 35(c) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act) and offences subject to the death penalty or imprisonment of 5 years or more, and some offences listed in certain sections of the Penal Code, which appear to cover offences established in accordance with the Convention.《第40号条例》第五章和《贿赂法》第29条规定,被法院判定犯下危害国家刑事罪行、尤其是贿赂罪的人(第29条)不得被任命担任公职。
Dual criminality is not required for offences committed outside Sri Lanka to be deemed predicate offences.斯里兰卡公务员制度委员会可根据《编制法典》第27条和第28条,在进行刑事诉讼的同时对公职人员采取纪律措施。
Sri Lankan law does not preclude a person from being charged with both money-laundering and the predicate offence.斯里兰卡的现行法规中尚无帮助被判犯有腐败罪的人重返社会的措施,但已出台一个涵盖所有罪犯、而非具体针对腐败罪的一般改造方案。
Concealment is covered by section 3(1)(b) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act.《贿赂法》第81(1)条规定,提供相关信息以便于起诉的共犯,有可能获准赦免。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)但是,这一措施仅适用于《贿赂法》所规定的罪行。
Sections 386 (Dishonest misappropriation of property), 388 and 389 of the Penal Code (both on criminal breach of trust) criminalize the diversion of property by any person, including public officials.尚未对减轻合作罪犯处罚的可能性做出规定。
Section 392 (Criminal breach of trust by public servant or by banker, merchant or agent) and section 5(1) of the Offences against Public Property Act No. 12 of 1982 provide for the aggravated punishment of embezzlement by public officials or against public property.保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)
Case law applies similar principles to the prosecution of embezzlement in the public and the private sectors.《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》第23条对被动保护证人免受报复或恐吓做出规定。
Abuse of functions is addressed in section 70 of the Bribery Act (Corruption), which provides a relatively comprehensive coverage of all elements of the offence stipulated in article 17 of the Convention.在国家访问期间,斯里兰卡正在起草一份包含全面保护的《证人保护议案》,其中包括主动保护措施。
Section 23A of the Bribery Act contains detailed provisions on illicit enrichment covering public officials and their family members.该议案在国家访问结束后作为2015年第4号《协助和保护犯罪受害人和证人法》投入实施。
Sri Lankan courts would presume that any illicit enrichment is a product of bribery even though it may be a product of another corruption offence, including embezzlement or abuse of functions.《刑事诉讼法典》和《刑法典》第187条规定了一些受害人保护措施。
Sri Lanka has also established a functional system of asset declarations for public officials which is conducive to the effective implementation of Section 23A.《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》第9条为任何向委员会提供信息的人提供民事和刑事责任豁免。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)根据1996年第21号《人权委员会法》,劳资争议法庭也有可能依据1996年第27号《劳资争议法》向举报人提供部分保护。
Section 73 of the Bribery Act (Interference with witnesses) criminalizes interfering with a witness or impeding witnesses in bribery cases.冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
The use of physical force, threats or intimidation to interfere with the exercise of official duties by justice or law enforcement officials is criminalized in section 23 of the CIABOC Act, section 74(1), (2), (3) and section 75(1) of the Bribery Act, and sections 183-187 of the Penal Code.没收腐败收益仅限于洗钱和贿赂行为产生的犯罪收益(《贿赂法》第26A条、第28A(1)条和第39条、《防止洗钱法》第3条和第13条)。
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)在此限定范围内,对没收这两类犯罪的工具做了规定。
The definition of “person” in section 8 of the Penal Code includes both legal and natural persons.《防止洗钱法》第12条规定按价值没收洗钱收益。
However, there is no clarity whether the same concept applies to the “persons” referred to in the Bribery Act.根据该法第13(4)条,也有可能扩大没收范围。
Legal persons can be civilly and administratively liable based on applicable common law principles in which regard some court practice also exists.《贿赂法》第39条对追回罪犯向国家提供的贿赂做了规定。
However, no examples of case law where legal persons were prosecuted for corruption-related offences exist.《防止洗钱法》载有关于冻结和扣押洗钱收益的条款(第7条和第12条)。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)《刑事诉讼法典》第六章和《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》载有有关查明和扣押资产的某些一般规定。
Attempt and participation (in the form of abetment and conspiracy) are criminalized in section 25 of the Bribery Act.此外,可根据《金融交易报告法》查明和追查腐败收益。
Additionally, relevant provisions are contained in the Penal Code (section 100 (abetment) and section 113A(1) (conspiracy)).《防止洗钱法》第11条和第15条规定,法院任命一名接管人管理被冻结或被没收的资产。
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)《防止洗钱法》第4条载有在洗钱案件中推定资产来自非法来源的规定。
The Bribery Act provides that relevant offences may be subject to imprisonment for up to seven years and up to ten years for corruption (section 70).《贿赂法》第23A(1)条载有在资产非法增加案件中推定资产来自非法来源的类似规定。
Some offences are punishable with minimum mandatory sentences (e.g. section 3 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act).《防止洗钱法》第13(2)条和《贿赂法》第28A(1)条规定,在没收程序中对善意第三方的权利给予适当保护。
Judges consider the gravity of offences when imposing penalties.根据《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》第5(1)(d)条、《防止洗钱法》第16条和第27条以及《金融交易报告法》第18条和第31条,银行保密并不妨碍国内的刑事调查,尤其是在调查和扣押银行、财务或商业记录方面。
Only the President of Sri Lanka is granted immunity from criminal prosecutions.时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)
No other public officials enjoy criminal immunities.根据《刑事诉讼法》第456条,适用于普通犯罪(包括腐败罪)的时效是20年。
According to sections 30A(2), (4) and 73(2) of the Bribery Act, persons suspected of accepting bribes and impeding witnesses from giving evidence may be released on bail in exceptional circumstances only.斯里兰卡不受理之前在其他国家被定罪的情况。
Section 58 of the Prisons Ordinance allows for remissions of sentences and rewards for good conduct.管辖权(第四十二条)
There are no measures on early release or parole based on the gravity of the offences concerned.管辖权根据《司法法》确立,应结合《刑事诉讼法典》第11条阅读。 《司法法》第9(f)条确立了对斯里兰卡公民在国外所犯罪行的管辖权。
The Establishments Code (section 31:1:3 and 4) provides that public officers who have been prosecuted on bribery or corruption charges may be suspended.现行立法并未涵盖在国外参与洗钱的行为。
Preliminary investigations prior to prosecution are addressed in subsection 13 of the Establishments Code.斯里兰卡正在具体考虑能否对被指控的犯罪分子在其境内且斯里兰卡未对其进行引渡的腐败罪确立管辖权。
Chapter V of Regulation 40 and section 29 of the Bribery Act disqualify persons convicted by a court of a criminal offence against the State and specifically of bribery (section 29) from appointment to the public service.腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)
The Public Service Commission of Sri Lanka can take disciplinary measures against public officials in parallel with criminal proceedings, according to sections 27 and 28 of the Establishments Code.虽然这方面没有明确的成文法规定,但根据普通法原则,斯里兰卡法院可以将腐败视为废止或撤销合同、取消特许权或其他类似文书或采取任何其他补救行动的一个相关因素。
Sri Lanka does not have measures in the current legislation providing for the reintegration into society of persons convicted of corruption offences, although a general rehabilitation programme not specific to corruption is in place that covers all offenders.遭受损失的各方可以根据《民事诉讼法典》就他人不当得利寻求补救措施。
Section 81(1) of the Bribery Act provides for a possibility of granting pardon to a participating offender who provided relevant information to facilitate a prosecution.专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条)
However, the measure is limited to offences stipulated in the Bribery Act.调查贪污贿赂情事委员会是受权负责调查和起诉腐败犯罪(贿赂、资产非法增加以及《申报资产和负债法》确立的罪行)的专门机构。
The possibility of mitigating punishment of cooperating offenders is not provided.委员会的三名成员由总统任命,并定期向总统直接提交年度报告,然后提交议会。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)委员会的成员和干事接受定期培训。
Section 23 of the CIABOC Act provides for passive protection of witnesses against retaliation and intimidation.警方负责侦查洗钱、贪污和《刑法》确立的其他罪行,设有一个特别小组专门处理贪污罪,并由检察长办公室负责起诉。
A bill on Witness Protection was being drafted at the time of the country visit and included comprehensive protections, including active protection measures.其他相关机构包括金融情报中心和公务员制度委员会。
The bill came into operation following the country visit as the Assistance to and Protection of Victims of Crime and Witnesses Act No. 4 of 2015.斯里兰卡当局会与调查贪污贿赂情事委员会合作,并向其提供必要信息。
Some victim protection measures are envisaged in the Code of Criminal Procedure Act and section 187 of the Penal Code.根据《编制法典》,公职人员有责任向委员会举报腐败罪行。
Section 9 of the CIABOC Act provides immunity from civil and criminal liability to any person who provides information to the Commission.根据《调查贪污贿赂情事委员会法》第4条,私营部门的实体可以向委员会举报腐败行为。
A partial protection of reporting persons is also possible based on the Human Rights Commission Act No. 21 of 1996 and by the Labour Tribunal based on the Industrial Dispute Act No. 27 of 1996.根据《防止洗钱法》,金融机构和其他实体必须举报与金融活动相关的可疑交易。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
The confiscation of corruption proceeds is limited to the proceeds of crimes derived from money-laundering and bribery (sections 26A, 28A(1), 39 of the Bribery Act, sections 3, 13 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act).总体而言,在实施《公约》第三章方面,突出强调下列成功经验和良好做法:
To that limited extent, the confiscation of instrumentalities of those two offences is provided for. Section 12 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act provides for value-based confiscation of the proceeds of money-laundering.《贿赂法》全面涵盖了腐败罪的主题、要素和处罚。
Based on section 13(4) of the Act, extended confiscation is also possible.《贿赂法》第21条将与公职部门进行任何交易前后一年内向该部门的任何公职人员提供任何报酬的行为定为刑事犯罪,作为便利起诉腐败罪的一项措施。
Section 39 of the Bribery Act provides for the recovery of bribes from the offender to the State.《贿赂法》第24条规定,公职人员接受任何涉及其做出或不做出任何行为的报酬,就算他实际上并无权力、权利或机会、无意或事实上并未做出或不做出该行为,也将受到处罚。
The Prevention of Money Laundering Act contains provisions on the freezing and seizure of proceeds of money-laundering (sections 7, 12).《贿赂法》第23A条对资产非法增加做了全面规定,也将涉案公职人员的家庭成员涵盖在内,同时制订了一套公职人员资产申报制度。
Certain general provisions relating to the identification and seizure of assets are contained in Chapter VI of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the CIABOC Act.2.3. 实施方面的挑战
Additionally, the identification and tracing of corruption proceeds can be conducted based on the Financial Transaction Reporting Act.下列步骤可进一步加强现有的反腐败措施:
Sections 11 and 15 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act address the appointment of a receiver to administer frozen or confiscated property by the Court.采取必要立法措施,实施《反腐败公约》第十六条。
Section 4 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act contains the presumption of unlawful origin of assets in money-laundering cases.考虑将影响力交易定为刑事犯罪。
A similar presumption of the unlawful origin of assets in illicit enrichment cases is contained in section 23A(1) of the Bribery Act.考虑根据《反腐败公约》第二十一条通过具体立法,将私营部门内的贿赂行为定为刑事犯罪。
Section 13(2) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act and section 28A(1) of the Bribery Act provide for protection of the rights of bona fide third parties in confiscation proceedings.向联合国秘书长提交使《反腐败公约》第二十三条生效的法律副本。
Bank secrecy is not an obstacle to domestic criminal investigations and particularly the investigation and seizure of bank, financial or commercial records, as follows from section 5(1)(d) of the CIABOC Act, section 16 and 27 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act and section 18 and 31 of the Financial Transactions Reporting Act.将各类涉及腐败罪的案件中干扰或妨碍证人作证的行为定为刑事犯罪。
Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)考虑在《贿赂法》中直接规定“人”的定义包括自然人和法人。
Based on section 456 of the Criminal Procedure Code, the statute of limitations applicable to general offences (including corruption offences) is 20 years.制订更明确的保释程序。
Previous convictions in other States are not admissible in Sri Lanka.考虑帮助被判定犯下《公约》所确立罪行的人重新融入社会。
Jurisdiction (art. 42)对于在腐败罪侦查或起诉中提供了实质性配合的被指控者,考虑规定在适当情况下减轻处罚的可能性。
Jurisdiction is based on the Judicature Act, read with section 11 of the Code of Criminal Procedure Act.采取措施鼓励参与或曾参与实施《贿赂法》所规定犯罪以外的腐败罪的人为主管当局的侦查和取证提供信息。
Section 9(f) of the Judicature Act establishes jurisdiction over offences committed by Sri Lankan citizens outside the country.考虑在国内法律制度中采取补充措施,确保举报腐败罪相关实情的人得到保护,免受任何无理待遇。
The current legislation does not cover foreign participatory acts to money-laundering.采取必要措施帮助冻结、扣押和没收《公约》确立的所有犯罪产生的收益。
Sri Lanka is specifically considering the possibility of establishing its jurisdiction over corruption offences when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him.在相关立法中列入一项条款,规定主管机关管理已冻结、扣押或没收的《公约》确立的所有犯罪产生的所得财产。
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)考虑采取立法或其他措施,以便被指控犯罪者之前的定罪记录能被纳入考虑,尤其是在审判和判决期间。
Although there is no specific statutory provision to that effect, Sri Lankan court can consider corruption as a relevant factor to annul or rescind a contract or withdraw a concession or similar instrument or take any other remedial action based on common law principles.考虑在国内立法制度中通过补充措施,确保因腐败行为而遭受损害的实体或个人有权为了获得赔偿而对该损害的责任人提起法律诉讼。
Parties who have suffered damage may seek remedies based on the Civil Procedure Code against others’ unjust enrichment.2.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)以下各种技术援助可协助斯里兰卡更充分地实施《公约》:
CIABOC is a specialized agency tasked with the investigation and prosecution of corruption offences (bribery, illicit enrichment, and offences under the Declaration of Assets and Liabilities Law).提供援助以评估将本国公职人员行贿和受贿行为定为刑事犯罪措施的实效。
Three members of the Commission are appointed by the President and submit regular annual reports directly to him and thereafter to the Parliament.在将贿赂外国公职人员或国际公共组织官员定为刑事犯罪方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、经验教训、示范法规、法规起草、法律咨询和反腐败专家提供现场协助;以及制订实施行动计划。
Members and officers of the Commission receive regular training.在将私营部门的贿赂行为定为刑事犯罪方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、经验教训、示范立法、立法起草、法律咨询和反腐败专家提供现场协助;以及制订实施行动计划。
Money-laundering, embezzlement and other Penal Code offences are investigated by the police, who have a special unit focusing on corruption offences, and prosecuted by the Attorney General’s Office.在法人责任方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、经验教训、示范法规、法规起草、法律咨询和腐败专家提供现场协助;以及制订实施行动计划。
Other relevant agencies include the Financial Intelligence Unit and the Public Service Commission.在被判犯有腐败罪的人重新融入社会方面,所需技术援助包括:提供法律咨询、反腐败专家提供现场协助以及制订实施行动计划。
Sri Lankan authorities would cooperate with and provide necessary information to the CIABOC.在保护证人、鉴定人和被害人方面,所需技术援助包括:提供示范法规、法律咨询和反腐败专家提供现场协助。
Public officials have a duty to report corruption offences to the Commission under the Establishments Code.在保护举报人方面,所需技术援助包括:提供示范法规、法律咨询和反腐败专家提供现场协助。
Entities in the private sector may report corruption to the Commission based on section 4 of the CIABOC Act.在与执法机关合作方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、经验教训、法规起草和法律咨询。
Financial institutions and other entities are required to report suspicious transactions in relation to financial activities pursuant to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act.在把其他国家的犯罪记录纳入国内刑事诉讼考虑方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、经验教训、示范法规、法规起草和法律咨询。
2.2. Successes and good practices在实施《公约》关于管辖权的第四十二条方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、法律咨询、反腐败专家提供现场协助和法规起草。
Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing chapter III of the Convention are highlighted:提供援助以评估为实施《公约》关于腐败行为后果的第三十四条而采取的措施的实效。
Comprehensive coverage of subjects, elements and penalties for bribery offences in the Bribery Act.在赔偿因腐败行为受到的损害方面,所需技术援助包括:总结良好做法、法律咨询、反腐败专家提供现场协助、法规起草以及制订实施行动计划。
Section 21 of the Bribery Act criminalizing offering of any gratification to any public servant within one year before or after any dealings with that public servant’s department, as a measure facilitating the prosecution of corruption offences.3. 第四章:国际合作
Section 24 of the Bribery Act providing for the punishment of a public servant who accepted any gratification offered in consideration of his doing or forbearing from any act, regardless of him not actually having the power, right or opportunity therefor, the lack of his intention, or that he did not in fact so act or forbear.3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Comprehensive illicit enrichment provisions set up in section 23A of the Bribery Act, also covering family members of implicated public officials in combination with a system of asset declarations of public officials.引渡(第四十四条)
2.3. Challenges in implementation引渡受《引渡法》规范,负责引渡事宜的主管机构是国防部长。
The following steps could further strengthen existing anti-corruption measures:在未签订条约的情况下,可以向《公报》法令指定的英联邦国家提供引渡。
Take necessary legislative measures to implement article 16 of the Convention against Corruption.对所有其他国家而言,处理引渡事宜需签订条约。
Consider criminalizing trading of influence.在英联邦国家和条约伙伴都提出请求时,请求将根据斯里兰卡国内法律执行。
Consider adopting specific legislation in accordance with article 21 of the Convention in order to criminalize bribery in the private sector.作为一个二元制国家,国际条约必须通过国家立法授权才能在斯里兰卡实施。
Furnish copies of the laws that give effect to article 23 of the Convention to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.引渡必须满足两国共认犯罪的要求,并仅限适用于《公约》所确立的所有罪行尚未全部被定为刑事定罪的情况。
Criminalize interfering with a witness or impeding a witness in all kinds of cases involving corruption offences.但《引渡法》中提及各项国际犯罪控制公约所确立罪行的宽泛条款似乎已涵盖《反腐败公约》所确立的全部犯罪(见1999年第48号《引渡法》(修正案),第5条)。
Consider directly stipulating in the Bribery Act that the definition of “person” covers both natural and legal persons.对于任何腐败罪,斯里兰卡不视《公约》为引渡的法律基础,并且尚未向联合国发出必要通知。
More clearly stipulate procedures applied with regard to release on bail.斯里兰卡与中国香港、印度、意大利和美利坚合众国缔结了四项双边引渡条约。
Consider promoting the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences established in accordance with the Convention.《英联邦引渡计划》(《伦敦计划》)对简化引渡安排做了规定。
Consider providing for the possibility, in appropriate cases, of mitigating punishment of an accused person who provides substantial cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of corruption offences.引渡请求必须通过外交渠道提交给引渡事宜负责机构,即国防部长。
Adopt measures to encourage persons who participate or have participated in the commission of corruption offences, other than those stipulated in the Bribery Act, to supply information to competent authorities for investigative and evidentiary purposes.根据斯里兰卡已订立的条约,可引渡犯罪是指那些根据两国法律均可被判处一年以上监禁或更严重处罚的罪行(《与美国订立的引渡条约》(第2(1)条)),有关中国香港,还加上条约附表所列明罪行(《与中国香港订立的条约》(第2(1)条))。
Consider adopting additional measures in the domestic legal system to ensure that persons reporting facts concerning corruption offences are protected against any unjustified treatment.这将包括《反腐败公约》确立的所有犯罪。
Adopt such measures as may be necessary to enable freezing, seizure and confiscation of proceeds derived from all offences established in accordance with the Convention.在没有签订条约的情况下向英联邦国家提供引渡时,所犯罪行还必须在《引渡法》的清单中列出,并且可被处以至少一年处罚。
Introduce a provision in the relevant legislation providing for the administration by the competent authorities of frozen, seized or confiscated property representing proceeds of all offences under the Convention.根据《引渡法》,国籍不是一个据以拒绝引渡的理由;但根据斯里兰卡与中国香港签订的双边条约,国籍是一个可斟酌使用的拒绝引渡理由,并且不涉及在引渡一名国民的请求被拒绝时立即将案件送交起诉的义务。
Consider adopting legislative or other measures that would enable the consideration of previous convictions of an alleged offender, particularly during trial and sentencing.《司法法》确立了法院的管辖权,但未规定在引渡请求被拒绝时立即将案件送交起诉的义务。
Consider adopting additional measures in the domestic legal system to ensure that entities or persons who suffered damage as a result of acts of corruption have the right to initiate legal proceedings against those responsible for the damage in order to obtain compensation.斯里兰卡未曾收到引渡国民的请求。
2.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention在经济罪是否符合斯里兰卡法律和条约中关于一年监禁的引渡要求方面,斯里兰卡当局在国家访问之前或期间均未提供信息。
The following forms of technical assistance could assist Sri Lanka in more fully implementing the Convention:审议国注意到,要详细评估斯里兰卡对腐败案件准予引渡的做法非常困难,因为提供的信息有限,而且缺乏斯里兰卡收到和拒绝的请求的数据,更普遍的是,缺乏一套具体的数据收集系统。
Assistance in conducting an assessment of the effectiveness of measures adopted to criminalize active and passive bribery of national public officials.《引渡法》和所有双边条约均未明确规定在拒绝予以引渡前与请求国进行磋商的义务。
Summary of good practices, lessons learned, model legislation legislative drafting, legal advice and on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert and development of an action plan for implementation with regard to the criminalization of bribery of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations.迄今为止,斯里兰卡不曾援引过公平待遇、非歧视和政治罪例外等问题。
Summary of good practices, lessons learned, model legislation legislative drafting, legal advice and on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert and development of an action plan for implementation with regard to the criminalization of bribery in the private sector.被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十五和四十七条)
Summary of good practices, lessons learned, model legislation legislative drafting, legal advice and on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert and development of an action plan for implementation with regard to the liability of legal persons.斯里兰卡颁布了1995年第5号《囚犯移管法》,并与中国香港、印度、科威特、马尔代夫、巴基斯坦和大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国订立了关于被判刑人的移管的双边协议。
Legal advice, on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert and development of an action plan for implementation with regard to the reintegration into society of persons convicted of corruption offences.迄今为止,斯里兰卡尚未报告因腐败罪而将被判刑人移管的案例。
Model legislation, legal advice and on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert with regard to the protection of witnesses, experts and victims.可查阅:www.lawnet.lk/process.php?st=1995Y0V0C5A&hword=%27%27&path=5。
Model legislation, legal advice and on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert with regard to the protection of reporting persons.斯里兰卡没有关于刑事诉讼的移交的法律或惯例。
Summary of good practices, lessons learned, legislative drafting and legal advice with regard to cooperation with law enforcement authorities.司法协助(第四十六条)
Summary of good practices, lessons learned, model legislation, legislative drafting and legal advice with regard to taking into account criminal records from other States in domestic criminal proceedings.斯里兰卡的《刑事事项互助法》为司法协助提供了法律基础。
Summary of good practices, legal advice, on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert and legislative drafting with regard to the implementation of article 42 of the Convention on jurisdiction.司法协助须遵守两国共认犯罪要求并签订条约,被《公报》法令指定的英联邦国家除外。
Assistance in conducting an assessment of the effectiveness of measures adopted to implement article 34 of the Convention on the consequences of acts of corruption.与中国香港、巴基斯坦、泰国和印度订立的此类条约已经生效。
Summary of good practices, legal advice, on-site assistance by an anti-corruption expert, legislative drafting and development of an action plan for implementation with regard to compensation for damage resulting from acts of corruption.在英联邦国家和条约伙伴都提出请求时,请求将根据斯里兰卡国内法律执行。
3. Chapter IV: International cooperation斯里兰卡也同意《英联邦(哈拉雷)刑事互助计划》,在没有签订条约的情况下可以互惠为由针对具体案件提供司法协助和援助。
3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review负责司法协助事宜的中央机构是司法部长秘书。
Extradition (art. 44)斯里兰卡金融情报中心和其他侦查机构通过国际刑警组织,在互惠的基础上多次提供成文法规定以外的非正式司法协助。
Extradition is governed by the Extradition Law and the responsible authority for extradition is the Minister of Defence.司法协助仅限适用于《公约》所确立的所有犯罪尚未全部被定为刑事定罪的情况。
Extradition may be provided without a treaty to Commonwealth countries that have been designated by order in the Gazette.但是,在为斯里兰卡或特定国家法律所承认的严重犯罪提供司法援助时,则可放弃两国共认犯罪的要求,其中不包括不受斯里兰卡或请求国承认的《反腐败公约》所确立犯罪。
A treaty is otherwise required for all other countries.斯里兰卡尚无在没有构成两国共认犯罪的情况下提供协助的案例。
For requests from both Commonwealth and treaty partners, the execution of the request is subject to the domestic laws of Sri Lanka.斯里兰卡是否会为非严重性质的犯罪提供非强制性协助,尚未提供信息。
As a dualist country, international treaties require enabling domestic legislation to be implemented in Sri Lanka.迄今为止,斯里兰卡尚未收到与腐败相关的请求,而且未曾拒绝过任何司法协助请求。
Extradition is subject to dual criminality and is limited to the extent that not all offences established under the Convention have been criminalized.在实际当中,斯里兰卡似乎会在拒绝或暂缓提供司法协助之前与请求国进行磋商。
However, the broad provision in the Extradition Act referring to offences under international crime control conventions would seem to cover all Convention against Corruption offences (see the Extradition (Amendment) Act No. 48 of 1999, Section 5).尚无以正在进行的刑事事项为由暂缓提供协助的案例。
Sri Lanka does not consider the Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect to any corruption offences and has not made the requisite notification to the United Nations.检察长办公室代表解释说,证明被告无罪的证据不一定要披露,虽然迄今尚无此类案例。
Sri Lanka is party to four bilateral extradition treaties, with Hong Kong (China), India, Italy and the United States of America.此外,他还解释说,在实际当中斯里兰卡一向提供拒绝理由,但《刑事事项互助法》并未为此订立条款,而且提出了一个案例。
Simplified extradition arrangements are available under the Commonwealth Scheme on Extradition (London Scheme).执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
Requests for extradition must be sent through diplomatic channels to the responsible authority for extradition, the Minister of Defence.斯里兰卡是金融情报中心埃格蒙特小组的成员,其执法机构也通过国际刑警组织开展合作。
Under Sri Lanka’s treaties, extraditable offences are those punishable according to the laws of both States by imprisonment for more than one year or a more severe penalty (extradition treaty with the United States (article 2(1)) and, additionally in the case of Hong Kong, China, those listed in a schedule in the treaty (Hong Kong, China, treaty, article 2(1)). This would include all Convention against Corruption offences. For extradition to Commonwealth countries with which no treaty is in place, the offence must also be described in a list in the Extradition Law and be punishable by at least one year. Nationality is not a ground for refusing extradition under the Extradition Law; however, under Sri Lanka’s bilateral treaty with Hong Kong, China, nationality is a discretionary ground for refusing extradition, and the obligation to promptly submit the case for prosecution where extradition of a national is refused is not addressed. The Judicature Act, which establishes the jurisdiction of the court, does not provide for an obligation to submit the case for prosecution if extradition has been refused. No requests for extradition of nationals have been received. No information was available from Sri Lankan authorities before or during the country visit as to whether fiscal offences satisfy the one-year imprisonment term to be extraditable under Sri Lanka’s law and treaties. The reviewing States noted that it was difficult to assess in detail Sri Lanka’s practice of granting extradition in corruption cases due to the limited availability of information, the absence of data on requests made to Sri Lanka and any requests that Sri Lanka has refused, and, more generally, the absence of a specific system for collecting data. The obligation to consult with a requesting State before refusing extradition is not addressed in the Extradition Law and all bilateral treaties. The issues of fair treatment, non-discrimination and the political offence exception have not been invoked to date. Transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 45 and 47) Sri Lanka has enacted the Transfer of Offenders Act, No. 5 of 1995 and bilateral agreements on the transfer of sentenced persons with Hong Kong (China), India, Kuwait, Maldives, Pakistan and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. To date, no case examples of transfer of persons sentenced for corruption offences were reported. Available at www.lawnet.lk/process.php?st=1995Y0V0C5A&hword=%27%27&path=5. There is no law or practice on the transfer of criminal proceedings. Mutual legal assistance (art. 46) Sri Lanka’s Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act (MACMA) provides the legal basis for mutual legal assistance (MLA). MLA is subject to dual criminality and, except for Commonwealth countries designated by order in the Gazette, the existence of a treaty. Such treaties are in force with Hong Kong (China), Pakistan, Thailand and India. For requests from both Commonwealth and treaty partners, the execution of the request is subject to the domestic laws of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka also subscribes to the Commonwealth (Harare) Scheme on MLA and assistance can be provided in the absence of a treaty on a case-by-case basis on the grounds of reciprocity. The central authority for MLA is the Secretary to the Minister of Justice. Through INTERPOL, the Financial Intelligence Unit of Sri Lanka and other investigative agencies have, on the basis of reciprocity, provided informal mutual legal assistance on numerous occasions outside the statutory provisions. MLA is limited to the extent that not all offences established under the Convention have been criminalized. However, the dual criminality requirement may be waived for MLA for a serious offence recognized under the law of Sri Lanka or of a specified country, which would not encompass Convention against Corruption offences not recognized in either Sri Lanka or the requesting country. There have been no cases where Sri Lanka provided assistance in the absence of dual criminality. No information was available as to whether Sri Lanka would render non-coercive assistance if the offence was not of a serious nature. There have been no corruption-related requests and no requests for MLA have been refused by Sri Lanka to date. As a matter of practice, Sri Lanka appears to consult with requesting countries before refusing or postponing MLA. There have been no cases where assistance was postponed on the grounds of an ongoing criminal matter. Representatives from the Attorney General’s Office explained that evidence that is exculpatory to an accused would not have to be disclosed, although there have been no such cases to date. Furthermore, it was explained that Sri Lanka provides grounds for refusal as a matter of practice, although there is no provision to this effect in the MACMA, and an example was provided. Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50) Sri Lanka is a member of the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units and its law enforcement agencies also cooperate through INTERPOL. Sri Lanka’s Financial Intelligence Unit has entered into agreements on mutual legal assistance that provide for the exchange of information and enhance cooperation between law enforcement agencies. Sri Lanka could use the Convention against Corruption as a basis for direct law enforcement cooperation. Joint investigations are provided for in agreements entered into with other States and could be undertaken on a case-by-case basis through the establishment of memorandums of understanding or other agreements or arrangements.斯里兰卡的金融情报中心缔结了若干司法协助协议,规定执法机构之间交流信息和加强合作。
Examples of non-corruption-related joint investigations were provided.斯里兰卡可以视《反腐败公约》为直接开展执法合作的基础。
Although there are no specific legal provisions to allow for special investigative techniques, there is no prohibition to permit the use of such techniques as long as the evidence collated is in an admissible form.与其他国家订立的协议对开展联合侦查做了规定,并且可以通过签订谅解备忘录或其他协议或安排针对具体案件开展联合侦查。
3.2. Successes and good practices斯里兰卡提供了若干非腐败相关的联合侦查案例。
Sri Lanka may provide assistance in the absence of dual criminality for requests involving serious offences, and it was explained that these would include Convention against Corruption offences.虽然没有明确的法律条款来保障特殊侦查手段,但只要所收集的证据能以可受理形式提交,就不禁止使用这类手段。
The forms for MLA requests included in the schedule to the MACMA provide certainty to requesting countries as to the required content for MLA requests.3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
3.3. Challenges in implementation斯里兰卡可以在无两国共认犯罪的情况下,为涉及严重罪行的请求提供协助,并且解释说这些罪行包括《反腐败公约》所确立的犯罪。
The following steps could further strengthen existing anti-corruption measures:《刑事事项互助法》附表中包含的司法协助请求表格向请求国确认了司法协助请求的所需内容。
Adapt information systems to allow Sri Lanka to collect data on the origin of international cooperation requests, the time frame for their execution, and the response provided, including the offences involved and any grounds for refusal.3.3. 实施方面的挑战
Review the list of gazetted Commonwealth countries to ensure that all Commonwealth countries are covered (for both extradition and MLA).下列步骤可进一步加强现有的反腐败措施:
With respect to extradition, enhance knowledge of the extradition procedure and the role of the responsible authority for determining extradition requests among relevant authorities.调整信息系统,让斯里兰卡得以收集国际合作请求来源、执行请求时限和已提供的答复等数据,包括所涉罪行和任何拒绝理由。
Concerning extradition to Commonwealth countries with which no treaty is in place, consider whether the list-based approach to extradition affords sufficient flexibility to grant extradition to these countries for specific acts of corruption and to amend the list as needed to respond to corruption-related requests, including in future cases.审查公报宣布的英联邦国家清单,确保(为了引渡和司法协助)涵盖所有英联邦国家。
Consider reviewing domestic requirements regarding the application of multilateral treaties such as the Convention as a legal basis for extradition.在引渡方面,加强相关机构对引渡程序和负责确定引渡请求的主管机构作用的认识。
Provide the notifications under paragraph 6 of article 44 and paragraphs 13 and 14 of article 46.在准予向没有订立条约的英联邦国家引渡时,考虑基于清单的引渡办法能否提供足够的灵活性,以准予就具体的腐败行为向这些国家引渡,并在必要时修订该清单以对与腐败相关的请求做出反应,包括今后案件中的请求。
Amend relevant bilateral treaties to ensure that nationality is not a ground for refusing extradition and to include the obligation to promptly submit a case for prosecution where extradition of a national is refused.考虑审查有关将《公约》等多边条约用作引渡法律基础的国内要求。
Include the aut dedere aut judicare obligation in its future extradition treaties.根据第四十四条第六款以及第四十六条第十三款和第十四款的规定,发出通知。
Consider adopting measures establishing that Sri Lanka will consider enforcing the remainder of a foreign sentence where extradition of nationals is refused.修正相关的双边条约,以确保不以国籍为由拒绝引渡,并且纳入在引渡一名国民的请求被拒绝时立即将案件送交起诉的义务。
Ensure that requests for extradition regarding fiscal offences would not be refused.在今后订立的引渡条约中加入不引渡即审判的义务。
Amend the Extradition Law and relevant bilateral treaties to include a provision on the obligation to consult with a requesting State before refusing extradition.考虑采取措施,规定在引渡国民被拒绝的情况下,斯里兰卡将考虑强制执行外国判刑的剩余刑期。
With respect to MLA, include appropriate measures to facilitate the provision of non-coercive MLA when the offence is not of a serious nature in the MACMA and MLA treaties.确保与经济罪相关的引渡请求不被拒绝。
Take appropriate measures to render non-coercive assistance (para.修正《引渡法》和相关双边条约,纳入在拒绝引渡前与请求国进行磋商的义务。
9, art. 46).在司法协助方面,纳入在犯罪不属于《刑事事项互助法》和司法协助条约确立的严重性质时便利提供非强制性协助的适当措施。
Consider comprehensively reviewing the forms for MLA requests against the measures set forth in paragraphs 15 and 16 of article 46 to ensure adequate guidance to requesting countries.采取适当措施提供非强制性协助(第四十六条第九款)。
Consider adopting a checklist for MLA to serve as an administrative tool for authorities handling MLA requests.考虑对照第四十六条第十五款和第十六款规定的措施,全面审查司法协助请求表格,确保向请求国提供充分指导。
Consider clarifying the manner in which MLA requests are executed, particularly in the case of non-treaty partners (art. 46, para.考虑采用司法协助清单,作为主管当局处理司法协助请求的一项行政工具。
17).考虑澄清司法协助请求的执行方式,尤其是在请求国非条约伙伴的情况下(第四十六条第十七款)。
Continue to consider adopting relevant measures to allow for evidence to be taken and hearings to be conducted in criminal cases by video, including through relevant amendments to the Evidence Ordinance.继续考虑采取相关措施,包括对《证据条例》做出相关修正,以在刑事案件中实现视频取证和审讯。
Review legislation and procedures with regard to the disclosure of evidence exculpatory to an accused.审查向被告披露证明无罪的证据的立法和程序。
Amend the MLA law to add a limitation on use clause.修正司法协助立法,对使用条款增加限制。
Consider including a confidentiality provision in the MLA Act, in particular for non-treaty and non-Commonwealth countries考虑在《司法协助法》中纳入一项保密条款,尤其针对非条约和非英联邦国家。
Amend the MACMA to provide that grounds for refusal shall be communicated.修正《刑事事项互助法》,规定应当就拒绝理由发出通知。
Amend the MACMA to include a provision on the timely execution of MLA requests and the provision of information on the status of requests.修正《刑事事项互助法》,纳入有关及时执行司法协助请求和就请求状况提供信息的条款。
Consider specifying legislation and future treaties to provide greater legal certainty with regards to postponing MLA on the grounds of ongoing criminal matters.考虑在立法和今后订立的条约中做出明确规定,使以正在进行的刑事事项为由暂缓提供协助方面具有更大的法律确定性。
Amend the MACMA and relevant treaties to include a duty to consult before refusing or postponing MLA.修正《刑事事项互助法》和相关条约,纳入在拒绝或暂缓协助之前举行磋商的职责。
Strengthen measures and efforts in international law enforcement cooperation, in particular channels of communication and cooperation in the investigation of specific cases.加强国际执法合作方面的措施和努力,特别是沟通渠道和具体案件的侦察合作。
3.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention3.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面确认的技术援助需要
Sri Lanka indicated that it would require technical assistance, including legal advice and capacity-building, on extradition, MLA and the transfer of criminal proceedings.斯里兰卡指出,该国在引渡、司法协助和刑事诉讼移交方面需要提供包括法律咨询和能力建设在内的技术援助。
In addition, it would require legal and technical assistance to assess the effectiveness of its measures on the transfer of offenders and the use of special investigative techniques.此外,该国在评估罪犯移交措施和特殊侦查手段的实效方面需要司法和技术援助。
Furthermore, Sri Lanka indicated that a summary of good practices/lessons learned and capacity-building programmes would assist in enhancing law enforcement cooperation.斯里兰卡还指出,总结良好做法/经验教训和能力建设方案将有助于加强执法合作。