A_AC_105_772_ER
Correct misalignment Change languages order
A/AC.105/772 A-AC-105-722-e-.pdf (English)A/AC.105/722 a-ac-105-722r.pdf (Russian)
A/AC.105/722 A/CONF.184 /BP/15 United Nations treaties and principles on outer space Text and status of treaties and principles governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly A commemorative edition Published on the occasion of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) United Nations, Vienna 1999CONTENTS Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. United Nations Treaties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects . . . . . . . . . 11 Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 II. Principles adopted by the General Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 III. Status of International Agreements Relating to Activities in Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 United Nations treaties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Other agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Related international agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 IV. Commentary: A collection of extracts of statements made on the occasion of the adoption of the United Nations treaties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68iii Foreword The progressive development and codification of international law constitutes one of the principal responsibilities of the United Nations in the legal field. An important area for the exercise of such responsibilities is the new environment of outer space and, through the efforts of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Legal Subcommittee, a number of significant contributions to the law of outer space have been made. The United Nations has, indeed, become a focal point for international cooperation in outer space and for the formulation of necessary international rules. Outer space, extraordinary in many respects, is, in addition, unique from the legal point of view. It is only recently that human activities and international interaction in outer space have become realities and that beginnings have been made in the formulation of international rules to facilitate international relations in outer space. As is appropriate to an environment whose nature is so extraordinary, the extension of international law to outer space has been gradual and evolutionary—commencing with the study of questions relating to legal aspects, proceeding to the formulation of principles of a legal nature and, then, incorporating such principles in general multilateral treaties. A significant first step was the adoption by the General Assembly in 1963 of the Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space. The years that followed saw the elaboration within the United Nations of five general multilateral treaties, which incorporated and developed concepts included in the Declaration of Legal Principles: The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (General Assembly resolution 2222 (XXI), annex)—adopted on 19 December 1966, opened for signature on 27 January 1967, entered into force on 10 October 1967; The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (resolution 2345 (XXII), annex)—adopted on 19 December 1967, opened for signature on 22 April 1968, entered into force on 3 December 1968; The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (resolution 2777 (XXVI), annex)—adopted on 29 November 1971, opened for signature on 29 March 1972, entered into force on 1 September 1972; The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (resolution 3235 (XXIX), annex)—adopted on 12 November 1974, opened for signature on 14 January 1975, entered into force on 15 September 1976; The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (resolution 34/68, annex)—adopted on 5 December 1979, opened for signature on 18 December 1979, entered into force on 11 July 1984. The United Nations oversaw the drafting, formulation and adoption of five General Assembly resolutions, including the Declaration of Legal Principles. These are: The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, adopted on 13 December 1963 (resolution 1962 (XVIII));2See the report of the Secretary-General on international cooperation in space activities for enhancing s 1 ecurity in the post-cold-war era (A/48/221), and also General Assembly resolution 48/39, para. 2. 3 The Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting, adopted on 10 December 1982 (resolution 37/92); The Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space, adopted on 3 December 1986 (resolution 41/65); The Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, adopted on 14 December 1992 (resolution 47/68); The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, adopted on 13 December 1996 (resolution 51/122). The 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, could be viewed as furnishing a general legal basis for the peaceful uses of outer space and providing a framework for the developing law of outer space. The four other treaties may be said to deal specifically with certain concepts included in the 1967 Treaty. The space treaties have been ratified by many Governments and many others abide by their principles. In view of the importance of international cooperation in developing the norms of space law and their important role in promoting international cooperation in the use of outer space for peaceful purposes, the General Assembly and the Secretary-General of the United Nations have called upon all Member States of the United Nations not yet parties to the international treaties governing the uses of outer space to ratify or accede to those treaties as soon as feasible.1 From 19 to 30 July 1999, the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) will consider the past achievements and current status of humankind’s activities in outer space and seek to map out a blueprint for future such activities, leading into the next century. One of the issues that will be discussed in that context is promotion of international cooperation, including the key aspect of the current status and future development of international space law. The purpose of the present publication is to set out again in a single volume the five outer space treaties so far adopted by the United Nations and the five sets of principles. Also included in this publication is a table listing the current parties to and the status of the five outer space treaties as well as other related international agreements governing space activities as at 1 February 1999. Furthermore, a commentary, consisting of a collection of statements made on the occasion of the adoption of the five outer space treaties, appears at the end of the publication. It is hoped that this collection will serve as a valuable reference document for the participants of the Conference in their deliberations on issues relating to international space law and its future development. In addition, it is hoped that this publication will serve to remind all readers interested in the legal aspects of outer space of the spirit of goodwill and cooperation that formed the basis for the legal instruments formulated and inspired the holding of this, the final United Nations conference of the twentieth century.4 I. United Nations Treaties Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies The States Parties to this Treaty, Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man’s entry into outer space, Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development, Desiring to contribute to broad international cooperation in the scientific as well as the legal aspects of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that such cooperation will contribute to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States and peoples, Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled “Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space”, which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 1963, Recalling resolution 1884 (XVIII), calling upon States to refrain from placing in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction or from installing such weapons on celestial bodies, which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 17 October 1963, Taking account of United Nations General Assembly resolution 110 (II) of 3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, and considering that the aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space, Convinced that a Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, will further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Have agreed on the following:5 Article I The exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind. Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of celestial bodies. There shall be freedom of scientific investigation in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and States shall facilitate and encourage international cooperation in such investigation. Article II Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means. Article III States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international cooperation and understanding. Article IV States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner. The Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military manoeuvres on celestial bodies shall be forbidden. The use of military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility necessary for peaceful exploration of the Moon and other celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited. Article V States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptly returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle. In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties. States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.6 Article VI States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization. Article VII Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or juridical persons by such object or its component parts on the Earth, in air space or in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies. Article VIII A State Party to the Treaty on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and over any personnel thereof, while in outer space or on a celestial body. Ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer space or on a celestial body or by their return to the Earth. Such objects or component parts found beyond the limits of the State Party to the Treaty on whose registry they are carried shall be returned to that State Party, which shall, upon request, furnish identifying data prior to their return. Article IX In the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, States Parties to the Treaty shall be guided by the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance and shall conduct all their activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States Parties to the Treaty. States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose. If a State Party to the Treaty has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by it or its nationals in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities of other States Parties in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, it shall undertake appropriate international consultations before proceeding with any such activity or experiment. A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment.7 Article X In order to promote international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, in conformity with the purposes of this Treaty, the States Parties to the Treaty shall consider on a basis of equality any requests by other States Parties to the Treaty to be afforded an opportunity to observe the flight of space objects launched by those States. The nature of such an opportunity for observation and the conditions under which it could be afforded shall be determined by agreement between the States concerned. Article XI In order to promote international cooperation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, States Parties to the Treaty conducting activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, agree to inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of the nature, conduct, locations and results of such activities. On receiving the said information, the Secretary-General of the United Nations should be prepared to disseminate it immediately and effectively. Article XII All stations, installations, equipment and space vehicles on the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be open to representatives of other States Parties to the Treaty on a basis of reciprocity. Such representatives shall give reasonable advance notice of a projected visit, in order that appropriate consultations may be held and that maximum precautions may be taken to assure safety and to avoid interference with normal operations in the facility to be visited. Article XIII The provisions of this Treaty shall apply to the activities of States Parties to the Treaty in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by a single State Party to the Treaty or jointly with other States, including cases where they are carried on within the framework of international intergovernmental organizations. Any practical questions arising in connection with activities carried on by international intergovernmental organizations in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be resolved by the States Parties to the Treaty either with the appropriate international organization or with one or more States members of that international organization, which are Parties to this Treaty. Article XIV 1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign this Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. 2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.8 3. This Treaty shall enter into force upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by five Governments including the Governments designated as Depositary Governments under this Treaty. 4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession. 5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession to this Treaty, the date of its entry into force and other notices. 6. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. Article XV Any State Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Treaty accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Treaty and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Treaty on the date of acceptance by it. Article XVI Any State Party to the Treaty may give notice of its withdrawal from the Treaty one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Depositary Governments. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification. Article XVII This Treaty, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States. INWITNESSWHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Treaty. DONE in triplicate, at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, D.C., the twenty-seventh day of January, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven.1Resolution 2222 (XXI), annex. 9 Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space The Contracting Parties, Noting the great importance of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,1 which calls for the rendering of all possible assistance to astronauts in the event of accident, distress or emergency landing, the prompt and safe return of astronauts, and the return of objects launched into outer space, Desiring to develop and give further concrete expression to these duties, Wishing to promote international cooperation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, Prompted by sentiments of humanity, Have agreed on the following: Article 1 Each Contracting Party which receives information or discovers that the personnel of a spacecraft have suffered accident or are experiencing conditions of distress or have made an emergency or unintended landing in territory under its jurisdiction or on the high seas or in any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State shall immediately: (a) Notify the launching authority or, if it cannot identify and immediately communicate with the launching authority, immediately make a public announcement by all appropriate means of communication at its disposal; (b) Notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who should disseminate the information without delay by all appropriate means of communication at his disposal. Article 2 If, owing to accident, distress, emergency or unintended landing, the personnel of a spacecraft land in territory under the jurisdiction of a Contracting Party, it shall immediately take all possible steps to rescue them and render them all necessary assistance. It shall inform the launching authority and also the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the steps it is taking and of their progress. If assistance by the launching authority would help to effect a prompt rescue or would contribute substantially to the effectiveness of search and rescue operations, the launching authority shall cooperate with the Contracting Party with a view to the effective conduct of search and rescue operations. Such operations shall be subject to the direction and control of the Contracting Party, which shall act in close and continuing consultation with the launching authority.10 Article 3 If information is received or it is discovered that the personnel of a spacecraft have alighted on the high seas or in any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State, those Contracting Parties which are in a position to do so shall, if necessary, extend assistance in search and rescue operations for such personnel to assure their speedy rescue. They shall inform the launching authority and the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the steps they are taking and of their progress. Article 4 If, owing to accident, distress, emergency or unintended landing, the personnel of a spacecraft land in territory under the jurisdiction of a Contracting Party or have been found on the high seas or in any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State, they shall be safely and promptly returned to representatives of the launching authority. Article 5 1. Each Contracting Party which receives information or discovers that a space object or its component parts has returned to Earth in territory under its jurisdiction or on the high seas or in any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State, shall notify the launching authority and the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 2. Each Contracting Party having jurisdiction over the territory on which a space object or its component parts has been discovered shall, upon the request of the launching authority and with assistance from that authority if requested, take such steps as it finds practicable to recover the object or component parts.3. Upon request of the launching authority, objects launched into outer space or their component parts found beyond the territorial limits of the launching authority shall be returned to or held at the disposal of representatives of the launching authority, which shall, upon request, furnish identifying data prior to their return. 4. Notwithstanding paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article, a Contracting Party which has reason to believe that a space object or its component parts discovered in territory under its jurisdiction, or recovered by it elsewhere, is of a hazardous or deleterious nature may so notify the launching authority, which shall immediately take effective steps, under the direction and control of the said Contracting Party, to eliminate possible danger of harm. 5. Expenses incurred in fulfilling obligations to recover and return a space object or its component parts under paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article shall be borne by the launching authority. Article 6 For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “launching authority” shall refer to the State responsible for launching, or, where an international intergovernmental organization is responsible for launching, that organization, provided that that organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Agreement and a majority of the States members of that organization are Contracting Parties to this Agreement and to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies.11 Article 7 1. This Agreement shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign this Agreement before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. 2. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments. 3. This Agreement shall enter into force upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by five Governments including the Governments designated as Depositary Governments under this Agreement. 4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Agreement, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession. 5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession to this Agreement, the date of its entry into force and other notices. 6. This Agreement shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. Article 8 Any State Party to the Agreement may propose amendments to this Agreement. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Agreement accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Agreement and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Agreement on the date of acceptance by it. Article 9 Any State Party to the Agreement may give notice of its withdrawal from the Agreement one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Depositary Governments. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification. Article 10 This Agreement, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Agreement shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Agreement. DONE in triplicate, at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, D.C., the twenty-second day of April, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight.12 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects The States Parties to this Convention, Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in furthering the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Taking into consideration that, notwithstanding the precautionary measures to be taken by States and international intergovernmental organizations involved in the launching of space objects, damage may on occasion be caused by such objects, Recognizing the need to elaborate effective international rules and procedures concerning liability for damage caused by space objects and to ensure, in particular, the prompt payment under the terms of this Convention of a full and equitable measure of compensation to victims of such damage, Believing that the establishment of such rules and procedures will contribute to the strengthening of international cooperation in the field of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Have agreed on the following: Article I For the purposes of this Convention: (a) The term “damage” means loss of life, personal injury or other impairment of health; or loss of or damage to property of States or of persons, natural or juridical, or property of international intergovernmental organizations; (b) The term “launching” includes attempted launching; (c) The term “launching State” means: (i) A State which launches or procures the launching of a space object; (ii) A State from whose territory or facility a space object is launched; (d) The term “space object” includes component parts of a space object as well as its launch vehicle and parts thereof. Article II A launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space object on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft flight.13 Article III In the event of damage being caused elsewhere than on the surface of the Earth to a space object of one launching State or to persons or property on board such a space object by a space object of another launching State, the latter shall be liable only if the damage is due to its fault or the fault of persons for whom it is responsible. Article IV 1. In the event of damage being caused elsewhere than on the surface of the Earth to a space object of one launching State or to persons or property on board such a space object by a space object of another launching State, and of damage thereby being caused to a third State or to its natural or juridical persons, the first two States shall be jointly and severally liable to the third State, to the extent indicated by the following: (a) If the damage has been caused to the third State on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft in flight, their liability to the third State shall be absolute; (b) If the damage has been caused to a space object of the third State or to persons or property on board that space object elsewhere than on the surface of the Earth, their liability to the third State shall be based on the fault of either of the first two States or on the fault of persons for whom either is responsible. 2. In all cases of joint and several liability referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, the burden of compensation for the damage shall be apportioned between the first two States in accordance with the extent to which they were at fault; if the extent of the fault of each of these States cannot be established, the burden of compensation shall be apportioned equally between them. Such apportionment shall be without prejudice to the right of the third State to seek the entire compensation due under this Convention from any or all of the launching States which are jointly and severally liable. Article V 1. Whenever two or more States jointly launch a space object, they shall be jointly and severally liable for any damage caused. 2. A launching State which has paid compensation for damage shall have the right to present a claim for indemnification to other participants in the joint launching. The participants in a joint launching may conclude agreements regarding the apportioning among themselves of the financial obligation in respect of which they are jointly and severally liable. Such agreements shall be without prejudice to the right of a State sustaining damage to seek the entire compensation due under this Convention from any or all of the launching States which are jointly and severally liable. 3. A State from whose territory or facility a space object is launched shall be regarded as a participant in a joint launching. Article VI 1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this article, exoneration from absolute liability shall be granted to the extent that a launching State establishes that the damage has resulted either wholly or partially from gross negligence or from an act or omission done with intent to cause damage on the part of a claimant State or of natural or juridical persons it represents. 2. No exoneration whatever shall be granted in cases where the damage has resulted from activities conducted by a launching State which are not in conformity with international law including, in particular,14 the Charter of the United Nations and the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. Article VII The provisions of this Convention shall not apply to damage caused by a space object of a launching State to: (a) Nationals of that launching State; (b) Foreign nationals during such time as they are participating in the operation of that space object from the time of its launching or at any stage thereafter until its descent, or during such time as they are in the immediate vicinity of a planned launching or recovery area as the result of an invitation by that launching State. Article VIII 1. A State which suffers damage, or whose natural or juridical persons suffer damage, may present to a launching State a claim for compensation for such damage. 2. If the State of nationality has not presented a claim, another State may, in respect of damage sustained in its territory by any natural or juridical person, present a claim to a launching State. 3. If neither the State of nationality nor the State in whose territory the damage was sustained has presented a claim or notified its intention of presenting a claim, another State may, in respect of damage sustained by its permanent residents, present a claim to a launching State. Article IX A claim for compensation for damage shall be presented to a launching State through diplomatic channels. If a State does not maintain diplomatic relations with the launching State concerned, it may request another State to present its claim to that launching State or otherwise represent its interests under this Convention. It may also present its claim through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, provided the claimant State and the launching State are both Members of the United Nations. Article X 1. A claim for compensation for damage may be presented to a launching State not later than one year following the date of the occurrence of the damage or the identification of the launching State which is liable. 2. If, however, a State does not know of the occurrence of the damage or has not been able to identify the launching State which is liable, it may present a claim within one year following the date on which it learned of the aforementioned facts; however, this period shall in no event exceed one year following the date on which the State could reasonably be expected to have learned of the facts through the exercise of due diligence. 3. The time limits specified in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall apply even if the full extent of the damage may not be known. In this event, however, the claimant State shall be entitled to revise the claim and submit additional documentation after the expiration of such time limits until one year after the full extent of the damage is known. Article XI15 1. Presentation of a claim to a launching State for compensation for damage under this Convention shall not require the prior exhaustion of any local remedies which may be available to a claimant State or to natural or juridical persons it represents. 2. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent a State, or natural or juridical persons it might represent, from pursuing a claim in the courts or administrative tribunals or agencies of a launching State. A State shall not, however, be entitled to present a claim under this Convention in respect of the same damage for which a claim is being pursued in the courts or administrative tribunals or agencies of a launching State or under another international agreement which is binding on the States concerned. Article XII The compensation which the launching State shall be liable to pay for damage under this Convention shall be determined in accordance with international law and the principles of justice and equity, in order to provide such reparation in respect of the damage as will restore the person, natural or juridical, State or international organization on whose behalf the claim is presented to the condition which would have existed if the damage had not occurred. Article XIII Unless the claimant State and the State from which compensation is due under this Convention agree on another form of compensation, the compensation shall be paid in the currency of the claimant State or, if that State so requests, in the currency of the State from which compensation is due. Article XIV If no settlement of a claim is arrived at through diplomatic negotiations as provided for in article IX, within one year from the date on which the claimant State notifies the launching State that it has submitted the documentation of its claim, the parties concerned shall establish a Claims Commission at the request of either party. Article XV 1. The Claims Commission shall be composed of three members: one appointed by the claimant State, one appointed by the launching State and the third member, the Chairman, to be chosen by both parties jointly. Each party shall make its appointment within two months of the request for the establishment of the Claims Commission. 2. If no agreement is reached on the choice of the Chairman within four months of the request for the establishment of the Commission, either party may request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to appoint the Chairman within a further period of two months. Article XVI 1. If one of the parties does not make its appointment within the stipulated period, the Chairman shall, at the request of the other party, constitute a single-member Claims Commission. 2. Any vacancy which may arise in the Commission for whatever reason shall be filled by the same procedure adopted for the original appointment. 3. The Commission shall determine its own procedure.16 4. The Commission shall determine the place or places where it shall sit and all other administrative matters. 5. Except in the case of decisions and awards by a single-member Commission, all decisions and awards of the Commission shall be by majority vote. Article XVII No increase in the membership of the Claims Commission shall take place by reason of two or more claimant States or launching States being joined in any one proceeding before the Commission. The claimant States so joined shall collectively appoint one member of the Commission in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as would be the case for a single claimant State. When two or more launching States are so joined, they shall collectively appoint one member of the Commission in the same way. If the claimant States or the launching States do not make the appointment within the stipulated period, the Chairman shall constitute a single-member Commission. Article XVIII The Claims Commission shall decide the merits of the claim for compensation and determine the amount of compensation payable, if any. Article XIX 1. The Claims Commission shall act in accordance with the provisions of article XII. 2. The decision of the Commission shall be final and binding if the parties have so agreed; otherwise the Commission shall render a final and recommendatory award, which the parties shall consider in good faith. The Commission shall state the reasons for its decision or award. 3. The Commission shall give its decision or award as promptly as possible and no later than one year from the date of its establishment, unless an extension of this period is found necessary by the Commission. 4. The Commission shall make its decision or award public. It shall deliver a certified copy of its decision or award to each of the parties and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Article XX The expenses in regard to the Claims Commission shall be borne equally by the parties, unless otherwise decided by the Commission.17 Article XXI If the damage caused by a space object presents a large-scale danger to human life or seriously interferes with the living conditions of the population or the functioning of vital centres, the States Parties, and in particular the launching State, shall examine the possibility of rendering appropriate and rapid assistance to the State which has suffered the damage, when it so requests. However, nothing in this article shall affect the rights or obligations of the States Parties under this Convention. Article XXII 1. In this Convention, with the exception of articles XXIV to XXVII, references to States shall be deemed to apply to any international intergovernmental organization which conducts space activities if the organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Convention and if a majority of the States members of the organization are States Parties to this Convention and to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. 2. States members of any such organization which are States Parties to this Convention shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that the organization makes a declaration in accordance with the preceding paragraph. 3. If an international intergovernmental organization is liable for damage by virtue of the provisions of this Convention, that organization and those of its members which are States Parties to this Convention shall be jointly and severally liable; provided, however, that: (a) Any claim for compensation in respect of such damage shall be first presented to the organization; (b) Only where the organization has not paid, within a period of six months, any sum agreed or determined to be due as compensation for such damage, may the claimant State invoke the liability of the members which are States Parties to this Convention for the payment of that sum. 4. Any claim, pursuant to the provisions of this Convention, for compensation in respect of damage caused to an organization which has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall be presented by a State member of the organization which is a State Party to this Convention. Article XXIII 1. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect other international agreements in force insofar as relations between the States Parties to such agreements are concerned. 2. No provision of this Convention shall prevent States from concluding international agreements reaffirming, supplementing or extending its provisions. Article XXIV 1. This Convention shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign this Convention before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. 2. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,18 the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments. 3. This Convention shall enter into force on the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. 4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession. 5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession to this Convention, the date of its entry into force and other notices. 6. This Convention shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. Article XXV Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to this Convention. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Convention accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Convention and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Convention on the date of acceptance by it. Article XXVI Ten years after the entry into force of this Convention, the question of the review of this Convention shall be included in the provisional agenda of the United Nations General Assembly in order to consider, in the light of past application of the Convention, whether it requires revision. However, at any time after the Convention has been in force for five years, and at the request of one third of the States Parties to the Convention, and with the concurrence of the majority of the States Parties, a conference of the States Parties shall be convened to review this Convention. Article XXVII Any State Party to this Convention may give notice of its withdrawal from the Convention one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Depositary Governments. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification. Article XXVIII This Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Convention shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention. DONE in triplicate, at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, D.C., this twenty-ninth day of March, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-two.2Resolution 2345 (XXII), annex. 3Resolution 2777 (XXVI), annex. 19 Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space The States Parties to this Convention, Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in furthering the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Recalling that the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,1 of 27 January 1967 affirms that States shall bear international responsibility for their national activities in outer space and refers to the State on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried, Recalling also that the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space2 of 22 April 1968 provides that a launching authority shall, upon request, furnish identifying data prior to the return of an object it has launched into outer space found beyond the territorial limits of the launching authority, Recalling further that the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects3 of 29 March 1972 establishes international rules and procedures concerning the liability of launching States for damage caused by their space objects, Desiring, in the light of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, to make provision for the national registration by launching States of space objects launched into outer space, Desiring further that a central register of objects launched into outer space be established and maintained, on a mandatory basis, by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Desiring also to provide for States Parties additional means and procedures to assist in the identification of space objects, Believing that a mandatory system of registering objects launched into outer space would, in particular, assist in their identification and would contribute to the application and development of international law governing the exploration and use of outer space, Have agreed on the following: Article I For the purposes of this Convention: (a) The term “launching State” means: (i) A State which launches or procures the launching of a space object;20 (ii) A State from whose territory or facility a space object is launched; (b) The term “space object” includes component parts of a space object as well as its launch vehicle and parts thereof; (c) The term “State of registry” means a launching State on whose registry a space object is carried in accordance with article II. Article II 1. When a space object is launched into Earth orbit or beyond, the launching State shall register the space object by means of an entry in an appropriate registry which it shall maintain. Each launching State shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the establishment of such a registry. 2. Where there are two or more launching States in respect of any such space object, they shall jointly determine which one of them shall register the object in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article, bearing in mind the provisions of article VIII of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and without prejudice to appropriate agreements concluded or to be concluded among the launching States on jurisdiction and control over the space object and over any personnel thereof. 3. The contents of each registry and the conditions under which it is maintained shall be determined by the State of registry concerned. Article III 1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall maintain a Register in which the information furnished in accordance with article IV shall be recorded. 2. There shall be full and open access to the information in this Register. Article IV 1. Each State of registry shall furnish to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as soon as practicable, the following information concerning each space object carried on its registry: (a) Name of launching State or States; (b) An appropriate designator of the space object or its registration number; (c) Date and territory or location of launch; (d) Basic orbital parameters, including: (i) Nodal period, (ii) Inclination, (iii) Apogee, (iv) Perigee; (e) General function of the space object. 2. Each State of registry may, from time to time, provide the Secretary-General of the United Nations with additional information concerning a space object carried on its registry.21 3. Each State of registry shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the greatest extent feasible and as soon as practicable, of space objects concerning which it has previously transmitted information, and which have been but no longer are in Earth orbit. Article V Whenever a space object launched into Earth orbit or beyond is marked with the designator or registration number referred to in article IV, paragraph 1 (b), or both, the State of registry shall notify the Secretary-General of this fact when submitting the information regarding the space object in accordance with article IV. In such case, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall record this notification in the Register. Article VI Where the application of the provisions of this Convention has not enabled a State Party to identify a space object which has caused damage to it or to any of its natural or juridical persons, or which may be of a hazardous or deleterious nature, other States Parties, including in particular States possessing space monitoring and tracking facilities, shall respond to the greatest extent feasible to a request by that State Party, or transmitted through the Secretary-General on its behalf, for assistance under equitable and reasonable conditions in the identification of the object. A State Party making such a request shall, to the greatest extent feasible, submit information as to the time, nature and circumstances of the events giving rise to the request. Arrangements under which such assistance shall be rendered shall be the subject of agreement between the parties concerned. Article VII 1. In this Convention, with the exception of articles VIII to XII inclusive, references to States shall be deemed to apply to any international intergovernmental organization which conducts space activities if the organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Convention and if a majority of the States members of the organization are States Parties to this Convention and to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. 2. States members of any such organization which are States Parties to this Convention shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that the organization makes a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article. Article VIII 1. This Convention shall be open for signature by all States at United Nations Headquarters in New York. Any State which does not sign this Convention before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. 2. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 3. This Convention shall enter into force among the States which have deposited instruments of ratification on the deposit of the fifth such instrument with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.22 5. The Secretary-General shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession to this Convention, the date of its entry into force and other notices. Article IX Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to the Convention. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Convention accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Convention and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Convention on the date of acceptance by it. Article X Ten years after the entry into force of this Convention, the question of the review of the Convention shall be included in the provisional agenda of the United Nations General Assembly in order to consider, in the light of past application of the Convention, whether it requires revision. However, at any time after the Convention has been in force for five years, at the request of one third of the States Parties to the Convention and with the concurrence of the majority of the States Parties, a conference of the States Parties shall be convened to review this Convention. Such review shall take into account in particular any relevant technological developments, including those relating to the identification of space objects. Article XI Any State Party to this Convention may give notice of its withdrawal from the Convention one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification. Article XII The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send certified copies thereof to all signatory and acceding States. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention, opened for signature at New York on the fourteenth day of January, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-five.4Resolution 3235 (XXIX), annex. 23 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies The States Parties to this Agreement, Noting the achievements of States in the exploration and use of the Moon and other celestial bodies, Recognizing that the Moon, as a natural satellite of the Earth, has an important role to play in the exploration of outer space, Determined to promote on the basis of equality the further development of cooperation among States in the exploration and use of the Moon and other celestial bodies, Desiring to prevent the Moon from becoming an area of international conflict, Bearing in mind the benefits which may be derived from the exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon and other celestial bodies, Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,1 the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space,2 the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects,3 and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space,4 Taking into account the need to define and develop the provisions of these international instruments in relation to the Moon and other celestial bodies, having regard to further progress in the exploration and use of outer space, Have agreed on the following: Article 1 1. The provisions of this Agreement relating to the Moon shall also apply to other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than the Earth, except insofar as specific legal norms enter into force with respect to any of these celestial bodies. 2. For the purposes of this Agreement reference to the Moon shall include orbits around or other trajectories to or around it. 3. This Agreement does not apply to extraterrestrial materials which reach the surface of the Earth by natural means. Article 2 All activities on the Moon, including its exploration and use, shall be carried out in accordance with international law, in particular the Charter of the United Nations, and taking into account the Declaration on5Resolution 2625 (XXV), annex. 24 Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,5 adopted by the General Assembly on 24 October 1970, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international cooperation and mutual understanding, and with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States Parties. Article 3 1. The Moon shall be used by all States Parties exclusively for peaceful purposes. 2. Any threat or use of force or any other hostile act or threat of hostile act on the Moon is prohibited. It is likewise prohibited to use the Moon in order to commit any such act or to engage in any such threat in relation to the Earth, the Moon, spacecraft, the personnel of spacecraft or man-made space objects. 3. States Parties shall not place in orbit around or other trajectory to or around the Moon objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction or place or use such weapons on or in the Moon. 4. The establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military manoeuvres on the Moon shall be forbidden. The use of military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility necessary for peaceful exploration and use of the Moon shall also not be prohibited. Article 4 1. The exploration and use of the Moon shall be the province of all mankind and shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development. Due regard shall be paid to the interests of present and future generations as well as to the need to promote higher standards of living and conditions of economic and social progress and development in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. 2. States Parties shall be guided by the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance in all their activities concerning the exploration and use of the Moon. International cooperation in pursuance of this Agreement should be as wide as possible and may take place on a multilateral basis, on a bilateral basis or through international intergovernmental organizations. Article 5 1. States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of their activities concerned with the exploration and use of the Moon. Information on the time, purposes, locations, orbital parameters and duration shall be given in respect of each mission to the Moon as soon as possible after launching, while information on the results of each mission, including scientific results, shall be furnished upon completion of the mission. In the case of a mission lasting more than sixty days, information on conduct of the mission, including any scientific results, shall be given periodically, at thirty-day intervals. For missions lasting more than six months, only significant additions to such information need be reported thereafter.25 2. If a State Party becomes aware that another State Party plans to operate simultaneously in the same area of or in the same orbit around or trajectory to or around the Moon, it shall promptly inform the other State of the timing of and plans for its own operations. 3. In carrying out activities under this Agreement, States Parties shall promptly inform the Secretary-General, as well as the public and the international scientific community, of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the Moon, which could endanger human life or health, as well as of any indication of organic life. Article 6 1. There shall be freedom of scientific investigation on the Moon by all States Parties without discrimination of any kind, on the basis of equality and in accordance with international law. 2. In carrying out scientific investigations and in furtherance of the provisions of this Agreement, the States Parties shall have the right to collect on and remove from the Moon samples of its mineral and other substances. Such samples shall remain at the disposal of those States Parties which caused them to be collected and may be used by them for scientific purposes. States Parties shall have regard to the desirability of making a portion of such samples available to other interested States Parties and the international scientific community for scientific investigation. States Parties may in the course of scientific investigations also use mineral and other substances of the Moon in quantities appropriate for the support of their missions. 3. States Parties agree on the desirability of exchanging scientific and other personnel on expeditions to or installations on the Moon to the greatest extent feasible and practicable. Article 7 1. In exploring and using the Moon, States Parties shall take measures to prevent the disruption of the existing balance of its environment, whether by introducing adverse changes in that environment, by its harmful contamination through the introduction of extra-environmental matter or otherwise. States Parties shall also take measures to avoid harmfully affecting the environment of the Earth through the introduction of extraterrestrial matter or otherwise. 2. States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the measures being adopted by them in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article and shall also, to the maximum extent feasible, notify him in advance of all placements by them of radioactive materials on the Moon and of the purposes of such placements. 3. States Parties shall report to other States Parties and to the Secretary-General concerning areas of the Moon having special scientific interest in order that, without prejudice to the rights of other States Parties, consideration may be given to the designation of such areas as international scientific preserves for which special protective arrangements are to be agreed upon in consultation with the competent bodies of the United Nations. Article 8 1. States Parties may pursue their activities in the exploration and use of the Moon anywhere on or below its surface, subject to the provisions of this Agreement. 2. For these purposes States Parties may, in particular: (a) Land their space objects on the Moon and launch them from the Moon;26 (b) Place their personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations anywhere on or below the surface of the Moon. Personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations may move or be moved freely over or below the surface of the Moon. 3. Activities of States Parties in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall not interfere with the activities of other States Parties on the Moon. Where such interference may occur, the States Parties concerned shall undertake consultations in accordance with article 15, paragraphs 2 and 3, of this Agreement. Article 9 1. States Parties may establish manned and unmanned stations on the Moon. A State Party establishing a station shall use only that area which is required for the needs of the station and shall immediately inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the location and purposes of that station. Subsequently, at annual intervals that State shall likewise inform the Secretary-General whether the station continues in use and whether its purposes have changed. 2. Stations shall be installed in such a manner that they do not impede the free access to all areas of the Moon of personnel, vehicles and equipment of other States Parties conducting activities on the Moon in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement or of article I of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. Article 10 1. States Parties shall adopt all practicable measures to safeguard the life and health of persons on the Moon. For this purpose they shall regard any person on the Moon as an astronaut within the meaning of article V of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies and as part of the personnel of a spacecraft within the meaning of the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space. 2. States Parties shall offer shelter in their stations, installations, vehicles and other facilities to persons in distress on the Moon. Article 11 1. The Moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of mankind, which finds its expression in the provisions of this Agreement, in particular in paragraph 5 of this article. 2. The Moon is not subject to national appropriation by any claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means. 3. Neither the surface nor the subsurface of the Moon, nor any part thereof or natural resources in place, shall become property of any State, international intergovernmental or non-governmental organization, national organization or non-governmental entity or of any natural person. The placement of personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations on or below the surface of the Moon, including structures connected with its surface or subsurface, shall not create a right of ownership over the surface or the subsurface of the Moon or any areas thereof. The foregoing provisions are without prejudice to the international regime referred to in paragraph 5 of this article.27 4. States Parties have the right to exploration and use of the Moon without discrimination of any kind, on the basis of equality and in accordance with international law and the terms of this Agreement. 5. States Parties to this Agreement hereby undertake to establish an international regime, including appropriate procedures, to govern the exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon as such exploitation is about to become feasible. This provision shall be implemented in accordance with article 18 of this Agreement. 6. In order to facilitate the establishment of the international regime referred to in paragraph 5 of this article, States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of any natural resources they may discover on the Moon. 7. The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the Moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the Moon, shall be given special consideration. 8. All the activities with respect to the natural resources of the Moon shall be carried out in a manner compatible with the purposes specified in paragraph 7 of this article and the provisions of article 6, paragraph 2, of this Agreement. Article 12 1. States Parties shall retain jurisdiction and control over their personnel, vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations on the Moon. The ownership of space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations shall not be affected by their presence on the Moon. 2. Vehicles, installations and equipment or their component parts found in places other than their intended location shall be dealt with in accordance with article 5 of the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space. 3. In the event of an emergency involving a threat to human life, States Parties may use the equipment, vehicles, installations, facilities or supplies of other States Parties on the Moon. Prompt notification of such use shall be made to the Secretary-General of the United Nations or the State Party concerned. Article 13 A State Party which learns of the crash landing, forced landing or other unintended landing on the Moon of a space object, or its component parts, that were not launched by it, shall promptly inform the launching State Party and the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Article 1428 1. States Parties to this Agreement shall bear international responsibility for national activities on the Moon, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in this Agreement. States Parties shall ensure that non-governmental entities under their jurisdiction shall engage in activities on the Moon only under the authority and continuing supervision of the appropriate State Party. 2. States Parties recognize that detailed arrangements concerning liability for damage caused on the Moon, in addition to the provisions of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies and the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, may become necessary as a result of more extensive activities on the Moon. Any such arrangements shall be elaborated in accordance with the procedure provided for in article 18 of this Agreement. Article 15 1. Each State Party may assure itself that the activities of other States Parties in the exploration and use of the Moon are compatible with the provisions of this Agreement. To this end, all space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations on the Moon shall be open to other States Parties. Such States Parties shall give reasonable advance notice of a projected visit, in order that appropriate consultations may be held and that maximum precautions may be taken to assure safety and to avoid interference with normal operations in the facility to be visited. In pursuance of this article, any State Party may act on its own behalf or with the full or partial assistance of any other State Party or through appropriate international procedures within the framework of the United Nations and in accordance with the Charter. 2. A State Party which has reason to believe that another State Party is not fulfilling the obligations incumbent upon it pursuant to this Agreement or that another State Party is interfering with the rights which the former State has under this Agreement may request consultations with that State Party. A State Party receiving such a request shall enter into such consultations without delay. Any other State Party which requests to do so shall be entitled to take part in the consultations. Each State Party participating in such consultations shall seek a mutually acceptable resolution of any controversy and shall bear in mind the rights and interests of all States Parties. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be informed of the results of the consultations and shall transmit the information received to all States Parties concerned. 3. If the consultations do not lead to a mutually acceptable settlement which has due regard for the rights and interests of all States Parties, the parties concerned shall take all measures to settle the dispute by other peaceful means of their choice appropriate to the circumstances and the nature of the dispute. If difficulties arise in connection with the opening of consultations or if consultations do not lead to a mutually acceptable settlement, any State Party may seek the assistance of the Secretary-General, without seeking the consent of any other State Party concerned, in order to resolve the controversy. A State Party which does not maintain diplomatic relations with another State Party concerned shall participate in such consultations, at its choice, either itself or through another State Party or the Secretary-General as intermediary. Article 16 With the exception of articles 17 to 21, references in this Agreement to States shall be deemed to apply to any international intergovernmental organization which conducts space activities if the organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Agreement and if a majority of the States members of the organization are States Parties to this Agreement and to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. States members of any such organization which are States Parties to this Agreement shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that the organization makes a declaration in accordance with the foregoing.29 Article 17 Any State Party to this Agreement may propose amendments to the Agreement. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Agreement accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Agreement and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Agreement on the date of acceptance by it. Article 18 Ten years after the entry into force of this Agreement, the question of the review of the Agreement shall be included in the provisional agenda of the General Assembly of the United Nations in order to consider, in the light of past application of the Agreement, whether it requires revision. However, at any time after the Agreement has been in force for five years, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as depositary, shall, at the request of one third of the States Parties to the Agreement and with the concurrence of the majority of the States Parties, convene a conference of the States Parties to review this Agreement. A review conference shall also consider the question of the implementation of the provisions of article 11, paragraph 5, on the basis of the principle referred to in paragraph 1 of that article and taking into account in particular any relevant technological developments. Article 19 1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by all States at United Nations Headquarters in New York.2. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Any State which does not sign this Agreement before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 3. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. 4. For each State depositing its instrument of ratification or accession after the entry into force of this Agreement, it shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of any such instrument. 5. The Secretary-General shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession to this Agreement, the date of its entry into force and other notices. Article 20 Any State Party to this Agreement may give notice of its withdrawal from the Agreement one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification. Article 21 The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send certified copies thereof to all signatory and acceding States.30 IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Agreement, opened for signature at New York on the eighteenth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-nine.31 II. Principles adopted by the General Assembly Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space The General Assembly, Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man’s entry into outer space, Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the betterment of mankind and for the benefit of States irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, Desiring to contribute to broad international cooperation in the scientific as well as in the legal aspects of exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Believing that such cooperation will contribute to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between nations and peoples, Recalling its resolution 110 (II) of 3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, and considering that the aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space, Taking into consideration its resolutions 1721 (XVI) of 20 December 1961 and 1802 (XVII) of 14 December 1962, adopted unanimously by the States Members of the United Nations, Solemnly declares that in the exploration and use of outer space States should be guided by the following principles: 1. The exploration and use of outer space shall be carried on for the benefit and in the interests of all mankind. 2. Outer space and celestial bodies are free for exploration and use by all States on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law. 3. Outer space and celestial bodies are not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means. 4. The activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried on in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international cooperation and understanding. 5. States bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, whether carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried on in conformity with the principles set forth in the present Declaration. The activities of non-governmental32 entities in outer space shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the State concerned. When activities are carried on in outer space by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with the principles set forth in this Declaration shall be borne by the international organization and by the States participating in it. 6. In the exploration and use of outer space, States shall be guided by the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance and shall conduct all their activities in outer space with due regard for the corresponding interests of other States. If a State has reason to believe that an outer space activity or experiment planned by it or its nationals would cause potentially harmful interference with activities of other States in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, it shall undertake appropriate international consultations before proceeding with any such activity or experiment. A State which has reason to believe that an outer space activity or experiment planned by another State would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment. 7. The State on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and any personnel thereon, while in outer space. Ownership of objects launched into outer space, and of their component parts, is not affected by their passage through outer space or by their return to the Earth. Such objects or component parts found beyond the limits of the State of registry shall be returned to that State, which shall furnish identifying data upon request prior to return. 8. Each State which launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space, and each State from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to a foreign State or to its natural or juridical persons by such object or its component parts on the Earth, in air space, or in outer space. 9. States shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space, and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of a foreign State or on the high seas. Astronauts who make such a landing shall be safely and promptly returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.33 Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting The General Assembly, Recalling its resolution 2916 (XXVII) of 9 November 1972, in which it stressed the necessity of elaborating principles governing the use by States of artificial Earth satellites for international direct television broadcasting, and mindful of the importance of concluding an international agreement or agreements, Recalling further its resolutions 3182 (XXVIII) of 18 December 1973, 3234 (XXIX) of 12 November 1974, 3388 (XXX) of 18 November 1975, 31/8 of 8 November 1976, 32/196 of 20 December 1977, 33/16 of 10 November 1978, 34/66 of 5 December 1979 and 35/14 of 3 November 1980, and its resolution 36/35 of 18 November 1981 in which it decided to consider at its thirty-seventh session the adoption of a draft set of principles governing the use by States of artificial Earth satellites for international direct television broadcasting, Noting with appreciation the efforts made in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Legal Subcommittee to comply with the directives issued in the above-mentioned resolutions, Considering that several experiments of direct broadcasting by satellite have been carried out and that a number of direct broadcasting satellite systems are operational in some countries and may be commercialized in the very near future, Taking into consideration that the operation of international direct broadcasting satellites will have significant international political, economic, social and cultural implications, Believing that the establishment of principles for international direct television broadcasting will contribute to the strengthening of international cooperation in this field and further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Adopts the Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting set forth in the annex to the present resolution. Annex Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting A. Purposes and objectives 1. Activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite should be carried out in a manner compatible with the sovereign rights of States, including the principle of non-intervention, as well as with the right of everyone to seek, receive and impart information and ideas as enshrined in the relevant United Nations instruments. 2. Such activities should promote the free dissemination and mutual exchange of information and knowledge in cultural and scientific fields, assist in educational, social and economic development,34 particularly in the developing countries, enhance the qualities of life of all peoples and provide recreation with due respect to the political and cultural integrity of States. 3. These activities should accordingly be carried out in a manner compatible with the development of mutual understanding and the strengthening of friendly relations and cooperation among all States and peoples in the interest of maintaining international peace and security. B. Applicability of international law 4. Activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite should be conducted in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, of 27 January 1967, the relevant 1 provisions of the International Telecommunication Convention and its Radio Regulations and of international instruments relating to friendly relations and cooperation among States and to human rights. C. Rights and benefits 5. Every State has an equal right to conduct activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite and to authorize such activities by persons and entities under its jurisdiction. All States and peoples are entitled to and should enjoy the benefits from such activities. Access to the technology in this field should be available to all States without discrimination on terms mutually agreed by all concerned. D. International cooperation 6. Activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite should be based upon and encourage international cooperation. Such cooperation should be the subject of appropriate arrangements. Special consideration should be given to the needs of the developing countries in the use of international direct television broadcasting by satellite for the purpose of accelerating their national development. E. Peaceful settlement of disputes 7. Any international dispute that may arise from activities covered by these principles should be settled through established procedures for the peaceful settlement of disputes agreed upon by the parties to the dispute in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. F. State responsibility 8. States should bear international responsibility for activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite carried out by them or under their jurisdiction and for the conformity of any such activities with the principles set forth in this document. 9. When international direct television broadcasting by satellite is carried out by an international intergovernmental organization, the responsibility referred to in paragraph 8 above should be borne both by that organization and by the States participating in it.35 G. Duty and right to consult 10. Any broadcasting or receiving State within an international direct television broadcasting satellite service established between them requested to do so by any other broadcasting or receiving State within the same service should promptly enter into consultations with the requesting State regarding its activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite, without prejudice to other consultations which these States may undertake with any other State on that subject. H. Copyright and neighbouring rights 11. Without prejudice to the relevant provisions of international law, States should cooperate on a bilateral and multilateral basis for protection of copyright and neighbouring rights by means of appropriate agreements between the interested States or the competent legal entities acting under their jurisdiction. In such cooperation they should give special consideration to the interests of developing countries in the use of direct television broadcasting for the purpose of accelerating their national development. I. Notification to the United Nations 12. In order to promote international cooperation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, States conducting or authorizing activities in the field of international direct television broadcasting by satellite should inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the greatest extent possible, of the nature of such activities. On receiving this information, the Secretary-General should disseminate it immediately and effectively to the relevant specialized agencies, as well as to the public and the international scientific community. J. Consultations and agreements between States 13. A State which intends to establish or authorize the establishment of an international direct television broadcasting satellite service shall without delay notify the proposed receiving State or States of such intention and shall promptly enter into consultation with any of those States which so requests. 14. An international direct television broadcasting satellite service shall only be established after the conditions set forth in paragraph 13 above have been met and on the basis of agreements and/or arrangements in conformity with the relevant instruments of the International Telecommunication Union and in accordance with these principles. 15. With respect to the unavoidable overspill of the radiation of the satellite signal, the relevant instruments of the International Telecommunication Union shall be exclusively applicable.Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-first Session, Supplement 6 No. 20 (A/41/20 and Corr.1). 36 Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space The General Assembly, Recalling its resolution 3234 (XXIX) of 12 November 1974, in which it recommended that the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space should consider the question of the legal implications of remote sensing of the Earth from space, as well as its resolutions 3388 (XXX) of 18 November 1975, 31/8 of 8 November 1976, 32/196 A of 20 December 1977, 33/16 of 10 November 1978, 34/66 of 5 December 1979, 35/14 of 3 November 1980, 36/35 of 18 November 1981, 37/89 of 10 December 1982, 38/80 of 15 December 1983, 39/96 of 14 December 1984 and 40/162 of 16 December 1985, in which it called for a detailed consideration of the legal implications of remote sensing of the Earth from space, with the aim of formulating draft principles relating to remote sensing, Having considered the report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on the work of its twenty-ninth session6 and the text of the draft principles relating to remote sensing of the Earth from space, annexed thereto, Noting with satisfaction that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, on the basis of the deliberations of its Legal Subcommittee, has endorsed the text of the draft principles relating to remote sensing of the Earth from space, Believing that the adoption of the principles relating to remote sensing of the Earth from space will contribute to the strengthening of international cooperation in this field, Adopts the principles relating to remote sensing of the Earth from space set forth in the annex to the present resolution. Annex Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space Principle I For the purposes of these principles with respect to remote sensing activities: (a) The term “remote sensing” means the sensing of the Earth’s surface from space by making use of the properties of electromagnetic waves emitted, reflected or diffracted by the sensed objects, for the purpose of improving natural resources management, land use and the protection of the environment; (b) The term “primary data” means those raw data that are acquired by remote sensors borne by a space object and that are transmitted or delivered to the ground from space by telemetry in the form of electromagnetic signals, by photographic film, magnetic tape or any other means; (c) The term “processed data” means the products resulting from the processing of the primary data, needed to make such data usable;37 (d) The term “analysed information” means the information resulting from the interpretation of processed data, inputs of data and knowledge from other sources; (e) The term “remote sensing activities” means the operation of remote sensing space systems, primary data collection and storage stations, and activities in processing, interpreting and disseminating the processed data. Principle II Remote sensing activities shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic, social or scientific and technological development, and taking into particular consideration the needs of the developing countries. Principle III Remote sensing activities shall be conducted in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and t 1 he relevant instruments of the International Telecommunication Union. Principle IV Remote sensing activities shall be conducted in accordance with the principles contained in article I of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, which, in particular, provides that the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and stipulates the principle of freedom of exploration and use of outer space on the basis of equality. These activities shall be conducted on the basis of respect for the principle of full and permanent sovereignty of all States and peoples over their own wealth and natural resources, with due regard to the rights and interests, in accordance with international law, of other States and entities under their jurisdiction. Such activities shall not be conducted in a manner detrimental to the legitimate rights and interests of the sensed State. Principle V States carrying out remote sensing activities shall promote international cooperation in these activities. To this end, they shall make available to other States opportunities for participation therein. Such participation shall be based in each case on equitable and mutually acceptable terms. Principle VI In order to maximize the availability of benefits from remote sensing activities, States are encouraged, through agreements or other arrangements, to provide for the establishment and operation of data collecting and storage stations and processing and interpretation facilities, in particular within the framework of regional agreements or arrangements wherever feasible. Principle VII States participating in remote sensing activities shall make available technical assistance to other interested States on mutually agreed terms.38 Principle VIII The United Nations and the relevant agencies within the United Nations system shall promote international cooperation, including technical assistance and coordination in the area of remote sensing. Principle IX In accordance with article IV of the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space4 and article XI of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, a State carrying out a programme of remote sensing shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations. It shall, moreover, make available any other relevant information to the greatest extent feasible and practicable to any other State, particularly any developing country that is affected by the programme, at its request. Principle X Remote sensing shall promote the protection of the Earth’s natural environment. To this end, States participating in remote sensing activities that have identified information in their possession that is capable of averting any phenomenon harmful to the Earth’s natural environment shall disclose such information to States concerned.Principle XI Remote sensing shall promote the protection of mankind from natural disasters. To this end, States participating in remote sensing activities that have identified processed data and analysed information in their possession that may be useful to States affected by natural disasters, or likely to be affected by impending natural disasters, shall transmit such data and information to States concerned as promptly as possible. Principle XII As soon as the primary data and the processed data concerning the territory under its jurisdiction are produced, the sensed State shall have access to them on a non-discriminatory basis and on reasonable cost terms. The sensed State shall also have access to the available analysed information concerning the territory under its jurisdiction in the possession of any State participating in remote sensing activities on the same basis and terms, taking particularly into account the needs and interests of the developing countries. Principle XIII To promote and intensify international cooperation, especially with regard to the needs of developing countries, a State carrying out remote sensing of the Earth from space shall, upon request, enter into consultations with a State whose territory is sensed in order to make available opportunities for participation and enhance the mutual benefits to be derived therefrom. Principle XIV In compliance with article VI of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, States operating remote sensing satellites shall bear international responsibility for their activities and assure that such activities are39 conducted in accordance with these principles and the norms of international law, irrespective of whether such activities are carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities or through international organizations to which such States are parties. This principle is without prejudice to the applicability of the norms of international law on State responsibility for remote sensing activities. Principle XV Any dispute resulting from the application of these principles shall be resolved through the established procedures for the peaceful settlement of disputes.Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, 7 Supplement No. 20 (A/47/20). 8Ibid., annex. 40 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources In Outer Space The General Assembly, Having considered the report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on the work of its thirty-fifth session7 and the text of the Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space as approved by the Committee and annexed to its report,8 Recognizing that for some missions in outer space nuclear power sources are particularly suited or even essential owing to their compactness, long life and other attributes, Recognizing also that the use of nuclear power sources in outer space should focus on those applications which take advantage of the particular properties of nuclear power sources, Recognizing further that the use of nuclear power sources in outer space should be based on a thorough safety assessment, including probabilistic risk analysis, with particular emphasis on reducing the risk of accidental exposure of the public to harmful radiation or radioactive material, Recognizing the need, in this respect, for a set of principles containing goals and guidelines to ensure the safe use of nuclear power sources in outer space, Affirming that this set of Principles applies to nuclear power sources in outer space devoted to the generation of electric power on board space objects for non-propulsive purposes, which have characteristics generally comparable to those of systems used and missions performed at the time of the adoption of the Principles, Recognizing that this set of Principles will require future revision in view of emerging nuclear power applications and of evolving international recommendations on radiological protection, Adopts the Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space as set forth below. Principle 1. Applicability of international law Activities involving the use of nuclear power sources in outer space shall be carried out in accordance with international law, including in particular the Charter of the United Nations and the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies.1 Principle 2. Use of terms 1. For the purpose of these Principles, the terms “launching State” and “State launching” mean the State which exercises jurisdiction and control over a space object with nuclear power sources on board at a given point in time relevant to the principle concerned.41 2. For the purpose of principle 9, the definition of the term “launching State” as contained in that principle is applicable. 3. For the purposes of principle 3, the terms “foreseeable” and “all possible” describe a class of events or circumstances whose overall probability of occurrence is such that it is considered to encompass only credible possibilities for purposes of safety analysis. The term “general concept of defence-in-depth” when applied to nuclear power sources in outer space refers to the use of design features and mission operations in place of or in addition to active systems, to prevent or mitigate the consequences of system malfunctions. Redundant safety systems are not necessarily required for each individual component to achieve this purpose. Given the special requirements of space use and of varied missions, no particular set of systems or features can be specified as essential to achieve this objective. For the purposes of paragraph 2 (d) of principle 3, the term “made critical” does not include actions such as zero-power testing which are fundamental to ensuring system safety. Principle 3. Guidelines and criteria for safe use In order to minimize the quantity of radioactive material in space and the risks involved, the use of nuclear power sources in outer space shall be restricted to those space missions which cannot be operated by non-nuclear energy sources in a reasonable way. 1. General goals for radiation protection and nuclear safety (a) States launching space objects with nuclear power sources on board shall endeavour to protect individuals, populations and the biosphere against radiological hazards. The design and use of space objects with nuclear power sources on board shall ensure, with a high degree of confidence, that the hazards, in foreseeable operational or accidental circumstances, are kept below acceptable levels as defined in paragraphs 1 (b) and (c). Such design and use shall also ensure with high reliability that radioactive material does not cause a significant contamination of outer space. (b) During the normal operation of space objects with nuclear power sources on board, including reentry from the sufficiently high orbit as defined in paragraph 2 (b), the appropriate radiation protection objective for the public recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection shall be observed. During such normal operation there shall be no significant radiation exposure. (c) To limit exposure in accidents, the design and construction of the nuclear power source systems shall take into account relevant and generally accepted international radiological protection guidelines. Except in cases of low-probability accidents with potentially serious radiological consequences, the design for the nuclear power source systems shall, with a high degree of confidence, restrict radiation exposure to a limited geographical region and to individuals to the principal limit of 1 mSv in a year. It is permissible to use a subsidiary dose limit of 5 mSv in a year for some years, provided that the average annual effective dose equivalent over a lifetime does not exceed the principal limit of 1 mSv in a year. The probability of accidents with potentially serious radiological consequences referred to above shall be kept extremely small by virtue of the design of the system. Future modifications of the guidelines referred to in this paragraph shall be applied as soon as practicable. 42 (d) Systems important for safety shall be designed, constructed and operated in accordance with the general concept of defence-in-depth. Pursuant to this concept, foreseeable safety-related failures or malfunctions must be capable of being corrected or counteracted by an action or a procedure, possibly automatic. The reliability of systems important for safety shall be ensured, inter alia, by redundancy, physical separation, functional isolation and adequate independence of their components. Other measures shall also be taken to raise the level of safety. 2. Nuclear reactors (a) Nuclear reactors may be operated: (i) On interplanetary missions; (ii) In sufficiently high orbits as defined in paragraph 2 (b); (iii) In low-Earth orbits if they are stored in sufficiently high orbits after the operational part of their mission. (b) The sufficiently high orbit is one in which the orbital lifetime is long enough to allow for a sufficient decay of the fission products to approximately the activity of the actinides. The sufficiently high orbit must be such that the risks to existing and future outer space missions and of collision with other space objects are kept to a minimum. The necessity for the parts of a destroyed reactor also to attain the required decay time before re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere shall be considered in determining the sufficiently high orbit altitude. (c) Nuclear reactors shall use only highly enriched uranium 235 as fuel. The design shall take into account the radioactive decay of the fission and activation products. (d) Nuclear reactors shall not be made critical before they have reached their operating orbit or interplanetary trajectory. (e) The design and construction of the nuclear reactor shall ensure that it cannot become critical before reaching the operating orbit during all possible events, including rocket explosion, re-entry, impact on ground or water, submersion in water or water intruding into the core. (f) In order to reduce significantly the possibility of failures in satellites with nuclear reactors on board during operations in an orbit with a lifetime less than in the sufficiently high orbit (including operations for transfer into the sufficiently high orbit), there shall be a highly reliable operational system to ensure an effective and controlled disposal of the reactor. 3. Radioisotope generators (a) Radioisotope generators may be used for interplanetary missions and other missions leaving the gravity field of the Earth. They may also be used in Earth orbit if, after conclusion of the operational part of their mission, they are stored in a high orbit. In any case ultimate disposal is necessary. (b) Radioisotope generators shall be protected by a containment system that is designed and constructed to withstand the heat and aerodynamic forces of re-entry in the upper atmosphere under foreseeable orbital conditions, including highly elliptical or hyperbolic orbits where relevant. Upon impact,43 the containment system and the physical form of the isotope shall ensure that no radioactive material is scattered into the environment so that the impact area can be completely cleared of radioactivity by a recovery operation. Principle 4. Safety assessment 1. A launching State as defined in principle 2, paragraph 1, at the time of launch shall, prior to the launch, through cooperative arrangements, where relevant, with those which have designed, constructed or manufactured the nuclear power sources, or will operate the space object, or from whose territory or facility such an object will be launched, ensure that a thorough and comprehensive safety assessment is conducted. This assessment shall cover as well all relevant phases of the mission and shall deal with all systems involved, including the means of launching, the space platform, the nuclear power source and its equipment and the means of control and communication between ground and space. 2. This assessment shall respect the guidelines and criteria for safe use contained in principle 3. 3. Pursuant to article XI of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, the results of this safety assessment, together with, to the extent feasible, an indication of the approximate intended time-frame of the launch, shall be made publicly available prior to each launch, and the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be informed on how States may obtain such results of the safety assessment as soon as possible prior to each launch. Principle 5. Notification of re-entry 1. Any State launching a space object with nuclear power sources on board shall in a timely fashion inform States concerned in the event this space object is malfunctioning with a risk of re-entry of radioactive materials to the Earth. The information shall be in accordance with the following format: (a) System parameters: (i) Name of launching State or States, including the address of the authority which may be contacted for additional information or assistance in case of accident; (ii) International designation; (iii) Date and territory or location of launch; (iv) Information required for best prediction of orbit lifetime, trajectory and impact region; (v) General function of spacecraft; (b) Information on the radiological risk of nuclear power source(s): (i) Type of nuclear power source: radioisotopic/reactor; (ii) The probable physical form, amount and general radiological characteristics of the fuel and contaminated and/or activated components likely to reach the ground. The term “fuel” refers to the nuclear material used as the source of heat or power. This information shall also be transmitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.44 2. The information, in accordance with the format above, shall be provided by the launching State as soon as the malfunction has become known. It shall be updated as frequently as practicable and the frequency of dissemination of the updated information shall increase as the anticipated time of re-entry into the dense layers of the Earth’s atmosphere approaches so that the international community will be informed of the situation and will have sufficient time to plan for any national response activities deemed necessary. 3. The updated information shall also be transmitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations with the same frequency. Principle 6. Consultations States providing information in accordance with principle 5 shall, as far as reasonably practicable, respond promptly to requests for further information or consultations sought by other States. Principle 7. Assistance to States 1. Upon the notification of an expected re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere of a space object containing a nuclear power source on board and its components, all States possessing space monitoring and tracking facilities, in the spirit of international cooperation, shall communicate the relevant information that they may have available on the malfunctioning space object with a nuclear power source on board to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the State concerned as promptly as possible to allow States that might be affected to assess the situation and take any precautionary measures deemed necessary. 2. After re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere of a space object containing a nuclear power source on board and its components: (a) The launching State shall promptly offer and, if requested by the affected State, provide promptly the necessary assistance to eliminate actual and possible harmful effects, including assistance to identify the location of the area of impact of the nuclear power source on the Earth’s surface, to detect the re-entered material and to carry out retrieval or clean-up operations; (b) All States, other than the launching State, with relevant technical capabilities and international organizations with such technical capabilities shall, to the extent possible, provide necessary assistance upon request by an affected State. In providing the assistance in accordance with subparagraphs (a) and (b) above, the special needs of developing countries shall be taken into account. Principle 8. Responsibility In accordance with article VI of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, States shall bear international responsibility for national activities involving the use of nuclear power sources in outer space, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that such national activities are carried out in conformity with that Treaty and the recommendations contained in these Principles. When activities in outer space involving the use of nuclear power sources are carried on by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with the aforesaid Treaty and the recommendations contained in these Principles shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States participating in it. 45 Principle 9. Liability and compensation 1. In accordance with article VII of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and the provisions of the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 3 each State which launches or procures the launching of a space object and each State from whose territory or facility a space object is launched shall be internationally liable for damage caused by such space objects or their component parts. This fully applies to the case of such a space object carrying a nuclear power source on board. Whenever two or more States jointly launch such a space object, they shall be jointly and severally liable for any damage caused, in accordance with article V of the above-mentioned Convention. 2. The compensation that such States shall be liable to pay under the aforesaid Convention for damage shall be determined in accordance with international law and the principles of justice and equity, in order to provide such reparation in respect of the damage as will restore the person, natural or juridical, State or international organization on whose behalf a claim is presented to the condition which would have existed if the damage had not occurred. 3. For the purposes of this principle, compensation shall include reimbursement of the duly substantiated expenses for search, recovery and clean-up operations, including expenses for assistance received from third parties. Principle 10. Settlement of disputes Any dispute resulting from the application of these Principles shall be resolved through negotiations or other established procedures for the peaceful settlement of disputes, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. Principle 11. Review and revision These Principles shall be reopened for revision by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space no later than two years after their adoption.Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first 9 Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/51/20). 10Ibid., annex IV. 11See Report of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 9-21 August 1982 and corrigenda (A/CONF.101/10 and Corr.1 and 2). 46 Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries The General Assembly, Having considered the report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on the work of its thirty-ninth session9 and the text of the Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, as approved by the Committee and annexed to its report,10 Bearing in mind the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, Recalling notably the provisions of the Treaty on the Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,1 Recalling also its relevant resolutions relating to activities in outer space, Bearing in mind the recommendations of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space,11 and of other international conferences relevant in this field, Recognizing the growing scope and significance of international cooperation among States and between States and international organizations in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, Considering experiences gained in international cooperative ventures, Convinced of the necessity and the significance of further strengthening international cooperation in order to reach a broad and efficient collaboration in this field for the mutual benefit and in the interest of all parties involved, Desirous of facilitating the application of the principle that the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interest of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind, Adopts the Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, set forth in the annex to the present resolution.47 Annex Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of all States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries 1. International cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes (hereafter “international cooperation”) shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of international law, including the Charter of the United Nations and the Treaty on the Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. It shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interest of all States, irrespective of their degree of economic, social or scientific and technological development, and shall be the province of all mankind. Particular account should be taken of the needs of developing countries. 2. States are free to determine all aspects of their participation in international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis. Contractual terms in such cooperative ventures should be fair and reasonable and they should be in full compliance with the legitimate rights and interests of the parties concerned as, for example, with intellectual property rights. 3. All States, particularly those with relevant space capabilities and with programmes for the exploration and use of outer space, should contribute to promoting and fostering international cooperation on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis. In this context, particular attention should be given to the benefit for and the interests of developing countries and countries with incipient space programmes stemming from such international cooperation conducted with countries with more advanced space capabilities. 4. International cooperation should be conducted in the modes that are considered most effective and appropriate by the countries concerned, including, inter alia, governmental and non-governmental; commercial and non-commercial; global, multilateral, regional or bilateral; and international cooperation among countries in all levels of development. 5. International cooperation, while taking into particular account the needs of developing countries, should aim, inter alia, at the following goals, considering their need for technical assistance and rational and efficient allocation of financial and technical resources: (a) Promoting the development of space science and technology and of its applications; (b) Fostering the development of relevant and appropriate space capabilities in interested States; (c) Facilitating the exchange of expertise and technology among States on a mutually acceptable basis. 6. National and international agencies, research institutions, organizations for development aid, and developed and developing countries alike should consider the appropriate use of space applications and the potential of international cooperation for reaching their development goals. 7. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space should be strengthened in its role, among others, as a forum for the exchange of information on national and international activities in the field of international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space. 8. All States should be encouraged to contribute to the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and to other initiatives in the field of international cooperation in accordance with their space capabilities and their participation in the exploration and use of outer space.United States Treaties 12 and Other International Agremeents. 13Treaties and Other International Acts Series. 14United Nations Treaty Series. 48 III. Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space United Nations treaties 1. 1967 OST -Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty) Adoption by the United Nations 19 December 1966 General Assembly: (resolution 2222 (XXI), annex) Opened for signature: 27 January 1967, London, Moscow, Washington, D.C. Entry into force: 10 October 1967 Depositaries: Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America (Sources: 18 UST12 2410; TIAS13 6347; 610 UNTS14 205) 2. 1968 ARRA -Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Rescue Agreement) Adoption by the United Nations 19 December 1967 General Assembly: (resolution 2345 (XXII), annex) Opened for signature: 22 April 1968, London, Moscow, Washington, D.C. Entry into force: 3 December 1968 Depositaries: Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America (Sources: 19 UST 7570; TIAS 6599; 672 UNTS 119)15International Legal Materials. 49 3. 1972 LIAB -Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Liability Convention) Adoption by the United Nations 29 November 1971 General Assembly: (resolution 2777 (XXVI), annex) Opened for signature: 29 March 1972, London, Moscow, Washington, D.C. Entry into force: 1 September 1972 Depositaries: Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America (Sources: 24 UST 2389; TIAS 7762; 961 UNTS 187) 4. 1975 REG -Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Registration Convention) Adoption by the United Nations 12 November 1974 General Assembly: (resolution 3235 (XXIX), annex) Opened for signature: 14 January 1975, New York Entry into force: 15 September 1976 Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations (Sources: 28 UST 695; TIAS 8480; 1023 UNTS 15) 5. 1979 MOON -Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Moon Agreement) Adoption by the United Nations 5 December 1979 General Assembly: (resolution 34/68), annex) Opened for signature: 18 December 1979, New York Entry into force: 11 July 1984 Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations (Sources: 18 ILM15 1434; 1363 UNTS 3)50 Other agreements General 6. 1963 NTB -Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water Opened for signature: 5 August 1963, Moscow Entry into force: 10 October 1963 Depositaries: Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America (Sources: 14 UST 1313; TIAS 5433; 480 UNTS 43) 7. 1974 BRUS -Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite (Brussels Convention) Opened for signature: 21 May 1974, Brussels Entry into force: 25 August 1979 Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations (Source: 1144 UNTS 3) Institutions 8. 1971 INTL -Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), with annexes, and Operating Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, with annex Opened for signature: 20 August 1971, Washington, D.C. Entry into force: 12 February 1973 Depositary: United States of America (Sources: 23 UST 3813 and 4091; TIAS 7532) 9. 1971 INTR -Agreement on the Establishment of the INTERSPUTNIK International System and Organization of Space Communications Opened for signature: 15 November 1971, Moscow Entry into force: 12 July 1972 Depositary: Russian Federation (Source: 862 UNTS 3)51 10. 1975 ESA -Convention for the Establishment of a European Space Agency (ESA), with annexes Opened for signature: 30 May 1975, Paris Entry into force: 30 October 1980 Depositary: France (Source: 14 ILM 864) 11. 1976 ARBS -Agreement of the Arab Corporation for Space Communications (ARABSAT) Opened for signature: 14 April 1976 (14 Rabi’ II 1396 H), Cairo Entry into force: 16 July 1976 Depositary: League of Arab States (Source: Space Law and Related Documents, US Senate, 101st Congress, 2nd Session, 395 (1990)) 12. 1976 INTC -Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (INTERCOSMOS) Opened for signature: 13 July 1976, Moscow Entry into force: 25 March 1977 Depositary: Russian Federation (Source: 16 ILM 1) 13. 1976 IMO -Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat), with annex, and the Operating Agreement on the International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat), with annex Opened for signature: 3 September 1976, London Entry into force: 16 July 1979 Depositary: Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organization (Source: 31 UST 1; TIAS 9605) 14. 1982 EUTL -Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT) Opened for signature: 15 July 1982, Paris Entry into force: 1 September 1985 Depositary: France (Sources: UK Misc. No. 4, Cmnd. 9154 (1984))52 15. 1983 EUMT -Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Opened for signature: 24 May 1983, Geneva Entry into force: 19 June 1986 Depositary: Switzerland (Source: Germany, “ Bundesgesetzblatt”, Jahrgang 1987, Teil 11 (1987), p. 256. This Convention has been published in the national bulletins of the ratifying States.) 16. 1992 ITU -International Telecommunication Constitution and Convention Opened for signature: 22 December 1992, Geneva Entry into force: 1 July 1994 Depositary: Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union (Source: ITU Secretariat, Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland)53 Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space (as at 1 February 1999)a United Nations treaties Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Afghanistan R Albania Algeria R S Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda R R R R Argentina R R R R Armenia Australia R R R R R Austria R R R R R Azerbaijan Bahamas R R Bahrain Bangladesh R Barbados R R R Belarus R R R R Belgium R R R R Belize Benin R R54 Other agreements (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R R R R S R R R R R R RR S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R RR R R R55 Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Bhutan Bolivia S S Bosnia and Herzegovina R R Botswana S R R Brazil R R R Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria R R R R Burkina Faso R Burundi S S S Cambodia S Cameroon S R Canada R R R R Cape Verde Central African Republic S S Chad Chile R R R R R China R R R R Colombia S S S Comoros Congo S Costa Rica S S Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba R R R R Cyprus R R R R Czech Republic R R R R Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo S S S Denmark R R R R56(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R S RR S R R R R R R R b R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R57 Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic R S R Ecuador R R R Egypt R R S El Salvador R R S Equatorial Guinea R Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia S Fiji R R R Finland R R R France R R R R S Gabon R R Gambia S R S Georgia R Germany R R R R Ghana S S S Greece R R R Grenada Guatemala S S Guinea Guinea-Bissau R R Guyana S R Haiti S S S Holy See S Honduras S S Hungary R R R R Iceland R R S India R R R R S Indonesia S R R58(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R RR R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R c R S R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R59 Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Iran (Islamic Republic of) S R R S Iraq R R R Ireland R R R Israel R R R Italy R R R Jamaica R S Japan R R R R Jordan S S S Kazakhstan R R R Kenya R R Kiribati Kuwait R R R Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic R R R Latvia Lebanon R R S Lesotho S S Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya R Liechtenstein R Lithuania Luxembourg S S R Madagascar R R Malawi Malaysia S S Maldives R Mali R R Malta S R Marshall Islands Mauritania60(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR S R R R R R R R R R R R R R61 Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Mauritius R R Mexico R R R R R Micronesia, Federated States of Monaco S Mongolia R R R R Morocco R R R R Mozambique Myanmar R S Namibia Nauru Nepal R R S Netherlands R R R R R New Zealand R R R Nicaragua S S S S Niger R R R R Nigeria R R Norway R R R R Oman S Pakistan R R R R R Panama S R Papua New Guinea R R R Paraguay Peru R R S R S Philippines S S S R Poland R R R R Portugal R R Qatar R Republic of Korea R R R R Republic of Moldova Romania R R R S62(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R63 Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Russian Federation R R R R Rwanda S S S Saint Lucia San Marino R R Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia R R Senegal S R Seychelles R R R R Sierra Leone R S S Singapore R R R S Slovakia R R R R Slovenia R R Solomon Islands Somalia S S South Africa R R S Spain R R R Sri Lanka R R Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sudan Suriname Swaziland R Sweden R R R R Switzerland R R R R Syrian Arab Republic R R R Tajikistan Thailand R R The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo R R64(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R S R R R RRR R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R S R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R65 Country, area or organization OST ARRA LIAB REG MOON (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1967 1968 1972 1975 1979 Tonga R R Trinidad and Tobago S R Tunisia R R R Turkey R S Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda R Ukraine R R R R United Arab Emirates United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland R R R R United Republic of Tanzania S United States of America R R R R Uruguay R R R R R Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela R S R Viet Nam R S Western Samoa Yemen R S Yugoslavia S R R R Zambia R R R Zimbabwe Palestine European Space Agency D D D European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites D European Telecommunications Satellite Organization D R = Ratification, a acceptance, approval, accession or succession. S = Signature only. D = Declaration of acceptance of rights and obligations. When no entry appears in a column opposite the name of a country, area or organization, that country, area or organization has either not signed that agreement, is not a party to it or has withdrawn from it. b Canada has a cooperation agreement with the European Space Agency, but is not a member of the Agency. c The accession procedures for Estonia are ongoing.66(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) 1963 1974 1971 1971 1975 1976 1976 1976 1982 1983 1992 NTB BRUS INTL INTR ESA ARBS INTC IMO EUTL EUMT ITU R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R67 Related international agreements 1. 1959 ANT -The Antarctic Treaty Opened for signature: 1 December 1959, Washington, D.C. Date of entry into force: 23 June 1961 Depositary: United States of America (Sources: 402 UNTS 71; 12 UST 794; TIAS 4780) 2. 1977 ENMOD -Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly: 10 December 1976 (resolution 31/72, annex) Opened for signature: 18 May 1977, Geneva Date of entry into force: 5 October 1978 Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations (Sources: 1108 UNTS 151; 31 UST 333; 16 ILM 88) 3. 1982 UNCLOS -United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature: 10 December 1982, Montego Bay Date of entry into force: 16 November 1994 Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations (Sources: UN doc. A/CONF. 62/122 (1982); 21 ILM 1261) 4. 1982 ITU -International Telecommunication Convention Opened for signature: 6 November 1982, Nairobi Date of entry into force: 1 January 1984 Depositary: Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union 5. 1986 ENNA -Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident Opened for signature: 26 September 1986, Vienna Date of entry into force: 27 October 1986 Depositary: Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Source: 25 ILM 1370)68 6. 1986 ACNA -Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency Opened for signature: 26 September 1986, Vienna Date of entry into force: 26 February 1987 Depositary: Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Source: 25 ILM 1377) 7. 1992 ITU-WARC -Final Acts of the World Administrative Radio Conference for Dealing with Frequency Allocations in Certain Parts of the Spectrum (WARC-92) Opened for signature: 3 March 1992, Malaga-Torremolinos Date of entry into force: 12 October 1993 Depositary: Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union69 IV. Commentary: a collection of extracts of statements made on the occasion of the adoption of the United Nations treaties Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Twenty-first session of the General Assembly (A/PV.1499): Mr. Goldberg (United States of America): “This is, in every sense of word, a United Nations treaty, in which all Member nations can justly take great pride. It has been negotiated under the auspices of the Organization and is the fruit of its labours. The treaty furthers the aims of the Charter by greatly reducing the danger of international conflict and by promoting the prospects of international cooperation for the common interest in the newest realm of human activity. This treaty is an important step towards peace.” Mr. Fedorenko (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (interpretation from Russian): “In evaluating the treaty, we would like to stress the point that we regard the preparation of the treaty and its approval by the General Assembly as a victory for the peace-loving forces in the struggle against those who advocate using outer space for purposes of provocation and aggression.” Mr. Vinci (Italy): “For the first time in the history of mankind, all countries, and in first instance the two world Powers of the day, are not searching for new territorial conquests or for the expansion of their sovereign rights. On the contrary, they aim only at scientific and technological conquests in the new continents of outer space, which become not the province of single Powers, but the province of mankind as a whole. For the first time in the wake of our first space explorations, national, religious and ideological concepts are put aside, and in their place the ideas of peace and the unity of all men, regardless of their religion, creed or colour, are solemnly affirmed.” Mr. Seydoux (France) (interpretation from French): “We were ... among those who, following our colleague, Mr. Manfred Lachs, pointed out that this treaty is only, as it were, the first chapter of the law of outer space on which much still remains to be done.” 1491st meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/SR.1491): Mr. Lachs (Poland), speaking as Chairman of the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, stated that, with the adoption of the treaty, international law would acquire a new dimension. That was the result of the extension of States’ activities into the new domain of outer space, since there could be no legal vacuum in any field or activity. 1492nd meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/SR.1492): Mr. Goldberg (United States of America) stated that the United States regarded the treaty as an important step towards peace, for it would greatly reduce the danger of international conflict and improve the prospects for international cooperation in the common interest in one of the newest and most unfamiliar realms of human activity ... . The spirit of compromise shown by the space Powers and the other Powers had produced a treaty which established a fair balance between the interests and obligations of all concerned, including the countries that had as yet undertaken no space activities.70 Mr. Waldheim (Austria) stated that the scientific and technical achievements in outer space must be matched by legal and political agreements. The treaty met that requirement, for it was a most important milestone in the endeavour to provide for law and order in outer space and to furnish a substantial basis for further work in that field. Mr. Fuentealba (Chile) stated that the chief merit of the space treaty was that it not only laid down rules governing the activities of States in outer space but at the same time provided a solution for potential problems whose seriousness was only too obvious. Mr. de Carvalcho Silos (Brazil) stated that the treaty was a landmark in the work of the United Nations ... . The proposed treaty was perhaps the most important political event since the signing of the partial test-ban treaty. 1493rd meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/SR.1493): Mr. Gowland (Argentina) stated that the treaty would lay the basis for the legal regulation of man’s activities in space. It provided for the exploration and use of space on a basis of universality and equality, thus promoting friendship and understanding in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. Mr. Tilakaratna (Ceylon) stated that the treaty was a major step towards the establishment of rules governing the activities of States in peaceful exploration of space. Mr. Matsui (Japan) stated that the treaty was of historic importance, for it not only ensured that outer space, the Moon and other celestial bodies would be used for peaceful purposes only, but provided for cooperation among all States, both large and small, in space research ... . He hoped that all States would accede to the treaty in order to achieve the widest possible degree of international cooperation, and that the spirit of progress and understanding that had guided the preparation of the treaty would lead to the solution of other problems afflicting mankind. Mr. Burns (Canada) stated that the treaty was the result of serious endeavours both in and outside the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. It represented a significant effort to achieve a regime of law for outer space ... . The treaty as a whole would provide a firm foundation for subsequent and more detailed agreements. The measure of agreement reached on principles governing the activities of States in outer space was a great encouragement and source of hope for all who were working for effective measures of disarmament. Mr. Schuurmans (Belgium) stated that he welcomed the elaboration of an instrument that brought into play the active cooperation of the whole international community under the auspices of the United Nations. Belgium was firmly convinced that unanimous approval of the treaty by the United Nations would do much to encourage States to seek, in other fields besides that of space, peaceful solutions to the serious problems that continued to divide them. Mr. Odhiambo (Kenya) observed that space exploration, like nuclear science, was a two-edge sword that could prove both harmful and useful to mankind. It was therefore gratifying that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space had succeeded in reaching agreement on a treaty that would ensure that outer space, the Moon and other celestial bodies would be used for peaceful purposes only and that the benefits of space exploration would be made available to all. Mr. Tarabanov (Bulgaria) stated that the treaty, as a legal instrument designed to stimulate international cooperation in the exploration and peaceful utilization of outer space, was a historic71 achievement; it was not, however, an end in itself but a promising beginning ... . The treaty not only affirmed the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law, but established the concept of peace as a legal rule with regard to space activities. Mr. Rossides (Cyprus) stated that the treaty was a bold and important step forward. Scientific progress in outer space was now matched by legal progress, so that international law and the Charter of the United Nations would apply fully to space activities. Mr. Lopez (Philippines) said that the treaty represented the culmination of United Nations efforts to reach agreement on binding legal principles applicable in an area where scientific technology had taken such swift and startling strides. Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space Twenty-second session of the General Assembly (A/PV.1640): Mr. Waldheim (Austria), speaking as Chairman of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: “I should like to express our hope that the draft resolution will receive the unanimous approval of the General Assembly and thus open the way for an early entry into force of the Agreement on rescue and return of astronauts. We are convinced that this would represent not only an important step forward in the elaboration of the law of outer space, but also evidence of the cooperation and unity of all nations in the great venture of man in the exploration of outer space.” Mr. Wyzner (Poland): “My colleagues will, no doubt, appreciate the significance, in humanitarian terms, of the Agreement for those brave and gallant men who are, in the words of Article V of the Outer Space Treaty, the ‘envoys of mankind in outer space’, who are risking their lives, as recent tragic accidents have demonstrated, in endeavours which serve the interests of all. The Agreement is also important as a further step in the gradual development of the law of outer space ... . With its frightening potentialities for war, outer space cannot be allowed to become the field of competition other than peaceful competition. The Agreement on rescue and return is also a further collective step in the quest for peace since, among others, it eliminates possible sources of dispute and friction between States.” Mr. Vinci (Italy): “We consider the Agreement before us important both intrinsically and as forming part of a wider design, namely, the legal discipline of space activities, the space activities which every day increase their impact on our life on Earth and which are bound to do so increasingly in the near future. “The task of the United Nations in this field is very clear: to safeguard and promote not only the interests of a specific group of countries, but rather the general interests of all nations, whether they are engaged or not in space activities either individually or as members of a multilateral organization. The formulation of a law for space will create a framework that will facilitate the carrying out of space activities for peaceful purposes and make such activities not a cause of disputes and tensions, but rather the source of benefits for everyone and for international cooperation.” Mr. Goldberg (United States of America): “It is a good and sound treaty and one which will stand the test of time and experience. The United States regards the action of the Assembly in endorsing this treaty as a historic action. The treaty text represents agreement on implementing that famous phrase from the Outer Space Treaty that astronauts are ‘envoys of mankind’.72 “My delegation believes that endorsement of the treaty by the General Assembly constitutes one of the major achievements of this Assembly. The United States considers that the Assistance and Return Agreement which we have adopted represents a just balancing of the interests of all Members of the United Nations, the space Powers, the near-space Powers, the cooperating space Powers and all who are interested in outer space—which, indeed, means the entire membership of our Organization. This Agreement bears witness to the fact the United Nations can make a real contribution to extending the rule of law to new areas and ensuring the positive and peaceful ordering of man’s efforts in science and the building of a better world. “It is, not least, a tribute of those who venture forward into the new world of outer space. We shall work to make that venture one of benefit to all, as we hope it will be.” Mr. C.O.E. Cole (Sierra Leone): “The Sierra Leone delegation voted in favour of the draft resolution we have just adopted. The very laudable humanitarian and juridical principles involved, as well as the fact that my Government is a signatory to the Outer Space Treaty, impelled my delegation to take this stand. It is the least tribute we can pay to all those who bravely venture into outer space for peaceful uses and all those who work so diligently to that end.” Mr. Fedorenko (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (interpretation from Russian): “In adopting the draft Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space, the Soviet delegation is convinced that the conclusion of that Agreement will be of great importance in connection with the rapid progress of space technology, the development of space research and the ever wider use of space objects for such practical purposes as communications, weather forecasting, navigation and so forth. The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts will certainly be of great practical importance, ensuring the speedy rescue of astronauts in case of breakdowns, accidents or forced landings, for, as scientific and technological advance continues, manned space flights will become longer and more complex every year ... . The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts can truly be called a humanitarian act of international law on the part of the Member States of the United Nations towards the courageous explorers of those vast cosmic expanses, the men who are, in the words of the Outer Space Treaty, ‘envoys of mankind’ in space.” Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects Twenty-sixth session of the General Assembly (A/PV.1998): Mr. Migliuolo (Italy), as Rapporteur of the First Committee: “The draft convention represents the outcome of lengthy and persistent efforts made by a distinguished group of international jurists and diplomatists who for years have tried to take a new step forward in expanding the corpus juris concerning the international aspects of the peaceful uses of outer space.” Mr. Shepard (United States of America): “The draft convention is a sound treaty based upon realistic perceptions of mutual interest and mutual benefit. We believe it will take a place alongside the much-praised Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Astronaut Agreement of 1968. The Liability Convention should make possible reasonable expectation of the payment of prompt and fair compensation in the event of damage caused by the launching, flight or re-entry of man-made space vehicles.” 1826th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1826):73 Mr. Van Ussel (Belgium) (interpretation from French): “Members of the Committee are aware that the negotiations were hard, and often a great deal of imagination and concessions, even sacrifices, were required to draft the articles of the convention. If we have reached an agreement after so many years of meetings, consultations and exchanges of views, it is because all the members of the Legal Subcommittee, under the enlightened and efficient chairmanship of Mr. Wyzner, were inspired by a constructive spirit and a will to reach a text in accord with the sacred principles of international law. The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects ... is, above all, the result of compromise which, as I indicated in my statement at the 1823rd meeting, is the outcome of a happy marriage between law and diplomacy.” Mr. Williams (Jamaica): “My delegation wishes to express its appreciation to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space for its work over the years on the draft convention and for finally presenting a document for our endorsement. We appreciate the almost insuperable difficulties that were involved. With the increasing number of objects being launched into outer space there was certainly an element of urgency in agreeing to some rules of conduct in the event that a space object should cause damage on returning to Earth. The Committee has sought to solve the outstanding problems by resorting to compromise.” Mr. Seaton (United Republic of Tanzania): “My delegation wishes to congratulate the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on its agreement on a draft convention regarding international liability for damage caused by space objects. We believe that the draft convention deserves the careful consideration of all States.” Mr. Farhang (Afghanistan): “The delegation of Afghanistan welcomes the efforts made by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Legal Subcommittee. We commend also the spirit of compromise shown by the major space Powers, which has made possible the preparation of the draft Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects.” Mr. Issraelyan (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (interpretation from Russian): “We are particularly happy to note the adoption of draft resolution A/C.1/L.570/Rev.1, approving the draft Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects in the version which, over a long period of time, was successfully drafted in the Outer Space Committee. We hope that, since the matter has now been settled in the draft resolution we have adopted, as many countries as possible will accede to this Convention.” Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space 1988th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1988): Mr. Jankowitsch (Austria), as Chairman of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: “The Committee ... has now once again made a contribution to this important new body of law by the adoption of a registration convention which will be submitted to this session of the General Assembly for consideration and adoption ... . It does not, and of course cannot, satisfy everyone completely, but it represents not only several years of hard and dedicated work but also, I believe, the optimum level of compromise that could be reached at the present stage of technology. That is why the draft convention received the unanimous approval of the members of the Committee ... . The draft convention on registration is therefore an indispensable instrument for ensuring that claims of innocent victims under the Liability Convention could be met promptly and effectively. It complements the body of rules provided by the Liability Convention, in the sense that it would facilitate procedures for identification of space objects in case of doubt. In that sense the draft convention on registration is a significant contribution, we believe, to complement the existing body of74 international law in this field; hence it represents an important step forward in the progressive development and codification of international space law.” Mr. Wyzner (Poland), as Chairman of the Legal Subcommittee: “The draft convention is a carefully thought-over and formulated instrument. It was brought into being through long hours of detailed consultations and negotiations between delegations holding different points of view and representing different schools of thought, yet endeavouring to define the widest possible area of agreement.” 1990th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1990): Mr. Kuchel (United States of America): “Many difficult compromises were reached in the negotiation of this convention, and we believe the agreement that resulted is a reasonable one accommodating diverse interests, which will prove to be useful addition to the developing body of international law relating to the peaceful exploration and use of outer space.” Mr. Frazao (Brazil) (interpretation from French): “The adoption by the Legal Subcommittee of a draft Convention on the registration of objects launched into outer space is of course a remarkable achievement, and we should like warmly to congratulate the Subcommittee and, in particular, its tireless Chairman, Ambassador Wyzner. Thanks to the spirit of understanding and compromise prevailing at the last session of the Legal Subcommittee, it will now be possible for this session of the Assembly to proceed to the adoption of the final text of a convention the need for which requires no further demonstration.” 1991st meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1991): Mr. Datcu (Romania) (interpretation from French): “That convention, which supplements the stipulations of the convention on the responsibility of States for objects launched into space, is an important step forward towards the establishment of a general legal framework for inter-state cooperation in space.” Mr. Rydbeck (Sweden): “We note with great satisfaction that the Outer Space Committee this year presents us with concrete results in the form of a draft convention on registration of objects launched into outer space. The text before us has required many years of preparatory efforts in the Legal Subcommittee. It marks a new milestone in the achievements of the United Nations in the outer space field ... . We see the convention on registration as a valuable complement to the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects. With the adoption of the convention on registration there might well be better chances also for additional ratifications to the Liability Convention and to the other United Nations instruments adopted in the outer space field.” Mr. Todorov (Bulgaria) (interpretation from Russian): “The achievement of an agreement in the Legal Subcommittee on sober and well-balanced formulations has once again confirmed the reputation of that body as an organ that is making an important contribution to the development and codification of international space law.” 1992nd meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1992): Mr. Charvet (France) (interpretation from French): “I should like to emphasize that the results achieved with regard to the registration of objects launched into outer space can be an example for the other issues before the Outer Space Committee. In fact, these results prove what can be done if there is a desire among States to reach a compromise in a spirit of cooperation.”75 Mr. Brankovic (Yugoslavia): “There is no doubt that this [the draft convention] is a major accomplishment in the field of legislation concerning outer space. The adoption and putting into effect of that convention will greatly contribute to and represent a very important step towards the attainment of one of the basic objectives: the use of outer space for peaceful purposes.” 1994th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1994): Mr. Yokota (Japan): “The completion of the draft convention on registration of objects launched into outer space is another memorable event in the history of the Outer Space Committee ... . I sincerely hope that the Committee will approve unanimously the draft registration convention, which in our view marks another milestone in the progressive development of outer space law ... . My delegation considers that the international community may draw an important lesson from a careful analysis of the long and difficult negotiations which led this year to the successful completion of the draft registration convention.” 1995th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1995): Mr. Isa (Pakistan): “This draft convention is a necessary complement to the Liability Convention, and constitutes a valuable addition to the body of space law. Liability for injury from a space object can be correctly ascribed only if there is some system to determine the origin of the space objects.” Mr. Al-Masri (Syrian Arab Republic) (interpretation from Arabic): “The encouraging results that have been achieved by the Legal Subcommittee—primarily that of the draft convention on registration of objects launched into outer space—give us every reason to hope that the obstacles which continue to impede a number of achievements in this area—particularly the elaboration of international regulations concerning the Moon, direct television broadcasting through Earth satellites, and remote sensing—will now be eliminated, thanks to our good intentions and sincere faith in the principles of international cooperation and friendly relations among peoples of the world.” Mr. Yango (Philippines): “This draft convention is one more outstanding contribution of the Outer Space Committee to the development of international law for the peaceful uses of outer space. In our view, the draft convention on registration of objects launched into outer space is a necessary complement to previous agreements ... . A mandatory system of registering objects launched into outer space is established under the draft convention not only at the national but also at the international level. Such registers are a source of vital and necessary information in the continuing efforts of mankind in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space.” 1996th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1996): Mr. Plaja (Italy): “The agreement reached on [the] text [of the Convention] has not been an easy one and, as is normal in such international negotiations, it is the result of several compromises which reflect the spirit of accommodation of many members who sacrificed their original positions in order to achieve general consensus. “The draft convention on registration of objects launched into outer space represents another small step not only towards the completion of the new body of space laws we have been working for, but also towards a new ‘Magna Carta’ of global laws and regulations which will be used and respected in the future for the determination of the conduct of international relations among the people of the world.”76 1997th meeting of the First Committee (A/C.1/PV.1997): Mr. Azzout (Algeria) (interpretation from French): “This is a result that is indeed of prime importance, for this legal document is a contribution, in definite practical terms, to the new legislation that is gradually being built up, and forms a harmonious complement to the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects.” Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies 15th meeting of the Special Political Committee (A/SPC/34/SR.15): Mr. Ahmed (India) stated that the adoption of the treaty by the General Assembly would ensure the exploitation of natural resources of the Moon and other celestial bodies in an orderly and rational manner through the creation of an international regime to ensure that such resources, as the common heritage of mankind, were exploited for the benefit of all mankind. Mr. Enterlein (German Democratic Republic) stated that the draft agreement governing the activities of States on the Moon, adopted by consensus at the twenty-second session of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, contained valuable concrete provisions governing the use of outer space. It was of special importance that, as article III of the draft agreement provided, the Moon was to be used by all States Parties exclusively for peaceful purposes. It was vital for peace and détente that the draft agreement should confirm the demilitarized status of the Moon and other celestial bodies and forbid the placing in orbit around such bodies of objects carrying nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction. With the adoption of that agreement, another significant part of outer space and the scope of activities therein would be covered by specific and detailed provisions binding under international law. The fact that it had been possible to evolve the draft agreement by consensus gave striking proof of the value of the consensus principle in drawing up legal provisions concerning outer space. 16th meeting of the Special Political Committee (A/SPC/34/SR.16): Mr. Barton (Canada) noted with satisfaction that the Committee had finally completed the drafting of a Moon treaty, which reiterated the principle laid down in the 1967 Treaty on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space that the Moon and other celestial bodies would be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. The draft treaty would explicitly prohibit any threat or use of force, and would mean that the benefits derived from the exploitation of the resources of celestial bodies would be equitably shared by all parties. Mr. Fujita (Japan) stated that the draft agreement contained a number of important principles, which would be legally binding and would be effective in promoting greater cooperation among States for further progress in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. Mrs. Nowotny (Austria) stated that at its most recent session, the Committee had been able, on the basis of the work of the Legal Subcommittee, to complete the elaboration of the draft agreement governing the activities of States on the Moon and other celestial bodies, its most important step in the codification of international outer space law. As a result of such an agreement, the use of the natural resources of celestial bodies and outer space, which might relieve some of the immense pressures now facing mankind due to the limited resources of the Earth, could take place in a predominantly peaceful environment, in an orderly fashion, in accordance with international law, on the basis of international cooperation and mutual77 understanding and in accordance with previously agreed procedures. Only in those circumstances would the whole of mankind be able to benefit therefrom.78 17th meeting of the Special Political Committee (A/SPC/34/SR.17): Mrs. Oliveros (Argentina) stated that, with regard to the draft treaty relating to the Moon, the sometimes seemingly irreconcilable differences of opinion that had been apparent from the outset had been overcome, proving once that negotiations between States were the most effective way of dealing with such obstacles. The draft treaty reflected a good balance of the different interests in that connection, and her delegation believed that the developed and the developing countries could feel satisfied with its contents. The draft treaty also restored the credibility of the Outer Space Committee and showed that it was one of the most efficient United Nations organs, having drafted five extremely important international instruments in its relatively short existence. The treaty was also an excellent example of how to make headway in the progressive development of international law and its codification in accordance with Article 13 (a) of the Charter. Mr. Roslyakov (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) stated that the draft agreement was a meticulous and balanced document which met the needs of all countries, irrespective of their level of economic development and degree of participation in outer space activities. Mr. Cotton (New Zealand) stated that the draft treaty, which laid down guidelines for the conduct of States on the Moon and other celestial bodies, would represent significant progress in international cooperation. 18th meeting of the Special Political Committee (A/SPC/34/SR.18): Mr. Albornoz (Ecuador) stated that the preparation of a draft agreement governing the activities of States on the Moon and other celestial bodies represented a certain degree of progress. It was encouraging to note that that instrument provided not only that the exploration and use of the Moon should be the province of all mankind but also that they should be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degrees of development. The States parties to that agreement should likewise undertake to use the Moon exclusively for peaceful purposes and not to place in orbit around the Moon any object carrying nuclear weapons. Mr. Kalina (Czechoslovakia) stated that his delegation welcomed the completion of the work on the agreement governing the activities of States on the Moon and other celestial bodies. The completion of that endeavour was proof that where there was the political will, even the most difficult and sensitive issues could be resolved. The Moon agreement contained the concept of the common heritage of mankind, thus recognizing the need for broad international cooperation in outer space of all countries irrespective of the level of their development. 19th meeting of the Special Political Committee (A/SPC/34/SR.19): Mr. Petree (United States of America) stated that the draft Moon treaty was based to a considerable extent on the 1967 Outer Space Treaty and in no way limited the latter’s provisions. It also represented, in its own right, a meaningful advance in the codification of international law dealing with outer space, containing obligations which were of both immediate and long-term application. Mr. Kolbasin (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) stated that the draft treaty on the Moon, besides being a major contribution to international law, would be an important element in the development of mutual trust among States and would help to strengthen world peace.79 Mr. Gómez Robledo (Mexico) stated that, in his delegation’s opinion, the draft treaty had achieved a difficult balance between idealism and realism in establishing rules to guide mankind’s activities on the Moon.Mr. Suryokusumo (Indonesia) stated that Indonesia welcomed the draft agreement relating to the Moon, which was undoubtedly a milestone in the development of space law and which demonstrated the progress that could be made in resolving issues through the recognition of mutual interests and a spirit of compromise. Mr. Diez (Chile) stated that the drafting of the agreement was an achievement for both the developed and the developing countries in that it provided for the effective cooperation of States, on an equal footing, in the exploration and future utilization of the Moon for the benefit of all mankind.80 Office for Outer Space Affairs Vienna International Centre P.O. Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria Telephone: +(43) (1) 26060-4950 Fax: +(43) (1) 26060-5830System is unable to extract text from pdf file. Most probably pdf file should go through OCR. For technical questions, please contact CADT: cadt@unvienna.org or UNOV Helpdesk: unov.helpdesk@unvienna.org, +43 (1) 26060 Ext.4200. On questions concerning OCR, please contact Linguistic Support: linguistic.support@unvienna.org