E_CONF_82_16_EC
Correct misalignment Change languages order
E/CONF.82/16 E-CONF.82-16_e.pdf (English)E/CONF.82/16 E-CONF.82-16_c.pdf (Chinese)
United Nations Conference联合国关于
for the Adoption of a通过一项禁止非法贩运
Convention against Illicit麻醉药品和精神药物
Traffic in Narcotic Drugs公约的会议
and Psychotropic Substances1988 年 11 月 25 日至 12 月 20 日,维也 纳
Vienna, 25 November-20 December 1988正式记录
OFFICIAL RECORDS第一卷:
Volume I:筹备工作
Preparatory work会议组织事项文件
Conference documents on organizational matters主要会议文件
Main Conference documents最后文件和决议
Final Act and resolutions联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约
United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic糊 合 国
in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances维也纳,1994年
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Conference联合国关于
for the Adoption of a通过一项禁止非法贩运
Convention against Illicit麻醉药品和精神药物
Traffic in Narcotic Drugs公约的会议
and Psychotropic Substances1988 年 11 月 25 日至 12 月 20 日,维也 纳
Vienna, 25 November-20 December 1988正式记录
OFFICIAL RECORDS第一卷:
Volume I:筹备工作
Preparatory work会议组织事项文件
Conference documents on organizational matters主要会议文件
Main Conference documents最后文件和决议
Final Act and resolutions联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约 说明
United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic《联合国关于通过一项禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约的会议正式记
in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances录》共分两卷。
UNITED NATIONS New York, 1994 NOTE The Official Records of the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances comprise two volumes. Volume I (E/CONF.82/16) contains, in addition to the list of delegations and other organizational and preparatory documents, the basic proposal, the Conference documents and reports, the Final Act, the United Nations Convention against Illicit第一卷(E/C0NF.82/16)除代表团名单和其他组织文件和预备文件之外,还载
Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and the resolutions.有基本提案,会议文件和报告,《最后文件》,《联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品
Volume II (E/CONF.82/16/Add.l) contains the summary records of the plenary和精神药物公约》和各项决议。
meetings and of the meetings of the Committees of the Whole—Committee I and第二卷(E/C0NF.82/16/Add.l)载有全体会议以及两个全体委员会 第一委员
Committee II. It includes the corrections requested by delegations for the plenary会和第二委员会会议的简要记录。它录入了各代表团提出的对全体会议记录要
meetings and such editorial changes as were considered necessary.求的更改以及被认为必要的、编辑上的改动。
Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined联合国文件的文叼是由大写字母和数码组成。凡提到此种文号即表示指某
with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations一份联合国文件。
document.E/CONF.82/16
UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATIONUNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION
Sales No.Sales No.
E.: C.
94.94.
XI.XI.
55 目录
ISBN 92-1-148092-2页 次
E/CONF.82/16 CONTENTS解释性说明 V
Page Explanatory notes v Preparatory work Document E/CN.7/1987/2: Preparation of a draft convention against the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances: report of the Secretary-General 1 Documents E/CN.7/1988/2 (Part II) and (Part IV): Report of the openended intergovernmental expert group meeting on the preparation of a draft convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances 10 Conference documents on organizational matters Document E/CONF.82/6: Agenda 45 Document E/CONF.82/7: Rules of procedure 45 Document E/CONF.82/10: Report of the Credentials Committee 53 Main Conference documents Document E/CONF.82/3: Report of the Review Group on the draft Convention 55 Document E/CONF.82/11: Report of the Committee of the Whole I 92 Document E/CONF.82/12: Report of Committee of the Whole II 133 Final Act, including resolutions, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Document E/CONF.82/14: Final Act of the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 177 Annex. Resolutions adopted by the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 180 Document E/CONF.82/15: United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 181 * * * List of participants 197 Check-list of documents 217 iii EXPLANATORY NOTES tion: The following acronyms, abbreviations and short forms are used in this publicaEEC EEZ ICAO 1961 Convention 1971 Convention 1972 Protocol Interregional HONLEA European Economic Community exclusive economic zone International Civil Aviation Organization Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs, 1961 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 Interregional Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies Countries are referred to by the names that were in official use at the time. v Preparatory work筹备工作
DOCUMENT E/CN.7/1987/2文件E/CN.7/1987/2:制订禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约草案:
Preparation of a draft convention against the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and秘书长的报告 1 文件E/CN.7/1988/2(第二部分)和(第四部分):制订禁止非法贩运 麻醉药品和精神药物公约草案的政府间可自由参加的专家组
psychotropic substances: report of the Secretary-General会议报告 21 会议组织事项文件 文件E/C0NF.82/6:難 88 文件E/C0NF.82/7:议事规则 89 文件E/C0NF.82/10:全权证书委员会的报告 107 主要会议文件 文件E/C0NF.82/3:公约草案审查组的报告 110 文件E/C0NF.82/11:第一全体委员会的报告 198 文件E/C0NF.82/12:第二全体委员会的报告 297 最后文件,包括各项决议和联合国 禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约 文件E/C0NF.82/14:联合国关于通过一项禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和 精神药物公约的会议最后文件 399 页 次 附件 联合国关于通过一项禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物 公约的会议通过的决议 405 文件E/C0NF.82/15:联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和 精神药物公约 408 氺 本 3|( 与会者名单 文件一览表 441 493 V 解释性说明 本出版物使用下列缩略词、缩写和简称: 欧经共同体 民航组织 1961年公约 1971年公约 1972年议定书 区域间执法机构 负责官员会议 欧洲经济共同体 国际民用航空组织 1961年麻醉品单一公约 1971年精神药物公约 修订1961年麻醉品单一公约的1972年议定书 区域间国家麻醉品法执行机构负责官员会议 使用的囯名系当时的正式名称。 筹备工作[简化形式] 文件 E/CN. 7/1987/2 制订禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约草案:秘书长的报告 [原件:英文] [1986年6月13日]
I.一.
INTRODUCTION导言
1.1.
In paragraph 2 of its resolution 39/141 of 14 December 1984 entitled "Draft Convention against Traffic in联大在题为“禁止贩运麻薛药品、精神药物及有关活动公约草案”的1984 年1 2月14曰日第39/141号决议第2段中,请
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Related“经济及社会理事会考虑到《瑕合国宪章》第六十二条第三项和第六十六 条第二项以及理事会1 9 4 6年2月1 6日笫9(1)号决议的各项规定‘,要
Activities", the General Assembly requested:求将于1 9 8 5年2月举行的麻薛药品委员会第三十一届会议作为优先事
"The Economic and Social Council, taking into consideration Article 62, paragraph 3, and Article 66, paragraph 1, of the Charter of the United Nations and项,拟订一顼禁止非法孩运毒品的公约草案。该草案须通盘考虑这个问
Council resolution 9 (I) of 16 February 1946, to request the Commission on Narcotic Drugs to initiate at its thirty-first session, to be held in February 1985, as a题的各个方面,特别是现行国际文书所未曾设想到的那些方面。"
matter of priority, the preparation of a draft convention经济及社会委员会1 9 8 5年2月8日第1985/104号决定正式请求麻醉药品委
against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs which considers员会着手拟订该公约草案。 2.响应M的要求,麻委会笫三十一届会议(1985年2月1 1 一 2 0日)
the various aspects of the problem as a whole and, inSt了题为“倡议拟定一项关于非法贩运寐薛药品和精神药物的公约草案”的1985
particular, those not envisaged in existing international年2月2 0日第1 ( XXXI)号决议。
instruments.3.
"麻委会在该决议笫1段中要求秘书长
The Economic and Social Council formally requested the“请娱合国各会员国以及《1961年麻薛品单一公约》、经《修正1961 年麻醉品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约和《19 7 1年精
Commission on Narcotic Drugs to initiate the preparation神药物公约》的缔约国在1 9 8 5年7月1日以前就它们希望公约草案包 括的问题提出意见和建议,以执行9 8 4年1 2月14日第3 9 /
of the draft convention by its decision 1985/104 of 8 February 1985.1 4 1号决议所规定的任务。” 为此目的,还要求秘书长分发麻委会决议中同一执行段落内提到的1 8份有关文件。 这是在1_9 8 5年3月1 5日的一份函件中提出的。
2.4.
At its thirty-first session (11-20 February 1985), the麻委会在其第1 ( XXX I )号决议的笫2段里要求秘书长 ‘“在现有资金的范围内汇编并综合各国政府的意见和其他有关研究报告,
Commission responded to the request of the General Assembly and adopted resolution 1 (XXXI) of 20 February并编写一份报告,在1 9 8 5年1 1月1日前分发给娱合国各会员国和其
1985 entitled "Initiation of the preparation of a draft convention on illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic他国家。这份报告将根据嵌大第39/141号决议的授杈,提出需要审议
substances".并列入公约草案的问题。” 5.麻醉药品委员会第;^特别会议(1986年2月1 0 — 1 4日)收到了题 为“各国政府对非法贩运麻薛药品和箱神药物公约草案的意见和建议”的秘书长报 告(:e/C1?.7/1986/2和Corr.i和2和Add.i-3.) 秘书长的报告系缝 分析了 4 6国政府的答复及其他有关资料,查明了许多圆家认为应列入公约草案中 的问题以及在决定列入之前似宜进一步加以审议的其他问題。 6.根据秘书处长报告对这个项目进行讨论后,’麻委会19 8 6年2月1 4
3. In paragraph 1 of that resolution, the Commission日通过了题为“起草打击殿毒国际公约的指南”的第1 ( S —I X )号决议。、-麻委
requested the Secretary-General:M该决议第3段中建议将下列1 4个问题列入公约草案初稿中: (a)为实现公约目的所需的定X; (b)确定、追查、冻结和没收贩运麻薛品的收益; (c)加g有^T厥 薛品罪行引渡的义务, (d)监视或管制用于非法提炼或制造受管制麻醉药品的特定化学品、溶剂 及原料的措您 (e)确保商业承不被甩于运输非法麻薛药品和精神药物的措施、包括 制定一整套 裁办法; CH各国间,特别是执法«间进行合作的手段,以便交流情报以及建立 联M讯渠道、《彳缓助命交换专业知识,包括考虑到过境国家的特 殊问匙在需要时设立禁毒联络官员; (g)加强国家间的合作,以便在渋及钣毒事件时提误相互的法律和司法挢 助,并促进在调查和诉讼事宜方面的相互挢助; 洱)控制下交付5 3 (i)对叛毒華行严加制裁; (J)加强国家间在取缔公海上非法贩毒方面的相互合作; (k)采取措旄劁止麻薛品植物的非法和无控制秄植,包括窥防、作物取代 和根除; (1)扩大自由贸易区和自由港的管制措旌; ⑷防止接受、保留和转移非法制造、配制或提炼麻薛药品和精神药物 的设务 ⑴防止利用邮件非法转运麻薛药品和精神药物。 7.麻委会在笫1 ( S-IX)号决议第4段中请求秘书长“拟定一份包括第3 段中提到的问题的公约初步草案,并予1 9 8 6年8年1 5日以前将该草案分发给 麻委会成员国和其他有关国家政府”;秘书长的草案初稿,载于本文件第二章中, 它反映了麻委会查明的要求列入公约草案中的1 4个问题。 8. 第 1 ( S—IX )号决议请“麻委会成员国和其他有关国家政府在1』8 6 年10月3 0日以前向秘书长提出对草案的意见和/或文字上的改动”。秘书长 在将'本文件发给娱合国会员国及非会员国时所附的函件中要求在寐出的 曰期前将对草案的意见和/或文字上的改动寄给他。 9. 第 1 ( S一IX)号决议第6段请求秘书长“将这些意见和/或文字上的改 动汇绢成箭,加以分艮以俟麻委会第三十二届会议审i义,从而使麻委会可对该公 约草案的进一步制订作出指示”。在收到各国政府的答复后,秘书长将把这些政 府的意见和文字上的改动汇缤成微,作为本文件的增镜分息供麻委会第三十二届 会议审议。 10.第二章所载草案包括14条,符合于麻委会建议列入的问恩并详铟阐述 了它们的实质内容。条文次序是根据思想内容考虑的,以保证在法律上有关联的 条款 安措得当,当然,剔的原序安猎也是可以的。在每条下面注明有关的一 条与麻委会磅定的问蜀之间的衷系。 11.在目前的草拟初韵,在未得到麻委会的言关指示前,旻拟定有关执行措旌与 傲法的序言条款和条文还为时过早。各国政府在它们的意见中可能希望列入本草 案内的建议和具体提案将适当反眹在本裎告的增编中,并将按麻委会第三十二届会 议的指示在起草工作的下一阶段予以考虑。 12.关于公约的最后条熟将以最近通过的联合国文书的有关标准条款为基雄 并根据麻委会专为本公约而可能发出的具体指示在适当时侯拟定。 二.禁止菲法販运麻醉药品及 精神药物公约草案 、 第 1 条* 用 语 除明指他科意义或按上下文须作他科解释者外,本公约下列词语系指: .(a) “麻管局”指国际麻醉药品管制局; ㈦“商业承”指从事出租的客货运输的公营或私营实依 (c) “麻委会”指理事会麻醉药品委员会 (d) ‘‘控制下交付”指在一个或更多缔约国执法机钩的知情勤监誉下受管制药 物的非法货品从其领土上经过,以监测这些货品的流动并查明勒依法处分 从事其装迳运输、交付、藏匿或接收的个人、公司或其他法人; (e) “受管制药物”指《1 9 6 1年寐薛品单一公约》湘经《修正1 9 6 1车 麻辞品单一公约的1972车议定书》修正的该公约的粗表一命二中所列 邮何药物、未列入这些公约的階表一中的大麻植物各部分、《1971年 精神药物公约》附表一、二、三、四所列任何药物以及本公约的清单A勒 * 参看问题(a ) - 5 清单B中的特定化学品; (f) “理辜会”指联合国经济及社会理事会; (S) “没收”指由法院下令剥夺收益 ㈨“冻结”指由法院或其他主管机狗下令禁止收益的转让变换、处置与流 动* a) “非法贩运”链反本公约之规定,科i生产、制造、提炼、配制、提 供、供销、推销、为推销而占有、购买、出售、以贿条件交付、经钣 发送、通过邮件发送、运辁、输入湘辎出任何受管制药物。在本公约中, 组织、管理、资助或方便上述交易与活动亦祐看作非法贩远 (0) “非法转移”指隐瞒或掩盖收益的真正性质、来源、处流动或其所有 权,并包括周电子传送方式来流动或变换收益; ㈨“合法的第三者”指出于善意或对犯罪情况不知情而合法地取得拥有、使 用、控制或占有收益的权利的任何个人公司或其他法人; ⑴“清单A,,及“清单B ”指按本公约笫8条随时修正弁作为本公约附件的相 应指定的特定化学品清单; 卿“締约国”指同意受本公约约束以及本公约对之有效的国家: (n) “收益”指各科财产,不问其为有形或无形、动产或非动产 以及证明这 类射产的所有M利害关系之证书及文书; (o) “秘书长”指较合国秘书长;
'To seek from Member States of the United Nations and States Parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, by 1 July 1985, comments and proposals on the elements they would like to have incorporated in a draft convention in fulfilment of the mandate established in General Assembly resolution 39/141." For this purpose, the Secretary-General was also requested to circulate 18 relevant documents specified in the same operative paragraph of the Commission resolution. This was done under cover of a note dated 15 March 1985. [Original: English] [13 June 1986] 4. In paragraph 2 of its resolution 1 (XXXI), the Commission requested the Secretary-General: 'To compile and consolidate, within available resources, the comments received from Governments, as well as other relevant studies, and to prepare a report, to be circulated to Member States of the United Nations and other States not later than 1 November 1985, which will identify elements to be considered for inclusion in a draft convention, in compliance with the mandate set out in General Assembly resolution 39/141." 5. At its ninth special session (10-14 February 1986), the Commission on Narcotic Drugs had before it the report of the Secretary-General entitled "Comments and proposals received from Governments concerning a draft convention on illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances" (E/CN.7/1986/2 and Corr.l and 2 and Add.1-3). The report of the Secretary-General, which contained a systematic analysis of the replies from 46 Governments and of other relevant material, identified the elements which many Governments considered worthy of inclusion in the draft convention, as well as other elements which seemed to require further consideration before reaching a decision as to their inclusion. 6. Following the discussion of the item 1 in the light of the report of the Secretary-General, the Commission adopted on 14 February 1986 resolution 1 (S-IX), entitled "Guidance on the drafting of an international convention to combat drug trafficking". In paragraph 3 of that resolution the Commission recommended 14 elements for inclusion in an initial draft convention. Those elements are as follows: "(a) Definitions, as required for the purpose of the convention; "(b) Identification, tracing, freezing and forfeiture of proceeds of drug trafficking; "(c) Strengthening of the obligations concerning extradition for offences relating to drug trafficking; "(d) Measures to monitor or control specific chemicals, solvents and precursors used in the illegal processing or manufacture of controlled drugs; 'See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 19S6, Supplement No. 3 (E/1986/23), paras. 5-32. 1 2 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances "(e) Measures to ensure that commercial carriers are not used to transport illicit narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, including the development of a system of sanctions; "(f) Means of cooperation among countries, particularly among law enforcement agencies, for the exchange of information as well as the establishment of joint communications links, training assistance and the exchange of expertise, including the posting of drug liaison officers as needed, taking into consideration the special problems of transit States; "(g) Strengthening cooperation among countries to provide mutual legal and judicial assistance in cases relating to drug trafficking, and promotion of mutual assistance in investigative and prosecutorial matters; "(h) Controlled delivery; "(i) Adequacy of sanctions for offences relating to drug trafficking; "(j) Strengthening mutual cooperation among States in the suppression of illicit drug trafficking on the high seas; "(k) Measures to curtail the illicit and uncontrolled cultivation of narcotic plants, including prevention, crop substitution and eradication; "(I) Extension of controls in free trade zones and free ports; "(m) Prevention of receipt, possession and transfer of equipment for the purpose of illegal manufacturing, compounding or processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; "(n) Prevention of the use of the mails for the illegal transport of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances." 7. In paragraph 4 of resolution 1 (S-IX) the Commission requested the Secretary-General "to prepare a preliminary draft of a convention containing the elements specified in paragraph 3, and to circulate that draft to members of the Commission and other interested Governments by 15 August 1986". The preliminary draft by the SecretaryGeneral, reflecting the 14 elements identified by the Commission for inclusion in the draft convention, is contained in chapter II of the present document. 8. Paragraph 5 of resolution 1 (S-IX) invites "members of the Commission and other interested Governments to submit their comments on and/or proposed textual changes in the draft to the Secretary-General by 30 October 1986". In the note by which he circulated the present document to Member States of the United Nations and non-member States, the Secretary-General requested that comments on and/or proposed textual changes in the draft should reach him by the date indicated in the Commission resolution. 9. In paragraph 6 of resolution 1 (S-IX), the SecretaryGeneral was requested "to compile these comments and/ or proposed textual changes and to circulate them for consideration at the thirty-second session of the Commission, so that the Commission may give direction on the further development of the draft convention". Following receipt of replies from Governments the Secretary-General will compile the comments and proposed textual changes received from Governments and circulate them in an addendum to the present document for consideration by the Commission at its thirty-second session. 10. The draft presented in chapter II consists of 14 articles corresponding to the elements recommended for inclusion by the Commission and elaborating their substantive contents. The sequence of articles has been determined by conceptual considerations aimed at ensuring an orderly arrangement of legally related provisions but it is understood that other sequential arrangements are possible. The correlation between the respective articles and the elements identified by the Commission is indicated under each article. 11. At this preliminary stage, and pending appropriate guidance from the Commission, it was considered premature to attempt drafting preambular provisions and articles dealing with implementation measures and mechanisms. Suggestions and concrete proposals which Governments may wish to include in their comments on the present draft will be duly reflected in the addendum to this report and taken into account at the next stage of drafting as directed by the Commission at its thirty-second session. 12. As regards the final clauses of the draft Convention, they will be prepared in due course on the basis of standard relevant provisions which exist in recently adopted United Nations instruments and in accordance with the specific directions which the Commission may give for this particular draft Convention. II. DRAFT CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES Article 1* USE OF TERMS Except where otherwise expressly indicated, or where the context otherwise requires, the following terms in this Convention have the meanings given below: (a) "Board" means the International Narcotics Control Board; (b) "Commercial carrier" means a public or private entity engaged in transporting persons or goods for hire; (c) "Commission" means the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the Council; (d) "Controlled delivery" means the passage through the territory of one or more Parties, with the knowledge and tinder the surveillance of their law enforcement agencies, of illicit consignments of controlled substances, for the purpose of monitoring their movement and identifying and bringing to justice the individuals, corporations or other legal entities involved in their shipment, transportation, delivery, concealment or receipt; Refers to element (a). Preparatory work 3 (e) "Controlled substances" means any of the drugs in Schedules I and II of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and of that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, all parts of the cannabis plant not included in Schedule I of those Conventions, any of the substances in Schedules I, II, III and IV of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the specific chemicals in List A and List B of this Convention; (f ) "Council" means the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations; (g) "Forfeiture" means the deprivation of proceeds by court order; (h) "Freezing" means prohibiting the transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of proceeds by order of a court or other appropriate authority; (i) "Illicit traffic" means the cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, offering, offering for sale, distribution, possession with the intent to distribute, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch through the mails, dispatch in transit, transport, importation and exportation of any controlled substance contrary to the provisions of this Convention. The organization, management, financing or facilitating of the aforementioned operations or activities are also considered as illicit traffic for the purposes of this Convention; (j) "Laundering" means the concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, disposition, movement or ownership of proceeds and includes the movement or conversion of proceeds by electronic transmission; (k) "Legitimate third party" means any person, corporation or other legal entity who, acting bona fide and without knowledge of incriminating circumstances, has lawfully acquired the right to own, use, control or possess proceeds; (I) "List A" and "List B" mean the correspondingly designated lists of specific chemicals annexed to this Convention, as amended from time to time in accordance with article 8 of this Convention; (m) "Party" means a State that has consented to be(P) “缉获,,指根据法院或其他主管机揭之命令对收益实行保管或控制;
bound by this Convention and for which this Convention(q) “特定化学品”指本公约清单A或清单B中届于非法提炼或制造藤醉药品
is in force;或精神药物的物质.
(n) "Proceeds" means property of every description,(r) “追查”指确定收益的真正性质、来源、处理、流动或所有权: (s) “过境国”指虽非麻薛药品或精神药物之主旻生产者、制造者或消费者但
whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable,因非法贩运通过其领土面使之受到有害影响的国家。 罚则——严厉劁裁 1.以不违背缔约国宪法上的隈制、法律制度及匡内法为限,每4、结约国应采
tangible or intangible, and deeds and instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such property;取必要措施将以下各项作为严重犯罪行为列入其刑法: (a)非法贩远 (b)制造、推销或占有准备闬于非法生产或制造麻醉药品或精神药物之原 料或设备
(o) "Secretary-General" means the Secretary-General(o)取得、占有、转让或非法转移来自或用于非法贩运的收益,
of the United Nations;(d)蓄意叁与、共谋进行从事勤卷助,教唆与劝说进行(ak (b)、(c)项下的
(p) "Seizure" means assuming custody or control of任何犯罪行为的企图《 2.对本条第1款所列犯罪行为应给予适当惩罚,其中特别包括.
proceeds as directed by order of a court or other appropriate authority;(a)相当长时為的监禁或以其他形式剥夺其自由; (b)按照犯罪行为的性质及其严重程度科以罚款或罚金; (c)没妆犯罪所得的全部货物及财产;
(q) "Specific chemical" means a substance in List A(d)没收本公约莬3条所规定的收益。 3.名缔约国应在可能时考虑将下列各项作为加重本条第1款列举的犯罪行为
or List B of this Convention used in the illicit processingfe情况:
or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances;fa)有组织犯罪集团的参与; ㈦使用枪支或暴力; (c)罪犯担任公职者; ⑷受害人为絲年A o 4-本条第1款所列举fe每一项犯華行为,如在不同国家实施,应各自分别论
(r) "Tracing" means determining the true nature,* 畚看问题 a ) 7 5.对本条笫1款列举的犯罪行为,在外11已定春者.应予计及,以便殡定是
source, disposition, movement or ownership of proceeds;否累犯。
(s) "Transit State" means a State which, while not6.本国人或州目人所犯的本条第1款列举的犯舂行为,应由犯罪地的締约国 或由罪犯在其颌土内的铮约国起诉。
being a major producer, manufacturer or consumer of7.名缔约国在考虑犯有本条第1款列举的犯春行为的人是否可提前释放或假
narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, is nevertheless释时,_应铭记罪行fe严重性质,并应病定指导适周于非法贩运罪的时效法规的适当 条款,.以制止潜在罪犯从事这类犯罪活动。
adversely affected by the illicit traffic in transit through its8.洛褅约国应采取符合于其法律制度的适当搢施,以确保被控犯有本条第1
territory.款所指犯罪行为或根据本公约第4条被要求引渡的人,在进行必要诉讼时出庭。在
Article 2*这方面各缔约国应考虑到叛毒犯申请保耦时可动闬大量款项。 第 3 条本
PENAL PROVISIONS—ADEQUACY OF SANCTIONS璃定、追查、冻结、缉获及没收非法M运的收益
1.1.
Subject to its constitutional limitations, legal各締约国承诺防止和压制取得、占有、转让或巷法转移来自或用于非法贩
system and domestic law, each Party shall adopt such运的收备 为此它们应: (a)采取国家立法及行政措施以便利这些收益的确定、追查、冻结、缉获
measures as may be necessary to establish as serious和没收;
offences under its criminal law:⑴)促进在国家一级的有效协调行动; (c)提俣适当的相互援助。
(a) Illicit traffic;2.以不违背其宪法上的限制为限,每个缔约国如知晓收益直接或间接得自或
(b) Manufacture, distribution or possession of materials or equipment intended for use in the illicit production来自非法叛运,则不管这种贩运在何处发生均应将这些收益的取得、占有、转让或 非法转移視为应予愆处之聶行。 3.在充分顾及其宪法、法律及行政制度的情况下,每个结约国应:
or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances;* 参看问题(扎 8 (a)授权剤事或民事法院或其他主营机指,在轻立或代表另一缔约国执行
(c) Acquisition, possession, transfer or laundering of时发出冻结或缘莸收益之命令,如该法院或主管机狗琮信裰据任何管 辖权均已犯下本条第2款所称之应予惩怂之罪行且该顼收益应属于它
proceeds derived from or used in the illicit traffic;的管辖范围。冻结或缉获令: ⑴应禁止转让、变换、怂理或流动收益; (2J可在正式指控确立前发岀,但需受合理时隄的限制;
(d) Intentional participation in, conspiracy to commit,⑶在情况需旻时可因与收益有利窨关系的任何人的申请而加以修改; ⑷可规定指笑一名管理人或保营人受权Hi售、控刽或管理收益;
attempts to commit, and aiding, abetting and counselling(5)仍可发出,即使收益中可能包含有来自其饱合法来源的别的财产
the commission of any offences under subparagraphs (a),或资产;
(b) and (c).㈦授权刑事或民事法院发布没收收益令,不管是否已对该项收益发出冻
2. Offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of this article结令或缉获令: (1)如此人在任何营辖权内因本条苐2款所称之犯II行为而定罪且法
shall be made liable to adequate punishment, including in庭查明所涉之收益系非法贩运之直接或间接结杲J -(2)虽未提出任何起诉或定罪,但法院代表一个締约国或另一締约国
particular:行使职权,确信收益所有者知悉该项收益直接或间接来自任何管
(a) Imprisonment or other forms of deprivation of辖权均认为系非法贩运或用于任何管辖权均认为系非法钣运。 (c)确保在对本条第2款所称之犯罪行为的任何刑事或民事诉讼中,或在
liberty for a substantial period of time;发布本条苐3款(a)所称之冻结令或缉获令或本条第3款(切所称之
(b) Pecuniary penalties or fines commensurate to the没收令时,法庭在设法确定收益原意即系直接或间接来自非法贩运时, 应考虑能证实如下情况的证捱:
nature and gravity of the offence;(1)某人、某屈依公司或其他法人与本蚤第2款所称之某一罪行有
(c) Forfeiture of all goods or property involved in the衷系;
perpetration of the offence;(2)同时或大约同时,某人、某囷依公司或其他法人获得了任何收 ^sJ (3)就收益的 而言,U、某园依公司或其他法人明显的合法 收M源无法证明其所得为正当者; 9 (d)镜保有关本条第2款所称猊華行为的劑事或民事诉讼,或本条S3款
(d) Forfeiture of proceeds as provided in article 3 of㈨所称之冻结令或缉获令,或本条苐3款⑷所称之没收令不得因
this Convention.来自或用于非法叛运之收益中包合有得自合法来源的蚵产或资产而
3. The Parties shall take into consideration, where受到不利影喷。没收可只渉及来自或.司于莽法M运的郅部分收艮 4.本条的规定不得作有损合法第三者的权剎或刳益之鲜释o
possible, as constituting aggravating circumstances for第 4 条 *
offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of this article:引 渡 1.本条应适用于本么Y约第2条第1款所列举之犯罪行为。 2.本条适用之犯罪行为应视为各缔约国间现有任何引渡条约内所列的应予引
(a) The involvement of organized criminal groups;渡的犯罪行为。各缔约圆承诺在各该圍问今后所订的房有引渡条约内将此等犯罪
(b) The use of firearms or violence;行为列为应予引渡的犯罪行为。
(c) The fact that the offender holds a public office;3.以条约的存在为引渡条件的缔约囯,如接到与该国未订有引渡条约的另一 締约国的引渡请求,可考虑以本公约为对本条所适用的任何犯罪行为办理引渡的法
(d) The victimization of minors.律摄据。
4.4.
Each of the offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of不以条约的存在为引渡条件的締约囿应承认本条适用的犯罪行为为备该国
this article, if committed in different countries, shall be间应予引渡的犯罪行为,但必须依照被请求的締约国法律所规定的条俘o
considered a distinct offence.5.不得以下述理由拒绝对本条适周的任何犯罪行为提出的引渡请求:
5. Foreign convictions for the offences enumerated in(a)被旻求引渡者为被请求国国民,但被请求眉宪法有此需要者可予拒绝;
paragraph 1 of this article shall be taken into account for㈨犯聶行为发生在请求国领土之外,但其犯罪原意为在请求国的领土内
the purpose of establishing recidivism.产生或巳产生后果;
6. Offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of this article(e)犯罪行为具有政治雖或出于政治动札
committed either by nationals or by non-nationals shall6.如引渡被拒绝,被请求国应对犯罪行为实行管辖权,.并应对被拒绝引渡者
be prosecuted either by the Party in whose territory the进行审判,不得无故掩延,审到方式应与审判在其领土内所犯之罪行相同。
Refers to element (j). Refers to element (I). 4 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances* 参看问题(扎 -1 0 7.如罪行在其领土内所犯之缔约国不请求引渡,別畢犯在
offence was committed or by the Party in whose territory亦应对其在其领土外所犯罪行有管辖权,但该犯罪行为原则上须
the offender is found.行为,且后一締约国熟悉萆犯行踪,或向该締约®提出之引渡请
7.8.
The Parties shall bear in mind the serious nature of各缔约国同意如有证据充分证明被请求引渡之人犯有本
offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of this article when则该证捱应被視为引渡请求之充足佐证。
considering the eventuality of early release or parole of9.在请求11与被请求国对本条适周之犯罪行为有并行管辖
persons convicted of such offences, and shall endeavour to求国有更好条件证明有关亭宜弁对萆犯依法愆处,则不应拒绝专
establish adequate provisions governing the statute of limitations applicable to offences related to the illicit traffic so10.各缔约E!应考虑缔结双边及区域访定以发Ͽ异垮莛作为
as to deter potential criminals from engaging in this type用之犯華行为的人依法惩处的手段的引渡之效力《
of criminal activity.第 5 条*
8. The Parties shall take appropriate measures, consistent with their legal systems, to ensure that a person其领土内之締约国
charged with an offence specified in paragraph 1 of this为应予引渡之犯萆
article, or whose extradition is sought under article 4 of求未被接受。
this Convention, is present at the necessary proceedings.条适周之任何舂行
In this regard the Parties shall bear in mind the large sums权之情况下,如请
of money available to traffickers when setting bail.渡。
Article 3*对被控犯有本条适
IDENTIFICATION, TRACING, FREEZING, SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE相互法律协助
OF THE PROCEEDS OF ILLICIT TRAFFIC1.在适当顾及缔约国宪法、法律及行政制度之情况下,締约国如接到请求,
1. The Parties undertake to prevent and repress the应根据本条规定,相互提供最广泛之法律协助,P乂进行与本公约第2条第1款列举
acquisition, possession, transfer or laundering of the proceeds derived from or used in the illicit traffic. To that end, they shall: (a) Adopt national legislative and administrative measures to facilitate the identification, tracing, freezing, seizure and forfeiture of proceeds; (b) Facilitate effective coordinated action at the national level; (c) Provide each other with appropriate assistance. 2. Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall treat as a punishable offence the acquisition, possession, transfer or laundering of proceeds with the knowledge that such proceeds were obtained or derived directly or indirectly from the illicit traffic, irrespective of where such traffic occurred. 3. Having due regard to its constitutional, legal and administrative systems, each Party shall: (a) Authorize a court of criminal or civil jurisdiction or other appropriate authority, upon application on its own behalf or on behalf of another Party, to issue an order to freeze and seize proceeds if the court or appropriate authority is satisfied that a punishable offence referred to in paragraph 2 of this article has been committed in any jurisdiction, and when the proceeds are within its own jurisdiction. Freezing or seizing orders: (i) Shall prohibit the transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of the proceeds; (ii) May be made prior to the institution of formal charges but subject to a reasonable time limit; Refers to element (a). (iii) May be modified where circumstances so require upon motion brought by any person having an interest in the proceeds; (iv) May provide for the appointment of an administrator or trustee authorized to sell, control or manage the proceeds; (v) May be issued notwithstanding that the proceeds may be intermingled with other property or assets acquired from other legitimate sources; (b) Authorize a court of criminal or civil jurisdiction to order the forfeiture of proceeds whether or not such proceeds are already the subject of a freezing or seizing order: (i) When a person has been convicted in any jurisdiction of an offence referred to in paragraph 2 of this article and the court finds the proceeds in question to be the direct or indirect result of illicit traffic; (ii) Notwithstanding the absence of any prosecution or conviction, when the court, upon application on behalf of the Party or on behalf of another Party, is satisfied that the owner had knowledge that the proceeds were derived directly or indirectly from the illicit traffic in any jurisdiction or used for such traffic in any jurisdiction; (c) Ensure that in any criminal or civil proceeding concerning offences referred to in paragraph 2 of this article, or for a freezing or seizing order referred to in paragraph 3(a) of this article, or for an order of forfeiture referred to in paragraph 3(b) of this article, the court, in seeking to establish that the proceeds were knowingly derived directly or indirectly from the illicit traffic, shall take into consideration evidence establishing: (i) That a person, association of persons, corporation or other legal entity was connected with an offence referred to in paragraph 2 of this article; (ii) That at or about the same time, the person, association of persons, corporation or other legal entity acquired any proceeds; (iii) That in relation to the value of the proceeds the person, association of persons, corporation or other legal entity had no apparent legitimate source of income to justify their acquisition; (d) Ensure that any criminal or civil proceedings concerning offences referred to in paragraph 2 of this article, or for a freezing or seizing order referred to in paragraph 3(a) of this article, or for an order of forfeiture referred to in paragraph 3(b) of this article, will not be adversely affected by the fact that proceeds derived from or used in the illicit traffic are intermingled with property or assets acquired from legitimate sources. Forfeiture may be related to only that portion of the proceeds derived from or used in die illicit traffic. 4. The provisions of this article shall not be construed as prejudicing the rights or interests of legitimate third parties. Preparatory work 5 Article 4* EXTRADITION 1. This article shall apply to the offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of article 2 of this Convention. 2. Each of the offences to which this article applies shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing between Parties. Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them. 3. If a Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect of any offence to which this article applies. 4. Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize offences to which this article applies as extraditable offences between themselves, subject to the conditions provided for by the law of the requested Party. 5. A request for extradition with respect to any of the offences to which this article applies shall not be refused: (a) On the ground that the person sought is a national of the requested Party, unless such refusal is required by the constitution of the requested Party; (b) On the ground that the offence was committed outside the territory of the requesting Party if the offence was intended to have or had effects within the territory of the requesting Party; (c) On the ground that the offence was political in character or was politically motivated. 6. If extradition is refused, the requested Party shall have jurisdiction over the offence and shall without undue delay try the person whose extradition was refused in the same manner as in the case of an offence committed in its territory. 7. The Party in whose territory the offender is found shall also have jurisdiction over the offences committed outside its territory, if the Party in whose territory the offence was committed does not request extradition, provided that the offence is, in principle, extraditable and that the latter Party has full knowledge of the whereabouts of the offender, or if extradition was, without effect, offered to that Party. 8. The Parties agree that the existence of evidence providing reasonable grounds to believe that the person whose extradition is sought committed any of the offences to which this article applies shall be considered sufficient to support a request for extradition. 9. In cases of concurrent jurisdiction of the requesting and requested Parties over an offence to which this article applies, extradition shall not be refused if the requesting Party is in a better position to establish relevant facts and bring the offender to justice. 10. The Parties shall consider entering into bilateral and regional agreements to carry out or to enhance the effectiveness of extradition as a means of bringing to justice persons accused of offences to which this article applies. Article 5* MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE 1. Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall afford one another, upon request and in accordance with the provisions of this article, the widest measure of mutual legal assistance in all investigations, prosecutions and other judicial proceedings relating to offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of article 2 of this Convention which fall within the jurisdiction of the requesting Party. 2. The Parties undertake to adopt legislative and administrative measures as may be necessary within their domestic legal systems to ensure that effective assistance as envisaged in this article may be rendered to other Parties at their request. 3. Mutual legal assistance shall include, but not necessarily be limited to: (a) Taking evidence; (b) Effecting service of judicial documents and records; (c) Executing requests for searches and seizures; (d) Examining objects and sites; (e) Locating or identifying witnesses, suspects or other persons; (f ) Exchanging information and objects; (g) Providing relevant documents and records, including bank, financial, corporate and business records. 4. The Parties shall give favourable consideration to the possibility of: (a) Transferring to one another proceedings for criminal prosecution in cases where such transfer may help to ensure that all persons who commit offences punishable under this Convention are brought to justice; (b) Transferring persons in custody whose evidence is material to a prosecution or other judicial proceeding for testimonial purposes. 5. Each Party shall designate an appropriate authority to facilitate or execute requests for mutual legal assistance. The authority designated by each Party for this purpose shall be notified through the Secretary-General to all other Parties. Refers to element ( j ) . Refers to element (I). 6 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 6. The designated authorities shall communicate directly with each other for the execution of requests made under the provisions of this article. The designated authority shall, when necessary, appoint an agency to execute such requests. 7. Requests for mutual legal assistance shall be made in writing by the authority or by the agency of the requesting Party to the authority of die requested Party. 8. Requests for mutual legal assistance shall contain such information as the requested Party may require, including: (a) The title of the authority making the request; (b) The object of, and the reason for, the request; (c) An outline of any procedural requirements essential to the requesting Party; (d) Requirements for confidentiality, where necessary. 9. A request shall be executed in accordance with the law of the requested Party and, to the extent not precluded by the law of the requested Party, in accordance with the procedural requirements specified in the request. 10. The requesting Party shall not disclose or use information or evidence furnished by the requested Party for purposes other than those stated in the request without the prior consent of the requested Party. The requesting Party may require that the requested Party keep confidential the substance of the request except to the extent necessary to execute the request. 11. Mutual legal assistance may be refused: (a) If the request is not made in conformity with the provisions of this article; or (b) If the requested Party considers that execution of the request is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security or other essential interests. 12. Mutual legal assistance may be postponed on the ground that it interferes with an ongoing investigation or prosecution. In such a case, the requested Party shall consult with the requesting Party to determine if the assistance can be given subject to such terms and conditions as the requested Party deems necessary. 13. The Parties shall carry out their obligations under the provisions of this article in conformity with any treaties of mutual legal assistance that may exist between them and consider, as may be necessary, the possibility of concluding bilateral or regional agreements that would serve the purposes, and give practical effect to the provisions of, this article. Article 6* LAW ENFORCEMENT COOPERATION AND TRAINING 1. Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall cooperate closely Refers to element (a). with each other with a view to enhancing the effectiveness of law enforcement action to suppress the illicit traffic. They shall, in particular: (a) Establish and maintain channels of communication between law enforcement agencies, including customs services, to facilitate the secure and rapid exchange of information concerning, inter alia: (i) The identity, whereabouts and activities of known or suspected traffickers; (ii) The methods employed by traffickers; (iii) The movement of proceeds that may be derived from or used in the illicit traffic; (iv) The ownership and the utilization of means of transport suspected of being used in the illicit traffic; (b) Assist each other in conducting inquiries or obtaining evidence with respect to investigations concerning cases of illicit traffic. The transfer, in an expeditious manner, of samples of controlled substances for evidentiary or analytical purposes, shall be considered in appropriate cases.之犯罪行为有关并属于请求国管辖权的一切调查、起诉及其他司法程序。
2.2.
The Parties shall, to the extent necessary, initiate,各締约国承诺在其本国法律制度内采取可能必要之搢施以琮保在收到请求
develop or improve training programmes for their law后向其他締约国提供本条所设想之有效协助。
enforcement, customs and other personnel charged with3.相互法律协助应包括但不限于:
the suppression of the illicit traffic. Such programmes(a)取证;
shall deal, in particular, with the following:㈨提供司法文件及记录服务; (O执行搜查及缉获之请求; ⑷检查物品及现场; (e)找到或查明证人、搛疑犯或其他As 比)交换情报及物品; * 参看问题(f ) li fe) 提俣有关文件及记录,包括银行、尉务、公司及营业记录。 4.各締约国应赞同地考虑如下可能性:
(a) Methods used in the detection of the illicit traffic;(a)相互交换刑事检控议亭录,如其有助于保i将犯有本公约规定应予惩 处之罪行的人依法惩办;
(b) New routes and techniques used by traffickers,(b)转交被拘禁的Ai如其证词在检控或其他司法程序中作证时能起重要
particularly in transit States, and appropriate countermeasures;作用者。 5.每个締约国应指足一主管当局负责促进与办理相互法律协勤之请求。秘 书长应将每个缔约国为此目的指定之当局通知其他所有绪约国。
(c) Monitoring of the import and export of controlled6.为执行根据本条规定提出之请求,被指定当局应相互直接进行联系 被 指定当局如有必要,应指定一机构执行此类请求。
substances;7.相互法律协助之请求应由请求国的当局或机构以书面方式向被请求国的当
(d) Detection and monitoring of the flow of proceeds局提出。 8.相互法律协助之请求应包括被请求国可能需要的情私其中包括:
derived from or Used in the illicit traffic;(a)提出请求当局名称: (b)请求之目的及理由: (O请求国必备的任何诉讼要求摘要: ⑷必要的保密要求。
(e) Methods used in laundering such proceeds;9.请求应按照被请求国的法律并按照请求书中列明的诉讼要求在被请求国法
(f ) Collection of evidence.律允许的范围内进行。
3.10.
The Parties shall assist each other to plan and implement training programmes designed to share expertise,请求国如未事先得到被请求国同意,不得为除请求书中陈述之意图外的其
in particular, on:他意图而透露或利用被请求国提供的情报或证据。请求国可能要求除执行请求所
(a) The methodology of illicit traffic;需外对请求的实质加以保密。 11.相互法律协助在下列情况下可被拒绝: ⑷请求未按照本条之规定提出;或
(b) Methods used in laundering proceeds derived from(b)被请求国认为执行请求可能损害其主权、安全或其他根丰利益。
or used in the illicit traffic;12.相互法律协助可因与正在进行的调查或检控发生冲突而暂缓进行。在此
(c) Law enforcement techniques such as controlled情况下,被请求囯应与请求国磋商以决定是否可按照技请求国认为必须之条件提俣 -1 2 协助O
delivery, search techniques, forensic accounting, electronic surveillance and chemical analysis.13.各締约囯应根据它们间可能订立的任何相互法律协助条约以履行本条规定 之义务,并视需要考虑有无可能締结有助于实旋 本条之目的的双边或区域协定。
4.第 6 条* 执法合作与培调 1.
The Parties shall facilitate effective coordination在适当顾及缔约国宪法、法律及行政制度的情况下,各締约国间应密切合
between their respective law enforcement agencies and, in作以增强打击非法叛运的执法行动之效力。它们应特别 (a)建立及维持执法机构 包括关税部门之间的联络渠道,以便利特别与
that context, shall consider allowing the posting of liaison如下等方面有关的情报的安全而迅速的交流:
officers from other Parties within their borders and promoting the exchange of personnel and other experts on the(1)已知贩毒犯或搛疑犯的身份行踪及活动;
illicit traffic.⑵贩毒犯 之方法 ;
5. The Parties shall endeavour, directly or through⑶可能来自或用于非法贩运的收益的流动情况; (4)被怀疑用于非法贩运的运输工具的所有杈及使用情况,
competent international organizations, to establish programmes of technical cooperation for the benefit of all在调查非法贩运案件中,相互协助调查和收集证据工作。在特定情 况下应考虑以迅捷的方式转让受管制药物的样品供作证或分祈之用。 2.各締约国应在必要时为其负责取缔非法厥运的执法、海关及其他人员实施.
Parties, with due regard to the special needs of those Preparatory work 7-发展 或改善培训方案。这些培训方案应特别致力于:
which are transit States, to improve channels of communication and to provide technical aids when requested.(a)侦查非法厥运的方法;
6. The Parties shall consider entering into bilateral㈦贩毒犯特别在过境国便用的新路线和技术,以及适当的对付措沲 (c)监测受管制药物的进出口情况;
and regional agreements to promote cooperation aimed at⑷侦查和监测来自或周于非法叛运的收益的流动情况;
the suppression of the illicit traffic.(e)非法转移这类收益的方法;
7. The Parties shall envisage the organization of regular regional and international conferences and seminars forCf)收集证据。
law enforcement, customs and other personnel designed to* 参看问题(f ) -1 3 3.各締约国应相互协助拟订和执行用于分享特别与如下各方面有关的专门知
stimulate cooperation, allow discussion on problems of识的培训方案:
mutual concern, including the special problems of transit(a)非法贩运所采取的方法5 ⑶非法转移来自成周于非法贩运的收益fe方法; (O控制下交付、搜查技术、法医报告、电子监视以及化学分析等执法技
States, and exchange information on new trends in the术。 4.名缔约国应促透其执法机构间的有效协调,在这方面,应考虑允许在其边 界内设立其他締约国的衷络官弁促进交换主管非法M运的人员及其他专家。 5.各締约国应直接或通过主管国际组织设法刳订有利于所有结约国的技术合 作方案,并适当注意到过境国的特殊需要《以改进联络渠道和在需要时提供技术援版 6.各締约国应考虑締结双边及区域协定,以促进取締非法厥运方面的合作。 7.各締约国应考虑定期举办执法、诲关及其他人员的区域及国际会议*以鼓 励合作,讨论共同关心的问题,包括过境国的特殊问题《并交换有关非法厥运的新趋 势的情报及取締非法贩运的方法。
illicit traffic and methods used to suppress it. Article 7*笫7条*
CONTROLLED DELIVERY控制下交付
1.1.
Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and在适当顾及締约国宪法、@及行政制度的情况下,各締约国应采取必要
administrative systems, the Parties shall take the necessary措施以便容许适当使用控制下交付,以查明涉及装运、运输、交付、藏匿或接收受 管制药物的非法货品的个人、公司或其他法儿并对它们依法惩处。
measures to allow for the appropriate use of controlled2.为确保在国家和国际各级有效地协调控制下交付的使用,各締约国应考虑 指定一主管机构以进行协调工作。释书长应将每个締约国指定的机抅通知其他所
delivery in order to identify and bring to justice the individuals, corporations or other legal entities involved in the有締约国。
shipment, transportation, delivery, concealment or receipt* 参看问题 ㈨ ^ 14 3.应在各案件中逐一作出使用控制下交付的决定。 4.为确保控刽下交付自始至终保持应有的安全,各締约国应規定:
of illicit consignments of controlled substances.(a)对所运货扬不断进行监视; (b)在领土内出现任何损失的迫切危险的締约国必要时可进行干m
2. With a view to ensuring that the use of controlled(c)请求国的执法机钩采取的任何行动事先均应得到对控制下交付銜在领 域内有管辖杈的締约国的授扔
delivery may be effectively coordinated at the national(d)尽可能用无毒药物取货品中部或部分受管劍药物。 5.各締约国同意,如目的地国保证在完成控剝下交付后一叚合理时间内即对
and international levels, the Parties shall consider designating an appropriate authority for such coordination. The在其管辖范围内所犯之罪行提出起诉,来源国及任何过t:国的主管当局却应暂停对 因在其管辖范围内从亊非法货运而产生的犯馨行为的起诼 目的廸国应为来源国 或任何过境国对在这些国家管辖范围内新犯之罪行连行起诉提供现有的必要证揑。
authority designated by each Party for this purpose shall第8条*
be notified through die Secretary-General to all other监视或管制用于非法^t、或制造麻醉药品
Parties.或精神药物的特定化学品的措施 1.各締约国应在其各自领土内采取必要揞施防止特定化学品用于非法提炼或 制造麻醉药品或精神药物,并应按照本条之规定相互合作。 2.如一个締约国获得它认为可能需要将某一物质作为用于非法提炼或剝造麻 辞药品或精神药物的特定化学品而列入清单A和漬单B中的情孤它应通知秘书长 并附上作为通知旁证的资科。
3.3.
Decisions to use controlled delivery shall be made秘书长应将此项通知连同其认为有关之资料转与各締约国及麻委会。各締
on a case-by-case basis.约国应将它们对通知的意见以及可能有助于麻委会采取决定的全部补充资料通知秘
4. In order to ensure that appropriate security is maintained throughout the controlled delivery, the Parties shall书长。
provide:4.麻委会在考虑了各締约国的意见弃铭记住它可能认为有关的所有因素后,
(a) That the consignment be under continuous surveillance;*参看问题⑷ ^ 15 可以其成员国三分之二多数票表决将某一药物列入清皁A或清单B。
(b) That the Party in whose territory any immediate5.按照本条作出的任何麻委会决定,应由秘书长通知联合国全体会员国、参加 本公约的所有员国以及麻管局。这一决定自逞知之日起1 8 0天后即对每个
risk of loss arises intervenes as necessary;締约国完全生效。 6. (a)根捏本_出的麻委会决定在发出决定通知之日起1 8 0天内,如有
(c) That any action by law enforcement agencies of任一締约国提出请求,理亭会财该决定进行审查。审查请求应连 同提出该请求所根据秘部有关资科送交秘书爸
the requesting Party be subject to the prior authorization(b)秘书长应将审查请求及全部有关资料的副本转给全倍簿约国,请其于 9 0天内提出意见 收到的贺有意见应送交理事会审议;
of the Party having jurisdiction over the territory in which(O g事会可确來更改或撤销庖委会的决定。有关理事会决定的逞知 应转给袞合国全体会员国、非会员国中的公约缔约国、后委会及麻管
the controlled delivery takes place;局o 7.如某一締约国有材转证明应将某一特定化学品从清单A或清单B中罚除,
(d) That all or part of the controlled substances in the则本条笫2 — 6款中贺述之倦:法在经过适当交芴中可适用。 8.各締约国应参考采取符合其国内法之揞总以批准,或招瓦管飼国丙制
illicit consignment be replaced whenever possible with造和使用特定化学品,包括禁止在无合法胬要制造或使用的攰方进行剝造和使用。 9.关于清单A中的特定化学品,各締约国应
innocuous substances.(a)将其逬出口仅限于合法胬吳
5. The Parties agree that the appropriate authorities of(t»替要主管当局批准其逬出口; (c)事先向到迖国通报这批出口品的性质、数量及收货人;
the country of origin and any transit country shall suspend(d)要求进出口商将逬出口记录至少保存五年,并应隨时由主管当局检查; (e)要求对所装运货物正确貼上标签;
the prosecution of offences arising from the illicit consignment committed within their jurisdiction, provided that(f)鼓励生产商、逬出口商及最终用户向当局报告可疑的进出口货物 ,
the country of destination undertakes to initiate prosecution for offences committed within its jurisdiction within(g)在有理由怀疑装运之货欤将被用于非法提炼或剝造麻辟药品或積神药
a reasonable period of time upon completion of the controlled delivery. The country of destination shall provide物时,通知货物的目的地国;
such evidence as is available and is necessary for prosecution in the country of origin, or in any transit country,(H)缴获非法进出口货物。
for offences committed within the, jurisdiction of such10.关于清单B中的特定化学品,各締约国应: 16 (a)要求进出口货物应贴上适当标签,并提供适当证件。证件中应包括
countries.进口或出口的特定化学品的非专利名称、进口或出口的發量、进口商、
Article 8*出口商及最后收货人的姓名及廸址以及进口或出口所胬的絮限;
MEASURES TO MONITOR OR CONTROL SPECIFIC CHEMICALS(b)旻求(a)项所指的进口和岀口品的记录至少保存五年,并隨时提供主管
USED IN THE ILLICIT PROCESSING OR MANUFACTURE OF当局桧査; (O鼓励生产商、进出口商及最终用户向当局报告可疑的进出口货物;
NARCOTIC DRUGS OR PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES(d)对贸易造行监测以査明可疑交易; (e)在有理由怀疑装运之货物将核用于非法提炼或刳造寐鋅药品或籍神 药物酎,通知货场的目的地国; (f)緯茨M这类特定化学品,如有充分证揑证明其将被用于非法贩运者。 11.各締约国应将査明的实除或准备非法制造薛薛药品或轺神药物的全部累件, 包括缉获或使用的特定化学品的矣型及聍类、它们的已知来諒以及涉及的铜造过程 的情报通知鹿管局。 笫9条* 材料及设备
1.1.
The Parties shall take all necessary measures within their respective territories to prevent the diversion of各締约国应通力合作,取締准备用于制造麻薛药品及精神药物的材料与设
specific chemicals used in the illicit processing or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances and备的贸易。
shall cooperate with each other in conformity with the2.各締约国应要求事先向主管当局报告进口制片机或胶囊包装机之荩图。如将这类机器向另一締约国出口,输出国应将交易的具体馆况遒知目的地国。
provisions of this article.3.各締约国应考虑要求:
2. Where a Party has information which, in its opinion, may require the inclusion of a substance in List A(a)向主管当局登记制片机及胶衮包装机;
or List B as a specific chemical used in the illicit processing or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic⑶通知上述当局这类机器的国内销售量或其他处理情况。
substances, it shall notify the Secretary-General and fiirnish him with the information in support of that notification.参看问题(m ) ^ 17 笫1 0条*
3. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to根除非法狩植的麻醉品植物的措施
the Parties and to the Commission.1.
The Parties shall communicate their comments concerning the notification to各締约国应采取适当搢施防止非法秄植,异采取有效行动根除可能在其领
the Secretary-General and all supplementary information土上矜植之任何罌粟、古柯及大麻植物。应充分宣视生犊及生态方面的考虑。
which may assist the Commission in taking a decision.2.各締约国应通力合作,提高根除活动的效力,包括作物取代技术和乡村综
4. The Commission, taking into account the comments submitted by Parties and bearing in mind all the合发展,并考虑到可用于这些活动的资源的稃类及其范围以及非法秄植地区的社会
factors it may consider relevant, may decide by a vote of经济条件/ 有共同边界_约国应设法在沿边界廸区实行的摄除方案中进行合作.
two-thirds majority of its members to include a substance第 11 条 * *
in List A or List B.商亚承运人
5.1.
Any decision of the Commission taken pursuant to各締约国应承诺加强囯际港口的安全并保iiE采取适当搢施使商业承运人经
this article shall be communicated by the SecretaryGeneral to all States Members of the United Nations, to all营之运辁工具不被用于非法娱运。这类措旄中应包括对技疑有非法厥运记捱之所
non-member States which are Parties to this Convention,有运-工具进行顆底搜查,
and to the Board.2.
Such decision shall become fully effective with respect to each Party 180 days after the date of各締约国应要求商业承运人采取合理预防措尨防止其运铪工具被周于从事
such communication.非法奴运,并应对未这特傲的给予适当惩罚。如验明商业承运人已知其被用于进
6. (a) The decisions of the Commission taken under行非法敫运,则惩罚中应包括可能没收运输工具。但如已采取各拧合理预防措施
this article shall be subject to review by the Council upon而倾之非法_为托运人所曲觯者,则商业承U不承担贲&
the request of any Party filed within 180 days after the3.各締约国应力求殡保商业承运人:
date of notification of the decision. The request for review(a)调务其人员以识别可疑之货运或可疑
shall be sent to the Secretary-General together with all(b)限制接近国际港口的运输工具及货物;
relevant information upon which the request for review is(c)提髙雇员之品质;
based;⑷尽可能在抵达港口前提供货物龁单;
(b) The Secretary-General shall transmit copies of the* 参看问题⑶
request for review and all the relevant information to the«参看问题(e) -1 8 (e)尽可能安排好运输工 达时间,以便有效地办理海关手练
Commission and to all the Parties, inviting them to submit(f)在集装箱上加盖可以单独验证的防堵塞卷印记。
comments within 90 days.4.
All comments received shall be各締约11同意,为彻底搜查非法厥运证据而推迟商业飞机起飞时间不得被
submitted to the Council for consideration;视为不合理。为保持适航状态必要时应在合格维修人员协助下进行搜查。
Refers to element ( j ) .5 .本条中之任何内容不得被解释为措斥商业承运人为防止勒取締非法厥运而
Refers to element (I). 8 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances与洚关或执法机构订立特别安据。
(c) The Council may confirm, alter or reverse the笫1 2条*
decision of the Commission. Notification of the Council's海上非法厥运
decision shall be transmitted to all Member States of the1.各缔约国应尽可能充分合作以取締海上非法M运受管制药物。
United Nations, to non-member States which are Parties to2.凡有正当理由怀疑根据其法律登记的船只祓用于进行受管制药巷的非法殿
this Convention, to the Commission and to the Board.运的缔约国,可请汞其他締约国访助其取締被用于此呑目的。被请求国应尽其可
7. The procedure described in paragraphs 2-6 of this能提误此竚援助。
article shall also apply, mutatis mutandis, when a Party3.凡有正当理由认为某一般只正如联合国海洋法公约第 七编中所确定的正在
has information supporting the deletion of a specific公海上从事非法殿运的締约国可上般、搜查并扣押该轻,如杲:
chemical from List A or List B.— (a)该轻是拔摆其法律登记者;或
8. The Parties shall consider taking measures, consistent with their domestic laws, to license or otherwise control domestic manufacture and use of specific chemicals,(b)该缔约国已谋求并获得登记国的允诺者,或
including prohibiting such manufacture or use where there(0该船未挂登记旗或标志者,
is no licit need for it.4.締约国应以迅捷之方式或答复另一缔约国的请求,以便为了本条第3款之
9.目的,确定船只是否在其法律下登记.
With respect to specific chemicals in List A, each或答复根据该款規定提出的要求允诺的请求。
Party shall:各结约国应指定一个机构接受并办理这类请求。秘书长应将各缚约国为此目的而
(a) Limit import and export to licit needs;指定之书凼通知其他所有締约国。
(b) Require that import and export be licensed by参看问题(j ) ^ 19 5.査获非法贩运证据后.扣押船只之締约国应按下述情况对般只及船上人员
appropriate authorities;采取适当行动:
(c) Inform in advance other Parties to whom exports(a)它自身的法律要求,如该船系根据其法律登记者 或
are destined of the nature, quantities and consignees of(d)适用的现有双边条约,或辑莸时与登记国达成的任何协定或安排。
such exports;6.只有登记国有权对本条第5款(b)所指的协定或安排的性质与效力提出置疑。
(d) Require that records of imports and exports be7.各締约国应考虑締结双边及区域协定以执行本条的规定弁扩大其效力。
maintained by importers and exporters for at least five第1 3条*
years and be available for inspection by appropriate authorities; (e) Require correct labelling of shipments; (f ) Encourage producers, importers, exporters and end-users to inform authorities of suspicious imports or exports; (g) Notify the Party of destination of a shipment when there are grounds to suspect that the shipment will be used for illicit processing or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances; (h) Seize illicit imports and exports. 10. With respect to specific chemicals in List B, each Party shall: (a) Require that imports and exports be properly labelled and documented. Documentation shall include the non-proprietary name of the specific chemicals being imported or exported, the quantity being imported or exported, the name and address of the importer, exporter and ultimate consignee, and the period during which the import or export is to take place; (b) Require that records of imports and exports referred to under subparagraph (a) be maintained at least five years and be made available for inspection by appropriate authorities; (c) Encourage producers, importers, exporters and end-users to inform authorities of suspicious imports or exports; (d) Monitor trade in order to identify suspicious transactions; (e) Notify the Party of destination of a shipment when there are grounds to suspect that the shipment will be used for the illicit processing or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances; (f ) Seize any such specific chemicals if there is sufficient evidence that they are intended for illicit use. 11. The Parties shall notify the Board of all detected cases of actual or intended illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, including information on the types and quantities of specific chemicals seized or used, their origin, if known, and the manufacturing process involved. Article 9* MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 1. The Parties shall cooperate to suppress trade in materials and equipment intended for use in the manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. 2. The Parties shall require that the intention to export a tableting or encapsulating machine be reported in advance to an appropriate authority. If such a machine is to be exported to another Party, the authority of the Party of origin shall notify the Party of destination of the particulars of the transaction. 3. The Parties shall consider requiring: (a) The registration with the appropriate authority of tableting and encapsulating machines; (b) The notification to said authority of the domestic sale or other disposition of such machines. Article 10** MEASURES TO ERADICATE NARCOTIC PLANTS CULTIVATED ILLICITLY 1. The Parties shall take effective action to eradicate any opium poppy, coca bush and cannabis plants that may be cultivated illicitly in their territories. 2. The Parties shall cooperate to increase the effectiveness of eradication efforts, taking into account the various types and extent of resources available to them. Parties with common frontiers shall seek to cooperate in eradication programmes in areas along those frontiers. Article 11*** COMMERCIAL CARRIERS 1. The Parties shall undertake to increase security at international ports and to ensure by appropriate measures that means of transport operated by commercial carriers are not used in the illicit traffic. Such measures shall Refers to element (m). Refers to element (k). Refers to element (e). Preparatory work 9 include thorough searches of all means of transport suspected of containing evidence of illicit traffic. 2. The Parties shall require commercial carriers to take reasonable precautions to prevent the use of their means of transport for illicit traffic and shall impose adequate penalties for failure to do so. Penalties shall include the possible forfeiture of the means of transport if it is established that the commercial carrier had knowledge that it was used for illicit traffic. Nevertheless, provided all reasonable precautions have been taken, the commercial carrier shall not be held responsible if the illicit nature of the shipment has been misrepresented by the consignor. 3. The Parties shall seek to ensure that commercial carriers: (a) Train their personnel to identify suspicious shipments or persons; (b) Limit access to means of transport and cargo at international ports; (c) Promote employee integrity; (d) Provide cargo manifests in advance of arrival in port, when possible; (e) Schedule, when possible, the arrival of means of transport so as to facilitate effective customs processing; (f ) Use tamper-proof individually verifiable seals on containers. 4. The Parties agree that it shall not be considered unreasonable to delay the departure of a commercial aircraft in order to undertake a thorough search for evidence of illicit traffic. Searches shall be conducted with the assistance of qualified maintenance personnel when necessary in order to maintain air worthiness. 5. Nothing in this article shall be construed so as to preclude a commercial carrier from concluding special arrangements with a customs or law enforcement agency to prevent or suppress the illicit traffic. Article 12* ILLICIT TRAFFIC BY SEA 1. The Parties shall cooperate to the fullest extent possible to suppress the illicit traffic in controlled substances by sea. 2. A Party which has reasonable grounds to suspect that a vessel registered under its laws is being used for the illicit traffic in controlled substances may request the assistance of other Parties in suppressing its use for that puipose. Parties so requested shall render such assistance, within the means available to them. 3. A Party which has reasonable grounds to believe that a vessel is engaged in illicit traffic and is on the high seas as defined in Part VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea may board, search and seize such a vessel if: (a) The vessel is registered under its laws; or (b) That Party seeks and receives permission from the Party of registry; or (c) The vessel is not displaying a flag or markings of registry. 4. A Party shall respond in an expeditious manner to requests from another Party to determine, for the purposes of paragraph 3 of this article, whether a vessel is registered under its laws, and to requests for permission made pursuant to the provisions in that paragraph. Each Party shall designate an authority to receive and act upon such requests. The authority designated by each Party for this purpose shall be notified through the Secretary-General to all other Parties. 5. Where evidence of illicit traffic is found, the Party having custody of the vessel shall take appropriate action with respect to the vessel and persons on board, in accordance with: (a) Its own judicial requirements if the vessel is registered under its laws; or (b) Existing bilateral treaties, where applicable, or any agreement or arrangement otherwise reached at the time of seizure with the Party of registry. 6. The right to challenge the nature or effect of the agreement or arrangement referred to in paragraph 5(b) of this article shall rest exclusively with the Party of registry. 7. The Parties shall consider entering into bilateral and regional agreements to cany out, or to enhance the effectiveness of, the provisions of this article. Article 13* FREE TRADE ZONES AND FREE PORTS 1. The Parties shall apply measures to suppress the illicit traffic in controlled substances in free trade zones and in free ports substantially equivalent to or more stringent than those applied in other parts of their territories. 2. The Parties shall endeavour: (a) To monitor the movement and transshipment of goods in free trade zones and free ports, and, to that end, empower appropriate authorities to search incoming and outgoing vessels, including pleasure craft and fishing vessels, as well as aircraft and vehicles; (b) To establish a detection system to identify suspicious substances passing in or out of those areas; (c) To maintain patrols in harbour and dock areas and at airports and border control points in those areas; Refers to element (j). Refers to element (I). 10 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (d) To provide for special training of the officials in charge of control in those areas. Article 14* PREVENTION OF THE USE OF THE MAILS FOR ILLICIT TRAFFIC 1. In conformity with their obligations under the Conventions of the Universal Postal Union, and having due regard for their constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall adopt measures to suppress Refers to element (n). the use of the mails for illicit traffic and shall cooperate with each other to that end.自由贸易区及自由港
2. Measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this article1:各締约国应执行取締在自由贸易区及自由港骓法叙运受管制药物的搢旌,
shall include, but may not be limited to:这些搢施基本上应与在它们领土其他部分执行的揞旄相同,或更为严厉。 2.各^^国应设法:
(a) A coordinated preventive and repressive action to(a)监测货场在自由贸易区及自由港的流动与换般,弁为此目的,授权主
discourage the use of the mails for illicit traffic;管当局搜查出入瘵只,包括游盈及渔羟,以及飞机及车转 ㈦建宜侦查系统以查明进出这些区域的可疑药物;
(b) Introducing and maintaining investigative techniques designed to detect controlled substances in the(0在这些区域的港口及码头区以及机场扫边境检査站设避逻队
mails;('i)現定对在这些坨区负责管制的官员进行特别训练。
(c) Legislative measures designed to enable the use of第1 4条** 防止利用邮件进行非法奴运 1.根据其参加万国邮政联盟各项公约承担之义务,并适当顾及其宪法、法律
appropriate means to secure evidence required for judicial* 参看问题CL) 躲##问题(n ) ^ 20 及行政制度,各締约国应采取措施取締利用邮件进行非法殿运,并应为此目的而相
proceedings.互合作。 2.本条第1款所指措施应包括但不限于: (a)采取协调的预防及取締行动以阻止利用邮件进行非法败运; (b)实施和维持旨在侦查邮件中的受管制药物的调査技术5 CO制订立法措施以促使采用适当手段来获得司法程序所需之证据。 1 见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1986年,补编第3号》(E/1986/23),第5-32 段。 21 文件E/CN,7/1988/2(第二部分)和(第四部分) 拟订禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约萆案的 政府间可自由参加的专家组会议报告
DOCUMENTS E/CN.7/1988/2 (PART II) AND (PART IV)文件E/CN.7/1988/2(第二部分)*
Report of the open-ended intergovernmental expert group meeting on政府间可自由参加的专家组会议
the preparation of a draft convention against illicit traffic第一届和第二届会议报告
in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances第一章 会议背景和安排 A.会议背景 1. 联大在其 1984 年 12 月 14 日第 3 9/ 1 员会通过经济及社会理事会开始拟订新的《禁it非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约 草案》 为了促进实现这一目标 委员会在其1 9 8 6年2月14日第1(3—工勾 号决议中确定了列入公约初步草案的1 4项内容并请秘书长拟订这样一个草案,以 分发给各国政府征求意见.1 9 8 7年2月委员会第三十二届会议审议了公约草 案和各国政府关于该草案的意见. 2 由麻醉药品委员会第三十二届会议作为草案提交的并由经济及社会理事会 于1 9 8 7年5月2 7日通过的第1 9 8 7/ 2 7号决议中,请秘书长编写一份工 作文件,综合公约草案初稿、各国政府迄今对该草案提出的意见以及委员会第三十 二届会议对草案的审议结果;该工作文件还应包括序言部分草案、有关执行办法的 * 不包括附件及与其有关的更正。 [原件:英文] [1987车 0 月 23 日] 41号决议中请麻醉药品委 ^ 22 一节和最后条款草案 理事会还请秘书长在1 9 8 7年5月1日前向各国分发该 工作文件,并决定政府间可自由参加的专家组如有必要应在1 9 87年举行两次会 议,以审查该工侔文件,和如有可能就公约条款达成协议并编写经修订的工作文件. 委员会的该决议草案所建议的该工你文件分发期限(1 9 8 7年5月1日) 早于将审议该决议草案的经济及社会_会第一届常会(1 9 8 7年5月4日至29 日).在病定这一日期时,委员会受到下述因素的影响,即在确定拟订公约草案 的确切时限时必须双及早转交该工作文件.因此,在期待理事会核准该决议草 案时,麟药品司编写了所要求编写的工作文件. 4..考虑到时限,并预期经济及社会理事会会提出要求.秘书长以1 9 8 7年 4月2 9日说明UAR/Ci. 5/1987为封页将该工作文件分发各国.在同一侧 中,秘书长请各国政府表明它们是否将参加政府间可自由参加的专家组。 B,会议安排 第一届会议 5 审议禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约草案的政府间可自由参加的专 宏组第一届会议于1 9 87年6月29日至7月1 0日在维也纳国际中心举行了会 议.出席专家组会议的有来自下列5 7个国家的1 3 5名专家:阿富汗、阿根廷、 澳大利I奥地利、贝宁、玻利维亚、巴西、保加利亚、加拿大、智利、中国、哥 伦比亚、哥斯达黎加、科特迪瓦、古巴、捷克斯洛似、丹麦、埃及、埃塞俄比亚、 芬兰、法国、德意志民主共和国、德意志联邦共和国、危地马拉、匈牙利、印度、 印度尼西亚、意大利、日本、约旦、科威特、马达加斯加、马来西亚、马里、墨西 哥、摩洛哥、荷兰、新西兰、尼日利亚、挪威、阿曼、已拿马、秘鲁、菲律宾、波 兰葡萄牙、塞内加尔,西班牙、斯里兰卡、瑞典、瑞士、土耳其/苏维埃社会主 义共和国联盟、大不列顛及北爱尔兰族合王国、美利坚合众国、委内瑞拉和越南. 6. 在 1 9 8 7年6月2 9日第一次会议上,专家组以鼓掌方式选出下列主席 团成员: -2 3 Enrique Pare jo Gonzalez (哥伦比亚) Gioachino Polimeni (意大利) E.A.Babayan (苏联) Maurice Raadrianame (马达加斯加) Hema Weerasinghe (斯里兰卡) 7.专家组在其第一次会议上双过了其临时议程(DUIVDCIT/I )和暂 定时间表(DBDyDCIT/2/Rev.l). 在通过其时间表时,专家组决定,如时 间许可 将按下列顺序审查各条款:第1 4、1 3、6、1 0、7、8、9、11、 12 、 2 、 3 、 4 , 5和1条,然后是执行条款、序言和最后条款 大家理觯, 由于时间限制和任务复杂 不大可能在为期两周的第一次会议上进行全面审查 8 专家组收到了秘书长编写的工作文件(DND/DCTT/WP.1 和Corr.l和Add.l ) , 并在其第一届会议期间举行的20次全体会议上审议了该文件。— 9.专家组在第一届会议审议过程中,审议了第6、7、9、10、1 1、12、 1 3和1 4条和结束了对这些条款的讨论,开始讨论第2条并同意重新起草第8条, 以此作为其下一次会议进一步讨论的基础:就公约草案的序言、执行措施和最后条 款初步交换了意见 专家组讨论的情况.凡涉及最后核准或建议列入修订草案的 案文变动*逐条反映在第二章中 1 9 87年7月1 0日第一届会议的最后一次 会议上 专家组就这些条款草案的案文取得一致意见,这些条款或经协商一致修正 或在不能取得完全一致意见的情况下列明建议列入的各种备选案文. 10.在那次会议上,专家组还请秘书处损据经济及社会理事会第1 9 8 7X2 7 号决议笫4段作出必要安排,以便于1 0月5日至1 6日举行政府间可自由参加的 专家组第二届会议,继续审查公约草案的其余条款. 第二届射义 1 L专象组第二届会议按计划于1987年10月5日至16日、召开 并举行 了 1 9次全体会议 出席专家组第二届会议的有来自以下6 5个国家的1 8 3位 主席: 第一副主席: 第二副主席: 第三副主席: 报告员: ^ 24 专家:阿根廷、澳大利亚、奥地利、贝宁、被利维亚、博茨瓦纳、巴西、保加利亚、 加拿大、智利、中国、哥伦比亚、哥斯达黎加、科特迪瓦、古巴、捷克維伐克、 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国、丹麦、厄瓜多尔、埃及、埃塞俄比亚、芬兰、法国、德 意志民主共和国、德意志联邦共和国、加纳、希腊、几内亚、罗马教廷、匈牙利、 印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗、意大利、牙买加、日本、约良卢森堡、马达加斯加、 马来西亚、墨西哥、摩洛哥、荷兰、新西兰、尼日利亚、挪威、巴拿马、巴拉圭、 綠,莽律宾、波兰、基内加尔、西班牙、斯里兰卡、苏丹、瑞典、瑞士、突尼斯、 土耳其、.乌克兰苏维埃社会主义共和国、苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟、大不列颠及 北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国、乌拉圭和委内端拉.第二届会议的与会情况 也在与会者名单中注明(见附件二)。 12 专家组在1 9 8 7年1 0月5日其第二届会议第一次会议上注意到第一届 会议选出的主席团成员中有四名可出席第二届会议.鉴于第三副主席(马达加斯 加)不能出席本届会议 一致同意宜进行补选 因此,专家组在1 98 7年1 0 月6日其第二届勃义第三次会议上以鼓掌方式选出克里斯托弗.阿克利先生顶宁) 担任第三副主席一职. 13.专家组收到了一份临时议程(DB]VDCrrZ4)和暂定时间表(DBD/ DCIev.2),其中载有议程顼目和对其在第一届会议上收到的条款草案的 审议顺序建议 专宏组继续以上文第8段所提到的工作文件作为其讨论的基础 专家组在第二届射义期间还收到了其第一届M的临时报告(DBII/DCIX/WP.12). 14.在第二届会议的计论过程中,专家组审议了第2、2之二、8和1 1"之二 条.和结束了对这些条款的讨论,并结束了对第3和4条的一般性辩论.鉴于在 现有时间内不可能审查第1和5条,也无法进一步审议第3和4条、序言、执行措 施和最后条款,会议协商一致希望召开第三届会议以完成其工作.如经批准,第 三届会议可在麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议临召开之前举行.会是有益的. 15 在1 9 8 7年1 0月1 6日最后一次会议上,专家组核准了第2、2之二、 8和1 1之二条草案的修订案文.这些条款的草案的修订案文或经协商一致修正, 或在不能达成完全一致意见的情况下在方括号中列明备选案文.然后专家组通过 ^ 25 了其报告 并指示经其第一届和第二届会议核准的所有条款草案的修订案文均应列 入其报告附件 第二章 审查公约草案 第2条 笫一届会议 16 . 一些代表认为笫二条的标题并没有反映该条全部实质性内容,有人建议将 标题修正如下:“犯罪、制裁和管辖权”。 17 . —些代表强调,应当删除第1款引言句中的限制性分句,因为这类限制性 语言将会产生使公约基本条款之一遭到削弱的不良影响,也不符合其他国际刑法文 书中通常公认的惯例;各囯惩罚非法贩运的承诺应当是强制性的。某些代表建议 在引言句中采用如早些时侯就第7、 13和14条所决定的备择限制性分句如下: 在符合其国家法律制度基本原则的情况下”,以使各国在按本条的严格规定调整本 国立法方面具有一定灵活性。 18.有人认为,只有笫1款⑷项才应受类似于《1 9 6 1年公约》第3 6条的 限制性分句的制约,即受宪法限制规定、法律制度和国内法的制约,因为对本条所 包括的各种犯罪行为往往会有不同的解释。 19.某些代表认为只有国际犯罪行为才属本公约范围,因此建议在笫1款中采 用“国际”一词。 20c某些代表认为最好首先审查(a)至(d)项的规定再扳据后来重新拟订的条文决 定在引言句中采用何科限制性分句,如果有的话。 21.在采用什么标准确定犯罪行为是否“严重”的问题上,代表们发表了不同 的意见。在这方面,一些代表指出了犯罪的环境、所涉贩运的规模、对社会秩序 的破坏了社会和个人的健康遭到的威胁都是拟考虑的可能因素。一些代表赞成删 除形容词《严重,’,因为不太严重的案例可能构成笫1款⑷至⑷项项下的犯罪行为。 26 另一位代表重视保留该形容词,因为这样可以请各国按犯罪行为的明确严重程度实 行相应的严厉制裁。 22.专家组按照初步案文中的措辞通过了笫1款(a)项,但有一项谅解,即应在 莬一条中对“非法贩运” 一词下定义,而麻醉药品委员会非正式工作组建议的定义 仍需经专家组审查。 23.一些代表指出,笫1款(b)项中提及的活动不应构成单独的犯罪行为,而应 仅作为同谋予以恁处。 24.若干代表认为,(b)项中指明的活动被视为犯罪行为的条件应是有意进行这 些活动并且知悉其非法目的。还有人建议,在确定该罪行时,必须考虑到的因素 是其是否事先知悉材料和设备实际上用于非法生产和制造活动。一些代表指出, 执行该项中的规定有困难,因为这些规定主要涉及与非法生产或制造麻醅药品和精 神药物的筹备阶段有关的活动。 25.专家组同意该顼应指‘‘受管制药物",从而限制其应用范围。 26.专家组同意将第3条笫2款有关取得、持有、转让或隐藏財产的更为综合 的规定纳入第1款(c颅之中,并据理解可以删除第3条第2款的规定,以避免重复。 有人建议还应提及射产的使用问题,原第1款(c)项中有关将这类财产用于非法贩运 活动的提法应予保留。 27.若干代表指出,确定并限制笫1款⑷项的适用范围是十分困难的,因为, 按照目前起草的措辞,可能会造成不合理的扩大范lo 28.若干代表建议,应在第2款开头一句中插入一个限制性分句,因为其所涉 及的制裁属国家主权范lo 有人建议,第2款的规定应服从各締约国的宪法限制、 g制度以及国内法。 29.若干其他代表考虑到贩运麻醉品犯罪行为的严重性,因而支持所起草的第 2款规定;他们认为,其中设想的各项揞施表明了各国必须采取的用以对付贩运麻 薛品活动的革新刑事搢施。因此,如果采用限制性分句,就会缩小所设想的制裁 手段的威慑效果。 ^ 33 30.若干代表认为,第2款规定的制裁应十分严厉使足以获得预期的威慑效果。 应৿对笫1款列举的严重犯罪行为在刑法中规定相应的严厉惩罚手段。若干代表 V* 坚持认为,新公约中设想的刑事搢施应起过《单一公约》第3 6条和《精神药物公 约》第2 2条所规定的刑事搢施。在这方面,若干代表极力支持将罚款制裁和没 收财产及收益的规定列入所审议的本款之中。 31 . —些代表建议删除第2款(a)至(d)项;该规定应仅仅指出,第1款列举的各 项犯罪行为应受到适当的愆罚,而不必提及制裁的方式,因为这将会造成不同法律 制度下解释上和应用上的困难。如果按照初步案文的措辞,不列举各种犯罪行为 和制裁方式,就可不需要限制性分句,因为在这种情况下便可由各该国根据其各自 的国家法律制度来确定制裁方式。 32.其他一些代表支持在第2款(a)至(d)项中列举^^犯罪行为和制裁方式,但 同时建议应以“任何下列......”等字样,以便清楚地表明,所列各项制裁仅系各 国在制定国家立法时可采用的各类制裁的例子,但这些例子既非详尽无遗,也并非 对一切情况都适用。 33 . —位代表建议,应增列死刑,作为一种可能的制裁,这取决于犯罪行为的 M和严重程度,并服从締约各国宪法限制、法律制度和国内法。若干代表强烈 反对该项建议,并表示在道义上坚决反对死刑,同时强调,联合国已采取了支持废 除死剤的立场并已明确表明了持这种立场的理由。 34.若干代表指出,初步草稿没有清楚表明,第2款(a)项中规定的剥夺自由和 % 2款(b)项中规定的处以罚款或罚金是否应认为是备择制裁,还是其用意在于同时 实行这两种惩罚。 35.若干代表指出,应当澄清“以其他形式剥夺自由” 一语的含义。有人建 议,应找出另一神较能被接受的措词,以反映拟要提到的取代监禁的搢施。 36.若干代表表示,对提及制裁时英文本使用“ liable to ”一词持有保 留意见,因为在《单一公约》笫3 7条里的相同措词已引起不同的解释。 37.专家组对第2款的初步讨论结束时表示同意,笫2款应指出,对本条第1 述各项犯罪行为应考虑到犯罪行为的严重性而处以惩罚。 ^ 28 38.专家组还同意,在笫2条中列举监禁、以其他形式剥夺自由和没收货物或 财产作为可能的制裁以供进一步审议。 39.专家组还决定,在同一问题上审议一位代表按照《皁一公约》笫3 7条起 草的建议,以及一项关于使笫1款所提到的犯罪行为受罚款制裁和决收制裁的特别 建议。 40. —位代表介绍了工作文件笫2 7 2段和2 7 3段所载他的政府的建议,其 大意是,应分别增加以下内容的两项,一是关于在非法贩运中被缉获的受管制药物 的销毁手段,一是关于在麻醉品滥用者犯有第1款中提到的犯罪行为之一时,除判 罪或刑罚以外的或是作为判罪或刑罚替代措施的其他搢施规定。 41. 一些代表在评论第3款时,提到一些国家可能遇到的法律问题,在这些国 家里,加重犯罪行为的情况理所当然地受到其法院的考虑,但却不一定反映在其囯 家立法之中。还有人指出,尽管本款所列加重犯罪行为的情况中有一些属一般性 质,但其他一些情減具有的特殊性使它们不适用于某些国家。 42. 一位代表认为,为了加强引言句的措词份量,应将“在可能时”字样删去。 另一位代表建议在上述字样之后加上“和需要时”。 43.若干代表说,应将屡犯的概念列入该款中,因为这是加重犯罪行为的情况 的一个最重要方面。在这个问题上,有人建议,应加上“屡犯”一词;另有人建 议值得提及‘‘不论是在国外还是在国内根据第1款的先前判罪”。 44.有人建议修正(a)项为:“参与其他有组织的国际犯罪活动。” 45.关于(c)项,有人建议其规定不仅应适用于担任公取的罪犯,而且亦应适用 于在私营部门工作的罪还有人建议,应将其搢词修正为:“在囯际上滥用政 府机构或公职。” 46.关于(d)项,有从议,除使未成年人“受害”之外,还应般“受利用” 以及使残疾人或在精神或身体上患有疾病者受害和受利用。另有人建议,还应考 虑到犯罪行为发生在靠近诸如学校或残疾人康复中心这类未成年人或残疾人频繋出 入逗留的地方的这一情况。 29 第二届会议 47.专家组继续对第二条进行审议,以原草案和在适当情况下以笫一届会议期 间重新拟订的备选条文作为讨论第一款和第二款的基础。 48.会议就是否保留第一款引言句中的限制性劣吻发表了不同的意见。有一 些代表强调,任何限制性语言均会产生使公约基本条款之一遭到削弱的不良效果。 各国承诺惩罚非法贩运应是强制性的,公约的各締约国按本条规定调整其囯内立法。 49.有一代表则认为,某些国家由于其宪法和法律制度可能很难充分而有效地 实施本条的某些广泛规定。因此,某种形式的限制性条款仍属必要。 50.还有一些代表认为,在笫一款中只保留一个限制性条款并不是最好的办法。 不同项下的规定应受适应其实质内容和所涉法律问题的不同限制性条款的制约。这 一办法将把某些国家在实施某些规定的过程中出现的特定问题考虑在内。 51.有一些代表提议,原草案笫一款中出现的“严重的”一词应予删去,因为 轻微犯罪也可能归在第一项(a)至(d)项下。对此,有些代表认为,“严重的”一词 应予保留,引言应受限制性条款的制约。另一方面,也有一些代表认为保留“严 重的”这一概念是很重要的,因为除其他以外,它可以起到提请締约按罪行的严重 程度实行严厉制裁。 52r对于重新起草的案文笫一项⑶,有一些代表认为,这些规定的搢词过去笼 统,应予具体化。 53.对于重新起草的案文笫一款(c颅,有人认为,这些规定过于广泛,可让人 作出模棱两可的解释,从而使参加各个阶段商业交易的真诚善意人或未参与麻醉品 非法贩运的其他人被定Ho 这些规定也会成为对自由贸易的不必要限制。 54.有一些代表发言赞成保留第一款的㈦和(d)项,因为这些规定有创新之处, 它们分别包括了与进行非法贩运有关的准备阶段和明知故犯蓄意从非法贩运中牟利 的犯罪行为。 55.有一些代表认为,原草案第一项(⑴中的用词由于某些国家的法律制度,将 会造成困难。他们特别指出,“共谋犯罪”并不是公认的法律概念。因此,这 一项的规定应以适当的限制性条款加以限制。 ^ 30 56.专家组在经过进一步的讨论,并与对此问题感兴趣的专家进行非正式磋商 后,通过了重新起草的第一款折衷案文,其实质性的规定分为(s 湘(b)两项。(a)项 的各项规定由于具有公约昀核心部分的重要性,因而不受任何限制性条款的制约, (t颂的各项规定则应受各締约国的宪法限制规定、法律飼度和国内法的制约。 57.专家组同意删除第1款引言中的“严重” 一词,因为这些犯罪行为的严重 性已经包合在措辞之内,这科搢辞责成締约各国祢a)和(t_)项所列行为定为其刑法所 列的罪行。专家组还商定在本句的“犯罪行为,,之前增添“蓄意”两字,用以强 调为了将笫1款所列活动定为犯罪活动,这些活动必须是在知悉其非法目的的情况 下进行的。 58.专家组同意一位代表的如下建议:将“制造或推销”材料或设备这层意思 与“拥有”这些材料或设备这层意思区分开来,因此,有关“拥有”的规定将受(b) 项的限制性条款的制约。 59.对重新拟订的草案第2款,与会者在其中所述对第1款所列犯罪行为的各 项制裁是累加惩处还是任选惩处问题上发表了不同的看法。若干代表认为,不应 当把本款提及的各项制裁解释为是详尽无遗的或是累加的,它们只是表明締约各国 可以采取的制裁的类型。一些代表表示,他们国家把几项制裁结合起来,既有监 禁又有没收,这常常是对非法贩运麻醉品采取的有效威慑手段。 60.会议对是否宜于将没收列为可能采取的制裁搢施这个问题作了广泛的讨论。 一些代表主张,虽然有些法律制度把没收视为一种罚款(而另一些法律制度把它视 为刑事制裁),这个概念现在是相当明确的,使用也很广泛,应在公约中占有相应 的地俗 另外,他们认为3事实2明没收通过非法贩运获得的资产是剝夺贩运者 的收益及其进行新的犯罪活动的手段的有效措施。专家组赞同它先前作出的临时 决定,即在新的笫2款中增添“罚款”与“没收”这两个概念。 61 . 一位代表介绍了工作文件第2 7 3段所载其本国政府提出的提议,大意是 应当增列款项,规定当有麻薛品滥用者犯了笫1款所列罪行之一时,除判罪或愆处 以外的或作为判罪或惩处的替代措施的其他措施。对这个问题,一些代表指出有 必要参照《单一公约》笫3 6条第1款(t.)项的措辞拟定一项规定,以保障该公约中 ^ 31 那些规定得到实施,因为新公约不提这些规定可能会导致这样一秭解释,即这些规 定不再适用。 62,若干代表建议这个提议不应仅限于麻醉品滥用者,而应对有关案例中的其 他罪犯都适用。一位代表指出本国在这方面的现行国家立法很有成效O 63 1 一些代表反对这些提议,理由是新公约的目的是定非法贩运的罪,而不是 处理麻辞品滥用所涉的一切问题;列入这种条款将会削弱第2条的、实质性内容他 们强调指出,就重大贩运犯而言,只能将治疗和康复视作为判罪或惩处的附加措施, 而不是它们的替代措施。代表们达成的共同谅解是:缔约各国除判罪或惩处之外还 似宜规定的特别措施应与笫二款各项规定有区别,因为第2款的那些规定责成各国 在制定适用的制裁时要考虑到第1款所列犯罪行为的严重性质。 64.经过非正式协商,专家组建议分别增加的两项,一项涉及不论罪行的性质 和严重程度如何,可以在判罪或惩处以外适用于罪犯的特别措施 一项涉及可以作 为判罪或惩处的替代措施适用于属轻微性质的适当案例的特别措施 其中包括专门 适用于罪犯是麻酸品滥用者的某些措I 专家组指出,所述这些措施只表明各国 可以规定哪些措t 65.在谈到原草案第2条第3款时,若干代表表示,在英美法系国家里法院有 权确定加重情节,但在具有大陆法系传统的国家里法院虽能实施减轻情节的规定, 劲不能在没有合法授权的情况下宣判加重情节。 66.一位代表建议应当指明可以把加重情节视作为与拟对某人所作判决有关的 事项,而不必把它看作为第1款所列行为的增加成份《这样就阐明了第3款给 締约各国所规定的义务的性质。 67.关于引言句中使用的“在可能时”这一限制性用语* 一些代表建议予以删 除,以使本款规定对締约各囯更具有约束力。其他一些代表赞同把本款改得稍微 灵活些,方法是在“在可能时”字样之后加上“和适宜时”字样。有人指出,在 本句开头采用一 当的限制性_也许是解决问题的方法。 68.经过非正式协商,专家组审议并核准了经修订的重新拟订的引言句,它不 提“加重犯罪行为的情况”,而是说“可使笫1款所列犯罪行为成为特别严重的事 ^ 32 实情况”,从而明确规定缔约各囯应确保其法院能够考虑这些情也 69.专家组讨论了本款是否应当开列可供法院考虎的那些事实情I 一种意 见是.这种清单一定是既不可能详尽无遗 又非强制性的,因而是不可取的。另 一种意见认为,这种清单只要保持在合理的范围之内.可以起到有益的说明作用。 70.专家组同意按两位专家的建议列入法院可以参照的其他两种情礼 第一 秭情况早已得到早先会议的同意,它将涉及参与其他国际上有组织的犯罪活动的罪 I 矛一种情况其目的是要考虑到毒品罪兼经济罪相结合的问题,这将涉及罪犯 参与犯罪行为佰成的其他违法活动。关于原草案(c)和(d)项中所列的两种事实情况, 专家组巧意如遇有罪犯担任公职情况,则该罪行必须与该公职相联系并在使未成 年人受害一项中,增加利用未成年人。 71.几位代表建议应删去第4款,因为该款的目的不明确,而其中有些人认为 这等于违反同一罪行不受两次审判的原则。有人瑭议,为了使大家能普遍接受这 些规定,依照《单一公约》第3 6条第2款采用一项限制性条款,会议未同意这项 建议。有人指出,如釆用限制性条款,会使该款不具效力。一位代表在谈及其 政府的经验时指出,《单一公约》中的相应条款已证明是难以实行的。专家组同 意删去该I 72.几位代表指出,由于法律和实际情况,实施第5款可能会有困氣有人 特别指出,某些法律制度没有累赋一概念。专家组同意几位代表提出的建议, 删去本款,但在第3款中提及不论是在国外还是在国内的先前判罪作为法院在判决 本条第1款所列的罪行时可以参照的事实情I 73.几位代表提请大家注意第6款规定与第4条第6和7款的规定的实质挫关 系,这也涉及请締约国承担管辖权的问凰 专家组得出的结论是另订专门处理管 辖权问题的备款可能更为恰当,并决定拟定这一条t 74.专家组在讨论第7款时指出,该款的各项规定涉及两种不同概念,即一方 而涉及提前释放和假释,而另一方面,则涉及时效问鼠 因此专家组认为将这些 条款分列成单独的各顼规定是更为恰当的。 33 75.关于提前释放和假释问题,有些代表提请大家注意他们在起草该项规定时 所遇到的困?io 有人特别指出,如果要求释放当局由于涉及到第1款所仓括的罪 行而推迟释放,似乎不甚妥当。伹是专家组在进一步讨论后,决定保留原草案 中的现有措词。 76.关于时效问题,有些代表主张赞戎蒯去有关规定,其理由是,专n规定特 科罪行的想法是与其各自的法律制度相矛盾的。其他一些代表赞成将工作文件第 2 5 3段所载由一位专家提议的经修订的这一条款列Ao 专家组就新的措词达成 了一致意见,但增加“在适当情况下” 一语。新的措词明确了如认为现有I款规定 对有效执行该条设想的各项措施不够充分,则各締约国应努力制定适用于第2条第 1款所列罪行的有关时效的适当规忘 ‘ 77.有些代表认为第8款的各项规定在公约中多少有点不合适,总之,这些规 定如列入涉及司法援助的第5条可能更为合I 几位代表认为,鉴于第1款规定‘ 的罪行甚为严重,应当考虑是否有可能保释。其他一些代表着重指出确定保释是 法院独立裁决的问题。因此,有人建议应删去第8款的第二句。 专家组同意删 去该句。 78.专家组审议了工作文件第2 6 2段所载一位代表提议的对第8款第一句的 重新措词,其大意是,将各締约国的责任范围限制为:在被指控或判决犯有第2条 第1款所列罪行的人是在其领土范围内发现的情况下,应确保其在必要的诉讼程序 时出庭。专家组赞成这一新的措词不列举有关程序伹说明其属于犯罪性质。 79.几位代表建议在第2条中另增加一款,该款可按《单一公约》第3 6条第 4款的方法起草。有人在支持这一款时说明,其目的虽不采用包括第2条所有规 定在内的限制性条氛但要说明为执行第1款所规定的各締约国的义务而需采取的 程序方式属于各该締约国的国内法权I 另一方面,有些代表认为提议的新条款 是多佘的,而且会使该条含糊不清。 80.几位代表反对便用“规定的”一词,因为该词在不同的语文中解释不同, 因此,他们宁愿用《所述的”-^!。 81.专家组根树论情况,并参照了各项建私同意拟定添加入第2条中的补 ^ 34 充条氣 82 . 一位代表提议,应列入根据《单一公约》笫3 7条方法起草的关于在非法 厥运中查荻和没收麻醉品药物和所使用设备的规忘有人谈到工作文件第2 7 2 段中所载其政府的建议时,还提议一项关于销毁在非法贩运中巳查获的麻醉药品和 精神药物的继起性条t 专家组同意在审议公约的其他条款期间,于一适当阶段 再讨絲些建孔 第2条之二 83.根据专家组在审议原草案第2条第6款时所作出的决汔向专家组提交了 在菲正式协商期间拟订出的有关管辖权问题的新增条款草案。 84.有人解释说,提议的本条第1款已经对必须强制性确立管#权的情况和可 自行选择确立管辖权的情况作了区分。人们认为最好将第2款置入方括号申,因 为是否保留它的有关在引渡遭拒绝时运用管辖权的规定将取决于专家组对有关引渡 的第4条的审礼一位代表在这方面回顾了他对确立超出草案第2条之 二第1款 目前所载范围以外的任何管辖权所作的强烈保留。关于第3款,据指出,该款符 合其他国际文书中的标准规免 85.专家组核准了拟订的有关管辖权的增加条款,并同意在其结束对第4条的 审议后研究本条第2款的规瓦 86.两位代表对第1款tb)项㈢表示保留,他们认为该段案文含糊不清。 第三条 87.专家组讨论了原草案所载第3条.对各款提出了具体意见,以便对据认 为合乎需要的非正式协商提供某些指导, 以期M可普遍接受的案文. 88rt专家组认为第3条的规定是公约的一项重大创新内容,应能大大有助于打 击麻醉品贩运者的经济力量 若干代表认为,就敏感领域的复杂问题起草适用的 并能得到广泛接受的规定*需要采取灵活的办法 大家普遍认为所起草的本条案 文过于具体瑣细,应重新改写,以使其更加明确.一些代表认为本条只应规定就 ^ 35 这一问题进行国际4 作的原则,而将执行措施留待各国自定.但是有人指出,不 得因求简化而损害为使本条有效所必要的实质内容. 89. 认为实际刳订本条的各项规定,特别#于没收问题,应是缔约 各国之间的双边或多边协定的题目,公约中应列入一项有关这一点的规定. 90.若干代表强调各国之间就追查和收缴麻薛品贩运收益进行司法互助是必要 的.茌这方面,有人提议应茌本条中提到第5条的规定. 91.若干代表指出有必要重新审议“财产” 一词的定义'因为对该词茌公约中 的含义所作的各种解释大相径庭.一位代表对第3条所威予该词的广泛含义提出 异议,因为这也可适用于诸如版杈和专利杈等无形财产.其他若干代表强调有形 财产和无形j时产均应包括茌内.光其是由于本条的目的之一就是要打击非法饭运的 资金来源. i92. -^储茌ifi仓第1款时指出,它包含了范围极广的规定,按照他的国家 的法律制度也许难以执行 议用某种形式的保障条款对它加以限定. 93.关于第1款(a)项和(b)项.一位代表指出,该两项有某种程度的重叠,并提 议将㈣项和㈦项合并为单一的一项,以避免重复.其他一!代表提议,全部删除 这两项,因为据认为这两项还与笫2条的规定重叠. — 94.几位 指出,必须澄清第1款⑷项所规定的援助形式与笫5条所规定的 司法互助之间的区别;由于第5条看来业巳足够,第1款⑷项也许是多余的. 95*许多代表认为,第2款应予删除,因为其中设想的措施巳茌笫2条中作了 充分的规定.一位代表茌承认存茌某种程度的重叠的同时指出,第2款中的某些 内容是第2条中所没有的.他提议应保留这些内容,可对第2款作修改,以消除 重复现象.关于涉及明知收益直接或间接来自非法贩运而不论其发生茌何处这一 具体内容时*有人提议将这一点纳入第2条或茌重新拟订的第2款中予以保留. 96.有人提议:应该使第3款中的限制性条款符合第2条中所使用的方法。另 有人建议把它从开头的句子中删除,并且用可以获得更广泛接受的措词重新拟订各 项,同时考虑到某些国家茌其法律制度下可能茌执行方面遇到困难. 97. 一些代表支持在第3款中列入一项规定大意为转移举证责任,从而取消^ ^ 36 意推定,而让受控的贩运者证明他的资产和財产«过合法的手段获得的。HS: 代表认为这科转移举证责任原则上仍应限于贩运者一旦被按非法贩运正式判罪后对 其所谋利润的估I 其他一些代表认为,可使举证责任转移的规定在潜在締约国 的不同法律制度下是不会被接受的。 98«有人提请注意本草案的第3款⑷项同时涉及了应在国内一级和国际一级采 取的措t 为了使之更为明确,有人提议将案文分成两个单顼,一项涉及规定一 个缔约国自己发布冻结和收缘財产命令的措施,另一项涉及另一締约国实施时的相 同搢私 99. 一些代表在评论第3款(a)项时反对关于授权行政官员和受托人出售经他们 扣押的财产的规息有人指出,由于收缴只是一项临时措拖因此处理收缴物资 的权利应局限于涉及易腐货物的情况,这是为了保持货物的价 100 e .Ht代表要求对第3条第3款(b)项H和㈡的差别作出澄清。. 101 . 一些代表认为笫 3 款 (b) 顼有关在没有判罪或起诉的情况下没收收益的规 定 是不可接受的,因为拥有财产的权利是受他们国家宪法和国内法保障的一项基本权 利,这一规定也被认为是与无罪推定原则背道而驰的。 102.轩代表赞成删除第3款(0项,因为所列举的各类收益令人混淆而且是多 余的。有人指出,证据内容应由法院评审。有人提出,如果保留该项,应修订 所列举的收益。 103.一些代表强调*为使本条规定有效,外国法院发出的没收非法贩运所得财 产的命令应可在公约各締约国中强制执行。 104.有人提议对第3款(d)项的第2句进行修正,即用“应”代替”可以”一词, 以明确表明,无论何时合法财产与非法收益掺杂在一起时,必须将合法财产与非法 收益分割开先一些代表反对这项提议的修正案,原因是原案文从下述意义上说' 更为灵活,即締约各国可自行选择不仅可以没收来自或用于非法贩运的财产 -而且 还可以没收从事其他非法活动所得的财产。有人赞成维持目前的措词,进一步论 证说,締约各国应该可以将实施没收命令的权利扩大到罪犯的全部财产。一位代 表指出,按照他的国家的法律制恳由法院决定应没收财产的范围,因此难以执行 37 这一规忘他从而建议删除(幻项的最后^。 105.在评论第4款时,一位代表建议说,最好称为“善意的”第三方,而不要 称作“合法的”第三方。伹是,其他一些代表指出,合法的第三方却有可能并非 善意的,比如合法获得财产经事后揭露乃通过非法贩运而来的这种情况。一些代 表认为,如果合法第三方”字样改为《未参与犯罪行为的当事人”可改进本款使 之更为精确。会议普遍同意,无辜第三方的权利应该受到保护,伹应为本款拟订 更加适当的措辞。 106.有人提出列入一项规定其中建议关于银行保密的要求不应妨得对麻薛品贩 运的犯罪行为进行调良 107.几位代表认为,第3条中应列入一顼关于国际上没收财产的处置的规色 有人认为一个締约国因另一缔约国所判之刑而没收的财产应由所涉各締约国分享, 这一意见得到相当多人的支持。 108.有人建议氣应通过有关国际机构,诸如联合国管制滥用麻薛品基金(禁 毒基金)*把没收的收益转用于协助发展中.国家,特别是过境国家、,来抵制非法贩 为此,一位代表提议增加新的一款,规定按照有关締约国的协定将一个缔约 国因另一締约国所判之刑而没收财产所得的财政资源转交禁毒基金。几位代表支 瓶一提 讥 109 . —些储茌谈到其本国目前的傲法时,都赞成确定一科办法,规定将没收 财产所得收益分拨给各国麻醉品管制方案基金。 110 . 一些代表就列入上述规定表示保留,因为这种规定不属于关于刑法的公约 范围之内.此外,他们认为,专家组是否是审议有关国内预算程序的适当场所, 这一点还值得怀疑 111 . 一些代表指出,将没收的财产转交给国际基金,比如禁毒基金^是违背其 国家宪法和法律制度的,其国家宪法和法律制 定上述财产计入国家预算.如 系联邦国家,这个问题就更加复杂a因为根据宪法,处置没收的财产可能不属中央 杈限之内. 112 . 一些代表表示认为,处置没收所得收益的办法,可最好通过双边和多边协 ^ 38 U加以规定.为此," ^储紐《综合性多学科纲要》第286段,其中麻醉 &滥用和非法贩运问题国际会议采用了一个类似的办法. 113.为了鼓励各国没收贩运者的非法收人一些代表建议,没收財产所得收益 应归进行没收的所茌国. 第4条 114.专家组开始审议笫4条时先是进行了一般性讨论,对具体款项提出了初步 意见 115.就第4条发言的代轰们支持茌公约中列入一条关于引渡的规定,他们认为 这是查禁非法叛运斗争中的一个关键组成部分.一些代表强调指出』新文书应当 补充和加强现行寐薛品管制条约中约有关条款,把引渡公约所涉一切严重犯罪行为 定为强制性措施.另外一些代表强调必须按照《单一公约》和《精神药物公约》 中的相应_条款拟订第4条的规定,以便确保上述公约締约国茌加入新文书方面不会 遇到困难..对此』有人提议应当有一限制性分句来限定第4条的规荩,这一分句 可以与《单一公约》第3 6条和《精神药物》第2 2条中的限制性分句相似. 116.有人指出,不应把公约视为意欲茌各国之间确立一项具体的引渡条约,或 者影响締约各国间引渡条约的规定和条件.还有人说』第4条应当补充而不是减 损第2条的规定. I IT. 一些代表提议修正第1款.使之表明笫4条的规定只应适用于第2条笫1 款所列的严重犯罪行为。还提到最好能争取制定共同标准据以判断麻醉品罪行是否已 严重到足以认为理应引渡.一位代表建议这种罪行可以是应受最长至少两年的剥夺 自由愆处的罪行染 118.与会者普遍认为第2、3和4款的规定与经《1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的 《单一公约》的相应条款相似,可以接受,但需稍作文字上的改先 119.关于第2款,一位代表建议应重新草拟第一句句子,用以明确表尹缔约各 囿依照本规定所承担的义务是补充现行的引渡条约,使之包括与麻醉品有关的犯罪 行为. ^ 39 120.若干代表建议第3款的措施应能把不受引渡条约约束的缔约国之间引渡与 麻醉品有关的罪行定为强制性措施 他们建议,应”字代替“可”字 121.关于第4款,一位代表认为本款最后的限定性分句可作广泛的解释/1957 年欧洲引渡公约》也可作为较好措词的范例. 122.几位代表表示,第5、8和9款涉及面太广,有悻于国内法或现行条约应 ⑩于公约所涉的犯罪行为这一原则;没有理由要为引渡麻醉品贩运罪行列出特别 要求. 123.有人认为,第5款整款应当删除.茌这方面,有人主张应当保留主权国 家拒绝引渡的齒处札另一方面,有人提出对该款作文字上改进后予以保留.一 位代表指出,拒绝引渡的政治罪理由,对《1 9 4 8年防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约》 的締约国不适用, 124*关于引渡第5款⑷项所指的本国国民,一些代表提请注意这些国家的宪法 或国内立法的要求,不许引渡本11国民.他们认为,应当澍除该项.其他一些 代表建议,如要保留该项,应当加以修订用以表明除了宪法外还有国内法能够拒绝 引渡,表示,不应以犯罪是被请求国的国民而拒绝引渡. 125.关于笫5款(b)项,几位代表建议该项应按以下意思重新拟k,即如犯罪企 图茌该国进行犯罪活动,则不应以犯罪茌请求国范围之外进行犯罪活动为理由而拒 绝引渡. 12几位代表赞成删去第5款(c)项的案文草案.有人主张第2条第1款所列 任何罪行无论如何不应被推断为政治性的 有人建议列入按这意思制定的条款. 另一方面,有人强调指出.这种规定会减损某些国家的宪法或法律制度的根本原则. 127.几位 指出,第6和第7款涉及管辖杈的问鼠但该问题必须要同第2 条之二结合起来深入地进行审礼一位代表的观点I第6和第7款不应超出笫 2条之二的第1款所包括的管辖权范围.有人着重指出,如果不予引渡,则应茌 本条或本公约的有关部分保留篙6和第7款,从而使起诉成为强制性的. 128。关于第6款,有人建议如采納《 1 9 7 0年海牙公约》和《1 9 7 1年蒙 特利尔公约》所用的标准用语,可能更为合适. ^ 40 129.: 一些代表建议৽“或者引渡,或者起诉”原则应反映茌笫7款的各项规 定中,这可以按《1 9 7 3年关于防止和惩处侵害应受国际保护人员包括外交代表 的罪行的公约》第7条和《1 9 7 9年反对劫持人质国际公约》第8条重新起草. 一位代表指出,但是该项原则应加以调整,使其适合包括罪行范围很广的公约的严 厉要求. 130.关于第8款,有些代表认为该公约提供了采取各项措施的机会J从而可放 宽引渡所需的程序和证据规定.应重新起草该款,以便消除规定表面上证据确凿 的案件要求的可能性.因此,有人建议,出示有效的逮捕状或提出请求国的有效 判决,应当足以支持或请求引渡.另一方面,几位储认为应当删去该款,因为 该款的各项规定,特别是在确定表面上证据确凿的案件是其首要规定的国家中很难 执行。 131.几位M建议瘌去第9款*因为感到该i^^Mt加什么实质性内容,而对 具有共同管辖杈的各缔约国却只会造成更多的困难.有人特别指出,该款未能解 决关于究竟谁来确定哪一个缔约国能更好地证实有关事实的问鼠关于这一问题 的决定应留待被请求国来錯决.一位代表提出,如杲第9款不倒除,则应重新起 萆.使之仅仅作为一项建议. 132c 一位储提议删除第1 0款,因为他认为该款是多余的. 133.几位代表提议本条不仅应包括被要求起诉的人,而且还应包括宣判有罪的 潜逃犯 134.有些代表建议列入一项关于执行外国判决的规定,以期鼓励各国筌订双边 或多边协定,从而能将犯罪引渡到其自己的国家进行判决. 第6条 135.专家组同意修正该条标题为:“其他形式的合作与培训”,以表明第6条 所设想的合作范围截然不同于第5条所规定的法律互助 ,136.同意使用类似同意第7条和第1 4条所用_障分句,并经修改以考虑到 各种不同行政结构和要to “ ^ 41 137.若干代表指出执法合作应通过按照《1 9 6 1年公约》第3 5条和《1971 年公约》第2 1条建立的国家集中协调机拘进行。同意在第1款(a)项中提到“主 管国家机构和部门”,以便既包括业已建立这种集中协调机构的国家,也包括交流 情报和进行合作涉及若干政府部门的国家。 138.专家组认为应予交流的情报种类不应逐条列明,因为不论开列任何清单也 必然是不完整的而且会成为过时的。因此同意删除第1款(a)(1)至(aX4)项。 139.某些代表提到非法贩运与有组织犯罪活动有联系的重要性,并提议列入一 项涉及这个方面。若干代表认为专家组不应起越其起草专门有关取締非法麻醉品 贩运公约的任务,不能通过列入所提议的该一项而扩大其任务范围。然而作为一 项折衷办法大家同意在有关締约各囯认为合适的情况下,缔约各囯贩运交流 情报也可涉及与其他犯罪活动的衷系。在该第1款(a)项结尾加上了这一意义的语 句。一位代表对达成的不能令人满意的折衷办法表示失望。他再次强调他的国 家认为,与其他犯罪活动的联系问题对麻薛药品非法厥运极为重要。囯际社会正 失去拟订公约草案提供的在实际生活环境与非法贩运进行有效斗争的极好机会。 140.为了更确切地阐明初步草案笫1款(t.)项所设想的都.种合作,1代表提议 将案文分为单狴两项,一方面涉及若干国家执法机狗在司法程序开始前的调查阶段 进行合作,另一方面转送受管制药物的样品供分析和调查之用。专家组同意所提 议的修订措词。 141.修正第2款的引言句,以使之明确应由締约各国各自为其参与取締非法贩 运的执法机构制定“特定的”培训方案。 142.修正第2款(a)项,以使培训方案的重点不仅侦察非法贩运而且取締非法贩 运。 143.专家组同意在对(d)和(e)项中“洗钱”和“收益”的用语得出完全可接受的 定义或以其他概念最后取代它们之前,以括号中的“隐藏”和“跗产”取代它们。 144.专家组同意,笫1 3条笫2款(d)项的规定(该款在所商定的该条措词中未 作保留)应作为新的第2款(g)项列入,全文如下:“(g)自由贸易区和自由港的控制 技术,,。专家组还同意,将原来笫3款中的一个项目,以修订的形式转入第2款, ^ 42 全文如下:‘‘现代执法技术”。 145.有人建议,第3款中提到的培训方案应包括第2款中提及的相同议题,并 应在笫3款中列入第7款所述利用会议和讨论会促进合作的提法。对笫3款作了 相应的修改。 - .146.专家组审议了经麻薛药品委员会重新起草的第4款的案文。专家组商定, 为与第1款取得一致,应用“主管国家机构和部门”取代“各自的执法机抅” 一词。 147.为了强调联络官的设置并不是强制性的这一点,专家组决定阐明,各国只 在适当的情况下考虑这秭合作形^O 专家组还同意表明,在缔约各国认为合适的 情况下,将根据协议或安排^ 麻薛品问题联络官。 148.专家组同意了一項建议,在笫5款“接到请求”后加上“和力所能及”的 字样。 149.专家组同意瘌除笫6款,因为有人认为在一项国际文书中列入这科规定是 不必要的。 150. —位代表建议插入新的一款以强调某一締约国的执法人员在未征得另一有 关締约国明示同意的情况下不得在该締约国领土上开展任何执法活动。 151.虽然若干代表表示同意这一概念,但有人对提议的措辞提出一些反对意见。 因此,专家组请有关专家通过非正式协商拟订出普遍可接受的案文。 152.经重新拟订之后,建议的案文获得了专家组的普遍支持,同时,专家组还 同意决定将此案文作为新的第1款(c)项列入本条。 153. —位代表表示,除非同时列入一项保障条款,规定只有在不违背国内法的 情况下才能进行这类执法活动,否则便不能接受所建议的那一项. 154.专家组核准了经修正的案文以考虑所关心的这一事项。一位代表对整个 第1款⑷项的内容表示保留。另一位代表表示对笫1款(c)顼的内容持保留意见, 理由是联合小组及其执法活动应完全按有关締约国间的安排进行。 第7条 155.专家组支持将控制下交付的执法技术规定列入公约草案,控制下交#被认 ^ 43 为是在国际一级打击麻醉品贩运的主要手段。普遍认为该条应提供行动框架并限 于该一技术的目#0 考虑到控制下交付的技术基本上是一种隐藪的警察行动,要 想奏效,必须极其慎重执行,因此应由主管国家机狗考虑其行动细节。 1 56.若干代表提请注意某些国家在采取或实施对它们来说是一科新的执法技术 时会遇到的宪法、法律和行政方面的困难,这种技术在某些国家里暂时是不合法的。 有人提议第7条应作相应修正以使其规定成为不是强制性的. 157.专家组同意使用与第1 4条相同的保障分句,因有人认为这一分句比初步 草案中的分句更合适于消除对国家主权的担心。专家组还决定修正第1款的搢词 以指明目标是确定“在国际f使用控制下交付的技术的准则。 158.考虑到实施这一技术对通过其领土的国家的主权可能产生的影响,若干代 表坚持应根据有关締约国问事先达成的协定进行控制下交付。有些代表指出,执 行一项行动计划需要迅速作出初步决定;因此可能有必要采取缔约囯间非正式安排 的更快速办法。专家组同意将协定和安排这两科可能都列入,并决定所有这类协 定或安排应经“共同同意’’,以强调取得締约国的同意是实行控制下交付的先决条 件。 159.为了以较简明的形式具体说明使用控制下交付的技术所追隶的目标,专家 � 组同意第1款的最后一#语应重新措词如下:“以期查明涉及非法贩运的人并对 他们提起诉讼”。 160.专家组同意删除初步草案第2款,因有人认为经修正的第1款中已包含其 中的规定。 161.为了考虑到控制下交付行动所涉财政负抠,特别是给过境国带来的财政负 担,专家组同意在初步草案笫3款,即重新编排为笫2款中可述及,凡締约国认为 有必要,使用控制下交付的决定可服从缔约国间的财务安#o 162.专家组同意删除第4款,因它过于具体地陈述控制下交付行动的方先这 些可视具体情况酌情列入第1款所述协定和安排。 163.认为第5款的规定很复杂,相当混乱,过于具体并不适当地具有约束力。 有关暂停起诉的规定可能造成困难,因为涉及共同管辖杈,而且由于强制性起 ^ 44 诉原则。但是,最后专家组认为该条中提及管辖权问题是合适的,但有一项谅解, 即締约各国将在它们间拟订的协定或安排中具体涉及。因此专家组同意将此考虑 列入新的第2款结恳 M8条 第一届会议 164 . 一些代表表示支持列入有关监测或管制用于非法提炼或制造麻醉药品或精 神药物的特定化学品的措施M工业化国家生产的前体药物的运输进行监测,被认为 对协助某些发展中国家与非法制造寐薛药品或精秭药物进行斗争,具有特别重要的 意义。一位代表提请注意制造中的两个主要成份,即麻辞品和基本化学品;他说, 鉴于《单一公约》规定对麻醉品实行严格管制,若有可能对基本化学品确定同样严 格的管制是必要的,而且只有这样才是合理的。 165.但是,有人强调说,诸如笫8条中设想的那些管制搢施,应考虑到如下事 实,即许多前体和基本化学品在制造范围广泛的产品中有着正当的用途,所以不应 妨碍其合法贸易。 166..有人还指出,是吝接受某秭管制制度,这取决于将何种物质置于此管制之 下。因此,重要的是制定标准,确定适用于本条规定的物质。在这方面,有人 建议,t制措施要行之有效,所包括的物质就应仅限于那些主要在非法制造麻醉药 品和精神药物中使用的t体和基本化学品。 167 . —位代表提请注意工作文件第6 7 8段中所载其政府对整个条款提出的备 择案丸 168.专家组决定对整个条款的讨论,将通过有关专家间的协商继续进行,以期 .达成一项大家均可接受的修订草案。 169.支持就此问题草拟一项条款的各位代表进行了协商,同时参加的也有不 赞同列入此项条款的代表。这些协商的结果,以反映出共同谅解的草案文本形式 提交给专家组。 170.就草案发表评论时,一些代表认为,草案构成对该条进行进一步审议的正 确出发点。 _ 45 171. 一位代表对该草案进行更具体的评论时指出,提议的定义和清单A和清单 B所列某些药物有些矛盾。他还强调指出有必要更仔细地重新审查该条和现有麻 醉品管制公约有关规定间应予确定的关系。 172.专家组同意了一些改动案文的意见. 专家组还普遍同意,应茌预期的专 家组第二届会^LL进一步审议该修订条款草案,鉴于该条规定复杂而且技术性强最好安雜各代表团的化学专家和药物专家茌会议的前几天会晤,以便审查现在的草 案和向专家组提出报告.专家组一致通过这一程序* 第二盾会该 173..专家组第二届会议在其笫一届会议重新拟定的草案基础上继续对第8条进 行审议。 174 r 一些代表重申他们支持列入一系列适当的搢施,用以盟视或管制用于非法 提炼或制造麻辞药品或精神药物、但不包括在现行麻薛品管制条约之内的前体和化 学品。这些规定应是自愿的还是强制性的,对此有不同的看法。有人主张在这 方面应当頋及到每个国家在这些药物的生产与贸易方面的具体情况 1 75 . 一些代表认为第8款的某些管刳措尨和第9款的所有管制措施将会使出口 承担过多的形式狄的负担,而不能銜正取得实效.因此,这些规定应当蒯除. 其他一些代表表示愿意接受与其本国现行的监视系统相一致、以执法机构与工业界 的合作为基础的条款;这种监视系统是非正式的,它注重于追踪可疑的货物,防止 它们被转用于非法贩运 这些代表认为,茌采取适当措施来对付本国的现状时, 应当给予政府以尽可能大的灵活性 一位 保留茌 药品委员会上对第8款 和笫9款作进一步评论的杈利. 176 , 一些代表指出,鉴于《1 9 6 1年麻醉品单一公约》责成麻醉品原料生产 国实施严格的管制措施,从而使它们承担了相当大的行政负担,对来自工业化国家 的用于非法制造麻醉品的前体和化学品尽可能制定同样严格的管制措施是再公平不 过的了。 一些代表指出,这种规定将有助于进口国,尤其是那些边境线漫长的进 口国同本国国界内的非法制造麻醉药品与精神药物现象作有效的斗争。 ^ 46 177.与会者普遍赞同本条所设想的管制搢旋不应当比适用于现行麻醉品管制条 约所列药物的管制搢施来得更加严孤 178r —些代表指出,能被人们接受列入第8条的那些管制措施的性质和范围取 决于最终将哪些物质列入清单A和清单B。 关于草案为清单A中的“直接前体” 与清单B中的‘‘基本化学品”建议下的定义,有人感到由于对这两个用语鈇乏可以 接受的科学定义,它们可能会给公约的法律含义带来各不相同的解释。把某一物 质列入这张清单或那张清单就意味着把它定为“直接前体”或“基本化学品”,可以 在第1条对这两个用语或其他有关术语下定义用以反映这一方法,因此,为确定 拟应置于管制之下的物质并将它们各自列入清单而制定更系统化的程序和指导标准 是势茌必令.按照讨M程中提出的建议,麻誶药品司经与有关专家磋商向专家 组提出了一份关于经修订的物质清拳与物质列表的综合程序的约定草案供其审议. 179.专家组核准了非正式协商会议所达成的以下建议:删除原草案提议的定义, 参照国际麻薛品管制条约的相应条款,采周一游在法律上更加正规的做法,即仅仅 在本条案文中提及清单A或B上所列的物质。专家组核准了据此经过修订的第 1 一 3款,并同意在新的第.4款中列出一组指导标准用以确定哪些物质可能需要置 于囯际盟视系统之下和列入相应的清象 1 80...专家组还同意在其草案中暂时列入清单A和B中的某些物质。 181.两位M提议将II粟扞增添进两份清单中的一份.一位指出国际麻 薛品管制局1 9 8 5和1 9 8 6年报告确认II粟扞易被滥用和贩运并建议增加对此 产品管制措施,他说不把黑粟扞列于清单A和S所列物质的同样管制刳度之下,只 会破坏拟议中新公约的效力.其他若干代表反对这一提议,理由是如果有必要管 制罂粟扞,应根据《单一公约》予以管制为宜,而妥善的作法是争取修正该公约 182.好些代表提请注意以下事实:虽然只要适宜就应当沿用现行麻醉品管制条 约的术语以便确保各有关文书间的必要协调,但是为了溝足正茌订的公约的特殊需 要势必要使用新的用语。对这些用语作出适当的定义,避免彼此矛盾的解释,这 是极其重要的。为了更加明确和避免混清起见,专家组商定:菜文中出现的“受 管制药物”这一用语将由“麻醉药品和精神药物”这几个字代替;在对第8条所涉 ^ 47 的“直接前体和基本化学品”尚缺乏更加适当的和普遍接受的定义的情况下,目前 可取的做法是代之以“清单A和清单B所列物质”这一普通用语。 183.专家组同意茌第8条的整个案文中茌“制造” 一词之前增添“提炼”-一词, 以便突.出表明在某些情况下,提炼是指非法制造麻醉药品和精神药物的准备阶段. 184.大家同意应修正重新起萆的第4款(新的第5款) 以指明根据《精神药 物公约》中使用的措辞,麻管局的估价“就科学问题而言 应具有决定性意义”。 专家组决定删除第4款中的最后部分,因为专家组早些时侯曾决定列入据以确定拟 子管制物质的标准,从而使得这部分的规定过于累赘 工作组还同意不对新拟定 的第5至7款草案(新的第6至8款)做任何改动。 185.关于第8款(新的第9款) 有人建议将(a)和(b)项中的规定合并成为一项, 以便消除(a)项中的强劁性规定和(b)项中的自愿性措辞之间存在的明显矛盾。在缔 约各国拟设立并维持的监视系统框架内进行的合作中,由制造商和进出口商提供资 料信息据认为是一个关键性组成部分。因此,这两项的合并显然是可取的*并得 到了工作组的批 186c在讨论 p 那种说法更加适宜,即“可以"还是“应该"茌与工业界进行密切 合作的基础之上设立監视系统时,一位代表认为,茌这秭情况下“可以’’字样更为 适宜,因为这样使能在合作不足的情况下实施强制系统。其他若干位代表则认为, 应用“应该”一词明确地指出通过合作来实施这一系统的义务。专家组最后做出 决定,若要取得实际效杲的话,这一措施便应是强制性的,因而“应该” 一词便相 应地取代了原来的措辞。 ” 187.有人建议苐8款(e)项(新的第9款(b)项)加以修正,以便规定不仅收缴而 且没收用来或意欲用来逬行第2条所指任何犯罪行为的物件.若干位代表反对在 此项规定中列入没收的内容,其理由是,有关没收财产或转让所有权的决定不一定 属于拟负责实施第8条中所设想的监视系统的行政服务部门职权范围之内 有人认 为,有关没收的问题并不属于第8条规定的范围 而应在讨论第2条和第3条的有 关法律规定时加以审议。 188.茌讨论第8款(d)项(新的第9款(c)项)时,一些代表认为茌该项规定中列 ^ 48 入一个时间因素是可取的,因为尽快地将可疑交易的情况通报给有关当局是至关重 要的.一位代表认为,应该要求茌更加精确的考虑基础上通报有关当局,而不是 仅仅出于怀疑有关物质拟用于非法制造麻醉药品或益神药资,他建议应添加“根据 合理的推定”一句.还有M—步建议,为了与第6条中的规定保致,应提 国家的主管机构和服务部门,而不是提有关当局.专家组同意参照上述某些意见 修订第8款⑴项的内容. 189.茌审议第8款(e)项(新的第9款(d)项)过程中,若干位代轰建议说,该项 中提及的商业单证还应包括有关支付形式的资料.这些代表认为,这类资料是追 踪非法交易的关鍵性因素.其他一些代表则认为,列入这类资料并不会起任何有 益的作用,㈨项中规定的监视系统本身便应确保难有关的金融活动加以充分的监视. 为了达成妥协的解决办法,有人建议将此项要求列入第8款(d)项中有关可疑交易的 条文中.专家级同意茌修订第8款&顾时歹!项建议的内容. 190 . 一位代表曽就第1 1条之二的恰当性和宗旨提出了保留(见下文第2 2 7 段),« 第8款(e)项也作了类似保留. 191.若干位條縣8款(e)项中郝发票、货物清单等商业单证是否应包括收 货人的姓名持有不同意见.一位代表指出,这项要求不切实际,因为茌许多情况 下,进口商或批发商并不知道最终的收货人是何人.有人建议如杲知悉有关资料 则可将收货人的姓名列入商业单证之中.专家组同意暂时对此项要求做一些限定, 即在方括号之内列入“只要.情况需可”便应指明收货人的姓名和地址.有两位代 表申明他们对茌本项中提及收货人而不加限定持保留态度并记录茌案. 192.有人指出,按照第8款(e)项的要求,应将已列入清单A和清单B中的物质 的名称列入商业单证,但这样做极为困难,因为大家知道,某些物质是以不同的名 称进口或出口的.然而人们认为,若要有效地实施第8条的规定,就非常需要有 一份统一的品名表.因此我们建议,由麻薛药品司召集专家会议,以统一那些可 能置于本公约监测系统之下的物质的名称.茌未拟出这种统一的品名表前,我们 同意保留茌方括号内注明参见清单A和清单B之处. 193.对第8款(f)项〔新的第9款⑷项〕,有人提出,根据公约第1 1条第7款 ^ 49 所起草的关于精神药物的提法应更恰如其分一些,专家组同意对此作相应的修改. 194 . 一些代表在对重新起草的案文第9款(新的笫1 0款)发表意见时指出, 所草拟的规定过于严格,过于详细。这些规定只应适用于那些可疑的交运货物, 而不应适用于与清单A所列物质有关的一切交易。此外,所设想的监测系统也许 会跟不上技术的发展,而随着越来越多的物质将受到管制,政府和工业的工作负担 将大为增加,因此应删去这一to 另一方面,也有一些代表认为,这一款的规定 对于实施公约来说是极其重要的,因此力寺保留。还有一些代表认为,虽然交换 情报甚为有益,但这些规定只应提出最低限度的要求,而由各締约国去决定详细的 办法。专家组同意采取一项折衷的解决办法,将各位专家所表达的关切考虑在内。 有三位代表对这些规定的强制性作出了保留,已记录在案。 195.专家组在审议重新起草的案文第1 0款(新的第1 1款)时,确认了它以 前作出的暂时决定,即应每年向理事会提交报告。对于按⑶项规定未列入清单A 或清单b的物质需要提出报告的问题,某i代表认为这种要求是成问题的,因为它 所涉及的可能并非所有締约国均感到关切的物质;反之,它会影响各缔约国承担的 应及时通知的责任,而根据笫2款承担的义务,他们是要及时通知那些可能有理由 应列入清单的物质的。有些代表则认为,作出报告会使理事会_到不同国家滥 用不同物质的资料,这有助于理事会作出自己的分析,以考虑有无可能列入清单A 或清单B。 为了把这些不同的意见均考虑在内,特提出如下建议:这类揋告所涉 及的物质,除正在用于非法加工或制作成寐醉药品和精神药物的物质外,应为郅些 各締约国认为相当重要而需要提请理事会注意的物质。专家组同意这一提法,并 对第1 0款作相应的修改后予以通过。专家组还原样通过了重新起草的案文第 11款(新的笫12款)。 196c在对重新起草的案文第1 2款(‘新的第1 3款)发表意见时厂人们认为, 这些规定不应限于那些打算用于治疗目的的制剂,因为还有其他制剂也是合法用于 工业上的.有一位代表提议,这一款的措词应允许把合法用途的制剂考虑在内, 但其制作方法应该是使这类物质不能用方便的手段轻而易举地加以利用或回收一定 数量,从而足以大量非法加工或制作成麻醉药品或精神药物 专家组同意这一提 ^ 50 法. 第9条 197.专家组同意修正第1款,以明确本条规定只是৿对意欲用于“非法”制造 麻醉药品和精神药物的原料和设备的贸易。 198C许多代表认为,原草案第2和第3款中设想的管制措施彳《执行5并可能 对制药工业所使用的原料和设备的合法囯际贸易造成不利影响。专家组审议了另 一项提议,这一提议提出用单独一款规定交流有关被怀疑意图用于非法制造麻醉药 品和精神药物的原料和设备的具体装运的情况,以取代第2和笫3款。专家组决 定,这样一项规定在第9条中并不能起到有益的作用,因为笫6条有关在执法机 构合作中交流情况的规定已包含了这一目的。 第1 0条 199.在评论初步草案的该条案文时,有些代表认为,由于提议的根除非法种植 的麻醉药品某些植物的措施已列入《单一公约》第2 2条,这一条是否有必要列入 新公约是有疑间的 有人建议应澄清提议的条款和《单一公约》第2 2条及随后 各条的关系,应在第10条适当提及该公约的有关条款.几个发言人认为,现有 形式喊单一公约》的相应条款增加储内容,而另一位代表指出,事 实上该条是专门涉及取缔非法科楦麻薛药品植物的方式的唯一条款。 200« 一位代表紐,笫1和2款的规定修改如下: “ 1.締约各国应采取适当措施防止非法种植并采取有效措_根除正在其领 土上非法舜植的暮氣古柯及大麻植物.所采取的措施必须符合基 本人杈,尊重国家和区域集团的传统和保护环境. 2,締约各国应进行以便通过作物取代和乡村综合发展办法,以及 通过给予取代产品以优惠关乱提高根除措施的效杲,同时考虑到各 种类型的这种产品和可用于它们的资源,以及非法种植区的当时的社 ^ 51 会经济情况.有共同边界的締约国应茌沿边界地区内,合作实行根 除方案. 201.该修正案得到了几位代表的全力支持.有些其他代表不同意该修正案, 其理由特别是,尊重人杈毫无疑问是必要的条件,但传统往往是会发生变化的;此 外,关于优惠关私涉及国际贸易问题,不属公约范围,而且巳超出专家组的职杈 范围 202.一些储储,该絲于根除的规定仅涉及供应方面,所以还应包掊涉及 减少需軸规絲加以平衡.他们认为,消除非法需求是对付非法叛运的4主 要因素, 203. "^絲提出了 ^ 面的建议,并得到了其他许多絲的支持.mXM. 增加以下两款: “3.非法需求量大的国家应采取适当措施防止非法消費,并应通过有力的 教育、预防和康复方案,努力尽早实现其国内麻薛品消费量的真正减 少. 4.为此,这些国家应调拨必要的经济、技太科学和人力资源,茌消除 麻薛药品和精神药物的非法消费问题方面取得真正的进展£ ” 204.其他一些储承认减求的重要性,但认为,公约^Jfil法角度出发的, 应该专门餑决这类事项;公约不应设法涉及麻薛品问题的其他方面,例如,预防、 治疗和康复或非法消费等等 其他一些代表认为,公约范围很广,并不主要涉及 刑法. 205.为了调和在本条实质性内容方面所持的不同立场,专家组决定在有关专家 间继续进行非正式讨论. 206.经ill:述非正式协商后,结杲向专家组提交了折衷的第1 0条草案,供其 审议 专家组以协商一致方式通过了上述草案. ‘ 207. 一位代表表示对该条标题中有关根除非法需求的部分和第3款持保留意见. 他认为,草案中茌非法需求的概念和非法殿运和其他犯罪活动的联系的概念间取得 平衡是必要的,因为这两种概念对今后打击非法贩运的囯际合作都将产生直接影响. ^ 52 208.另一位代表提议,第1款中“本国的传统’’字样应改为“合法的”一词 然而,专家组在讨论的较早阶段已通过那一款,有人认为最好将这一提议反映在报 告中,以便茌拟订公约的雜阶段予以审认 第1 1条 209 c专家组同意公约草案应载有能确保商业承运人经营的运输工具不被用于非 法贩运的规定.一些代表提议,鉴于缴获麻醉品同私人拥有和经营的运输工具的 国际流动有重大联系,第1 1条应扩大到同时包括私人承运人和商业承运人.一 位代表认为,该条范围不明确,究竟仅涉及船只和飞机,还是包括一刀运输工to 内. 210.专家组同意第1款限于陈述締约各国所承担的采取适当措施以确保商业承 运人经营的运输工具不被用于非法贩运的一般义务。一位代表认为不宜将要求缔 约各国加强国际港安全的规定列入公约. 2U . 一位代表说,他的国家的经验是:实现第1 1条所涉方面的有效控制的最 好办法莫过于取得商业承itA的合作和同意,而不麵过立娜施;据此,他提议 /公约应正面鼓励締约各国与商ik承运人订立特别安排,并按此大意重新拟订第5款, 其他一些代表认为,这一双可能并不适用于所有国家的法律制度。作为一种折 衷办法,专家组同意第1款中列入修订的该提议措词,表明这种特别安排可以作为 締约各国履行其根据本条所承担义务的可行措施之, 212.专家组决定不具体规定搜查应“彻底”.,因为这是不言而喩的. 213。若干M指出,不明镜所述搜查究竟属刑事诉讼范围还是属诲关当局杈限 内的控制措施 214;人们对进行揎查所依捏的婊滤度有不同的鮮释.一些代表认为』尸有 在严重嫌疑时才能进行搜查.一些发言者也指出,海关当局进行搜查是其正常职 责的一部分,不需要茌嫌疑时才能进行搜查,这一点应受到考虑。 215.代表们对有过错的商业承运人应受到的制裁的方式和严重程度表示了不同 的意见 鉴于难以就商业承运人应采取的预防措施制定一条国际上能够接受的标 ^ 53 准,因此,有人指出,只有茌能够碗定商业承有疏忽或当他们成为麻醉品贩运 的同谋时,才能追究其责任和赔偿责任.几位代表认为,公约应听任各该締约国 根据其自己国家的刑法来确定是否及何时实行制裁,以及这些制裁究竟应属行政性 质或刑事 216.为了协调对第2、3和4款的实质性内容所持的不同立场,专家组决定茌 有关的专家中继续进行非正式的协商 茌协商之后将一份折衷草案提交专家组审 议. 217.现茌,新的案文通过棚“締约各国”的措词来表明,第2、3和4款中 设想拘措施应由M締约国在M自的管辖权限内分别采取. 218.初步草案第2和3款的引言句的修正部分已纳入折衷草案第2款.第2 躺规定的措施分成两类:叙锵别地涉及茌締约囯领土内有其主要营业地的#人; (b涉及在締约国领土内经营业务的任何承但,有一项谅解,即締约各国在 适当的情况"PT向所有承运M取第2款⑷项和(b颅所设想的一切措施 219.正如一位條所作解释,引言句的措词表明,第2款⑴项和(b)项中列举的 措施是举例说明各国“可列入”其国家立法中的各项措旋,以确保商业承运人经营 的运输工:^棚于非法贩迳 220.新的第3款另行单独提到了原草案第3款(b)项中所列的各国和承atA之间 的准唯方式,该款“出入点和海关管制区”的提法可包括不同国家中存茌的不同实 际情礼 22U专家组以协商一致方式通过经重新起草的第2和第3款, 222.原第2款笫2句中关于可能对承运人实行制裁的规定已另茌第4款中重新 措词.但有一项谅解,即如杲认为适合进行制裁,这秭劁裁应属行政性质而不属 刑事性质,一些代表认为,经重新起草的第4款对各国根据一般国际法已享有的 权利没有增加任何内容,因此专家组同意澍除该款.两位代表表示对删除该款持 保留意JOf说他们将再次将此事顼向1...月举行的第二次M提出. ^ 54 第11条之二 第一届会议 223* 一位代表提议把工作文件第8 1 1段中他的国家政府的建议作为增列条款 茌稍后阶段进行审议,该建议不适合于第1 1条的范围,其内容大意是,确保付运 的麻醉药品和精神药物贴上正确标签,准确使用所列的屆际非专利商标名,和恰当 地使用随货单I海关^^和舱单. 第二届会议 224.专家组在其笫一届会议上审议了提议的新的第1 1条. 225.为支持列入这一规定,人们提到了区域间执法机构负责官员的第8号建议, 这一建议要求采取措施,以摘保交运的麻醉药品和_药物均在所有随货单证、海 关文件和舱单上予以正确说明. 226 . 一些代表认为,列入这一条不会有任何有益的用处 相反,提议的正裱 标明托运物的要求可能诱使转入非法用途的犯罪行为 而且,鉴于第8条的规定, 提及表A或表B中的药物是不恰当的. 227.经非正式协商后,专宏组收到了一份修订草案,其中规定出口麻醉药品和 精神药物应备有恰当单证,托运的出口货物均应标明无误.专家组同意了提议的 重新拟订案文。几个代表团要求删除第一款末尾的方括号,以使仅就其所知提及 收件Ao 三位代表解释了他们难于接受这一新的条款是由于新条款所涉的一些法 律和实际问题。他们认为,需要根据进一步的适当协商在以后阶段对这一条款进 行重新审孔因此,他们对专家组核准的这一条款的恰当性和宗旨表示保留并记 录在案。 第1 2条 228.几位代表表示支持该条草案的主旨,然而一些代表指出从刑法和国际海洋 法的观 来看,其中的某些规定可能会引起问题.一位代表强调茌没有确凿证据 证明非法贩运的情况下船旗囯之外的国家对船只采取的任何行动可能导致滥用并会 ^ 55 损害重要的法律原则.不考虑征得船旗国同意的条约规定可能造成贩运者只是将 其船只茌方便旗下登记,因此这类条约不能达到意图达到的目的. 229.专家组没作倒可修过了第1款案文,该款闳述了締约各国应尽可能充 分合作取締非法贩运受管制药物这一总的义务 2 30.关于第2款,有人建议,最好扩充该款规定以包括需要登记而未登记的船 只和已登记的船只.还有人建议,与其说到“根据其法律登记”,不如茌该款和 整条中細较通用的“悬挂其国旗” 一词. 231。专家组参照上述建议,通过其措词经修订的第2款. 232,某些代轰团认为,草案中提到《联合国海洋法公约》是不恰当的,因为该 公约生效后并不是对本文书的所有締约国都具约束力 关于第3款使用“公海” 一词,各储赫了不同的意见 一些储赞同保留该词,而其他條则疼对这 样做,并认为最好使用领海或领水概念.专家组同意以“领海范围以外”地区来 代替“公海’’一词,而不会损害沿海国在这些范围朝海那面已享有的 杈利.一 些代表回顾说,存在着有关国家在其中享有与诲关、税收、健康和移民有关的事项 方面的专有权的it连区。专家组同意新草案中保留沿海国杈利的部分包括晚连 区。鉴于下述事实,某些代表对此措词表示保留,即作为《联合国海洋法公约》 的筌署国,他们择以符合他们根据该文书承担的义务的方式解释和实施这一条的规定 233.专家组同意了几位代表提出的下體议:关于悬挂另一締约国国旗的船只, 在登船、搜查和扣押这些船只前必须事先征得般旗国的同意.就扣抨而言,有人 强调,只茌查荻船只从葶非法娱运的iiE据时,才能打算采取这一行动。对第3款 作了修正以反映这些要象鉴于要列入需事先征得同意这一点,有人认为提及悬 挂登船国国旗的船只是多佘的,因为船旗国对该款所设想的情况下的船只捅有管辖 杈.同样,提及未挂旗或登记标记的船只也没有必要,因为茌这秭情况下不产生事 先征得同意的问题.因此倒去了 (a)项和(c)项。 234.有人指出,由締约各国按照第4款指定的机构并不一定有义务按另一締约 国的请求行亭,而只是应以迅速的方式对趟请求作出反应.有关措词便依此作 ^ 56 了修正 专家组还通过了修正第4款第二和第三句的建议,以便更加确切地表明 船旗国应茌何时指定一个机抅为笫3款的目的接受并答复其他缔药国提出的请求, 以及将揞定机钩的情况通知所有其他締约囯的时限. 235.专彭且同意修正第5款以便囊括现有的及将来的条约,不论其为多边或双 边条约 为了与第3款中相应的删除取得一致,专家组同意删去有关被扣押船只 悬挂登船国国旗时所涉及法律要求的糾项. 236.专家组同意删除第6款的建议,因为该款规定只有一个締约国有权对一项 协定或安排提出质疑,这被认为不符合国际惯例. 237.为了强调和保障依照该条的规定采取任何行动时船旗国所有利益不受损害, 专家组同意添加一个新的第6款,大意是应将这类行动的结果通报有关船旗国. 238.若于代表支持列入一项类似于《联合国海洋法公约》第1 10条第3款的 涉及诲上掠夺的賠偿条款的建议,以便赔偿受到搜查、但证实没有问题的船只可能 因此而 @ 的损失或 » , 许多储反对列入这一条款,并指出,第1 2条所述 情况不同于第1 10条,因为前者要求亭先征得船旗国同意,而且这一规定将妨碍 各国采取行动打击非法贩运.此项建议未获同意.一个团认为,公约应列 入一项责任条氣该条款与其他一些条款应明确规定提出要求的締约国和被要求缔 约国的义务 第13条 239.在审议苐1 3条(麻薛药品委员会第三十二届会议同意保留初步案文中所 办徙的该条)时,一位代表提到文件1^0/])(:1:1:/"!71>.1第8 6 7段中所载他 的政府关于更全面的草案的建议.普遍认为.提议的规定太详细具体.而且由于 太复杂而难以实施 专家组决定第1 3条的初步条文仍应作为专家组讨论的基本 案文. 240. M同意,为了确保所设想的取締自由贸易区湘自由港(这类地区特别容 易发生非法贩运)的非法贩运的措施的有效性.应当修正第1款,以表明这类措施 ^ 57 的严厉程度应不低于“在国家领土其他部分实行的措施” 241.专家组同意修正第2款(a)项尚以考虑到下达事实,即授权其有关当局进 行搜查属各国正常杈限范围 专家组还同意不要将 仅限下“出AJS 只” 还 应包括“货物” 242.专家组同意将该条规定扩大到包括在自由贸易区湘自由港“搜查船员湘旅 客及其行李”.有人指出,有组织地或不加区别地进行检查可能会引起实际困难, 并可能涉及关于尊重个人权利的法律问题.因此大家同意第2款(b)项规定提到只 在“适当情况下”搜查船员湘旅客. 第1 4条 243. 一位代表重申他的政府的建見即用“在现有国家法律制度基本原则范围 内”限定本条以及公约草案所有其他条款的规定.就第1 4条而言 一些代表表 示支持这样一科说法.然而,普遍的意见是,对公约草案的所有条款来说,这样 的说法可能证明是不恰当的. 一 244.专家组还同意,保障条款的范围仅限于国家法律制度基本原则,而不要将 其扩大到规范,以便使缔约国有可能通过或修正其立法以实施新公约的规定,只要 这不影响其各自的法律制度基«则. 245.专家组同意本条的修订保障条款如下“在符合其各自国家法律制度基本原 则的情况下” 246.有人建议,维护締约国主杈的适当保障条款可以是公约中单独一条的主题. 在这方面,有人指出,现有各公约中包括的保障条款旨在表明締约各国可自.由选择 实施各公约约束性规定的方式 247.专家组同意,第14条标题中“防止” 一词改为“取缔”,以便使标题符 合第1款的规定湘同时包括第2款(a)项提及的预防湘取締的概念. 248. 一些代表认为,该条规定不应侵犯通信秘密的杈利.按这一意思,专家 组同意澍除经麻醉药品委员会修正的案文第2款(a)项中“管制” 一词. ^ 58 对序言、执行措施和最后条款初步交换意见 24 9 一些在ifi仓序言时指出 应餅言更加简明扼要. «人建议,应 当規定各项条款的总的指导原则. 、 250.有些代表认为 序言部分段落不应该是选择性的 而是应该涉及公约实质 性条款中载有的所有内容 在这方面 序言部分段落应象公约的条款一样的顺序 排列. 251. 一位代表着重指出在序言中保留提及麻醉品贩运湘其他有关的有组织的犯 罪活动之间联系的重要意义. 252 另一位代表重申在序言部分段落中说明本公约湘现有麻醉品管制条约的关 系的重要意义. 25 3. 一些代表对执行条款草案的一般处理方法湘拟订表示满意. 254. 1_认为,鉴于本公约条款没有完全对本公约提及的许多问题作出规 定,在本公约中重申习惯国际法MM宜的. 255.有人阐述締约国一MX务的第一条是多麵 因为它并没有对每一 条搬载特定义务增加更多内容.因此建议删除该条. 256.关于第二条委以麻醉药品委员会的职责,有人建议.根据《单一公约》第 8条所用的措词,该条应规定《授权”委员会审议有关公约宗旨的所有事项. 257. 一些发言人评论了第三条中采用的报告程序.关于是否定期提出报告的 问题,有人强调指出,年度报告将给各国政府以及有关国际组织带来额外负担;最 好逐步停止以灵活方式提交报告的傲法.关于报告的内容,有人提议除法律湘条 例外,报告可以列入双边协定或.劍纟的案文《而且不仅要提及重大国际贩运轉获 案例.而且还要提及控制下交付湘法律互助的实例命其也有关情孔这将是有益的. 根据公约规定进行的司法程序的结杲也可能是人们关心的.. 258.有M议,考虑到其内容,第四条勁鲍的标题应该是“国家协调机榭. 关于法律文件传递的莬⑷款,有人谈为,这一款应列入第五条.笫(e)款的内容也 最好转到公约其他条款中去. 59 259.关于棍据苐五条应委托哪个机构监督公约的执行的问题,一些代表认为 为此目的建立一个新的委员.会是不可取的.根据现有公约已有效地履行其职能的 麻醉药品委员会湘国际麻醉品管制局能够履行第五条所设想的任务.但是有人指 出,按秘书处草案的建议,一个由以个人身份服务的专家组成的麻委会的委员会能 够发Ͽ第一级控制的有益作用,由它向主管决策机构转送其调查结果. 260.在对最后条款初步交换意见时,一些代表表示,他们赞成工作文件中提出 的任一备选案文,或者两者的结合, 261. 一些 指出 第一条备选案文B 特别是“开放傲;f有国家签署,这一 措辞更为简单明了,更符合条约法目前的惯例.有人对最后条款中涉及欧洲共同 体及其成员国在公约中的地位方面表示保留. 262.关于适用领ife第三条 一些储认为,文 A 已经过时,需要更 合 适的措辞. 263. 一位代表指出.第五条第2款提议的公约修正程序t认为是不能令人满意 的,因为它以一种十分松散的方式规定了 一 过于严格的时间限制 另一位代表 建议.本公约締约国三分之二多数同意是修正案生效的适当标准,这一建议得到支 持. 264. 一:^表认为 第六条第3款的条U不可接受的,因为某些国家受杈所 作的特别保留可能违背公约的目的湘存在的理由.有人认为只有在实质性条款最 后确定后才能解决保留问题. :265.关于第七条设想的争端的解决,两位代表对国际法院的强制管辖 示保 留;他们认为,締约国应通过相互商定的办法解决争端. 266.有人建议,应加上一项有关公约的有效案文湘向_国转发经核证的副本 的条款 267 —些代表表示,在预定的专家组第二次会议上,他们将能够就详细审议序
DOCUMENT E/CN.7/1988/2 (PART II)*言、执行措施湘最后条款的问题提出更为具体的建议湘修正意见. -6 0 文件E/CN.7/1988/2(第四部分)*
Report of the open-ended intergovernmental政府间可自由参加的专家组会议
expert group meeting at its first and第三届会议报告
second sessions[原件:英文] [1988年2月8日]
[Original: English]第一章
[23 October 1987]会议安排
Chapter I1.可自由参加的政府间专家组于1 9 8 8年1月2 5日至2月5曰召开了第
BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION三届会议.并举行了另外1 5次(第4 0至5 4次)全体会礼 出席专家组会议
OF THE MEETING的有来自下列6 2个国家的1 7 4位专家:阿根廷、澳大利亚、奥地利、比利时、
A.破利维亚、博茨瓦纳、巴西、保加利亚、白俄罗期苏维埃社会主义共和国.
Background of the meeting喀麦隆、
1. The General Assembly, in its resolution 39/141 of加拿大、智利、中国、骑赃、哥斯达黎加、科特迪瓦、古巴、朝鲜民主主义人 民共和国、丹麦、厄瓜多尔、埃及、埃塞俄比亚.芬兰.法国.德意志民主共和国.
14 December 1984, requested the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, through the Economic and Social Council, to德意志联邦共和国、希腊、教廷、匈牙利.印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国. 意大利、牙买加、日本、马拉维,马来西亚.墨西哥、荷兰*新西兰、尼曰尔、尼 日利亚、挪威、阿曼、巴拿马、秘鲁、波兰、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、西班牙、斯里
initiate the preparation of a new draft convention against兰卡、苏丹、瑞典.端士、泰国、土耳其、乌克兰苏维埃社会主义共和国、苏维埃 社会主义共和国联盟、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利里合众国*委内瑞拉、
illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. In furtherance of that objective, the Commission, in resolution 1 (S-IX) of 14 February 1986, identified 14 elements for inclusion in an initial draft convention and南斯拉夫。
requested the Secretary-General to prepare such a draft2.在1 9 8 8年1月2 5日举行的笫三届会议第1次会^1_11,专家组注意到,
for circulation to Governments for comment. The Commission considered the draft Convention and Governments' comments thereon at its thirty-second session in在第一届会议上当选并在笫二届会议上连任的4名主席团成员将再次出席第三届会
February 1987.议,但代表非洲区域的笫三副主席的职位这次空缺.因此,会议同意应开始选出
2. The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution一位新的第三副主席 根据这种情况,专家组于1 9 8 8年1月2 8日举行的笫
1987/27 of 27 May 1987, which had been submitted as a* 不包括附件一及与其有关的更正。 -6 1 三届会议第4次全会上以鼓掌方式选出了克芬恩.母尼斯.哥娄依先生(科特迪瓦)
draft by the thirty-second session of the Commission on为第三副主席* 结果当选的笫三届会议主席团成员如下: 主席:Ennigue Paarejo Gonzalez (哥伦比亚) 第一副主席:Gioacchino Polimeni (意大利) 第二副主席:E.A.Babayan (苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟) 第三副主席:Claon Denis Glohi (科特迪瓦) 报告员:Hema Weerasinghe (斯里兰卡) 3.专家组收到了一份会议临时议程(DHD/DCIT/WP.6)和一份临时时间 安排表(DHD/DCIT/WP.7). 专家组注意到,在其第三届会议上,它应在可 能的情况下完成对第1、3、4、5条以及序言执行条文和最后条款的审议工作。 与笫一、二届会议一样,专家组继续以工作文件DHD/DCIT/WP. 1为基础进行 讨论.在其第三届会议期间,专家组还收到了载于麻醉药品委员会第E/CK.7/ 1 9 8 8 / 2号文件(第二部分)中的其第一、二届会议的报告, 4.专家组没有在1月25日和26日以及27日上午举行全体会议,以便使 非正式工作组得以充分利用口译服务来检查第3条。非正式工作组还利用1月26 日湘2 8日上午的部分时间,1月2 7日和2 8日下午的部分时间和1月2 6日晚 上举行了会议 作为非正式工作组主持人的第三届会议第一副主席于2月i曰向 笫4 7次^#会议报告了该工作组的进展情况 由于2月4日下午和2月5曰上 午没有举行全体会议,因此未能在充份阐释的情况下对修改案文的问题进行非正式 的审议。 5,欧洲共同体委员会观察员在1 9 8 8年2月4日星期四上午举行的第5 3 次全体会议上发言说,欧洲经济共同体希望在这项新公约中拟订一条款,使共同体 在其职杈范围内有可能参加该公约。有关公约最后条款的提案将在以后阶段提出。 6,专家组在其第三届会议讨论的过程中,审议并完成了其对第3条和笫4条, 笫5条的1一9段的讨论s它还根据其对第3、4和5条的工作,对笫2条和第2 条之二进行了审查, 7 专家组在其1988年2月5日的笫54次全体会议上批准了以协商一致 的意见修正的、或在未能取得一致意见时以括号形式予以表明的第3条和笫4条、 -6 2 第2条和第2条之二的部分,以及笫5条的修订案文 专家组继而通过了其报告, 并指示在本届会议上批准的修订案文应列入本报告的附件二。 第二章 对公约草茱的审查 第3条 8.专家组继续对笫3条进行了审ih 这次审议始于第二届会议,并决定将 它提交给HKE式工作组作进一步的研究。 9.工作组主持人在向专家组报告非正式工作组讨论的结果时指出,专家们对 此条进行审议的基础,是秘书处原来提出的草案,因此某些代表提出了一些案文, 以便整个改写这一条,或改写原来草案中的某些具体规忘同时还提出了一些提案 草案,反映了第二届会议对在其他締约国领it收缴的财产如杲处置问题的非正式 协商意见。人们普遍认为,秘书处原来提出的有关这一条的草案过于繁绩,需要 @结概吏之更为明确。 10.主持人简要介绍了非正式工作组在重新拟订这一条时采取的方৿,并提出 了已取得一致意见的新的条文草案,以及由于时间关系未及在非正式工作组讨论的 其他提案。按照这一条的新结构,第1 一 3款为締约国在国家一级所应采取的没 收措施及其他有关问题,第4 一 6款则为某一締约国应另一締约国从国际合作出发 提出的请求而实行没收及其他有关问题第7— 8款规定了适用于没收的各种情况 的大致范围及有关的措:在每一节内,直接与没收和收缴有关的问题均与其傯 有关措拖^P萄定、追查、冻结和扣押等有助于最终没收的措施区别开来,因为 只有没收和收缴两词规定了最后要采取剥夺殿卖人从贩卖毒品中获得的利润,其他 _彳为在没收和收缴之前和为了进行没收和收缴所考虑采取的程序性措施。 11".新条文的各项规定措词较灵活,以便易于接受,并在各种1!内法体系中得 以执行。这一态度促使一些代表支持如下提案,即৿对宪法限制和.国内法体系的 -6 3 基本原则,为整个这一条和/或为其中的某些具体款项盘定保障条款。 12-主持人指出,“查收”和“没收”两词均加了方括号,因为人们对在条文 中是否要用其他的词来概括按照各国法律体系的热定采取措施的不同方法的问题未 取得一致意见,在重新拟订笫1条的各项规定时,没收一词还将用于新草菜中便周 的某些词,诸如收益、财产和工具等《 非正式工作组已对这些词加了方括号,以 待专家组决定是否接受。 13.对于第非正式工作组已同意在引言中写明,各締约国应采取认为必 要的措施来没收: “㈨从按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中获得的收益,或与这种收益等 值的财产I (b)用于或打算用于进行按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为的麻醉品和精 神药物I
Excluding the annexes and the corrigenda pertaining to them.收行动 被请求国有义务麵得求获得没收令,一旦批准,应执行这一命令;或(to)
Narcotic Drugs, requested the Secretary-General to prepare a working document consolidating the first draft of执行请求国发布的没收令。非正式工作组将拟定的该款留在方栝号内,因为对 该款的内答,特别是有关执行没收请求的方式的内答未能达成一致意见。对该款 的最后一句也存在着意见分枝。这一句规定,被请求国应在与其本国自己的司法
the convention, comments made by Governments to date机构可获得的同样程度上和同样的条件下执行另一締约国的请求. 23 . 一些代表认为.该款范围大广4其中规定的措施应由締约各国根据双边和
on that draft and the results of the deliberations of the多边条约酌情执行。一些代表在提请人们注意所规定的方法的独特性时认为.应 首先在法律体制相似的国家中先对这一方法进行实践和发展,才能将它包括进一项
Commission on the draft at its thirty-second session;国际文书。、 24 .
the一些代表提议删除对有关司法互助的第5条的提及,因为专家组还未对该
working document was also to contain a draft preambular条的规定进行审议。有人认为,第5条中规定的合作领域与为开展没收活动所需 的更广泛的合作形式相比显得较为有限。另一方面,一些代表认为必须在4(a)小
part, a section on the implementation mechanisms and款中保留对第5条昀第5. 6 , 7 . 8和1 1款的程序要求的提及。专家组同意
draft final provisions. The Council further requested the了这一建议,在它对第5条进行审议之前,先将有关论述置入方括号中。
Secretary-General to circulate that working document to25 . 一位代表提出了大意如下的一项修正案,締约国应按照其本国立法执行没 收的请扎有人指出,这一修正案是十分必要的,因为一项没收令是由判决所产
States by 1 May 1987 and decided that an open-ended生的一种制裁,只有在被请求国的本国法律体制下才能实施。一些代表进一步提 议,应以同样的方式提M边和多边条约。人们一致认为 新的《公约》也可以
intergovernmental expert group should meet if necessary为这秭形式的国际合作莫定基础。 26.鉴于各种不同的建议和意见.专家组同意在该款中列入一项规定(后标为
twice in 1987, to review the working document and,(c)) r即締约各国应根据或按照其国内法.双边或多边协议执行没收的请扎经 -6 6 被请求国酌情考虑.多边协议也可包括新的《公约》。
wherever possible, reach agreement on the articles of the27 . 一些代表提议 两个小款的措辞应该一致。为此,专家叙同意重新起草
draft Convention and prepare a revised working document.的第2小款 大意是 只要第1款所述收益、财产、手段或其他东西仍处于被请求 国领土内,締约国应向其主管机构呈交请求国根据第1款发布的涉及上述东西的没
3. The date limit proposed by the draft resolution of the收令,以便执行。
Commission for the circulation of the working document28.专家组审议了有关列入另一小款的建议,该小款大意是:为了执行本款的 规定,且不违反被请求国的国内法,由请求国提供的-^刀证据若是根据请求国的立
(1 May 1987) was earlier than the first regular session of法所获得,都应被被请求国接受作为证据。这一建议后被撤回,因为该款提出者 认为,如果应某些代表的要求删除最后的从句,该款就会变得毫无意久
the Economic and Social Council, at which the draft resolution was to be considered (4-29 May 1987).29.
In setting专家组同意保留方括号中经修正的第4款,因为对其实质内容未能达成一
that date, the Commission was influenced by the need to致意J^iO 30 . 一些代表表示,经修正的条款的规定没有包括在本条款下提出的所有问题,
foresee the very early transmittal of the working document其他事项,如保护辩护权利、一事不再理规则。并行管辖权等也可考虑在以后的阶
when establishing a concise time-frame in which to further段列入 31 . 一位代表提议删除非正式工作组起草的第5款,而把该款的实质内容列入 第5条有关执行搜查及收缴的请求的3 (ckl、氬其他一些代表反对这一建议,支
the preparation of the draft Convention. Accordingly, and持在第3条中保留这一规定,因为第5款的主旨是开展国际合作采取没收行动,它 的范圃械关司法互相的第5条要V:^
in anticipation of the Council's approval of the draft resolution, the Division of Narcotic Drags had prepared the32.鉴于第4款和第5款规定的措施间有着密切的联系,专家组同意将第5款
working document requested.插入第4款,作为4 (b>/】、款。对该规定的措辞作了修改,以与4(a)小款相统一,
4.而且,也规定该条款的执行须服从4(c)小 规定的条件。 33.
In view of the time-frame and in anticipation of the关于非正式工作组拟定的有关在其他締约国领土上没收的财产的处理问题
request of the Economic and Social Council, the SecretaryGeneral circulated the working document to all States的草案第6款,一些代表回顾指出,第二届会议曽一致认为在本条中作出这一规定 是极为重要的和适宜的。人们一致认为,这一规定的执行应当承认締约各国的主 权書根据有关缔约国间M的减、多边或其他协议执行,締约各国在确定分享收
under cover of note NAR/CL.5/1987 dated 29 April 1987.缴的收益的方法方面应有最大的灵««
In the same note, the Secretary-General invited Governments to indicate whether they would participate in the34 . 一些代表认为,绝大部分集中在发达国家中的来自国际非法麻醉品贩运的 -6 7 收益应被用来资助受非法贩运直接影响的发展中国家的控制麻薛品方在此方 面,有人强调,这秭资金的转让应是非强制性的,应由象联合国控帝丨麻醉品滥用基
open-ended intergovernmental expert group.金这样的可靠和公认的国际机构进行监督和提供。 35.
Preparatory work 11有些代表提出反对意见,认为由于这定的政治影响,专家组不是讨论
B. Organization of the meeting和批准它的适当论坛,最好把这一问题提交麻醉药品委员会。与此相反,一些代
First session絲为,专家组完全可以讨论这一规定的技术问题并提出一项草本,但有一项谅解,
5.即是否将它列入草案的决定将由主管机构在制定公约的未来阶段作出。 36.
The first session of the open-ended intergovernmental专家组开始审议非正式工作组提出的草案,并通过了一项规定,即締约国
expert group to consider the draft Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances根据本条没收的收益或财产,应由该締约国按照其国内法律和行政程序加以处置。 37. 一些代表重申他们反对拟议的另一条分项,即根据此分项规定,各締约国 要特别考虑締结协议,在根据第3条应另一締约国的要求而采取行动时,把按照第
met at the Vienna International Centre from 29 June to一款没收的财产和收益的价值或其中大部分价值捐献给专门从事抵制非法贩运和滥 用麻醉药品和精神药物的国际组织或区域性组礼 拟议的条文进一步规定,上述
10 July 1987. The Expert Group was attended by 135 experts from the following 57 States: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria,捐款应指定用于资助旨在防止和抵制非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物的方案,这些方
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote案将由直接参加上述协议的各締约国联合制定并在其境内加以实孤其他一些代 表则反对另一项拟议的规定,即应另一締约国要求而没收了收益或财产的締约国, 可选择是否按照其国内法律、行政程序或为此目的而订立的双边或多边协议规定的 那样,经常性地或以逐个案件为基础与其他締约国共同分享这种收益或财产或出售 这种收益或财产而得到的资金。 38 . 一位代表建议说,这两项建议的一些实质性内容应汇编成一条分项规免 39.经过非正式协商后,专家组同意了第5款的妥协草案,该草案照顾到在讨
d'lvoire, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt,ifciia中所提出的各科意见和建৽
Ethiopia, Finland, France, German Democratic Republic,40.对于非正式工作组草案第7款第一句中放在方括号内的“和财产”、“应”
Germany, Federal Republic of, Guatemala, Hungary, India,和“可,’等字样以及第二句中的“或财产,,、‘‘应,,和“可”等字样,发表了不同
Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Madagascar,的意该款的规定涉及可实行该条所述措施的收益和/或财产,无论其是否已 与从其他来源获得的财产混为一体或巳变成或转化为其他财产。从这秭收益或財
Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New产中得到的收入或其他益处,也应鄉上述措施。
Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Peru,41 . 一些代表认为,应使该规定成为强制性的,并提议在该款的两种情况下保 -6 8 留“应”字。另外一些代表持反对意见,以考虑到不同的法律制I 其他一些
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Senegal, Spain, Sri Lanka,代表划提议第一句中保留“应”字,如果也保留关于M产的字样:第二句中保留 “可”字,如果提及的是收孤
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist42.鉴于立场各不相同,专家组决定在商定的新的第6款中把有争议的字样放 在括号内。
Republics, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern43 . —位代表提议通过一项规定,即各締约国同意尽量采取必要的措施,在司 法诉讼过程中确保对财产和财物合法性提出证据的责任由被控告的贩运者承负。
Ireland, United States of America, Venezuela and Viet44 . 一些代表反对这项提议,因为他们绝对重视无罪推定原则,一切违法行为 都是这样,包括贩毒》 此外,他们还重视本国宪法中的其他原则*
Nam.45 . 一位代表说,秘书处原来制定的草案条款中包括一项规定,即在确定有关 收益价值的证据时,应考虑到没有明显合法来源证明其所获财物的个人,团体、公
6.司或其他法律实他认为,此项规定似乎并不侵犯人权。 46.
At its 1st meeting, on 29 June, 1987, the Expert Group专家组商定了一份非强制性的倡议性妥协案文,即各締约囯可考虑确保就
elected by acclamation the following officers:应没收的收益或其他财产合法性提出证据的责任掉转过来,只要此项行动符合其国
Chairman: Enrique Parejo Gonzalez (Colombia)内法的原则和司法诉讼的性质。 47.两位代表对商定的案文表示保留。
First Vice-Chairman: Gioacchino Polimeni (Italy)48.专家组审查了非正式工作组提出的条款草案第即第3条的规定不应 解释为损害合法和/或善意第三方的杈利。“合法”、“和”、“或”以及“善
Second Vice-Chairman: E. A. Babayan (Union of意”等字样已分别放在方括号内,因为非正式工作组没有就本款案文中应使用哪一
Soviet Socialist Republics)个词达成协议,为了包括如下条件,即根据此条件締约国除合法获得财产外还应
Third Vice-Chairman: Maurice Randrianame善意地获得之,有人提议应删除‘‘或”字,保留“.合法和善意的”等字样,但应有
(Madagascar)一项谅解,即“合法” 一词在第一条中的定义将以原来草案中所载的目前的定义为
Rapporteur: Hema Weerasinghe (Sri Lanka)>to 还说道,“合法” 一词通常适用于财产而不适用于入专家组同意侧除
7.“合法” 一词并仅称为善意的第三方。 49.
At its 1st meeting the Expert Group also approved its专家组同意最后一款中的一项一般性保障条氯规定第3条所载任何规定
provisional agenda (DND/DCIT/1) and a provisional timetable (DND/DCIT/2/Rev. 1). In adopting its timetable, the均不影响如下原则,即其所述措施应按照締约国国内法及其确定的条件来下定义并
Expert Group decided to examine the various articles and加以实施。 50.为了避免第三方的诉讼会妨得締约国可以扣押他们的财物和财产,一位代 -6 9 表提议通过一条附加款项,规定除非在特定情况下,被要求执行另一締约国没收命 令的締约国,应受该締约国关于第三方权利作出的判决和裁决的约、束。一些代表 同意此规定的宗旨,但指出,这项规定引起了刑法和民法以及国际私法的复杂问氮 提议收回了,但指出,@一个重要的问题,值得进一步考底
sections of die draft Convention, time permitting, in the51 . 一位代表提议从第3条中删去有关善意第三方的款项,而在《公约》中另
following sequence: articles 14, 13, 6, 10, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12,外加进一项条款,规定第2条和第3条的规定不得觯释为损害善意第三方的权利。 反对此提议的说,善意笫三方的概念和第2条的规定(此项规定涉及对国际违法行
2, 3, 4, 5 and 1, followed by the implementation articles,为实行制裁)之间的关系不明。专家组没有通过此项提议。 52.专家组以原来的草案为基础,继续对第4条进行了审议.并在审议时处处
the preamble and the final clauses. It was understood that考虑到第二届会议上一般性讨论中就整个这一条和各具体款项提出的意见和建议。
time constraints and the complexity of the task might not53.有一些代表提议,应对第1款加以修改 具体说明笫4条的各项规定只适 用于按照第2条第1款确定的严重罪行。有一些代表认为,本款应就何种麻醉品
permit a complete review during the first meeting of two犯罪行为属情节严重而应予引渡制订出客观的标准。在这方面,人们就惩 处严重 罪行的最低限度提出了建议,从剝夺自由至少是最多一年到至少是最多两年不等也
weeks' duration.有人提出,对业已定罪的人要求予以引渡时,判刑至少四个月。但有几位代表指
8. The Expert Group had before it the working document prepared by the Secretary-General (DND/DCIT/出在他们国家及重是引渡的先决条件,因此在第1款中应有反映这一要求的规 但专家组共同的理解是,新增加的第4款之二业已通过,它适用于第4条的 各款,因m—关切已完M括在内。
WP.l and Corr.l and Add.l) and considered that document during the 20 plenary meetings that it held at its first54.专家组同意不在第1款的各项规定中写上“严重”一词。人们指出,第
session.2条第1款中所说的严重罪行,其含义已包括紐样一条规定的措词中,即各締约
9. In the course of its deliberations at its first session, the国有责任根据其剤法所列出的各秭具体行为来确定罪行。有几位代表指出,第2 条已对何谓轻徽罪行、何谓严重罪行作了区别。有一位代表建议,在具体说明拒
Expert Group considered and completed its discussion of绝引渡理由的第5妙上^,即可把情节轻微者排除在引渡之外。 55 鉴于各国的法律体系和现行双边及多边条约中规定的应予引渡的最低惩处
articles 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14; it began its discussion of article 2 and agreed on a redraft of article 8 as限度各不相同,因此人们一致同意不在本公约中规定作为引渡标准的最低或最高限 -7 0 度。_有人指出,如果被请求国的最低限度低于请求国,那么规定最低限度将会造 成寐烦的先例,有可能使按照第2条第1款确定的严重罪行逃避引渡。有几位代
the basis for further discussion at its next session; and it綠对以«的年数作为决妓否同意引渡的标准。 56.有几位代表重申了他们的意见.即本公约的目标并不是要为某一麻醉品犯
had a preliminary exchange of views on the preamble, the罪区各国制订一项引渡条约,而是依据由双边条约.多边条约以及国内立法规定的 标准,在其对上述罪行的引渡条件又与其他罪行的引渡条件没有什么不同的情况下.
implementation measures and the final clauses of the draft有义务对按照第2条第1款确定的各种严重罪行予以引渡。按照这一态度 专家 组同意增加如下一款(第4款之二:修订案文的第5款) 即引渡与否应以请求国
Convention. The discussions of the Group, in so far as they的法律或适用的引渡条约规定的条件为准。 57.专家组在一致同意以“按照......确定的” 一语代替“按照......列举的” 一
concern the textual changes finally approved or proposed语之后 依照原来草案的措词保留了第1氡 58.专家组同意依照原来草案的措词保留第2款。有的代表在发言支持保留
for inclusion in the revised draft, are reflected in chapter II,这一款时说,这些规定可以起到补充各缔约国之间业已生效的引渡条约的作用,特 别是对于那些采用列举的方法而按照第2条第1款萌定的罪行可能并未明确列为可
on an article-by-article basis. At the last meeting of its予引渡的罪行的条约来说,更可以起到这种作用。某些代表认为,这一款的各项 规定只应适用于今后的条约,而不可能追溯既往,加到现行与麻醉品罪行有关的双
first session, on 10 July 1987, the Expert Group agreed边条约中去。 59.有几位代表认为,为了加强新公约的效力,改进各秭现行公约的有关规定,
upon the draft texts of those articles, as amended by consensus or with an indication of the variant formulations第3款各项规定的拟订应使引渡与麻醉品有关的罪行成为那些未受引渡条约约束的 各締约国的义务。因此,“可”字应改为“应,’字。还有人认为。修正案应产 @样的结果,即迫使那些以有无条约为引渡条件而其立场又与那些虽不以此为条
proposed for inclusion when no complete agreement could件但遵守第4款规定的国家一样的国家,有义务承认第4条所适用的罪行为他们之 间可予引渡的罪行。
be reached.60-另一些代表反对这#正案,其理由晃这将使此项规定与其宪法和国内
10. At that meeting the Expert Group also requested the法的规定相抵这一M对于那些依靠双边条约来陈述其引渡条件的国家来说 格外不能接受。人们还注意到,规定这种义务产生的后果是,对麻醉品罪行的引
Secretariat to make the necessary arrangements, in accordance with paragraph 4 of Economic and Social Council渡将比对其他同样严重罪行的引渡更受到优先待t 对于要求加上考虑到宪法和 体系要求的保障条款的提茱,人们认为这并不恰当。有人指出,这一款的适 -7 1 用范围实际上很有限,因为许多国家均可根据其国内法进行引渡,而不必要求有引
resolution 1987/27, to convene the second session of the渡条约J同时,引渡实际上是按照互惠的原则进行的。 61.专家组同意在“可”和“应”字上加上方括号,留待以后爯作进一步的讨
open-ended intergovernmental expert group, scheduled for62.专家组依照最初文本的措词通过了第4款,伹其谅解是,在通过了新增加 的一款(第4款之二)后,末尾的保障条款即为多余,应予删去。
5-16 October 1987, to continue the review of the remaining articles and sections of the draft Convention.63.有几位代表提议删去整个第5款,因为它所作出的详尽现定通常应由国内
Second session法和有关的双边及多边条约作出。他们认为,这一款与新核准的第4款之二是冲
11. The second session of the Expert Group convened突私 还有人强调,主权国家拒绝引渡要求的决定权不应受公约的限制。另一 些代表则认为,这一款的各项规定对于解决贩毒活动国际方面的问题,特别是对于
as planned from 5 to 16 October 1987 and held a further保证把贩毒份子交给法办来说,是十分重要的。在他们看來删去第5款将会削 弱第4款的其他实质性规定其结果是,公约的力量将大受损失。人们还进一步
19 plenary meetings. The second session of the Expert指出,通鄉4款之二并不排除这样一种可能&即在其他款项中加进一些希望写 进国内法和有关引渡问题的条约中去的重要条款。
Group was attended by 183 experts from the following64.有一些代表认为,分段5(a)应予删去,因为其各项规定均与本国的宪法、 国内立法和司法实践习惯相抵触 有代表对此指出,在某些情况下,拒绝给予引 渡的国家通常会以有义务起诉为交换条件。另一些代表强调,他们非常重视分段 5(a). 他们认为,不规定允许引渡各国的国民,反对贩毒份子的斗争将是一句空 话《 还有一代表说,公约应呼吁各締约国设法减少法律限制,使它们能够给予引 渡. 65.有一些代表提议,如杲要保留这一分段,那么除提到被请求国以宪法为由 拒绝引渡外,还应提到以国内法或国内法的基本原则为由。有一些代表建议,凡以 这些理由为由拒绝引蒎各締约国应承诺给予紧急考虑,以消除这些障碍。 66*在经过非正式协商后,向专家组提交了一份提案,其中包括第5款引言部 分经过修改的措词和重新拟订的有关引渡各国囯民问题的分段5(a)的案文。 67-对于用二^I语言说明各締约国有义务为引渡犯有按照第2条第1款确定 的罪行的人提供便利的引言部分,一致同意根据一些代表提出的建议,使其不仅适 用于被指控的人,而且也适用已被定罪的Ao 此外,还决定具体写明,应由公约 的另一缔约国提出引渡的请恭 -78 68.有关5魟Vh款,l代表麟说,一个国家的宪法或法律制度可能象他自 己国家中的情况胃,不会双拒绝引渡本国圆民,伹可能会在满尾了某些条件下 授杈这样傲,如存在着明确允许引渡国民的条约。考虑到这一点,他iU/最好在 ⑶小款的末尾说明,正在审议中的本公约不应被认为对上文中所述的缔约国享有约 束力.专家组同意列入一个句子,使締约各国能够自由决定《公约》是否满足了 其宪法或国内的法律制度所提出的耍求。 69.对经侈正的5 (a)小款与有关在引渡问题上的对等要求的第4款之二之间的 关系,一位代表提出了质疑。他对下述解释感到满意,即5(a)小款没有影响把缺 少对等作为拒绝引渡的一个单独的理由,而仅仅是论述了另一个理由。 70 . —些代表要求对“国内法的基本原则” 一词将产生的含义作出澄清。他 们想知道,这一措辞是否被认为包括了法律行为或立法行为。相反,他们希望提 及国内法。一些其他代表认为,“国内法的鉢原则”应被理解为是指构成一个 国家的法律制度的基础的那些原则,虽然也可能在普通的法规中含有这种原则。因 此各国没有义务在修改法律会影响到这些原则时去修改它们的法律。另一位代表 争辩说,基本原则指的并不仅仅是普通的法规,而包括一个国家没有成文宪法的情 I 提及国内法,将改变该规定的含久有人提议,“国内法律制度”的说法 可能是一个令人满意的解决办法。有一位代表指出,提‘‘国内法律制度”或“国 内法的基本原则”而不具体地提“被请求国的国内法”将使一些国家自动地有义务 引渡本国的国民而不能享受互惠原则。由于对这一解释问题不能达成任何协议, 所以在方括号中置入了三种不同的提法(国内法、国内法律制度、基本国内法)。 有一位代表声明,他保留其对5⑷小款的立场,以待政府指示,但不反对把它们放 在方括号内提出先 71- 一些代表提议,应对5(b)小款 修正,以包括治外法权并隄制它 于 第2条之二的规定专家组同意在该小款中列入这一建议,并将该小款放入方括 号中,因为人们未就是否保留该款达成一致意见。 72 . 一些代表赞成删除5(c)小款,因为它的规定违反了有关当犯罪行为具有政 治性质时的受庇护权和主动拒绝引渡请求的宪法规定。 73 . 一些代表支持把该改写成大意如下的一项总的声明,即第2条第1款 -7 3 中所列视罪行为不应彼看成是具有政治性质的犯罪行为。有人还建议在这一段中 列入尉务方面的犯罪行为《 —些代表提议,应按照19 5 9年在施特拉斯堡签署 的《欧洲引渡公约》笫3条笫1和第2款的精神对该小款作重新起草。’ 74.关于第6款,一些代表认为,其范围广大,而且治外法杈超越了笫2条之 二所规定的限制。因此/他们支持一项修正案,以便规定,被请求国的责任不是对 其引渡已被拒绝的人进行审判,而是亳无迟延地将此案提交其主管机构,以便起诉, 如果请求国提出这一要求的话。考虑到其他国际公约中所使用的标准词语,一些 代表强调,该规定不应规定被请求国当局应采取的检控方法,而只应定它们作出 # 的方式 。 75.关于将案件呈交主管当局以备检控的问题,有人提议,该款应衾明,无论 请求国是否提出请求,这一义务 w 亳无例外地”存在。为了排除提交轻微的犯罪 行为,一些代表iM?,规定还应指明,只有在铍请求囤可铍引渡的犯罪行为才能提 交供检控。 76.作为讨论的一个结杲,一些代彔提出了第6款的一个新的累文,有人解孬 说,其基本思想在于区分被请求圆拒绝引渡的理由。首先,如果基于属地性原则、国 籍或惯常居所的理由而拒绝引渡,被请求国有提出起诉的义务,但有一个谅解,即, 在没有提出引渡要求的情况下,彼请求国仍有权这样做。第二,如果摄据其他理 由拒绝引渡,被请求国就享有是否起诉的选择杈.人们M第二条规定不是绝 对必要的,因为它仅仅反映了国际法的实际情况。 77.该案文的作者在提出该案文的同时,对第2条之二有关确定管辖权的第2 款提出了一项新的草案,以协调这两个互相联系的条文的措辞。 78 . 一些代表对这一提案衮示支持,认为它为今后达成协商一致的意见提供了 一个宝责的基础。 79 . 一些代表对列入“在不损害第2条之二,第3款的条件下”这一从句是否 合适表示怀疑。一些代表认为,也应提及第2条的其他款项。其他一些代表指 出,无需害怕影响第2条之二,因为它涉及的是管箱杈的建立,而第4条第6款论 述的是管辖权的实孤 80 . 一些代表要求对“營辖杈”一词的使用作出澄清。有人解释说,该词旨 -7 4 在包括第2条之二中有关在领发生的犯罪行为的笫1钤激(13项知有关在被认为 属于领土一部分的船只和飞机上所发生的犯罪行为的第1㈨款(2D项所列的案件。 81 . 一些代表对把领£±的“惯常居所”与国篇轺提并论作为拒绝引渡的一个 理由表示关切。有人解释说,某些国家在引渡问把惯常居民视为本国囤民。 至于引渡惯常居民的国家,此规定对它们没有0响。 82 有些代表反对必须在请求国提出请求后才能采取法律行动的规定.他们 认为,这一条件可被认为是破坏了国家的主杈 在任何情况下,检控的责任是强 制性的,不应以请求国发出请求为条件.另一位代表则认为,这一建议并未破坏 国家主杈,只不过是各締约国根据本公约履行国际义务的条件, 83- 一位代表表示认为,第6款的草案应参照有关类似事项的最近一些公约的 方式和语言措词,比如1 9 8 4年通过的《联合国反对酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或 有辱人格待遇或惩罚的公约》 在这方面,该代表提出了第6款的修改后而更加 简洁的案文,得到一些代表的支持. 84.专家组同意这两项提案的发起者之间应进行非正式的协商,从而达成一份 共同的案文,这些协商的结果见附件二. 85.专家组同意删去第7款,因为其规定使各缔约国承担域外管辖杈的意义深 远的义务,无异于造成对本公约所述犯罪行为的普遍管辖杈。此外,由于巳有第 2条之二的规定,所以其规定是多余的。一位代表认为这项规定应受到反对,因 为它使一缔约国仅因被告是在其境内被发现的而有责任对之加以审判。 86.为了补充笫6款的规定,Hi代表提议列入另外一款贼,即如果为执行 判决的引渡暹到拒绝,则被请求国在请求国的要求下,应考虑执行根据请求国法律 而已经作出的判决或判决的其余部分,据指出,这样一条新规定可避免管辖权的 冲突,因为締约国不必重新进行起诉,而只要进行国际合作,根据其国内法实行别 国的制裁即可,在潜逃罪犯的情况下尤为如此。提议得到一些代表的支持。一 些代表虽支持这项规定,但指出,应是非强制性的。 87.专家组最后通过了这项提议的修改案文,即如果为执行判决而要求的引渡 由于笫6款所述的任何原因而逭到拒绝,则被请求国在其法律允许的情况下并根据 请求国的要求,应考虑执行根据请求国法律而巳经作出的判决或判决的其余部分. -7 5 执行让渡部分的判决应按照被请求国法律所规定的条件.据解释,执行别国的判 决,这在引渡方面是一个创新的概念,可以考虑作为起诉义务之外的一个选择办法 和被请求国与请求国在相互商定的情况下可重新采取的一项措施, 88 . 一些代表认为应修改第8款,为引渡方面的程序和证据要求规定一个更加 宽松的标准,因为原有的要求已不再适应目前抵制国际贩毒活动的需要。一些代 表认为,新公约为消除案件初步证据要求提供了一个机会,因为这项要求妨碍了对
65 States: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Benin, Bolivia,贩毒者提出有效的起诉。提议修改第8款,删去“可提供合理看法理由的证据”
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, C6te d'lvoire, Cuba, Czechoslovakia,等字样,悅以“请求国的有效逮捕证或执行判决书确认”等字样。这项提议得 到了广泛的支持。据建议,还应在引渡要求中包括对事实作出的阐迖另一方 面,一些代表建议,应删去本款规定,因为在国际公约中确定引渡要求中应包括什 么内容,这被认为是不妥当的,理由是在有关引渡的条约和立法中已对这些内容作
Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, German Democratic出了明确规也 89 . 一些支持删去第8款的代表另外建议在第1 0款(该款请各締约国考虑締 结双边和区域性的协定来实施引渡或加强引渡的有效性)中增加一条规定,即程序
Republic, Germany, Federal Republic of, Ghana, Greece,和证据方面的要求应尽量减少,灵活而又简单。这种作法与既实施新的标准又不 对不同类型的罪行加以区别的要求是一致的。
Guinea, Holy See, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic90.:经过非正式的协商之后,专家组商定了一个妥协案文,即各締约国应尽量 减少对引渡按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为所提出的程序和证据要象为此目
Republic of), Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg,的,各締约国得将请求国的有效逮捕证或最后判决书连同关于构成被指称罪行的事 实的概述,视为足以支持引渡请据解释,这项规定是非强制性的,此外,它
Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands,St希望放松证据要求的国家可采取的一些措施作了说明。
New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,91.专家组同意舶去关于同时行使管辖杈的笫9款,因为如果没有可以接受的、 客观的标准来确定哪一締约国更适宜起诉,则其规定将难以实施。一些代表支持
Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,删去该款,他们指出,鉴于专家组已通过关于管辖杈的第2条之二,所以该款实属
Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukrainian Soviet多余。关于按照《欧洲引渡公约》第1 7条的精神重新起草本条规定的建议,没 有被接免在《面,据再次指出,第4条的目的不是为了订立一项引渡条约,
Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,而是为了可以按照国内立法和双边或多边条约确定的条件进行引渡。 9.2. 一些代表赞成保留第1 0款,他们认为,该款有一个有益的用途,因为双
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,边和多边条约可以包括草案第4条中没有设想到的情礼 但是,据建议,该款中 -7 6 的意思应以更加综合性的方式加以表述,可以省却该句中的最后一部分。另据建
United States of America, Uruguay and Venezuela. Participation in the second session is also indicated in the list议,应以更强有力的措辞请各国达成协孔专家组同意按照上述精神重新编写该
of participants (see annex II).款词句。 93.专家组考虑列入一位代表提议的附加款项,即各締约国应考虑締结特定的
12.或一般性的双边或区域性协定,以便于向原籍国让渡因犯有第4条适用的罪行而判 处长期监禁的人员,使他们得以在那里服满徒刑。 94.
At the 1st meeting of its second session, on 5 October 1987, the Expert Group took note of the fact that four据解释,如果被判刑的败毒罪犯本人愿意并经其原籍国的同意而将其加以
of the officers elected at the first session would be present让渡,这将有利于第4条的实施,这是在刑法方面进行合作的一项新发展的技术 据说,如果保证在原籍国服刑,那么有关国家会更加积极地考虑为起诉目的而对国
at the second session.民加以引渡 有人建议把这种解释视为把这一款写进公约的第4条而不是其他地 方的理由.
In view of the fact that the Third一些代表支持上述提议,他们指出,这符合19 8 3年通过的《欧洲
Vice-Chairman, Mr.让渡被判刑人员公约》和联合国第七届防止犯罪和罪犯待遇大会所通过的建议 95.
Randrianame (Madagascar), would专家组通过了上述提议,但有一项谅解,即要称多边条约而不是区域性条
not be present at the session, it was agreed that it would约,不要提及刑期的期限长短,因为这被认为应是适用条约的问题
be appropriate to proceed to the election of a replacement.第5条 96,专家组开始审议第5条时,先进行一般性的讨论,对该条总的结构和实质 内容,以及某些具体段落均发表了意见。
Accordingly, at the third meeting of its second session, on97,专家组认识到,第5条所具有的根本重要意义,不亚于只有依靠画际 才能有效地执行新公约的各项规艮
6 October 1987, the Expert Group elected by acclamation98.有几位代表该条的各项规定应力求详尽,才能对鄱些可能还不熟悉 相互法律协助搞念的政府,_些尚未在这方面筌订双边条约或其他条约的政府起
Christophe Akele (Benin) to the post of Third ViceChairman.到指导作用。该条的各项规定还应便于郛些需要利用现行条约义务提供这科协助 的国家能进行相互的司法协助。
13.99.
The Expert Group had before it a provisional agenda_另一些代表不同意这一意见,他们狱,由于有关国家的法律制度和 不同,规定过详将会引起执行上的问题 因此,该条应重新拟订,用简炼的语言
(DND/DCIT/4) and a provisional timetable (DND/DCIT/跟于说明在这一领域进行国际合作的原则,而又无需设立进行相互司法协助的专门 -7 7 机构。有一位代表就此提出建议,在重新拟订该条时,应参照《关于防止和愆处 侵害应受国际保护人员包括外交代表的罪行的公约》第1 0条和《反对劫持人质1 际公约》第11条的写法。
5/Rev.100.
2) which reproduced the agenda items and the proposed sequence for considering the draft articles that had有一些代表指出,没有必耍在笫5条中列入专门适用于苡醉品狙罪行为的
been before it at its first session. The Expert Group continued to base its discussions on the working document全部规定,这是因为有一些国家签订的各种双边条约和其他条约已把进行相互司法 协助的范围包罗无遗。为了不访碎这类文件的执行,应明确这样一点,即贫5条 只适用于有关双方均未受任何其他有关相互法律协助条约的约束者,或虽有这科条
referred to in paragraph 8 above.约 bt 另作 者 101.
During its second session,有些代表建议第一款导语中的限制性分句应予删除,因为这种隈制性语言
the Expert Group also had before it the interim report on会产生削弱本条^:的不良馁响.其他一些代表M如果本条萝龙耍作详细罔明, 应受类似于对笫7条和笫1 4条商定的限制性分句的约束,以顾及不同国家法枠
its first session (DND/DCIT/WP.102 .
12).代表表示第1款挺|】“其他司法程序” 一语,可广义解釋为包括行政
14. In the course of its discussions at the second session,程序在内,而这并不属本条范0之内。他们认为应明确区分本条规定所指的法律 协助领域与第6条规定所包括的其他合作领域。
the Expert Group considered and completed its discussion103 . 代表財在第3糾一沄)项中详细列举法律协助方式,并认为该条应按 简明概括方式重新起草。一位代表建议,款导语中“伹不限于” 一语应予fil
of articles 2, 2 bis, 8 and 11 bis; it also completed its general debate on articles 3 and 4. In view of the fact that除,而代之新增一项,提到‘‘请求国法律所未予禁止的任何其他协助形式” 有
time available did not permit examination of articles 1 12 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and 5, as well as further consideration of articles 3 and 4,些代表认为第3(忌项规定不爲国际公约范囤,涉及谙如银行秘密等钛感性问題的处
the preamble, the implementation measures and the final理应属国内管辖范围。 104 . 一位代表建议,第4⑶项关于移交材料问题应单列一条。为了明确第4
clauses, it was the consensus of the meeting that a third(b)项规定仅包括为作证目的而不是为执行制裁目的而转交被拘禁的人,有人提出应 具体说明这种转交的临时性质。一位代表强调协助检控的重要性,他提出本条应
session would be desirable in order to complete its work.予重新起草,以鼓廒締约国订立安排使本31领土上的人能为其他締约国作ilo 105 . —位代表争论说笫5至7款并无必要,其理由是刑事诉讼方面的相互协助
Such a session, if authorized, could usefully be held目前通过外交渠道进行很烦犰而调查领域的摊则通过直_关的机构和刑旮组 织进行_。 一位代奈提议应修正上述各款级定,使之符合目前在相互法律协助方面
immediately prior to the tenth special session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs.的傲法,即并不指定任何中央当局执行请求。此类请求应通过司法部或通过外交 -7 8 途经转达,只有在极其祭急情况下才可迫过直接的行政线道。但是有人强词为了
15. At its last meeting, on 16 October 1987, the Expert效率目的,指定进行交流的联络点是可取的。一位代表指出在重新起草上文各款 规定时应考虑到《单一公约》第17条和《玆神药物公约》笫6条有关建立铪别行
Group approved the revised text of draft articles 2, 2 bis, 8 and 11 bis, as amended by consensus or with variants政浦的规定。
indicated in square brackets when no complete agreement106.关于笫1 1款提出可拒绝提供相互法律协助的各秭情况,一位代亵认为拒 绝请求的问题不应列入而应根据有关条约或 内法玷愔处理。
could be reached.107.
It then adopted its report and instructed一位代奈提议为了解决与现行条约相容的问题,m 3款应按1 9 7 1年 《关于制止危空安全的非法行为的公约》(蒙特利尔)荡1 1条莬2饮益
that the revised text of all draft articles approved at both神起草。 108.在逐段审议第5条的过程中,有一些代表说,他们希望铡去第5条的标题 和实质性规定中的“法律” 一词。他们认为,这样写太狡隘,不能准确反映本条
its first and second sessions should appear as an annex to双的全部I范围,没有把非司法方面的协助也包括进去。另一些代表则发言 支持写上“法律”一词。他们认为,本条所谓的协助应纯属法律方面,不包括行
the report.政性的协助。为此,还谈到了第6条所指出的其他形式的合作。因此人们建议,
Chapter II在未对本条的内容作深入研究以前,以暂不对标题问题作出决定为好。
REVIEW OF THE DRAFT CONVENTION Article 2109.有一些代表建议删去笫5条第1款中的保障条款,因为从本条的全文看这
First session是不言而喻的,其各项规定将在各締约国的宪法、法律和行政体系范围内予以执行。
16. Several representatives expressed the view that the然而有一些代表认为,保障条款应予保留,因为它将有勘于其他实质性条款的邂过。 因此人们建议,在本条的末尾写上这样的条款也许更为恰当, 110.人们对从本款中删去“应...请求” 一语的建议普遍表示赞同,因为它意味 着,提供任何协助均将以另一締约国提出的请求为依据. 111.人们一致同意,本款适用的罪行系第2条第1款所“确定的”罪行,从而 与其 tt 关 的提法相 一 Mo 112.有人建议,为了反映双重罪行原则,本款应予以修改,以具体写明上述罪 行须经请求国和被请求国共同确定.然而有一位代表指出,如果凝到有必要在公 约中疼晚双重罪行原则,m么也应作出规定允许各締约国在并无双重罪行的情况下 自行M是否提供协助。 113.某些代表对“其他司法程序”的提法是否恰适提出了疑问/人们建议, -79 对这一提法应从广义上来t解,包括了旨在为提高司法程序效率而采取的范围广泛 的行动 114.非正式工作组继续对这一条进行了审议,其讨论的结果见附件二。 -8 0 里件二 第2条,新的倒数第2款 〔为了各締约国依照本公约进行合作〔其中特别包括依照第3、4、5和6条 进行合串〕的目的,按照本条确定的各种犯罪行为不应视为〔政治或经济罪行〕 〔具有政治或经济性质的罪行〕〔或视作出于政治动机〕〔除非被请求国拥有实质 性根据认为,这种合作可能会导致或有助于对某人其科族、宗盘、国籍或政治见烙 而进行起诉或愆罚,或者该人的地位可能因为上述任何理由而遛到损害〕。〕 第2条之二第2款* 各缔约国: (a)当被指控的罪犯已在其领土内,并且基于下述理由不把他引渡给另一締约 国时,亦应采取必要措施对它按照第2条第1款所确立的罪行确立管辖杨 ㈠该罪行是在其领土上或者在船只或飞机上犯下的,而该龉只或飞机在 此罪行犯下时系根据该国法律登记的; ㈡该罪行是其国民或习惯上居住在其领土内的某人所犯下的; (b)当被指控的罪犯已在其领并且基于上面(a)项所明定的理由之外的任 何其他理由不把抱引渡给另一締约国时,亦可采取必要措施对它按照第2条第1款 所确定的罪行确立管辖杈。 第3条 1.从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中获得的、或用于这类犯罪行为的收益. * 对修订后的第2条之二第2款案文草案的结构和实质内容暂表同意,但确认 仍需对它作广泛的审查。 -8 1 麻醉药品和精神药物、材料和设备.以及其他工具,均应予以没收。为此目的, 各缔约国应采取各种必要的措施以便没收: (a)从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中获得的收益或与这类收益等值的 财产; (b)用于或打算用于进行按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为的麻醉药品和精 神药物; (c)用于或打算周于非法生产、加工或制造这类药品或药物的材料和设备; (d)用于或打算用于进行按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为的其他工具。 2.各締约国还应采取各种必要的措施,以便得以确定.追查、冻结或扣押第 1款所述的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,从而达到予以没收的最终目的。 3。为了实施本条所述各项措施,各締约国应授权其法院或其他主管当局下令 提供或扣押银行、財务或其他记录。締约国不得以保守银行秘密为由拒绝按照本 款的规定采取行动。 (4 . (a)若有对按第2条第1款确定的某一罪行拥有管辖权的另一締约国提出 请求,在其领土上有本条第1款所指的收益或物品的締约国便应按照第5条各款谋 5、6、7、8和1 1款〕的规定: ㈠向其主管当局索取没收令,并在取得此项命令之后予以执行;或 ㈡为了执行此项命令,向其主管当局提交一项由请求国按照第1款 发布的没收令,但其条件是此项没收令应与第1款所指的、且位 于被请求国领土上的收益、财产、工具或其他任何物品有关。 (b)应对按第2条第1款确定的某一犯罪行为拥有管辖权的另一締约国的 请求,被请求国应根据第 5 条錢〔第 5 、6、7、8和1 1款〕的规定采取措施 确定、追查、冻结或扣押第1款所述的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,以便达 到在请求国,或应请求按照(a)项的规定在被请求国,发布没收令的最终目的。 (c)被请求国应基于且按照其国内法或者双边或多边协定执行该项请求, 并可酌情决定这些协定是否包括本公约。〕 -8 2 5. (a)締约国根据本条的规定所没收的收益或财产,应由该缔约国按照本国 的法律和行政程序加以处置。 (b)締约国在应另一締约国的请求按本条的规定行事时,彳制寺别考虑就下 述事项締结协定: H将这类收益和财产的等值,或变卖这类收益或财产所得的款项,. 或其中相当一部分,捐给专门从事打击麻醉药品和精神药物的非 法贩运M用的政府间机构; ㈡按照本国法律、行政程序或为此目的締结的双边或多边协定,经 常或逐个案件地与其他締约国分享这类收益或财产,或由变卖这 类收益或财产所得的款项。 6 收益〔和射产〕无论是否已难以与从其他方面得到的财产分开,抑或已变 换或转换为其他财产,〔均应〕〔均可〕按本条所述的措施加以处& 从这种收 益(或财产〕中获得的收入或其他好死亦〔应〕(可〕按此类措施处理。 7.締约国得考虑确保关于应予没收的收益或其他財产的合法性的举证责任可 以撤销,其条件是这种行动应符合本国法律的原则和司法程序的性质。 8.对本条各项规定的解释不应损害善意第三方的杈利。 9.本条各均不淳损害下述原则:本条所述各项措施均应按照締约国的国 内法在该法确立的条件下加以规定和执行。 第4条 1.本条应适用于按本公约第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为。 2e本条所适用之犯罪行为应视为各締约国间现行任何引渡条约内所列应予引 渡的犯罪行为。各締约国承诺在其相互间今后所签订的所有引渡条约内将此等犯罪 行为列为应予引渡的犯罪行为。 3.以订有条约为引渡条件的締约国,如接到与该国未订有引渡条约的另一締 -8 3 约国的引渡请求,(可〕(酌情〕(应〕考虑以本公约为法律依据,引渡本条所适 用的任何犯罪行为。 4.不以订有条约为引渡条件的締约国应确认本条所适用的犯罪行为为其相互 间应予引渡的犯罪行为。 5.引渡应依照被请求国的法律或适用的引渡条约所规定的条件进行。 6.〔为了各締约国根据本公约规定进行合作〔其中特别包括根据第3. 4 . 5和6条规定进行合作〕的目的,按照本条所确定的犯罪行为不应视为〔政治或经 济罪行〕(具有政治或经济性质的罪行〕〔或视作出于政治动机〕(除非被请求国 有实质性根据认为,这种合作可能会导致或有助于对某人因其种族、宗敎、国籍致 政治见解而进行起诉或惩罚,或者该人的地位可能因为上述任何理由而遭到损害i〕* 7.各缔约国应为引渡被指控或判定犯有按第2条第1款确定的各项犯罪行为 者提供便利。为此目的,不得以被要求引渡者为被请求国国民或习惯上居住于被 请求国的领土之内为理由拒绝另一締约国对本条所适用的犯罪行为提出的引渡请求, 除非被请求国的宪法或〔本国法律制度〕〔国内基本法〕(国内法〕规定须予拒绝。 締约国可以将本公约视为或拒绝将本公约视为符合其宪法或〔本国法律制度〕〔国 内基本法〕〔国内法〕的要求,即引渡其本国国民或习惯上居住于其领土之内者须 依照条约进行。妙
title of article 2 did not reflect the full substantive content8 . (a)在不损害其他任何按照第2条之二确立的管辖权的行使的情况下,被
of the article and it was suggested that it should be amended to read as follows: "Offences, Sanctions and Jurisdiction".指控的罪犯已在其领土内的締约国:
17.㈠若不把他引渡〔给另一締约国〕,而且如果被请求国根据第2条 之二第2(a)项对该罪行有管辖权,(在请求国的请求下〕应将此 案提交其主管当局提出起诉,不得有不当的拖延》 ㈡若不把他引渡,而且如果被请求国拫据第2条之二第2(b)项对该 罪行有管辖权,可将此案提交其主管当局提出起诉。 *拟按照第2条案文予以重新审议的各款。 科原第5款(b)项和(c)项(载于DEDZDCIT/WP.
Several representatives emphasized that the limitation clause in die introductory sentence of paragraph 136 )已予删除,从而使得重新
should be deleted as such restricting language would have编号的第7款较前为简私一位专家正式表示反对将㈨项删去。 -8 4 (b)上面(a)项所指的主管当局应按被请求国法律处理类似性质的罪行的同
the undesirable effect of weakening one of the basic articles of the draft Convention and was not in conformity样办法作出决笟“ 9.如果为了执行判决而提出的引渡要求因第〔7〕款所述的理由而遭到拒绝, 被请求国应在其法律允许范围内,按请求国的要求,考虑执行根据请求国的法律作
with the usually accepted practice in other international出的判决或部分判先执行判决如此让渡后,应受制于被请求国法律现定的其他
penal instruments; the undertaking by States to punish the条件。 10*洛缔约国应尽量减少对引渡按照第2条第I款确定的犯罪行为提出的程序 要求和证明要恭为此目的,4#约国得将请求国的有效逮捕证或最后判决书连
illicit traffic should be mandatory.同关于构成被指称罪行的事实的概逸视为足以支持引渡请轧 11.
Some representatives各締约国应力_结双边和多边协定来实施引渡或加强引渡的有效
suggested that the alternative limiting clause "consistent12.洛缔约国应考虑締结特定的或一般性的多边或双边协定,以便利向原籍国 让渡因犯有本条适用的罪行而判处监禁的人员,使他们得以在那里服满徒刑。
with the basic principles of their national legal systems"第5条 〔〔法律〕互助〕 1.〔在适当顾及締约国宪法、法律和行政制度,以及有关的条约或安排的情
should be used in the introductory sentence, as had been况下,〕締约各国(如接到请求〕,应相互采取最广泛的法律互助措施,〔请求国 和被请求国双方〕〔对属于请求国管辖范围内的〕按照第2条第1款确定的罪行进
decided earlier with respect to articles 7, 13 and 14, so as行的一切调查、起诉(及其他〕〔司法〕〔刑事〕〔程序〕,〔均以请求国各项法 律贼的条件为卷〕〔被请求国的法律应为适用g〕
to provide flexibility for each State in adjusting their说明:关于〔请求国和被请求国双方〕一语,如杲这一概念已包括在第9款和第 1 1款之内,则可删去。 * 对修订后的第8款案文草案的结构和实质内容暂表同意,但确认仍需对它作广
national legislation to the stringent provisions of this泛的审查。 -8 5 2.締约各国承诺在其本国法律制度范围内采取可能必要的立法和行政措施,
article.以保证在接到请求后向其他締约国提供本条所述的有效协助。
18.3.
The view was expressed that only subparagraph 1(d)〔法律互助应包括(但不一定限于〕以下各项:〕〔应提供以证据为目 的的法律互助,它可以包括以下各项:〕
should be subject to a limitation clause similar to that of(a)取证〔,和个人的声明〕,
article 36 of the 1961 Convention, that is, subject to constitutional limitations, its legal system and domestic law,(b)提供司法文件服务,
as the various offences covered under this provision were(c)执行有关搜查及扣押.(财产〕之请求J _( (d)检查物品及现场i〕 ((e)查找或查明证人〔、嫌疑犯或其他人〕|〕
often open to different interpretations.C(±)交换情M物品:〕 〔(自提供有关文件及记录,包括银行、财务,公司及营业记录的原件或经
19. Some representatives expressed the view that only核证的副本j〕 W确定,追查、冻结和扣押从按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中荻得
offences committed intentionally should fall within the或使用的收益或财产;〕 C(i)被请求国的国内法(允许的〕〔不禁止的〕其他任何形式的协助;〕
scope of the draft Convention and proposed the introduction of the word "intentionally" in paragraph 1.C(3)提供包括在押人员在内的人员作证或协助调查。〕 建议:删去笫3IL 建议,至少删去第3款的(d)、(e)、(f)和(h)项。 建议:删去第3款,但将fe)和(i)项并AS 1款。
20. Some representatives considered it preferable to建议:以下列方式将第3紛成两项:
examine first the provisions of subparagraphs (a)-(d) and,3㈠法律互助应包括:
on the basis of their subsequent reformulation, to decide(a)至(H)各项
what limiting clause, if any, to adopt in the introductory㈡法律互助亦可包括:
sentence.(i)至(J)项
21.4.
Different views were expressed regarding the criterion to be applied to qualify an offence as "serious".締约各国应积极考虑下述可能性:
In that connection, several representatives pointed to(a)相互移交刑事检控材料,如其有助于保证将凡犯有本公约规定应予惩 处罪行的人均能依法惩办;
the circumstances surrounding the offence, the scale of the建议:将㈨项改写如下, 86 "(a)相互移交本《公约》第2条第1款所列罪行的刑事检控材料,如认为其
traffic involved, the disturbance of social order and the有利于作出恰当的司法裁判。” (D)为作证目的〔暂时〕让渡被拘禁者.如其证词在检控或其他司法程序
threat to the health of individuals and society as possible中能起重要作用(并确保其人身安全〕。 C(c)达成协议或作出安排,协助或迫使在其领土上居住的其他人在其他締约
factors to be taken into consideration. Several representatives favoured the deletion of the adjective "serious" since国领土上进行的检控或其他司法程序中出庭作证。〕
minor cases might constitute offences under subparagraphs 1 (a)-(d). Another representative attached importance to its retention as it would serve as an invitation to建议:删去第4款,将⑶项移至第3款(注意:同时参见笫3款的新的〔j〕项〕
Parties to provide severe sanctions commensurate with the建议:插入内容如下的新的第5款,并适当重新编号: 5.唯有当締约各国不受任何法律互助条约的约束或虽有这种秦约但未另行
definite gravity of the offence.规定时,第6至第13款*方可适用。 (5.〔每一締约国应指定一〔有〔中央〕当局〕〔应由每一締约国指定主管当局〕 负责促进或办理法律互助之请礼 秘书长应将每一締约国为此目的指定的当局通 知其他所有締约国。〕 建议:删去第5款和第6款。 建议:删去第5、6和7款。 建议:删去第5、6、7和8款。 建议:按照DHD/DCIT/WP. 1第4 9 0段中的建议重拟第5釭 建议:按照 DED/DCIT/WP . 4 4中第5条第5和7款重拟第5款。 〔6.为执行根fe本条规定提出之请求,各指定当局可以〔相互直接〕(通过正 式的外交渠道〕进行联系。〕 〔7.法律互助之请求应由请求国的当局或机构以书面方式〔用被请求国可以接 受的语言提出。如遇紧急情况,则可以口头方式提出请求,但应尽快补之以书面 请恭 〕 〕 C 8.法律互助的请求书应列明下列各项: (a)提出请求当局的衔称; (均请求之目的及理由; “即原来的第5至第12款。 -8 7 ㈨〔除有关送达文件的请求之外〕〔如有必要〕一份关于(声称的或设法 证实的〕事实的声明; ⑷对请求国而言必不可少的任何程序要求概要; ㈦〔有关所请求的协助的详细说明〕I 被请求国可能要求的其他此类资料或文件。〕 9.请求应按照被请求国的法律并按照请求书中列明的程序要求在被请求国法 律(未禁止的〕(允许的〕范围内〔酌情〕进行。 -8 8 会议组织事项文件 文 件 FYCONF.82/ 6 议程 [原件:英t] [1988车11月 1.会议开幕 2.选举主席 3.组织湘程序事项: (a)通过议事规则 (tO通过议程 (0选举主席以外的其他主席团成员 (d)与会代表的全权证书 ㈠任命全权证书委员会 ㈡全杈记书委员会的报告 (e)任命起草委员会的成员 Cf)成立 委员会 fel工作安措 叫任命其他委员会、小組委员会或工作组 4.审议禁止非法贩运麻辞药品如精神药物公约草累 ... 5.通过公约湘会议最后文件 6.筌署最后文件和公约 -8 9 文 件 E/CONF.82/ 7 议事规則 [原件:英文] [1988^11^25 8 1 一 . 代表和全权证 书 代表团的组成
22. The Group adopted subparagraph 1(a) as worded in第1条
the initial text with the understanding that the expression参加会议的每一国家的代表团应由代表团团长一人和所需的其他代表、副代表
"illicit traffic" was to be defined in article 1 and that the和顾问组成。
definition suggested by the informal working group in the副代表和顾问
Commission of Narcotic Drugs still had to be reviewed by第2条
the Expert Group..副代表或顾问经代表团团长指定,可代行代表职务。
23. Some representatives indicated that the activities全权证书 笫3条 代表团团长的全杈证书以及副代表和顾问的名单应尽早提交会议执行秘书,并 尽可能不迟于会议开幕后
referred to in subparagraph 1(b) should not constitute二 十四小时 代表团组躲的任何变动,也应般执行 秘书。全杈证书应由国家元首、政府首脑或外交部长颁发。
separate offences but only be punishable as complicity.全杈证书委员会
24.第4条 会珊始时应任命一个由九名成员m的全权证书委员会。其组成应按照联 合国大会,四十三届会议全杈证书委员会的组成办法.
Several representatives expressed the view that in委员会应审查各代表团的
order for the activities indicated in subparagraph (b) to be全杈证^并应尽快向会议提出报告。 -90 暂准参加会议
considered as criminal, they had to be undertaken intentionally and with the knowledge of their illicit objective.第5条
It was also suggested that it was the prior knowledge of代表园在会议就其全权证书作出决定以前,应暂准参加会议。
the actual use of materials and equipment for illicit production and manufacture which had to be taken into consideration for the establishment of the offence.二.
Some representatives pointed to the difficulties of implementing the主席团成员
provisions of the subparagraph which dealt essentially选举
with activities related to the preparatory stage in the illicit第6条 会议应在参加国代表中选举下列主席团成员:主席一人,副主席2 4人,总报 告员一人,以及笫4 8条所规定的全体委员会主席二人和第4 9条所规定的起草委
production or manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.员会主席一儿主席团这些成员应在确保总务委员会的代表性的基础上加以选举。 会议也可选举其认为履行其职责所必需的主席团其他成员。
25. The Group agreed that the subparagraph should refer主席的一般权力
to "controlled substances" thus limiting its scope of application.第7条
26.1.
The Group agreed to incorporate in subparagraph 1(c) the more comprehensive provision of paragraph 2 of article 3 regarding the acquisition, possession,主席除行使本规则其他条款斌予的权力外,应主持会议的全体会议,宣布
transfer or concealment of property, it being understood每次会议的开会和散会,主持讨论,确保对本规则的遵守,准许发言,促进一致同 意,通知总务委员会关于设法达成一致同意所作的努力,把问题付诸表决并宣布决
that the latter provision could then be deleted to avoid^ 主席应就程序问题作出裁决,并在不违反本规朔的情况下全面掌握会议的进 行和维持会场我序 主席可向会议建议截止发言报名,限制发言者的发言时间,
duplication. It was proposed that reference should be跟制每一代表就某一问题发言的次数,暂停或结束辩论,以及暂停会议或休会。 2.主席执行职务时始终处于会议的权力下。 代理主席 笫8条 1.主席因故不能出席某次会议或其一部分时,应指定副主席一人代行主席职 务。 “ -9 1 2.副主席代理主席时,其权力和职责与主席同。 另选主席 第9条 主席不能履行职务时,应另选新主席。 主席不得参加表决 第1 0条 主席或行使主席职权的副主席不得畚加会议的表决.但应栺定其本囯代表园成 员一人代他投票。 三.总务委员会 组 成 笫1 1条 会议应设置总M员会,由成员2 9人组成,其中应包括会议的主席、副主席 和总报告员,以M体委员会主席和起草委员会主席。会议主席应担任总务委员 会主席,主席不能出席时,由主席指定副主席一人担任总务委员会主席。 替代成员 笫1 2条 会议主席或副主席因故不能出席总务委员会某次会议时,可指定他所覊的代表 团成员一人出席并参加轰决。全体委员会主席缺席时,可指定全体委员会副主席 代为出席,起草委员会主席缺席时,可指定起草委员会成员一人代为出席。出席 总务委员会的全体委员会副主席或起草委员会成员如与总务委员会另一成员同覊一 个代表团,则无表决权。 -92 职 能 第1 3条 总务委员会应协助主席处理会议的一般事务,并应在不违反会议所作决定的情 况下,镝保会议工作的协龍 四,秘书处 秘书长的职责 第1 4条 1.联合国秘书长应为会议的秘书长。秘书长或他的代表在会议及其各个委 员会的一切会议中应以该项资格执行职务。 2.秘书长应任命会议的执行秘书,并应提供和指导会议及其各委员会所需要 的工作人员。 秘书处的职责 第1 5条 会议秘书处应按照本规则: (a) 口译会议上所作的发言; ㈨收受、翻译、复制和分发会议的文件; (c)印劁和分发叙义的正式文件; (d)编制和分发公开会议的记录; (e)为会议灌制录音记录,并安排保管这些记录; (f)安播在联合国档案库内保管与保存会议的文件;和 (g)普遍执行会议所需要的一切其他工作。 秘书处的说明 第1 6条 在执行笫1 4和第1 5条内所述职责时,秘书长或为此目的指定的任何其他工 作人员可在任何时间就审议中的任何问題提出口头或书面说明。 -9 3 五.会议的幵冪 临时主席 第1 7条 联合国秘书长或在他缺席时他的代表应宣布会议第一次会议的开慕,并主持会 议至会议选出其主席时为jb 关于工作安排的决定 第1 8条 1.会议应根据审查小组提出的建议和会前协商产生的建议尽可能在苐一次会 议上:
made as well to the utilization of property and that the(a)通过其议事规则;
mention in the original subparagraph 1(c) of the use of⑴)选出主席团成员并成立其附覊机关; (O通过其议程,在通过前,议程草案应为会议的临时议程;
such property in the illicit traffic should be retained.⑷就工作安推作出决定。 2.除非会议另有具M定,审查小组就上文第1款⑷、⑶、(0和(d洛项所
27. Several representatives pointed to the difficulty of列事项提出的建议和会前协商产生的有关建议,应不经进一步讨论即予实亂
defining and limiting the scope of application of subparagraph 1(c) which, as presently drafted, might be open to大会议的掌握
unreasonable extensions.法定人数
28. Several representatives proposed that a limitation第1 9条 主于参加会议的国家至少有三分之一有代表出席时,可宣布 开会并准许进行
clause be inserted in the opening sentence of paragraph 2辩论。 任何决定必须在参加会议的国家过半数有代表出席时才能作出。
as it dealt with sanctions which were in the purview of发 言
State sovereignty. It was proposed that the provision of paragraph 2 should be made subject to the constitutional第20条
limitations, legal system and domestic law of the Parties.1. 任何人事先未经主席准许,不得向会议发言。在第2 1、第2 2、第 -94 2 5至第2 7条限制下.
Preparatory work 13 29.主席应按代表请求发言的先后次序请他们发言。秘书处 应负责编拟发言者名单。如发言者的言论同所讨论的议題无关,主席可敦促他遵 守规则。 2.
Taking into account the seriousness of drug trafficking offences, several other representatives supported the provision of paragraph 2 as drafted;会议可限制每一发言者的发言时间和每一代表对一问题的发言次数。在作 出决定以前.
in their view the可由两名赞成和两名反对规定这种限制的提案的代表发言。在有限
measures envisaged therein were indicative of the innovative penal measures which States had to take to deal with制的辩论中,如某一发言者超过规定的时间,主席应立即敦促他遵守规则。
drug trafficking. Accordingly the introduction of a limiting优先发言
clause would reduce the deterrent effect of the sanctions笫2 1条
envisaged.委员会的主席或报告员,或小组委员会或工作组的代表为了解释其委员会、小
30. Several representatives expressed the view that the组委员会或工作组所作出的结论,可以优先发言。
sanctions provided for in paragraph 2 should be sufficiently stringent to have the expected deterrent effect. Severe penalties should be provided for in criminal law commensurate with the serious offences enumerated in paragraph 1. Several representatives insisted that the penal程序问题
measures envisaged in the new draft Convention should go笫22条
further than those provided for in article 36 of the Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and in article 22 of the代表可在讨论任何事项时随时提出程序问题,主席应立即按本规则就其作出裁 决。代表可对主席的裁决提出异议,主席应立即将此异议付诸表决。主席的裁 决,除非被过半数出席并参加表决的代表所推萄,仍应有效。代表在提出程序问
Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971. In this题时不得就所讨论事项的实质发言。 发言报名截止 第23条 主席-可在辩论过程中宣布发言者的名单,并可在得到会议同意后宣布发言报名
connection, several representatives strongly supported the截止。 答辩权 第2 4条 1.虽有第2 3条的规定,主席仍应准许请求答辩的任何与会国的代表行使答 -9 5 辩权。
inclusion of pecuniary sanctions and the forfeiture of2.依据本条进行的答辩应在当天最后一次会议的未黾进行.或提旱主有关项 目审议结束时进行。
property and proceeds in the paragraph under consideration.3.任何代表团在一次会议上答辩发言次数应以每个项目两次为I 4.任何代表团在一次会议上就任何项目进行第一次答辩发言应以五分钟为隈,
31. Some representatives suggested that subparagraphs 2(a)-(d) should be deleted; the provision should merely state that offences enumerated in paragraph 1第二次发言应以三分钟为I
should be made liable to adequate punishment without暂停辩论
mention of the modalities of sanctions, as this might give第2 5条 代表可随时提出对所讨论问题暂停辩论的动it 除该动议的提议者之外,应 只准许两名赞成和两名反对暂停辩论的代表就该动议发言,然后按照第2 8条的规
rise to difficulties of interpretation and application under定,立即将该动议付诸表决。
the diverse legal systems. In the absence of enumeration辩论的结束
as in the initial text, a limitation clause might not be第2 6条 代表可随时提出结束辩论所讨论的问题的动议,不论是否有其他代表要求发言。 应只准许两名反对结束辩论的代表就该动议发言,然后应立即将该动议付诸表决。
necessary as it would be up to the respective States under暂停会议或休会
their national legal system to determine the modalities of第27条
sanctions.在第4 0条限制下,代表可随时提出暂停会议或休会的动议。对该动议不得 进行讨论,并应按照第2 8条的规定,立即将该动议付诸表决。 动议的先后次序 第2 8条 下列动议以其排列次序应优先于提交会议的一切提案或其他动议: (a)暂停会议; ㈦休会; -9 6 (c)暂停辩论所讨论的问題; W)结束辩论所讨论的问题。 基本提案 第 2 9 条 ““ 由麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议提交的禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公 约条款草案以及由审查小组作为其报告一部分提交的郅些公约条款草案应作为供会 议审议的基本提案。 其他提案和修正案 第3 0条 其他提案或修正案通常应以书面向会议执行秘书提出,由他将复制本向所有代 表团散发。通常任何提案至迟应于开会前一日以复制本散发给所有代表团,否则 不得在会议的任何一次会议上加以讨论或表决。但修正案即使尚未散发或仅于当 天散发,主席仍可准许对这些修正案进行讨论和审议。 关于权限的决定 第3 1条 在不违反笫2 2条规定的情况下,任何要求决定会议是否有权讨论某一事项或 通过向会议提出的提案或修正案的动议,应在讨论该事项或表决该提案或修正案以 前;^ft表先 提案和动议的撤回 第3 2条 尚未开始表决的提案或动议,如未经修正,可由原提案人随时撤回。已被撤 回的提案或动议,可由任何代表重新提出。 -9 7 提案的重新审议 笫3 3条 已祓通过或否决的提案,不得重新审议.但如会议以出席并参加表决的代表的 三分之二多数决定重新审议时,不在此限.主席应只准许两名反对重新审议动议 的人就该项动议发言 然后应立即将该动议付诸表决. 对技术性願问的邀请 第3 4条 会议可遨请据认为其技术意见对会议工作会有帮助的任何人参却会议的一次或 多次会议。 七.作出决定 一致同意 第3 5条 1.会议应作出最大努力,确保以一致同意的方式来完成会议的工作。 2.如杲在审议任何实质事项时虽尽一切努力而似乎仍无法达成一致意见-会 议主席应通知总务委员会,表示设法达成一致意见的努力已告失败 总务委员会 应即审议该事项并建议可采取的行动. 表决权 第3 6条 参加会议的每一国家应有一票表决权. 法定多数 笫37条 在第3 5条的限制下,会议关于一切实质事项的决定,应以出席并参加表 -9 8 玦的代表三分之二多数作出. 2.除非本规则另萌规定,会议关于一切程序寧项的决定,应以出席并参加表 决的代表的多数作出. 3.对某一事项是程序事项还是实质事项的问题,应由会议主席就此作出裁决。 对此裁决提出的异议,应立即付诸表决.主席的裁决,除非经出席并参加表决的 代表的过半数推翻,否则仍应有效. 4-赞成和反对票数相等时,提案或动议应视为被否决. “出席并参加表决的代表” 一词的含义 第3 8条 就本规则而言,《出席并参加表决的代表,,一词是指出席并投赞成票或反对票 的代表* 弃权的代表应视为未参加表决. 表决方法 9条 1.除第4 6条另有规定外,会议通常应以举手方式进行表决,但代表可请求 以唱名方式进行表决,唱名表决应从主席抽签决定的代表团开始,按参加会议国家 的国名的英文字母顺序进行.唱名表决Bh每一国家的国名均应点到,由该国代 表回答“赞成”、《反对”或《弃权”. 2*会议用机械设备进行表决时,应以无记录表决代替举手表决,以记录表决 代替唱名表决.代表可请求进行记录表决,进行记录表决时,除非代表另有请求, 应免去与会国唱名的程序。 3.参加唱名或记录表决的每一国家所投的票都应列入会议记录或会议报告中. 表决守则 第4 0条 主席应宣布表决开始,此后,除就与表决的进行有关的程序问題外,任何代表 均不得打新表决的进行, -99 鮮释投票立场 %A 1条 代表可在表决开始前或表决结束后作简短发言,伹仅以餑释投票理白为限.主 席可限制解释的时间.提出提案或动议的国家代表.不得作解释其投票理由的发 言.除非该提案或动议经过修正. 提案的分部分表决 第4 2条 代表可动议将提案的各部分分别付诸表决.如有代表反对,应将分部分表决 的动议付绪表决.应只准许两名赞成湘两名反对分部分表决的代表发言.该动 议如获通过,提案中随后莸得通过的各部分应合成整体再付表决.如提案的各执 行郁分均遭否决,提案应视为已被整个否决. 修正案 苐4 3条 对一项译案只作增删或部分修改的提议,视为该提案的修正案,除另有具体规 定外,本规则内的《提案” 一词应视为包括修正案. 修正案的表决次序 第4 4条 对某项提案有修正案时,修正案应先付表决.当某项提案有两个或两个以上 修正案时,会议应先就实质内容距离原提案最远的修正案进行表决,然后就次远的 修正案进行表决,直至所有修正案均经表决为此.伹如一个修正案的通过必然意 味着另一修正案的否决,后一修正案不应再付表决.一个或一个以上的修正案如 获通过,则应将经修正的提案付诸表决. ‘ -10 0 提案的表决次序 第4 5条 1-除修正案外,如对同一问题有两个或两个以上的提案,除非会议另有决定. 应按照提出的先后次序付诸表决.会议每表决一个提案后,可决定是否将下一个 提案付诸表决
32. Some other representatives supported the enumeration in subparagraphs 2(a)-(d) but proposed that the2,经修正的提案,除非与原提案有实质上的差异,应按原提案提出的先后次
enumeration should be introduced by "any of the following" to make it clear that all sanctions listed were only序付诸表决,如有实质上的差异.应视原提案已被撤回,并将经修正的提案视为新
examples of types of sanctions that States could adopt in的提案.
their national legislation but that they were neither applicable in all cases nor exhaustive.3,要求对某项提案不作决定的动议,应在表决该提案前,先行表决. 选 举 第4 6条 一切选举均应以无记名投票方式进行,除非在无异议情况下会议决定对已商定 卸一名候选人或侯选人名单不进行投票选举.
33.第4 7条 1.
One representative proposed that capital punishment当有一个或一个以上的选任空缺须在同样条件下同时补足时,当选者应为 在第一次投票中莸得过半数票且得票最多的侯选人,其人数不得超过应补缺额.
should be added as a possible sanction depending upon the2,如获得过半数票的侯选人少于应补缺额时,应再举行投票以补足佘缺.
nature and gravity of the offence and subject to each/V.委员会
Party's constitutional limitations, legal system and domestic law. Several representatives strongly objected to thisM 委员 会
proposal and expressed firm moral opposition to it, emphasizing that the United Nations had taken a stand in苐4 8条会议应设置二个全体委员会.全体委员会可设立小组委员会或工作组。’每个全
favour of the abolition of the death penalty and had clearly体委员会主席团成员应包括主席一人.副主席一人和报告员一人.
indicated the reasons for that position.起萆委员会
34. Several representatives indicated that it was not苐4 9条
clear from the initial draft whether the provision for the1 会议应设置一个由1 5人组成的起萆癸员会,包括其主席在内,奈员会 -10 1 主席应白会议按照莬6条选出.委员会其他1 4个成员应由会讶极锃总务安员会的
deprivation of liberty in subparagraph 2(a) and the pecuniary penalties or fines in subparagraph 2(b) were to be提i义任命.全体委员会报告员依职权参加起萆委员会工作,但无表:夫^. 2.起草委员会应审议由全体委员会交给它的条款草案。起草委员会还应按 照会议或全体委员会的要求拟订萆案并就起草事宜提供意见.它应协调社审查通
considered as alternative sanctions or whether the intent过的一切案文的起草工作,并应根据情况向会议或向全体委员会提出报告.
was to apply them simultaneously.主席团成员
35. Several representatives indicated that the meaning of第5 0条
the expression "other forms of deprivation of liberty"除第6条另有规定外,每一委员会、小组委员会湘工作组应各自选举其主席团
should be clarified. It was suggested that another more成员.
acceptable formulation should be found to reflect the intended reference to measures alternative to imprisonment.法定人数 第5 1条 1.全体委员会主席于参加会议的国家至少四分之一有代表出席时,可宣布开 会并准许进行辩论.任何决定必须在参加会议的国家过半数有代表出席时才能作 出. 2.总务委员会、起草委员会、全杈i书委员会以及任何委员会、小组委员会 和工作组中,占多数的代表应构成法定人数. 主席团成员、会议的掌握湘表决 第5 2条 各委员会、小组委员会湘工作组的议事程序经必要修改之后应适用以上第二、 第六(賒第19条外)湘第七章所载的规则,但下列情形除外: (a).总务委员会、起草委员会和全权证书委员会的主席及各委员会、小组委员会 和工作组的主席可行使表决杈;和 (b)各委员会、小组委员会和工作组的决定应以出席并参加表决的代表的过半 数作出,但提案或修正案的重新审议须莸得第3 3条所规定的多数. -10 2 其他委员会 笫5 3条 1.除上述各委员会以外.会议可以设立其认为眉行其职能所必需的委员会矛口 工作组. 每一委员会可以设立小组委员会和工作组. 第54条 1.第5 3条第1款中提及的会议的委员会和工作组成员应由主席予以任命, 但须经会议的批准,除非会议另有决定. 2.各委员会的小组委员会和工作组成员应由有关委员会的主席予以任命,但
36. Several representatives expressed reservation regarding the use of the terms "liable to" in reference to须经该委员会批准,除非该委员会另有决定.
sanctions as this same wording had given rise to divergent语文湘记录
interpretations in connection with article 37 of the 1961会议语文
Convention.莬5 5条
37. At the conclusion of its preliminary discussion on阿控伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文、西进牙文应为会议语文.
paragraph 2, the Group accepted that paragraph 2 should indicate that the offences set forth in paragraph 1 of the口 译
article should be punishable by penalties which take into第5 6条
account the grave nature of the offences.1-用会议的一科语文所作的发言*应译成会议的其他语文.
38. The Group also agreed to enumerate, as possible2,代表可用会议语文以外的一种语文发言.在此情况下,他应自备口译, 译成会议语文之一.秘书处口译人员可根据最先译出的会议语% 将发言译成会
sanctions, in paragraph 2, for further consideration, imprisonment, other forms of deprivation of liberty, and the议的其他语文.
forfeiture of goods or property.会议记录和录音记录
39. The Group also decided to consider, within the same苐5 7条
context, the proposal of one representative drafted along1.会议的全体会议和全体委员会的会议应用会议语文制备笸要记录.通常,
the lines of article 37 of the 1961 Convention, as well as简旻记录应以会议的所有语文尽速同时散发所有代表;各代表应在简旻记录It发后 -10 3 五个工作曰以内将他们想要作的任何改动通知秘书处.
a specific proposal to make the offences referred to in2.秘书处应为会议相全体委员会的会议漭制录音记录.并应于其他委员会、 小组委员会或工作组的会议作同样决定时,为它们渚制录音记录.
paragraph 1 subject to pecuniary sanctions and forfeiture.正式文件所用语文
40. One representative introduced the proposals made第5 8条
by his Government as they appear in paragraphs 272 and正式文件应以会议的语文印发.
273 of the working document to the effect that two additional subparagraphs should be added concerning, respectively, the means for the destruction of controlled substances which have been seized in the illicit traffic, and公开湘非公开会议
the provision of other measures, either as an alternative to⑶ ^ 和全 @ 员会会 议
conviction or punishment or in addition to conviction or第5 9条 会议的全体会议湘全体委员会会议应公开进行,除非有关机构另有决定.会 议的全体会议在非公开会议中所作的决定应尽早在全体会议的公开会议上宣布.
punishment, where abusers of drugs had committed one of其他会议
the offences referred to in paragraph 1. Another representative reserved his position with respect to the proposal to第6 0条
further examine the suggested amendment contained in总务委员会、起草委员会、小组委员会和It作组的会议通常应以非公开方式举行。 非公开会议的公报
paragraph 272 of the working document.第6 1条 非M^t结束时,会试主席可通过执行秘书发表公报. 十一 其他参加者和观察员 纳米比亚,由联合国纳米比亚理事会代表 第6 2条 一 ~ ~ 纳米比亚,由联合国纳米比亚理事会代表,可按照大会的有关决议和决定,参 加会议和全体委员会的审议,也可菡情参加其他委员会、小组委员会和工作组的审议《 -10A 获大会长期邀请以观察员身份参加 在大会主持下召开的所宿国际会议的 各届会议湘工作的组织的代表 笫6 3条 获大会长期邀请参加在大会主持下召开的所有国际会议的各届会议和工作的组 织指派的代表有权以观察员身份参加会议和全体委员会的审议,也可酌情参加其他 委员会、小组委员会和工作组的审议.但无表决权。 @解放运动的代表 第6 4条 应邀参加会议的民族解放运动的代表*可以观察员身份就特别有关这些运动的 M事项参加会议和全体委员会的审议,也可酌情参加其他委员会、小组委员会和 工作组的审议,但无表决杈。 专门机构的代表年 第6 5条 各专门机拘年指派的代表可就该机构业务范围内的问题参加会议和全体委员 会的审议,也可酌情参加其他委员会、小组委员会和工作组的审议,但无表决杈. 其它政府间组织的代表 第6 6条 ~ @参加会议的其它政府间组织指派的代表讨可以观察员身份就该组织业务范围 内的问题参加会议和全体委员会的审议,也可酌情参加其他委员会、小组委员会和 工作组的审议,但无表决权. “就本规则而言,“专门机构” 一词包括国际原子能机构和关税及贸易总协定. 糾根据经济及社会理事会1 9 8 8年5月25日作出的第1988/8号决议,由各 专门机构、政府间组织以及国际麻醉品管制局指定的代表应拥苕与其在理事会 会议上相同的权利. -10 5 非政府组织的观察员 第6 8条 1 应邀参加会议的非政府组织可指派代表以观察员身份列席会议和全体委员 会的公开会孔 2-应会议有关机关的会议主持人的邀请并经该机关核可,这种观察§可就他 们具有特别专长的问题作口头发言. 书面说明 第6 9条 第6 3568条所述指旅代表提出的书面说明,应由秘书处以该项说明在会议 地点向秘书处提供的数量湘语文,散发给所有代表团,但以非政府组织名义提出的 说明须与会议工作有关,并须是关于该组织具有特别专长的问题. 十二.议事规则的暂停适用和修正 暂停鄉办法 第70条 本规则任何条款均可由会议予以暂停适用 伹暂停适用的建议的通知须于二十 四小时前提出,如无代表反对,可免除通知手续.任何这种暂停适角,必须限于 一个具体明确的目的,并以达成此一目的所需的一段时间为限. 修正办法 第7 1条 本议事规则可在总务委员会就提议的修正案提出报告后 由会议以出席并参加 表决的代表以三分之二多数作出决定,予以修正. -10 6 联合II各有关机关和固际忘薛品管制局的代表 莬6 7条 有关联合国机关指派的代表相由国际麻醉品管制局指派的代表#可以观察员身份 就该机关业务范围内的问题参加会议和全体委员会的审议,也可酌情参加其他委员 会、小组委员会和工作组的审谚,伹无表决杈 -10 7 文 件 E/CONF. 82/10 * 全权诬书委员会的报告 [原件:英文] [1988年 2 月 15 S 3 1 联合国关于通过一项禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约的会议于1988 年1 1月2 5日举行的第1次全体会议上依据会议议事规则第4条任命了一个由以 下各国组成的全权证书委员会:玻利维亚、博茨瓦纳"、中国、科特迪瓦:牙买 加料、卢森堡、泰国、苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟和美利坚合众国。 2. 全权证书委员 2 月 1 2日_了一次会议。 3.会议一致选举Edcmard Molitor任委员会主席。 4.委员会收到会议执行秘书1 2月6日提交的一份关于与会各国代表全权证 书状况的备忘录。该备忘录发出后,会议执行秘书又收到关于全权证书的进一步 资料,这些资料已由委员会秘书提交委员会。根据收到的资料,委员会注意到, 截至1 2月1 2日: (a)
41. Commenting on paragraph 3, some representatives根据会议议事规则第3条规定,提交由国家元首、政府首脑或外交部
referred to the legal problems which might be experienced长颁发正式全权证书的有下列8 5个参加会议的国家的代表:阿富汗、 陌尔巴尼亚、河尔及剝亚、阿根廷、澳大利亚、奥地利、巴哈马、巴
in countries where aggravating circumstances were taken巴多斯、比剝纣、玻利维亚、博茨瓦纳、保加利亚、缅甸、白俄罗欺 苏维埃社会主义共和囯、喀麦隆、加拿大、智利、中囯、哥伧比亚、
into consideration as a matter of course by their courts but哥期达黎加、科特迪瓦、古巴、塞浦路欺、捷克期洛伐克、丹麦、埃 及、埃塞俄比亚、芬兰、法囯、德意志民主共和囯、德意志联邦共和
not necessarily reflected in their national legislation. It囯、加纳、希腊、危墙马拉、几内亚、教廷、洪都拉斯、匈牙剎、印 度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和囯、爱尔兰、以色列、意大剎、牙
was also pointed out that while some of the aggravatingi 合并了 文件E/C0NF 82/10/Cor r. 1。
circumstances listed in the paragraph were of a general^这些国家是在1988年1 2月1日的第3次全体会议上当选的。 -10 8 买如、曰本、约旦、肯尼亚、科威特、同拉伯剝比亚民众国、卢森堡、
nature, others had a specificity which did not make them马来西亚、马耳他、毛里塔尼亚、毛里求斯、墨西哥、摩纳哥、摩洛 哥、尼泊尔、荷兰、新西兰、尼如拉瓜、尼日剎亚、掷威、珂曼、巴
applicable in particular countries.基斯坦、巴拿马、巴布亚新几内亚、巴拉圭、秘鲁、菲律宾、波兰、
42. One representative considered that the wording of葡萄牙、卡塔尔、大韩民囯、塞内加尔、酉班牙、欺里兰卡、苏丹、 苏里南、瑞典、瑞士、泰囯、土耳其、乌克兰苏维埃社会主义共和囯、
the introductory sentence should be made stronger by the苏维埃社会主义共和囯联盟、大不列颠及北爱尔兰较合王国、坦桑尼 亚联合共和囯、美利坚合众囯、委内瑞拉、也门、南斯拉夫、扎伊尔。
deletion of the words "where possible". Another representative proposed the insertion of the words "and desirable"W下列8个国家的代表由各自国家元首、政府首脑或外交部长颁发的全
after those words.权书以电报形式交给会议秘书长:多米尼加共和国、厄瓜多尔、马
43. Several representatives said that the concept of recidivism should be included in the paragraph as it constituted a most important aspect of aggravating circumstances.达加斯加、乌拉圭、越南。
It was suggested in this connection that the term "recidivism" should be inserted; another suggestion was to(c)下列3个国家M的任命由有关外交部通过函件、普通照会或电»
speak of "prior convictions under paragraph 1, whether foreign or domestic". 14 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances式通知会议执行秘书:孟加拉囯。
44. It was proposed to amend subparagraph (a) to read(d> 下列 8 个国家储自国(日内瓦、纽约或维也纳 ) 或 其甚维也纳大使馆以函件、普通照会或电报方式通知会议执行秘书:
"the involvement in other international organized criminal巴林、巴西、伊拉克、沙特蚵拉伯、突尼斯、M拉伯联合酋长囯。 (e)截至1 2月1 2日,尚未收到以下2个参加会议的国家代表的全权证
activities". The author of the proposal later agreed to a书:佛得务 5 美利坚合众囯代表和苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟代表就参加会议的国家代 表的全权证书作了发言。
suggestion that subparagraph (a) remain as it was, and that6.美利坚合众国代表说,虽然他的代表团并不对阿富汗代表固参加会议的全 权证书提出质疑,但希望申明,他的政府仍深切关注阿富汗的局势 虽然美国并不
his proposal be included as a new subparagraph.坚持要求对阿富汗代表表示反对,但决不应当因此而认为美国承认喀布尔政权为合
45.法政权或为阿富汗人民的代表 7.
As regards subparagraph (c), it was suggested that it苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟代表说,有一代表囷声称阿富汗共和国代表的
should apply not only to offenders holding a public office全杈证书有疑问,这只不过是企图蓄意歪曲历史和政治现实,阿富汗共和国在国际 上作为一个独立的不结盟的主杈国家行事,并且是联合国的完全合法的会员国 上
but also to those in the private sector. It was also proposed述代表团的声称违背了全面彻底解决阿富汗局势的目标,而实现这一目标的途径就
that the wording be amended as follows: "The international misuse of public authority or office".在于严格执行日内瓦协议。 -10 9 8.主席提议,考虑到委员会成员的发言以及表明的立场一这些发言和立场 将载入委员会报告——委员会通过以下决议草案:
46. Concerning subparagraph (d), it was suggested that“全权ii£书委员会, “审查了本报告第4段所述的出席联合国关于通过一项禁止非法贩运麻醉
in addition to the "victimization", the "utilization" of药品和精神药物公约会议代表的全杈诬书,
minors should also be mentioned, as well as the victimization and use of disabled persons or persons suffering“考虑到各代表团在辩论中所作的发言, ”1 .接受上文第4 (a)、⑶、(c)、⑷段提及之各国代表的全权证书; “ 2 .接受第4(e)段提及的各国代表在委员会收到其全权证书前临时参加
from mental or physical handicaps. According to another会议;
suggestion the fact that the offence had been committed in“3.建议会议批准全杈i£书委员会报告。” 9.委员会未絲决通过了雜提议的决议草案. 10;随后,主席提议,委员会应建议会议通过一项决议草案(见下文第1 2段). 委员会未经表决批准了这一提案. 11.裉据上述情况,现将本报告提交会议审说 全权证书委员会的建议 12.全杈证书委员会建议会议通过如下决议草案: “出.席联合国关于通过一项禁止非法贩运麻薛药品和精神药物公约会议代 表的全权证书 会议, 审查了全权证书委员会的报告, 核准全权诬书委员会的报告。’’ -13 0 士 m.人-、办去 工人 r r 文件 E/C0NF.S2/3* 公约草案审查组的报告 笫一章 须请会议采取行动的事项 1.禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约萆案审查组注意到秘书处编写的关 于会议的组织安排的文件D ED/DC I T / 1 4,兹向全权代表会议提出下列建 议: 决 定 审查组请秘书长至少在会议前三个星期向各国分发一份关于工作安排的时间表 早案。 第一号建议 会议的临时议程 审查组建议通过文件D ]?;D/DCIT/13 和文件 DKD/DCIT/1 4 第7段所载的会议临时议程,但应作下述修订: ㈠分项⑶但)工作安排应放在分项3 fe)成立其他委员会之前: 口应修正分项3㈣,以列入题为“审查组报告涉及组织事项的有关部分,,和 “暂定工作时间表”的文件: * 合并了文件E/C0NF. 82 / 3 /Corr. 2 和Corr. 3 ,但不包括附件一、三和五。 [原件:英文] [1SS8年7月20曰] -Il l ㈢项目 4 “审议公约萆案”的文件中,“包括” 一字后的部分修正为“包括 经审查组修订的、麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议提交全杈代表会议的条 —文萆案”。所列文件还应包括审查组的报告。 (射义临时议程的案文见E / C 0 If 8 2/1:经修正的、文件D E D / D C I T / 1 4所载秘书^^于组织事项的说明,见E / C 0 2? 8 2 /4 ) 第二号建议 会议暂行议事规则 审查组建议通过文件D 2? D/DCIT/10 和 Corr . 1 - 3所载的会议 暂行议事规则和对规则3, 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 1 1 , 2 9 , 3 0 , 3 1 , 5 9 , 60 和6 1的修正案。 (会议暂行议事规则的案文见E/CO !?]&, 8 2/2 ) 第三号建议 全权证书委员会成员的任命 审查组建议全杈代表会议任命与联大第四十三届会议相同的全权证书委员会, 但有一项谅解,即如有某一国家缺席,会议应安排同一区域小组中的另一国家填补
the vicinity of places heavily frequented by minors or第四号建议
disabled persons such as schools or rehabilitation centres主席团成员的选举 审查组建议全权代表会议总务委员会的席位分配如下: 非洲国家代表八名; 亚洲国家代表七名:
for the disabled should be taken into consideration.东欧国家代表三名; -11 2 拉丁美洲国家代表五名; 西欧和其他国家代表六名。
Second session审查组还建议,对于会议主席的人选以及总务委员会和全体委员会主席团成员
47. The Group resumed its consideration of article 2,的人选,应在会议开幕前达成协议,以便可以采取鼓掌方式通过,而无需进行无记 名投票。
taking as a basis for discussion of paragraphs 1 and 2 the第五号建议 会议的工作安排 审查组建议: (a)会议从1 9 8 8年11月25曰至1 2月2 0日举行,共1 8个工作曰,
original draft and, in appropriate cases, the reformulation此前在1 1月2 4日还以一天时间举行会前协商(见下文第六号建议); (b)总的原则是,考虑到口译能力和设施,每天举行四次会议,即全体会议、
with variants arrived at during its first session.全阵委员会或小组委员会每天不超过两次同时开会: (c) ”应'在1 1月2 5曰下午举行全体委员会会议讨论需决定的组织事项:
48. Divergent opinions were expressed regarding the(d)全体委员会应建立一个小组委员会,小组委员会应就核准提交全体委员会 的案文随时报告全体委员会。
retention of a limitation clause in the introductory sentence of paragraph 1. Several representatives emphasized第六号建议
that any restricting language would have the undesirable会前协商的举行 审查组建议在会议前各国之间的协商应在维也纳连续进行,而在会议开幕前一
effect of weakening one of the basic articles of the draft夭4应在维也纳举行一天的会前协商,使尽可能多的组织问题和程序问题能在开会 前提前得到解决,使会议本身能最大限度地把时间用于实质性项目的审议。
Convention; the undertaking by States to punish the illicit本项建议所涉的方案预算问题见附件io -11 3 第七号建议 议程项目的分配 审查组建议由全体委员会根据秘书长拟定的(见上文“决定,,)#经过会前协
traffic should be mandatory and Parties to the Convention商讨论的一份日程韋案,将第1条至第6条的审议分配给该委员会本身,而将其余 条文、序言和执行条款和最后条款分配给第五号建议⑷项所述的小组委员会。
should be ready to adjust their national legislation to the第二章
requirements of its provisions.审查组会议的背景和组织
49. Some other representatives argued that certain StatesA.会议的背景 2.联大其在1 9 8 4年12月14曰第39/141号决议中请麻醉药品委
might find it difficult under their constitutional and legal员会通却盒济及社会理事会开始拟订新的《禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神公约萆 案》。为了推动实现这一目的,委员会在其1 9 8 6 年 2 月 14 曰第 1 ( S-工X)
systems to apply fully and effectively some of the farreaching provisions of the article and that some form of号决议中确定了列入公约初步萆案的1 4项内容并请秘书长拟订这样一个萆案,以
limitation clause was consequently necessary.分发给各国政府征求意Eo 1 9 8 7年2月委员会第三十二届会议审议了公约萆
50. Some representatives expressed the view that the retention of a single limitation clause in paragraph 1 was not案和各国政府关于该簟案的意见。
the best formula;3.
the provisions of the different subparagraphs should be subject to different limitation clauses由麻醉药品委员会笫三十二届会议作为萆案提交的并由经济及社会理事会
adapted to their substantive content and legal implications.于1 9 8 7年5月2 7日通过的第1 9 8 7 / 2 7号决议,请秘书长编写一份工作
This approach would take into account the particular problems that certain States could have in implementing some文件,综合公约韋案初稿、各国政府迄今对该萆案提出的意见以及委员会第三十二
of the provisions.届会议对萆案的审议结果;该工作文件还应包括序言部分草案、有关执行措施的一
51. Several representatives proposed that the word节和最后条款草案。理事会还请秘书长向各国分发该工作文件,并决定可自由参 加的政府间专家组如有必要应在1 9 8 7年举行两次会议,以审查该工作文件,和 如有可能就公约条款达成协议并编写经修订的工作文件。因此,秘书长编写了理 事会要求的综合工作文件、将其分发给各国政府,关于19 8 7年在维也纳国际中 心召开了两次专家组会议(1987年6月29日至7月10日和1987年1 0 月5日至16曰)。 -11 4 4-鉴于专家组在将文#案提交委员会第十届特别会议(1 9 8 8年2月8 日至1 9日)前需要更多时间继续其对韋案的审查,联大在其1 9 8 7年12月7 日第42/ 1 1 1号决议中请秘书长考虑在那届会议临举行前再召开^ 次为期两周 的政府间专家组会议,继续修订有关公约萆案的文件。联大在同一决议中请委员 会“笫十届特别会议审议和如有可能核准公约萆案”。专家组于1 9 8 8年1月 2 5日至2月5日在维也纳国际中心召开了第三次会it 5-麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议根据可自由参加的政府间工作组三次会议 的报告审査了公约文萆案。 报告表明,专家组能够深入审查某些条款,但由于 时间限制 对其他条款只能进行不同程度的审查。委员会在讨论了文本萆案之后 (有关讨论的情况,见委员会第十届特别会议报告笫二章)/决定将下列经修正的 条款提交全杈代表会议: (a)第7、8、9、10、11、1 1 之一、12、13和14条: (b)执行措施萆案的第二至六条(委员会决定删除第一条): (c)最后条款萆案第一至八条和提议增加的有关公约有效文和将经核证的副本递 交各締减国的一项条款。 委员会还决定将序言萆案提交全权代表会议进一步审议。 6.委员会还核准了提交经济及社会理事会_议草案,该决议提出了其建议推动 拟订公约萆案的措施。理事会于1 9 8 8年5月2 5日通过该决设草案为题为 « 拟订禁止非法贩_醉药 品和精神药物国际公约”的笫1 9 8 8/8号决议。 理 事会在该决议中决定召开公约草案审查组会议,并在审查组会议4个月后便召开全 杈代表会议 以通过《禁止非法贩碰醉药品和精神药物公约》。理事会笫1988/ 8号决议第9段规定该审查组的任务是: «(a)审查寐醉药品委员会提交给它的第1至6条文萆案,以便将其提交全权 代表会孔此外,审查组可审查余下的条款及有关条文韋案,以便作出必要 变动 使拟提交全权代表大会的公约文本萆案前后取得 "(b)审议与全权代表会议有关的组织事项和秘书长拟编制的暂行议事规则萆案” 7.有关六项实质条款的具体任务(见委员会第十届特别会议报告)如下: -11 5 第1条 “委员会一致同t,笫一条应在完成对公约的审查后再予审议:审查组应
"serious", which appeared in paragraph 1 of the initial确定,公约的条文中有哪些词应在第1条下一定礼”
draft, should be deleted as minor offences could also come2 第2条 “麻委会决定将第2条的案文转交审查组,但有一项谅解*即它的任务将 仅限于审查新的倒数第2款的规^,,‘
under the provisions of subparagraphs 1 (a)-(d). It was第2条之二
argued in that connection that, should the word "serious"‘“麻委会决定将第2条之二全部交审查縫一步研究。” *
be retained, the introductory sentence would have to be第3条 .“鉴于本条在新公约中的重要性,麻委会认为将该条款提交审查组进一步 审议以 最后案文达成协商一致的意见是可取的。”,
subject to a limitation clause. Several representatives, on第4条
the other hand, attached importance to the retention of the“麻委会决定将第4条交审查组进一步审查。”
concept of "serious" as, among other things, it would6
serve as an invitation to Parties to provide for severe第5条 ““鉴于未ft就专家组在其笫三届会议上审议的条款中的有关内容达成协商 一致的意见,而且专家组尚未能够完成对笫1 0— 1 3款的审议工作,因此麻
sanctions commensurate with the gravity of the offence.委会决定将本条转交给审查组进行深入的审孔”
52. With respect to subparagraph 1(b) of the reformulated text, several representatives expressed the view that7
the wording of the provisions was too broad in scope and第6条
should be made more specific.“麻委会决定,鉴于第5条和第6条规定之间的关系,应将后者(业已经
53. Regarding subparagraph 1(c) of the reformulated专家组以协商一致的方式通过)委托给审查组》但有一顼谅解,即本条按现有 形式将不再重新加以审议。”
draft, the view was expressed that the provisions were too8
far-reaching and could be subject to ambiguous interpretations leading to the criminalization of bona fide persons8.在麻委会第十届特别会议的讨论过程中,一位代表提出了新的笫6条之二 麻委会“决定将所提出的〔......〕第6条之二的萆案全文委 审查组,请其对其 中的各项规定惠予重视。”,一些代表“对该条案文的实质内容和提法持保留态度,
involved at different stages of business transactions, or但从为应由审查组决走是吝将拟议中的这二条列入公约。”‘'
other persons not involved in illicit drug trafficking.B.
They会议的安排
would also constitute unnecessary limitations to free trade.9,禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约萆案审查组会议于1 9 8 8年6月 -11 6 2 7日至7月8日在维也纳国际中心举行。参加审查组会议的有来自下列7 5个II
54. Several representatives spoke in favour of retaining家的2 3 6名专家:阿尔及利亚、阿根廷、溴大利亚、奥地利、巴哈马、比利时、 玻利维亚、博茨瓦纳、巴西、保加利亚、缅甸、白俄罗斯苏维埃社会主义共和国、
subparagraphs 1(c) and (d) because of the innovativeness加拿大、中国、哥伦比I哥斯达黎加、科特迪瓦、古巴、捷克斯洛伐克、丹麦、 厄瓜多尔、埃及、埃塞俄比亚、芬兰、法国、德意志民主共和国、德意志联邦共和
of their provisions which covered, respectively, the preparatory phases related to illicit trafficking and the criminalization of those who knowingly and intentionally国、希腊、危地马拉、淚、匈牙利、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗(伊斯兰共和国)、
benefited from illicit traffic.意大利、日;^约旦、肯尼亚、黎巴傲、马达加斯加、马来西亚、毛里求斯、墨西
55. Several representatives expressed the view that the哥、摩洛哥、荷兰、新西兰、尼日利亚、挪威、阿曼、巴基斯坦、巴拿马、秘鲁、 菲律良“波兰、葡萄牙、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、西班牙、斯里兰卡、苏丹、瑞典、 瑞士、泰国、土耳其、突絲、鸟克兰苏维埃社会主义共和国、苏维埃社会主义共 和国联盟、阿拉伯联合酋长国、大不列顛及北爱尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国、鸟 拉圭、委内瑞拉、也门、扎伊尔和赞比JEo.下列六个政府同组织的七名观察员也参 加了会议:阿拉伯律师联合会、阿拉伯安全研究训练中心、欧洲共同体委员会、阿 拉伯司法部长理事会、诲关合作理事会和阿拉伯国家联盟。国际麻醉品管制局秘 书处也派代表出席了会议。 10,审查组在其1 9 8 8年6月2 7日第1次会议上以鼓掌方式选出了下列主 席团成员: 主席. Enrique Pare jo Gonzale z (哥伦比亚) 第一副主席 第二副主席 第三副主席 Gioacchin o Polimen i (意大利) A . BaUaya n (苏联) Maurice Randrianam e (马达加斯加) 审查组李在其1 9 8 8年6 月2 8曰的第2次会议上以鼓掌方式选举Mya Than 先生(缅甸)为报告员。 II.审查组第2次会议还核准了其临时议程(Dl? D/ D C I T / 1 1 )和经 修订的暂行时间表(D KD/DCIT/12) 。 审查组在通过其时间表时,决 定首先在一般性辩论中审查第1条,然后转而审议第2、5和3条。接下来再一 起考虑笫2条之二和第4条。将审查笫6条,以便达到对审查组工作所要求的连 -11 7 贯一致。然后将完成笫1条。接下来可以开始审议笫6条之二,随后审议议亊 规则萆案和组织事项。 12.审查组收到了秘书长根据经济及社会理事会第1 9 8 8 / 8号决议笫6段 编写的工作文件(Dl?D/DClT/9) :秘书长根据理事会笫1 9 8 8 / 8号 决议第1 0(d)段编写的联合国通过一项禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约会议 暂行议事规则萆案(DED/DCIT/10);全杈代表会议临时议程萆案(DKD / D C I T / 1 3 );和秘书处关于全权代表会议组织工作的说明(D K D / D C I T / 1 4 )。 审查M收到了秘书处的一你兌明(DED/DC I T/15), 其中摘录了 13际海事组织法律委员会笫五十九届会议工作报告中与上述公约有关的 部分,供审查组参考。 13.审查组共举行了 1 9次全体会议,包括在7月8曰晚举行一次夜会以通过 它的报告;6月3 0日下午和7月1日没有会议以 非正式工作组提供 充分的口译服务来审查各个条文,以取得协商一致意JiiU非正式工作组还在6月29 日和7月6日举行了两次夜会。 14.在会议过程中,审查组审议了下述各条的案文并同意将其提交全权代表会 议:第1、1之;2、2之;3、4、5、5之;6和6之二条。这些条文 已由协商一致确定下来,尚未取得一致意见的措词均放在方括号内。* 15.审查组对于全权代表会议临时议事规则萆案的讨论情况在第四章A节中加 以概述。1988年7月8曰,审查组在其最后一次会议上通过了它的报告,并决 定将经修订的议事规则案文一并提全权储会议(E/cOKr. 82/2) 。 * 这些条文,连同经由麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议核准提交全权代表会议的 条文(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第 二章)均载于附件二。各代表团提出的提案,凡未经审议因而也未反映在上述 各条文内者,均载于附件四。 -11 8 第三章 对公约草案的审查 第1条 16.审查组首先听取了一位代表的发言.他谈到本国政府在查禁非法贩运的斗 争中所采取的措施和它高度重视拟订一项可为尽可能多的国家所接受的有效公约的 工作. 为此,必须对公约的条款特别是列入有关的保障条款的问题.给予详细的 审议.以确保既不损害各国的主权.也不影响到立法和司法机构的独立性.他认 为.虽然新公约的萆拟工作进展很快 这是好事,但各条文之间连接得不够密切: f 因此.审查组应对该公约条文按顺序逐条加以审议,逐一解决尚未询定的问题,最 后向全权代表会议提出一份完整的公约草案.对这一建议,大家根据审查组在有 限的时间内所应完成的任务.进行了一般性讨论.普遍同意审查组应严格执行由麻 委会交下的并经经济及社会理事会第1 9 8 8/8号决议核准的明确任务. 17* —些代表在谈及议程项目5时表示,他们将在适当时候对某些条文的实质 内容发表意见,例如第1 2条,虽然不安排复审,但他们认为.也应在适当时加以 重新审议. 18.按照经济及社会理事会的指示.审查组负责审查由醉麻药品委员会交付审 查的第1至6条,因此决定从第1条开始. 19 大家同意在进行讨论时应以非正式工作组向麻醉药品委员会第三十二届会 议提出的案文为基础,但有一项谅解,其中关于一些术语的定义应酌情与秘书处提 出的原草案相互参照. 20—些代表对草案第1条的现结构表示不够满意,建议把其内容分作两类, 一类是兴于机构名称的定义*另一类是技术性或实质性的术语的定义.、.有人指出,
terminology used in subparagraph 1(d) of the initial draft无论是秘书处的原草案,或是非正式工作组提出的草案,第1条的结构都是参考
would raise difficulties under the legal system of some《单一公约》的写法,是按英文术语的字母顺序排列术语定义的.一位代表强调 第1条的引言句需具体提及国际麻醉品控制领域现行的有关条约.
countries and pointed out, in particular, that "conspiracy"21.审查组同意非正式工作组拟定的“麻管局”的定义. -31 9 22.关于“商业承运人”,有人指出,在第1 1条内专门论及这一题目.该定
was not a universally accepted legal concept.义应充分符合该实质条文的内容.
The provision of the subparagraph should accordingly be qualified为此,他认为有些代表提出的扩大该词定义使
by an appropriate limitation clause.之包括非商业承运人在内的建议是否可取表示怀疑,因为第11条只涉及商业承运
56.23.
Following further discussion and informal consultations between interested experts, the Group adopted as a有人建议在《实体” 一词之前增加《公营或私营”字样作为修饰语,以便
compromise a restructured paragraph 1 with its substantive provisions subdivided into subparagraphs (a) and (b).与秘书处原萆案第1条相一致.对该建议没有反对意见,但有些代表认为,增加 这些字虽然可以接受,但实际上是多余的. 24 . 建议除客货运输外.还应提及邮件的运输,以便与民航公约相一致. 对这一建议.几位代表赞同.另一些代表则怀疑是否有必要具体提及邮件运输. 25 一位代表提出采用“作为一项考虑”措词,以包括任何麻烦的交易.有 人建议在“为获取报酬或受雇”之后再加上“或其他报酬形式”字样,以便包括非 金钱的报酬在内,在这方面.他提到国际民用航空组织的经验.有些代表反对 增添这些字,理由是把一些非专业运输(例如,租借一快艇以换取分摊费用)包括 进来是不合适的.一位代表提出还须把无报酬的运输也包括在内.多数代表赞 成在条文内把非金钱性质的交易包括在内,例如易货贸易. 26.审查组同意《麻委会”的定义. 27.关于《控制下交件,的定义.有人提请审査组注意.拟议定义中使用的 «受管制药物”和《特定化学品”等字应改为《麻醉药品和精神药物”或按照实质
The provisions of subparagraph (a), because of their条文中的用语,改为《表么和表B所列药物,,.可是,对表A和表E所列药物,
significance as the centre-piece of the draft Convention,是否可采取控制下交付的办法,无法达成一致意见.因此,审查组决定把这些术 语放在方括号之内
would not be subject to any limitation clause, whereas28-几位代表强调,应在定义中明确写出控制下交付的目的,以便使所有执行 的人都清楚知道这一执法技术的意义所在.另一些代表指出,控制下交付的目的
those of subparagraph (b) would be subject to the constitutional limitations, legal system and domestic law of the己写明在第7条内,无需在定义中再重复一遍.
Parties.29.审查组同意在定义中按照第7条第1款的措词指明执行这一技术是“为了
57.查明参与非法贩运的人并对之采取法律行动”.
The Group agreed to delete the word "serious" in the30 , 一些代表表示,应在定义中写明由有关当局发运某些无毒药物以替代非法
introductory sentence of paragraph 1 as the serious nature药品的可能性.但另一些代表对这一建议表示反对,理由是用无毒药物来替代可 -12 0 能会引起法律上的困难.特别是如果需要证明所缴荻的货物夹带有非法货品的话.
of the offences was inherent in the wording which made还有人说,从实际的角度说,要确定某一药物是否为无毒药物,是极为困难的事. 31-有人指出,实质性条文内并没有提到这一替代问题,因此不应在M中再
it mandatory for each Party to establish as offences listed加进新的实质内容;应集中精力考虑如何使定义与第7条现有的内容衔接起来.另 一方面,也有人指出,该实质性条文并不要求一个国家用无毒药物来取代非法药物.
under its criminal law the acts listed in subparagraphs (a)该定义的目的是用作目前及将来使用此种技术的指南. 32.由于无法达成一致意见,审查组决定将下面这段文字放在方括号内:“由
and (b). The Group also agreed to insert the word "intentionally" at the end of the sentence so as to stress that有关当局截获的货物允许继续运送,而以无毒的药物来取代其中夹带的麻醉药品或
in order for the activities listed in paragraph 1 to be considered as criminal, they had to be undertaken with the精神药物”.
knowledge of their illicit objective.33-有些代表提请注意在某些国家内,按照国内立法,不允许采取控制下交付
58. The Group agreed to the proposal of one representative to dissociate the concepts of "manufacture and distribution" of materials or equipment from that of their的办法,因而建议在定义中列入一#障条款,即《如杲为某一締约国的国家法律
"possession" so that the provision regarding "possession"和条例所允许.”才能采用该技术.另一些代表指出.已经在第7条第1款内加 进一个关于各自国家法律制度的基本原则的保障条款,因此,再在定义中加入这样
would be subject to the limitation clause under subparagraph (b).一^^障条款无论如何是不合适的.也有人提出,拟议的限制条款将不考虑这样 的国家,在这些国家内,控制下交付的技农既不被允许也不被禁止,但仍可根据与
59.其他国家签订的有关协定或安排加以执行.
Concerning paragraph 2 of the reformulated draft,鉴于意见分歧,决定将拟议的保障条 款放在放括号内,写进定义之中.
divergent opinions were expressed as to whether the sanctions enumerated therein were cumulative or alternative34,审查组同意在审议第3条之后,再讨论“冻结,,、“收缴”和“没收充公”
means of punishment for the offences set forth in paragraph 1.的定义.
Several representatives were of the view that the sanctions mentioned in the paragraph should not be construed as being either exhaustive or cumulative, but rather Preparatory work 15一位代表建议将其代表团提交的关于那些定义的书面建议放在方括号内,
indicative of the types of sanctions which Parties may列入案文中.对这个问题,没有进行讨论..另一代表也提出应仔细审查《没收,, 的定义,因在第2条第2款(a)项提到此词.
adopt.35.
Some representatives indicated that in their countries a combination of sanctions which included imprisonment and forfeiture, were often applied as an effective关于《非法贩运,,的定义,几位代表表示,他们赞成非正式工作组在麻委
deterrent against illicit drug trafficking.会第三十二届会议上提出的定义,这特别是因为该定义需与1 9 6 1年《麻醉品单
60. The propriety of including forfeiture among the一公约》、经由1 9 7 2年议定书修正的该公约以及1 9 7 1年《精神药物公约》
possible sanctions was extensively discussed. Several representatives argued that irrespective of the fact that in的规定相衔接 他们认为,这种街接关系很重要,因为现有的上述養约在建立国’ 际麻醉品管制制度的同时,也提供了一些标准,在新公约内列出的各种活动是否属 于非法性质.对照这些标准就可以衡量出来.有人强调,关于非法贩运的定义应
some legal systems forfeiture was considered a pecuniary与现有各公约的相应定义相一致. -12 1 36.另一些代表认为,秘书处拟定的原草案中的定义更为全面一些.他们认 为.新公约第1条的各项定义应是自行独立的,不受现有麻醉品管制条约的定义的 约束:对于将成为新公约締约国但并非现有各公约的締约国的那些国家.可能需要 提及以前的公约. 37 若干位代表反对将国家法律作为附加的或备选的标准列入.有人认为, 容于国家立法的多样性,此类规定将会导致产生一种主观性标准.从而有悖于新公 约所寻求的协调一致性,而且会损害此项文书的适用范围.鉴于达不成一致意见, 决定按照舉毕此提案的代表团的要求 将这一建议放在方括号内. 38.若干位代表表示.既然拟拘成非法贩运活动的清单尚不能将所有活动囊括 在内.那么便应将其结尾定成开放性的,以便给添加新的术语留出余地,从而在必 要时将有关现象的不同方面包括在内.为此目的,有人建议说,应将“意指” 一 词改成《包括”,或在“意撥,一词之后加上“除其他活动之外”;再一项办法是 将《以及其他任何形式的贩运活动”一句插入清单中“出口” 一词之后.鉴于达 不成一致看法,决定按照提出此提案的代表团的要求,将此建议放在方括号内. 39.有人建议说,某些术语,诸如“供应”和“获得”等,亦应列入定义之中. 有人提请注意草案中的术语.诸如“播秭”和“种植”或“制作”和《制造”.均 有赘述之搛.其他诸如《处方”和“制备”等词据认为过于含混不清,因而会导 致不同的解释.有些代表则认为必须增加这些词语.鉴于达不成一致意见,决 定把所有这些词语都放在方括号内. 40 . —位代表建议说,有关非法贩运的定义应不包括为了个人使用的目的而拥 有少量麻醉药品,另一位代表表示支持此项建议:据认为,由于正在审议的定义范 围十分广泛*囊括了《单一公约》第3 6条中确立的所有犯罪行为,因此会造成所 有这些运受惩办的行为都被考虑列为严重的非法殿毒罪,适用于该公约的严厉惩处 条款.若干代表反对此项建议,他们指出,用于个人消费的少量麻醉药品若加在一 起的话便会形成大规模的贩运活动其结果是每个个人都间接地为非法贩运活动筹 资.有人指出,虽然所涉数量可能会影响制裁的程度,伹非法拥有麻醉药品本身 便已构成违反现有麻醉药品管制条约的犯罪行为.有人强调说,如果将此类规定 列入,则将有悼于新公约的目标和精神,并损害以现有各项公约为基础的国际麻醉 -12 2 药品管制体系的作用,而后者的目标正是设法将麻醉药品和精神药物严格限于医疗 和科学目的 有人还进一步认为将这类保证条款列入有关定义的笫1条是不适宜 的;如果的确有必要的话,也应将其列入实质性条款之中.若干位代表指出,他 们认为,有关性质轻微的犯罪案件以及犯罪者为滥用麻醉药品者的犯罪行为业已在 第2条第2款㈧项中作了适当的规定. 41.若干位代表指出.列入定义部分中的某些术语业巳在实质性条款中有了定 X.或由于在整个公约中可以很容易地理解因而不需要特别予以另下定义,因此这 些代表应将第1条删去.从而避免定义的重复.他们认为.更可取的办 法是将目前实质性术语的定义分别归入各有关执行条款之中 若干位其他代表则 持相反的意见,认为第1条是公约结构的关键性组成部分,而且将构成解释其各项 规定的宝贵指南. 42.老吁位代表主张删去有关非法贩适的定义中的最后一句,因为其中包括贩 运列于清单A和E中的药物的活动.他们认为,如果将此句列入,则不符合第8 条的规定.因为该条规定对列于清单A和E中拟用于非法制造麻醉药品和精神药物 的物质实行监测,但并未禁止此类药物的合法贸易;实际上其中许多药物均广泛流 动于非法贸易之中.其他一些代表则强调此项规定的重要意义,并支持予以保留.
sanction (whereas in others it constituted a penal sanction), the concept was now sufficiently established and他们I为,供应列入清单A和E中的药物是非法贩运活动的一项主要内容.鉴于
widely used and should accordingly find its place in the大家立场不统一,审查组同意将该项规定列入方括号中. 43.若干位代表认为,应对非正式工作组有关非法贩运活动的定义的案文加以
convention.补充,其方法是.
Furthermore, it was considered that the forfeiture of assets acquired through illicit trafficking had proven to be an effective means of depriving traffickers of the规定组织、经营、资助或协助构成非法贩运活动犯罪行为的各项
gains of, as well as of the means of undertaking anew,活动亦应视为非法厥运罪.因此,有人同意将秘书处原草案案文中的第二句列入 奴部分之中
their criminal activities.44.
The Group endorsed its previous-多数代表团强调,在现有公约中己经下了定义的术语应在新公约中按同样 的意义和含义予以采用,而新的定义绝不应与现行的定义发生矛盾.
tentative decision to insert both the concepts of "pecuniary45 审查组决定在完成对公约草案实质性条款的审议之后便继续审议拟列入第 1条的定义.但事实上,由于时间关系.审查组后来已不可能再回头审查这一条 文. 46,在转入第2条之前,一个代表团提交了一个提案,即提出新增的笫1之二 -12 3 条,标题是“公约的范围”.该代表团表示它愿意避免由于提出这一新提案而造 成在会议上拖长辩论.该代表团只希望将其提出的新条文视为正式提出的条文, 而成为各条文草案的一部分,并将它放在第1条和第2条之间.主席表示,待审 查组一旦完成了其工作任务之后,就可讨论这一新提案. 第2条,新的倒数第2款 47*.穿査组从第2条起开始审查实质性条款.审查组注意到其就第2条所获
sanctions" and "forfeiture" in the new paragraph 2.得的授杈仅限于审议列于方括号中的新的倒数第2款.
61.48. 若干位代表对该款的规定持保留态度,其理由是这将会损害庇护杈和对难 民的保护.
One representative introduced the proposal made by其中一些代表赞成在该款末尾处加上一项保证条款,规定得到国际法
his Government as it appears in paragraph 273 of the承认的庇护权不应受到损害.其他一些代表强调说,庇护权在其宪法及其最高法 院的案例法中得到严格的保护.因此他们认为此款的规定可能会妨碍新公约的遵
working document to the effect that an additional paragraph should be included concerning the provision of other守,所以支持将其删除的意见. 49.关于目前正在审议的款项的位置问题,若干位代表回顾说,过去曽将该款 列入有关引渡的第4条中;他们赞成仍将该款归入原来的位置,因为这样更合乎逻 辑,其他代录则指出,该款与第3、4、5和6条均有关系,分别涉及没收、引
measures either as an alternative to conviction or punishment, or in addition to conviction or punishment, where渡、相互法律协助以及其他合作形式等问题.他们认为,有关政治或财务犯罪行
abusers of drugs have committed one of the offences为的议题丨应分别结合以上名 条进行,因为处理的角度很可能会因有关的合作类型
referred to in paragraph 1. In the same context, several不同而迥异,
representatives pointed to the necessity of having a provision worded along the lines of article 36, subparagraph \(b), of the 1961 Convention so as to safeguard the50.大多数代表赞成保留第2条中的该款.一位代表建议说,鉴于该款阐述
application of those provisions in that instrument as their的是一条一般性原则,因而应将其从第2条中分离出来、单独列为一条, 51-在讨论该款的细节时,一些代表认为,“特别包括第3、4、5和6条规
absence in the new draft Convention might lead to the定的合:作” 一句纯属赘言,可以删去. 。 52-关于列于方括号中的“政治或经济犯罪行为”和《政治性或经济性犯罪行
interpretation that they were no longer applicable.为”这两种说法、普遍的意见是应取第一秭说法.审查组还同意保留“或被视为 出于政治动机” 一句
62. Several representatives suggested that the proposal53.关于该款的第二部分.若干位代表对其与第一部分之间的逻辑关系表示怀 -12 4 疑.他们指出.第<部分所涉及的是政治或经济性犯罪行为,而笫二部分所谈的
should not be restricted to drug abusers but should be却是完全不同的拒绝予以合作的理由.他们认为.这两种观点不应归入一句话之 中,而且,如杲要保留该款的第二部分的话,也应重新起草.若干位代表认为,
applicable as well to other offenders in appropriate cases.更合适的作法是将此类免责条款列入公约的其他部分,例如例入第4条中,以作为 拒绝引渡的理由.一些代表指出,本条款中的问题业已在公约的其他部分中作了
One representative indicated that existing national legislation in that sense had yielded tangible results in his处理,即那些涉及国际法的一般性原则和国家法律的部分.为此目的,他们赞成
country.将其删除.审查组最后决定结合第4条来审查该条款.
63. Several representatives objected to these proposals第2条之二 54.关于第2条之二.两位M认为.《确立其管辖权” 一语,不论出现在本
on the grounds that the purpose of the new draft Convention was to criminalize illicit traffic and not to deal with条任何地方,均应改为“行使其管辖权”字样.几位代表对这一建议表示反对. 他们强调.确立管辖权无疑是本条的主题,是行使管辖杈的前提条件.为支持这 一意见,有人提到另外几项公约在相应的规定中,一律都是使用“确立管辖杈”的 措词.支持修改“确立管辖权”的两位代表之一说,看来这荦涉到翻译问题,
all aspects of drug abuse; the inclusion of such provisions would weaken the substantive content of article 2. It was“确立” 一词在西进牙文的文本中被译成“肯定”.因而便该词的意思不明确 大家同意,西进牙文的译文应作修改. 55 . 一位代表建议在第1款(b)H和第2款(a)㈡内,即涉及国籍湘惯常居留作为
stressed that as far as major traffickers were concerned,管辖权的理由时,应增加《如果在这两种情况下,被指控的犯罪者系在其领土内” 字样,以避免引起管辖权的争执.另一位代表指出.犯罪者所在地点并不影响管
treatment and rehabilitation could only be considered as辖杈的确立.而只影响管辖权的行使. 56 对第1款(b)Q,审查组同意将“确定的”改为“列出的》,认为这样比较
an addition and not as an alternative to conviction or确切 一位代表建议在“目的是想”之后加插“作为一个预备行动,,字样,以使 这句的意思明白无误.审查组决定加进这些字,放在方括号内.
punishment. It was the common understanding of representatives that the special measures that States may wish57 . 一些代表认为.第1款⑶曰的意思不够清楚,对于该项所述的情况,他们 的国家似乎不能确立其管辖杈.他们建议把这一项放在方括号内. 58 . 一位代表建议在第2款(a)㈢内再提及第三种可拒绝引渡的理由,即在
to provide in addition to conviction or punishment, should有可能对该罪犯处以死刑的情况.另一位#提出对该同一建议的另一写法,即 -12 5 不提《死刑”而提“更严厉的刑罚”.一位代表认为在本条内提及这一情况并不 合适,他觉得,这应在国家一级处理,以某一办法使引渡带有条件.即以保证不处 以死刑为条件.另一位代表强调说,以这种附带条件的办法来觯决引渡问题将有 悼于请求国执行其国内法律所规定的刑罚的主杈. 59.与会者就是否应删除第2款问题进行了讨论.一些代表重申,第2款的 M取决于如何最终决定第4条第8款的表达方式.如果拟将上述款项中提及第 2条之二第2款的内容全部删去,则第2款也应予删去.既然迄今为止,涉及第 2之二第2⑶款的拷容在第4条第8款中已被置于方括号中,那么第2 (a)款本身亦 应暂时置于方括号之中.第2 0>)款将涉及是否选择设立管辖杈问题,而且在第4 条第8款中已不再提及因而应予删除. 60.其他一些代表则反对此科意见,其理由是拟在第4条第8款中删除的内容 在逻辑上与第2条之二第2款无关.如果将第2(a)款删除,便会在公约关于设立 管辖杈问题上留下一个漏洞,因为第4条第8款仅涉及行使管辖杈问题尽管第2⑴) 款仅仅就有关选择设立管辖权问题作了规定,但其作用是有益地提醒和鼓励各国釆 M样的行动.因此应予保留.根据讨论结果,决定将整个第2款及其第(a)和㈨ 项置于方括号中. 61.关于第3款,审查组同意将“所行使的任何荆事管辖权”改成“行使任何 设立的刑事管辖杈” 62.审查组决定应将笫2条之二,包括在讨论中提出的各项修正,以及业巳达 成协议的方括号,转交给会议酌情进一步审议. 第3条 63.审查组首先审查修订草案的第3条第4款,由于未能就该款的内容或表达 方式达成一致意见,因此业已将其置于方括号中. 、 64 . 一位代表在介绍其政府建议重新起草的该款案文时解释说,重新修订的第 4(c)款规定被请求国应根据和按照其国内法律或双边或多边协定执行有关没收的请 求.这样一来便会产生各种不同的理解.一种理解是.被请求国需要根据和按照 -12 6 双边或多边协定,或在未与请求国签订此类协议的情况下根据和按照其国内法律, 执行请求国提出的请求.这被认为是不能令人接受的.因为本条第1和2款中设 想的方案仍属于革新性的办法,而且仍停留在拥有类似法律制度和惯例的国家之间 进行试验的阶段.因此,如果作出强制性规定将会造成法律上的困难.并在相当 程度上对某些国家形成限制,从而使之不能加入本新《公约》.在建议重新起萆 的案文中.已据此将“根据和按照其国内法律或双边或多边协定” 一句挪至第4(a) 和㈦款中.有人进一步建议说,应将第4 (a)和㈨中提及有关相互法律协助的部分 删除..揭认为,此部分内容过于含混不清.因为根据经修订的第4款草案,被请 求国一方面需要根据和按照其国内法律或双边或多边协定执行另一締约国提出的请 求,另一方面又需要根据第5条的某些规定执行有关请求.还有人指出,建议重 新起草的第4款案文并未规定缔约国在审议没收请求时必须遵守特定的程序,而且 締约国有权《选择”按照其国内法律制度规定的或“有关条约规定的”程序. 65*为使第4款的规定得到更加广泛的执行,另一位代表建议重新起草第4款 (a)和㈦项,规定在其领土上发现第3条第1款确定的收益、财产、工具或其他物品 的缔约国,应根据请求国就此发布的没收令,或根据请求中有关按照请求国的法律 应予没收的具体说明,对此类物品和财产加以没收,其条件是不违反被请求国的国 内法律所规定的范围命方式.再一项替代办法是,可以根据双边或多边协定执行 此类请求.有人进一步建议说,应删去经修订的第4款(c)项,因为据认为,有关 请求国国内法律的保证条款业已充分地、反映在第9款中,该款规定,本款中所作 的任何规定均不得损害下述原则,即该款中提及的各项措施应按照湘根据締约国国 内法律的规定湘所确定的条件加以确定和执行 鉴于第4 (c激所设想的背景,提 奴边和多边条约被认为没有必要.一位代表强调各締约国之间应締结双边的和 区域性的协定.以便将本条的规定结合实际加以执行. 66*若干位代表表示支持上述第8 5段中建议的对第3条第4(a) — (c)款重新起 、草.特别是删去其中提及第5条的部分:他们认为,根据另一締约国的请求相互协 助执行没收令 应按有关締约国之间达成的协议或根据国家立法进行.有人在支 持重新起草第4(c)款的建议时强调说,应由有关締约国自己来确定应以何为依据来 采取没收行动. -12 7 67.另一方面,若干位代表则认为,提及第5条是必不可少的,因为就某些国 家而言,本公约将构成进行此种形式的国际合作的基础,因而需要以某种方式指明 诸如第5条中特别规定的程序要求.有人进一步表示,由于第5条的规定基本上 适用于所有形式的合作.因而不一定适用于第3条中设想的各项特定措施.而且更 可取的做法是就在此情况下适用的程序作出更加详细的规定. 68 . 一位代表认为,建议重新起草的第4款将会导致各国之间的不平等结果, 因为有些国家可以根据国家立法进行合作.而有些国家则需要根据特定的条约规定 来进行合作就后者而言,至关重要的是.应在第4款的规定中列入某些具体的
be included in provisions distinct from those in paragraph 2 which established the obligation for States to take程序要求.诸如简要地介绍发布没收令的理由等.
into account the grave nature of the offences set forth in69.关于现有和今后条约与本条之间的关系,有人建议说,根据第5条中采取 的立场.只要其他条约中的相应规定属于具体性质的规定.则应优先使用这些规定
paragraph 1 in setting applicable sanctions.而不是使用本条款的规定 70 若干位代表强调说.应将有关在没收方面进行合作的规定确定为强制性义
64. Following informal consultations, the Group proposed two additional, distinct subparagraphs covering respectively special measures that, irrespective of the nature务;他们认为,建议的第4(c)款规定締约国“可以选择”根据国家立法或双边或多 边条约来执行没收令,这将会产生相反的效杲,因为这样一来締约国便可以随意执 行有关的措施. 71. 一位代表表示,应根据第1(a)款的规定来审议第4(c)款的规定.以便澄清
and seriousness of the offence, may be applied to offenders, in addition to conviction or punishment, and special各締约国在执行本项的规定时拟采用的程序机制.有人表示.只要締约国无法按
measures applicable in appropriate cases of a minor nature照第1⑷款的规定在国家一级执行没收令.那么执行第4款中的规定也将是十分困
as alternative to conviction or punishment, including some难的.
measures specifically applicable when the offender is a72 . 一位代表重申他在麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议上提出的建议,即把
drug abuser. It was indicated that the measures mentionedConfiscatio n (没收)一词改为forfeiture (没收),因为在其国内立法
were only indicative of those which States may provide.中,forfeiture是审判定罪后的最终步骤,而Confiscation则是收缴后的
65.一个步輟,不表明该收益或财产的最终去向.
Commenting on paragraph 3 of article 2 in the original draft, several representatives observed that whereas in
common law countries the determination of aggravating73 . 一位代表建议列入这样一条:每一締约国在它根据另一缔约囤的请求行动
circumstances was within the purview of the courts, in时,应提交联合国秘书长一份通知,表明究竟将采取第4款(a)项中的哪一种办法, -12 8 即其中规定的第㈠点或是第㈡点。
countries with civil law tradition the courts, while competent to apply extenuating circumstances, could not pronounce aggravating circumstances without legislative74.在审议笫3条笫6款时,审查组集中讨论修订萆案中放在方括号内的词,
authority.即“财产” 一词以及选择“应”或“可”,以确定该规定是强制性质或是自选性质。
66. One representative suggested that the nature of the75.关于“收益”和“财产”这两个词,有人指出,这两个词的定义至今未有 定也 几位代表认为“财产》的含义比《收益”全面一些,主张保留“财产” 一 另一些代表认为,在述及所得利益的段落的第二句内,应保留“收益” 一词, 因不需要对本规定的范围作出限制。一些代表谈到第3条第1款内列出了收益、 材料湘设蚤和其他工具都应加以没收。他们认为也应把设备和工具列入第6款的 范围内。 76 . 一位代表谈到,他想对第1条的定义提出一项建议,以便澄清财产和收益 的含义。财产是个概括性字跟,它可包括第1款所述及的所有各种财产。这将 解除有些人表示的关注,即还要在第6款所述的范围内加进工具和设备等。应把 收益命工具理解为不同类别的尉产,是从非法贩运得来的或用于非法贩运的财产。 77.为清楚区别第3条中颊定的而在第6款内适用的不同措施的选择,一位代 表指出,应当记住,该款涉及三种不同的情况:一是混合在一起的财产,即非法贩 运的收益已与从其他来源(合法的或非法的)得来的财产混在一起二是已变换的 財产;三是从非法收益或财产得来的利益。对于与合法得来的财产混在一起的收 益,作为一项临时措施,也许可设想加以收缴,而在这样情况下,要加以没收将会 发生困难。 78.对于“应”和“可”的选择,一些代表主张该款全部采用任逸式语气,因 考虑到该问题复杂性和创新也其他一些代表则表示主张用强制性措词,保靜‘应, 字。他们强调,Al非法贩运的收益,如果不是鄉的话,至少多数是与其他财 产混在二起的或转换了的财产,以避免被执法机构查出来。因此,若写成任选式
obligation placed on States Parties by paragraph 3 should裁定,将削弱整个第3条的劳力。
be made clear by stating that the circumstances of aggravation may be treated as matters relevant to the sentence79.某些代表主张该款的第一句用强锎性措词,但他们对涉及所得利益的第二 句则主张采取慎重态息 有人指出,那些利益同非法收益或财产之间的联系也许 -12 9 是间接的,很难加以确定,例如从混在一起的财产得来的利益就是如此。因此,
to be imposed on a person and need not be regarded as一些代表认为第二句必须是任选性的。另一些代表建议把“得来的” 一词改为 “查明确是从......得来的”以强调需有无可争辩的证据。还有些代表认为,关于
additional elements of the offences enumerated in paragraph 1.需要证据的关注是没有道理的,因为关于反过来的举证责任的第3条第7款就是专 门涉及第6款的证据问题的。
67.80.
As regards the qualifying words "where possible"作为强制性措词和选择性措词的折中,一位代表建议,可在该款的末尾加 一个关于国内法律的保障性从句。有人指出,在笫3条第8、9两款内已经附有
used in the introductory sentence, several representatives对整个条文的保障性从句。 81 . —位代表说,他不清楚第9款是否可解释为涉及性质较轻的犯罪,因此他
proposed their deletion to make the provisions of the建议增加一个第6款之二,规定尽管有笫3条前面各款,各締约国仍可对性质较轻 的某些案件免于采取此种措I 几位代表指出,这一规定也可认为已包括在笫2
paragraph more binding on Parties. Some other representatives were in favour of making the paragraph less rigid条的保障条款的解释内。
by inserting as an additional clause the words "where82.有些代表提出了应绐本条拟定一个錢标题的问题。对此,一个建议是, 本条的标题为“安全措施和没收”。
desirable" after the words "where possible".83.
It was suggested that a solution might consist in introducing an审查组注意到有关第3条的非正式工作组进一步审议第4款和笫6款的结
appropriate limitation clause at the beginning of the sentence.果,并决定将所达成的新案文并入拟提交给全权代表会议的本条重新起草的案文。
68. Following informal consultations, the Group considered and approved a revised formulation of the introductory sentence which instead of referring to "aggravating第4条 ‘
circumstances" spoke of "factual circumstances which84.对于第4条,有的代表提请注意,麻醉药品委员会委托给审査组的任务是 对该条进行[步审议;而且指出.,关于管辖权的第2条之二,也是提交审查组进
may make the commission of the offences set forth in paragraph 1 particularly serious", specifying that Parties一步审议的,应和笫4条结合起来加以审议。 85:关于笫1款,一位代表认为,使用“按......确定的” 一语并不适当,最好 改用“所列的”一词。另一位代表表示反对,认为这样一改,该款的意义即受到
shall ensure that their courts can take such circumstances影响,不能被接受,因各締约国并无义务把第2条第1款所列的所有fe为确定为鲑 犯本国刑法的犯罪行为。
into account.86 . 一位代表指出,从笫1相第5款的规定中看不清笫4条中的罪行应由被请
69. There was some discussion in the Group as to求国或请求国或由两者确定。为了处理双重犯罪行为的问题,审查组相应决定在 -13 0 第1款中表明,笫4条应适用于“由締约国”根据本《公约》第2条笫1款所确定
whether the paragraph should contain a list of the factual的罪行。一位代表建议在“締约国” 一词之前增加“有关” 二字。审查组同意 将增加的这一词放在方括号内。
circumstances that could be taken into account by the87.关于第3款,大家讨论了方括号内的《应”和“可”两个词的选择。.一 些代表指出,如选用强制性措词,此规定.将与本国的宪法或法律制度不一致,不令
courts. One opinion was that such a list, which necessarily莸得其本国立法机构的接受。有的代表提请参考1 9 6 1年《麻醉品单一公约》 第3 6条,该条中一项类似的颊定是采取选择性措词。另几位代表强调必须确保
could be neither exhaustive nor mandatory, was not advisable. Another view was that it could serve a useful illustrative purpose provided it was kept within reasonable公约的有梦性,而且认为,以订有一项条约为引渡条件的本公约締约国,当接到与
limits.d订有引渡条约的締约国的引渡请求时,有义务把本公约视作办理引渡的法律依
70.据o 88 .
The Group agreed to include, as proposed by two一位代表指出,无论如何,第3款的措词应保证那些国家同不须以条约为
experts, two additional circumstances that could be taken根据的国家的平等地位,但后者可应用其本国法律作为引渡的根据,同时,依照第 4款,它们仍有义务将公约规定的与麻醉品有关的犯罪行为看作是可允许引渡的犯
into account by courts. The first one, which had already罪行为。该代表又指出,归根结底,采用“应”或“可”并无实际的区别,因为 即使将此条款写成强劁性形式,也并不造成引渡义务,只不过是将本公约视为引渡
been endorsed at the earlier meeting, would cover the的依据的义务。他对笫3款的法律含义的这一分析,另一些代表表示赞同。一 位代表说,某些国家须有具体的引渡条约为依据,不能把本公约看作是引渡的法律
involvement of the offender in other international organized criminal activities. The other, the purpose of which依据。
was to take into account the combination of drug offences89.根据讨论的情况,审查组决定,第3款中的强制性措词和选择性措词都保 留下来,放在方括号内。
with economic offences, would refer to the involvement of90.有人提出一项修正第5款的提案,以说明,“除了本条已规定的情况外”, 引渡应服从被请求国的法律或适用的引渡条约所规定的条件,“包括被请求国可能
the offender in other illegal activities facilitated by the拒绝引渡的理由在内,,。审查组同意这一提案,条件是把开头的例外条款置于方 括号内。因为一些代表认为,目前由于对本条的所有规定都未达成协议,所以其 影响在本阶段还不能预£o 91.关于第6款,有代表指出,对该款规定,审查组巳仔细作了研究,暂时放 在方括号内,作为笫2条新增的最后第2款。现在的问题是,审查组应考虑,这 一规定仍放在第2条内,还有把它放在第4条。 -13 1 92 . 一些代表重申,鉴于他们本国的宪法、资律和司法方面的要求,他们对这 一款的规定表示保留,因本国法律不允许对政府犯罪加以引渡;他们的意见是,该 款应予删除。 93 . 一塾代表认为,这种反对意见来自对条文的理解问题。在他们看来,该 款既不构成对政治犯罪不予引渡原则的例外,也不构成对寻求庇护的枳利的威胁或 违反个人的人权。该款的主要精神是保证各締约国以诚意办事,不把笫2条第I 款所列的罪行理解为政治罪或财经罪。有的代表还提到,在例如《种族灭绝公约》 和关于释怖丰义或劫持行为的国际公约中,都把政治犯罪的情况排除在外。在此 情况下,一些代表建议,这一规定应写成一个简单的、直截了当的句子,即第2条 第1款所列罪行不得看作是政治罪或财经罪。 94.根据讨论情况,审研组决定删除第4条第6款,并用一项栽定代替第2条 新的倒数第2款,它规定,为了各缔约国根据本《公约》进行合作,特别是根据第 3、4、5和6条进行合作,根据本条所确定的罪行不应被认为是政治罪或经济罪, 或被认为出于政治动机。 95.为了处理其宪法上与其国内法基本原则有困难和问题的国家的保留意见, 审查组决定在第2条新的倒数第二款的末尾列入一项规定,大意是本规定的实施不 应妨碍締约国的宪法限劁及其国内法的基本原则。审查组还同意,本公约不应影 响根据国际法享有避难权。对此,一位代表提出了具体的案文,由于对上述规定 的内容没有达到协商一致意见,所以将它们置于方括号内。 96. “经济的” 一词被置入方括号中,因为一些代表i)、为,关于拒绝引渡的理 由,不应把经济犯罪与政治性犯罪同等看待。一位代表说,在引渡条约中,通常 只有政治罪,而不是经济罪可被看作是不可引渡的罪行。对于将经济罪视为不 可引渡罪行的意见,国际上尚无定论,因此不能接受,因为它会不适当地削弱新的 公约。二位代表提议删除对经济罪的提及。一位储特别强调了保留有关经济 罪的论述的必要性,因为根据他的政府经验,在引渡和相互法律协助头面的猨助曾 因借口罪行是违反了经济法或海关法而遛拒绝。 97. 一位代表认为,笫2条新的倒数笫2款提及笫4条是多余的,由于有了第 5款的经修正的规定,应将它删除。 -13 2 98. 一些代表表示,如果第2条经修正的新的倒数第二款不能得到保留,应考
commission of the offence. As regards two factual circumstances already listed in the original draft under subparagraphs (c) and (d), the Group agreed to specify that in the 16 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances虑在第4条中列入一个类似的规定。
case where the offender held a public office, the offence99.关于第7款(在删去修订草案的第6款后,此款又绡为第6款),两位代 为应无 排除以国籍为理由对引渡的拒绝。所以,他们赞成删除载入修订
had to be connected with that office, and to add the use草案的例外条款。 100.许多其他代表相反表示,不引渡在其国家受到宪法和立法承认和保护的本
of minors to the victimization of minors.国公民是国际刑事法的一个根本原则。鉴于这种国内的司法限制,应谢除第7款。
71.101.
Several representatives proposed that paragraph 4 be大多数赞成删除的代表同意保留该款条件是列入修订萆案中所拟 定的保障条款。这科保障条款不仅应提及宪法,还应提及締约国的国内法。一
deleted as its purpose was not clear and, in the view of位代表要求还应提及国内基本法和国内司法制度。 102. —位代表指出,虽然他的国家允许引渡本国人,他仍然支持删除这一规定。
some of them, amounted to a violation of the principle他认为,由于大多数其他囤家对引渡本国公民都有司法障碍,所以该条款因为缺乏 相互性实际上已不能实歉这一意见得到了一些其他代表的赞同。
non bis in idem.103.
A proposal to introduce a limitation一位代表认为,只应保留指出协助引渡的义务的第一句。提及国内宪法 或司法限制的一个保障条款应作为第一句。
clause in line with that of article 36, paragraph 2, of the104. 一位代表在其他一些代表的支持下提议在笫7款的结尾处加入一个新的句 子,以包括各国享有酌情准许引渡本国公民的权力。根据提议的频定,各締约国
1961 Convention in order to make the provisions generally acceptable was not agreed upon.应努力确保行使这一权力。有人指出,该条款的其他规定没有涉及存在酌情处理 的权力,所以鼓励在这种情况下准许引渡是有益的。 105.
It was pointed out一位代表回顾指出,在第7和第1 0款之间建立联系的想法出自于修订案
that the introduction of a limitation clause would make the文的最新文束 在引渡本国公民问题上存在司法障碍的国家在接受第7款方面迈 出了一步。引渡受到诸如初步证据的要求等严格的证据条件限制的其他国家已同
paragraph inoperative.意尽力减少第10款提出的这些要札 因此两个条款反映了双方作出的平衡努力。 删除第7款可能会打乱这一平衡。 106.
One representative, citing the experience of his Government, indicated that the corresponding审查组决定保留第7款(已改作第6款),并插入在讨论过程中所提出的
provision in the 1961 Convention had proved unworkable.孙充,同时把有关不可调和的意见分歧的方面置入方括号。为了反映第7和第10 款中的联系,审查组决定作一个结构改动,把第1 0款移到前面,把它紧接着放在
The Group agreed to delete the paragraph.第7款(巳改为笫6款)之后。 -13 3 107.审查组在讨论第8款时努力简化修订文本,并找出在以前的讨论中未能达
72.成协议的主要问题。人们提出了一些提案,以使该条款的措辞更加准确明了。 108.
Several representatives pointed to the difficulties on审查组从语言学的角度出发,同意有关第8⑶款的一项建议,即用“耍求
both legal and practical grounds to which the application引渡的締约国的请求”,以避免在请求国问题上产生舍糊不清之处。 109. 一位代表建议说,应将第8(b)款中的“类似性质的犯罪行为”改成“同类
of paragraph 5 might give rise. It was noted in particular性质的犯罪行为”,以避免在理解不同犯罪行为之间的相似之处中产生误解。他 就此强调他的意见说,应৿对麻醉药品贩运者所犯罪行的严重程度来量刑,并至少
that certain legal systems did not include the concept of处于2或3年监禁。另一项建议要求将“拥有管辖权” 一辞改成“可以行使管辖
recidivism. The Group agreed to the proposal by several.
representatives to delete the paragraph and mention instead, in paragraph 3, prior convictions, whether foreign权”,因为管辖权的行使可以受到若干辨因素的限制,诸如外交豁免、避免双重审 理或时效等。 110. —位代表提请注意“如果不将其引渡给另一締约国”中的另一缔约国一辞
or domestic, among the factual circumstances that could所具有的重要意义。他认为,此项规定仅应适用于本公约的締约国之间拒绝予以 引渡的情形。
be taken into account by the courts in sentencing for the111.在其领土内发现犯罪者的缔约国应“应请求国的请求”采取行动这一条件 遭到若干位代表的强烈反对。其中一些代表认为,这一条件与国家主权不符;进
offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of the article. 73. Several representatives drew attention to the substantive connection between the provisions of paragraph 6 and those of article 4, paragraphs 6 and 7 which also dealt行起诉的杈利不应取决于是否有人提出请to 作为对此项反对意见的答复,有人
with cases in which a Party was requested to assume jurisdiction. The Group came to the conclusion that a separate指出,有关请求的条件仅涉及根据本公约提交有关案件进行起诉的国际义务;这一
article dealing specifically with jurisdictional issues would要求绝不会影响到按照国内法律进行起诉的杈利和义务。为了进一步澄清这一点,
be more appropriate and decided to work out such an有人提及第二条第3款之二中的规定,即本公约并不排除按照国内法律行使任何刑 事管辖权。一位代表建议,应将此项规定列入第8款中,以便避免就此问题产生
article.任何误解。
74.112.
In discussing paragraph 7, the Group observed that其他一些代表反对提出请求的条件,其理由是进行起诉的国际义务应为无 条件并在任何情况下属于强制性的。如果引渡被拒绝,他们认为,便应根据或引
its provisions dealt with two distinct concepts, namely渡或审麪原则自动提交有关案件进行起诉。有人就此提及若干项公_的规定,诸
early release and parole, on the one hand, and the statute如《1 9 7 1年蒙特利尔公约》第7条和《1 9 8 8年镇压危害航海安全的不法行
of limitations, on the other. It was therefore considered为公约》第1 0条,他们指出,这些公约的有关款项规定一旦引渡被拒绝便应有义 务提交有关案件进行起诉,而没有提及请求国的请求问题。还有人逬一步指出,
more appropriate to dissociate those provisions and break如遇危害人类罪通常可以普遍行使管辖权,而且对《基多宣言》的签署囝而言,非 -13 4 法贩运麻醉药品的犯罪行为即属于危害人类罪。
them into separate paragraphs.113.若干位赞同保留此项条件的代表表示,他们不同意৿对有关非法贩运麻醉
75. As regards early release or parole, some representatives drew attention to the difficulties they had with the药品的犯罪行为行使普遍管辖权。一些代表逬一步概述了保留请求条件的实际好 处。在某些情形下,如果引渡时遇到障碍,被请求圔和请求国均可以选择避免起 诉而等待引渡的条件成熟后再采取行动的做法。
provision as drafted.114.
It was pointed out in particular that在讨论过程中,一位代表似乎认为实际上可以删除笫4条笫8款中所有涉 及第2条之二的内象他认为,不论其理由如何,唯一有意义的一点是缔约国是
it did not seem appropriate to require that the releasing否拥有管辖_没有理由将涉及管辖权的案件限制为第2条之二所规定的案件。应 将第8(a)C=激删去。第8款的规定本来可以十分清楚明确,但由于不断提及第2
authority should defer a release because it related to an条之二,因此读来显得十分复杂。这一修正案还将涉及笫2条之二的第2款,因 为该款也不再有任何必要。许多代表对此项建议表示赞同。 115.但另一位代表指出,如果将这些内容以及第2条之二第2款一并删除,将 会损害第8条的逻辑也一旦将涉及第2条之二的内容删除,则行使管辖杈的唯 一理由便将为締约国的国内法橡一些国家对其在国外犯有罪行的国民没有域外 管辖fe因此这些国家将放弃进行起诉的义务,而其他国家由于在其国内法律中规 定了此利管辖权,因此将有义务进行起诉。这样一来,各締约国共同承担义务的 互惠性便会消失。另一位代表支持对建议的删除所产生的影响进行的分析。这 些代表之一要求保留第8 中适i提及第2条之二的内容 116. —些代表就该款第一句中“在不损害行使其他任何管辖杈的情况下”的措 辞发表了意见。有人就有关删除所有涉及第2条之二的建议指出,不应蒯除这些 措势因为此外没有提及行使管辖权的其他任何特定理由,所以不再有必要在提 夂其他任何管辖杈”。但一些代表赞成保留第一句中的这些措辞。一位反对删 除所脊涉及第2条之二的内容的代表认为,可以在句首中重新提及第2条之二,其 措辞方式如下:“在不损害各締约国根据第2条之二或其国内法律的情况下。»提 及国内法律的内容也将照顾到有关保证各国有进行起诉的主权问题。“ 117.审查组同意根据讨论中提出的各项建议确定第8款的措辞,并酌情将其置 于方括号中,以便表明未能形成一致意见的特别点。 118.关于第9款,一位代表认为,该款与其国家宪法不符,因而应予删除。审 -13 5 查组同意一项建议,即只要不能就置于方括号中的第7款(新编第6款)的命运作 出决定,就应将第9款中提及笫7款的内容删去,而代之以第7款内容的大意。 119.—位代表赞成将第1 2(L1)款中的“应考虑”改成“可考虑”,因为他的 国家不能同意移交被判刑者。若干位代表指出,有关考虑缔结协定的义务本来就 是以很弱的措辞加以规定的,因此如果再将其改成选择性的措辞,便会失去任何意 义。鉴于未能就此项问题达成协议,审查组决定将上述两种措辞同时置于方括号 中。 笫5条 120.在开始审议第5条之前,审查组听取了一位代表的发言,他陈述了本国政 府关于就公约的范围增列新的第1条之二的建议。该建议的新条文主要参照该国 政府与别国订立的现已生效的条约的内容,强调各国法律和主权的平等,不干涉内 政的原则,和尊重各该締约国的杈限和领土管辖权。应在公约内明确指出,公约 条款的执行将服从本国的法律和条例,而且不应损害各締约国的安全、公共政策或 其他根本利& 121.审查组对第5条的讨论主要依据麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会议报告所附 的经修订的该条草案,同时也考虑到由苘国政府提出的对整条条文的修改和由一国 政府提出的对某些款的修正。 122.几位代表强调一开始就确定该条范围的重要性,并建议其中名激应具体规 定相互的法律协助,以便使它与第6条规定的行政性质的协助和其他合作形式明确 区 ^ ^ o 关于这一点, 最重要的是在本条的标题中加上的”字样。一 位代表^为,第5条的内容超出了严格意义上的法律协劫的范围,因而应修改其标 题,以便包括转移刑事程序的意义在内;或者把有关转移刑事程序的规定移出去, 专门拟订一条关于这问题的新条文。审查组同意第5条的标题应为“相互法律协 助” o
offence covered under paragraph 1.123.
After further discussion, the Group however retained the wording as it appeared in the original draft.关于第1款,几位代表表示赞成所提出的重拟萆案,他们觉得该草案写得
76.更清楚、更简练和更肯定。初始的修订草案的第1款内的保障条款应尽可能分别 -13 6 移到本条的各有关款内。 124.
With respect to the statute of limitations, some representatives argued in favour of the deletion of the relevant provision on the grounds that the idea of introducing另几位代表强调必须保留第1款引言句内的保障条款,以便明确本条各款 在执行中必须适当考虑到各缔约国的宪法、法律和行政制度以及有关的条约或安排。
a special prescription for a particular category of offences普遍一致的看法是,第5条各项规定的执行必须服从被请求国的国家法律。 125.关于双重犯罪,几位代表表示,这一要求不应适用于第5条频定的相互法
was not compatible with their respective legal systems.律协助的所有情札有的代表认为,关于双重犯罪,应结合本条其他各款的保障
Some other representatives supported the inclusion of such条款来审议,或者列入第1 1款内,作为拒绝相互法律协助的理由之一。有人提
a provision in the revised form proposed by one expert as请注意到养于在刑事案件中相互协助的欧洲公约第1条第1款的规定,认为对相互 协助而言,只要对该犯罪的惩罚处于请求国的司法当局的管辖范围之内就可以了。
it appeared in paragraph 253 of the working document.另一方面,有的代表觉得应在笫1款内保留双重犯罪的原则,因他们认为这是相互 雜协助的一个先决感
The Group reached agreement on the new formulation which made it clear, with the insertion of the clause126. —些代表认为,第1款的规定应表明,各締约国应“根据请求”相互提供
"where appropriate", that Parties should endeavour to协助;另一些代表则认为只要写明应《遵照本条规定”提供此秭协助就可以了。 127.签于意见不一致,审查组决定交由一个非正式工作组进一步草拟第1款。
establish adequate provisions governing the statute of128.非正式工作组同意不在第1款内加入一保障条款,并在其中写明,各締约
limitations applicable to the offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of article 2 when existing provisions were not国应遵照本条规定,对于按照第2条第1款确定的任何刑事犯罪的调查、起诉和司
deemed sufficient for the effective implementation of the法程序,相互提供最大程度的相互法律协助。大家还同意加入一项含有不同的保 障条款的新的第2款。因对应保留何者,达不成一致意见,因此将这些措词放在
measures contemplated in that article.方括号内。整个第2款也放在方括号内。
77. Some representatives considered that the provisions of paragraph 8 were somewhat out of place in the draft Convention and that, in any case, they would fit better under article 5 dealing with judicial assistance.129.
Several非正式工作组同意增列一个可以拒绝相互法律协助的理由,即凡被请求国
representatives expressed the view that, given the gravity当局受其国内法禁止,不能对在其领土内已犯的同一犯罪行为,执行所提出的请求
of the offences specified in paragraph 1, the possibility of的情礼 130;另一增补的可拒绝相互法律协助的理由是,执行该请求将会违反被请求国 的宪法、基本法律原则或法依但是,因为对于加进这些拒绝协助,理由,达不
bail should not be considered.成一致意见,这些措词都放在方括号内。 131.
Some other representatives大家一致同意,应按照被请求国的国内法律执行有关请求,而且在不违反
stressed that the setting of bail was a matter for the independent decision of the courts. It was therefore proposed被请求国法律的限度内,尽量按照请求书上写明的要求执行。
that the second sentence of paragraph 8 be deleted.132.
The审查组同意删去经修订的第5条笫2款草案,因为其频定尽管属于劝告性 -13 7 质,但仍被认为是多余的。
Group agreed to the deletion of that sentence.133.若干位代表说,应以灵活的方式拟定第3款的引导句,以便避免使之成为
78. The Group considered a rewording of the first sentence of paragraph 8 proposed by one representative, as it强制性的;因此,应将“应”改成“可以”。此外,所列出的清单不应意味着衮 括全部手段,而是应仅仅指明各缔约国可以使用的某些有关的方式方法。其他一 些代表则认为,为了以某种方式介绍可以预计从締约国获得何种形式的协助,应将
appeared in paragraph 262 of the working document, to第3款親定为强制性的,因此他们更赞成使用“应” 一字。作为另一项替代办法, 有人建议说,第3款可以包括两套清单,分别处理属于强制性的协助方式和属于由
the effect of limiting the scope of the obligation of each缔约国酌情决定的协助方式。若干位其他代表认为,该引导句仅应指出相互协助 * - . ‘将包括其后的各项中,而不涉及该款的规定应为选择性的还是强制性的。
Party to ensuring that a person charged with or convicted134.为了反映出该清单并不拟囊括全部手段,从而扩大各缔约国希望设想的协 助范围,审查组同意列入一个新的款项3大意是各缔约国可以在被请求国的国内法
of an offence specified in paragraph 1 of article 2 is律允许的情况下彼此提供任何其他形式的相互法律协助。
present at the necessary proceedings to instances where135.若干位代射人为,第3 (a激的措词过于合混不清;“取证”的说法尤其可 能被误1 他们认为,应重新起草该项规定,从而清楚地表明这是关于拟作为证
the person is found within its territory. The Group approved the new formulation without enumerating the proceedings in question but specifying that they were of a明目的而取得的证词。审查组同意将此项规定提交给非正式工作组重新审议。
criminal nature.13 6 审查组同意保留修订草案中分别关于送达司法文件命 搜查及收缴之铅 麵笫3款的(b饰(c)项。
79.137.
Several representatives proposed the insertion of an—些代綠为,第3款(d)项应该删去,因为“现场,,湘“物品,,的措辦 縱清。还有人指出,诸如此类的规定在现有的公约中也是不同寻常的, 此外第
additional paragraph in article 2 drafted along the lines of3款⑷项已包括了这一点。其他一些代絲为,这一项椒彳对再现在它国领il 犯下的罪行命澄清从对证人提问中所得的证据是一秭司法互助的有益形於为了 使这一规定更加具体化,人il提议应对它加以修正,以便将这一规定的实施局限于 与第2 _ 条第I款确定的犯華行为有关的物品和现诼 138 .审查组同意彌除第3款⑷项,因为它与第3款中包括的其他辑助形式有重 复。 139 —些代«示,如果要保留第3款(f)项的规定,它们就必须受到一项保障条 款的约束,因为某些囤家的法律禁止某些类别的物品出惑 4代表提议用“提 供”取代“交换” 一词,并具体说明这一援助形式是为对第2条第I款中的罪行进 -13 8 行起诉的目的服务的,审査组决定把这一规定煶交非正式工作组作进一步审议《 140. 一位代表提议对3款fe颅进行修正,从而使它符合他准备在第3条笫3款 中提出的要求和条件。 141 . 一些代表主張删除第3款㈨顼中的“冻结和收缘“的措辞,因为与规定为 了达到没收目的进行国际合作的第3条所不同的是,这一规定有着协助调查或起诉 的有限目但是,4代表认为应保留这些措辞,因为它对调查或起诉都是必 要的,以确保此类收益不_散。 142.第3款颅因为其实质已纳入一个新的条款(见上文第1 3 4段)而被删 除o 143. 一位代表提议第3款CJ)应明确表明,应征得被要求协助调查或参与起诉的 AM的同意才能这样傲。相反有人提议,为了同时包括无需征得同意的情况,应 对额般加以修正,以表明这一条只适用于准备提供这科协助的Ap 144.审查M非正式讨论后决定删除修#案中的第3款(j)项和第4款0:御(0 项的拟议的修订案文,并在一项单独的款项中列入一项规定,其大意是締约国在得 到请求时应在符合国家法律和惯例的情况下方便或鼓励包括受拘禁者在内的同意或 准备协勘调查或参与起诉的人员的到场或提供。“同意”湘“准备”这两个措辞 被列入方括号中,因为未就应保留哪一个词语达成一致意见。一位代表宣布,在
paragraph 4 of article 36 of the 1961 Convention. In适当的时侯,他将提议在《公约》的另一部分中插入有关为作证目的而过境的受拘
support of such a paragraph, it was explained that the禁者的安全通行。 145.审查组决定在一个单独的条款中列入第4款fe颅的拟议的修订案文,大意
objective was not to introduce a limitation clause covering是当为了正确判刑而考虑移交对本《公约》第2条第1款所列犯罪行为的刑事诉讼 时,洛待约国应积极考虑这科移交的可能性。(见下文第183 —186段)
all the provisions of article 2, but to indicate that the146.审查组决定把载入词个条文的拟议的修订草案中的相应决定作为对第5款 进行讨论的基础,因为人们认为这些规定的语言更为清晰灵活。根据修订草案,
procedural modalities for the execution of the obligation如果有关的当事方未缔结司法互助的条约,第5条中有关主管当局的指定、请求的 语言、请求所包含的情况、执行的方式和拒绝的理由等事宜的款项都应适用于根据
imposed on the Parties under paragraph 1 would be within本条所提出的请私 如果这些当事方受一项条约的约束,该顼条约的程序性规定
the purview of their respective domestic law. On the other应适用于这一请求,除非当事方决定采用第5条的上述条款,以代替条约的程序性 -13 9 规定。
hand, some representatives held the view that the proposed new paragraph was superfluous and would introduce an element of ambiguity in the article.147 . —些代表认为,第5款应明确表明《公约》并不凌驾于现有的司法互助条 约。在此方面,有人提议,应按照《欧洲刑事问题互助公约》第2 6条第2款的 精神作出一项规定,:现定第5条的规定不影响在包括或可能包含有关某个领域中互
80. Several representatives objected to the use of the助的具体结果的条款的任何其他双边或多边国际公约条款下所承担的义务。一位 代奈认为最好有一个更为灵活的案文,并提议插入按照《1 9 7 1年蒙特利尔公约》
term "defined" as it could lead to divergent interpretations in the different languages and preferred the term(镇压危害民用航空安全的不法行为公约)第11条的精神拟定的一个新的规定,
"described".以表明第5条的规定不影响在完全或部分与刑事案件中的互助有关的其他任何双边
81. In the light of the discussion, and taking into account the various suggestions, the Group agreed on the或多边条约卞所承担的义务》
formulation of the additional paragraph to be inserted in article 2.148. 一位代表表示,只有当其他司法互助条约的规定比新《公约》的规定更可 取时,那些规定才能MM本条的般。
82.149.
One representative proposed the inclusion of a provision drafted along the lines of article 37 of the 1961一些代衰对拟议的修订草案中提及的该条的各个款顼是否可以适用于根据 第5条跅提出的请求表示保留。一位代表认为,第5款的规定应适用于整个条文, 而不是仅适用于所说的款项。
Convention concerning the seizure and confiscation of150.若干位代表认为,般程序性规定具有限制性,因此建议将‘‘程序性”一 词删去。鉴于若干位其他代表认为应予保留,审查组同意将该词置于方括号之中。
drugs, substances and equipment used in the illicit traffic151.审查组同意倒去“根据请求,,一辞以便使该项规定具有广泛的适周范围。 152.关于列于方括号中的有关指定某一当局执行相互协助请求规定的修订案文,
and, referring to the proposal of his Government in paragraph 272 of the working document, further proposed a—位代衰认为,如若此项规定为强制性的,则这可能会损害现有的互助网各 其 他條则认为,恰恰相反,这将被证明为是十分有益的,因为此项规定将会使人清 楚地了解应向何处发出请私
consequential paragraph concerning the destruction of153. 一些代表指出,指定一个单一的当局不能圆满地 联邦国家或合众国所 遇到朗句题,因为有关刑事诉讼的相互协助从属于不同的司法管辖范围。应规定
narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances which have设立一个以上当局的可能如果不能明确地作出此类规定的话,那至少也应达 成一項谅係,即在使用“当局” 一词的单数形式时亦不将之理解为#除上述可能性《
been seized in the illicit traffic.154.
The Group agreed to take在答复同一问题时,另一位代表建议说,应提及指定的当局可以委诚代理 人。但有人认为,在各种司法管辖杈处于平等地位的情况下,委派代理人的概念
up these proposals at an appropriate stage during its consideration of other articles of the draft Convention. Preparatory work 17 Article 2 bis 83. Pursuant to its decision when it considered paragraph 6 of article 2 in the original draft, the Group was是不适当的。一些代表还强调说,有关委派代理人的问题是内部亭宜,因而不应 -14 0 在公约中出孤
presented with a new additional draft article dealing with155.审查组审议了建议的经重新起草的案文,即规定指定的当局可以执行请求, 也可以“将之转犮给有关主管当局执行,,。一些代表认为,指定的当局本身并拥
jurisdictional issues worked out during informal consultations.有执行的能力。若干位其他代表强调亂有执行能力的当局可能会因请求的内容 不同而迥异,因而可以不同于指定的当局。因此,应在本款中提及请求的转交问
84.题。 156.
It was explained that a distinction had been made in关于经重新起草的涉及指定的当局之间相互联系渠道的第6款,若干位代 表赞成通过贼«来转交有关协麵事诉讼的请肊使用外交驗将可以确保
paragraph 1 of the proposed article between the cases请求得以到达有关部门的手中,而且可以保证切实的翻译湘邮送服务方便。 157.其他代表认为,通过外交錢转交的规定将会对合作产生不利的影响。他
where the establishment of jurisdiction was mandatory and们认为,指定当局之间进行直接联系要远为迅捷和有效;有人指出,小国的外交代 表网络常常十分有隄,而且外交渠道并不能在所有区域中正常犮Ͽ其作用。
those where it was optional.158.
It was considered advisable若干位代表认为,有必要在此问题上采取灵活的做法。締约国应有权选 «系渠道》 还有人指出,赞成通过的国家应指定其外交部为主管当局。
to place paragraph 2 in square brackets since the retention159. 針位代应从 《 1 9 6 1年麟药品单一公约》第3 5(e)条中参 考灵活处理的办法。该项规定如果按照正在审议的事项加以调整的话,将可以使
of its provisions, which dealt with the assumption of jurisdiction when extradition was refused was dependent on请求迅捷地转送到指定机构处,而不会损害締约国要求通过M渠道转送的杈利。 160.关于经修订的第7款草案,若^^储反对以口头方式提出请求的可能性; 有人认为,“以口头方式”一辞本身便不够明确。若干位代表表示,以书面形式 提出的请求是标准的做法。但一位观察员指出,《为预防、调查湘打击关稅犯罪
the Group's consideration of article 4 dealing with extradition. One representative recalled in this respect his行为进行相互行政协助国际公约》( 1 9 7 7年内罗毕公约)规定可以以口头方式 提出请求,以便在紧急情况下加速各締约国之间的信息交流。还有人指出,在某 些情况下,特别是当两国之间的其他联系方式十分缓慢时,以口头方式进行联系可
strong reservations regarding the establishment of any以是转€相互法律协助请求的最迅捷方式,因而本《公约》不应排除此科方式的可 能性。
jurisdiction beyond what was presently contained in draft161.若干位代奈表示,若干项公约规定请求必须以被请求国一方的语言提出。 有人指出,如遇使用若干.种正式语言的国家,似宜由这些国家表明应以何科语言提
article 2 bis, paragraph 1. As regards paragraph 3, it was出请礼 为此目的,一位代表强调说,本款应规定締约国应将其要求使用的一种 -14 1 或一种以上的语言通知秘书长。另一位代表提议只能以书面方式提出请私 如
pointed out that it was in line with the standard provision再增加要求以被请求国可接受的语言这一条件,可能产生可以设想的问题,比如被 请求国选定的语言可能是请求国不懂的或不熟知的语言。
to be found in other international instruments.162.审查组审议了有关相互法律协助的请求应包括的资斜和情齓并以此作为
85. The Group approved the additional article on jurisdiction as formulated and agreed to examine the provisions of its paragraph 2 after it would have completed its consideration of article 4.讨论建议新起草的第§款。
86.163.
Two representatives expressed reservations as to关于第8(a)款,建议新起草的案文规定,应在要求相互法律协助的请求中
subparagraph l(&Xiii)> which they considered ambiguous.指明»行与请求有关的调查或诉讼的主管当局的名私一些代表建议,除该有 关当局的名称M,还应具体介绍其职能,以便表明其以何种身份行事。另一位
Article 3代g为,转交请求的当局可能不同于有关的主管当局,因需要加以指明。 164 . 一位代衰建议说,还应舰提起公诉的当局。另Hi代轰对提及进行调 查的主管当局的傲法持保留态度。有人建议,应仅规定指明提出请求的当局的名 称,而将其他顼内容转至第8款(b)项。 165.审查组开始审查建议重新起草的第8款(b)项,该项规定请求书中必须包括 与请求有关的调查或起诉的主题如性质,其中包括对有关事实的简要介绍。审查 组同意应提供起诉的性质,以作为附加的资料。一些代表认为,将此类简要介绍 列入请求书之中不是必不可少的,而且在实际中会成为一科负抵但一位代表根 据其国家的经验认为列入此顼内容:W十分重要的意义 166.审麵同意将第8款的规定驗非正式工作«—步审议。 167.审查组审议了修订草案第5条第1 2款并同意将其列入该条内。 168.关于修订草案的第1 3款,有人认为,该款的第一部分,即締约各国应棂 据它们之间可能订立的任何法律互助条约履行本条规定之义务,应予删除,因此项 规定已经包括在本条第4湘第5款内。审查组同意保留该款的第二部分,即提请 各締约国考虑締结达到此目的并实施本条规定的双边或区域协定的可能& 一位 代表说,重要的问题是,非正式的执法援助不应由于第5条规定的办法而受到无意 的限制,因此他建议在本条内包含有这方面的措辞。 169. 一位代表建议增加下述规定,即摘引自修订草案第5条第4㈦款和《欧洲 互助公约》第1 2条的规定,加进第5条内,作为第I 0款之三: “被传讯回答问题的证人或专家,或被控告而须对其行为作出交代的人被 -14 2 传讯来到请求国当局面前者,不应由于在他离开被请求国领土之前的行为 或判定的罪行而被起诉或拘押或在该締约国境内受到任何对其个人自由的 其他限制。此种豁免权在下述情况下应即停止,即该证人或专家或个人 自司法当局不再需要他出庭之日起连续十五天期间,有机会离开伹仍留在 该囤领土内,或在离开后又返回者。” 170.几位代表对列A ^ —建议条款表示支持,他们认为,这将鼓励证人湘专家 接受当事国关于为司法程序提供协助的请私 171.几位代表对该建议条款的措词表示保留。关于第一句,几位代表 反对使用“被传讯”一词,他们认为,这会使该款与该条的各项规定不连贯,因其 他各款均不规定关于转移诬人或专家的义务。他们强调指出,证明或专家的转移 在任何情况下都应是自愿的,都应得到有关人的同意。审查组同意把‘‘被传讯” 一词去掉,改为“凡同意在请求国作证者”字格 172.对第一句的规定也作了修正,以指明被转移之人在该締约国领土内不得由 于某些行为、“不作为”和“定罪”而受起诉、拘押、“惩罚”,其个人自由也不 受任何其他限制,也不应利用该人达到民事诉讼的目的。 173.几位代表反对在第二句内使用“豁免权” 一词,因他们认为该词只适用于 领事人员湘外交人员。审查组同意将该词改作“安全保障,,。 174.对于i人或专家在司法当局不再需要其出庭后可离开请求厘领土的问题, 审查组同意将该规定修改为:只有在该人“自愿地”继续留在请求厘或“出于自己 意愿又返回”时,此科安全保障即应停止。有人建议将连续十五天的期限改为一 个月。 175 . ~^代轰认为,此项规定不能太详细,执行的办法应由各締约国决定。 176.尽管就该条的总目的达成了一致意见,但由于时间的隈制,MMMl^ 各修正桌的实质性内鈔錢方式进行狄的讨谂 因此审查组同意将该綠于 方括号中,并提交给全权代表会议进一步审议。 177.关于该款在第5条中的位置,若干位代轰衰示希望将该款项放在紧接第3 款之三之后,因为它与该款有着实质性瑕系。其他代表认为应在第5款下新添一 款,并建议将其置于第8和I 3款之间的某个地方。 -14 3 178.未能就该款的位置达成协孔 审査组决定将其作为新的一款列入笫5条 中,然后由全权代表会议就其 作出最终决定。 179. —位代表建议列入新的一款,大意是被请求国应承担执行请求过程中产生 的一殷性费用,而如果在执行请求过程中遇到特殊性质的费用问题,则各締约国便 应通过相互协商来确定应以何.种方式和根据何种条件来执行有关的请恭 他还建 议说,应新添一项规定,大意是应就任何拒绝提供相互法律协助的决定提供理由。 审查组同意将此两项建议同时列入第5条,由全权代表会议进一步审议其内容、表 达方式及其雄 180. 一位代表要求将第5款的第二句;^方括号内,因该句建议限制«法律 互助条约的适用。另一位代表要求说,应将第5款末句,“除非各締约国同意作 为替代实施本条中所列第8至1 3款”,置于方括号中,因为他的政府对此不能接 受。另一位代表建议说,在我到更能令人接受的表述方式之前应将案文第1 1(0 款置于方括号中。一位代轰提议,第1款中“调查”之前的“任何”一词应置入 方括号中并删去本条中进-#提及的‘‘调查”字格另一位代表提议,第9款中 的‘‘和由主管当局”一词应置入方括号中,因为其含义舍糊不清。他认为,该款 中有关主管当局的规定应结合第1 1款(e)项中确定的拒绝司法援助的理由一起考虑o 审查组苘意了这些提案。 181.另一位代表认为,如果不对笫6条第1至第4款作相应的修正,第5条的 现有案文是不可接受的。申了他对第5^3款fe)项的保留意见,他认为 应按照他将对第3条第3憲提出的修正案对(g)项加以修改。 182.关于第5条的整个案文命内容,人们一致认为,在第4条上,审查组尽力 就一个折衷案文达成协议,与此相反,第5条则处于一个过渡阶段,因为时间不允 许审查寧调和人们在一系列问题上的分私也不能就一项确定的案文达成协议。 183.审查组审议了有关列入一项新的第5条的建议,大意是各缔约国应经审议 后同意可能相互移交৿对本公约第2条第1款中列举的犯罪行为提起的刑事诉讼, 只要据认为此种移交有利于案件的正当司法。(见上文第I 4 5段) 184.若干位代表特别认为该项建议的措辞过于含混,因而对其持保留态度。有 人就此建议将“同意”一词删去。一位代表认为,该顼建议与其11宪法不符,而 -14 4 且会损害主払 185. 一位代表对该项规定的表述方式持保留态度,但认为将其列入第5条还是 适宜的,并建议改变其表达方式,以表明各缔约国可酌情相互通报有助于更好地进 行司法的诉讼。另外三位代表对上述意见表示支持。 186.审查组同意将置于方括号中的第5条之二提交给全权代表会议进一步审议。 第6条之二 187. 审查组审议了麻辞药品委员会提交给它的拟议的新增第6条之 188.许多代表表示支持将这一新的条文列入《公约》,以顾及过境国的特珠忧 虑问题,这些过境国中绝大多数是资金有限的发展中国家。他们强调说,对本条 的审议肯定属于审查组的工作任务。 189. —些代表指出,他们认为,拟议的新增条款是多余的,因为其关心问题已 在第6条第5款中得到了充分反晚。其他一些代表支持把拟议的第6条之二作为 单独的4列入《公约》,他们指出,第6条第5款的规定涉及了技术援助的一种 具体形式而第6条之二的规定包括了为有效打击非法贩运而必须开展的国际合作 中的财政命经济援助的其他方面。 190. 一些代表认为,对拟议的条款的实质性内容湘案文的讨论引起了复杂而敏 感的问题,鉴于审查组的时间有隈,它不可能对这些问题作圆满的处理。一些代 表指出,把拟议的新增条款列入《公约》是一独治决皂应由全杈代表会议作出。 191.审查组决定把拟议的条款列入方括号,并提交全杈代表会议最后决钱否 应把它列入《公约》。面位代表对这一决定表示保留;姻n认为/不应对新增条 雑予与已经受到自由参加的政府间专家组、麻辞药品委员会和审查组深入讨论的 《公约i草案其他条款的同样地俗他们认为,应把这一拟议的条款与审查组未 审议的其他提案附在一起提交全杈代表会议。 -14 5 其余条文和有关的菜文草案的审查 192.结合议程项目5,如同上文第1 7段指出的,有些代表对笫6条和第1 2 条犮表了意见 193.对于第6条,一位代表建见为了考虑到有时麻醉品犯罪与经济犯罪结合 在一起,应修正第1款(a)项,以指明国家主管机构之间的信息交流也应包括商业和 经济交易的信息。 194.对于第1 2条,许多代衰重申,对于第3款内,专家组将原来“按联合国 海洋法公约第七部分规定的公海上的”改为“超出领海的外部界线的”字样,其本 国政府表示保留《 他们认为,采用这样的措辞可能意味着,某些第三国可能« 予对专M济区的某些权利,而此种专属经济区在联合国海洋法公约(1 9 8 2年) 中并无规定,因而打乱了沿海国家与第三方国家对专属经济区的权利之间的微妙平 衡。他们iU/,应保留原来由秘书处提出的第1 2条草案的措辞。 195.几位代表要求将他们对第1 2条的解释纪录在案,侧fl认为该条与较合国 麟秘约的规定并不冲突。侧门认为,对于该公约的规定作出麟,超出了审 查组工作任务的范围。有人表示,对第6条和第1 2条的条款的深入讨论不属于 审查组的工作范围,因根据议程项目5,对审查组审查其余条文的要求只是为了作 出必要的修改,使其与公约草案的文字统一起来。一位代表说,对第1 2条的审 « 在审查组工作 ^ t 内的 。 ⑶条款草案 196:审查组注意到欧洲共同体委员会有关修正最后条款草案第1条的建议,大 意是有能力就本公约所涉及的事宜进行谈判、締结和执行国际协定的区域经济一体 化组织 可以成为本公约的締约国,而且本公约中提及的各締约国,国家或国家部门 应酹情适用于这些组织vo 审 同意按此项建议修正最后条款草案第1条的案文。 -14 6 笫四章 全权代表会议的安排 议事规则 197,审查组逐条审议了文件D 25 D / D C I T / 1 0和C o r r . 1 - 3以及 DED/D C IT/ 1 6所载的全权代表会议暂行议事规则萆案o 198、关于规则4,审查组同意用根据麻醉品滥用和非法贩运问题国际会议议事 规则提出的一个提案来取代规则4的头两句句子,该提案的大意是全杈证书委员会 的九名成员应在会议开始时^应以联合国大会第四十三届会议全权证书委 员会的组成为依据。审查组核准了经修正的规则4,但有一项谅解,即如有国家 m,会议应让同一地区组中_他国家取M 199.审查组同意将规则4和5中的“代表” 一词改为“代表团”。 200,审查组同意修正关于主席的一般杈利的规则7第1段第一句,在“把问题 付诸表决并宣布决定”之前,增添“促成一致同意,向总务委员会介绍为达成一致 同意所作的努力”。 201 审查组同意修正规则29,以便指明供会议审议的基本提案将是“麻醉药 品委员会第十届特别会议和审查小组作为其报告一部分提交的”公约条款萆案。 202 , 一位代表要求澄清_ 4 9所规定的起萆委员会的作用。据解释t如同 联合国以往各秭会议,起萆委员会的作用将是编辑性质的,它的主要任务是确保公 约条款草案案文相互间文字上的一致。经一般性讨论,审查组同意保留规则4 9, 但有一麥谅解,即起萆委员'会将不会管实质性事项。审查组还核准了一位代表的 下述提议£即会议主席应在适当时候向会议解释起萆委员会的职能。 203 , 一位代影人为规则5 0应予修正以明确说明每一委员会、小组委员会和工 作组均应各自选举其主席团成员c 在讨论这一问题之后,审查组同意保留原起萆 的该条规则,以不限制会议的特权,但有一项谅解,即应使每个委员会、小组委员 会和工作组都有可能各自选举其主席団成员。 204 若干代表对分别有关会议语文和口译的规则5 5和规则5 6表示关切。他 -14 7 们认为应向会议的所有机构提供联合国六种正式语文的口译和笔译方便。秘书处解 释说,按照会议的射务安排,并由经社理事会核准,将向两个同时举行的会议提供 六种正式语文的口译服务。审查组注意到所涉财务问题,并表示希望为所有各次 正式会议提供会议语文的口译o 205.审查组同意修正规则5 9第一句,以表明全体委员会的会议也应公开举行, 修正规则6 0,以表明总务委员会和起萆委员会的会议通常也应以非公开方式举行。 规则5 9和6 0的题目则相应修改为“全体会议和全体委员会会议”和“其他会议,。 Ht代表在不反对协商一致意见的同时表示,他认为规则5 9和规则6 0还是按原起箪 的为好。.... 206 , 一位代表认为,鉴于会议主题的特殊性和敏感性,关于非公开会议公报的 规则6 1应予改动,以使只有会议主席,而不是有关机构的主席可有权在非公开结 束时向新闻界发表公报。审查组同意这一建议,规则6 1经相应修正a 207‘审查组同意提请全权代表会议通过经修正的暂行议事规则萆案。 扎其他组织事项 208.审查组根据文件D KD/DCIT/ 1 4所载秘书处的说明和文件DKD/ D C工T / 1 3所载会议临时议程萆案,审议了有关会议的组织事项。 20 9 审查组还审议了 ;^干代表非正式协商期间拟订的关于会议工作安排建议 萆案。 210.审查组通过了所提议拟义的建议。代^ 所提议的建议中将 关于《公约》的实质性工作分配给各小组委员会、委员会和全体委员会的方式表示 保留。(审查组通过的各项建议,见上文第一章。) -14 8 1 《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988A3)。 2 同上,第100段。 3 同上,第76段。 4 同上,第79段。 5 同上,第87段。 6 同上,第90段。 7 同上,笫96段。 8 同上,第98段。 9 同上,第99段。 -14 9 禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约萆案修订文本t 序言草案# 各缔约国, 深切关注麻薛药品和精神药物的非法生产、需求及販运的巨大规模和增长趋势, 构成了对人类健康和幸福的一游严重威傲,并对社会的经济,文化及:政治基础带来 了不利鄉, 注意到麻薛品贩运同其他与之有关的、有组织的犯II活动结合在一起,损害着 正当合法的经济,危及各国的稳定、安全和主权, 认识到麻薛品贩运是一秭国际性犯罪活动,需要紧急加以注意并给予高度重视. 意识到麻薛品叛运可获#巨额利润和财富,从而使跨国犯罪集团能够渗透、污 染和腐蚀各级政府组织、合法的商业和金融企1,以及社会各阶层, 希望剝夺寐薛品钣运者从活动中得到的收益,从而消除其从事麻薛品贩 运的主要剌激因素, 认为有必要对一些物质,包括一些前体、 化学品和溶剂,采取监督措兹,因为 这些物质的方便荻取已导致越@多地秘密生产属于《1 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约》、 经由《修正1 9 6 1年麻链品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约,以及 <19 7 1年精神药物公约》规双围丙的麻键药品和精神药物, 注意到经由正常的邮政渠道走私麻薛品的情况有增无已,因而需要增强关于禁 jbm过邮件非法运送麻辞品的现行国际公约, * 作为基本提案提交全权代表会议。 ^由麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会i义提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会
87. The Group discussed article 3 as contained in the original draft. Specific comments were made on the various正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1S88/13),第137-141段)。
paragraphs in order to provide some guidance for the[...] 附件二 -15 0 希望改进国际合作,共同刽止从海上非法钣运寐薛药品和精神药.物
informal consultations considered desirable with a view to认识到从极本上消除麻薛品贩运是所有国家的共同责任, 意识到有必要在国际合作的范围内通过有效的协调行动来对付麻薛品贩运问题,
arriving at a generally acceptable text.镜认较合国在麻薛品管刽领域的主管职能》并希望与麻薛品管刳有关的国际机
88.关均设于联合国组织的范围之内.
The Group recognized that the provisions of article 3重申现行麻薛品管刽条约的指导原则及其包含的麻薛品管制刽度,
were a major innovative feature of the convention and确认有必要加强和补充《19 6 1年麻薛品单一公约》、经由《修正19 6 1
should greatly contribute to countering the economic年麻薛品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约,以及《1 9 7 1年精神药
power of drug traffickers. Several representatives considered that the drafting of relevant and widely acceptable物公约》中规定的措施,以便对付非法贩运麻辞药品和精神药物的规模、程度和复
provisions on what was a complex problem in a sensitive杂性及其严重后杲, 愿意締结二项行之有效的禁止非法贩运麻薛药品和精神药物的国际公约,以顾
area required a flexible approach. It was generally felt that及整个问题的各个方面,尤其是现行麻薛品管制条约中未曾设想到的那些方面,
the article as drafted went into excessive detail and should兹协议如下: 实质性条文萆案 第1条“ 除另有明文指定或文中另有规定者外,本公约的下列用语具有如下含义:“ “麻管局”系指国际麻醉品营制局;
be restructured to improve its clarity. It was the view of“商业承运人”系指为了报酬、雇请〔或其他形式的酬报〕而从事客运或货运 “审查组审议了以“用语”为题的原萆案笫1条和麻委会第三十二届会议非正式
some representatives that the article should only lay down工作组提出的题为义”的箪案。在讨论过程中,审查组就某些M达成 了 一致意见,并对其他定义作了深入研究。现将会议讨论(见上文笫1 4和
the principles of international cooperation in this matter1 6 — 4 5段)的结果都作为第1条在本页列出,标题未定,因对此未达成一 致看法。秘书处原萆案和非正式工作组所提萆案的其余各项定义,则作为备
and leave implementation measures to each State. It was选案文A(秘书处)和备选案文B(非正式工作组)随后列出。
however pointed out that the search for simplification对引导句,审查组未进行讨论丨备选案文A和备选案文S采周相同的引导句。 -15] 〔或邮件运送〕的任何个人或〔公营或私营〕实体;
should not be at the cost of the substantive content necessary to make the article effective.备”系指经社理事会的麻醉药品委员会: “控制下交付”系指〔允许〕〔在一締约国的国内法规许可的情况下,允许〕 非法交运的麻醉药品或精神药物〔或清单A或清单E所列物质〕在有关国家主管当
89. Several representatives considered that the practical局知情和监督之下,〔或非法交运的货物在被主管当局截荻后,经用无害物质取代 麻薛药品或精神药物,允许其继续发运。〕运出、经过或运入一个或一个以上国家
elaboration of die provisions of the article, particularly领土,以便查明非法贩运所涉人员并对之采取法律行动的侦查技礼 “理事会”系指联合国经济及社会理事会:
regarding forfeiture, should be the subject of bilateral or“非法贩运”指〔除其他外〕〔包括〕〔播种〕、种植、〔收荻〕、生产、洳 工〕、制造、提炼、配制、〔调制〕、鄉、提供发售、销售、〔持有〕、〔供应1
multilateral agreements between Parties and that a provision taking this into account should be included in the〔储存〕、购买、〔获得〕、出售、〔妙龄〕、以储条件交付、经销、发送、
draft Convention.通过邮件发送、过狱送、运翰、输入和输出〔及以任何其敝式贩运〕违反《1961
90. Several representatives stressed that mutual judicial年麻醉品单一公约》和经《修正1 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》
assistance between States for the tracing and seizure修正的该公约及《1 9 7 1年精神药物公约》之规定的任何麻醉药品或精神药物。
of proceeds from drug trafficking was essential. In that〔非法贩运还包括为上述任何活动的目的持有任何麻醉药品或精神药物〕〔以及消 费或不正当使用这类药物〕〔它还包括违反本公约笫8条规定贩运清单A或清单B
connection it was suggested that a reference to the provisions of article 5 should be inserted in the article.所列药物。〕就本公约而言,组织、管理、资助或促成上述交易或活动,亦视为非
91. Several representatives pointed to the necessity of法贩运。 —152 标题 备选案文A
reconsidering the definition of the term "property" as用 语
there were widely divergent interpretations as to its meaning in the context of the draft Convention. One representative objected to the broad meaning assigned to it in錄案文B
article 3 as it would also apply to intangible property such定 义
as copyrights and patent rights. Several other representatives stressed that both tangible and intangible property隐匿 备錢文A
should be covered, particularly since one of the objectives“以洗M^h理”系指隐匿或掩饰收益的真正性质、来I处置、流动或所 有权,并包括用电子传数式来转移或变换收益;
of the article was to counter the source of financing of备絲文B “隐匿”系指通过电子传送或以其他各种手段隐瞒或掩盖财产的性质、来源、 处置、转移或所有权并包括赌产的转移或变换。 受管制药物“ « 案文 A “没收”系指由法院判决剥夺收益; *此词相当于备选案文B所指的“以洗钱方式处理”,因而这两个词语都列于这 个小题下。 »在审查笫8条之后已删除。 -15 3 冻结 备选案文A “冻结”系指由法院或其他主管当局下令禁止收益的转让、变换、处置或流动: M 案文 B “冻结”系指暂时禁止财产的转让、变换、处置或流动; 合法的第三者 备选案文A “合法的第三者”系指出于善意并对犯罪情况不知情而合法地取得拥有、使用、 控制或持有收益的权利的任何个人、公司或其他法人: 清单A和清单B 备选案文A和B “清隼A”和清单系指按本公约第8条不时加以修正的本公约所附的相应 指定的药物清单: 締约国 备駭文 A “缔约国”系指同意受本公约约束和本公约对之生效的国家: 财产年 备选案文A “收益”系指各种财产,不论其为物质的或非物质的、动产或非动产、有形或 无形,以及证明对这种财产享有所有杈或杈益的契约和文书; ^此词相当于备选案文A所指的“收益”,因此这两个词语都放在这一小题下。 -15 4 备錢文B “射产”系指各种财产和资产,不论其为物质的或非物质的、动产或非动产、 有形的或无形的,以及证明对这种财产或资产享有所有权或杈益的契约和文书: 秘书长 案文A和B “秘书长”系指联合国秘书长; 收缴 錄案文A «收缴”系指根据法院或其他主管当局之命令对收益加以扣押或控制: M案文: B “收缴”系指由主管当局对財产加以扣押或控制; 特定化学品" 追查 备錄文八 “追查”系指确定收益的真正性质、来源、处置、流动或所有权: 备选案文B “追查”系指确定财产的性质、来源、处置、流动或所有杈; *在审査第8条后巳侧除。 -15 5 过境国 备选案文A ^―丨丨 _ “过境国”系指虽非麻醉药品或精神药物之主要生产、制造或消费国,但因通 过其领土的非法贩运而受到不利影响的国家。 〔笫1条之二牛 本公约的范围 为充分遵守国际法有关各国法律平等和主权平等的原则以及不干涉基本上属于 各国专有职权的内部事务的原则,各締约国共同商定: 1.本公约作为一份国际合作的协议,旨在确保各締约国在查禁非法贩运麻醉 药品和精秭药物的斗争中,在整个问题的各个方面,在最严格范围内的各个案件中, 并在充分遵守每一締约国各自内部法律制度的条款所规定的限度以及关于此问题的 现行的适用条约的范围内,取得最大的成效。 2.本公约之任何规定均不得以任何方式看作是准许某一締约国的当局在任一 其他缔约国的领土管辖范围内,行使和履行,或企图行使和履行,或施加压力以期 被允许行使和履行由其各自国家法律和条例规定其管辖权和取权只能属于任一那些 其他缔约国的当局的职责。 3.本公约在任何情况下并不意味着,也不能解释为,为了执行本公约,某一 缔约国必须承担义务,依照公约的规定,在其领土管辖范围内自己采取,或授权采 取以任何方式超越其法律管辖权或职权的措施,或其现行法律条款并不以任何其他 方式明确允许其采取的措施,或按照该締约国的判断,可能会损害其安全、其公共 政策或其他基本禾〗益的措施。 4.按照以上各款,本公约之任何规定均不得被援引或利用作为企图.违反本条 的规定,超越其范围的精确限度的借口。〕 女墨西哥代表团在审查组会议上提出的新条文(见本文笫14、4 6和1 2 0段)。 - 3 56 第2条“ 犯罪和制裁 1.各締约国应视需要采取必要的措施将以下蓄意行为确定为其刑法中的犯罪:
illicit traffic.(a)㈠非法贩运;
92. Commenting on paragraph 1, one representative㈡制造或推销用于非法生产、加工或制造麻醉药品或精神药物的材 料或设备,而明知其将用于此种目的;
pointed out that it contained far-reaching provisions which㈢明知财产来自非法贩运而隐匿、掩饰或转换这种财产的性质、来
might be difficult to implement within the context of his源、处置、转移或所有权;
country's legal system and suggested that they be qualified by some form of safeguard clause.(b)在不违背缔约国宪法、法律制度和国内法的情况下, ㈠明知财产来自非法贩运而获取、拥有或使用这秭财产: ㈡拥有用于非法生产、加工或制造麻醉药品或精神药物的材料或设 备,且明知其正用于或将用于此种目的; ㈢参与共谋进行或试图进行(a)项第代口、㈢目及本项第H、 ㈡目所列的任钶犯罪行为,以及对这种犯罪的帮助、教唆和出谋 划策。
93.2 .
With regard to subparagraphs 1(a) and (b), one representative indicated that there was a degree of overlap(a)各締约国应对核第1款所列的犯罪行为按其严重挺合予制裁,赫
between the two subparagraphs and proposed that subparagraphs (a) and (b) be combined in a single subparagraph监禁或以其他形式剥夺自由、罚款和没收。(b)締约国除进行判罪或惩处外,还可規定,应对罪犯采取治疗、教育、
in order to avoid duplication. Some other representatives善后护丞康复或重新参与社会生活等措施。
proposed that these two subparagraphs be deleted entirely㈦尽管有以下各项规定,在性质轻微的案件中,締约国可酌情规定作为
as it was felt that they also overlapped with the provisions对判刑或惩处的替代方法,采取诸^:育、康复或重新参与社会生活
of article 2. 94. Several representatives indicated that it was necessary to clarify die distinction between the form of assistance envisaged in subparagraph 1(c) and the mutual judicial assistance provided for in article 5; as the provisions in article 5 seemed adequate, subparagraph 1(c)等措施,如罪犯为吸毒者,还可采取治疗和善后护理等措施。
might be superfluous.*由麻委会第十届特别会议通过审查组提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会
95. Many representatives held the view that paragraph 2理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第69-76段),审查
should be deleted as the measures contemplated therein组审议了倒数第二款(见本文第14-和47-53段)。 -15 7 3.締约国应确保其法院能够考虑可对本条第1款所列犯罪行为加重处理的
had already been adequately provided for in article 2.事实情况,
While recognizing the existence of a certain overlap, one(a)駒已所属的有组织的犯罪集团参与该项犯罪:
representative indicated that there were elements in paragraph 2 which had not been included in article 2. It was巾)罪犯参与囯际上其他有组织的犯罪活动:
suggested that these elements should be preserved and that(c)罪犯参与因此项犯罪而促成的其他非法活动:
paragraph 2 might be modified in order to eliminate duplication. With respect to the specific element relating to the(d)使用枪支或暴力:
knowledge that the proceeds were derived directly or indirectly from illicit traffic, irrespective of where it occurred,(e)罪任公职,而所犯罪行与该公职有关:
it was proposed that it be incorporated into article 2 or(f)危害或利用未成年人:
retained in a reformulated paragraph 2.fe)国外或国内先前判定的罪行,如締约国国沟法允许的话:
96.4.
It was suggested that the limitation clause in paragraph 3 be brought in line with the formula used in article締约国在考虑对经判定犯有本条第1款所列犯罪行为的人是否可提前释放
2. Another suggestion was that it be deleted in the opening或假释时,应考虑到这类罪行的严重性质。
sentence and that the subparagraphs be reformulated in5 锦约囯应酌情设法制定适用于本条第1款所列犯罪行为的适当时效规定。
terms that could evoke a broader measure of acceptance,6-各締约国应依照其法律制度采取适当措施,病保在其领土内的发现的被指
bearing in mind the difficulties of implementation that控或被判定本条第1款所列犯罪行为的人,在必要的刑事诉讼中出庭。
some countries could experience within their legal system.7.〔为了各締约国之间根据本公约进行合作,〔包括特别是按照第3、4、
97. Several representatives supported the inclusion in5、6条规定进行合很〕凡按照本条规定确定的犯罪行为均不得看作是政治〔或财
paragraph 3 of a provision to the effect of reversing the经〕犯罪或视为出于政治动^o〕〔本规定的适用不应损害各该締约国的宪法限制
onus of proof so as to remove the assumption of good faith和基本的国内法。〕〔在任何情况下,执行本规定不应损害按照囯际法寻求庇护的
and leave it to the accused trafficker to prove that his权利。〕
assets and property were acquired by licit means. One 18 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances8 本条所列各款项均不得影响其所涉的犯罪行为应依締约国的国内法加以表
representative expressed the view that such reversal of the述,并按其国内法予以起诉和惩处的原则。 -15 8 第2条之二*
onus of proof should in principle remain restricted to the營辖杈
assessment of the value of profits made by a trafficker1、各締约国
once he had been regularly convicted of an act of illicit⑶在遇到下述情况时,应视需要采取必要的措施,以〔确立〕〔行使〕
traffic. Some other representatives expressed the view that本国对其按照第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
a provision that would shift the burden of proof would not㈠犯罪行为发生在其领土之内:
be acceptable under the different legal systems of potential States Parties.㈡犯罪行为发生在案发时系按本国法律注册的船只或飞机之上:
98. Attention was drawn to the fact that paragraph 3(a)0>)在遇到下述情况时,可视需要采取必要的措施,以〔确立〕〔行使〕
in the present draft dealt simultaneously with measures to本国对其按照第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
be taken at the domestic and at the international levels. In㈠犯罪者系为本国国民或在本国领土上有惯常居所者:
order to achieve greater clarity, it was proposed to divide㈡犯罪行为发生在该缔约国按第1 2条事先获准可予扣押的船只上
the text into two separate subparagraphs covering, on theM件是只能根据该条第5款和第7款所提及的协定或安排行使
one hand, measures providing for the issue of orders to这一管辖权;
freeze and seize property by a Party on its own behalf,〔㈢犯罪行为属第2条第1款(b)项笫曰目中所确定的犯罪行为之一、
and, on the other hand, identical measures upon the application of another Party.并发生于本国领土之外,〔作为一准备行动〕其目的是想在其领
99. Commenting on subparagraphs 3(a)(iv), a number of土内进行第2条第1款所列的某项犯罪行为。〕
representatives objected to the provisions empowering〔2 各締约国:
administrators and trustees to sell property in their custody.〔(a)当被指控的罪犯被发现在其领土之内,并M于下述理由不把他引渡
It was pointed out that seizure being a provisional measure,给另一締约国时,亦应视需要采取必要的措施以〔确立〕〔行使〕本
the power to dispose of seized goods should be restricted国对其按照第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权;
to cases where perishable goods were involved, for the㈠犯罪行为发生在其领土之内或案发时系按本国法律注册的船只或
sake of preserving their value.飞机;
100. One representative sought clarification as to the根据麻委会第十届特别会议的要求(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,
difference between subparagraphs (i) and (ii) of article 3,补编第3号》(E/l
paragraph 3.9 8
101. Several representatives considered as unacceptable8/13),第77-79段)由审查组作进一步研究后提交全权代表
the provision of subparagraph 3(b)(j\) regarding the forfeiture of proceeds, where there had been no conviction or会议(见本文第14和54-62段)。 -15 9 ㈡犯罪者系为本国国民或在其领土内有惯常居所者〔如在这两种情
prosecution, as the right to property was a fundamental况下,被指控的罪犯被发现在其领土内〕;
right guaranteed by their constitution and domestic law.〔白被指控的罪请求国面临死刑;〕
Such a provision was also considered as contrary to the〔㈢请求国施加的刑罚可能比被请求国的刑罚更严厉;〕〕
principle of the presumption of innocence.〔(b)当被^^的罪犯被发现在其领土之内,并且基于项所明定的理
102. Several representatives spoke in favour of deleting subparagraph 3(c) as the different categories of proceedings enumerated were confusing and superfluous. It was pointed out that the elements of evidence should be left to the assessment of courts. It was suggested that, should the subparagraph be retained, the enumeration of proceedings should be revised. 103. Several representatives stressed that in order for the provisions of the article to be effective, foreign court orders for the forfeiture of property derived from the illicit traffic should be enforceable in States Parties to the Convention. 104. A proposal was made to amend the second sentence of subparagraph 3(d) by replacing the word "may" by "shall" in order to make it clear that whenever lawful property was intermingled with illicit proceeds, the severance of that property from those proceeds should be mandatory. Several representatives objected to the proposed amendment on the grounds that the original formulation was more flexible in the sense that Parties had the option of forfeiting not only property derived from, or used in, the illicit traffic, but also property derived from other illegal activities. It was further argued, in favour of maintaining the present wording, that Parties should have the possibility of extending the right to realize forfeiture orders to the entire property of the offender. One representative observed that it would be difficult to implement such a provision under his country's legal system where the court decided the extent of the property to be forfeited and he consequently suggested the deletion of the last sentence of subparagraph (d). 105. Commenting on paragraph 4, one representative suggested that it might be preferable to speak of "bona fide" third parties rather than of "legitimate" third parties. It was however pointed out by some other representatives that it was possible for a third party to be legitimate and yet not bona fide as in the case of legitimate acquisition of property which is later revealed to have been derived from illicit traffic. Some representatives were of the opinion that the paragraph would benefit from more precision if the words "legitimate third parties" were replaced by "parties not involved in the criminal act". It was generally agreed that the rights of innocent third parties should be protected but that a more appropriate formulation should be worked out for the paragraph. 106. A suggestion was made for the inclusion of a provision recommending that the requirements of bank secrecy should not obstruct investigations of drug trafficking offences. 107. Several representatives expressed the view that article 3 should include a provision dealing with the disposition of internationally forfeited property. The idea that property forfeited by one Party in connection with sentences passed by another Party should be shared between the Parties involved received considerable support. 108. It was suggested that proceeds of forfeiture should be channelled through appropriate international agencies, such as the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, to assist developing countries, particularly transit States, in combating illicit traffic. In this connection one representative proposed a new paragraph providing for the transfer to the Fund of the financial resources derived from property forfeited by one Party in connection with sentences passed in another Party, in accordance with agreements between interested Parties. Several representatives supported this proposition. 109. Several representatives, referring to the current practice in their countries, favoured a formula providing for the allocation of the proceeds of forfeited property to national funds for drug control programmes. 110. Several representatives expressed reservations regarding the insertion of such a provision as it fell outside the scope of a convention dealing with criminal law. It was furthermore questionable, in their opinion, whether the Group was the appropriate forum to consider matters touching upon domestic budgetary procedures. 111. Several representatives indicated that the transfer of forfeited property to an international fund, such as the Fund, would go counter to their constitution and legal system which provided that such property accrue to the Preparatory work 19 national budget. This problem was further complicated in the case of federal States where, under the constitution, the disposition of forfeited property may not fall within the sphere of competence of the central government. 112. Several representatives expressed the view that the modalities for disposing of the proceeds of forfeiture could be best elaborated through bilateral and multilateral agreements. In this connection one representative referred to paragraph 286 of the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control where a similar approach was adopted by the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. 113. In order to provide an encouragement for States to forfeit the illicit gains of traffickers, it was suggested by some representatives that proceeds from the forfeited property should accrue to the State in which they were located and where forfeiture was executed. Article 4 114. The Group began consideration of article 4 by a general discussion during which preliminary comments were made on the various specific paragraphs. 115. The representatives who spoke on the subject supported the inclusion in the draft Convention of an article on extradition and considered it as a key element in the fight against illicit traffic. Several representatives underlined that the new instrument should complement and strengthen the related provisions of the existing drug control treaties by making extradition mandatory for all the grave offences covered by the draft Convention. Some other representatives stressed the importance of drafting the provisions of article 4 along the lines of the corresponding provisions of the 1961 Convention and the 1971 Convention so as to ensure that Parties to those Conventions would have no difficulty adhering to the new instrument. In that connection, it was proposed that the provisions of article 4 should be qualified by a limitation clause similar to those contained in article 36 of the 1961 Convention and article 22 of the 1971 Convention. 116. It was pointed out that the convention should not be regarded as purporting to establish a specific extradition treaty between States, or affecting the terms and conditions of extradition treaties between Parties. It was also said that article 4 should complement and not derogate from the provisions of article 2. 117. Several representatives proposed that paragraph 1 be amended to indicate that the provisions of article 4 should apply only to the grave offences included in article 2, paragraph 1. Mention was made of the desirability of seeking to develop common standards concerning the criteria for drug offences to be sufficiently serious to justify extradition. One representative suggested that such offences could be those that are punishable by the deprivation of liberty for a maximum term of at least two years. 118. The provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, which are similar to the corresponding provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, were considered generally acceptable subject to some drafting improvements. 119. With respect to paragraph 2, one representative suggested that the first sentence should be reformulated to make it clear that the obligation of Parties under this provision was to supplement existing extradition treaties to cover drug-related offences. 120. Several representatives suggested that the provisions of paragraph 3 should be drafted so as to make extradition for ding-related offences mandatory between Parties which are not bound by an extradition treaty. They suggested replacing the word "may" by the word "shall". 121. Regarding paragraph 4, one representative considered that the conditional clause at the end of the paragraph was susceptible to broad interpretation and that the European Convention on Extradition adopted in 1957 might serve as a model for a better formulation. 122. The view was expressed by several representatives that paragraphs 5, 8 and 9 were too far-reaching and contradicted the principle that domestic law or existing treaties were to apply in the case of offences covered under the convention; there was no reason to include special requirements covering extradition for drug trafficking offences. 123. The opinion was expressed that the whole of paragraph 5 should be deleted. It was argued in this connection that the discretion of sovereign States to refuse extradition should be preserved. On the other hand, it was suggested that the paragraph be retained with drafting improvements. One delegation noted that the political offence ground for refusing extradition is not available to Parties to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted in 1948.由之外的任何其他理由不把他引渡给另一締约国时,亦可视需要采取
124. As regards the extradition of nationals envisaged in必要的措施,’〔确立〕〔行使〕本国对其按照第2条第1款所确定的
subparagraph 5(a), some representatives drew attention to犯難行为的管辖权。〕〕
the requirements of their constitution or domestic legislation which precluded the extradition of their nationals.3.
In本公约并不排除按国内@使的任何刑事營辖杈。
their view, the subparagraph should be deleted. Some第3条* 1-从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中莸得的、或用于这类犯罪行为的收益、
other representatives suggested that in the event of the麻醉药品和精神药物、材料和设备,以及其他工具,均应予以没收。为此目的, 各締约国应视需要采取各种必要的措施以便没收:
retention of the subparagraph, it should be modified to(a)从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中荻得的收益或与这类收益等值的
indicate that it was not only the constitution, but also the财产; (b)用于或企图用于进行按第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的麻醉药品和 精神药物: (c)用于或企图用于非法生产、加工或制造这类药品或药物的材料和设备;
domestic law which could warrant a refusal of extradition.(d)用于或企图用于进行按第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的其他工具。 2.各締约国还应视需要采取各科必要的措施,便得以确定、追查、冻结或
One representative expressed the view that extradition收缴第1款所述的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,从而达到最终予以没收的目
should not be refused on the grounds that the offender was的。 * 根据麻委会第十届特别会议的要求(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,
a national of the requested State.补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第80-87段)由审查组作进一步审议后提交全权代表 会议(见本文笫14和63-83段)0 -16 0 3 为了实施本条所述各项措施,各締约国应授权其法院或其他主管当局下令
125. With regard to subparagraph 5(b), several representatives suggested that it be reformulated in the sense提供或扣押银行、财务或商业记录。締约国不得以保守银行秘密为由拒绝按照本 款的规@取行动。
that extradition would not be refused on the grounds that4. (a)根据对按第2条第1款确定的某一罪行为拥有管辖杈的另一缔约国依 本条规定提出的请求,在其领土上有本条第1款所述收益、酎产、工
the offence was committed outside the requesting State if具或任何其他物品_约国即应: ㈠向其主管当局索取没收令,并在取得此项命令后即予以执行;或
the offence was intended to be committed in that State.㈡向其主管当局提交由请求国按第1款规定发出的有关位于被请求 国领土内的第1致所述收益、财产、«或任何其他场辟的没收令,
126. The deletion of paragraph 5(c) as drafted was favoured by several representatives. It was argued that none以便在M出请求的范围内予以执行。
of the offences enumerated in paragraph 1 of article 2㈨根据对按第2条第1款确定的某一犯罪行为拥有管辖权的另一締约国
should in any way be construed as political. A provision依本条规定提出的请求,被请求国应采取措施确定、追查、冻结或收
formulated in that sense was suggested for inclusion. On缴第1款所述收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,以便最终由请求国
the other hand, it was stressed that such a provision would 20 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances发出没收令,或按根据本款㈨项规定提出的请求由被清求囯发出没收
derogate from fundamental principles of the constitution令。
or the legal system of some States.C(e)被请求国按本款(a)项和⑴)项所作或采取的任何行动,均应
127. A number of representatives noted that paragraphs 6 and 7 dealt with questions of jurisdiction which符合并遵守其国内法的条件和它在与请求国关系方面受其制约的任何
would have to be considered in depth in connection with贼或多边协定或安排所规定的条件。〕
article 2 bis. One representative made the point that paragraphs 6 and 7 should not go beyond the scope of jurisdiction covered in paragraph 1 of article 2 bis. It was(d)第5条有关各款〔“有关规定”〕的规定在细节上作必要修改后可以
stressed that the principle contained in paragraphs 6 and适用。除第5条第〔8〕款所列情况下,按本条提出的请求书应包
7, making prosecution mandatory if extradition was括以下各项:
refused, should be retained in this article or in an appropriate place in the draft Convention.㈠如系按(aXH项提出的请求,须附有对应予没收的财产的阐述和请
128. As regards paragraph 6 it was suggested that it求国所依据的事实的陈述,足以使被请求国能够根据其国内法获
might be appropriate to adopt the standard phraseology得没收令;
used in the Convention for the Suppression of UnlawfulP如系按⑷口项提出的请求,须附有该请求所依据的由请求法院发
Seizure of Aircraft, adopted at The Hague in 1970, and the出的没收令的法律上可接受的副本和在请求执行没收令范围内的
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against事实和情况的陈述; -16 1 ㈢如系按㈦项提出的请求,须附有请求国所依据的事实的陈述和对
the Safety of Civil Aviation, adopted at Montreal in 1971.所请求采取的行动的阐述;
129. Some representatives suggested that the principle(e)各締约国应通 联合国秘书长的通知,指明其在按本条规束应其他
aut dedere aut judicare should be reflected in the provisions of paragraph 7 which could be redrafted along the締约国的请絲取行动时,将适用㈨项所航的何科程序。
lines of article 7 of the Convention on the Prevention and(f)〔締约国得选择在采取本款(a)项和项所述措施时要以存在有关条约
Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected为条俗〕〔在此情况下,締约国可视本公约为必要的条约依据。〕
Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted in 1973,各締约国应谋求缔结双边和多边条约、协定或安排,以贯彻或提高根
and article 8 of the International Convention against the据本条进行的国际合作的有效性。
Taking of Hostages, adopted in 1979.5.
One representative㈨締约国按照本条第1款或第4款的规定所没收的收益或财产,应由该
indicated that the principle should however be adjusted to締约国按照其法律和行政程序加以处基
the exigencies of the draft Convention which covered a(b)締约国按本条的规定,应另一締约国的请求采取行动时,可特别考虑
wide range of offences.就下述事项締结协定:
130. As regards paragraph 8, some representatives expressed the view that the draft Convention provided an㈠将这类收益和财产的等值,或变卖这类收益或財产所得的款项,
opportunity to adopt measures that would relax the procedural and evidential requirements for extradition. The或其中相当一部分,捐给专门从亊打击非法叛运及滥用麻醉药品
paragraph should be redrafted so as to eliminate the possibility of a prima facie case requirement. In this connection和精神药物的政府间机构:
it was suggested that the presentation of a valid arrest㈡按照本国法律、行政程序或为此目的而締结的双边或多边协定,
warrant or of an executory judgement of the requesting经常或逐案地与其他缔约国分享这类收益或尉产,或由变卖这类
State should be sufficient to support a request for extradition. On the other hand, several representatives considered收《財产所得的款项。
that the paragraph should be deleted as its provisions6* (a)如果收益已与合法来源所得的财产相混合,则在不损害任何收缴或冻
would be difficult to implement, inter alia, in countries结的情况下,应对这种赌产在相当于所混合的收益估定值的价值
where the establishment of a prima facie case was a paramount requirement.以内予以没收。
131. Several representatives proposed the deletion ofCb)-如果收益已转化或变换成其他辩产,则应对这种其他财产作为收益的
paragraph 9 as it was felt that it added nothing substantial替絲取本条所述的措尨
to the article and would only create further difficulties for(c)对〔明显看出是〕从下述来源取得的收入或其他利益也可〔应〕采取
the Parties having concurrent jurisdiction. It was pointed此类措施:
out in particular that it did not solve the question as to- 收益 ;
who would determine which Party was in a better position一由收益转化或变换成的尉产;或 -36 2 —与收益相混合的财产。
to establish relevant facts; the decision on this matter should be left to the requested Party. One representative suggested that, if not deleted, paragraph 9 should be redrafted as a mere recommendation. 132. One representative proposed the deletion of paragraph 10 since he considered it superfluous. 133. Several representatives proposed that the article should not only cover persons who are sought for prosecution but also absconded convicted offenders. 134. A suggestion was made by some representatives for the inclusion of a provision concerning the enforcement of foreign sentences with a view to encouraging States to enter into bilateral or multilateral agreements enabling the transfer of convicted persons to their own countries to serve their sentence. Article 6 135. The Group agreed to amend the title of the article to read: "Other Forms of Cooperation and Training" so as to indicate that the scope of cooperation envisaged in article 6 was distinct from the mutual legal assistance foreseen in article 5. 136. It was agreed to use a similar safeguard clause as had been agreed to in articles 7 and 14, modified to take into account the diversity of administrative structures and requirements. 137. Several representatives indicated that law enforcement cooperation should be conducted through the national centralized coordinating agency established pursuant to article 35 of the 1961 Convention and article 21 of the 1971 Convention. In order to cover both countries where such centralized agencies had been established, as well as those where the exchange of information and cooperation involved several governmental services, it was agreed to refer in subparagraph 1(a) to "competent national agencies and services". 138. The Group considered that the type of information to be exchanged should not be itemized as any listing was bound to be incomplete and to become obsolete. It was therefore agreed that subparagraphs (aj(i)-(iv) of paragraph 1 should be deleted. 139. Some representatives referred to the importance of the links between illicit traffic and other organized criminal activities and proposed the inclusion of a subparagraph covering this aspect. Several representatives expressed die view that the Group should refrain from going beyond its mandate which was to draft a convention concerning specifically the suppression of illicit drug trafficking and could not widen die scope of that convention by the inclusion of the proposed subparagraph. It was however agreed, as a compromise solution, that the exchange of information between Parties on illicit traffic could relate also to links with other criminal activities if the Parties concerned deemed it appropriate. A phrase in that sense was added at the end of subparagraph 1(a). One representative expressed disappointment at the unsatisfactory compromise which had been reached. He again emphasized that his country considered the question of links with other criminal activities to be of central importance to the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs. The international community was missing the great opportunity offered by the preparation of the draft Convention to fight the illicit traffic effectively in a real-life environment. 140. In order to spell out more precisely the kind of cooperation that was envisaged in subparagraph 1(b) of the preliminary draft, one representative proposed to divide the text into two separate subparagraphs covering, on the Preparatory work 21 one hand, cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of several countries at the investigative stage prior to the initiation of judicial proceedings and, on the other hand, the transfer of samples of controlled substances for analytical and investigative purposes. The Group agreed to the proposed revised formulation. 141. The introductory sentence to paragraph 2 was amended so as to make it clear that it would be for each Party individually to devise "specific" training programmes for its respective law enforcement agencies involved in the suppression of the illicit traffic. 142. Subparagraph 2(a) was amended so that the focus of the training programmes would be not only on the detection of the illicit traffic but also on its suppression. 143. It was agreed to replace the terms "laundering" and "proceeds", which appeared in subparagraphs (d) and (e), by the terms "concealment" and "property" in brackets, pending a fully accepted definition of these terms or their eventual replacement by other concepts. 144. The Group agreed that the provision of subparagraph 2(d) of article 13, which was not retained in the agreed formulation of that article, should be inserted as a new subparagraph 2(g), to read as follows: "(g) Control techniques in free trade zones and free ports". The Group also agreed to transfer to paragraph 2 an item originally found in paragraph 3, in a revised form to read as follows: "Modern law enforcement techniques". 145. It was suggested that the training programmes referred to in paragraph 3 should encompass the same topics as those mentioned in paragraph 2 and that the reference to the use of conferences and seminars to stimulate cooperation, as envisaged in paragraph 7 should be incorporated in paragraph 3. Paragraph 3 was reformulated accordingly. 146. The Group considered the text of paragraph 4 as redrafted by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. It was agreed to replace the words "respective law enforcement agencies" by "competent national agencies and services", in conformity with paragraph 1. 147. To emphasize that the posting of liaison officers would not be mandatory, it was decided to indicate that States would consider this form of cooperation only where appropriate. It was also agreed to indicate that the appointment of drug liaison officers would be made on the basis of agreements or arrangements, as the Parties deemed appropriate. 148. The Group agreed to a proposal to add the words "and able to do so" at the end of paragraph 5. 149. The Group agreed to delete paragraph 6 as it was not considered necessary to have this type of provision in an international instrument. 150. One representative proposed the insertion of an additional paragraph to stress that operations by the law enforcement personnel of one Party in the territory of another Party should not be conducted without the explicit consent of the Party on whose territory such operations take place. 151. While the concept expressed was shared by several representatives, the proposed formulation raised some objections. The Group accordingly invited interested experts to work out, through informal consultations, a generally acceptable text. 152. Following its reformulation, the proposed text received the general support of the Group which also endorsed the decision for its insertion in the article as a new subparagraph 1(c). 153. One representative indicated that the proposed subparagraph would not be acceptable unless a safeguard clause was introduced stipulating that the operations would be undertaken only if they were not contrary to national law. 154. The Group approved the text as amended to take this concern into account. One representative expressed reservations regarding the content of subparagraph 1(c) as a whole. Another representative expressed reservations as to the content of subparagraph 1(c), on the grounds that the joint teams and the conduct of their operations should be based solely on the arrangements concluded between the Parties concerned. Article 7 155. The Group supported the inclusion in the draft Convention of provisions on the law enforcement technique of controlled delivery which was considered a major tool for combating drug trafficking at the international level. It was the general view that the article should provide a framework for action, limiting itself to the objectives of the technique. Bearing in mind that the technique of controlled delivery was essentially a covert police operation which, to be effective, had to be carried out with the utmost discretion, the operational details should be left to the competent national agencies. 156. Several representatives drew attention to the constitutional, legal and administrative difficulties which certain countries would face in adopting or applying what was for them a novel technique of law enforcement, which, for the time being, is not legal in some States. It was proposed that article 7 should accordingly be amended so as not to make its provisions mandatory. 157. The Group agreed to use the same safeguard clause as in article 14 as it was considered to be better suited to meet the concerns for State sovereignty than the clause in the initial draft. It also decided to amend the wording of7.各締约国得考虑确保关于应予没收的收益或其他财产的合法性的举证责任
paragraph 1 to indicate that the objective was to establish可以颠倒,但其条件是这种行动应符合本国法律的原则和司法程序的性质。
guidelines for the use of the technique of controlled delivery "at the international level".8.对本条各项规定的解释不应损害商意第三者的权利。
158. Considering the implications which the implementation of this technique may have on the sovereignty of a本条各项规定均不得损害下述原则:本条所迷各项措施均应按照締约国的
country through whose territory passage takes place, several representatives insisted that controlled delivery should 22 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances茵内法并在该法确立的条件下加以规定和执行。
be undertaken on the basis of prior agreements between第4条*
the Parties concerned. Some representatives pointed out1 本条适用于〔有关的〕各締约国按照本公约第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为。
that the carrying out of an operation may require a prompt2.本条适用的每一项犯罪行为应看作是应作为一项可引渡的犯罪行为而包括
initial decision; it may therefore be necessary to resort to在名缔约国现有的任何引渡条约之内。各締约国承担义务将此种犯罪行为作为可予
more expeditious informal arrangements between Parties.引渡的罪行包括在将締结的每一引渡条约之内。
The Group agreed to include both possibilities of agreements and arrangements and decided that all such agreements or arrangements were to be "mutually consented to"3.如某一締约国规定引渡必须以订有一项条约为条件,在接到与之未订有引
in order to emphasize that the consent of Parties was a渡条约的另一締约国的引渡请求躬、它〔可以)〔应〕将本公约视为对本条适用的
prerequisite to the initiation of controlled delivery.任何罪行给予引渡的、M依据。
159.4.
So as to specify in a more concise form the goals并不以存在一顼条约为引渡条件的缔约囿应承认本条适用的罪行为可予相
sought in the utilization of the technique of controlled互引渡的罪行。
delivery, the Group agreed that the last phrase of paragraph 1 should be reworded as follows: "with a view to5* (除本条另作规定外,〕引渡应服从于被请求国法律或适用的引渡条约规
identifying persons involved in illicit traffic and to taking定的条件,.包括被请求国可据以拒绝引渡的理由。
legal action against them".'〔在不违反其宪法限制、法律制度和国内法的情况下〕各締约II应提供方
160. It was agreed to delete paragraph 2 of the initial便,促使引渡被指控或判定犯有按照第2条第1款确定的罪行的儿〔为此目的,
draft as it was considered that its provisions were covered对于另一缔约国就本条适用的任何罪行而提出的引渡请求,不应以该人为被请求国
in the amended paragraph 1.* 根据麻委会笫十届特别会议的要求(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1
161. In order to take into account the financial burden9
connected with controlled delivery operations, including,朋年,
in particular, for transit countries, it was agreed to mention in paragraph 3 of the initial draft, renumbered paragraph 2, that decisions to use controlled delivery could be补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第88-90段)由审查组作进一步审议后提交全权代表
subject to financial arrangements between Parties, whenever they considered it necessary.会议(见本文第14和
162. The Group agreed to delete paragraph 4 as it went8
into too much detail regarding the modalities of a controlled delivery operation. These could be covered as4-11
appropriate for specific cases in the agreements and9
arrangements mentioned in paragraph 1.段)。 -163 国民或在其领土内惯常居住为理由而加以拒绝〔,除非被请求国的宪法或〔国内法
163. The provisions of paragraph 5 were considered to律制度〕〔基本的囯内法律〕〔国内法律〕要求加以拒৽〕任一締约国可选择或
be complicated, rather confusing, too specific, and unadvisably binding. The clause concerning suspension of拒绝将本公约作为满足其宪法或〔本国法律制度〕〔国内基本法律〕〔国内法律〕
prosecution could give rise to difficulties because concurrent jurisdictions are involved and because of the principle规定的引渡其国民或惯常居住于其领土内的人,须存在有一项条约的条件。〔如对
of mandatory prosecution. One representative expressed本款所述之人,被请求国的国家法规允许其主管当局对其引渡有自行决定杈,则该
the view of his Government that controlled delivery締约国应尽可能促使行使此项杈力时,考虑到本公约的目标和宗旨。〕
should not prejudice the right of the country of origin or7.对于按照第2条第1款确定的罪行,各締约国应尽量减少引渡所需的程序
of any transit State to prosecute. In the end, it was felt,«据要为此,各締约国可视请求国一项有效的逮捕令或终审判决,连同一
however, that some reference to the problem of jurisdiction would be appropriate in the article with the understanding that it would be dealt with by the Parties in the份陈述构 称犯罪行为的事M要,作为可请求引渡的足够«。
agreements or arrangements worked out between them.8. ㈨〔在不影响行使任何其他營辖权的情况下,〕〔在不影响各締约.
It国按
was therefore agreed to include this consideration at the照第2条之二或其国内^#行使管辖杈的杈力的情况下,〕被_的罪犯_处其
end of new paragraph 2.领土内
Article 8_
First session的締约国如不将他引渡而如果该締约国按照第2条之二第2款㈨项规定,对
164. Several representatives expressed support for the该罪行〔拥有管辖权〕〔可以行使管辖杈〕,应〔根据请求引渡的締约国的请求,〕
inclusion of measures concerning the monitoring or control of specific chemicals used in the illicit processing or将此案亳不迟延地交由其主管当局提起公诉:
manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.㈨该主管当局应对此案如同对于〔类似〕〔相同〕性质的任何罪行一样,
The monitoring of shipments of precursor substances produced in industrialized countries was said to be of particular importance for certain developing countries to assist按被请求国的法律作出其决定。
them in their fight against the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.9.
One representative〔如果为执行一项判决而寻求的引渡,由于该有关人为被请求国的囿民或
drew attention to the two main constituent elements of在其领土内惯常居住而被拒绝,则被请求国应在其法律允许的范围内,根据请求国
manufacture, namely drugs and essential chemicals; he的申请,考虑执行该判决或使其服满按请求囿法律所宣判的刑期。执行此种刑罚
stated that in view of the stringent controls on drugs provided for under the 1961 Convention it was necessary的转移应服从于被请求国雜规定的其他条件。〕
and only fair that equally stringent controls should be10 .各締约国应谋求締结双边的或多边的协定以执行或加强引渡的有效性。
established, when possible, on essential chemicals.11,各締约国〔应〕〔可〕考虑订立双边的或多边的协定,不论是特别的或一
165. It was stressed, however, that control measures般的协定,以促使将由于犯有本条适用的罪行而被判处徒刑的人转送其来源国,以
such as those envisaged in article 8 should take into account the fact that many precursors and essential chemicals had legitimate uses in the manufacture of a wide便使他们在那里服满剩下的刑期。 -16 4 第5条*
range of products and that their lawful trade should not be相互法律协助
hindered.1.各締约囯应根据本条之规定,相互提供最广泛之法律协助,以进行对于按
166. It was also pointed out that the acceptance of a笫2条第1款所确定的某一犯罪行为的任何调查、起诉及其他司法程序。
particular control system would depend on what substances would be submitted to such a control.2.
It was therefore〔相互法律协助,按照本条之规定,将在适当考虑到被请求国的宪法〔基
essential to establish criteria to identify the substances to本法律原则〕〔法律制度〕〔行政制度〕的情况下予以提供〕。
which the provisions of the article would apply.3.
In that〔本条规定之司法互助是指〕〔关于司法互助之请求,按照本条之规定,
connection it was suggested that if the control measures可以৿对下列任一目的提出〕〔对关于下列任一形式的司法互助之请求,均应按照
were to be effective, the number of substances to be本条之规定予以考虑〕:
covered should be limited to those precursors and basic〔(a)莸取证据或证词;〕
chemicals used mainly in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.(b)传送司法文件;
167. One representative drew attention to the alternative(c)执行有关搜查及收缴之请求:
text for the whole article proposed by his Government in〔⑷检查有关按第2条第1款确定的犯罪的物品和现场;〕
paragraph 678 of the working document.〔如)对于第2条第1款确定的犯罪,提供与之有关的情况和物件:〕
168. It was decided that the discussion of the article asC(f) 提供有关文件及记录的原件或经认证的副本,其中包括银行、财务 、
a whole would continue through consultations among interested experts with a view to arriving at a revised draft公司及营业记录;〕
that would be acceptable for all.1
169. The consultations were conducted among representatives who supported the drafting of an article on the(g)査实或追踪来自或用于按第2条第I款所确定的罪行的收益、尉产、
subject, with the participation as well of representatives工具或其他物品,〔以便于调查或进行起诉〕〔以作为佐证之目的i
who were not in favour of including such an article. The results of those consultations were submitted to the Group in the form of a draft text reflecting the common understandings. 170. Commenting on the draft, several representatives expressed the view that it constituted a valid starting point for the further consideration of the article. 171. Commenting more specifically on the draft, one representative noted some contradiction between the proposed definitions and certain substances appearing in List A and List B. He also stressed the need to re-examine more closely the relation which should be established between this article and the relevant provisions of the existing drug control conventions. 172. The Group agreed on a number of proposed textual changes. There was also general agreement that further consideration of the revised draft article should take place at the second scheduled meeting of the Group and that in view of the highly technical nature and complexity of the provisions, it would be advisable to arrange for chemical and pharmaceutical experts, from the various delegations, to meet in the first days of the meeting in order to review the present draft and report to the Group. There was consensus to adopt such a procedure. Preparatory work 23 Second session 173. The Group resumed its consideration of article 8 at its second session on the basis of the reformulated draft arrived at during its first session. 174. Several representatives reiterated their support for the inclusion of a set of appropriate measures for the monitoring or control of precursors and chemicals used in the illicit processing or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, to the extent that such precursors and chemicals were not covered by the existing drug control treaties. Divergent opinions were expressed regarding whether such provisions should be of a voluntary or mandatory nature. It was argued in this connection that consideration should be given to the specific situation of each State concerning the production and trade of such substances. 175. Some representatives expressed the view that some of the measures of control envisaged in paragraph 8, and all of those in paragraph 9, would impose an excessive bureaucratic burden on exporting countries with no guarantee of achieving effective results. Such provisions should accordingly be deleted. Other representatives voiced preference for provisions along the lines of the monitoring systems existing in their own countries, based on cooperation between law enforcement and industry; such systems, which were of an informal nature, focused on tracking suspicious consignments and preventing their diversion to the illicit traffic. In their opinion, Governments should be allowed maximum flexibility in adopting adequate measures to meet the prevailing circumstances in their respective countries. One representative reserved the right to make further comments on paragraphs 8 and 9 at the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. 176. Some representatives indicated that in view of the stringent controls which countries producing narcotic raw materials were bound to exercise under the 1961 Convention and which imposed on them a considerable administrative burden, it was only fair that equally strict controls should be established, whenever possible, on the precursors and chemicals originating from industrialized countries which were utilized in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs. Some representatives pointed out that such provisions would assist importing countries, particularly those with extensive frontiers, in fighting effectively the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances within their borders. 177. There was general agreement that the control measures envisaged in the article should not be more stringent than those applying to the substances scheduled in the existing drug control treaties. 178. Several representatives pointed out that the nature and scope of the control measures which could be accepted for inclusion in article 8 depended on what substances would eventually be placed in List A or List B. As regards the definitions proposed in the draft for "immediate precursors" in List A and "essential chemicals" in List B, it was felt that in the absence of acceptable scientific definitions of those terms they might give rise to divergent interpretations in the legal context of the Convention. The qualification of substances as "immediate precursors" or "essential chemicals" would result implicitly from their inclusion in one or the other lists and this approach could be reflected in definitions of those terms, or of other appropriate terms, in article 1. It was therefore considered indispensable to establish a more systematic process with guiding criteria for the identification of substances to be placed under control and for their inclusion in the respective lists. In accordance with the suggestions made in the course of the discussion, the Division of Narcotic Drugs, in consultation with the interested experts, presented to the Group for its consideration a compromise draft of the revised lists of substances and the comprehensive process for placing the substances therein. 179. The Group endorsed the recommendation arrived at during the informal consultations to delete the definitions proposed in the earlier draft and to adopt a more legal approach, in line with the corresponding provisions of the international drug control treaties, by simply referring in the text of the article to substances in List A or in List B. The Group approved paragraphs 1-3 as amended in that sense and agreed to the inclusion, in a new paragraph 4, of a set of guiding criteria for the identification of substances that might be made subject to the international monitoring system and placed in the respective lists. 180. The Group also agreed to include in its draft, tentatively, certain substances in List A and List B. 181. Two representatives proposed that poppy straw should be inserted in one of the Lists. Pointing out that the reports of the International Narcotics Control Board for 1985 and 1986 had confirmed that poppy straw is susceptible to abuse and trafficking and had suggested increased control measures on this product, one representative stated that the non-inclusion of poppy straw under the same regime of control as the substances in Lists A and B cannot but erode the effectiveness of the proposed new convention. Several other representatives objected to this proposal for the reason that, if there were a need to regulate poppy straw, it would be more appropriate to do so under the 1961 Convention, and the appropriate approach would be to seek to amend that Convention. 182. Several representatives drew attention to the fact that while the terminology of the existing drug control treaties should be followed whenever relevant in order to ensure the necessary coordination among related instruments, new terms had to be used to meet the particular needs of the draft Convention in preparation; it was essential that they be properly defined to avoid conflicting interpretations. In order to be more specific and avoid confusion, the Group agreed that the term "controlled substances", wherever it appeared in the text, would be replaced by the words "narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances" and that, in the absence of a more adequate and generally accepted designation for the "immediate precursors and essential chemicals" covered under article 8, it would be preferable at this stage to substitute the generic term "substances in List A and List B". 24 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 183. The Group agreed to insert the word "processing" before the word "manufacture" throughout the text of article 8 to highlight the fact that, in some cases, processing refers to the preparatory stages in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. 184. It was agreed that paragraph 4 of the reformulated draft (new paragraph 5) should be amended to indicate, in line with the language used in the 1971 Convention, that the assessment of the Board "shall be determinative as to scientific matters". The Group decided to delete the last part of paragraph 4 as its provisions were made redundant by the Group's earlier decision to include criteria for the identification of substances to be brought under control. The Group also agreed to maintain unchanged paragraphs 5-7 as they appeared in the reformulated draft (new paragraphs 6-8). 185. Regarding paragraph 8 (new paragraph 9), a proposal was made to combine the provisions of subparagraphs (a) and (b) in a single subparagraph in order to eliminate the apparent contradiction between the mandatory character of subparagraph (a) and the voluntary forumulation of subparagraph (b). The furnishing of information by manufacturers and traders was generally considered a key element in the cooperation to be developed in the framework of the monitoring system that Parties would have to establish and maintain. The merger of the two subparagraphs therefore appeared desirable and was approved by the Group. 186. As regards the question whether it would be appropriate to say that the established monitoring system "may"3之二.各締约il可相互提供被请求国之国内法律所允许之任何其他形式
or "should" be conducted in close cooperation with industry, one representative expressed the view that in this之司法互助。
instance the word "may" was more appropriate as it3之三 各締约国应根据请求,在其国家法律和惯例允许之范围内,协助或鼓
would enable the implementation of mandatory systems励那些〔同意)〔愿意〕协助调查或参与诉讼之人员,包括在押人员,出庭或出面 作iiL
where cooperation was not efficient. It was argued by* 根据麻委会第十届特别会议的要求(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,I 98 8
several other representatives that the obligation to implement the system through cooperation should be clearly年,
indicated by the term "shall". It was finally agreed that the补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第91-96段)由审查组审议后提交全权代表会议(见
measure should be made mandatory if it was to prove本文第14和120-182段)。 -16 5 4 本条各项规定不得影响任何其他全部或部分管辖刑事司法互助领域的双边
really effective and the word "shall" was correspondingly或多边条约所产生的义务。〔各締约国及其主管当局,可以根据其他条约、协定、 安排或惯例i规定互助,包括第2款所述的各类互助。〕
substituted.5.本条第8至1 3款应适用于有关締约国不受一项司法互助条约约束时根据
187. It was proposed that subparagraph 8(c) (new subparagraph 9(b)) be amended to provide not only for the本条规定提出的请象〔如果这些締约国受这样一项条约的约束,该条约的〔程 序〕规定应予适用,条件是它们能补充本条第8至1 3款所载的各项原则或有助于 它们的实施〔而且除菲締约国同意采用本条第8至1 3款取而代:to 〕〕
seizure but also for the forfeiture of substances used in or6.締约国应指定一个当局〔或若干当局〕,使之负责和有杈执行关于司法互 助的请求或将其转交主管当局加以执行。应将为此目的指定的当局通知秘书长。
intended for the commission of any of the offences referred to in article 2. Several representatives opposed the司法互助请求的传送以及与此有关的任何联络均应在缔约国指定的当局之间进行;
inclusion of forfeiture in this particular provision on the这一要求不得损害締约国的这一杈利:要求通过外交渠道向其传送这种请求和进行 7-请求应〔用被请求国能接受的语文〕书面提出。每一締约国所能接受的
grounds that decisions to confiscate property or transfer语文也应通知秘书么〕〔如遇紧急情况,且能为被请求国所接受,这种请求可以口 头方式提出,但应尽快加以书面确iL 〕
ownership would not necessarily be within die sphere of‘8.关于司法互助的请求书应载有:
competence of the administrative services responsible for(a)提出本请求的当局的名称和职能; " (b)本请求所涉的〔调查、〕起诉或程序的事由和性质,〔包括有关事实
implementing the monitoring system envisaged in article 8.的概要〕以及进行这种〔调查、〕起诉或程序的当局的名称和职能;
It was felt that the matter of forfeiture did not belong in(O请求协助的说明和请求国希望遵循的任何具体程序的细节: (d)在必要和可能时,有关人员的身份、所在和国籍。
article 8 and should be considered in the context of the8之二被请求国可以要求获得其他资料,如杲这种资料显得为按照其国内法
relevant legal provisions of articles 2 and 3.执行该请求之必需或能有助于执行该请求的话。
188.9.
Commenting on subparagraph 8(d) (new subparagraph 9(c)), some representatives considered it desirable请求应由被请求国〔的主管当局〕根据囤内法加以执行,并应在不违反被
to introduce a time element in that provision as it was vital请求国法律的情况下,尽可能遵循请求中列明的程序。
that the authorities be notified as promptly as possible of10.〔如被请求国提出要求,〕请求国不应事先未经被请求国的同意,即为了
suspicious transactions. One representative expressed the请求中所述目的以外的其他目的,泄露或使用被请求国所提供的资料或证据。
opinion that the required notification of authorities should10之二,请求国可要求被请求国,除非为执行请求所必需,应对请求一事及其 -16 6 丙容保密。如果被请求国不能遵守这 H?:密要求,它应立即通知请求国。
be based on a more precise consideration than the mere11.在下列情况下可拒绝提供司法互助:
suspicion that the substances were destined for illicit(a)-请求未按本条M提出;
manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances(b)被请求国认为执行请求可能损及其主杈、安全、公共餅或其餘本
and he suggested that "a well-founded presumption"利益;
should exist. It was further proposed to refer to competent〔(c)被请求国的国内法禁止本国当局执行一项对在本国领土上发生的同一
national agencies and services rather than to appropriate起犯罪行为提出的请求:〕
authorities in keeping with what had been done in article 6. The Group agreed to revise the formulation of subparagraph 8(d) taking into account some of the above(d)应允请求将违背被请求国之〔宪法、基本法律原则或〕关于司法互助
comments.之法律规定;
189. During the consideration of subparagraph 8(e) (new〔(e)执行请求将要求请求国当局在被请求国根据其国家立法专为本国主管
subparagraph 9(d)), it was proposed by several representatives that the commercial documents referred to in that当局保留的区域管辖内执行任务或行动。〕
subparagraph should also include information regarding12.司法互助可因与正在进行的调查或起诉发生冲突而暂缓进行。在此情况
the form of payment. Such information, in their view, was下,被请求国应与请求国嗟商以决#否可按照请求国认为必要之条件提供协助。
a key element in tracing illicit transactions.13.
Some other各締约国应视需要考虑締结为本条目的服务并实施其各项规定的双边或区
representatives held the view that the inclusion of such域协定的可能性。
information would not serve any useful purpose and that增补的新款
the monitoring system established under subparagraph (a)〔_意到请求国就一项诉讼作证或对一项调查、诉讼或司法程序撻供帮助的一
should in itself ensure an adequate overview of the financial operations involved. As a compromise solution, it was位证人、专家或其他人,不应由于其离开被请求国的领土之前的行为、不作为或信
suggested that such a requirement might be introduced念而在请求国的领土内受到起诉、拘禁、惩罚或对其人身自由施加任何其他限制,
under the clause relating to suspicious transactions in subparagraph 8(d). The Group agreed to a revised formulation也不应利用他们协助民事诉讼。此项安全保障在下述情况下应即停止/即该证人、
of subparagraph 8(d) incorporating this suggestion.专家或个人自司法当局不再需要其出庭之日起连续十五夭时间内已有机会离开,但
190. One representative, who had made a reservation as仍自愿留在该领土内 或在离境后又出于自己的意志返回者。〕
regards the propriety and tenor of article 11 bis (see paragraph 227 below), made a similar reservation with respect执行一项请求的一般费用应由被请求国承担。如执行该请求需支付非同寻常
to subparagraph 8(e).的费用,双方应相互协商,以定出执行该请求的条件。
191. Several representatives expressed diverging views对相互协助加以拒绝时,应陈述其理由。 -16 7 〔第五条之二 *
regarding the requirement in subparagraph 8(e) that commercial documents such as invoices, cargo manifests etc.締约国应积极考虑在相互移交关于本今约第2条第1款所列犯罪行为的刑事起
should include the name of the consignee. It was pointed诉诉讼被认为有助于作出恰当的司法裁决时,是否可能作这种移交。〕
out by one representative that this requirement was impractical as in many cases the ultimate consignee was not笫 6 条 ^
known to the importer or wholesaler. It was suggested that其他形式的合作和i彭川
the name of the consignee could be included in commercial documents where the information was known.1.
The締约国应在符合各自的国家法律及行政制度的情况下,相互密切合作,以
Group agreed provisionally to qualify the requirement by期增强取缔非法贩运的执法行动的效力 它们特别应:
inserting in square brackets that the name and address of(a)建立并结持国家主管机构和部门之问的瑕络渠道,以便安全而迅速地
the consignee should be indicated "when available". Two交换关于非法贩运各个方面的情况,締约国可菌情考虑其中是否应包
representatives placed on record that they would have a括与其他犯罪活动的较系情况.
reservation to the mention of the consignee in this subparagraph in the absence of the qualifying insertion.(lb) 相互合作,调查国际上的非法贩运,查明贩运者的身份、行踪和活动,
192. It was pointed out that compliance with the requirement in subparagraph S(e), that the names of substances as stated in List A and List B be included on以及可能来自或用于难法贩运的財产的流动情况.
commercial documents, would be extremely difficult as(O在不违背画内法情况下,并考虑到保障人身和执法活动安全的需要,
many of the substances being imported or exported were known under different names. It was however recognized that a uniform nomenclature was highly desirable if the provisions of article 8 were to be implemented effectively. It was therefore suggested that the Division of Narcotic Drugs could convene an expert group to standardize the names of the substances which may be placed under the monitoring system of the draft Convention. Pending the adoption of such a nomenclature, it was agreed to retain in square brackets the reference to List A and List B. Preparatory work 25 193. In subparagraph 8 (f ) (new subparagraph 9(e)) it was suggested that a formulation along the lines of article 11, paragraph 7, of the 1971 Convention would be more appropriate and the Group agreed to amend the draft accordingly. 194. Commenting on paragraph 9 of the reformulated text (new paragraph 10) several representatives expressed the view that the provisions as drafted were too rigid and detailed. They should not apply to all transactions concerning the substances in List A but only to suspicious consignments. Furthermore the envisaged monitoring system might not keep pace with technological developments and would create considerable workload for Government and industry as more substances would be brought under control. The paragraph should accordingly be deleted. On the other hand, several other representatives considered the provisions of the paragraph to be crucial for the implementation of the convention and argued for its retention. Some other representatives expressed the view that while the exchange of information could serve a useful purpose, the provisions should entail only minimum requirements leaving the detailed modalities to be decided by the Parties. The Group agreed to a compromise solution which took into account the various concerns expressed by the experts. Three representatives placed on record their reservations concerning the mandatory nature of the provisions. 195. In its consideration of paragraph 10 of the reformulated text (new paragraph 11) the Group confirmed its earlier tentative decision that the reports should be furnished to the Board on an annual basis. Regarding the reporting of other substances not included in List A or List B as provided for in subparagraph (b), some representatives held the view that this requirement was questionable as it dealt with substances that might not be of concern to all Parties, while it might adversely affect the responsibility of Parties to notify in due time, in accordance with their obligation under paragraph 2, the substances which may warrant inclusion in die lists. Some other representatives were of the view that such reporting would enable the Board to gather data on different substances of abuse in different countries and assist the Board in making its assessment as to their possible inclusion in List A or List B. To take into account these divergent positions, a suggestion was made that such reporting should concern substances which, in addition to being used in the illicit processing or manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, were deemed sufficiently significant by Parties to be brought to the attention of the Board. The Group agreed to this formulation and adopted paragraph 10 amended accordingly. It also adopted paragraph 11 as it appeared in the reformulated text (new paragraph 12). 196. Commenting on paragraph 12 of the reformulated text (new paragraph 13), the view was expressed that its provisions should not be limited to preparations intended for therapeutic uses as there were other preparations which also had legitimate industrial uses. One representative proposed that the paragraph should be worded so as to take into account such legitimate uses provided that the preparations in question were compounded in such a way that they could not be easily used or recovered by readily applicable means in sufficient quantity to permit significant illicit processing or manufacture of a narcotic drug or a psychotropic substance. The Group agreed to such a formulation. Article 9 197. The Group agreed to amend paragraph 1 to make it clear that the provisions of the article were aimed only at the trade of materials and equipment intended for the "illicit" manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. 198. Many representatives held the view that the control measures contemplated in paragraphs 2 and 3 of the original draft would be difficult to implement and could have undesirable negative effects on the legitimate international trade of materials and equipment used by the pharmaceutical industry. The Group considered an alternative proposal to replace paragraphs 2 and 3 by a single paragraph providing for the exchange of information concerning the specific shipment of materials and equipment suspected of being intended for use in illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. It was decided that such a provision would not serve a useful purpose in article 9, inasmuch as its objective was covered by the provisions of article 6 dealing with the exchange of information in the context of cooperation between law enforcement agencies. Article 10 199. Commenting on the text of the article in the preliminary draft, some representatives expressed the view that the need for such an article in the new draft Convention was questionable since some of the proposed measures for the eradication of narcotic plants cultivated illicitly were already included in article 22 of the 1961 Convention. It was suggested that the relationship between the proposed article and article 22 et seq. of the 1961 Convention should be clarified and that appropriate reference to the relevant provisions of that Convention should be made in article 10. Several speakers considered that the article in its present form did not add any substance to the corresponding provisions of the 1961 Convention, while another representative pointed out that it was, in fact, the only text dealing specifically with modalities for the suppression of the illicit cultivation of narcotic plants. 200. A proposal was made by one representative that the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 should be amended to read as follows: "1. The Parties shall take appropriate steps to prevent the illicit cultivation of the poppy plants, coca bushes and cannabis plants that are being illegally grown in their territories, and shall introduce effective measures for their elimination. The measures adopted must be compatible with fundamental human rights, respect for the traditions of national and regional groups, and the protection of the environment. "2. The Parties shall collaborate with a view to adding to the effectiveness of the eradication measures 26 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances through crop substitution and integrated rural development techniques and through preferential tariffs for the substitute products, taking into account the various types of these products and the resources available to them, as well as the socio-economic circumstances existing in the illicit growing zones. Parties with common borders shall endeavour to cooperate in eradication programmes within the zones situated along these borders." 201. The amendment received the full support of several representatives. Some others objected to it on the grounds, in particular, that while respect for human rights was an unquestionable requirement, traditions may often be subject to change; moreover, the reference to preferential tariffs, which touched upon issues of international trade, fell outside the scope of the draft Convention and beyond the competence of the Group. 202. Several representatives expressed the view that provisions of the article dealing with eradication, which concerned only the supply side, should be balanced by the inclusion of provisions dealing with demand reduction. In their opinion the elimination of illicit demand was a major factor in dealing with the illicit traffic. 203. A proposal in that sense was made by one representative and supported by many others. It consisted in two additional paragraphs as follows: "3. States with high rates of illicit demand shall adopt appropriate measures to prevent illicit consumption, and shall endeavour to achieve, as soon as possible, genuine reductions in their internal consumption of drugs through vigorous programmes of education, prevention and rehabilitation. "4. To this end, these States shall allocate the economic, technical, scientific and human resources necessary to achieve genuine progress towards the elimination of the problem of the illicit consumption of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances." 204. While recognizing the importance of demand reduction, some other representatives were of the view that the convention, which had a penal law perspective, should deal exclusively with such matters; it should not attempt菌情建立联合小组执行本款规定。参加联合小组的各缔约圆官员均
to cover other aspects of the drug problem such as prevention, treatment and rehabilitation or illicit consumption.应按拟在其领 执法活动的该締约国有关当局的授杈行事。在
Other representatives expressed the view that the scope of所有这些情况下,所涉締约国应璃保充分尊重拟在其领iJi^t执法
the convention was broad and that it did not mostly concern penal law.活动的该缔约国的主杈.
205. With a view to reconciling the divergent positions㈤茼情转送受管制物质的样品供分析或调查之用
held regarding the substantive content of this article, the2.各缔约国H在必聲时为其负责取绿非法叛运的执法的人员、海关人员及其
Group decided that the discussion would continue informally among interested experts.*审查组根据第5条部分内容拟定的新条文(见本文第15 5和18 3 _ 18 6段)。
206. As a result of these informal consultations, a compromise draft of article 10 was submitted to the Group for讨在结合第5条的审议提交审查组(见本文第17和193段)之后,由麻委会
its consideration. The Group adopted the said draft by第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,
consensus.补编第3号》(E/L"
207. One representative expressed his reservation concerning that part of the title of the article relating to the elimination of illicit demand and about paragraph 3. He8
thought that a balance in the draft was necessary between/L
the concepts of illicit demand and the links between illicit3
traffic and other criminal activities, because both concepts),第97-98段)。 -16 8 M员@、制订或改进特定樹)彳方案。此聍方案应特别涉及下_ E:
would have a direct impact on future international cooperation against illicit trafficking.(a)侦查和敢缔非法贩连JSW的方法;
208. Another representative proposed that the words(b)厥运者使用的、特别是在过境国使用的路线和技术,以及适当的对付
"traditional domestic" in paragraph 1 be replaced by the搢拖
word "licit". However, as that paragraph had been adopted(c)监测受营制物质的进出迗情见
by the Group at an earlier stage of its discussions, it was01)侦查和监測来自或用于非法贩运的財产的流动情沁
considered more appropriate that this proposal be reflected(e)隐_这类财产的方法-/
in the report so that it might be considered at a later stage(f) 聽的收 梟
of the preparation of the draft Convention.is)在自由贸易区和自由港的营制技恭
Article 11㈨现代执法技术。
209.3.
The Group agreed that the draft Convention should缔约国应相互协助计划和执行旨在交流第2款所述各领域专门知识的培训
contain provisions to ensure that the means of transport方案,为此目的,还应箭情剥用区域和S际会议及讨论会,促进合作以及讨论共同
operated by commercial carriers were not used in the illicit traffic. Some representatives proposed that article 11关心的问题,包括过境国的特殊问题和需要。
should be expanded to encompass private as well as commercial carriers in view of the importance of drug seizures4.缔约国应促进其11家主管机构和部门之间的有效协调,在这方面,还
linked with the international movement of privately应韵情考虑根据双边或其他协定或安排,允许在其边境内设S其他締约国的联络官,
owned and operated means of transport. In the view of oneM进查禁非法叛运的人员和其他专家的交迄
representative, it was not clear whether the scope of the5.締约国应直接或通过主管国际组织,设法制定有利于締约圆的技术合俟方
article covered only ships and aircraft or included all筅并适等注意到过境国的特殊冋题和需要,以改进联络渠㈱在接到请汞和力所
means of transport.能及的情况下提供技术援助。
210. The Group agreed to limit paragraph 1 to a statement of the general obligation for Parties to take appropriate measures to ensure that means of transport operatedC第6条之二 *
by commercial carriers are not used in the illicit traffic.开展握际合串与援助过境国
One representative expressed the view that the inclusion(1)締约国应设法直接地或通过主营屆际组织或区域组织,以技术仓作方案的
of a provision requiring Parties to increase security at形式协_支持过境国,并M求适当分掉过境国为拦截庥薛品而支出的
international ports was not appropriate in the context of费用。
the convention.* 根据麻委会第十届特别会议的要求(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,
211. On the basis of the experience gained in his country, that effective control in the area covered by article 11补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第99段)由审查组审议后提交全权代表会议(见本文
could be best achieved with the cooperation and consent第14和187-191段)。 -16 9 0締约圆还应设法直接地或通过主管国际组织或区域组织,提供姆政援助,
of commercial carriers, rather than by legislative measures, one representative proposed that the convention以加强有效防止过境叛运所需的执法资源和基础设I〕
should positively encourage Parties to enter into special第7条“
arrangements with commercial carriers and reformulated控制下交付
paragraph 5 to this effect.1.
Some other representatives錄钓屆应在符合本国法律制庹基本原则的情况下,果取必要搢旄,允许在
expressed the view that such a provision might not be国际上根据相互达成的协定或安排适当使用控制下交付,以期查明涉及非法贩运之
applicable within all domestic legal systems. As a compromise the Group agreed to insert in paragraph 1 a revised人,并对之驗诉讼。 一
formulation of the proposal indicating that such special2.应视各案件具体情况逐一作出是否使用控制下交付的决定,并视需要考虑
arrangements could be one of the measures available to有关締约国行使营辖杈勝的财务安排谅仏
Parties in fulfilling their obligations under this article.第S条
212. The Group decided not to specify that searches监测经常用于非法加工或制造麻醉药品
should be "thorough" as this was implicit.或精神药物的物质的揞施
213.1.
Several representatives indicated that it was not締约国应韵情采取适当搢施,防止清单A和清单B所列物质被转用于非法
clear whether the searches in question were within the加工或制造麻薛药品或精神药物,并应为此目的相互合作.
ambit of criminal proceedings or of control measures falling within the competence of customs authorities.2.如一締约国或麻管局根据掌握的资斜认为需要将某一物质列入清单A或清
214. The level of suspicion on the basis of which单3,则该缔约国或麻管局应将此项要求通知秘书长,同时附上有关资料作为说明.
searches were to be undertaken was subject to different3.秘书长应将此项通知连同其认为有关的任何资斜转送各締约国、麻委会,
interpretations.如此项通知系由一締约国发出,则应同时转送麻管局.
Several representatives were of the view缔约国应将其对该通知的
that searches should be effected only when there was意见以及可能有助于麻管局作出评价和有勘于麻委会做出决定的所有补充资料转交
suspicion of a serious nature. It was also pointed out by Preparatory work 27* 由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
some speakers that customs authorities undertook searches1988年,补编笫 3 号》(E/1988/i3),第35-38段)。
as part of their mandate, which did not require suspicion讨由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
to justify such searches, and that this factor should be1988年,朴编第 3 号》(E/1988/13),第39-50段)。 ’ -17 0 秘书长.
taken into account.4.如杲麻管局在考虑了该物质合法便用的范围、重要性和各秭用途,以及利
215. Divergent views were expressed regarding the用其他眷代物质供合法用途和非法加工或制造寐醉药品或精神药物之用的可能性与
modalities and severity of sanctions which faulty commercial carriers would face. In view of the difficulty of establishing an internationally acceptable criterion regarding难易程度之后,认为:
the precautions which commercial carriers had to take, it(a)该物质经常用加工或_造某一麻薛药品或精祥药物,和
was pointed out that the responsibility and liability of(b)非法加工或锏造某一麻醉药品或精神药物的数量和规模造成了严重的
carriers should be involved only if negligence on their part公共卫生或社会问题,因而需要采取国际行动,
could be established, or when they had been accessories to则麻管 局应告知麻委会它对该物质的评价,包括把该物质列入清单A或清单B对合
drug trafficking. In the opinion of several representatives,法使用友非法加工或铜造活动所可能造成的影响,以及根据这一评价所建议的任何
the convention should leave it to the respective Parties to适当监测措施.
determine within their own national penal law, whether5.麻管局的评价在科学问題上应是决定性的.麻委会在考虑了各缔约国提
and when sanctions should be applied and whether these sanctions would be of an administrative or criminal nature. 216. With a view to reconciling the divergent positions held regarding the substantive content of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, the Group decided that the discussion would continue informally among interested experts. Following consultations, a compromise draft was submitted to the Group for its consideration. 217. By using the formula "each Party", the new text now indicates that the measures envisaged in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 were to be taken individually by Parties within their own jurisdiction. 218. An amended part of the introductory sentence of paragraph 2 and paragraph 3 of the initial draft were combined into paragraph 2 of the compromise draft. The measures provided in paragraph 2 were grouped into category (a) concerning more specifically those carriers having their principal place of business within the territory of the Party and category (b) dealing with any carrier operating within the territory of the Party. It was, however, the understanding that Parties could apply, in appropriate cases, all the measures envisaged under subparagraphs 2(a) and 2(b) to all carriers. 219. As interpreted by one representative, the wording of the introductory sentence indicated that the measures spelled out in subparagraphs 2(a) and 2(b) were illustrative of those measures that States "may include" in their national legislation to ensure that means of transport operated by commercial carriers are not used in the illicit traffic. 220. The modality of cooperation between States and carriers included in subparagraph 3(b) of the original draft was dealt with separately in the new paragraph 3. In that paragraph, reference is made to "point of entry and exit and customs control areas" so as to cover the diverse factual situations prevailing in different countries. 221. The Group approved by consensus paragraphs 2 and 3 as redrafted. 222. The provision concerning sanctions that might be imposed on carriers, which appeared in the second sentence of the initial paragraph 2, was reformulated in a separate paragraph 4. It was understood that should sanctions be considered appropriate these should be of an administrative rather than of a criminal nature. Several representatives were of the view that, as reformulated, paragraph 4 added nothing to the rights already enjoyed by States under general international law and the Group consequently agreed to delete it. Two representatives expressed reservations about the deletion and stated that they would revert to the matter at the second meeting in October. Article 11 bis First session 223. One representative proposed for consideration at a later stage, as an additional article, the proposal of his Government in paragraph 811 of the working document, which could not be accommodated in the framework of article 11, to the effect of ensuring the correct labelling of consignments of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, the accurate use of the listed International NonProprietary Names, and the proper utilization of accompanying papers, customs documents and manifests. Second session 224. The Group considered the new paragraph 11 bis as proposed at its first session. 225. In support of the inclusion of such a provision, reference was made to recommendation 8 of the Interregional HONLEA calling for measures to ensure that consignments of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances be correctly described on all accompanying papers, customs documents and manifests. 226. Some representatives held the view that the inclusion of such an article would not serve any useful purpose. On the contrary, the proposed requirement that consignments should be properly labelled might induce criminal diversion. Moreover, the reference to substances in List A or List B was inappropriate in view of the provisions of article 8. 227. Following informal consultations, a revised draft was placed before the Group requiring that exports of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances be properly documented and that the consignments being exported were not mislabelled. The Group agreed on the proposed reformulation. Several delegations requested the deletion of the square brackets at the end of paragraph 1, so that the consignee would be mentioned only in so far as he is known. Three representatives explained the difficulties they had in accepting the new article because of some of its legal and practical implications. In their opinion, it would require reconsideration at a later stage in the light of further appropriate consultations. They consequently placed on record their reservation as regards the propriety and tenor of the new article approved by the Group. Article 12 228. Several representatives expressed support for the general tenor of the draft article. However, it was noted by 28 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances some representatives that a number of its provisions might give rise to problems from the point of view of criminal law or the international law of the sea. One representative emphasized that any action against ships by States other than the flag State in cases where the evidence of illicit traffic was not clear and manifest could lead to abuses and might undermine legal principles which were important. A treaty provision waiving the flag State's consent could lead to traffickers merely having their vessels registered under a flag of convenience, and consequently such treaties would probably not serve the purposes intended. 229. The Group approved, without amendment, the text of paragraph 1 which sets out the general obligation for States to cooperate to the fullest extent possible to suppress the illicit traffic. 230. In connection with paragraph 2, it was suggested that it would be desirable to extend its provisions to cover unregistered ships which are required to be registered, as well as registered ships. It was also suggested that rather than speaking of "registered under its laws" it would be preferable to use in that paragraph, and throughout the article, the expression "flying its flag" which was the common term of the article. 231. The Group approved for paragraph 2 a revised formulation, taking into account the above suggestions. 232. The reference in the draft to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was not considered appropriate by some delegations as that Convention, after its entry into force, might not be binding on all Parties to the present instrument. Divergent views were expressed regarding the use of the expression "high seas" in paragraph 3. Some representatives were in favour of retaining that term while others objected to it and deemed it preferable to rely on the concept of territorial sea or waters. In lieu of the term "high seas" the Group agreed to refer instead to the area "beyond the external limits of the territorial sea", without prejudice to any rights enjoyed by the coastal State seaward of those limits. Some representatives recalled the existence of a contiguous zone in which States had exclusive rights in respect of matters relating to customs, taxation, health and immigration. The Group agreed that the reservation concerning the rights of the coastal State in the new text included that zone. Some representatives expressed reservations with regard to this formulation, in view of the fact that, as signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, they would construe and implement the provisions of this article in a way compatible with their obligations under that instrument. 233. The Group approved the proposal made by several representatives that with regard to vessels flying the flag of another Party, the prior consent of the flag State must be given before a vessel may be boarded, searched and seized. In the case of seizure, it was emphasized that this action should be contemplated only if evidence of the vessel being engaged in illicit traffic was discovered. Paragraph 3 was amended to reflect these requirements. In交的意见以及麻管局提出的意@建议M当考虑到任何其M关因素之后,可表
view of the inclusion of the requirement for prior permission, the reference to vessels flying the flag of the boarding决以其成员的三分之二多数作出决定将某一物质列入清单A或清单B.
State was considered superfluous, as a flag State had jurisdiction over its vessels in the situation envisaged in that6.麻委会按照本条作出的任何决定,应由秘书长通知联合国全体会员国、已
paragraph.成为本公约締约囯的非会员国以及麻管局.
Similarly, reference to vessels not displaying a这一决定自通知之曰起1 80天后即 对各締约国完全生效.
flag or markings of registry was unnecessary as the question of prior permission did not arise in such cases. Subparagraphs (a) and (c) were consequently deleted.7. (a)对麻委会根据本条作出的决定,在发出关于该#的通知之日起180 天内,如有任一缔约囯提出请求,理事会便应对该决定进行审查.应 将审查请求连同提出请求所棂据的全部有关资料送交秘书长. (b)秘书长应将审查请求及有关资料的副本转送麻委会、麻管局及全体締
234.约国,请其于9 0天之内提出评论意见.
It was pointed out that the authority to be designated by each Party, in accordance with paragraph 4, would所收到的全部评论意见应
not necessarily be competent to act upon requests from—提交理事会审议. (O理事会可确认或撤領麻委会的决定.有关理事会决定的通知应转送
another Party, but only to respond to them in an expeditious manner.瑕合国全体会员国、成为本公约缔约国的非会员国、麻委会和麻管局.
The wording was amended accordingly.8.
The如一締约国或麻管局捆有材科i明应将某一物质从清单A或清单B中删除, 或从一弦清单转到另一张清单,则本条第2至第7款中所述程序亦应适用
Group also approved a proposal to amend the second and9.各缔约国应就清阜A和清单B所列物质采取下列措施: -17 1 ⑷建立并保持监测清单A和清单B所列物质国际贸易的制度,以便于查
third sentences of paragraph 4 so as to indicate more明可疑交易在同制造商、进口商、出口商、批发商和零售商密切合作实施 这类监测刳度,他们应向国家主管当局报告可疑定货和交易;
precisely at what time the flag State should designate an(b)规定清单A或清单B所列任何物质在有充分证据证明其被周^#法加
authority to receive and respond to requests from other工或制it^ 一麻薛药品或精神药物时应予收缴(ci在有理由怀疑进出口或过境的清单A或清单B所列某一物质拟用于非
Parties for the purposes of paragraph 3, as well as the time法加:L或制造麻薛药品或精特药物时,应尽快将此情况通知有关缔约 国的国家主管.当局和部门,其中应特别包括关于支付手段和引起怀疑
limit for the notification of the designation to all other的任何其他主要因素的情况
Parties.⑴要链出口飾应姑过当标签,并附有必要的单证.、应在发票、货 物清单、提单、海关单据及其他货运单据等商业单i中列入所进口或 出口的清阜A或清阜B中所列物质的名称、进口或出口的数量,以及 进口商、出口商和〔若有的话〕收货人的姓名和地址:
235. The Group agreed to amend paragraph 5 so as to(e) 5角保⑷项中提到的单证至少嘴存两年,并得提供国家主管当局检查。
cover existing as well as future treaties, whether they be10. (a;除第9款的规定之外,各缔约国在有清单A所列物质输出其领土时,
multilateral or bilateral. In conformity with the corresponding deletion made in paragraph 3, the Group agreed均应确保在输出前由其主管当局向进口国的主管当局提供下列情况:
to delete subparagraph (a) referring to judicial requirements where the vessel in custody was flying the flag ofH出口茼和进口商的蛀名和地址:
the boarding State.口清单A所列物质的名称:
236. The Group approved a proposal to delete paragraph 6 as the provision which conferred to one Party㈢该物质的出口数量:
alone the right to call in question an agreement or arrangement was not in keeping with international practice.㈣预定的入境口岸和估计的发运日期.
237. In order to emphasize and safeguard the overall⑶缔约国可视需要采取比本款规定更为严格或严厉的管制措施.
interest of the flag State in any action undertaken pursuant11.各締约玛应按麻管局所规定的形式和方法,并用其所提供的表格,每年向
to the provisions of the article, the Group agreed to add麻管局提供如下情况:
a new paragraph 6 to the effect that the flag State concerned should be informed of the results of such action.(a)清单A和清单B所列物质的辑获量,以及所知悉的来源;
238. Several representatives supported a proposal to⑶任何未列入清单A或清单E、但查明已用于非法加工或制造麻醉药品
include an indemnity clause similar to that in article 110,或精神药物、月舞约国认为事态严重足以提请麻管局注意的物质;
paragraph 3, of the United Nations Convention on the Law(O转移用途和非法加工或制造的方法. -17 2 12.麻管局应每年向麻委会摄告本条执行情况,麻委.会应定期审查清单A和清
of the Sea, relating to piracy, to cover the loss or damage阜B是否充分和适当.
which may be sustained by vessels subjected to searches13.本条规定不适用于药用制剤,也不适用于以某科方式合成的含有清单A或
which prove unwarranted. Many representatives objected清单B所列物质的其他制剂,如杲这聍合成方式使之不易以方便的手段大量使用或
to the proposed inclusion, pointing out that the situation in回收这秭物质来有效地非法加工或制造I麻薛药品或精神药物
article 12, where prior permission from the flag State was绪约国应相互合作,取缔用于非法制造麻薛药品和精神药物的材料和设备之贸
required, was different from that in article 110 and that易«
such a provision would inhibit action by States in the fight暂定清单
against the illicit traffic. The proposal was not agreed(有关盐类等物质的更精确定义尚有待拟定)
upon. One delegation expressed the opinion that the draft请单A
Convention should contain a liability clause which would,麻 餘
among other provisions, clearly stipulate the obligations of麦角新摸
the requesting and requested Parties.麦角胺
Article 13麦角酸
239. During its consideration of article 13, which the清单
Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its thirty-second sessionB
had agreed to retain as formulated in the preliminary text,醋酸野
one representative referred to the proposal of his Government for a more comprehensive draft as reproduced in丙萌
paragraph 867 of document DND/DCITAVP.l. There was邻氨基苯甲酸
general agreement that those proposed provisions were too Preparatory work 29乙基醚
detailed and would be difficult to implement because of苯乙酸
their complexity. It was decided that the initial versionp
of article 13 should remain the basic text for discussion in龙啶
the Expert Group.苯基—2一两萌
240. It was agreed that in order to ensure the effectiveness of the measures envisaged to suppress the illicit traffic憾黄 殡
in free trade zones and free ports, which were particularly第9条‘‘
vulnerable to the illicit traffic, paragraph 1 should be材嵙和设备
amended to indicate that such measures should be "no less讨由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
stringent" than those applied in other parts of the national1988年,朴编第 3 号》(E/1988/13),第39-50段)。 ’ -17 3 第1 0条+
territory.根除非法种植的麻醉品植物和消除麻醉品非法需求fe措施
241.1.
The Group agreed that the wording in subparagraph 2(a) should be amended to take into account the fact合締约国应采取适当措施防止非法秭植并根除在其領土上非法秭植的含有
that it was within the normal competence of States to精神或麻醉物质的植物,诸如罌粟、古柯树和大麻植物.这秭措施的严厉程度应
empower their appropriate authorities to perform search operations. It was also agreed not to limit the provisions to "incoming and outgoing vessels" but to cover "cargoes" as well. 242. The Group agreed to extend the provisions of the article to include the "search of crew members and passengers and their baggage" in free trade zones and free ports. It was pointed out that systematic or indiscriminate search operations would raise practical difficulties and might have legal implications as regards respect for the rights of individuals. It was therefore agreed that the provision of subparagraph 2(b) should refer to the search of crew members and passengers only "when appropriate". Article 14 243. One representative reiterated the proposal of his Government to qualify the provisions of this article, as well as all the other articles of the draft Convention, by the clause "within the basic principles of the existing national legal system". Several representatives expressed support for this formulation as far as article 14 was concerned. It was, however, the general view that such a formulation might not prove valid for all the provisions of the draft Convention. 244. It was also agreed to limit the scope of the safeguard clause to basic principles of national legal systems, and not to extend it to norms, so as to allow the possibility for Parties to adopt or amend their legislation to implement the provisions of the new draft Convention inasmuch as it did not interfere with the basic principles of their respective legal systems. 245. The Group agreed on a revised safeguard clause for the article reading as follows: "consistent with the basic principles of their respective national legal systems". 246. It was suggested that an appropriate safeguard clause protecting the sovereignty of the State Parties might be the subject of a separate article in the draft Convention. In that connection it was pointed out that safeguard clauses such as those included in the existing Conventions were intended to indicate the freedom of Parties to choose the modalities for the execution of the binding provisions of the Conventions. 247. It was agreed that the word "prevention" in the title of article 14 should be replaced by the word "suppression" so as to bring the title in conformity with the provisions of paragraph 1 and to cover simultaneously the concept of preventive and repressive action as referred to in subparagraph 2(a). 248. Several representatives expressed the view that the provisions of the article should not infringe the right of privacy and secrecy of communications. To that effect it was agreed that the word "control" in subparagraph 2(a) of the text as amended by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs should be deleted. Preliminary exchange of views on the preamble, implementation measures and final clauses 249. In commenting on the preamble, several representatives indicated that it should be made more concise. It was also suggested that it should state the general guiding principles underlying the various provisions. 250. Some representatives expressed the view that the preambular paragraphs should not be selective but cover all the elements contained in the substantive articles of the convention. In that connection the preambular paragraphs should follow the same sequence as the articles in the convention. 251. One representative emphasized the importance of retaining in die preamble the reference to the links between drug trafficking and other associated organized criminal activities. 252. Another representative reaffirmed the importance of indicating in the preambular paragraphs the relationship between this convention and the existing drug control treaties. 253. Several representatives expressed satisfaction with the general approach and formulation of the draft articles on implementation. 254. One representative was of the opinion that a reaffirmation of the rules of customary international law in the present convention would be appropriate in view of the many questions referred to in this convention that are not entirely regulated by its provisions. 255. Article 1 setting out general obligations for the Parties was considered superfluous as it did not add to the specific obligations contained in each particular article. Its deletion was therefore suggested. 256. As regards the functions entrusted to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs by article 2, it was suggested that in accordance with the wording used in article 8 of the 1961 Convention, the article should state that the Commission "is authorized" to consider all matters pertaining to the aims of the convention. 257. The reporting procedure introduced in article 3 was commented upon by several speakers. Regarding the periodicity of the reports, it was stressed that annual reports would impose an excessive burden on Governments 30 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances as well as on international organizations concerned; it would be preferable to phase out their submission in a flexible manner. As to their content, it was proposed that in addition to laws and regulations, they could usefully include the text of bilateral agreements or arrangements and refer not only to significant cases of international traffic and seizure, but also to instances of controlled delivery, mutual legal assistance and other relevant elements. The outcome of judicial proceedings carried out under the provisions of the convention could also be of interest. 258. It was suggested that in view of its content, a more appropriate tide for article 4 would be "National coordination agencies". As regards paragraph (e) concerning the transmission of legal papers, it was felt that it should be incorporated in article 5. The substance of paragraph (e) could also with advantage be transferred elsewhere in the convention. 259. On the question of what body should be referred to under article V, the view was expressed by several representatives that it would not be desirable to establish a new committee for the purpose. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board, which had efficiently discharged their functions under the existing Conventions, would be able to perform the tasks contemplated in article 5. The opinion was expressed that a committee of the Commission, as suggested in the Secretariat's draft, composed of experts serving in their personal capacity could, however, play a useful role as the first level of control which would transmit its findings to the competent policy-making organ. 260. During the preliminary exchange of views on final clauses, several representatives expressed their preferences for either variants proposed in the working document, or for a combination of both. 261. Several representatives indicated that variant B of article 1, particularly the formulation: "open for signature by all States", was simpler, more succinct and corresponded to the current practice in the law of treaties. A reservation was expressed concerning the final clauses in relation to the position of the European Communities and their member States under the draft Convention. 262. With regard to article 3, concerning territorial application, some representatives were of the view that variant A was outdated and that a more suitable formulation was required. 263. One representative stated that the procedure for amending the convention as proposed in article 5, paragraph 2, was not considered satisfactory as it imposed too strict a deadline in a rather loose modus operandi. Another representative suggested that the agreement of a twothirds majority of Parties to the convention might be an appropriate criterion for the entry into force of amendments, and this suggestion was supported. 264. In the view of several representatives, the formulation of paragraph 3 of article 6 was not acceptable as the exceptional reservations which certain States would be authorized to make might be incompatible with the objectives and raison d'itre of the convention. The view was also expressed that the question of reservations could be properly addressed only after the substantive articles had been finalized. 265. With regard to the settlement of disputes, as envisaged in article 7, two representatives expressed their reservation regarding the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice; in their view, disputes must be settled between Parties by mutually agreed methods. 266. It was suggested that an article be added concerning the authentic texts of the convention and the transmission of certified copies to States Parties. 267. Several representatives indicated that at the scheduled second meeting of the Group, they would be in a position to present more specific proposals and amendments in connection with the detailed consideration of the preamble, implementation measures and final clauses.不低于《1961年麻薛品单一公约》和经《修正1961年麻薛药品单一公约的1972
DOCUMENT E/CN.7/1988/2 (PART IV)*年议定书》修正的该公约所规定的适用于辩M醉药品植物的要求 所采取的措
Report of the open-ended intergovernmental expert施应尊重基本人杈,并应适当考虑到这科植物在本国的传统用途以及对环境的保护《
group meeting at its third session2.缔约国可相互合作,增进微絲的效杲.这秭摊除其郷式外,可
[Original: English]包括菌情支持农杖综合发展,以M用经济上可行的.代秭植方案 在实施这秭
[8 February 1988]农村发展方案前,应考虑到诸如进入市场、可得资金和普遍的社会经济条件等因素
Chapter I缔约国可商定任何其他适当的合作措施.它们还应便进交流科技情报和进行有关
ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING根除活动的研究.有共同边界的締约国应设法相互合作在沿边界地区实行根除方
1. The third session of the open-ended intergovernmental expert group convened from 25 January to 5 February案.
1988 and held a further 15 plenary meetings.3.
The third締约各国应采取旨在消除对麻醉品非法需求的适当措施,以期消除非法贩 运的经济刺激.
session of the Expert Group was attended by 174 experts苐1 1 条 糾
from the following 62 States: Argentina, Australia, Austria,商业承运人
Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cameroon, Canada, Chile,1.締约国应采取适当措施以确保商业承运人经营之运输工具不被用于非法
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'lvoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Denmark, Ecuador,贩运:这类措施中可包括与商业承运人订立的特殊安排.
Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, German Democratic* 由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
Republic, Germany, Federal Republic of, Greece, Holy1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第34段)。 讨由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
See, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of),1988年,朴编第 3 号》(E/1988/13),第39-50段)。 ’ -17 4 2.各締约国应旻求商业承运人采取合理预防措施,防止其运输工具被用于非
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,法叛运.这类预防措施可包括:
Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri(a)如杲商业承运人在缔约国领土内设有主要营业地: ㈠ 训练人员识别可疑之货物或可疑之人;
Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey,㈡提高雇员品质; (b)如杲商业承运人在缔约国领土内经营业务: H如有可能,事先提供货物清单㈡在集装箱上加贴可逐一查验并可防作弊的封条;
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet曰尽早将可能与非法贩运有关的一切可疑情况报告有关当局 3 各缔约国应力求确保商业承运人与出入境口岸及其他海关管铜区的有关当
Socialist Republics, United Kingdom of Great Britain and局合作,防止擅自取用运输工具命货物,并执行适当的安全措施.
Northern Ireland, United States of America, Venezuela第1 1条之二 ‘
and Yugoslavia.标筌和商业单证 各缔约国应要求出口的麻薛药品命精神药物单证齐全.应在发票、货物 清单、提单、海关单据及其他货运单证等商业单证上按有关附表指定的名称列入出 口的麻辞药品湘精神药物的名称、出口数量以及进口商、出口商和在可能锖况下收 货人的姓名与地址.
2.2.
At the 1st meeting of the third session, on 25 January畚締约国应要求出口的麻薛药品初精神药物货物所贴标签准禱无误
1988, the Expert Group took note of the fact that four of讨由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录, 1988年,朴编第 3 号》(E/1
the officers who had been elected at the first session and9
were at the second session would again be present at the88/13),第395
*Excluding annex I and the corrigenda pertaining to it. Preparatory work 310段)。 ’ -17 5 Ml 2条” 海上非法贩运 1.缔约国应尽可能充分合作以取绪诲上非法厥运. 2.缔约国如有正当理由怀疑挂其国旗或未挂旗或未示注埘标志的船只被用于
third session, but that the post of Third Vice-Chairman,进行非法贩运而请求其他締约国协助其禁止使用此船进行这种运输时,被请求的缔 约国应尽其可能提供此科援助.
representing the African region, was vacant. In the latter3.在不损窖根据一般国际法规定的任何权刹的情况下,一结约国如有正当理 由认为悬挂.另..一缔约国国旗的某一船只在任何国家领海范围以外从事非法叛运,则
case, it was agreed that it would be appropriate to proceed该绪约国可在预先征得般旗国的许可后,登船、搜查并在查获非法叛运证据时扣枰 该般. 4.为本条第3款之目的,缔约国应以迅捷之方式答复另一缔约国的请求,确
to the election of a replacement.定某4只是否依其法律注册,或答复根据该款规定提出的征求许可的请求.
Accordingly, at the 4th
plenary meeting of its third session, on 28 January 1988,缔约国在加入本公约时应指定一个机构接受勒答复这类请求.应通过秘书长将各绪
the Expert Group elected by acclamation Claon Denis约囯为此目的而指定之机抅在指定后一个月内通知其他所有绪约国
Glohi (Cote d'lvoire) to the post of Third Vice-Chairman.5.查获非法贩运证据后,扣押船只之缔约国应按照适用的条约或按照事先与
The officers of the third session were therefore:般旗国达成的M其他协定或安排,对船只命船上人员采取适当行动,
Chairman: Enrique Parejo Gonzalez (Colombia)6.凡已釆取本条所述之任何行动的缔约国,应迅速向有关船旗国通报由于这
First Vice-Chairman: Gioacchino Polimeni (Italy)一行动而产生的结杲
Second Vice-Chairman: E. A. Babayan (Union of7.缔约国应考虑达成双边和区埃协定或安排,以发Ͽ或增强本条规定的效九
Soviet Socialist Republics)讨由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
Third Vice-Chairman: Claon Denis Glohi1988年,朴编第 3 号》(E/1988/13),第39-50段)。 ’ -17 6 第1 3条*
(C6te d'lvoire)自由贸易区湘自由港
Rapporteur: Hema Weerasinghe (Sri Lanka)缔约国应采取措施,取締在自由贸易区和自由港非法贩运受管制物质的活
3. The Expert Group had before it a provisional agenda动,这些措施的严厉程度应不低于在其领土其他部分执行的措施.
(DND/DCIT/WP.2.
6) and a provisional timetable (DND/缔约囯应设法:
DCIP/WP.7). The Expert Group took note of the fact that(a)监测货物在自由贸易区和自由港内的流动和转运情况,并应为此目的,
at its third session it should, if possible, complete its consideration of articles 1, 3, 4 and 5 as well as the preamble授杈有关当局搜查货物和出入船只,包括游船和渔船,以及飞机命车
implementation articles and final clauses. The Expert辐;
Group continued to base its discussions on working document DND/DCIT/WP. 1, which it had before it at its first(b)建立侦查系统以犮现命查明进出这些地区的可疑物质,包括视需要搜
and second sessions. During its third session, the Expert查船员和旅客及其行李;
Group also had before it the report on its first and second(c)在这些地区的港口湘码头区以及机场和边境检查站设驻巡逻队.
sessions (E/CN.7/1988/2 (Part II), which had been prepared for the tenth special session of the Commission on第1 4条
Narcotic Drugs.取缔利用邮件进行非法贩运
4. The Expert Group did not meet in plenary in the afternoons of 25 and 26 January and the morning of 27 January in order to permit an informal working group to meet with full interpretation facilities to progress with work on the review of article 3. The informal working group also met during part of the mornings of 26 and 28 January and part of the afternoons of 27 and 28 January, and it held a night meeting on 26 January. The First Vice-Chairman of the session, who acted as moderator of the informal working group, reported the Group's progress to the 47th plenary meeting on 1 February. No plenary meetings were held on the afternoon of 4 February and the morning of 5 February to permit further informal consideration of textual changes with full interpretation facilities. 5. In a statement at the 53rd plenary meeting on Thursday morning, 4 February 1988, the observer from the Commission of the European Communities stated that the European Economic Community (EEC) wished that the new convention would contain a clause providing for the possibility of the participation of EEC in preparing the convention, within the limits of its competences. A detailed proposal concerning the final clauses of the Convention would be presented at a later stage. 6. In the course of its discussions at the third session, the Expert Group considered and completed its discussion of articles 3 and 4, and paragraphs 1-9 of article 5; it also reviewed parts of articles 2 and 2 bis in the light of its work on articles 3, 4 and 5. 7. At its 54th plenary meeting, on 5 February 1988, the Expert Group approved the revised text of articles 3 and 4, and parts of articles 2, 2 bis and 5, as amended by consensus or with variants indicated in square brackets when no complete agreement could be reached. It then adopted its report and instructed that the revised versions of the texts approved at the session should appear as annex II to the report. Chapter II REVIEW OF THE DRAFT CONVENTION Article 3 8. The Group resumed its consideration of article 3, initiated at the second session, and decided to refer the further elaboration of the draft to an informal working group. 9. In reporting to the Group on the results of the discussions in the informal working group, the moderator of the working group indicated that the experts had taken as a basis for their consideration of the article the original draft proposed by the Secretariat, a number of texts proposed by several representatives for the redraft of the article as a whole or some specific provisions of the original draft, as well as draft proposals reflecting informal consultations at the second session on the disposition of property forfeited in the territory of other Parties. It was generally felt that the original draft of the article proposed by the Secretariat went into excessive detail and that a different structure was required to improve its clarity. 10. The moderator outlined the approach which the informal working group had taken in redrafting the article and introduced the new draft article arrived at together with additional proposals which had been placed before the informal working group but could not be discussed for lack of time. According to the new structure of the article, paragraphs 1-3 dealt with measures of confiscation and other related matters by a Party at the national level, whereas paragraphs 4-6 dealt with cases of confiscation and other related matters, implemented by one Party, upon the request of another Party in the context of international cooperation; paragraphs 7-8 had a general scope applicable to all cases of confiscation and related measures. Within each section, matters relating directly to confiscation and forfeiture were separated from other related measures such as identifying, tracing, freezing and seizure, instrumental to an eventual confiscation, as only the terms confiscation and forfeiture defined the final step of depriving traffickers of the profits of drug trafficking while the others were procedural measures to be contemplated prior to and in order to effect confiscation and forfeiture. 11. The provisions of the new article had been drafted in a flexible manner so as to facilitate their acceptability and implementation in the different domestic legal systems. This approach was preferred to the proposal by several representatives to introduce a safeguard clause to the whole article and/or to specific paragraphs regarding constitutional limitations and basic principles of the domestic legal system. 32 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 12. The moderator indicated that the words "forfeiture" and "confiscation" had been placed in square brackets as there was no agreement as to whether one or the other term should be used in the article to cover the different ways in which the measures envisaged would be defined in the different national legal systems. Consideration would also have to be given, when reformulating the set of definitions in article 1, to several terms used in the new draft, such as proceeds, property and instrumentalities. The informal working group had placed some of these terms in square brackets pending a decision as to their acceptability by the Group. 13. With regard to paragraph 1, the informal working group had agreed to state the following in the introductory sentence: "Each party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to enable confiscation of: "(a) Proceeds derived from offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, or property the value of which corresponds to that of such proceeds; "(b) Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances used in or intended for use in die commission of offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1; "(c) Materials and equipment used in or intended for use in the illicit production, processing or manufacture of such drugs or substances; "(d) Other instrumentalities used in or intended for use in the commission of offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1." The moderator pointed out that the provision of subparagraph 1 (a) had been adopted by the informal working group to indicate that confiscation could be ordered for the proceeds derived from the offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, only when the Party concerned had established that these constituted offences under its domestic law. The intent of the provision was also to permit confiscation of the value of property derived from such proceeds whenever this was practicable. The moderator also indicated that the purpose of subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) was to cover the scope of article 37 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, dealing with seizure and confiscation, with the appropriate changes in terminology adapted to the scope of the new draft Convention. 14. The group agreed that the word "confiscation" should be retained throughout article 3 and to include in article 1 a definition that would indicate that it encompassed the concept of "forfeiture" as both terms were used in different national legal systems to refer to the same concept. It was also decided to define the term "instrumentalities" in article 1. 15. In order to highlight the objectives of the article and to make the obligations therein more explicit, one representative proposed the inclusion of an additional sentence in paragraph 1 to the effect that if the requirements for the measures to enable confiscation were satisfied under the domestic law, after appropriate review by the competent authorities, the items mentioned in subparagraphs 1 (a)-(d) should be confiscated. Several representatives considered that it would not be appropriate to include such a provision in an international convention, pointing out that since confiscation fell within the purview of the judiciary, the provision would constitute an unacceptable injunction to national courts and prejudice their sovereign rights. Some representatives proposed the inclusion of a more comprehensive safeguard clause to the effect that the provision should not only be in conformity with the domestic law but also according to the conditions established by the domestic law. 16. Taking into account the different comments and proposals, the Group agreed to insert at the beginning of paragraph 1 a new sentence to the effect that proceeds, narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, materials and equipment, and other instrumentalities derived from or used in offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, shall be liable to confiscation, with the understanding that the words "shall be liable" were not to be interpreted as constituting a strict obligation on the part of Parties to confiscate. 17. Several representatives proposed the deletion of the words "intended for use" in subparagraphs 1 (b)-(d), which the informal working group had left in square brackets, pending a final decision by the Group as to their retention or deletion. It was considered that they were superfluous as the preparatory acts to which they referred were already1.締约国应根据其加入万国邮政联盟各项公约所承担之义务,并在符合其本
covered by article 2, subparagraph lffoj(iii). Some other国法律制度基本原则的情况下,采取措施取缔利用邮件进行的非法贩运活动,并应
representatives indicated that the phrase was in conformity为此目的相互合作。
with the wording of article 37 of the 1961 Convention,2-本条譯1款所述措施应特别包括:
dealing with seizure and confiscation.(a)采取协调一致的预防和取缔行动,以禁止利用邮件进行非.
The Group agreed法贩运活动:
to retain the words "intended for use" on the understanding that it was up to each Party to undertake the obligations under this article in conformity with its domestic(b)由经授权的执法人员釆用旨在侦查邮件中受管制物质的调查技术:
law.(c)制订雄搢施,据以采用适当手段来获得司法所需之证据。
18. The Group adopted paragraph 2 as proposed by the- 由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全杈代表会议(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,
informal working group calling on each Party to adopt1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第34段)。 -17 7 第1 5条“
such measures as may be necessary to enable it to identify,麻委会的职能
trace, freeze, or seize proceeds, property, instrumentalities麻f会可审议与本公约宗旨有关的所有事项,椒〗是:
or any other things referred to in paragraph 1 of the article,㈣提出关于实施本公约宗旨与规定的建议(b)提请非締约国注意麻委会根据本公约所通过的决定及建议,以使其得
for the purpose of the eventual confiscation.以考虑据此采取行动:
19. The Group considered paragraph 3 as drafted by the informal working group to the effect that in order to carry out the measures referred to in paragraph 2, each Party(o)按照第8条规定病定及修改清单A和清单B;
shall empower its courts or other competent authorities to(d)请麻管局注意可能与其职能有关的任何事恥
order the production of bank, financial or other records.第1 6 条 #
20. Several representatives stressed the importance of由缔约国提交的报告
including such a provision in the article in view of the1.無约国应向秘书长提交麻委会所要求的为履行其职能所需的资轧
practical and significant contribution it could make to the2.缔约国应按麻委会所要求的方式及日期报送第1款所述资料。
fight against illicit drug trafficking. It was pointed out that*原为执行措施草案第二条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见
bank secrecy constituted a major impediment to the adoption of effective measures against drug trafficking and that《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编笫3号》(E/1988/13),笫109110段)o
it should not be invoked is a reason to refuse information-原为执行措施草案第三条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见
regarding offences listed in article 2, paragraph 1. Some《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第111115 段)。 78
representatives proposed that the paragraph should be第1 7条“
merged with paragraph 2 of which it constituted only one协调机秸
aspect. Some representatives pointed out that this paragraph should also apply to cases of international cooperation. Preparatory work 33在适当頋及本国宪法,法律及行政制度的情况下,缔约国应在国家一级惟出安
21. Some representatives indicated that the reference to雒,银词旨在剝止菲法厥运的预防、调查及取缔行动,特别是病保第6条所述的有
"other" records was ambiguous and should be deleted.效合仡
Some other representatives considered that reference to第1 8 条 砂
such records was important in order to have access to〔麻管局〕〔麻委会〕确保执行本公约各项规定的措施
corporate or business records, in particular those of sham1.⑶(麻管局〕(麻委会〕于审查各国政府报送秘书长或麻管局的资料后,
corporations which drug traffickers might have established. Some other representatives indicated that reference或于审查由联合国机关转送的资料后,如有理由认为由于某一国家未
to the "production" of bank records was ambiguous and执行本公约的规定而使本公约的宗旨受到严重危害时,〔麻管局〕嘛
not practicable since certain national legislations required委会〕应有权要求该国政府作出餑裕
that such records had to be seized in order to become(b)〔麻管局〕〔麻委会〕在按照本款⑶项采取行动后,如认为确有必要,
available for inspection. The Group agreed to delete the可促请有关国家政府菌情釆取为执行本公约规定所必要的补教措I
words "production" and "other" and to include commercial records among those that could be made available or(c)〔麻管局)〔麻委会〕若发现有关聽虽经依照本款⑷项请其倌出解
seized. The Group approved a compromise text on the释但未能提出满意的解释,或虽经依照本款⑶项请其釆取补救方法但
basis of the different comments and suggestions and未曽照办者,则可提请各缔约国、〔和〕理事会(湘麻委会〕注意此
agreed to state in a separate sentence that a Party shall not,原为执行措施草案第四条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见
decline to act pursuant to the provisions of this article on《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第116119 段)。
the grounds of bank secrecy.» 原为执行措施草案第五条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见
22.《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第120121段)。 -17 9 2.
The Group examined paragraph 4 as proposed by the〔麻管局〕〔麻委会〕应发表关于依照本条规定所处理的任何事项的报告,
informal working group, dealing with confiscation following a request made by another Party having jurisdiction投送理事会,并由理事会转送所有締约国。如杲有关政府提出要求,它还应在报
over an offence established in accordance with article 2,告书内公布该政府的意I
paragraph 1, and in conformity with the provisions of3.(麻管局〕〔麻委会〕依照本条规定发表的某一决定倘系未经一致同意者,
article 5. The requested Party was put under obligation to则少数方面的_见应予叙明C
(a) seek an order of confiscation and, if granted, give4.〔麻管局〕〔麻委会〕树会议繩絲规定审议问题时,应邀请与之直
effect to such order; or (b) enforce the order of confiscation granted in the requesting State. The paragraph as接有关的任何国家派代表参机
drafted was left in square brackets by the informal working group as no agreement could be reached on its content,5.(麻管局〕(麻委会〕依照本条作出的决定应以(麻管局〕〔麻委会〕全
particularly concerning the modalities for the implementation of a confiscation request. There was also disagreement regarding the concluding sentence of the paragraph体成员三分之二多舉同意通逸
which stipulated that a requested Party was to give effect第1 9条*
to the request of another Party to the same extent and执行较本公约更为严格的措施
under the same conditions as would be available to its own缔与国如认为可取或有必要,可采取较本公约所规定的更为严格或更为严厉的
judicial authorities.措施以防止或制止非法贩运。
23. Several representatives considered that the scope of# 原为执行措施草案第六条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见
the paragraph was too wide and that the measures envisaged therein should be implemented at the discretion of《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编笫3号》(E/WSS/L
the Parties in the context of bilateral and multilateral3
treaties. Some representatives, drawing attention to the),第1
innovative nature of the scheme envisaged, held the view22
that it should be first experienced and developed between123 段)。 -18 0 笫2 0条年
States with similar legal systems before it could be included in an international instrument.签署、批准和加入
24. Some representatives proposed the deletion of the(备选案文A )
reference to article 5 concerning mutual legal assistance as1.联合国会员国、非联合国会员国但系联合国某一专门机构或屆际原子能机
the Group had not yet examined its provisions. The view抅成员国或国际法院规约的当事国,以及由理事会邀请之任何其他国家,均可通过
was expressed that the field of cooperation envisaged in下列方式成为本公约缔约国:
article 5 was of a more limited scope than the wider forms(a)签署公约:或
of cooperation necessary for confiscation. On the other(b)于筌署后须经批准时批准公约;或
hand, several representatives considered it necessary to(c)加入公约.
retain reference in subparagraph 4(a) to the procedural2 本公约在 以前(包括该日在内)开放供签署 在此之后,开放供
requirements of paragraphs 5, 6, 7, 8 and 11 of article 5.加入,
The Group agreed to this proposal and placed such a reference in square brackets pending its consideration of3.批准书或加入书应交由秘书 存.
article 5. 25. One representative proposed an amendment in the sense that a Party should give effect to a request for confiscation in accordance with its national legislation. It was pointed out that this was necessary as an order of confiscation was a sanction resulting from conviction and enforceable under the domestic legal system of the requested State. Several representatives further proposed that bilateral and multilateral treaties should be mentioned in the same context. It was agreed that the new draft Convention could also constitute the basis for this form of international cooperation. 26. In view of the different proposals and comments, the Group agreed to include in the paragraph, subsequently labelled 4(c), a stipulation that Parties were to give effect to a request for confiscation on the basis of and in accordance with their domestic law, bilateral or multilateral agreements which may, at the discretion of the requested Party, include the new draft Convention. 27. Several representatives proposed that the wording of the two subparagraphs should be consistent. To that effect the Group agreed to a redraft of the second subparagraph to the effect that a Party shall submit to its competent authorities, with a view to giving effect to it, an order of confiscation issued by the requesting Party in accordance with paragraph 1, to the extent to which it relates to proceeds, property, instrumentalities or other things referred to in paragraph 1 as long as these are situated in the territory of the requested Party. 28. The Group examined a proposal to include an additional subparagraph to the effect that for the purpose of the application of the provisions of this paragraph, and provided that it is not contrary to principles of the domestic law of the requested State, all evidence provided by the requesting Party shall be admitted as evidence by the requested Party if it has been obtained in accordance with the legislation of the requesting Party. This proposal was withdrawn as its authors considered that it would become meaningless with the deletion of the last clause requested by some representatives. 29. The Group agreed to maintain paragraph 4 as amended in square brackets as there was no agreement as to its substantive content. 30. Some representatives placed on record their opinion that the provisions of the amended paragraph did not cover all the issues raised under this paragraph and that other matters such as the protection of the rights of defence, double jeopardy and concurrent jurisdiction should be considered for possible inclusion at a later stage. 31. One representative proposed the deletion of paragraph 5 as drafted by the informal working group and the inclusion of its substantive content in article 5, subparagraph 3(c) concerning execution of requests for searches and seizures. Some other representatives objected to this proposal and supported the retention of the provision in article 3 as the thrust of paragraph 5 was international cooperation to effect confiscation which was wider in scope than article 5 on mutual legal assistance. 32. In view of the close connection between the measures envisaged in paragraphs 4 and 5, the Group agreed to insert paragraph 5 in paragraph 4 as subparagraph 4(b). 34 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances The wording of the provision was brought in line with that of subparagraph 4(a) and its implementation was made subject to the conditions stipulated in subparagraph 4(c). 33. As regards paragraph 6 of the draft emanating from the informal working group concerning the disposition of property forfeited in the territory of other Parties, several representatives recalled that there was consensus at the second session on the importance and desirability of having such a provision in the article. There was agreement that the implementation of such a provision should recognize the sovereignty of the Parties, be effected through bilateral, multilateral or other agreements between the Parties concerned and that Parties should have the maximum flexibility in determining the modalities for the sharing of the seized proceeds. 34. In the opinion of several representatives, the proceeds from international illicit traffic in drugs which were, in fact, overwhelmingly concentrated in developed countries, should be utilized to finance drug control programmes in developing countries directly affected by the illicit traffic. In this connection, it was stressed that such transfers of funds would be non-mandatory in nature and that they would be supervised by and channelled through reliable and recognized international institutions, such as the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control. 35. Contrary to the objections of some representatives that the Expert Group was not the appropriate forum for discussing and approving such a provision because of its political implications, and that the issue should best be referred to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, several representatives considered that the Group could well discuss the technical aspects of the provision and propose a formulation, it being understood that the decision as to its inclusion in the draft would rest with the competent bodies at the further stages of elaboration of the draft Convention. 36. The Group began consideration of the draft emanating from the informal working group and adopted a provision stipulating that proceeds or property that have been confiscated by a Party pursuant to this article shall be disposed of by that Party according to its domestic law and administrative procedures. 37. Several representatives reiterated their objections to another proposed subparagraph in which Parties were called upon to give special consideration to concluding agreements to contribute, when acting on the request of another Party in accordance with article 3, the value, or a substantial part thereof, of the property and proceeds confiscated under paragraph 1 to international or regional organizations specializihg in the fight against the illicit trafficking and abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. The proposed text further provided that funds so contributed shall be destined to the financing of programmes, to be established jointly with Parties directly involved in these agreements and implemented in their territories, aimed at the prevention of and fight against the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Some other representatives objected to a second proposed provision to the effect that a Party which has confiscated proceeds or property upon request of another Party, may elect to share, on a regular or case-by-case basis, such proceeds or property, or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds or property, with other Parties, in a manner provided by its domestic law, administrative procedures or bilateral or multilateral agreements entered into for this purpose. 38. One representative proposed that some of the substantive elements of both proposals should be merged into a single subparagraph. 39. Following informal consultations, the Group agreed to a compromise draft of paragraph 5 which took into account the various comments and proposals made in the course of the discussion. 40. Divergent views were expressed regarding the words "and property", "shall" and "may" in the first sentence and the words "or property", "shall" and "may" in the second sentence of paragraph 7 which were placed in square brackets in the draft of the informal working group. The provision of that paragraph concerned proceeds and/or property which could be subject to measures referred to in the article notwithstanding that they had been intermingled with property acquired from other sources, or had been transformed or converted into other property. Income or other benefits derived from such proceeds or property were also to be subject to such measures. 41. Several representatives were of the opinion that the provision should be made mandatory and proposed the retention of the word "shaU" in both instances in the paragraph. Several other representatives held the opposite view so as to take into account the diversity of legal systems. Some other representatives proposed die retention of the word "shall" in the first sentence if the reference to property was also retained and "may" in the second instance if the reference was to proceeds. 42. In view of the divergent positions the Group decided(MSxj b )
to leave the disputed words in square brackets in the1.本公约开放供所有国家荃署
agreed new paragraph 6.2.本公约须经批准.批准书应交由秘书长保存.
43. One representative proposed that the adoption of a3-本公约开放供所有国家加入 加入应在加入书交由秘书长保存后生效.
provision to the effect that Parties agree to take necessary*原为最后条款第一条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见《经济
measures, to the extent possible, for ensuring that, during及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第
judicial proceedings, the onus of proof regarding the3
legitimacy of property and assets rests on the accused号》(E/L
trafficker.98 8
44. Several representatives objected to this proposal in/L
view of the fundamental importance they attached to the3
principle of presumption of innocence for all offences,),第I
including drug trafficking, as well as to other principles of2 4
their constitutions.段)。麻
45. One representative observed that the original draft委会对最后条款草案进行了大致的讨论(见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,I
article prepared by the Secretariat included a provision to988
the effect that evidence establishing that, in relation to the年,补编笫3号》(E/1988/13),第124-136段)。由于其技术和程序性质,
value of the proceeds, the person, association of persons,麻委会决定交由审查组或全杈代表会议本身审议这些条款。审查组根据欧洲
corporation or other legal entity having no apparent legitimate source of income to justify their acquisition, should共同委员会的一项提案,同意修正第
be taken into consideration and that, in his view, such a2
provision did not appear to infringe on human rights. Preparatory work 350条。 -18 1 第2 1条*
46. The Group agreed to a compromise text of a nonmandatory but exhortative character to the effect that each生 效
Party may consider ensuring that the onus of proof be(备选案文A )
reversed regarding the legitimacy of proceeds or other1.本公约应自第一条第1款所述国家中的二十/三十/四十个国家签署本公
property liable to confiscation, to the extent that such约而无关于批准的保留,或已交存其批准书或加入书后第三十/六十/九十日起开
action is consistent with the principles of its domestic law始生效.
and with the nature of the judicial proceedings.2.对于任何其他国家,如签署本公约而无关于批准的保留,或在前款所述之
47. Two representatives expressed their reservation to最后一顼筌署或交存之后才交存批准书或加入书者,本公约应自其签署本公约或交
the agreed formulation.存其批准书或加入书后第三十/六十/九十日起开始生效.
48. The Group examined paragraph 8 of the draft article(备选案文E )
emanating from the informal working group to the effect本公约应自莬二十/三十/四十份批准书或加入书交存于瑕合国秘书长之
that the provisions of article 3 should not be construed as曰后苐三十/六十/九十曰起开始生效.
prejudicing the rights of legitimate and/or bona fide third2.对于在苐二十/三十/四十份批准书或加入书交存之后批准或加入本公约
parties. The words "legitimate", "and", "or" and "bona的每一国家,本公约应自该国批准书或加入书交存之日后苐三十/六十/九十日起
fide" had been placed respectively in square brackets as开始生效.
no agreement had been reached in the informal working年原为最后条款草案第二条,由麻委会第十届特别会谡提交全杈代表会谈 ( 见
group as to which term should be used in the context of《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第124和
this paragraph. In order to cover the condition whereby a,rtpy 机 、
party, in addition to having acquired property legally卞乂 7 O ‘ 182 第22备*
should also have acquired it in good faith, it was proposed适用领土
that the word "or" should be deleted and the words "legitimate and bona fide" retained with the understanding that(备选案文A )
the term "legitimate" will be defined in article 1 in conformity with the present definition contained in the original draft. It was also observed that the term "legitimate"本公约应适用于由任一缔约国为之负责国际关系的一切非本郁领土,但依照该
normally applied to property but was not suitable for缔约国或有关领土之宪法或习惯须事先征得该领土之同意者除外.在此情况下,
persons.该締约国.
The Group agreed to delete the word "legitimate"应昼可能在最短期间,设法征得该领土之同意,并于征得同意后通知秘书
and to refer only to bona fide third parties.长.对于此项通知内指明的领土,本公约应于秘书长接获通知之日起适用.如
49. The Group agreed to adopt a general safeguard属不需事先征得同意之非本部领土,则有关缔约国应在签署、批准或加入之时,即
clause in a final paragraph stipulating that nothing contained in article 3 should affect the principle that the声明本公约适用的此等非本部领土.
measures to which it refers should be defined and implemented in conformity with and under the conditions established by the domestic law of a Party.(备选案文E )
50.1.
With a view to avoiding litigation by third parties任何国家均可在签署、批准或加入时,声明本公约适用范围应扩及其全部
that may obstruct the possibilities for Parties to seize their或任何由其为之负责国际关系的领土. 此项声明应于本公约对该有关绪约国生效
assets and property, one representative proposed the adoption of an additional paragraph providing that a Party之日起生效.
requested to give effect to a confiscation order of another2.在此之后的任何时间,即应以通知秘书长之方式作出此科声明,并应自秘
Party shall be bound by the findings and decisions of the书长接获此顼通知之日,或自本公约对该有关国家生效之日(二者以日期在后者为
latter Party with respect to the rights of third parties,准)之后的莬三十/六十/九十日起生效.
except in specified circumstances.3.
Several representatives对于在签署、批准或加入时本公约之适用范围并未扩及之领土,每一有关
sympathized with the objective of the provision but indicated that it raised complex problems of criminal and civil国家应亨虑是否可能采取必要步骤使本公约适用范围扩及此等领土,但如若由于宪
law as well as international private law. The proposal was法规定的原因,则仍应视需要征得此等领土的政府之同意
withdrawn, but it was stated that the issue was an important one that warranted further consideration.* 原为最后条款草案第三条,由麻委会第十届特别会议提交全权代表会议(见
51. One representative proposed to delete from article 3《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/L
the paragraph concerning bona fide third parties and9
include instead an additional article in the convention stipulating that the provisions of article 2 as well as those of88/L
article 3 shall not be so construed as to prejudice the rights3
of bona fide third parties. It was argued against the proposal that the relationship between the concept of bona),第I
fide third parties and the provisions of article 2, which24
dealt with sanctions for offences committed intentionally, was not clear. The proposal was not adopted by the和 128-129 段 ) o -183 第2 3条女
Group.退.约
Article 4(备选案文A )
52.1.
The Group resumed its consideration of article 4 on自本公约生效之日起满两年后,任何締约国均可代表本国或代表由其为之
the basis of the original draft, bearing in mind the comments and suggestions made in the general discussion at负国际责任且业已擞回依照苐三条作出同意表示之领土,通过向秘书长交存一份文
its second session on the article as a whole and on various书,宣告退约.
specific paragraphs.2-退约书在秘书长于任何一年的七月一日或七月一日前收到者,应于次年一
53. Several representatives proposed that paragraph 1 be月一日起生效,而退约书于七月一日后收到者,其生效日期与次年七月一日前收到
amended to specify that the provisions of article 4 apply者一样.
only to the serious offences established in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 2. Some representatives expressed the view that objective standards concerning the criteria for drug offences to be considered sufficiently serious to justify extradition should be indicated in the paragraph. In this connection several thresholds were suggested establishing the gravity of the offences, which varied from the deprivation of liberty for a maximum of one year to a maximum of two years. A minimum term of four months was also suggested in respect of a sentence where extradition was requested in respect of a person already convicted. Several representatives pointed out that in their respective countries double criminality was a prerequisite for extradition and that a clause reflecting this requirement should be inserted in paragraph 1. It was the common understanding of the Group that the additional paragraph 4 bis which was approved, and which applied to the different paragraphs of article 4, would adequately cover that concern. 54. The Group agreed not to include the word "serious" in the provisions of paragraph 1. It was pointed out that the serious nature of the offences covered in article 2, paragraph 1, was inherent in the wording of that provision which made it mandatory for each party to establish as offences under its criminal law specific acts listed therein. Several representatives indicated that article 2 had made a distinction between minor and serious offences. It was suggested by one representative that cases of a minor nature excluding extradition could be covered by inserting a clause in paragraph 5 specifying the grounds for refusal of extradition. 55. In view of the diversity of thresholds of penalties which warranted extradition, as established in the various legal systems and existing bilateral and multilateral treaties, it was agreed that no minimum or maximum limit should be set in the draft Convention as a criterion for extradition. It was argued that the establishment of a minimum threshold could constitute a bothersome precedent and provide the possibility of avoiding extradition for the serious offences under article 2, paragraph 1, should the threshold in the requested Party be lower than that in the requesting State. Several representatives objected to the consideration of the number of years of imprisonment as a determining criterion for the granting of extradition. 56. Several representatives reaffirmed their view that the objective of the draft Convention was not to establish an extradition treaty between States in the specific area of drug offences but to make extradition mandatory for all the grave offences covered in article 2, paragraph 1, on the basis of standards set by bilateral and multilateral treaties and national legislation, without making the conditions for 36 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances extradition for the above-mentioned offences different from those of other offences. In line with this approach the Group adopted an additional paragraph (paragraph 4 bis: paragraph 5 in the revised text) to the effect that extradition was to be subject to the conditions provided for by the laws of the requested State or by applicable extradition treaties. 57. The Group retained paragraph 1 as worded in the original draft upon agreement to replace the words "enumerated in" by the words "established in accordance with". 58. The Group agreed to retain paragraph 2 as it appeared in the original draft. It was argued in favour of its retention that the provisions would have the effect of supplementing extradition treaties already in force between Parties, particularly those based on die enumeration method where the offences under article 2, paragraph 1, may not be explicitly listed as extraditable offences. Some representatives considered that the provisions of the paragraph should apply only to future treaties and could not imply the retroactive inclusion of drug-related offences in existing bilateral treaties. 59. Several representatives considered that, in order to enhance the effectiveness of the new draft Convention and to improve upon the relevant provisions of the existing Conventions, the provisions of paragraph 3 should be drafted so as to make extradition for drug-related offences mandatory between Parties which are not bound by an extradition treaty. Accordingly the word "may" should be replaced by the word "shall". It was also argued that the amendment would have the result of placing countries that make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty in the same position as those which do not but who, pursuant to paragraph 4, have the obligation to recognize offences to which article 4 applies as extraditable offences between themselves. 60. Several other representatives objected to this proposed amendment on the ground that it would make the provision incompatible with their constitutional and domestic legal requirements. The proposal was particularly unacceptable to States which relied on bilateral treaties to spell out the terms and conditions of extradition. It was also observed that such a mandatory formulation would have the effect of giving preferential treatment as regards extradition to drug offences as compared with other equally serious offences. A proposal to introduce a safeguard clause which would take into account the requirements of the constitution and legal system was considered inappropriate. It was pointed out that the paragraph had in fact a limited application since most States could extradite on the basis of their national legislation without requiring an extradition treaty and that in practice extradition was governed by the principle of reciprocity. 61. The Group agreed to place the words "may" and "shall" in square brackets to leave the issue open for further consideration at a later stage. 62. The Group adopted paragraph 4 as drafted in the initial text with the understanding that the concluding safeguard clause would be deleted as it was superfluous following the adoption of an additional paragraph (paragraph 4 bis). 63. Several representatives proposed the deletion of the whole of paragraph 5 as it contained detailed provisions which should normally be regulated by domestic law and relevant bilateral and multilateral treaties. In their view, it was in contradiction with the approved new paragraph 4 bis. It was also stressed that the discretion of sovereign States to refuse extradition should not be restricted by the draft Convention. Several other representatives considered the provisions of the paragraph as essential to cope with the international aspects of drug trafficking and, in particular, to ensure that drug traffickers are brought to justice. In their view the deletion of paragraph 5 would weaken the other substantive provisions of article 4 and the draft Convention would, as a result, lose much of its impact. It was furthermore pointed out that the adoption of paragraph 4 bis did not preclude the possibility of providing in other paragraphs important clauses which it would be desirable to introduce in national laws and treaties governing extradition. 64. Some representatives expressed the view that subparagraph 5(a) should be deleted as its provision was contrary to their constitution, national legislation and customary legal practice. It was pointed out in that connection that in instances where States refused to grant extradition, they generally assumed a quid pro quo obligation to prosecute. Several other representatives stressed the importance they attached to subparagraph 5(a); in their opinion, the fight against drug traffickers would be in vain in the absence of a provision allowing for the extradition of nationals. Still other representatives said that the Convention should exhort Parties to seek to minimize legal constraints on their ability to extradite nationals. 65. Several representatives proposed that if the subparagraph was to be retained, the domestic legislation or the fundamental principles of domestic law should be mentioned in addition to the constitution of the requested Party as a justification for refusal of extradition. Some representatives proposed that whenever extradition was to be refused on these grounds, Parties should undertake to give urgent consideration to removing such obstacles. 66. Following informal consultations, a proposal was presented to the Group which included a revised formulation of the introductory sentence of paragraph 5 and a redrafting of subparagraph 5(a) dealing with the extradition of nationals. 67. As regards the proposed introductory sentence3*若由于按苐1命第2款规定宣告退约,莬二条苐1款规定的本公约生效之
which stated in general terms the obligation for Parties to条件已不复存在,则本公约应告终止,
facilitate the extradition of persons accused of offences案文£ ) 1-任一绪约国可随时向秘书长发出书面通知,宣告退出本公约. 2 此科退约应在秘书长接获通知之日起一年后对该有关缔约国生效.
established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, it3.任一国家依照苐三条规定发出通知后,可在此后的任何时间通知秘书长, 声明本公约的适用范围在秘书长接到该通知之日起一年后不再扩及于此等领土.
was agreed, in the light of a number of suggestions, to本原为最后条款草案笫因条,由麻委会笫十届特别会议提交全杈代表会议(见 《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1988年,补编第3号》(E/l^S/lS),笫I
make it applicable not only to accused persons but also to24
convicted persons. It was also decided to specify that die
request for extradition should emanate from another Partyxou-rx / o ‘ 184 第 24 条 女
to the Convention.修 正
68. Concerning subparagraph 5(a), one representative1*.任何缔约国均可对本公约提出修正案.此项修正案及修正之理由应送交 秘书长转致各缔约国及理事会.理事会可决定:
explained that the constitution or legal system of a State,(a)遵照联合国宪章第六十二条第四款之规定,召集一次会议,审议所提
as was the case in his own country, may not prescribe the Preparatory work 37议之修正案;或
refusal to extradite nationals but authorize it subject toCb)询问各缔约国是否接受所提议之修正案,并请其向理事会提出对此项
certain conditions such as, in particular, the existence of提议之意见. 2.依照本条苐1款㈦项分发之修正案,如在分发后十八个月内未有任何缔约 国提出反对,即应自此生效.但所提议之修正案如遭任何缔约国反对,理事会可 参照各締约国所提出的意见,决定应否召开一次会议来审议此项修正案. 第2 5 条 # 保 留 1-任一国家可于签署、批准或加入时对本公约的下列条款提出保留:
a treaty expressly allowing the extradition of nationals.(a)第......条
With this in mind, he considered it desirable to indicate atW %......条
the end of subparagraph (a) that the Convention under2.不得提出任何不符合本公约宗旨和目标的保留.若本公约三分之二以上
consideration should not be interpreted as binding on a原为最后条款草案第五条,由麻委会第十届特别会谈提交全权代表会谈(见
State Party in the above described context. The Group《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1388年,孙编第3号》(E/1988/13),笫124和
agreed to the inclusion of a sentence leaving Parties an131 段)o
option to elect or decline to consider the Convention as-原为最后条款草案笫六条,甴麻委会第十届特别会谈提交全杈代表会谈(见
satisfying a requirement under its constitution or domestic《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1SS8年,补编第3号》(E/1388/13),笫124和
legal system.132-133 段 ) o -18 5 的缔约国对某项保留提出异议,则该顼保留即应视为不符合本公约的宗旨和目标。
69.3 .
A representative queried the relationship of subparagraph 5(a) as amended with the provisions of paragraph 4凡愿意成为締约国但欲获准提出第1款规定范围以外的其他保留之国家,
bis with respect to the requirement of reciprocity in extradition matters.可将此种意向通知秘书长.
He was satisfied with the explanation that subparagraph 5(a) did not undermine the recognition of除非在秘书长就此项保留发出通知之曰起溝十二个月
lack of reciprocity as a separate ground for refusal but时,在该期限终止前业已莶署公约而不附批准保留的国家和业巳批准或加入本公约
merely dealt with another ground.的国家中有三分之一对此项保留提出异议,否则该项保留应视为已获准许,但有一
70. Several representatives requested clarification on the顼谅解,即曾对该项保留提出异议之国家无须对提出该项保留之国家承担任何因该
meaning to be attached to the expression "fundamental项保留而涉及的本公约所规定的法律义务.
principles of domestic law". They wondered whether4 r任一提出保留之国家可随时以书面方式通知秘书长撤回其全部或部分保留.
statutes or legislative acts could be considered as covered(第1款和第4款备选案文、
by this formula. In the negative, they favoured a reference1 .任何国家在签署、批准或加入时可对本公约除第...条和第...条以外的任何
to domestic law. It was the view of some other representatives that "fundamental principles of domestic law"一条提出保留.
should be understood as referring to principles which,4.依照本条苐1款提出保留的任何国家可随时向秘书长发出一项通知,撤回
although they might be found in ordinary statutes, constituted the basis of the legal system of a State. Consequently其全部或郁^^留.
States did not have an obligation to change their legislation when a change would have an impact on such principles. Another representative argued that fundamental第 26 条 女
principles meant more than ordinary statutes and covered,争 端
for instance, situations where States did not have written(备选案文A )
constitutions;1.
a reference to domestic law would change两个或两个以上结约国若对本公约之解释或适用发生争端,则应彼处协商,
the meaning of the provision. It was suggested that reference to "domestic legal system" might offer a satisfactory以期通过谈判、调查、调停、和解、仲裁、诉诸区域机构、司法程序或它们自行选
solution. One representative expressed the view that reference to "domestic legal system" or "fundamental principles of domestic law" without specific reference to择的其他和平方式,锌决争端.
"domestic laws of the requested Party" will automatically$ 原为最后条款草案第七条,由麻委会笫十届特别会谡提交全权代表会议( 见
oblige some States to extradite their nationals without《经济及社会理事会正式记录,1388年,补编第3号》(E/19S8/13),笫124和
the principle of reciprocity being available to them.134 段 ) o ‘ 186 2.
As no任何此神争端倘不能依照上述方式解决者,则应在发生争端的任何一个铕
agreement could be reached on this problem of interpretation, three alternative formulations (domestic law, domestic legal system, fundamental domestic law) were inserted约国的要求下提交国际法院裁决.
in square brackets. One representative stated that he reserved his position on paragraph 5(a) pending instructions(备选案文B )
from his Government, but would not object to the text1.两个或两个以上缔.约国对本公约之解释或适届犮生的任何争端,若不能通
going forward in square brackets.过谈判靜决,则应在其中任何一国提出要求时提交仲裁.如杲自提出仲裁要求之
71. Several representatives proposed that subparagraph 5(b) should be amended to cover extraterritorial日起六个月内,有关各方不能就举行仲裁达成协议,则其中任何一方便 可按照国际
aspects of jurisdiction and to limit its application to the法院的规约提出要求,将争端提交国际法院解决.
provisions of article 2 bis.2.
The Group agreed to include任一国家在筌署或批准本公约或加入本公约时,可声明不受本条第1款的
this proposal in the subparagraph which would be placed约束.其他缔约国对于作出此秭保留的任何缔约国而言,也不受本条第1款的约
in square brackets as no consensus was reached as to its束.
retention.3
72. Several representatives were in favour of deleting-业已依照本条第2款提出保留的任何締约国可陆时通知联合国秘书长,撤
subparagraph 5(c) as its provision would violate constitutional provisions concerning the right of asylum and the回此项保留.
systematic refusal of requests for extradition when offences are of a political nature.第 2 7 条 年
73. Several representatives supported the redrafting of逼 知
the subparagraph into a general declaratory statement to秘书长应将下列事项通知第一条第1款所述之所有国家:
the effect that the offences listed in article 2, paragraph 1,(a)依照笫一条作出的莶署、批准和加入;
should not be construed as political offences. The inclusion of fiscal offences in such a context was also suggested. Some representatives proposed that the subparagraph(b)依照第二条本公约生效之日期;
should be redrafted along the lines of article 3, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the European Convention on Extradition, adopted in 1957.(c)依照第四条宣告之退约;和
74. As regards paragraph 6, several representatives considered that its scope was too wide and again extended(d)依照第三、四和笫七条作出的声明和通知.
extraterritorial jurisdiction beyond the limits defined in*原为最后条款草案笫八条,甴麻委会笫十届特别会议提交全权代表会谈(见
article 2 bis. They accordingly supported a proposal for its《经济及社会理事会正式记录,沾88年,补编第3号》(E/1988/13),第124和
amendment in order to specify that the obligation of the135 段) o ‘ 187 第2 8条"
requested Party was not to try the person whose extradition was refused but rather to submit, without undue delay, the case to its competent authorities for the purpose正式文本
of prosecution if the requesting Party so requested. Bearing in mind the standard phraseology used in other international conventions, several representatives emphasized附件四
that the provision should not determine modalities of prosecution to be followed by the authorities of the requested在审查组会议上提出的有关公约
Party, but only the manner in which they would have to草案案文的进一步建议
take their decision.(供全权代表会议考虑)”^
75. With regard to the submission of cases to the competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution, it was序言草案
proposed that the paragraph should indicate that such an墨西哥的提案
obligation arose irrespective of the existence of a request〔第三段〕
from the requesting State and "without exception whatsoever". In order to preclude the submission of minor认识到麻醉品贩运是一科具有国际影响的犯罪活动,需要紧急加以注意并给予
offences, some representatives considered that the provision should also stipulate that only offences extraditable in最大限度的重视,
the requested Party should be submitted for prosecution.〔笫四段〕
76. As a result of the trend of the discussion, several了解到麻醉品贩运可获得巨额利润和财富,犯罪组织可试图籍此滲透、污染和
representatives introduced a new proposal for the formulation of paragraph 6. It was explained that the basic idea腐蚀各级政府组织、合法商务和金融企业以及社会各阶层,
consisted in distinguishing between the grounds on which冷在麻醉药品委员会第十届特别会谈上,有代表团提出建议,“应增加一条关于
the requested Party refused to extradite. Firstly, if extradition was refused on grounds of territoriality or of nationality or habitual residence, the requested Party would公约正式文本和经核钲的副本送交各締约囯的内容”(见《经济及社会理事会
have an obligation to submit the case for prosecution, it正式记录,1S88年,补编第3号》(E/1S88/13),第13S段)。
being understood that in the absence of a request, it would科由审查组提交全杈代表会议(见本文第14段)。 ‘ 188 〔笫五段〕
still have the right to do so. Secondly, if extradition was决定剥夺麻辞品贩运者对麻醉品需求的刺激和从其犯罪活动中得到的收益,从
refused on other grounds, the requested Party would have而消除其从事麻辞品贩运的主要刺激因素,
a mere option to submit the case for prosecution. The latter(第八段〕
provision was not considered absolutely necessary since it希望增进国际合作在国际诲洋法范围内制止从诲上非法贩运庥醉药品和精神药
merely reflected the actual situation under international物,
law.〔第九段〕
77. The authors of this text presented, in parallel with it,认识到从根本上消除麻醉品贩运是所有国家的责任,
a new draft of article 2 bis, paragraph 2, on the establishment of jurisdiction, in order to harmonize the wording of〔第十段〕
these two connected articles.意识到有必要在国际合作的范围内通过有效的协调行动对付非法麻醉品贩运问
78. The proposal was supported by several representatives who considered it as offering a valuable basis for题,
future consensus.〔第十二段〕
79. Several representatives wondered at the propriety of重申非法麻醉品贩运管制条约的指导原则以及这些条约所包含的麻醇品管制制
introducing the clause "Without prejudice to article 2 bis,度, 一
paragraph 3". Some representatives considered that other 38 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances〔删除最后一段〕。
paragraphs of article 2 bis should be mentioned as well.第1条
Some other representatives observed that there was no用语
need for safeguarding article 2 bis as it dealt with the阿根廷、澳大利亚、加拿大、尼日利亚、菲律宾、塞内加尔、大不列颠及北爱
establishment of jurisdiction, whereas article 4, paragraph 6, concerned the exercise of jurisdiction.尔兰联合王国、美利坚合众国和委内瑞拉的提案
80. Several representatives asked for clarification with[......] ‘ 189 (b) “商业承运人”系指为了报酬、租雇或任何其他利益而从事客运或货运的
regard to the use of the word "jurisdiction". It was explained that it was intended to cover the cases set out in任何个人或公营或私营实体。
article 2 bis, paragraph l(aj(i), regarding offences committed in the territory, and paragraph l(a)(ii)» relating to[......]
offences committed aboard a ship or aircraft, treated as^:在法文中,“报酬、租雇或任何其他利益”译为“a titre on^raux" (有
parts of the territory.偿地)。
81. Several representatives expressed concern as regards定义
the assimilation of "habitual residence" in a territory to墨西哥的提案
nationality as a ground for refusing extradition. It was«冻结”或预防性封锁系指由有关主管当局釆取的旨在暂时禁止财产的转移.
explained that some countries treated habitual residents as变换、处置或流动的防范措施;
nationals with regard to extradition; as for countries extraditing habitual residents, the provision would entail no“没收”系指经由法院判决确定地剥夺某些收益;
consequences for them.“收缴”或缴获系指由主管当局对财产加以扣押或控制;
82. The requirement of a request from the requesting“非法贩运”特别是指:
Party gave rise to objections from several representatives.㈠违反各国_的国内法、《1 9 6 1年麻酵品单一公约》、经《修
In their view, this condition could be interpreted as affecting the sovereignty of States. The obligation to prosecute_正1 9 6 1年麻辞品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约和
was in any case mandatory and should not be conditioned《 1 9 7 1年精神药物公约》的规定,播种、种植、收割、生产、制
by the existence of a request from the requesting Party.作、制造、提炼、酡制、调制、提供、提供出售、经销‘、供应、炉存、
Another representative expressed the view that this proposal did not affect the sovereignty of States but only the购买、获得、出售、处方、按无论什么条件提交、发送、通过
conditions of the international obligations which Parties邮件发送、过狱送、运输、进出口、持有、消费、不正当_和以
assume under this Convention.任何其他形式叛运任何麻薛药品或精神药物,或者违反本公约第8条
83. The view was expressed by one representative that的规定,对清单A和B所列物质采取上述各项行动:
the drafting of paragraph 6 should be inspired by the㈡明知其用途而制造或经销供非法生产、加工或制造麻薛药品、精神药
approach and language of recent conventions in similar物或清单A或B所列物质用的材料或设备:
matters such as the Convention against Torture and Other㈢明知其用途而持有供非法生产、加工或制造麻辞药品、精神药物或清
Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,单A或B所列物质用的材料或设备; ‘ 190 m明知财产系来自于上述某一项犯罪行为而隐瞒、掩盖或变换这种财产
adopted in 1984. In that perspective, that representative的性质、来源、处置、移动或所有权;
proposed a modified and simpler formulation of paragraph㈤明知财产系来自于丄述某一顼犯罪行为而获得、持有或使用这种财产;
6 which received support from several representatives.㈥通过任何交流手段,向其他人进行宣扬、宣传、一般的煽动、劝诱、
84. The Group agreed that informal consultations should鼓动或非法帮助行动,引诱他们以任何方式参与上述任何行为;
be held between the sponsors of the two proposals with a㈦参与、协同、共谋进行、试图进行、协助、教t和谋划进行上述任何
view to arriving at a common formulation. The results of犯罪行动:
these consultations appear in annex II.(/\)组织、管理、资助或便利上述任何犯罪行为。
85. The Group agreed to delete paragraph 7 as its provisions would impose far-reaching obligations on Parties to加拿大湘美国的提案
exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction tantamount to creating“没收”系指由法院或其他合法当局下令剥夺财产;
universal jurisdiction over the offences covered by the“冻结”系指暂时禁止财产的转让、变换、处置或流动;
Convention. Furthermore, its provisions were superfluous“以洗钱方式处理”系指转移、隐瞎或掩盖财产的性质、来源、地良处置、流
in view of the provisions of article 2 bis. One representative considered the provision objectionable as it would动、在财产中的利益或所有权;
make it incumbent on a Party to try an accused person«收缴”系指由一个合法当局对财产加以扣押或控制:
simply because this person was found in its territory.“追查”系指确定收益的性质、来源、地点、处置、流动、在财产中的权利所
86. With a view to complementing the provisions of有杈5
paragraph 6, one representative proposed the inclusion of“非法贩运”系指:
an additional paragraph to the effect that if extradition for(1)—种植,生产、制邋提炼、配制、提供、提供出售、经销、购买、出售、
purposes of enforcing a sentence was refused, the requested Party upon application of the requesting Party, should以贿紐交付、链、发选通过邮件发送、过境发送、运输、进口和
consider the enforcement of the sentence, or the remainder出口任何违反《1 9 6 1年麻醉品单一公约》的任何庥醉药品或精神药物、
thereof, which had been imposed under the law of the经修正《1 9 6 1年麻醉品单一公约》的《1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该
requesting Party. It was pointed out that such a new provision would avoid conflict of jurisdiction as Parties would not be called upon to engage in a new prosecution, but to enforce foreign sanctions under their domestic law, particularly in the case of absconded criminals, in the context of international cooperation. The proposal was supported by several representatives. Some representatives, while supporting such a provision, indicated that it should be of a non-mandatory nature. 87. The Group consequently adopted an amended version of the proposal to the effect that if extradition, sought for the purpose of enforcing a sentence, is refused for any of the reasons mentioned in paragraph 6, the requested Party shall, if its laws so permit and upon application of the requesting Party, consider the enforcement of the sentence, or the remainder thereof, which has been imposed under the law of the requesting Party. The enforcement of the transferred sentence would be subject to the conditions provided for by the law of the requested Party. It was explained that the enforcement of foreign sentences, an innovative concept in the matter of extradition, could be considered as an alternative to the obligation to prosecute and as a measure which the requested and requesting Parties could revert to if they so agreed. 88. Several representatives considered that paragraph 8 should be amended to provide a more liberal standard of procedural and evidential requirements for extradition as these no longer corresponded with the present exigencies of the fight against international drug trafficking. Some representatives considered that the new Convention provided an opportunity to eliminate the prima facie case requirement which constituted an impediment to the effective prosecution of drug traffickers. It was proposed to amend paragraph 8 by replacing the words "of evidence providing reasonable grounds to believe" by the words "of a valid arrest warrant or of an executory judgement of the requesting State establishing". This proposal received wide support. It was suggested that a statement of the facts should also be included in the request for extradition. On the other hand, some representatives proposed that the paragraph should be deleted as it was considered inappropriate to define in an international convention what elements should be included in an extradition request as these were specified in the relevant treaties and legislation on extradition. 89. Some representatives, supporting the deletion of paragraph 8, proposed instead the insertion in paragraph 10, where Parties are invited to consider entering into bilateral and regional agreements to carry out or to enhance the effectiveness of extradition, of a clause stating that the procedural and evidentiary requirements should be minimal as well as flexible and simple in nature. Such an approach would be consistent with the requirement to apply the new standards without discrimination as to different categories of crime. 90. Following informal consultations, the Group agreed to a compromise text to the effect that Parties shall endeavour to minimize procedural and evidentiary requirements for extradition with respect to offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1. To that end, a Preparatory work 39 valid arrest warrant or a final judgement of the requesting Party, together with an outline of the facts constituting the alleged offence, may be considered by Parties as sufficient to support a request for extradition. It was explained that the provision, in addition to not being mandatory, was illustrative as to some of the measures which States, desirous of relaxing evidentiary requirements, could adopt. 91. The Group agreed to delete paragraph 9 on concurrent jurisdiction as its provisions would be difficult to implement in the absence of acceptable, objective criteria to determine which Party was in a better position to prosecute. Several representatives in supporting the deletion of the paragraph indicated that such a provision was no longer necessary in view of the adoption by the Group of article 2 bis dealing with jurisdiction. The proposal to redraft the provision of this article along the lines of article 17 of the European Convention on Extradition was not accepted. It was again stated in this connection that the purpose of article 4 was not to establish an extradition treaty but to make extradition possible according to the conditions established in national legislation and bilateral or multilateral treaties. 92. Several representatives spoke in favour of retaining paragraph 10 which, in their view, had a useful purpose inasmuch as bilateral and multilateral treaties could cover situations which were not contemplated in article 4 as drafted. It was however suggested that the idea inherent in the paragraph should be expressed in a more synthesized way and that the last part of the sentence could be dispensed with. It was also suggested that the invitation to States to enter into agreements should be couched in a more forceful manner. The Group agreed to a rewording of the paragraph along those lines. 93. The Group considered the inclusion of an additional paragraph proposed by one representative to the effect that Parties shall consider entering into bilateral or regional agreements, whether ad hoc or general, to facilitate the transfer of persons sentenced to long-term imprisonment for offences to which article 4 applies, to their country of origin, in order that they may complete their sentences there. 94. It was explained that the transfer of convicted drug offenders, on the consent of the prisoner and subject to the agreement of the State of nationality, which was a newly developed technique of cooperation in criminal law, would facilitate the implementation of article 4. It was argued that States would consider more favourably the extradition of nationals for the purpose of prosecution if there was a guarantee that the sentence would be served in the State of nationality. This argument was also suggested as the reason for including this new paragraph in article 4 rather than elsewhere in the draft Convention. Some representatives, in supporting the proposal, indicated that it was in line with the European Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons, adopted in 1983, and the recommendation adopted by the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. 95. The Group adopted the proposal on the understanding that it would refer to multilateral rather than regional treaties and that no reference would be made to the duration of the sentence as this was considered to be an issue that should be left to the applicable treaties. Article 5 96. The Group began consideration of article 5 by a general discussion during which comments were made on the structure and substance of the article as a whole as well as on specific paragraphs. 97. The Group recognized that article 5 was of fundamental importance inasmuch as the effective implementation of the provisions of the new convention was dependent on international cooperation. 98. Several representatives held the view that the provisions of the article should be sufficiently detailed to serve as guidelines for those Governments that might not be familiar with the concept of mutual legal assistance, or were not Parties to bilateral or other treaties in this field. Such provisions would also facilitate mutual judicial assistance for those States which require the existence of a treaty obligation to give effect to such assistance. 99. Several other representatives did not share that approach. In their opinion, detailed provisions would give rise to problems of implementation in the respective States Parties because of the difference in their legal systems and practices. The article should therefore be redrafted in less constricting language and limit itself to laying down the principle of international cooperation in this field without establishing a specific mechanism of mutual judicial assistance. In this regard one representative proposed that the article should be reformulated along the lines of article 10 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, and of article 11 of the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages. 100. It was pointed out by several representatives that there was no need to include in article 5 a full set of regulations applicable specifically to drug offences since, for a number of States, the whole ambit of mutual legal assistance was already covered by a network of bilateral and other treaties to which they were Parties. In order not to jeopardize the operation of such instruments, it should be made clear that the provisions of article 5 should apply only if the two Parties concerned were not bound by any other treaty of mutual legal assistance or, when such a treaty existed, only if it did not provide differently. 101. Some representatives suggested that the limitation clause in the introductory sentence of paragraph 1 should be deleted-as such restricting language would have the undesirable effect of weakening the provisions of the article. Some other representatives were of the view that if the provisions of the article were to be spelt out in detail, they should be subject to a similar limitation clause as had been agreed to in articles 7 and 14 so as to take into account the different national legal systems. 102. Several representatives expressed the view that the reference to "other judicial proceedings", in paragraph 1, could be susceptible to broad interpretation implying the 40 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances inclusion of administrative proceedings which fell outside the scope of the article. It was considered that a clear distinction should be established between the field of judicial assistance envisaged under this article and other fields of cooperation such as those covered under article 6. 103. Several representatives objected to the detailed enumeration of the modalities of judicial assistance in subparagraphs 3(a)-(g) and expressed the view that the paragraph should be redrafted in a more concise general manner. One representative proposed that the phrase "but not necessarily be limited to" in the introductory sentence of paragraph 3 should be deleted and replaced by a new additional subparagraph referring to "any other forms of assistance not prohibited by the laws of the requested State". Some representatives considered that the provisions of subparagraph 3(g) were out of place in an international convention and that issues touching upon such sensitive matters as bank secrecy should better be tackled within the realm of domestic jurisdiction. 104. One representative proposed that the transfer of proceedings in subparagraph 4(a) should be dealt with in a separate article. In order to make it clear that the provisions of subparagraph 4(b) covered only the transfer of persons in custody for evidentiary purposes and not for the execution of sanctions, it was proposed that the temporary character of the transfer should be specified. One representative, stressing the importance of assistance to prosecution, suggested that the article should be redrafted so as to encourage Parties to enter into arrangements enabling persons in their territory to give evidence in other States Parties. 105. One representative disputed the need for paragraphs 5-7 for the reason that mutual assistance in criminal proceedings was currently undertaken in a satisfactory manner through diplomatic channels, while cooperation in the field of investigation was operative through the agencies directly concerned and through the ICPO/Interpol. One representative proposed that the provisions of these paragraphs should be amended to conform with current practice in matters of mutual judicial assistance, which does not contemplate any central authority for the execution of requests. The requests should be conveyed through the Ministry of Justice or through diplomatic channels, direct administrative channels being permitted only in cases of extreme urgency. The desirability of instituting a focal point for communication was however emphasized in the interest of efficiency. One representative indicated that the provisions of article 17 of the 1961 Convention and article 6 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971, concerning the establishment of a special administration should be taken into consideration in redrafting the provisions of the above paragraphs. 106. As regards the cases envisaged in paragraph 11 where mutual legal assistance may be refused, it was the view of one representative that the matter of refusal should be left aside and settled as appropriate on the basis of relevant treaties or domestic law. 107. One representative proposed that in order to cover the problem of compatibility with existing treaties, paragraph 13 should be redrafted along the lines of article 11, paragraph 2, of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, adopted in 1971. 108. During the course of the consideration of article 5 on a paragraph-by-paragraph basis, several representatives indicated their preference for the deletion of the word "legal" in the title and substantive provisions of article 5. They felt it was too restrictive and did not accurately reflect the entire range of cooperation envisaged in the article which included non-judicial assistance. Some other representatives, arguing in favour of the inclusion of the word, stated that assistance under the article should be purely legal and exclude assistance of an administrative nature. Reference was made in this connection to the other forms of cooperation covered in article 6. It was suggested that it would be advisable to defer the decision on the title until the content of the article had been elaborated. 109. Some representatives suggested that the safeguard clause in paragraph 1 of article 5 be deleted as it was obvious from the text of the article that the provisions would be exercised within the context of the constitutional, legal and administrative systems of Parties. Several representatives, however, felt that the safeguard clause should be retained as it would facilitate the adoption of the other substantive paragraphs. It was suggested that it might be more appropriate to include such a clause at the end of the article. 110. There was general agreement on the suggestion that the words "upon request" be deleted from the paragraph as it was implicit that all assistance rendered would be on the basis of a request from another Party. 111. There was also agreement to state that the offences to which the paragraph applied were those "established" in paragraph 1 of article 2 so as to be consistent with the formulation adopted in the other relevant provisions. 112. It was suggested that in order to reflect the principle of double criminality, the paragraph should be amended to specify that the offences in question had to be established by both requesting and requested Parties. It was, however, noted by one representative that if it was found necessary to reflect the principle of double criminality in the Convention, provision should be made to permit assistance to be provided by Parties on a discretionary basis even if double criminality did not exist in a given case. 113. The propriety of the formula "other judicial proceedings", as used in the paragraph, gave rise to certain doubts on the part of some representatives. It was suggested that it should be understood in a broad sense as covering a wide range of actions aimed at enhancing the efficacy of proceedings. 114. The informal working group continued consideration of this article and the outcome of its discussions is reflected in the text in annex II. Preparatory work 41 [ . . . ] ANNEX II Article 2, new penultimate paragraph [For the purpose of cooperation between Parties under this Convention, [including, in particular, cooperation under articles 3, 4, 5 and 6], offences established in accordance with this article shall not be considered as [political or fiscal offences] [offences political or fiscal in character] [or regarded as politically motivated] [unless the requested Party has substantial grounds for believing that such cooperation may lead to or assist in prosecuting or punishing a person on account of his race, religion, nationality or political opinion, or that that person's position may be prejudiced for any of these reasons].] Article 2 bis, paragraph 2* Each Party: (a) Shall also take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences it has established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him to another Party on the ground that the offence has been committed: (i) In its territory or on board a ship or aircraft which was registered under its laws at the time the offence was committed, or (ii) By a national or by a person who has his habitual residence in its territory; (b) May also take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences it has established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him to another Party on any other ground than those specified in subparagraph (a) above. Article 3 1. Proceeds, narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, materials and equipment, and other instrumentalities derived from or used in offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, shall be liable to confiscation. To that end, each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to enable confiscation of: (a) Proceeds derived from offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, or property the value of which corresponds to that of such proceeds; (b) Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances used in or intended for use in the commission of offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1; (c) Materials and equipment used in or intended for use in the illicit production, processing or manufacture of such drugs《公约》和《1 9 7 1年精神药物公约》中的任何庥醉药品或精神
or substances;药物;
{d) Other instrumentalities used in or intended for use in⑵为进行⑴中所列举的活动而拥有任何麻醉药品或精神药物; (3)组织、经管、资助或协助⑴中所列举的任何活动; ‘ 191 对第2条⑴款(a)项(=)的重大更改
the commission of offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1.㈡制造或经销用于非法生产、加工或制造麻醉药品或精神药物的设备或包括 清单A湘清单E所列药物在内的物质*而明知其将用于此种目的.
2. Each Party shall also adopt such measures as may be“財产”系指各种资产和任何其他东西而不问其为物质的或非物质的、动产或 非动产、有形的或无形的4以及证明对这种资产或其他东西享有所有权或权益的证
necessary to enable it to identify, trace, freeze or seize proceeds,书湘文据:
property, instrumentalities or any other things referred to in“收益”系指直接或间接通过根据本《公约》所确立的犯罪行为而获得或取得
paragraph 1, for the purpose of the eventual confiscation.的任何财产:
The revised draft text of article 2 bis, paragraph 2, was agreed to on«工具”系指用于或准备用于根据本《公约》所确立的犯罪行为的任何财产; 第2条 犯罪湘制裁 墨西哥的提案 1-各締约国承担义务,建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施(如杲它们尚未这 样傲的话),在其刑法中将下述行为确定为犯罪行为:
a provisional basis with respect to both structure and substance, but it was(a)㈣通过任何传播手段进行宣传、鼓励、广泛策动、改变宗教、唆使
recognized that it still required extensive review.或非法帮助他人以任何方式诱使他们参与非法贩运的任何方面. 2厂(a)各缔约国承担义务,建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施,规定对本条
3.第1款所列犯罪行为按其情节轻重给予制裁,例如监禁或以其他形式 剥夺自由、罚款湘没收财产.
In order to carry out the measures referred to in this(to)締约国除进行制载外,还可规定,应对罪犯采取治疗、教育、疗后处
article, each Party shall empower its courts or other competent理、康复或重新参与社会生活等措施. ‘ 192 3.各締约国承担义务建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施,在其国家立法和条
authorities to order that bank, financial or commercial records例中列入规定,使其法院能够考虑可以特别加重第一款所列犯罪行为以及相应的制 裁的事实情况,诸如:
be made available or be seized. A Party shall not decline to act⑵之二在学校或社会服务部门或教养中心或在其附近犯罪的事实.
under the provisions of this paragraph on the ground of bank3之二各締约国承担义务建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施,不管任何时候, 当其国家法律湘条例允许其主管行政当局和参与本条第1款所列犯罪行为的人达成
secrecy.程序性或程序外的安排时,即应对其国家法律和条例进行修改,以期在这些法律和
[4. (a) Following a request made by another Party having条例中消除达成这类安排的可能性,只要这类安排有使这些人逃脱最严厉的司法审
jurisdiction over an offence established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, and in conformity with the provisions of判的作用,无论是通过解除对这些人的刑事行动、缩小指控、改变指控、有关减轻 或改变制裁的交易、特许任何种类的豁免权或任何其他形式的程序性或程序外的讨
paragraphs [5, 6, 7, 8 and 11] of article 5, the Party in whoseM价或其他理由.
territory proceeds, property, instrumentalities or any other4,〔删除文件3)丑])/1)0工:1:/9中的案文〕
things referred to in paragraph 1 of this article are situated shall:5.各締约国承担义务建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施,对适用于本条第1
(i) Seek an order of confiscation from its competent款所列的犯罪和任何情况下的犯罪的时效法规作出最严格的规定,从而若罪犯企图 通过离开罪行发生国来阻碍或逃避司法审判时,使这些规定变得更为严格.
authorities and, if such an order is granted, give7.本条所包含的任何规定均不得影响下述原则:本条提及的犯罪行为只应由
effect to it;締约国的国内法作出典塑说明,并按其国内法予以调查、起诉、审判和惩罚.
or‘ 193 第3条
(ii) Submit to its competent authorities, with a view to安全措施和没收
giving effect to it, an order of confiscation issued by the requesting Party in accordance with paragraph 1,墨西哥的提案
to the extent to which it relates to proceeds, property, instrumentalities or any other tilings referred to(a)由于按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为而得来的收益,或其价值相当 于此种收益的有关财产; 2.每一締约国承担义务向其主管的立法机构建议釆取必要的措施,使其有关 的国家当局能够(如尚未这样傲)镝定、追查、冻结或预防性封存或收缴或缴获第
in paragraph 1 situated in the territory of the requested Party;1款所述的收益、财产、工具或贿其他物品,以便最终加以没收。
(b) Following a request made by another Party having3.为执行本条所述的各种措施,每一締约国承担义务建议其主管的立法机构 采取必要的措施,授权(如杲尚未这样做)其法院或其他主管郁门,在其国家立法
jurisdiction over an offence established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, and in conformity with paragraphs [5, 6, 7,明确允许的限度内并严格遵守此限度,命令提供或收缴有关的银行记录、财务记录
8 and 11] of article 5, the requested Party shall take measures或商业记录。缔约国只有当严格遵守本国法规,确有必要保守银行机密时,才应 援引本款规定,拒绝采取此种行动。 (a)H谋求由其主管部门发布收缴或缴获令并在得到此种命令时,予以执 行;或
to identify, trace, freeze or seize proceeds, property, instrumentalities or any other things referred to in paragraph 1, for theO将请求国按照第1款规定发布的收缴或缴获令提交其主管当局,以
purpose of an eventual confiscation to be ordered either in the便加以执行,只要该项命令诰及收缴第1款所述存放在被请衆国领
requesting Party or, pursuant to a request under section (a), in土内的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品。
the requested Party;.(b)在৿对第2条第1款所确定的某一犯罪行为拥有管辖杈吟另一締约囿
(c) The requested Party shall give effect to the request on按照第5条的有关规定提出请求后,被请求囯应即釆取措施,以期使
the basis of and in accordance with its domestic law or bilateral其主管当局能够箱定、追查、冻结或预防性封存或收缴或缴获第1款
or multilateral agreements, which may, at the discretion of the所述的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,以便在不违反本款fc)项规
requested Party, include the present Convention.]定的情况下,或者在请求国发布命令,或者遵照(a)项所述请求,在被
5. (a) Proceeds or property that have been confiscated by请求国发布命令,最终加以没收充公。
a Party pursuant to this article shall be disposed of by that Party[......] ‘ 194 第6条
according to its law and administrative procedures;其他形式的合作与培制
(b) When acting on the request of another Party in accordance with this article, the Parties may give special consideration古巴的提案
to concluding agreements on:(a)之二 若它们为邻国,它们应通过相互协调.促进交流它们为预防相
(i) Contributing the value of such proceeds and property, or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds查禁麻醉品非法贩运而在其各自领土的边界附近所采取的措施
or property, or a substantial part thereof, to intergovernmental bodies specializing in the fight的情况,以确保贩运者不能g任一缔约国的国家领土或将其
against the illicit traffic in and abuse of narcotic非法商品卸放在那里,以作为逃避其中一个締约国的警觉或逃
drugs and psychotropic substances;避追踪fe手段,并应防止在这方面的任何行动对另一缔约国产
(ii) Sharing, on a regular or case-by-case basis, such生有害的后果;
proceeds or property, or funds derived from the sale(c)〔...〕在所有这类情况下,有关締约国应保证将在其领土上采取行动
of such proceeds or property, with other Parties, in的締约国的主杈受到充分尊重;
a manner provided by its law, administrative procedure or bilateral or multilateral agreements entered4,各締约国在其国家主管机构湘部门间建立有效的协调.并在这方面达成
into for this purpose.查禁麻薛药品湘精神药物非法贩运的双边或其他协议或安雒,
6. Proceeds [and property] [shall] [may] be subject to墨西哥的提案
measures referred to in this article notwithstanding that they姻除文件D!TD/DCi:r/9中第1和第4款的案文,并据此重新编排其余各款的
have been intermingled with property acquired from other sources, or have been transformed or converted into other property.号码。 ‘ 195 第8条
Income or other benefits derived from such proceeds [or property] [shall] [may] also be subject to such measures.监测经常用于非法加工或制«醉品
7. Each Party may consider ensuring that the onus of proof或精神药物的物质的措施
be reversed regarding the legitimacy of proceeds or other property liable to confiscation, to the extent that such action is墨西哥的提案
consistent with the principles of its domestic law and with the9.各締约国保证承担义务向其主管立法机构建议必要的措施,以使它们通过
nature of the judicial proceedings. 42 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances能使它们对清单A和清单B中的物质采取下述措施的规定:
8. The provisions of this article shall not be construed as(b)如果有充分证据证明清单A或清单B中的任何物质祓用于非法加工麻醉药
prejudicing the rights of bona fide third parties.品或精神药物,就应规定收缴或扣压这些物质
9.10.
Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the measures to which it refers shall be defined and(a)除第9款的规定之外,各缔约国在有清单A所列物质合法输出其领土
implemented in conformity with and under the conditions established by the domestic law of a Party.时,均应镝保在输出前由其主管当局向进口国的主管当局提供下列情况:
Article 4第1 0条
1. This article shall apply to the offences established in根除非法秭植麻辞品植物湘消除麻醉品
accordance with paragraph 1 of article 2 of this Convention.非法需求的措施
2. Each of the offences to which this article applies shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing between Parties. Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them. 3. If a Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it [may] [at its option] [shall] consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect of any offence to which this article applies. 4. Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize offences to which this article applies as extraditable offences between themselves. 5. Extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the law of the requested Party or by applicable extradition treaties. 6. [For the purpose of cooperation between Parties under this Convention, [including, in particular, cooperation under articles 3, 4, 5 and 6], offences established in accordance with this article shall not be considered as [political or fiscal offences] [offences political or fiscal in character] [or regarded as politically motivated] [unless the requested Party has substantial grounds for believing that such cooperation may lead to or assist in prosecuting or punishing a person on account of his race, religion, nationality or political opinion, or that that person's position may be prejudiced for any of these reasons].]* 7. Parties shall facilitate the extradition of persons accused or convicted of offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1. To this end, a request for extradition by another Party with respect to any of the offences to which this article applies shall not be refused on the ground that the person sought is a national of, or has his habitual residence in the territory of, the requested Party, except in cases where refusal is required by the constitution or the [domestic legal system] [fundamental domestic law] [domestic law] of the requested Party. A Party may elect or decline to consider this convention as satisfying a requirement under its constitution or [domestic legal system] [fundamental domestic law] [domestic law] that extradition of nationals, or of persons having their habitual residence in its territory, be subject to the existence of a treaty.** 8. (a) Without prejudice to the exercise of any other jurisdiction established in accordance with article 2 bis, the Party in whose territory the alleged offender is present: Paragraph to be reconsidered in the context of article 2. **Subparagraphs (b) and (c) of the former paragraph 5 (contained in working paper DND/DCIT/WP.36) were deleted, leaving a shortened renumbered paragraph 7. One expert formally objected to deletion of subparagraph (b). (i) Shall, if it does not extradite him [to another Party] and if the offence is one in respect of which the requested Party has jurisdiction by virtue of article墨西哥的提案
2 bis, subparagraph 2(a), [at the request of the requesting Party] submit the case without undue delay2.严 照 第1条之; 1的规定:
to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution;一 (a) 各締约国可合作增进根除活动的縣 . 这科 ^ # 除其他以外,可 包 括在适当时支持农村综合发展,导致经济上可行的替代f植方案.在
(ii) May, if it does not extradite him and if the offence实施这种农村发展方案前,应考虑到诸如进入市场、可得资源和当时 社会经济条件等因素 各締约国可商定任何其他适当的合作措施;
is one in respect of which the requested Party has(b)各締约国还应促进交流科技情报和进行有关根除活动的研究; (c)各缔约国凡有共同边界者应设法合作在各自沿边界地区实行根除方案 ‘ 196 3.各締约国承诺向其主管立法机构提议必要措施.以使其采取旨在消除对庥酔
jurisdiction by virtue of article 2 bis, subparagraph 2(b), submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution;品非法需求的最严格措施,以期消除这一刺激因素以及这种需求所产生的对非诀贩
(b) The competent authorities referred to in subparagraph (a) above shall take their decision in the same manner as运的经济刺激.
in die case of any offence of a similar nature under the law of第1 2条
the requested Party.*海上的非法贩运.
9. If extradition, sought for purposes of enforcing a sentence, is refused on any of the grounds mentioned in paragraph [7], the requested Party shall, if its law so permits and墨西哥的提案
upon application of the requesting Patty, consider the enforcement of the sentence, or the remainder thereof, which has been1-各締约国应按照海洋国际法进行尽可能充分的合作.以杜绝海上的非法贩 运. 2.如任一締约国有相当的理由怀疑悬挂其国旗或没有悬挂国旗或登记标志的 某一船只在公海上正_作非法贩运,因而请求另外的締约国协助制止该船只用作
imposed under the law of the requesting Party.该用途,则被请求的締约国应即尽量利用其一切可能手段.
The enforcement提供此科协助.
of the sentence thus transferred, shall be subject to the other〔删除第3至7款〕 秘鲁的提案 3.在不违背国际法规则和原则的情况下,締约国如有正当理由认为某一船只 在公海上从事非法贩运并事先征得船旗国的许可,则可登船和搜查该船,如查获非
conditions provided for by the law of the requested Party.法贩运证据,则可扣押该船。 ‘ 197 第1 4条
10. Parties shall endeavour to minimize procedural and查禁利用邮件进行非法贩运
evidentiary requirements for extradition with respect to offences墨西哥的提案 1.按照其根据万国邮政联盟公约所应承担的义务,并在严格遵守其各自国家 法律制度的基本原则的情况下,各締约国应采取措施查禁利用邮件进行非法贩运的
established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1. To that行为,并应为此目的而相互合作. 2..、本条第1款所述之措施尤其应包括: (c)需尙其主管的立法机构提议的任何措施,以期能够使用合宜的手段*
end, a valid arrest warrant or a final judgement of the requesting获取司法程序所需的证据.
Party, together with an outline of the facts constituting the执行条款草 案
alleged offence, may be considered by Parties as sufficient to墨西哥的提案
support a request for extradition.删除第4条和第5条。 ‘ 198 文件 E/C0NF.82/1广
11. The Parties shall seek to conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements to carry out or to enhance the effectiveness of第一全体委员会的报告
extradition.[原件:英文] [1988年 12 月 16 日] 文件E/CONF.82/C.1/L 18 [原件:英文] [1988车 12 月 16 日] ! 第一全体委员会(第一委员会)于1 9 8 8年1 1 月 28 日至 12 月 I 5 日共举行3 3次会议。委员会在其1 9 8 8年1 1月2 9日的第3次会议上成立 了一个工作组对第2条第1款“非法贩运”的定义进行审议。工作组在1 1月2 9 日至1 2月8日期间共举行过1 2次会议,并于1 9 8 8年12月10日向委员会 作了报告。 2.会议在1 9 8 8年1 1月2 5曰的第-次雄会议上选举G.Polimen i 先生(意大刹)任第一委员会主席。第一委员会在1988年11月28日第二 次会译上选举A.Hena先生(孟加拉国)任副主席,0 Hugler先生(德意志联 邦共和国)任报告员。后来由副主席代行第1段中所述工作组主席的职责。 3.第一委员会最初受会议委托审议第1条,第1条之二第2条,第2条之 二第3、4、5条,第5条之j第6条。后来决定将第6条交由第二全体委
12. The Parties shall consider entering into bilateral or员会(第二委员会)审议。原交由第二委员会审议的序言部分改由第一委员会审
multilateral agreements, whether ad hoc or general, to facilitate议。 4.报告员已将E/C017F.82/C . !/!^;^/^! 工至八仏^中的报告草案 送交起草委员会。总务委员会指示起草委员会直接向会议报告。
the transfer of persons sentenced to imprisonment for offences合并了文件 E/CONF. 82/C 1/L. 18 ADD. 1-8。 ‘ 199 文件E/CONF 82/C 1/L 18/ADD.8
to which this article applies, to their country of origin, in order[原件:英文]
that they may complete their sentences there.[1988年 12 月 16 曰]
Article 5序 言 一、 基本提 案
[MUTUAL [LEGAL] ASSISTANCE].会议收到的文件ycojfF.8a/
1. [Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and3
administrative systems as well as relevant treaties or arrangements,] the Parties shall afford one another the widest measure所载序言案文如下
of mutual legal assistance!, subject to the conditions provided“序言草案 “深切关注麻醉药品和精神药物的非法生产、需求及贩运的巨大规模和增长趋势, 构成了对人类健康和幸福的一种严重威胁,并对社会的经济、文化及政治基础带来
for by the laws of the requested Party,] in all investigations,了不利影响,
prosecutions [and other [judicial] [criminal] [proceedings] relating to offences established in accordance with article 2, paragraph 1, [by both the requesting and the requested Parties,]“注意到麻醉品贩运同其他与之有关的、有组织的犯罪活动结合在一起,损窖着
[which fall within the jurisdiction of the requesting Party.] [The正当合法的经济,危及各国的稳定、安全和主权, “认识到麻醉品贩运是一科国际性犯罪活动,需要紧急加以注意并给予度鬲重视,
law of the requested Party shall apply.]“意识到麻醉品贩运可获得巨额利润和财富,从而便跨国犯罪集团能够渗透、污
(Note: reference to "[by both the requesting and the requested染和腐蚀各级政府组织、合法的商业和金融企业,以及社会各阶层, “希望剥夺麻醉品贩运者从其犯罪活动中得到的收益,从而消除其从事麻薛品败
Parties]" can be deleted if the idea is included in paragraph 9 or运的主要刺激因素,
paragraph 11.)“认为有必要对一些物质,包括一些先质、化学品和溶剂,采取监督揞尨,因为
2. The Parties undertake to adopt legislative and administrative measures as may be necessary within their domestic legal这些物质的方便获取已导致越来越多地秘密生产属于《1961年麻薛品皁一公约》、
*The revised draft text of paragraph 8 was agreed to on a provisional经由《修正1 9 6 1年麻薛品皁一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约以及
basis with respect to both structure and substance, but it was recognized《 19 7 1年精祥药物公约》规定范围内的麻薛药品和精神药物, ‘ 200 “注意到经由经常的邮政渠道走私麻薛品的情况有增无巳,因而需要加强关于 禁止通过邮件非法运送麻薛品的现行国际公约, “希望改进国际^共同制止从海上非法贩运麻醉药品和精神葯物, “认识到铲除麻薛品贩运是所有国家的共同责任, ‘‘意识到有必要在国际合作的范围内通过有效的协调行动来对付麻醉品贩运问题, “辏认哀合国在麻誶品管刽领域约主管职能,并希望与麻薛品管刳有关的囯芽杌 关均设于联合囯组织约范围之内, “重宇现行麻莲品管刽条约约指导原则及其包含的麻誶品管割钥度, “病谈有必要加莛和补充《1 9 6 1年麻薛品皁一公约》,经甴《修正1 9 6 1 年麻辞&单一公约的19 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约,以及《i 9 71年積神药 物公约》中规定的措施,以便对付菲法贩运麻辞药品和精神药物的规模、程度积复 杂性及其严重后杲, “愿意締结一顼行之有效的禁止非法贩运麻薜药品和精神药物的11际公约,以辰 及整个问题的各个方面,尤其是现行麻薛品管刽条约中未曾设想到的那些方靣, “兹协议如下:” 二、修正案 2.对序言提出修正案的有墨西哥(E/CCUF.82/3,附件四,0 6页 至1 0 6页),古巴(EZC〇;K:F.8a/C.a/L-20),日本( 1.34),印度(E/CCNF -8Z/C Z/L- 35 ),中国(E/CCHF-82/C-2/L.36) , 阿根廷、巴哈马、玻利维亚、巴西、智利、哥伦比亚、哥辭达黎加、古巴、厄瓜多 尔、危地马拉、印度、牙买加、簦西哥、巴拿马、巴拉圭、秘詧、菲律宾和委内辁 # ( E/C0BF 8Z/C 2/-L 37) 3.这些修正衮的内容如下: ‘ 201 第一 段 印度(E/CCH F 82/ C Z/-L-35) 实1段:莬一行——‘‘增长”一词可改为“上升”. 古巴 ( 82/ C -2/X' 20 ) “深切关注......的非法#、餐求、溫用及K运的巨大规模和增_势......” 第二 段 印度(E/coi7r-82/c -a/L-35 ) 第一行一 ‘‘注意到’,一词可改为“认识到”,‘‘ associated’,(中 文本译为“有关的.”)一词习改为“ relates,,(中文亦可译为‘.有 关的”) 莬一行——“活动”一词后习增加“包括经济打商业欺诈行为”一语
that it still required extensive review. Preparatory work 43第三 段
systems to ensure that effective assistance as envisaged in this印度(E/CCNF . 82/C Z/L-85) "^ 度 ” 一词可改为“最为高度的”. 墨西哥(E/COHF-8Z/ 3 ,附件四,第1 0 6页)
article may be rendered to other Parties at their request.认识到麻锌品贩运是一转具有国际影响的犯罪活动,需要紧急加以注意并 给予最大限度的重视.
3. [Mutual legal assistance shall include, [but not necessarily be limited to]:] [Mutual legal assistance shall be granted for拟议的新的第三段之二
evidentiary purposes and it may include:]中国(E/C0Nr '82^0'Z/L .36) 增加新的第三段之二如下:
(a) Taking evidenced and the statement of persons];“并认识到为了制止国际非法赅运的罪恶活动,加强国际合作上的有 ‘ 202 效法律手段,例如引渡、相互法律协勘和控制下交付等,具有重妥意
(b) Effecting service of judicial documents;义.,,
(c) Executing requests for searches and seizures[; of property];第四 段
[(d) Examining objects and sites;]印度(S^coitp‘sa/c. a^L 35 )
[(e) Locating or identifying witnesses[, suspects or other此段可改为:
persons];]“意识到非法M运习获得巨额资金和财富,从而使薛国犯罪集s衮得挂力.
[(f) Exchanging information and objects;]常常渗透并腐蚀夸级政府组级合法约依亚和金鞋活动,以及社会各阶
[(g) Providing originals or certified copies of relevant documents and records, including bank, financial, corporate and层,”
business records;]墨西哥(EZCOKF. 8^/3,附件四,莬105页)
[(h) Identifying, tracing, freezing and seizing proceeds or了解到麻薛品贩运可获得巨额利润和财富,犯罪组织可试图籍此滲透、污 染和腐蚀各级政府组织、合法商务和金融企业以及社会各阶层,
property derived from or used in the offences established in第五 段
accordance with article 2, paragraph 1;]印度(E/COl^F 82/ C . a/ L 35 )
[(i) Any other forms of assistance [allowed] [not prohibited] by the domestic law of the requested Party;];望 ” 一词可改为‘‘决心”,‘‘收益” 一词冋改为“非正当收入’"
[(j) Making persons, including persons in custody, available to give evidence or assist in investigations.] Proposal: delete paragraph 3.古巴(E/CO KF . 82/c. a/i . 20 )
Proposal: delete at least (d), (e), (f ) and (h) of paragraph 3.笫五段修正为: “希望剥夺从事麻醉品非法厥运及其他有关活动的人的物品、手段和 从这类活动中得到的收益,从而消除其主要剠岽因素,”
Proposal: delete paragraph 3 but incorporate (g) and (i) into paragraph 1.墨西哥( E/CCKF.8V 3 ,附件四,笫1 0 S页) 决定剥夺麻醉品殿运者对麻醉品需求的刺激和从其犯聶活动中得到的收兹,
Proposal: divide paragraph 3 into two subparagraphs in the从而消除其从事麻辟品贩运的主i刺激因素, ‘ 203 笫六 段 印度< lycoUF 82/C 2/L -35)
following manner:笫一个从句可改为:
3 (i) Mutual legal assistance shall include: (a) to (h);“认为有义夸对一些材料、设备和物质,包括前体、化学品和溶裀, 采^制措施” 英文第四行“ fallin g ” 一词可改为“ covered” (中文无交
(ii) Mutual legal assistance may also include: (i)动一译注)。 日本 < E/cou r 8 a/c . z/ L - 34 )
to (j).第六段中,在“一些前体、化学品和溶剤”之前加上“为制造麻鋅药品和
4. The Parties shall give favourable consideration to the精神药钫所必需的”字样。
possibility of:拟议的新的第六段之二
(a) Transferring to one another proceedings for criminal曰本(E/C0U F . 82/C . 2/L . 34 ) 增加一个新的第六段之二:
prosecution in cases where such transfer may help to ensure that“认识到有必要逊免对化学和制药工业的合法活动产生任何不利的影
all persons who commit offences punishable under this Convention are brought to justice;响.
Proposal: reword (a) as follows:第七 段 E/CCN F 8^/C 2/L 35 )
"(a) Transferring to one another proceedings for criminal‘‘经常的邮政渠道”改为“邮件”,“邮件......麻群品”改为“軺件......
prosecution of offences enumerated in article 2, paragraph 1,麻辟药品和粒神药物”.
of this Convention in cases where such transfer is to be considered in the interest of a proper administration of justice.第八 段 ‘ 204 “ 希望改为 “ 决心 ”
"(b) [Temporarily] transferring for testimonial purposes古巴(E/cc.sF.sa/c.a/i-20)
persons in custody whose evidence is material to a prosecution or other judicial proceeding [and ensuring their safe“从洚上”一语
conduct].墨西哥(EZCO卵.8Z/3,附件四,笫1 0 6页)
"[(c) Entering into agreements or arrangements to facilitate or compel the attendance of other persons resident inff增进国际合作在国际诲洋法范围内铜止从海上非法M运麻醉药品和精
their territory to give evidence at prosecutions or other judicial proceedings in the territory of other Parties.]"种药柺。
Proposal: delete paragraph 4 and transfer (b) to paragraph 3.笫九 段 印度(I^COHF . 8Z/ C a/ L 35 ) i除”一词改为“消除”.
(Note: see also new (j) in paragraph 3.( E/COHF-82/C.a^L .
)20 ) “认识到根除麻薛品的滥用和非法厥运是所有国家的共同责任,’’
Proposal: insert new paragraph S reading as follows and墨西哥< E/C0KF.82/3,附件四,莬1 0 6页) “认识到从根本上消除麻醉品厥运是所有国家的责任,”
renumber as appropriate:第十 段 墨西哥(iXcorF-8^/3,附件四.;莬1 0 6页) 意识到有必旻在国际合作的范围内通过有效的杻调行动对付非法产辟品妈 运问题。 第十二段 墨西哥(I^/ccitf . 82/3,附件四,第1 0 6页) 重申非法麻锌品原运管铜条约的指导原别以及这些条约所包舍的麻鋅品管 制剝度, ‘ 205 釤十三段 印度 ( . 2/L . 3 5) 笫一行“补充”一词改为“楛祌” 莬十四段 印度 ( .^/X.35 ) i:行“行之有效”一词改为“全面”,‘‘禁止”前加“专门”一词。 最后序言段 墨西哥(E/coHr-8a/3,附件四,第1 G 7页) 蒯除最后一段. 新增加的序言段 阿根廷、巴哈马、玻利维亚、巴西、智利、哥伦比亚、哥斯达黎加、古 巴、厄瓜多尔、危地马拉、印度、牙买加、墨西哥、巴拿马、巴拉圭、秘鲁、菲律 宾和委内瑞拉(E/coi?F-8a/c-2/L-37) 增加一个新的序言段如下: “深切关注麻薛品非法歡运正日益严重地侵蚀着各个社会集团,特务.是 把儿童当作麻醉品消费市场和麻醉品生产和非法交易有关的工具,对 他们造成了不可估量的危窨,” ‘ 206 三.笫一委员会的议事过程 A. 4第一委员会于1 9 S 8年1 2月1 5日举行的第3 3次会议上讨论了序言 荀分及其各项修正案. B.审议情况和决定
5.5.
Paragraphs 6 to 13* shall apply only if the Parties are委员会得知,为了便利并加速完成委员会钓工作,古巴代表E已极回了古
not bound by any treaty of mutual legal assistance or if such巴在文件E/coitp. 82/c. 2/工.20中提出的修正案. "6.委员会请起草委员会镜保序言案文与公约实质性条款,包括其标题,之同
treaty exists but does not provide for different rules. [5. [Each Party shall designate [an appropriate] [a central]保持适当的一致他前者使用的是“麻鋅品贩运”这荮说法;而后者则一般多用
authority] [Competent authorities shall be designated by each“非法钣运麻薛药品和精祷药物”这秭说法. “
Party] to facilitate or execute requests for mutual legal assistance. [The authority] [The authorities] designated by each Party笫一段
for this purpose shall be notified through the Secretary-General7.委员会同意基本提轰中所载的笫一段,但棍据印度廹议(^/Cerr 82./
to all other Parties.c, a^L.
]35)将‘‘增长” 一词改为‘‘上升”。
Proposal: delete paragraphs 5 and 6.if -15—卞入
Proposal: delete paragraphs 5, 6 and 7.8.委员会同意基本提褢中所载的第二段,但根挂印度延议(S/CCI1F 82 /
Proposal: delete paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8.C. H 35)将“注意到”一词改为‘‘认识到”,将‘、ss0ci?、tec:”(中文本译
Proposal: redraft article 5 as suggested in paragraph 490 of为“有关的”)一词改为‘‘related”(中文本亦可译为“有关的’’),但有一项
DND/DCIT/WP.l.谅即“有组织的犯罪活动”一语包括一切形式的犯尋活动,其中包括13际犯吞
Proposal: redraft paragraph 5 as in paragraphs 5 and 7 of活动* ‘ 207 第三段
article 5 in DND/DCIT/WP.9 :委员会同意基本提案中所载的篙三段,但盘裎印度建议(^COll?
44.82 /
[6. The designated authorities may communicate [directlyc. 2/X. 35)将“高度” 一词改为“最为高度的”。
with each other] [through established diplomatic channels] for拟议新垵加的第三段之二
the execution of requests made under the provisions of this article.10 .
]中国代表介绍了饱的提褢,即均加新的笫三段之二(ycoilF 82/ C 2 /
[7. Requests for mutual legal assistance shall be made inh 36)并对其加以修正,在“例如” 一词后加进“没牧“一词。
writing [in a language acceptable to the requested Party.11.
In经一般村论,并考虑到荷兰提出的修正袁,委员会同意下述案文:
emergency situations, a request may be made orally, to be followed as soon as possible thereafter by a written request.]]“并确认为了制止国际非法廒运的辱恶活动,加强圆际刑寧合作上约有敫
[8. Requests for mutual legal assistance shall contain:法律手段,具有重要意义’’。
(a) The title of the authority making the request;12.委员会同意将本段猎为序言部分倒级第二氣
(b) The object of, and the reason for, the request;笫四段
(c) [Except for requests for the service of documents,] [if13.委员会同意基本提轰所载的棼四It印度提出的备选褢文(E/CGI1F 82 /
necessary] a statement of facts [alleged or sought to be ascertained];c. 35)没有被接受
[(d) An outline of any procedural requirements essential to笫五段
the requesting Party;]14.委员会同意基本提袁所载的第五段,但《印度廹议(WOl^ 82 /
(e) [A precise description of the assistance requested];c. 35)用“决心” 一词代替“希望” 一词
(f ) Such other information or documents as the requested拟义5彳增加的绍五段之二
Party may require],15 .墨西哥代表口头提议列入其与加拿大共同提出的下述芬五段之二 r
9.“希望消除造成逍用麻薛品问题的获源,包括对麻鋅品的I!
A request shall be executed in accordance with the law求以及甴冇这
of the requested Party and, to the extent [not precluded] [permitted] by the law of the requested Party, in accordance with品贩运中获得的巨额利润”。
the procedural requirements specified in the request [, where16.经过一般讨论及口头修正,委员会同意各提案国提出的案文,并用“对麻
possible].* 本段及随后各段重新作了编号,以订正原文件中的差错。 ‘ 208 醉药品和精神药物的非法需求”等字代替“对麻醉品的需求”。
[ ]17.委员会得知*鉴于在序言部分列入了这一新的段落,墨西哥代表团将不再
Old paragraphs 5-12. Conference documents on坚持其原来提出的载于文件E/C0HF. 82/3.附件四,第1 0 6页的修正案。
organizational matters第六段
DOCUMENT E/CONF.82/618.委员会收到了基本提案中所载的第六段案文及日本提出的修正案(E/
AgendaC0HF-82/^-2/^-3 4 ) o
[Original: English]19.经一般讨论和口头修正,并考虑到日本提出的提案,委员会提出了下述新
[25 November 1988]案文:
1.“认为有必要对一些用于制造麻醉药品和精神药物的物质,包括前体、化
2.学品和溶剂,采取监瞀措施,因为这些物质的方便莸取已导致越来越多地
3.秘密生产麻鋅药品和精神药物,”
4.20.委员会同意主席提出的新案文。其中删去了基本提案中出现的提及现有
5.公约的词句,因为据理解,这一事项将包括在有待列入有关定义的第1条中的麻鋅
6.药品和精神药物的定义中。
Opening of the Conference.21.委员会没有接受印度提出的有关苐一个从句的新案文(E/C0HL82/
Election of the President.C.2/L.3 5 )o
Organization and procedural matters:第七段
(a) Adoption of the rules of procedure;22.委员会决定删去基本提案中所截的第七段^
(b) Adoption of the agenda;第八段
(c) Election of officers other than the President;23.委员会同意基本提案中所载的第八段案文,但根据印度建议(E/C0HF.
(d) Credentials of delegations to the Conference:S2/ C . 2/
(i) Appointment of the Credentials Committee;第九第十段
(ii) Report of the Credentials Committee;24.按照玻利维亚的提案,委员会决定将第九段和第十段合并如下: ‘ 209 “认识到铲除麻薛品煆运是所有国家的共同责任,为此,必需在国际合作
(e) Appointment of members of the Drafting Committee;范围内采取协调行动,”
(f) Establishment of the Committees of the Whole;第十一》莬十二段
(g) Organization of work;25.委员会同意基本提案中所载的笫十一段及第十二段案文。
(h) Appointment of other committees, subcommittees or working groups;第十三段
Consideration of a draft convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and26.委员会同意基本提案中所载的笫十三段案文,但根据印度建议(E/COUL
psychotropic substances.)用“增补” 一词代替“补充"。
Adoption of the Convention and of the final act of the Conference. Signature of the final act and of the Convention. DOCUMENT E/CONF.82/7苐十四段
Rules of procedure27 委员会同意基本提案中所载的第十四段案文,但在“行之有效的”一词之
[Original: English]前加进‘‘全面而,’字样,并根据印度建议,在“禁止”一词之前加进‘‘专用于”一
[25 November 1988]词。
I. REPRESENTATION AND CREDENTIALS other representatives, alternate representatives and advisers增加段落
as may be required.28.委员会听取了秘鲁代表的发言,谈及十八国代衰团共同提出的增加新序言
Composition of delegations段落的实质内容(E/cou:F.8a/c.a/L.37)。
Alternates and advisers29.经一般讨论后,委员会通过了这一新的序言段落,但根据荷兰代表的口头
Rule I Rule 2提议,在“特别是” 一词与“把儿童当作” 一词之间加进“在世界许多地区”等字
The delegation of each State participating in the Conference shall consist of a head of delegation and such样。
The head of delegation may designate an alternate representative or an adviser to act as a representative.30.委员会同意把增加的这一段排为序言部分第二段。
45 46 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances31.请起草委员会改进这一新段落的措词,特别是英文本的措词。
Credentials四.转交起草委员会的案文
Rule 332.委员会同意下述序言案文,并将其转交起草委员会审议》 ‘ 210 “序言草案
The credentials of heads of delegations and the names“各缔约i ,
of alternate representatives and advisers shall be submitted“深切关注麻薛药品和精神药物的非法生产、需求及贩运的巨大规模和上升趋势,
early to the Executive Secretary of the Conference and if构成了对人类健康和幸福的一秭严重威胁,并对社会的经济、文化及政治基础带来
possible not later than 24 hours after the opening of the了不利影响,
Conference. Any subsequent change in the composition of“深切关注麻薛品非法效运正日益严重地浸钴着各个社会集园,特别是把儿竟当
delegations shall also be submitted to the Executive Secretary. The credentials shall be issued either by the Head作器薛品消费市场和与蔴誶品生产勤菲法交易有关的工具,对达们造成了不可佳量
of State or Government or by the Minister for Foreign的危著,
Affairs.“认识到麻薛品殷运同其他与之有关的、有组织的犯罪活动结合在一起,损害着
Credentials Committee正当合法的经济,危及各国的稳定、安全和主权,
Rule 4“认识到麻薛品厥运是一聍国际性犯罪话动,需要紧急加以注意并给予最为高度
A Credentials Committee of nine members shall be的重視.
appointed at the beginning of the Conference. Its composition shall be based on that of the Credentials Committee“意识到麻薛品厥运可获得巨额利润和跗富,从而便垮国犯罪集囷能够渗透、污
of the General Assembly of the United Nations at its fortythird session. It shall examine the credentials of delegations and report to the Conference without delay.染和腐蚀各级政府组织、合法的商业和金融企业,以及社会各阶层,
Provisional participation in the Conference“决心剥夺麻薛品贩运者从 罪活动中得到的收益,从而消除其从事麻薛品炫
Rule 5运的主要弟j激因素,
Pending a decision of the Conference upon their credentials, delegations shall be entitled to participate provisionally in the Conference.“希望清除滥用麻辞品问題约根源,包括对麻辞品的需求以及由麻醉品贩运获得
II. OFFICERS的巨额利润,
Elections“认为有必要对一些用于制造麻辞药品湘精神药物的物质,包括前体,化学品命
Rule 6溶剂,采取措施,因为这些物质的方便获取巳导致越来越多地秘密生产麻醉药品约
The Conference shall elect from among the representatives of participating States the following officers: a President and 24 Vice-Presidents and a Rapporteur-General,精神药物,
as well as the Chairmen of the Committees of the Whole“决心改逬国际共同制止从海上非法煨运庥醉药品和精神药物,
provided for in rule 48 and the Chairman of the Drafting“认识到铲除庥醉品贩运是所有国家的共同贡任,认此,必需在国际合作范圆内
Committee provided for in rule 49. These officers shall be采取协调行动,
elected on the basis of ensuring the representative character of the General Committee. The Conference may also“确认联合国在麻薛品管制领域的主管职能,并希望与麻醉品管制有关的国际机
elect such other officers as it deems necessary for the关均设于瑕合国组织的范围之内, ‘ 211 “ 现行麻薛品营制条约的指导原则及其包含的麻醉品管刽制度,
performance of its functions.“确认有必要加强和增补《19 6 1年麻薛品单一公约》、经由《修正1961
General powers of the President年麻薛品皁一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正的该公约以及《19 7 1年精神药物
Rule 7公约》中规定的措趋,以便对付非法奴运麻薛药品和精神药物的规模、程度和复杂
1. In addition to exercising the powers conferred upon性及其严重后杲,
him elsewhere by these rules, the President shall preside“弁认确为了制止国际菲法贩运的罪思活动,加弪国际荆事合作上的有效法律手
at the plenary meetings of the Conference, declare the段,具有重旻意义。
opening and closing of each meeting, direct the discussion, ensure observance of these rules, accord the right to“愿意締结一頃全面而行之有效的、专用于禁止非法饭运麻薛药品如精神药钧的
speak, promote general agreement, inform the General圓际公约,以顾及皇个问題的各个方百,尤其是现行麻薛品营制条约中未曽设想到 的郅些方面,
Committee on efforts to reach general agreement, put“兹访议如下:”
questions to the vote and announce decisions. The President shall rule on points of order and, subject to these文件E/CONF.82/C.1/L.18/ADD.6*
rules, shall have complete control of the proceedings and[原件 英文]
over the maintenance of order thereat. The President may[1988年 12 月 14 日]
propose to the Conference the closure of the list of speakers, a limitation on the time to be allowed to speakers and第1条之二
on the number of times each representative may speak on一 . 基本提 案 1.会议收到的文件E/CGKF. 82/3所载第1条之二的案文如下:
a question, the adjournment or the closure of the debate* 合并 了 文件 E/CONF. 82/C .1/1.18/ADD. 6/COR R. 1。 ‘ 212 “〔第I条之二
and the suspension or the adjournment of a meeting.“本公约的范围 “为充分遵守国际法有关各囤法律平等命主权平等的原则以及不干涉基本上属于
2.各国专有取权的内部事务的原则,各缔约面共同商定: “1.
The President, in the exercise of his functions,本公约作为一份国际合作的协议,旨在确保各締约国在查禁非法趿运栋醉
remains under the authority of the Conference.药品和精抻药物的斗争中.在整个问题的各个方面,在最严格范围内的各个累件中.
Acting President并在充分遵守每一缔约圆各自内部法律制度的条款所规定的隈度以及关于此问釕的
Rule 8现行的适用条约的范圆内,取得最大的成效。 “ 2.本公约之任何规定均不得以任何方式看作是准许某一结约国的当局在任一
1. If the President finds it necessary to be absent from其他缔约国的领土管辖范围内,行使命履行,或企图行使命履行,或諠加压力以期 被允许行使和屐行由其各自II家法律命条例规定其营辖权命职权只能属于任"^口些
a meeting or any part thereof, he shall designate a VicePresident to take his place.其饱締约E的当局的取责。 “3.本公约在任何情况下并不意味着,也不能餘释为,为了执行本公约,某一 拷约圆必須承担义夯,依辟公约的规定,在其领土管辖范围内自己采取、或玆权采 取以任何方越其法律管辖权或联杈的措尨,或其现行法律条款并不以任何其这 方式明琮允许其采取的搢汔或按照该締约国的判乾,可能会损窨其安全.其公共 政策或其包基本利益的搢錄。 “4.按蕻以上各款,本公约之任何规定均不得被援引或剝用作为企图违反本条 的规定,超越其范围的锖确艮度的借口。〕” 二.修正案
2.2.
A Vice-President acting as President shall have the对第1条之二提出修U的有:加拿大和墨面哥(E/ c 8 2 /
powers and duties of the President.c . 1 /L . 1 ),加拿大和墨西哥(e/C o B y . 82/c . 1/L . 1 /
Replacement of the PresidentRRl),阿富汗、阿尔及利亚、阿根廷、巴洽马、孟加拉国、玻利维亚.博茨瓦纳、 ‘ 213 巴西、喀麦隆、加拿大、哥伦哥新达黎加*科特迪瓦.古巴、厄瓜多尔.埃
Rule 9及.埃塞俄比亚、加纳、危地马拉、印度、印度尼西亚.伊朗伊斯兰共沩圆.伊拉
If the President is unable to perform his functions, a牙买加、肯尼亚、科威特.马来西亚.毛里塔尼亚.毛里求斯.墨西哥、尼泊
new President shall be elected.尔、S拿马、巴拉圭、秘鲁,菲餘、大韩民厘、塞内加尔、斯里兰卡、坦就亚
The President shall not vote联合共湘!! 乌拉圭 委内瑞拉湘南澌拉夫(E/COHF.82/C. 1/丄.l/Rev.2 )
Rule 10Add . 1),联合王国(:^/COlIF. 82/C . 1XL . 31),美利坚合众国(E /
The President, or a Vice-President acting as President,COHF . 82//C . 1/L . 38).
shall not vote in the Conference, but shall designate3.这些修正案涉及益条,其内容如下:
another member of his delegation to vote in his place.加拿大舡墨西哥(W0I5F . 8Z/C . 1/L. 1)
III.将墨西哥提议的,载于基本提案(E/CC1:F.
GENERAL COMMITTEE82/ 3 )中的莬1条之二改为:
Composition“本公约的范围
Rule 11“1.本公约作为一份囯际合作的文书,旨在镜保各绔约国在莹禁非法殽运托鋅
There shall be a General Committee consisting of药品和精神药构的斗争中取得最大的成效:其条敫৿对Ei:是此问趋的.所有方E 但严袼尊重各结约囯内部钥度的规定。
29 members, which shall comprise the President, VicePresidents and Rapporteur-General of the Conference, the“ 2.本公约绝不减损各囯主权平等和领土完整之原则或不干渉各H;内政之
Chairmen of the Committees of the Whole and the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.“ 3.
The President of the本公约绝不授杈某一締约国当局在任一其他绔约囯的续土管辖范S:内行便
Conference, or in his absence, one of the Vice-Presidents和履行甴这些其他囯家的法律和条例規定完全晨于其本国当局的管辖杈或职权范S
designated by him, shall serve as Chairman of the General的职能。”
Committee.加拿大湘墨西哥(E/CO 2JF. SZ/C. l/L . l/kev. 1 ):
Substitute members Rule 12第1条之二改为: ‘ 214 “本公约的范围
If the President or a Vice-President of the Conference“1.本公约作为一份厘际合作的文书,旨在确保各締约圆在查禁卷法钣运寐薛
is to be absent during a meeting of the General Committee, he may designate a member of his delegation to sit药品和精神药物的斗争中取得最大的成效 其条款৿对此问题的所有方面,殡立
and vote in the Committee. In case of absence, the Chairman of a Committee of the Whole shall designate the在严格尊重洛缔约国内部葡度规定的情况下必须实施和执行的各项义务。
Vice-Chairman of that Committee as his substitute, and“ 2.本公约绝不减损各国主权平等劲领土完整之原则或不干涉各国内玟之原则。 “ 3.本公约绝不授权某一缔约II当局在任一其他締约国的领土营辖范围内行使
the Chairman of the Drafting Committee shall designate a Conference documents on organizational matters 47湘履行由这些其他国家的法律妇条例规定完全属于其本11当局的管辖权或取权范围
member of the Drafting Committee. When serving on the的职能。”
General Committee, the Vice-Chairman of a Committee阿富汗、阿尔及利亚、阿棂廷、巴哈马、孟加拉囝.玻利维亚.博茨瓦纳,
of the Whole or member of the Drafting Committee shall巴西,喀麦隆、加拿大、哥论比哥羝达黎加 科特适瓦.古巴、厄瓜多尔]
not have the right to vote if he is of the same delegation及、埃塞戗比亚、加纳、危地马拉》印度、印^尼百亚、伊朗伊斯兰共勒囝 伊拉
as another member of the General Committee.克,牙买加、肯尼亚 科j^i,马来西亚、毛里塔尼亚.毛里求斯*墨西哥、尼治
Functions豕、巴拿马、巴拉圭、贿、菲律宾、大韩民国.塞内加尔、勐里兰卡、坦桑尼f
Rule 13联合共勒圆,乌拉圭.委内瑞拉勒南澌拉夫(E/C0i;?.82/'C.
The General Committee shall assist the President in the和Add.l)0 用下列菜文代替经修订的第1条之二( E/'COSF. 82/C . l/'L. lyr.ev.l )
general conduct of the business of the Conference and,“第1条之二
subject to the decisions of the Conference, shall ensure the“本公约的范围
coordination of its work.“1.本公约作为一份国际合作钓文书,旨在确保各缔约圆在査禁非法趿运后辞
IV. SECRETARIAT药品念精神药物的斗争中取得最大的成效。其条款৿对此问題的所有方面,转立
Duties of the Secretary-General在严格尊重各缔约国内部法律制度的基本规定的情况下应予实尨命执行的各项义夯。
Rule 14“ 2 本公约绝不凌損各圆主权平等劲领土完#之原则或不干涉各圆内政之原别。
1.“3.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall本公约绝不授权某一缚约国当局在任一其他締约11的领土管辖范围内行使 ‘ 215 和1行由这些其铯国家的法律初条例规定完全属于其本国当局的管辖杈或取杈范围
be the Secretary-General of the Conference. He, or his的取能。,’
representative, shall act in that capacity in all meetings of联合王国 < E/CONF . 82/0 . 1/L. 31) 将文件S/CCHF . 82^c. 1/L. lyRev 2所载莬一条之二莬1歙务二句更
the Conference and its committees.改如卞:
2. The Secretary-General shall appoint an Executive“本公约的范围 “各结约国在棂锃本公约实旌和屐行其义务时,应按舀其图内法律制度的基本&
Secretary of the Conference and shall provide and direct定杀取任何必要约措私包括立法和行玟措So ” 美利坚合众国 < E/COEF-82/C - 1/L.38)
the staff required by the Conference and its committees.笫1条之二重斩萆拉如下:
Duties of the secretariat.‘‘本公约的范围
Rule 15“1.本公约的目的是便进各缔约国之间进行合作,以便它们可以更有效过对付
The secretariat of the Conference shall, in accordance帯有囯际性质的麻薛品滥用问題的各个方面。各缔约国在实旌和找行其铵本公约
with these rules:所负的义务时s应根据其国内立法制度的基本规定,采取任佴必旻的措旌.包括立
(a) Interpret speeches made at meetings;法和行政揞旌。 “ 2.名约囯在拭行其按本公约所负义务时釆周的方式应符合各匡主权平等和
(b) Receive, translate, reproduce and distribute the领土完整的原则以及不干涉别国内政的原则.
documents of the Conference;“ 8.本公约的某一缔约国不得在另一缔约囯的领土内行使由其本囯法律和章程
(c) Publish and circulate the official documents of the规定完全属于该另一締约国当局的管辖权和取I” ‘ 216 三.第一委员会的议事过程
Conference;A.会议
(d) Prepare and circulate records of public meetings;4.委员会于1 9 8 8 年 12 月 1 0日至1 3日的第2 4 、 27 、 28 扣 2 9
(e) Make and arrange for the keeping of sound recordings of meetings;次会议上初步讨论了第1条之二及其修正案。
(f ) Arrange for the custody and preservation of theB.审议愔况和决定
documents of the Conference in the archives of the United Nations; and (g) Generally perform all other work that the Conference may require. Statements by the secretariat Rule 16 In the exercise of the duties referred to in rules 14 and 15, the Secretary-General or any other member of the staff designated for that purpose may, at any time, make either oral or written statements concerning any question under consideration. V. OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE Temporary President Rule 17 The Secretary-General of the United Nations or, in his absence, his representative, shall open the first meeting of the Conference and preside until the Conference has elected its President. Decisions concerning organization Rule 18 1. On the basis of recommendations submitted by the Review Group, and those emerging from any preConference consultations, the Conference shall, to the extent possible, at its first meeting: (a) Adopt its rules of procedure;5.委员会牧到基本提案(s^corp 82X3)中所载的荔1条之二的案文5.加拿大和簦百哥对该条款提出了一份侈正衷文(ZZC011F. 82/ C l/C. 1).
(b) Elect its officers and constitute its subsidiary7.经过协商,加拿大代表和墨西哥代表又提S了一份第1条之二的忮正窆文
organs; (c) Adopt its agenda, the draft of which shall, until such adoption, be the provisional agenda of the Conference; (d) Decide on the organization of its work. 2. Recommendations relating to matters set out in paragraph 1, subparagraphs (a) to (d) above, submitted by the Review Group and those resulting from preConference consultations shall, unless the Conference specifically decides otherwise, be acted on without further discussion. VI. CONDUCT OF BUSINESS Quorum(s/ccrr . 82yom 1/ L \yRe-, 1).经代表囵之间进一步协商,4 2个代表E
Rule 19 The President may declare a meeting open and permit the debate to proceed when representatives of at least one third of the States participating in the Conference are present. The presence of representatives of a majority of the States so participating shall be required for any decision to be taken.向委员会提出了一份第1条之二约修订案文(EZCC::?. 82/ C 1/ i l^.ev . 2相
Speeches Rule 20 1. No one may address the Conference without having previously obtained the permission of the President. Subject to rules 21, 22, 25 and 27, the President shall call upon speakers in the order in which they signify their desire to speak. The Secretariat shall be in charge of drawing up a list of such speakers. The President may call a speaker to order if his remarks are not relevant to the subject under discussion. 2. The Conference may limit the time allowed to each speaker and the number of times each representative may speak on a question. Before a decision is taken, two 48 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances representatives may speak in favour of, and two against, a proposal to set such limits. When the debate is limited and a speaker exceeds the allotted time, the President shall call him to order without delay. Precedence Rule 21 The chairman or rapporteur of a committee, or the representative of a subcommittee or working group, mayA c a. 1 ) „
be accorded precedence for the purpose of explaining the8.在努二十S次会议上,g员会审査了拟议约苐1条之二的侈订褢文,弁抒
conclusions arrived at by his committee, subcommittee or取了妇拿大代表以修订褢文原联合提袠国名义对拟边的该条约基本原淀约
working group. Points of order Rule 22 During the discussion of any matter, a representative may at any time raise a point of order, which shall be decided immediately by the President in accordance with these rules. A representative may appeal against the ruling of the President. The appeal shall be put to the vote immediately, and the President's ruling shall stand unless overruled by a majority of the representatives present and voting. A representative may not, in raising a point of order, speak on the substance of the matter under discussion. Closing of list of speakers Rule 23 During the course of a debate the President may announce the list of speakers and, with the consent of the Conference, declare the list closed. Right of reply Rule 24 1. Notwithstanding rule 23, the President shall accord the right of reply to a representative of any State participating in the Conference who requests it. Any other representative may be granted the opportunity to make a reply. 2. Replies made pursuant to the present rule shall be made at the end of the last meeting of the day, or at the9.在讨论过程中,联合王囯代表同时以其倥1 3个代表il的名义口头介绍了
conclusion of the consideration of the relevant issue if that文件:EXC0I1P 82/ C 1/ L lyHev 2所载第1款芬二句的一项侈正褢,其巨约
is sooner.是阐明将由各绮约囯自己决定为屐行公约义务窍要何耔法律并费立诃舜制度。该修
3. The number of interventions in reply for any delegation at a given meeting should be limited to two per issue.正案随后缝入文件HC_
4. The first intervention in reply, for any delegation
on any issue at a given meeting, shall be limited to five? 82/ C 1/ L 31散发。
minutes and the second intervention shall be limited to10. 美利坚合众国代表反对文 82/C . 1/ L L^.ev. 1所载约重
three minutes. Adjournment of debate Rule 25 A representative may at any time move the adjournment of the debate on the question under discussion. In addition to the proposer of the motion permission to speak on the motion shall be accorded only to two representatives in favour and to two opposing the adjournment, after which the motion shall, subject to rule 28, be immediately put to the vote. Closure of debate Rule 26 A representative may at any time move the closure of the debate on the question under discussion, whether or not any other representative has signified his/her wish to speak. Permission to speak on the motion shall be accorded only to two representatives opposing the closure, after which the motion shall, subject to rule 28, be immediately put to the vote. Suspension or adjournment of the meeting Rule 27拟的案文,口头提岜了一份重拟的草浮,隨后经硌作疹改饩入文件二义82/
Subject to rule 40, a representative may at any timeC 38 景发.
move the suspension or the adjournment of the meeting.11.委员会同意这一拟议的新草袠,但将笫1敫中“恋薛品滋同问題” 一语改
No discussion on such motions shall be permitted and they为“麻结药品和精神药勃的非法歿运”》
shall, subject to rule 28, be immediately put to the vote.12 委员会还决定将议定的第1条之二的案文线在内容为定义的第1条之后 ‘ 217 四.转交起草委员会的衷文
Order of motions Rule 28 The motions indicated below shall have precedence in the following order over all proposals or other motions before the meeting: (a) To suspend the meeting; (b) To adjourn the meeting; (c) To adjourn the debate on the question under discussion; (d) To close the debate on the question under discussion. Basic proposal Rule 29 The draft articles of the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, submitted by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its tenth special session and those submitted as part of its report by the Review Group, shall constitute the basic proposal for consideration by the Conference. Other proposals and amendments Rule 30 Other proposals and amendments shall normally be submitted in writing to the Executive Secretary of the Conference, who shall circulate copies to all delegations. As a general rule, no proposal shall be discussed or put to the vote at any meeting of the Conference unless copies of it have been circulated to all delegations not later than the day preceding the meeting. The President may, however, permit the discussion and consideration of Conference documents on organizational matters 49 amendments, even though these amendments have not been circulated or have only been circulated the same day. Decisions on competence Rule 31 Subject to rule 22, any motion calling for a decision on the competence of the Conference to discuss any matter or to adopt a proposal submitted to it shall be put to the vote before the matter is discussed or a decision is taken on the proposal in question. Withdrawal of proposals and motions Rule 32 A proposal or a motion may be withdrawn by its proposer at any time before voting on it has commenced, provided that it has not been amended. A proposal or a motion that has thus been withdrawn may be reintroduced by any representative. Reconsideration of proposals Rule 33 When a proposal has been adopted or rejected it may not be reconsidered unless the Conference, by a two-thirds majority of the representatives present and voting, so decides. Permission to speak on the motion to reconsider shall be accorded only to two speakers opposing the motion, after which it shall be immediately put to the vote. Invitations to technical advisers Rule 34 The Conference may invite to one or more of its meetings any person whose technical advice it may consider useful for its work. Vn. DECISION-MAKING General agreement Rule 35 1. The Conference shall make its best endeavours to ensure that the work of the Conference is accomplished by general agreement. 2. If, in the consideration of any matter of substance, all efforts have been made and no agreement appears to be attainable, the President of the Conference shall inform the General Committee that efforts to reach general agreement have failed. The General Committee shall there upon consider the matter and recommend the steps to be taken. Voting rights13.委员会同意下述案文,并将其转交起草委员会审议。
Rule 36“本公约的范II
Each State participating in the Conference shall have“1.本公约的目的是傻进各污约E1之间进行合作,以促它们可以更有欸C对付
one vote.带有国际性质的忠薛药品和玆神药物的非法苡运的各个方靣。各缔约囯在实釭行找
Majority required行其按本公约所负约义夯时,应棂程其囯内立法饲度的若本泛定,采取色何必要约
Rule 37揞尨,包括立法和行政搢旋。
1.“ 2.
Subject to rule 35, decisions of the Conference on各缔约国在执行其按本公约所负义务时采周的方式应符合各囯主权平等和
all matters of substance shall be taken by a two-thirds领土完簦的原则以及不干涉别囯内政的原则。
majority of the representatives present and voting.“ 3.本公约的某一缔约国不得在另一缔约m的領土内行使甴其本囯法韋和章程
2. Except as otherwise provided in these rules, decisions of the Conference on all matters of procedure shall鼓定完全属于该另一缔约国当局的管辖权和职I ”
be taken by a majority of the representatives present and文件E/CONF.82/C 1/L 18/Add.1
voting.[原件:英文]
3. If the question arises whether a matter is one ofC1988车 12 月 12 日]
procedure or of substance, the President of the Conference第2条
shall rule on the question. An appeal against this ruling一、基本提案
shall be put to the vote immediately, and the President's1.会议收到的文件
ruling shall stand unless overruled by a majority of the2
representatives present and voting./coi
4. If a vote is equally divided, the proposal or motion
shall be regarded as rejected.r,8^/3所载莬2条案文如下:
Meaning of the phrase "representatives“貧2条
present and voting"“罪行和制裁
Rule 38“1 各绪约国应采取必要的措施将以下蓄意行为确定为其刑法中的犯罪行为: ‘ 218 “ (a) H 非法贩运 ;
For the purpose of these rules, the phrase "representatives present and voting" means representatives present“㈡制造或分销'用于非法生产、加工或制造麻醉药品或精神药物的材
and casting an affirmative or negative vote. Representatives who abstain from voting shall be considered as not料或设备,而明知其将用于此秭目的;
voting.“㈢明知财产来自非法叛运而隐瞒、掩饰或变换这种财产的性质、来
Method of voting源、处置、移动或所有权;
Rule 39“㈦在不违背缔约国宪法限制、法俸制度和国内法的情况下,
1. Except as provided in rule 46, the Conference shall“(一)明知财产来自非法贩运而获取、持有或使用这科财产;
normally vote by show of hands, except that a representative may request a roll-call, which shall then be taken in“㈡持有用于非法生产、加工或制造麻醉药品或精神药物的材料或设
the English alphabetical order of the names of the States备,明知其正用于或将用于此种目的;
participating in the Conference, beginning with the delegation whose name is drawn by lot by the President. The“㈢参与、合伙或共谋进行,或试图进行,(a)项第f~)、㈡、&目及本
name of each State shall be called in all roll-calls and its项第H、£=)目所列的任何犯罪行为,以及对这秭犯罪的帮助、教
representative shall reply "yes", "no" or "abstention".唉和出谋划策.
2.2 .
When the Conference votes by mechanical means,(a)各缔约国应对本条第1款所列的犯罪竹为按其严重性绘予制裁,诸如
a non-recorded vote shall replace a vote by show of hands监禁或以其他形式剥夺自由,罚款和没收。
and a recorded vote shall replace a roll-call. A representative may request a recorded vote, which shall, unless a缔约国除进行定華或惩处外,还可规定应对萆犯采取治疗、教育、善
representative requests otherwise, be taken without calling后护理、改造或重新参与社会生活等措施。
out the names of the States participating in the Conference.^(c)尽管有以上各项栽定,在性质较轻的案件中,錡约国可韵情规定作为
3. The vote of each State participating in a roll-call or对定罪或惩处的替代方法,采取诸如教盲、改造或重新参与社会生活
a recorded vote shall be inserted in any record of or report等措施,如罪犯为吸毒者,还可采取治疗和善后护理等措施。
on the meeting.3 .
Conduct during voting Rule 40 After the President has announced the commencement of voting, no representative shall interrupt the voting 50 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances except on a point of order in connection with the process缔约国应确保其法院能够考虑可对第1款所列犯罪行为加重处理的事实情
of voting. Explanation of vote Rule 41 Representatives may make brief statements consisting solely of explanations of vote, before the voting has commenced or after the voting has been completed. The President may limit the time to be allowed for such explanations. The representative of a State sponsoring a proposal or motion shall not speak in explanation of vote thereon, except if it has been amended. Division of proposals Rule 42 A representative may move that parts of a proposal be voted on separately. If a representative objects, the motion for division shall be voted upon. Permission to speak on the motion shall be accorded only to two representatives in favour and two opposing the division. If die motion is“(a)罪犯所属的有组织的犯罪集i;参与该项犯罪;
carried, those parts of the proposal that are subsequently“㈦罪犯参与国际上其他有组织的犯罪活动;
approved shall be put to the vote as a whole. If all operative parts of the proposal have been rejected, the proposal"(c)罪犯参与因此项彳而伲进的其他非法活动;
shall be considered to have been rejected as a whole.“⑴使用枪支或暴力;
Amendments Rule 43 A proposal is considered an amendment to another proposal if it merely adds to, deletes from or revises part of that proposal. Unless specified otherwise, the word "proposal" in these rules shall be considered as including amendments. Order of voting on amendments Rule 44 When an amendment is moved to a proposal, the amendment shall be voted on first. When two or more amendments are moved to a proposal, the Conference shall vote first on the amendment furthest removed in substance from the original proposal and then on the amendment next furthest removed therefrom and so on until all the amendments have been put to the vote. Where, however, the adoption of one amendment necessarily implies the rejection of another amendment, the latter shall not be put to the vote. If one or more amendments are adopted, the amended proposal shall then be voted upon."(e)罪犯担任公职,而所犯罪行与该公职有关;
Order of voting on proposals"(f)危害或利甩未成年人;
Rule 45 1. If two or more proposals, other than amendments, relate to the same question, they shall, unless the Conference decides otherwise, be voted on in the order in which they were submitted. The Conference may, after each vote on a proposal, decide whether to vote on the next proposal. 2. Revised proposals shall be voted on in the order in which the original proposals were submitted, unless the revision substantially departs from the original proposal. In that case the original proposal shall be considered as withdrawn and the revised proposal shall be treated as a new proposal. 3. A motion requiring that no decision be taken on a proposal shall be put to the vote before a vote is taken on the proposal in question."(g)国外或国内的前科罪行,如为缔约国国内法所允许; ‘ 219 “ 4.締约国在考虑对经判定犯有本条第1款所列犯罪行为的人是否可提前释放
Elections Rule 46 All elections shall be held by secret ballot unless, in the absence of any objection, the Conference decides to proceed without taking a ballot when there is an agreed candidate or slate. Rule 47 1. When one or more elective places are to be filled at one time under the same conditions, those candidates, in a number not exceeding the number of such places, obtaining in the first ballot a majority of the votes cast and the largest number of votes shall be elected.或假释时.应考虑到这类罪行的严重性质。
2.“ 5.
If the number of candidates obtaining such a majority is less than the number of places to be filled, additional结约国应酌銜史法制定适用于本条第1款所列罪行的适当法定时效规定
ballots shall be held to fill the remaining places.“6.各缔约国应依照其法律制度采取适当措施,确保在其领土内发现的祓指控
Vm. COMMITTEES Committees of the Whole Rule 48 The Conference shall establish two Committees of the Whole, which may set up subcommittees or working groups. Each Committee of the Whole shall have as its officers a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman and a Rapporteur. Drafting Committee Rule 49 1. The Conference shall establish a Drafting Committee consisting of 15 members, including its Chairman who shall be elected by the Conference in accordance with rule 6. The other 14 members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Conference on the proposal of the General Committee. The Rapporteurs of the Committees of the Whole participate ex officio, without a vote, in the work of the Drafting Committee. 2. The Drafting Committee shall consider draft articles referred to it by the Committee of the Whole. The Drafting Committee shall furthermore prepare drafts and give advice on drafting as requested by the Conference or by the Committee of the Whole. It shall coordinate and Conference documents on organizational matters 51 review the drafting of all texts adopted, and shall report, as appropriate, either to the Conference or to a Committee of the Whole. Officers Rule 50 Except as otherwise provided in rule 6, each committee, subcommittee and working group shall elect its own officers. Quorum Rule 51 1. The Chairman of a Committee of the Whole may declare a meeting open and permit the debate to proceed when representatives of at least one quarter of the States participating in the Conference are present. The presence of representatives of a majority of the States so participating shall be required for any decision to be taken. 2. A majority of the representatives of the General, Drafting or Credentials Committee or of any committee,或祓判定犯有本条第1款所列罪行的人,在必要的刑事诉讼中出庭
subcommittee or working group shall constitute a quorum.“7.〔为締约国间根据本公约进行合作的目的,〔包括特别是按照第3、4、
Officers, conduct of business and voting5、6条规定进行合作,)本条规定所确定的犯罪行为均不得视为政治-〔或财经]
Rule 52罪行或视为出于政治动礼]〔本规定的适兩不应捐害铨约国的宪法限制和基本国
The rules contained in chapters II, VI (except rule 19)内法.〕〔在任何情况下,本规定的捎行不应损害按照匼际法的庇护权撢例 ]
and VII above shall be applicable, mutatis mutandis, to the“8.本条任何规定不得影响其所述犯罪行为应依缔约国的国内法加以阐述并按
proceedings of committees, subcommittees and working该法予以起诉和惩处的原则.”
groups, except that:二、修正案
(a) The Chairmen of the General, Drafting and Credentials Committees and die chairmen of committees, subcommittees and working groups may exercise the right to2.对第2条提出修正案的有:墨B哥(E/COEF . 82/3,附件四. %
vote, and (b) Decisions of committees, subcommittees and working groups shall be taken by a majority of the representatives present and voting, except that the reconsideration of a proposal or an amendment shall require the majority established by rule. 33. Other committees Rule 53 1. In addition to the committees referred to above, the Conference may establish such committees and working groups as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions. 2. Each committee may set up subcommittees and working groups. Rule 54 1. The members of the committees and working groups of the Conference, referred to in rule 53, paragraph 1, shall be appointed by the President, subject to the109-110页),德 l 志民主共和国(E/COBF. 82/C . 1/JL. 3),荷兰(E /
approval of the Conference, unless the Conference decidesCOKF . 82/C . 1/L . 4),德貢志联邦共和国(E/COBF. 8Z/ C . 1/L . 5),
otherwise.印度(E/COEr. 82/C .
2.6),加拿大和墨西哥(E/COBF. 82/C .
Members of subcommittees and working groups of committees shall be appointed by the Chairman of the committee in question, subject to the approval of that committee, unless the committee decides otherwise.1 /
IX. LANGUAGES AND RECORDS Languages of the Conference Rule 55 Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish shall be the languages of the Conference. Interpretation Rule 56 1. Speeches made in a language of the Conference shall be interpreted into the other such languages. 2. A representative may speak in a language other than a language of the Conference if the delegation concerned provides for interpretation into one such language. Records and sound recordings of meetings Rule 57 1. Summary records of the plenary meetings of the Conference and of the meetings of the Committees of the Whole shall be kept in the languages of the Conference. As a general rule, they shall be circulated as soon as possible, simultaneously in all the languages of the Conference, to all representatives, who shall inform the Secretariat within five working days after the circulation of the summary record of any changes they wish to have made. 2. The Secretariat shall make sound recordings of meetings of the Conference, the Committees of the Whole and the Drafting Committee. Such recordings shall be made of meetings of other committees, subcommittees or working groups when the body concerned so decides. Languages of official documents Rule 58 Official documents shall be made available in the languages of the Conference. X. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE MEETINGS Plenary meetings and meetings of the Committees of the WholeL . 7 /Rev . 1),阿根廷、巴西、加拿大、哥伶比亚、古巴、埃及、加纳、篸百哥、
Rule 59秘鲁和委内瑞拉(E/COEF- 82/C . iZL . 8),牙买加(E/COBF . 82/C . 1 /
The plenary meetings of the Conference and meetingsL . 9),阿根廷、哥伦比亚和墨西哥(EZCOHF. 82/C . 1/L . 10),阿根廷
of the Committees of the Whole shall be held in public溴大利亚》傅茨瓦纳、加拿大、哥伦比亚、法厘,德意志晓邦共命厘.印度、墨百
unless the body concerned decides otherwise. All decisions 52 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances哥*菲联合王国韌美利坚合众国(E/C0FF.82/CM/丄.14),第2条工
taken by the plenary of the Conference at a private meeting shall be announced at an early public meeting of the作组(E/C03SP 82/C . 1/ L .25 K
plenary. Other meetings Rule 60 As a general rule meetings of the General Committee, the Drafting Committee, subcommittees or working groups shall be held in private. Communiques on private meetings Rule 61 At the close of a private meeting, the President of the Conference may issue a communique to the press through the Executive Secretary. XI. OTHER PARTICIPANTS AND OBSERVERS Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia Rule 623.这些修正案的内容如下: ‘ 220 第1款
Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for墨西哥(EZCOBF. 82/13 .附件四,第1 0 9页)
Namibia, may participate in the deliberations of the Conference, the Committees of the Whole and, as appropriate,对第1款的引导句加以修正并增列新的(a)项第®目如下:
other committees, subcommittees or working groups, ina
accordance with the relevant resolutions and decision of1 .各缔约国承担义务,建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施,在其刑
the General Assembly.法中将下述行为确定为犯罪行为(如果它们尚未这样做的诖):
Representatives of organizations that have received a(a)㈣通过任何传播手段进行宣传、鼓励、广泛策动、劝
standing invitation from the General Assembly to诱、唆使或非法帮助他人以任何方式诱使他们参与非法
participate in the sessions and the work of all钣运的M方面。”
international conferences convened under the德意志民主共和囤(E/COBF.82/C . 1/1.3 )
auspices of the General Assembly in the将第1款修改如下:
capacity of observers Rule 63 Representatives designated by organizations that have received a standing invitation from the General Assembly to participate in the sessions and the work of all international conferences convened under the auspices of the General Assembly have the right to participate as observers, without the right to vote, in the deliberations of the Conference, the Committees of the Whole and, as appropriate, other committees, subcommittees or working groups. Representatives of national liberation movements Rule 64 Representatives of national liberation movements invited to the Conference may participate as observers, without the right to vote, in the deliberations of the Conference, the Committees of the Whole and, as appropriate, other committees, subcommittees or working groups on any matter of particular concern to those movements. Representatives of the specialized agencies* Rule 65 Representatives designated by the specialized agencies** may participate, without the right to vote, in the deliberations of the Conference, the Committees of the Whole and, as appropriate, other committees, subcommittees or working groups on questions within the scope“ 1.每4约国应采取必要的搢施将以下蓄意行为确定为其刑法中的记罪行为:
of their activities.“(a) H非法殿运麻薛药品和精神药物;
Representatives of other intergovernmental“㈡制造、分销或占有用以非法生产,加工或制造麻薛药品或精神药
organizations Rule 66 Representatives designated by other intergovernmental organizations** invited to the Conference may participate as observers, without the right to vote, in the deliberations of the Conference, the Committees of the Whole and, as appropriate, other committees, subcommittees or working groups on questions within the scope of their activities. Representatives of interested United Nations organs and of the International Narcotics Control Board Rule 67 Representatives designated by interested organs of the United Nations and by the International Narcotics Control Board** may participate as observers, without the right to vote, in the deliberations of the Conference, its Committees of the Whole and, as appropriate, other committees, subcommittees or working groups on questions within the scope of their activities. Observers for non-governmental organizations Rule 68 1. Non-governmental organizations invited to the Conference may designate representatives to sit as observers at public meetings of the Conference and the Committees of the Whole. 2. Upon the invitation of the presiding officer of the物的材料或设备,而明知其正用于或准备用于此种目的;
conference body concerned and subject to the approval of“㈢在明知财产来自非法贩运鹿薛药品和精神药物的情况下 取得、
that body, such observers may make oral statements on占有、使用、隐匿这辩财产,掩饰或变换这.种财产的性质、来漯、
questions in which they have special competence.处置、转移或所有权;
Written statements Rule 69 Written statements submitted by the designated representatives referred to in rules 63 to 68 shall be distributed by the Secretariat to all delegations in the quantities and in the language in which the statements are made available *For the purpose of these rules, the term "specialized agencies" includes the International Atomic Energy Agency and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. **In accordance with Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/ 8 of 25 May 1988, representatives designated by specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and the International Narcotics Control Board shall have the same rights they have at sessions of the Council. Conference documents on organizational matters 53 to it at the site of the Conference, provided that a statement submitted on behalf of a non-governmental organization is related to the work of the Conference and is on a subject in which it has special competence. posal for the suspension has been given, which may be waived if no representative objects. Any such suspension shall be limited to a specific and stated purpose and to a period required to achieve that purpose. XII. SUSPENSION AND AMENDMENT OF THE RULES OF PROCEDURE Method of suspension Rule 70 Any of these rules may be suspended by the Conference provided that twenty-four hours' notice of the proMethod of amendment Rule 71 These rules of procedure may be amended by a decision of the Conference taken by a two-thirds majority of the representatives present and voting, after the General Committee has reported on the proposed amendment. DOCUMENT E/CONF.82/10* Report of the Credentials Committee 1. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 25 November 1988, the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, in accordance with paragraph 4 of the rules of procedure of the Conference, appointed a Credentials Committee composed of the following States: Bolivia, Botswana,** China, C6te d'lvoire,** Jamaica,** Luxembourg, Thailand, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and United States of America. 2. The Credentials Committee held one meeting on 12 December. 3. Edouard Molitor (Luxembourg) was unanimously elected Chairman of the Committee. 4. The Committee had before it a memorandum by the Executive Secretary of the Conference, dated 6 December, on the status of credentials of representatives of States attending the Conference. Additional information on credentials received by the Executive Secretary of the Conference after the issuance of the memorandum was provided“㈨参与、合伙或共谋进行,或试图进行,⑷项所列的任何犯罪行为以及
to the Committee by the Secretary of the Committee. On对这狩犯罪行为给予协劭、教唆和出谋划策。” ‘ 221 荷兰(E/C03?F . C . l/L . A )
the basis of the information made available to it, the将第1款修改如下:
Committee noted that, as at 12 December:“1.每一締约画应采取必旻的搢尨将以下蓄意犯下的卷行确定为其劑法中的犯
(a) Formal credentials issued by the Head of State or罪行为:
Government or by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, as“(a)㈠违反《1 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约》(经由修正该公约的1972
provided for in rule 3 of the rules of procedure of the年议定书修正)或《19 7 1年精神药物公约》,生产、加工、
Conference, had been submitted by the representatives制造、提供、提供出售或分销、分销、出售、按任何条件交付、
of the following 93 States participating in the Conference:经纪、发送、itt;发送、运送、进口或出口任何麻薛药品或任何
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana,- 药物;
Bulgaria, Burma, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic,“㈡为进行上面第㈠目所列的任何活动而占有或购买任何麻薛药品或
Incorporating document E/CONF.82/10/Corr.l.精神药物; “
These States were elected at the 3rd plenary meeting, on 1 December 1988.“曰违反第H目规定,制造、运输或分锡用以生产,加工或制造麻薛
[Original: English] [15 December 1988] Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, C6te d'lvoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, German Democratic Republic, Germany, Federal Republic of, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Senegal, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia and Zaire; (b) Credentials for the representatives of the following 5 States, issued by their respective Heads of State or Government or Ministers for Foreign Affairs, had been communicated to the Secretary-General of the Conference in the form of a cable: Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Madagascar, Uruguay and Viet Nam; (c) The designation of the representatives of the following State had been communicated to the Executive Secretary of the Conference by means of a letter, note verbale or cable from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs: Bangladesh; (d) The designation of the representatives of the following 6 States had been communicated to the Executive Secretary of the Conference by means of a letter, note verbale or cable from their respective permanent representatives or permanent missions to the United Nations (Geneva, New York or Vienna) or their embassies at Vienna: Bahrain, Brazil; Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates; 54 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (e) As at 12 December, 110 credential had been received from the representative of the following State participating in the Conference: Cape Verde. 5. Statements relating to the credentials of representatives of States participating in the Conference were made by the representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 6. The representative of the United States of America stated that, while his delegation was not challenging the credentials of the delegation of Afghanistan for participation in the Conference, his delegation wished to make it clear that his Government remained deeply concerned about the situation in Afghanistan. In not pressing an objection concerning the representatives of Afghanistan, the United States should in no way be considered as accepting the regime at Kabul as legitimate or representative of the Afghan people. 7. The representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics stated that the claim by one of the delegations questioning the credentials of the representatives of the Republic of Afghanistan, which acted internationally as a sovereign independent and non-aligned State and a fully legitimate Member of the United Nations, was nothing but a deliberate attempt to distort the historic and political realities. Such claims were contrary to the goal of a thorough and comprehensive settlement of the situation regarding Afghanistan, the way to which lay through scrupulous implementation of the Getaeva agreements. 8. The Chairman proposed that, taking into account the statements made and positions expressed by members of the Committee, which would be reflected in the Committee's report, the Committee adopt the following draft resolution: "The Credentials Committee, "Having examined the credentials of the representatives to the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, referred to in paragraph 4 of the present report, "Taking into account the statements made by delegations during the debate, "1. Accepts the credentials of the representatives of the States referred to in paragraph 4(a), (b), (c) and (d) above; "2. Accepts the provisional participation of the representatives of the States referred to in paragraph 4(e) pending the receipt of their credentials; "3. Recommends that the Conference should approve the report of the Credentials Committee." 9. The draft resolution proposed by the Chairman was adopted by the Committee without a vote. 10. Subsequently, the Chairman proposed that the Committee should recommend to the Conference the adoption of a draft resolution (see paragraph 12 below). The proposal was approved by the Committee without a vote. 11. In the light of the foregoing, the present report is submitted to the Conference. RECOMMENDATION OF THE CREDENTIALS药品或精神药物的设备或材料,包括清单A和清单E所列的物质;
COMMITTEE“㈣组织、管理或资助上面第㈠至曰目列举的任何活动;
12. The Credentials Committee recommends to the Conference the adoption of the following draft resolution:“ (b)明知财产是得自本条所述的某一犯萆行为的收益面隐瞒或掩饰此锅时
"Credentials of representatives to the United Nations产的性质、来源、处置、移动.地点或所有权或对其拥有的权利;
Conference for the Adoption of a Convention against“ (c)在不违背締约国宪法限制、法律制度湘圆内法的情况下、
Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances“㈠在收取时明知财产是来自本条所述的任何罪行的收益而获取.占
"The Conference,有或使用此种财产,以及明知射产是此我收益而转换或转移此.种
"Having examined the report of the Credentials财产以获取利益;
Committee,“㈡违反上面㈣项㈠定,占有用以生产、加工或制造麻薛药品或
"Approves the report of the Credentials Committee." Main Conference documents精神药物的设备或材科丨包括清单A湘清单B所列的物质;
DOCUMENT E/CONF.82/3*“©参与、合伙或共谋进行、试图进行本条所列举的任何罪行以及对
Report of the Review Group on the draft Convention这稃罪行的协助、教唆、提供方便命出谋划祭。,, ‘ 222 德意志联邦共初li ( ^C0KF.82/C.I/i. 5 )
Chapter I对上文C所载入的荷兰修正案的修正:
MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION1.第1款(b)顼内以及目内的‘‘本条列举的”字样应改为“上面(a頻H或越
BY THE CONFERENCE目所列举的”或“来自按下面(c)頃曰目璃定的某一罪行的,,“与上面(a 烦H或购目所列
1. The Review Group on the draft Convention against举的某一罪行有关的,,字样《
Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, having taken note of document DND/DCIT/142.第1款(tO項内应增加“除例细c烦H目贺歹衍为以外”字祥。
prepared by the Secretariat concerning the organization of印度(E/C0155'.82/C. 1/i . 6 )
the Conference, makes the following recommendations to将第1款修》下: .
the plenipotentiary conference:“1-.各缔约国应釆取必要的搢施将以下蓄意行为确定为其刑法中的犯罪行为:
Decision“㈠非法叛运;
The Review Group requests the Secretary-General to“㈡制造.占有或分销用以非法生产、加工或制造麻薛药品或精神药物的
circulate to States a draft timetable on the organization of材斜或设备;
work no later than three weeks before the Conference.“㈢获取、占有、使周来自或用于非法贩运的尉产或收益,隐瞒、掩饰或
Recommendation I变换其性质、来源、处置、移动或所有权;
Provisional agenda for the Conference“㈣参与共谋进行或试图进行任何此种罪行,进行与本条所述萆行有关的
The Review Group recommends the adoption of the准备行动和金融活动,以及协勤、唆使、策划及组织进行本款(一)、㈡
provisional agenda for the Conference as set out in document DND/DCIT/13 as well as in paragraph 7 of DND/和㈢目所述的贿罪行。”
DCIT/14 except that:提议新的第1款之二
(a) Sub-item 3(h) "Organization of work" should precede sub-item 3(g) "Establishment of other committees,荷兰(E/COWF, 82/C.1/L.4 )
subcommittees or working groups";加入下文,作为新的第1款之二 :
(b) Sub-item 3(h) should be amended to provide for“作为第1款所列某一罪行的因素之一,关于是否知情,可根据客观的具体情节
inclusion of documentation entitled "Relevant portions of加以判断。,, ‘ 223 重新拟定的第ij:和第2款(d)项
the report of the Review Group concerning organizational第一委员会工作 组 ( I/L.2 5 )
matters" and "Draft timetable of work";以下列案文取代第2条第1 Ifc,增添新的第1款之二和之三以及新的第2款㈣
(c) The documentation for item 4 "Consideration of a项如下:
draft convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and«1.各缔约国应采取必旻的搢旋将以下蓄意行为萌定为其国内法中的犯罪行为i
psychotropic substances" should be amended following“ (a)㈠违反经《修正I 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正
the word "including" as follows: "the draft articles of的《1 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约》或违反《精神药物公约》, 生产、
the convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and.制造、提象配制、提供、提供出售、分销、出售、按任何絲交付、
psychotropic substances, submitted by the Commission经৾发送、过境发送、运输、进口或出口任何麻辟药品或玆神药物J
on Narcotic Drugs at its tenth special session and those“ H之‘二违反经《修正I 9 6 I年麻醉品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》
submitted as part of its report by the Review Group".修正的《I 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约》,为生产麻薛药品的目的而种
The documentation should also include the report of the植幕粟、古柯树或大麻植物;
Review Group.“㈡为了进行上文㈠目所列的任何活动,占有或购买任何麻醉药品或精神
Incorporating documents E/CONF.82/3/Corr.2 and Corr.3 and excluding annexes I, III and V.药物j
[Original: English] [20 July 1988] (For the text of the provisional agenda for the Conference, see E/CONF.82/1; for the text of the note by the Secretariat on organization contained in DND/DCIT/14, as amended, see E/CONF.82/4.) Recommendation II Provisional rules of procedure for the Conference The Review Group recommends the adoption of the provisional rules of procedure for the Conference as set out in document DND/DCIT/10 and Corr.1-3 with amendments to rules 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 29, 30, 31, 59, 60 and 61. (For the text of the provisional rules of procedure for“曰明知将用于非法科植、生产、加工或制aw锌药品或精神药物而制造、运
the Conference, see E/CONF.82/2.)输或分销设备或例如清单A和清单B所列渤质等材热
Recommendation III Appointment of the members of the Credentials Committee The Review Group recommends that the Conference should appoint the same Credentials Committee as at the forty-third session of the General Assembly, on the understanding that, if a State is not present, the Conference should replace that State by another State from the same“㈣组织v管理或筹集资金进行上文H、㈠之二、⑶或曰目所列的任何罪行;
regional group. Recommendation IV Election of officers The Review Group recommends the following distribution of seats on the General Committee of the Conference: Eight representatives from African States; Seven representatives from Asian States; Three representatives from Eastern European States; Five representatives from Latin American States; Six representatives from Western European and other States. The Review Group further recommends that agreement on a list of candidates for the President of the Conference, as well as for the officers of the General Committee and of the Committee of the Whole, should be reached before 55 56 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances“(b) H明知射产得自上文fe)项所列任何華行或得自对此狩草行钓参与.
the opening of the Conference, thus allowing elections by为了隐瞒或祛伟该尉产的非法来漯,或为了协助任何涉及E了上
acclamation and dispensing with the requirements of atfe)項所列華行的人逃避其行动约法律后果面转换或转移该锊产;
secret ballot. Recommendation V Organization of the work of the Conference The Review Group recommends that: (a) The Conference should be held for 18 working days from 25 November to 20 December 1988, preceded by one day of pre-Conference consultations on 24 November (see recommendation VI below); (b) As a general rule, and taking into account the availability of interpretation facilities, four meetings should be held a day, namely, no more than two simultaneous meetings of the Plenary, Committee of the Whole or Subcommittee; (c) The Committee of the Whole should be convened on the afternoon of 25 November to consider such organizational matters as may be required; (d) The Committee of the Whole should establish a“㈡明知财产得自上文⑷項所列尋行或得自对此科春行的参与,隐辑
Subcommittee reporting to the Committee of the Whole或掩饰该封产的真实‘践.来源、地点,处置、移动.对其约权
from time to time on the texts which have been approved利或所有权。
for submission to the Committee of the Whole.“⑴在其芫法原诩及其法律刽度基本茫念允许约情况下,
Recommendation VI Holding of pre-Conference consultations The Review Group recommends that consultations among States be held at Vienna on a continuing basis until the Conference and that a one-day pre-Conference consultation be held at Vienna immediately prior to the opening of the Conference so that as many organizational and procedural questions as possible can be settled in advance of the Conference in order to allow maximum time at the Conference itself for the consideration of substantive items. Recommendation VII Allocation of agenda items The Review Group recommends that the Committee of the Whole, on the basis of a draft timetable prepared by the Secretary-General (see Decision above) and considered during pre-Conference consultations, should assign“㈠在抆玖讨明知尉产是得自上文(a)項所列尋行或得自对此种尋行的 ‘ 224 参与,获取、占有或使用该尉产;
to itself consideration of articles 1 to 6 and allocate the“㈡明知是周于或将旻用于非法种揎、生产、(妇工)或制造一荇苽
remaining articles, the preamble and the implementation辞药品或猜神药幼*占有设备或倒如瀆单A扫瀆单E所列钧质等
and final clauses to the Subcommittee mentioned in材৽
recommendation V(d). Chapter II BACKGROUND AND ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING OF THE REVIEW GROUP A. Background of the meeting Drugs, through the Economic and Social Council, to initiate the preparation of a new draft convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. In furtherance of that objective, the Commission, in resolution 1 (S-IX) of 14 February 1986, identified 14 elements for inclusion in an initial draft convention and requested the Secretary-General to prepare such a draft for circulation to Governments for comment. The Commission considered the draft Convention and Governments' comments thereon at its thirty-second session in February 1987. 3. The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1987/27 of 27 May 1987, which had been submitted as a draft by the thirty-second session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, requested the Secretary-General to prepare a working document consolidating the first draft of the Convention, comments made by Governments to date on that draft and the results of the deliberations of the Commission on the draft at its thirty-second session; the working document was also to contain a draft preambular part, a section on the implementation mechanisms and draft final clauses. The Council further requested the Secretary-General to circulate that working document to States and decided that an open-ended intergovernmental expert group should meet if necessary twice in 1987, to review the working document and, wherever possible, reach agreement on the articles of the draft Convention and prepare a revised working document. The SecretaryGeneral accordingly prepared the consolidated working document requested by the Council, circulated it to Governments and convened two meetings of the expert group at the Vienna International Centre in 1987 (29 June10 July 1987 and 5-16 October 1987). 4. In view of the fact that the expert group required additional time to continue its examination of the draft text before submission to the Commission at its tenth special session (8-19 February 1988), the General Assembly, in resolution 42/111 of 7 December 1987, requested the Secretary-General to consider convening a further intergovernmental expert group meeting for a period of two weeks immediately prior to that session to continue revision of the paper on the draft Convention. In that same resolution, the Assembly requested the Commission "to consider and, if possible, approve the draft Convention at its tenth special session". The third meeting of the expert group met at the Vienna International Centre from 25 January to 5 February 1988. 5. At its tenth special session, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs reviewed the draft text of the Convention in the light of the reports of the three meetings of the openended intergovernmental expert group. The reports showed that the expert group had been able to examine some articles in depth, whereas time constraints had only allowed varying degrees of examination with respect to other articles. The Commission, following its discussions on the draft text, which are reflected in chapter II of its“ a之二以任何手段公开鼓动或劝诱位人去犯本条所蒺定的任何華行
report on the tenth special session,或非法使周某一琼誶药品或精神药钕;
1 decided to forward the following articles, as amended, to the Conference: 2. The General Assembly, in its resolution 39/141 of 14 December 1984, requested the Commission on Narcotic 1 Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1988, Supplement No. 3 (E/1988/13). Main Conference documents 57 (a) Articles 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11 bis, 12, 13 and 14; (b) Articles II-VI of the draft implementation measures (the Commission decided to delete article I); (c) Articles I-VIII of the draft final clauses and a proposed additional article concerning the authentic text of the Convention and the transmission of certified copies to States Parties. The Commission also decided that the draft preamble should be forwarded to the Conference for further consideration. 6. The Commission also approved a draft resolution for submission to the Economic and Social Council which set out the measures which it recommended to further the preparation of the draft Convention. That draft resolution was adopted by the Council on 25 May 1988 as resolution 1988/8, entitled "Preparation of an international convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances". In that resolution, the Council decided to convene a Review Group on the draft Convention and also to convene, no sooner than four months after the meeting of the Review Group, a plenipotentiary conference for the adoption of a convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. The mandate of the Review Group, as set out in paragraph 9 of Council resolution 1988/8 was: "(a) To review the draft texts of articles 1 to 6 referred to it by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs with a view to submitting them to the plenipotentiary conference. In addition, the group may review the remaining articles and related draft texts with a view to making those changes that may be necessary to achieve overall consistency of the draft text of the convention to be submitted to the plenipotentiary conference; "(b) To consider organizational matters relating to the conference and the draft provisional rules of procedure to be prepared by the Secretary-General." 7. The specific mandate with respect to the six substantive articles, as reflected in the report of the Commission in its tenth special session, was as follows: Article 1 "The Commission agreed that article 1 should be considered after the review of the convention had been completed and that the review group should identify in the text of the convention the terms that should be defined in article l."“㈢参与.合伙或共谋进行,试图逬行,以及帮动、教唆、方便念谋
J划进行本条所定约任何罪行。
Article 2“1之二作为第1款所列某一萆行ft因素之一,关于是否知情、蒈意或图谋,可拫
'The Commission decided to forward the text of article据客观的具体情节加以判断“1之三各缔约囯应遵照其完法原则囟法律劁度的基本铰念,杀取必要搢施 在其
2 to the review group on the understanding that itII内法中规定,违反《修正1 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正
would have the limited mandate of reviewing the provisions of the new penultimate paragraph."的《1 9 61年浩薛品单一公约》,占有,购买或荇植一舜麻薛药品或精神药物误
3 Article 2 bis "The Commission decided to submit the entire article 2 bis to the review group for further study."个人消t的蓄意行为,均为剤事犯备
4U
2S
Ibid„ para.2 .
100.(d)缔约II可以规定,对于棂据第1款之三确定的尋行,可对華犯采取治
'Ibid., para. 76.疗,教育 箬后护理、康复念重药参与社会生活方E的措釭,作为判罪或愆处的替
4 Ibid., para. 79.代办法,或作为夠尋或鸯处釣衧t
Article 3提议新的第3款(f)项之二
"In view of the importance of the article in the new阿根廷、巴西、加拿大、哥伦比亚、古巴、埃及、加纳、墨西哥、秘鲁和委内 瑞拉(E/COl^F. 82/C.1/1.8 )
convention, the Commission considered it advisable to加入下文,作为新的第3款...项之二: “在学校或社会股务部门或教养中心或在其附近犯罪的事实。” ‘ 225 提议新的第3款(f)项之三
refer its provisions to the review group for further consideration in order to obtain consensus on a final text." 5阿根廷、和墨西哥 ( EZCOITT . 82XC.1/L.10 )
Article 4加入下文,作为新的第3款(f)项之三:
"The Commission decided to submit article 4 to the“在学校儿童群体进行校外文化娱乐活动的场所或地区进行犯罪的事实。,, 提议新的第3款之二
review group for further review.墨西哥(审查组报告E/COEF.
"82/3,第1 10页)
6加入下文,作为新的笫3款之二 :
Article 5“各缔约国承担义务建议其主管立法机构采取必要措施,不管任何时候,当其国 家法律和条例允许其主管行政当局和参与本条笫1款所列犯罪行为的人达成程
"In view of the lack of consensus on those parts of the序性或程序外的安排时,.即应对其国家法律和条例进行修改,以期在这些法律 和条例中消除达成这类安排的可能性,只要这类安排有使这些人逃脱最严厉的
article considered by the Expert Group at its third session and of the fact that the Group had not been able司法审判的作用,无论是通过解除对这些人的刑事行动、缩小指控:改变指控、
to finish consideration of paragraphs 10-13, the Commission decided that the article should be forwarded to有关减轻或改变制裁的交易、特许任何种类的栽免权或任何其他形式的程序性 或程序外的讨价还价或其他理由 ” 阿根瓦澳大利亚、博茨瓦纳、加拿大、哥伦比亚、法国、德意志联邦共和国、
the review group for in-depth consideration." 7印度、墨西哥、菲律宾、联合王国和美利坚合众国(EZCCKF. 82/C.1/L.14)
Article 6重新萆拟墨西哥提出的新的第3款之二(见上文I )
"The Commission decided that, owing to the relationship between the provisions of article 5 and those of“締约国应努力 保与起诉犯有本条所列罪行的人有关的任何法律斟酌决定杈的 行便是为了尽可能提高对这些罪行所采取的执法措施的效力,并JI适当考虑到 制止与之有荦连者的必要忟“ ‘ 226 莬 5 款
article 6, the latter article (which had been adopted by加拿大和墨西哥(S/COi^F. 1 ) 以下述案文取代第5款: “名締约国应对适用#条第1款所列的犯罪的时效法规作出严格的规定。若華犯
consensus by the Expert Group) should be referred to逃离某一締约国以致起诉受到阻碍时,则应使这些规定变得更为严格.,’ 对第7款提出的增补
the review group with the understanding that the article牙买 加 (E/CCHF . 82/C.VA. 9 ) 以下述案文取代第7款最后两句,或将其增列为单独一款:
as such was not to be reconsidered.""被请求国在考虑根据笫3、4或5条收到的请求时,如果有充足的理由使其司 法或行政主管当局认为依从该请求将便利因种族、宗教、国籍或政治观点而起
8诉或惩罚任何人或没收其魁产或使受该请求影响的任何人由于上述任一原因而 遭受歧视,则可拒绝依从该请求.”
8. In the course of the discussions at the tenth special第 8 款
session of the Commission, one representative introduced墨西哥(E/CC;0F. 82/3.附件四、第1 1 0页)
a new article 6 bis. The Commission "decided to refer the“本条的任何规定均不得影咭下述原別:本条提及的犯罪行为只应由缔约囯的国内
t . . . ] proposed draft of article 6 bis to the review group and requested it to give favourable attention to the provisions contained therein". 9法加以阐述,并裉据其国内法予以调查、起诉、审判和惩罚。” ‘ 227 第一委员会工作组(E//CC17P.82/C.1/I..25 )
Some representatives "reserved将笫8款修正为: "本条的内容绝不应影响到其所述罪行只应由某一结约国的国内法加以阐述
their position on the substantive content and formulation而且此种罪行应根据该国内法予以调查、.起诉、审剖和惩罚的原则。” “非法厥运”的定义
of the proposed article but considered that the decision as第一委员会工作 组 ( 1/L . 25 ) ‘‘’罪法摄运,系指第2条第1款和第1款之三所列的犯卷行为。,,
to whether the proposed article warranted inclusion in the三笫一g员会的议事过程 A. 4.第一委员会在1 9 8 8 年 11 月 28 日至 12 月 1 2日第1次至第2 5次
convention should be left to the review group". 9会议上讨论了第2条及其修正案。
B.B.
Organization of the meeting审议情况命决定
9. The Review Group on the draft Convention against莬1款
Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances met at the Vienna International Centre from5.经就第2条莬1款交换葸见之后.委员会在莬四次会议上玦定设立一个工 ‘ 228 作组.以便乾莬2条奂1和奂2款的赴定达成协议,同时考虑到关于秘改或知正基
27 June to 8 July 1988. The Review Group was attended本提案所载釦1歙的各项提荛
by 236 experts from the following 75 countries: Algeria,6.在第二十三次会议上,委员会审议了经修改的务2条奂1款和莬2款㈦眾
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium, Bolivia,的案文以及非法饩运的定义(E/CGKF. 82/C. 1/L. 25),这是由工作组提交委
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Byelorussian Soviet员会审议的-委员会听取了莬一委员会副主席以工作纟II主持人身份作的发言,fe薛
Socialist Republic, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica,释了提出新案文的有关考虑以及对新箓文的理餒.
C6te d'lvoire, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ecuador,% 1款㈨项.
Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, German Democratic7.委员会同意工作组提出的桑文中所载的莬lfe⑷项的茱文.
Republic, Germany, Federal Republic of, Greece, Guatemala, Holy See, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic8.玻利维亚代表对该项的经定表示保留.
Republic of), Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,9.委员会决定将“、清单a和淆单E” 一语改为“录一和表二”,使之与第二
'Ibid., para. 87.委员会商定的莬8条中的周语一致起来
610 委员会请起享委员会镜保在a项&目中增加“加工” 一词时使务2条与第
Ibid„ para. 90.|t
7% 1 款 _
Ibid., para. 96. "Ibid., para. 98. Ibid., para. 99. 58 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Tunisia, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Zaire and Zambia. It was also attended by seven observers from the following six intergovernmental organizations: Arab Lawyer's Union, Arab Security Studies and Training Centre, Commission of the European Communities, Council of Arab Ministers of Justice, Customs Co-operation Council and League of Arab States. The secretariat of the International Narcotics Control Board was also represented. 10. At its 1st meeting, on 27 June 1988, the Review Group elected by acclamation the following officers: Chairman: Enrique Par-ejo Gonzdlez (Colombia) First Vice-Chairman: Gioacchino Polimeni (Italy) Second Vice-Chairman: E. A. Babayan (USSR) Third Vice-Chairman: Maurice Randrianame (Madagascar) At its 2nd meeting, on 28 June 1988, the Review Group further elected by acclamation Mr. Mya Than (Burma) as Rapporteur. 11. At its 2nd meeting, the Review Group also approved its provisional agenda (DND/DCIT/ll) and, as amended, the provisional timetable (DND/DCIT/12). In adopting its timetable, the Review Group decided to first examine article 1 in a general debate and then proceed to consider articles 2, 5 and 3. Articles 2 bis and 4 would next be taken up together. Article 6 would be reviewed with a view to establishing the consistency required by the Review Group's mandate. Article 1 would then be completed. Thereafter article 6 bis could be considered, followed by the draft rules of procedure and organizational matters. 12. The Review Group had before it the working document (DND/DCIT/9) prepared by the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to paragraph 6 of Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/8; die draft provisional rules of procedure of the United Nations conference for the adoption of a convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances (DND/DCIT/10) prepared by the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraph 10(d) of Council resolution 1988/8; a draft provisional agenda of the Conference (DND/DCIT/13); and a note by the Secretariat on the organization of work of the Conference (DND/DCIT/14). For its information, the Review Group also had before it a note by the Secretariat (DND/DCIT/ 15) transmitting an excerpt from the report of the Legal Committee Of the International Maritime Organization on the work of its fifty-ninth session relevant to the draft Convention. 13. The Review Group held 19 plenary meetings, including a night meeting to adopt its report on 8 July; it did not hold plenary meetings on the afternoon of 30 June and11.委员会同意工作组提议的案文中所载的魟1款(b)项杲文.关于⑵项㈠目
1 July in order for an informal working group to meet with中“逃避其行动的法律后果”一语,委员会请起草委员会注葸这一短语是否妥当以
full interpretation facilities to examine various articles及应将其置于何处.
with a view to seeking consensus. The informal working第1款⑷项
group also held two night meetings on 29 June and 6 July.12.委员会同意工作组提议的累文中所载的第1款(c)项,但有一项谅龉:“其
14. During the course of its meeting, the Review Group法律制度基本梭念”一语应广义地加以理解,系指涉及各缔约国法律的基本原则
considered and agreed to transmit to the Conference the texts of articles 1, 1 bis, 2, 2 bis, 3, 4, 5, 5 bis, 6 and 6 bis, established by consensus or with variants indicated in square brackets where no agreement could be reached.* 15. The discussions of the Review Group with respect to the draft provisional rules of procedure for the plenipotentiary conference are summarized in chapter IV, section A, below. At its last meeting, on 8 July 1988, the Review Group adopted its report and decided that the revised text of the rules of procedure should also be transmitted to the Conference (E/CONF.82/2). Chapter III REVIEW OF THE DRAFT CONVENTION Article 1 16. The Review Group heard at the outset a statement from one representative regarding the measures adopted by his Government in the fight against the illicit traffic and the high priority it attached to the drafting of an effective instrument that would prove acceptable to as many States as possible. To that effect, a detailed consideration of the provisions of the draft Convention, and in particular the introduction of relevant safeguard clauses, was necessary so that the sovereignty of States would not be undermined nor the independence of the legislature and judiciary compromised. While the rapid progress made in drafting the new instrument was commendable, there was, in his opinion, insufficient articulation between the articles; the Review Group should accordingly undertake consideration of the draft Convention article by article, in their numerical order, with a view to addressing the issues still in abeyance and forwarding to the plenipotentiary conference a consistent draft. Following a general discussion on this proposal in the context of the task to be performed by the Review Group in the limited time at its disposal, there was general agreement that the Group should strictly abide by the explicit mandate given to it by the Commission and approved by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1988/8. 17. Some representatives, with reference to agenda item 5, indicated that at the appropriate time they would make a statement regarding the substance of certain articles, such as article 12, which were not to be reviewed by the Group but should none the less, in their opinion, be reconsidered in due course. (See paragraphs 192-195 below.) Those texts, together with the texts approved for transmittal to the Conference by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its tenth special session (See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1988, Supplement No. 3 (E/1988/13), chapter II), appear in annex n. Those proposals put forward by delegations that were not considered, and therefore not reflected in the above-mentioned articles, are contained in annex IV. Main Conference documents 59 18. As instructed by the Economic and Social Council, the Group undertook the review of articles 1 to 6 referred to it by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and decided to start with article 1. 19. It was agreed that the discussion should take as a basis the text proposed by the informal working group to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its thirty-second session with the understanding that the definitions of the terms therein would be cross-referenced to those in the original Secretariat draft wherever appropriate. 20. Some representatives expressed their dissatisfaction with the current structure of draft article 1 and proposed that its content be divided into two categories dealing respectively with definitions concerning institutions and terms of a technical or substantive nature. It was indicated that the structure of article 1 in both the original Secretariat draft and the draft proposed by the informal working group was based on the system used in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, where terms were listed in the English alphabetical order. One representative stressed the need for specific reference in the introductory sentence of article 1 to the relevant treaties already in force in the field of international drug control. 21. The Group approved the definition of "Board" as drafted by the informal working group. 22. As regards "commercial carriers", it was pointed out that the topic was dealt with in article 11 and that the definition should be adequate to the content of the substantive article. In this respect, the proposal made by some representatives to enlarge the definition in order to include non-commercial carriers was questioned since article 11 concerned only commercial carriers. 23. The addition of the words "public or private" to qualify the word "entity" was suggested, in line with the original Secretariat draft of article 1. The suggestion was not opposed, but some representatives considered that such an addition, although acceptable, was superfluous.13.委员会请起萆委员会在各语文中为引导句‘‘ principles,’和"coneepts”面词寻找适当和稆应的词,以转达其含义. ‘ 229 14.关于⑵款Q项中的"加工”一词.妄员会请起萆$员会轾保在增加该词时
24. A proposal to mention the transport of mails in addition to persons and goods, in line with conventions on便莬2条与第8条一致.
civil aviation, was supported by several representatives.15.委员会决定将“清单A和清单
Other representatives questioned the need for such a specific reference.
25. One representative suggested the expression "for a” 一语玟为“表一扫表二”,使之与笫二
consideration" to cover any onerous transaction. It was委员会商定的笫8聍的用语一致起来。
suggested to add to the expression "for remuneration or新的笫1敦之二
hire" the words "or other forms of reward", so as to cover16.委员会同意工作组提议的案文中所载的棼1款之二案文,但孴将“第I款”
remuneration of a non-monetary nature. Reference was一词改为“本条”。
made in this respect to the experience of the International新的第1款之三
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).17.
Some representatives委员会同意工作组提议的新增的笫1款之三的尝文.
objected to this addition, on the ground that cases of nonprofessional transport (e.g. the lending of a yacht in exchange for some participation in expenses) would be inopportunely covered. One representative referred to the need18.委员会同意关于将笫1款之三褢文放在镐一款之二案文之前的邀说
to also cover non-remunerated transport.19.
Most representatives supported a text which would cover transactions of较利结亚代表对笫1款之三的釭定表示保留。
a non-monetary nature, such as barter. It was decided that篙2款
in the French and Spanish texts, respectively, the expressions "a titre onereux" and "a titulo oneroso" would be笫2款⑷项
used. 26. The definition of "Commission" was approved by the Group. 27. As regards the definition of "controlled delivery", it was brought to the attention of the Group that the words "controlled substances" and "specific chemicals" used in the proposed definition should be replaced by "narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances" and "substances in List A and List B" respectively, in conformity with the terminology used in the substantive articles. No agreement could be reached as to whether the substances in List A and List B could be made subject to controlled delivery. The Group therefore decided to leave those terms in square brackets. 28. Several representatives emphasized that it was essential that the purposes of controlled delivery be expressly stated in the definition so that the meaning of this law enforcement technique would be clear for all concerned with its implementation. Other representatives pointed out that the objectives of controlled delivery were already specified in article 7 and need not be repeated in the definition. 29. The Group agreed to indicate in the definition, using the same wording as in article 7, paragraph 1, that the technique was to be applied "with a view to identifying persons involved in illicit traffic and to taking legal action against them". 30. Some representatives expressed the opinion that the possibility of consignments of innocuous substances substituted for illicit drugs by the competent authorities should be covered in the definition. Other representatives objected to this suggestion on the ground that the substitution of innocuous substances could give rise to legal difficulties, in particular when seeking to prove the identity and the illicit nature of the content of the seized consignment. It was also observed that, from a practical standpoint, it would be extremely difficult to determine whether or not a given substance was innocuous. 31. It was pointed out that the substantive article did not refer to the issue of substitution and that definitions should not introduce new substantive elements; attention should rather concentrate on the articulation of the definition of controlled delivery with the existing content of article 7. On the other hand, it was also pointed out that the substantive article did not require a State to substitute innocuous substances for illicit ones. The purpose of the definition was to act as a guideline for present and future use of the technique. 32. No agreement could be reached and the Group decided to leave in square brackets the reference to "consignments which are intercepted by competent authorities and allowed to continue with the narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances replaced by innocuous substances". 33. Some representatives drew attention to the case of States where recourse to controlled delivery was prohibited 60 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances under the domestic legislation and proposed the inclusion in the definition of a safeguard clause to the effect that the technique could only be applied "if permitted by the national laws and regulations of a State Party". Other representatives pointed out that a safeguard clause regarding the basic principles of the respective national legal systems was already included in article 7, paragraph 1, and that it was in any case inappropriate to include a safeguard clause in a definition. It was also noted that the proposed proviso would not take into account the case of States where the technique of controlled delivery was neither permitted nor prohibited, but still implemented on the20.委员会同意基本提案中所载的笫2款(a)项案文,但用"ec:ifiSc^ti:n”
basis of appropriate agreements or arrangements with other一 词取代 forfeiture” , 以便与第 3 条所用的术语一致起来 。
States. In view of the divergent viewpoints, it was decided% 2款⑶项
that the proposed safeguard clause would be included in21.委员会同意基本提案中所载的第2 勻项案文,但在“进行”一词前增加
the definition in square brackets. 34. The Group agreed to examine the definitions of "freezing", "seizure" and "confiscation" after its review of article 3. One representative suggested that the written proposals concerning those definitions submitted by his delegation be placed in square brackets in the text. There was no discussion on this subject. Another representative also suggested that the definition of forfeiture should be examined as it is mentioned in subparagraph 2(a) of article 2. 35. With regard to the definition of "illicit traffic", several representatives expressed their preference for the definition proposed by the informal working group at the thirty-second session of the Commission, particularly because of its linkage with the provisions of the 1961 Convention, of that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971. This correlation was considered essential as the existing Conventions, in setting up the international drug control system, provided standards against which the illicit nature of the activities listed in the new Convention could be gauged. It was stressed that the definition of illicit traffic should be consistent with the corresponding definitions in the existing treaties. 36. Several other representatives considered that the definition contained in the original Secretariat draft was more comprehensive. In their view, the definitions in article 1 of the new Convention should be self-contained and independent of those in the existing drug control treaties; reference to earlier instruments could be irrelevant with regard to States which would become Parties to the new Convention but were not Parties to the existing Conventions. 37. A proposal to include national laws as an additional or alternative standard was objected to by several representatives. It was argued that because of the diversity of national legislations, such a provision would introduce a subjective standard that would go against the harmonization sought by the new Convention and undermine the scope of the instrument. Given the lack of agreement, it was decided that this proposal be placed in square brackets at the request of the delegation which had put it forward. 38. Several representatives expressed the view that since the listing of activities constituting illicit traffic could not pretend to be exhaustive, it should be open-ended so as to permit the addition of new terms as may become necessary to cover the evolving aspects of the phenomenon. To that effect it was suggested that the word "means" be replaced by the word "includes" or the words "inter alia" inserted after the word "means"; alternatively the words "and the traffic in any other form" could be inserted at the end of the listing after the word "exportation". Given the lack of agreement, it was decided that this proposal be placed in square brackets at the request of the delegation which had put it forward. 39. It was suggested that certain terms, such as "supply" and "acquisition", should be included in the definition. Attention was drawn to terms in the draft, such as "sowing" and "cultivation" or "fabrication" and "manufacture", which introduced a certain degree of tautology. Other terms such as "prescription" and "conditioning" were considered to be vague and subject to divergent interpretations. The opinion was expressed that these additional terms should be included. Given the lack of consensus, it was agreed that all these terms were to be placed in square brackets. 40. One representative, supported by another, proposed that the definition of illicit traffic should exclude the possession of small quantities of drugs intended for personal use; it was argued that the broad scope of the definition under consideration, which encompassed all the offences enumerated in article 36 of the 1961 Convention, would result in all those punishable acts being considered as coming under the serious offence of illicit traffic, to which the severe provisions of the Convention would be applicable. Several representatives objected to this proposal, pointing out that small quantities of drugs for individual consumption, when aggregated, resulted in largescale trafficking; thus each individual consumer indirectly financed the illicit traffic. It was noted that while the quantities involved may affect the level of sanctions, unlawful possession per se constituted an offence under the existing drug control treaties. It was also stressed that inclusion of such a provision would run counter to the thrust and spirit of the new Convention and undermine the functioning of the international drug control regime based on existing Conventions, the objective of which was to limit the use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances to medical and scientific purposes. It was furthermore considered inappropriate to introduce this form of safeguard clause in article 1, dealing with definitions; the proper place for such clauses, when found necessary, was in the substantive articles. Several representatives stated that, in their view, offences of a minor nature, as well as cases when the offender was a drug abuser, were already adequately covered by the provisions of article 2, subparagraph 2(c). 41. Several representatives, noting that a number of terms included in the definitions were already defined in the substantive articles or did not require a special definition because they could be easily made understandable in the body of the draft Convention, proposed the deletion of article 1 so as to avoid having a double set of definitions. It would be preferable, in their view, to incorporate the present definitions of terms of a substantive nature in the Main Conference documents 61 operative paragraphs of the respective articles. Several other representatives held the opposite view and considered that article 1 was a key element in the structure of the draft Convention and would constitute a valuable guide for the interpretation of its provisions. 42. Several representatives advocated the deletion of the last sentence in the definition of illicit traffic which included traffic in substances in List A and List B. In their view, such inclusion did not conform with the provisions of article 8 which dealt with the monitoring of substances in Lists A and B likely to be used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances but did not impose a prohibition on licit trade in substances in those Lists; many of those substances were in fact widely used in the licit trade. Some other representatives stressed the importance of this provision and supported its retention. In their opinion, the supply of substances in Lists A and B was a major constituent of the illicit drug trafficking. In view of the divergent positions, the Group agreed to retain the provision in square brackets. 43. Several representatives considered that the definition of illicit traffic in the text of the informal working group should be complemented by a provision that would cover the organization, management, financing or facilitation of the operations or activities constituting the offence of illicit traffic. It was accordingly agreed that the second sentence of the original Secretariat draft should be included in the definition.“对本条第1款所列的犯罪行为”一语,使之与第2款(a)项一致起来。 ‘ 230 22.委员会同意保留基本提褢中所载的第2款(: )氣
44. The majority of delegations stressed that the terms% 2 細 项
already defined in the relevant existing Conventions23.委员会接受工作组提交的新增加的第2款⑷项案文(EZCC11F 82/ c
should be used in the new Convention in the same sense^ 25).棂捱关于更改原序的决定,“ 1之三”改为“ 1之二”(见上文笫1 8
and with the same meaning, and that the new definitions段)
should in no way contradict the existing ones.第3款
45.24. 根据一些口头.
The Review Group decided to resume consideration建议,委员会同意将第3款修正如下:
of definitions for inclusion in article 1 after completing its第3款的引导句
review of the substantive articles of the draft Convention.2 5.委员会同意修改第3款约引导句,在第一行的“法院”与“能够” 二词之
In fact, the Group was unable to return to this article间插入“湘拥有管辖权的其铯主营当局”字祥并倒除第一行中的“可,,字。
because of lack of time.26.据理餑,新的措辞意在加强本款的愿望和维持司法独立的必旻性这两者之
46. Before moving to article 2, one delegation submitted间保持平衡。
a proposal for a new article 1 bis with the title "Scope of第3款(a)至(g)顼及提出的新
the Convention". The delegation making the proposal的第3款(f)须之二和(f)项之三
expressed its readiness to avoid the prolonged debate on'11.在作出下述修正勒谅餑后,已就第3款(a)至(g)顼的基本提案案文达成了一
the floor that might result from the fact that this was a new致意见。
proposal;28.
what the delegation expected was for its proposed new article to be regarded as formally introduced as关于第3款(d)顼,委员会同意该规定应改为:“罪犯使用暴力或武器’’。
part of the draft articles and to be placed between articles 1 and 2. The Chairman indicated that this new proposal should be discussed by the Review Group once it关于第3款(f)頃,委员会同意基本提案的词句,但有一顼谅解,即“ use,,(使周)
had completed its work under its mandate. Article 2, new penultimate paragraph 47. The Group began its review of the substantive articles with the consideration of article 2. The Group took note that its mandate, as regards article 2, was limited to the review of the new penultimate paragraph left in square brackets. 48. Several representatives expressed their reservation with regard to the provisions of the paragraph, on the grounds that it would prejudice the right of asylum and the protection of refugees. Some of them favoured the addition at the end of the paragraph of a safeguard clause stipulating that the right of asylum as recognized in international law should not be impaired. Some other representatives stressed that the right of asylum was strictly protected in their national constitution and in the case-law of their highest courts. They therefore considered this paragraph as a possible obstacle to the adherence to the new Convention and supported its deletion. 49. Regarding the location of the paragraph under consideration, several representatives recalled that it was previously included as paragraph 6 in article 4 dealing with extradition; they favoured the original location as more logical. Other representatives pointed out that the paragraph was relevant to articles 3, 4, 5 and 6, dealing respectively with confiscation, extradition, mutual legal assistance, and other forms of cooperation. The issue of political or fiscal offences should, in their view, be treated in connection with each of these articles, since the standpoint was likely to vary according to the type of cooperation concerned. 50. The majority of representatives favoured the retention of the paragraph in article 2. One representative suggested that, since it stated a general principle, the paragraph could be separated from article 2 and become provisionally an independent article. 51. Entering into the details of the paragraph, some representatives considered that the words "including, in particular, cooperation under articles 3, 4, 5 and 6" were superfluous and could be dispensed with. 52. As regards the two formulations: "political or fiscal offences" and "offences political or fiscal in character" left in square brackets, general preference was expressed for the first wording. The Group also agreed on retaining the words "or regarded as politically motivated". 53. Concerning the second part of the paragraph, several representatives expressed doubts concerning its logical articulation with the first part. They pointed out that while the first part dealt with the political or fiscal character of the offence, the second part focused on a completely different ground for refusing cooperation. The two ideas should not, in their view, be joined in the same sentence and the second part of the paragraph, if kept, should be redrafted. Several representatives considered that such an escape clause would be more appropriate in another part of the draft Convention, as for instance in article 4, as a ground for refusing extradition. Some representatives pointed out that the concern expressed in this clause was already taken care of in other parts of the draft Convention, where general principles of international law or domestic law were referred to. For this reason, they favoured its deletion. The Group finally decided that the clause should be examined in the context of article 4. Article 2 bis 54. Concerning article 2 bis, two representatives considered that the expression "establish its jurisdiction", 62 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances wherever it appeared in the article, should be substituted with the words "exercise its jurisdiction". Several representatives objected to this proposal. They stressed that establishment of jurisdiction was undoubtedly the subjectmatter of the article and a prerequisite for the exercise of jurisdiction. In support of this view, reference was made to the corresponding provisions of several other conventions in which the expression "establish jurisdiction" was uniformly used. It appeared that, for one of the two representatives supporting the replacement of "establish jurisdiction", a question of translation was involved, the word "establish" having been translated in Spanish by "afirmar" instead of "establecer". The meaning of the expression was therefore equivocal. It was agreed that the Spanish translation should be revised. 55. One representative suggested that in subparagraph l(b)(i) and 2(a)(\\), which referred to nationality and habitual residence as grounds of jurisdiction, the words "if in both cases the alleged offender is located in its territory" should be added, with a view to avoiding conflicts of jurisdiction. It was pointed out by another representative that the location of the offender did not affect the establishment of jurisdiction but only its exercise. 56. In subparagraph lf&Xiii), the Group agreed to replace the word "defined" by "listed", as this term was considered more accurate. One representative suggested to include the words "as a preparatory act" before "with a view to the commission" in order to clarify the sentence. The Group decided to include these words in square brackets. 57. Some representatives considered that subparagraph lf^Xiii) was not clear and that, in the situation to which it seemed to refer, their countries would not be able to establish their jurisdiction. They proposed that this subparagraph be placed in square brackets. 58. One representative proposed that a third ground for refusing extradition be mentioned in subparagraph 2(a)(iii), namely the case where the death penalty might be imposed on the offender in the requesting State. An alternative formulation of the same proposal was suggested by another representative, referring to "more severe penalties" instead of "death penalty". One representative considered that this article was not the proper place for mentioning such a case; in his opinion, this should be dealt with at the national level, with a mechanism making extradition conditional on the assurance that the death penalty would not be imposed. Another representative stressed that such a conditional approach to extradition would be incompatible with the sovereign power of the一 词包含 “expic.itatic.ii , ’ (利用 ) 酉班牙文文本贝 ij 指 “ mencre s ‘ 231 (ie edad ’’。 对于第3款te)項二大家同意在‘‘罪行”与“如绿约圆 ”之间
requesting State to impose the penalties provided for by its插入“特别是类似的萆行”字祥。
domestic law. 59. Paragraph 2 gave rise to a discussion on whether or not it should be deleted. Some representatives reaffirmed that the fate of paragraph 2 was contingent on what would be ultimately decided about the formulation of article 4, paragraph 8. If in the said paragraph all references to article 2 bis, paragraph 2, were to be deleted, then paragraph 2 should also disappear. Since, so far, a reference to article 2 bis, subparagraph 2(a) had been left in square brackets in article 4, paragraph 8, subparagraph 2(a) should itself be provisionally kept in square brackets. Subparagraph 2(b), which dealt with a mere option to establish jurisdiction and was no longer referred to in article 4, paragraph 8, should definitely be deleted. 60. Some other representatives objected to this view, on the ground that deletions effected in article 4, paragraph 8, had no logical bearing on article 2 bis, paragraph 2. Deletion of subparagraph 2(a) would leave a loophole in the draft Convention as to the establishment of jurisdiction, since article 4, paragraph 8, dealt only with the exercise of jurisdiction. Although subparagraph 2(b) only provided for an option to establish jurisdiction, it constituted a useful reminder and encouragement for the States to do so and should therefore be kept. Pursuant to this discussion, it was decided to leave the whole paragraph 2, as well as each of its subparagraphs (a) and (b), in square brackets. 61. Concerning paragraph 3, a proposal was approved by the Group to use the words "the exercise of any criminal jurisdiction established" instead of the words "any criminal jurisdiction exercised". 62. The Group decided that article 2 bis, including the29.委员会接受提议的新约第3款(f頗之二( E/CC'1;F.82/'C. 1 /L . 8 ),
amendments proposed in the course of discussion, and并在讨论过程中将其修改为“犯舂行为发生在某一监朵教养机构,或某一教育机构
with the agreed square brackets, should be transmitted to或社会服夯设施,或靠近这些机构的邻近地方,,,搏意志联邦兵射E3的代奈对本项奈
the Conference for further appropriate consideration.示保留。
Article 3 63. The Group began consideration of paragraph 4 of article 3 of the revised draft, which was placed in square brackets as no agreement had been reached with regard to its content or formulation. 64. Introducing the redraft of the paragraph proposed by his Government, one representative explained that subparagraph 4(c) in the revised draft stipulating that a requested Party shall give effect to a request for confiscation on the basis of and in accordance with its domestic law or bilateral or multilateral agreements was subject to divergent interpretations. According to one interpretation, the requested Party would be required to execute a request from the requesting Party either on the basis of and in accordance with a bilateral or multilateral agreement, or on the basis of and in accordance with its domestic law, if it did not have such an agreement with the requesting Party. This was considered unacceptable as the schemes envisaged in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the article were of an innovative nature and still at an experimental stage between States with similar legal systems and practices. A mandatory wording would therefore cause difficult legal problems and considerably limit the number of States in a position to adhere to the new Convention. In the proposed redraft, the phrase "on the basis of and in accordance with its domestic law or bilateral or multilateral agreements" was accordingly moved to subparagraphs 4(a) and (b). It was furthermore proposed that reference in subparagraphs 4(a) and (b) to the provisions of article 5, concerning mutual legal assistance, should be deleted. Such a reference was considered ambiguous since, according to paragraph 4 of the revised draft, the requested Party was required to execute a request of another Party on the Main Conference documents 63 basis of and in accordance with its domestic law or multilateral or bilateral agreements on the one hand, as well as pursuant to certain provisions of article 5 on the other. It was also pointed out that the proposed redraft of paragraph 4 did not provide any specific procedure for a Party to follow in considering a request for confiscation and that the Party had the discretion to "elect" to follow the procedures provided for in its domestic legal system or "conditional on the existence of a relevant treaty". 65. In order to allow for a more general application of the provisions of paragraph 4, another representative proposed a redraft of subparagraphs 4(a) and (b) under which the Party in the territory of which proceeds, property, instrumentalities or other things referred to in paragraph 1 of article 3 are situated, shall effect confiscation of such items as are the subject of an order of confiscation issued by the requesting Party, or as are specified in the request as being liable to confiscation in accordance with the law of the requesting State, to the extent allowed and in the manner provided by the domestic law of the requested Party. Alternatively such requests may be executed in accordance with bilateral or multilateral agreements. It was further proposed to delete paragraph 4(c) of the revised draft as it was considered that the safeguard clause regarding the domestic law of the requesting Party was sufficiently covered in paragraph 9, which stipulated that nothing contained in this article was to affect the principle that the measures to which it refers shall be defined and implemented in conformity with and under the conditions established by the domestic law of a Party. Reference to bilateral and multilateral treaties was considered superfluous in the context envisaged in subparagraph 4(c). One representative stressed the need for the conclusion of bilateral and regional agreements between Parties to take care of the practical elaboration of the provisions of the article. 66. Several representatives expressed support for the redraft of subparagraphs 4(a)-(c) of article 3 as proposed in paragraph 85 above and in particular for the deletion of reference to article 5; in their view, mutual assistance for the execution of a confiscation order, at the request of another Party, should either be regulated by agreements reached between the Parties concerned or by national legislation. It was emphasized, in support of the proposed redraft of subparagraph 4(c), that it was up to the Parties concerned to determine on what basis confiscation was to be effected. 67. Several representatives, on the other hand, considered that reference to article 5 was essential since a number of countries, for which the Convention would constitute the basis for this form of international cooperation, would need some indication of the procedural requirements such as those specified in article 5. It was furthermore indicated that the provisions of article 5, being generally applicable to all forms of cooperation, may not be applicable to the specific measures envisaged in article 3, and that a more detailed provision regarding the procedures applicable in this context would be desirable. 68. One representative expressed the view that the proposed redraft of paragraph 4 would result in inequality30.香员会决定不列入提议的新的第3款(f)项之三(E/CC4F.82/C. 1/1.
between States which can cooperate on the basis of national legislation and those which need a specific treaty10),但裉据讨论意见,同意在新的第3款(f)项之二(见上文第1 0段)的末尾加
provision to effect such cooperation.插下适词句:“或在学童韌学生用以进行教育.
In the case of the体育劲社会活动的其铯地方,,。
latter countries it was essential that the provision of paragraph 4 should contain certain procedural details, such as提i义新的 3 31.墨西哥代表介绍了墨百哥代表团提出的M之二的案文。
a summary of grounds for issuing a confiscation order.32 . +对提议的新款进行讨论勃菲正式的协商之后,委员会审议了由几个代表
69. With regard to the relation between existing or future treaties and the provision of this article, it was suggested that, in line with the stance taken in article 5,团共同提出的重新拟定约累文 ( 14) 。 委员会同意经过
wherever the corresponding provisions in other treaties修正的新的第3款之二的棻文如下:
were of a specific nature, these should, in preference, be"締约II应尽力病保,对于犯有本条所列聶行的人进行的起诉,在行使本
used instead of the present article.歷的法律荀处杈时应使对这些罪行的执法搢兹取得最大的成效,并适当考
70. Several representatives stressed that the obligationJt到必须像戒人们不犯此狩聶行《
to cooperate in the field of confiscation should be of a第4款
mandatory nature;33 .
in their view the proposed subparagraph 4(c) stipulating that a Party "may elect" to effect_员会同意基本提案第4款案文 但需在案文中的“在考虑”之前插入
a confiscation order on the basis of national legislation“应确保其法院或其它主管当局,,字样.并且在“严重性质”之后加插“以及本条
or bilateral or multilateral treaties would be counterproductive as Parties would be in a position to implement第举的情节 " 字 样 ‘ 232 第5款
the measures at their discretion. 71. One representative indicated that the provision of subparagraph 4(c) had to be considered in conjunction with that of subparagraph 1 fa) so as to clarify the procedural mechanism to be used by Parties in implementing the provision of this subparagraph. It was indicated that wherever it was impossible for a Party to effect a confiscation order pursuant to subparagraph 1(a) at the national level, it would be accordingly difficult to execute the provisions in paragraph 4. 72. One representative reiterated the proposal made at the meeting of the tenth special session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs that the word "confiscation" should be replaced by the word "forfeiture", as in the legislation of his country forfeiture was the ultimate step which followed prosecution resulting in conviction, whereas confiscation was the step which followed seizure and was not indicative as to the final destination of the proceeds or property. 73. One representative proposed the inclusion of a provision to the effect that each Party shall, through a notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, indicate the procedure or procedures provided for in subparagraphs 4(a)(i) and (ii) it would apply when acting at the request of other Parties. 74. In its consideration of paragraph 6 of article 3, the Group focused on the words left in square brackets in the revised draft, i.e. the word "property" and the words "shall" and "may" determining the mandatory or optional character of the provision. 75. As regards the words "proceeds" and "property", it was pointed out that there was still uncertainty as to the exact definition of these terms. Several representatives considered "property" as being more comprehensive than "proceeds" and expressed their preference for the retention of the word "property". Some others considered that in the second sentence of the paragraph dealing with derived benefits, "proceeds" should be retained, since there 64 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances34.经过一般‘挂讨论,委员会同意加拿大和墨百哥提议约第5款業文(E/COKF8Z/C.l/X«7/Kev.l),并将其修改如下:
was a need to limit the scope of this provision. Some“各缔约国应对适吊于第1款所述罪行的时效法砚,酌情制定严厉的莸定。
representatives referred to paragraph 1 of article 3 in若罪犯逃避某一结约厘约司法制裁,则应使此种规定更为严厉。,,
which proceeds, materials and equipment and other instrumentalities were enumerated as subject to confiscation.委员会同意第5款的累文,但并不完全满意其中使用的“严厉”一词,因
They expressed the opinion that equipment and instrumentalities should also be included in the scope of paragraph 6.此请起草委员会设法找到一个更适当的词或更合适的提法*以袞达下述意思:在时
76. One representative referred to a proposal he intended to introduce with respect to article 1 on definitions, in效法规中,对第1款所列尋行应订出较长的时限。
order to clarify the notions of property and proceeds.笫6款 3 6.委员会同意基本提案所载的第6款。 第7款 37*经过讨论命听取了各辤口头建议后,委员会同意修改基本提案中所载的第 7款案文,将其修改为:
Property would be the generic term, therefore including all“为了各缔约il之间棂据本公约进行合作,包括特别是棂据第3. 4 . 5 .
kinds of property referred to in paragraph 1. This would6条规定进行合作,凡按照本条所确定的罪行,均不得看作是尉经尋或政 治罪或认为是出于政治动机,伹不应妨碍缔约国的宪法限制命基本的圆内
respond to the concern expressed as to the inclusion of法。”
instrumentalities and equipment in the scope of paragraph 6. Proceeds and instrumentalities would be understood as subcategories of property, derived from or used挪威代亵,代亵本 代表团以及丹麦.芬兰命瑞典代表团,对本规定奈示保 第8款 39.委员会审议了基本提案苐8款的规定和墨西哥提出的修正案(E/C011F. ‘ 233 82X3,附件四.第1 1 0页)以及工作组提出的进一步的修正(E/COl^.sy C.1/ L 涉及第2 40 2 5 )。 委员会同意经过如此修正的第8款案文<: 条的定义
for illicit traffic.非法贩运
77.委员会同意工作组提出的案文(2/(301^.
In order to clarify the choices to be made concerning8^/0 1/1<*25)中所载非法厥
the type of measures envisaged in article 3 which would be applicable in the context of paragraph 6, one representative pointed out that it should be borne in mind that the运的定义如下:
paragraph dealt with three distinct cases: intermingled“ ‘非法钣运,系指第2条第1款命第1款之三所列的犯罪行为。“
property, where proceeds of illicit traffic were mingled41.委员会根据其有关杞莬1款之三置于苐1款之二前的决定(见上文第1 8
with property from other sources, either licit or illicit;段)同意对上文作相应的修改。
converted property; and benefits derived from illicit proceeds or property. Seizure, as a provisional measure, could42, 玻利维亚、秘鲁、委内瑞拉代轰对上述定义表示保留.
for instance be contemplated in case of proceeds intermingled with licitly acquired property, whereas in such a列入第1条的其他定义
case confiscation would present difficulties.43.委员会同意基本提案中载入的“麻管局”、‘‘麻委会,、“理事会”和
78. With respect to the choice between "shall" andf
"may", some representatives favoured the optional formulation for the whole paragraph, in view of the complexity秘书的定义。委员会还决定无需对“隐匿” 一词和“以洗钱方式处理” 一
and innovative character of the matter. Several other representatives expressed their preference for the mandatory语下具体的定义,因为“隐匿” 一词在实质性规定中已足够明琦,而“以洗钱方式
wording, with the retention of "shall". They emphasized处理”一语在公约的正文中已不再使用。
that most, if not all, proceeds of illicit traffic were intermingled or converted in order to escape detection by law第1条的引导句
enforcement agencies.44.
Making the provision optional委员会同意在关于定义的第1条中以下述引导句限定其中使用的龙语:
would therefore reduce the effectiveness of article 3 as a“除另有明文指定和文中另有规定者外,下列各顼定义应适用于整个公约: ‘ 234 四.转交起草委员会的案文
whole.45«S员会同意下述累文*并将其转交起草委员会审议。
79.“ 1.
Some representatives who favoured the mandatory各缔约圆应果取必要的措趂将以下蓄意行为确定为其S内法中的刑誃犯罪:
formulation for the first sentence of the paragraph preferred a careful approach to the second sentence dealing“ (a) H违反经《修正1 9 6 1年麻鋅品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正
with derived benefits. It was pointed out that the link的《I 9 6 1年麻醉品单一公约》或违反《精待药物公约》,生产、
between those benefits and illicit proceeds or property制造、提综、配制、提供、提洪出售、分销、出售、按任何条件交付、
might be indirect and difficult to establish as, for instance,经纪、犮送,过境犮送、运锫.进口或出口任何彦辞药品或精神药物;
in the case of benefits derived from intermingled property.“‘㈠之二违反经《修正I 9 6 1年麻醉品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》
For this reason, some representatives considered as essential that the second sentence be optional. Some others修正的《1961年后薛品单一公约》,为生产踪苕药品的目的苘荮揎
suggested that "derived" be replaced by "clearly identified罂粟.古柯树或大麻植物;
as being derived" in order to stress the requirement for为了进行上文㈠顼所列的任何活动,占有或购买任何麻薛药品或猜神
indisputable evidence. Other representatives considered药物;
that such a concern regarding evidentiary requirements明知将用于非法科植、生产、加工或制造苽鋅药品或精神药钧而制迄运
was not justified as paragraph 7 of article 3, concerning输或分锡设备或例如表一和表二所列物质等材料;
the reversal of the onus of proof, had been designed to组织、管理或筹集资金进行上文h、H之二、a或㈢目所列的任何罪
deal with the evidentiary aspects of paragraph 6.行J
80. As a compromise between the mandatory and the明知财产得自上文(a)项所列任何罪行或得自对此种罪行的参与,为了
optional formulations, one representative suggested that a隐瞒或掩饰该跗产的非法来源,或为了协助任何涉及犯了上文㈨项所
safeguard clause could be introduced at the end of the列罪行的人逃避其行动的法律后杲而转换或转移该財产;
paragraph, referring to domestic law. It was however明知財产得自上文㈨项所列罪行或得自对此种罪行的参与,隐瞒或掩
pointed out that safeguard clauses were already included饰该财产的真实性质、来源、地点、处置、移动、对其的权利或所有
in paragraphs 8 and 9 of article 3 with respect to the whole权。
article.(c)只要不违反其宪法原则及其法律制度基本概念,
81. As it was not clear whether paragraph 9 could be“㈠在收取时明知财产是得自上文㈨项所列罪行或得自对此种罪行的参与、
construed as covering cases of offences of a minor nature,获取1占有或使用该财产j
one representative proposed the inclusion of a paragraph 6 bis to the effect that, notwithstanding the preceding paragraphs of article 3, Parties may abstain from‘‘㈡明知是用于或将要用于非法种植、生产、(加工)或制造一种疔窍药
such measures in appropriate cases of a minor nature. It品或精神药物,占有设备或例如表一和表二所列物质等材料;
was pointed out by several representatives that this provision could also be considered as covered by the interpretation of the safeguard clause in article 2." a
82. The question of giving the article an appropriate title“㈢
was raised by some representatives. One suggestion wasu ”
that it could be entitled "Security measures and forfeiture"."(b)㈠
83.“㈡ ‘ 235 疗.
The Review Group took note of the results of the教肓
further consideration of paragraphs 4 and 6 in the informal" 3
working group dealing with article 3 and decided that the述的犯罪
new formulations arrived at would be incorporated in the“ 口之二以任何手段公开鼓动或劝诱他人去犯本条所确定的任何罪行或非
redraft of the article to be submitted to the plenipotentiary法使用某一麻锌药品或精神药物;
conference.“曰参与、合伙或共谋进行,试图进行,以及帮助、教受、方便和谋划进
Article 4行本条所定的任何罪行。
84. As regards article 4, attention was drawn to the“1之二各締约圆应遵照其完法原则念法律制度的基本苡念《采取必要搢施,在其
mandate entrusted to the Group by the Commission onII内法中规定》违反《修正1 9 6 1年麻薛品单一公约的1 9 7 2年议定书》修正
Narcotic Drugs, consisting in a further review of the article; it was pointed out that article 2 bis on jurisdiction,的《1 9 6 I年坑辞品单一公约》,占有、购买或荇植一狩鹿薛药品或精特药笤供
also submitted to the Group for further review, was to be个人消費的蓄意行为,均为刑事犯泰
considered in connection with article 4.1之三作为第1款所列某一罪行约因素之一,关于是否知情*蒈意或图谋,可根
85. Concerning paragraph 1, one representative expressed the view that the use of the expression "established in accordance" was improper and that the word据客現的具体情节加以判孤
"enumerated" would be preferable.'2 .
Another representativea)各缔约国应对本条第1款所列的犯罪行为按其严重性给予制裁,诸如
objected that the meaning of the paragraph would be affected by this change in a way that could not be accepted,监禁或以其他形式剝夺自由,罚款和没收.
since the Parties did not have an obligation to establish ast)结约国除进行定罪或惩处外,还可想定对本条第1款所列某一犯卷
offences under their criminal law all the acts enumerated行为,应对尋犯采取治疗、教育*善后护理*改造或重新参与社会生
in paragraph 1 of article 2.活等措总
86. One representative pointed out that it was not clear(c)尽管有以上各项规定,在性质较轻的案件中,缔约国可酌情规定作为
from the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 5 whether offences in article 4 were to be established by the requested or对定罪或惩处的替代方法,采取诸如教育、改造或重新参与社会生活
the requesting State or by both. In order to address the等措施,如罪犯为嗜毒者,还可采取治疗和善后护理等措施
issue of dual criminality the Group accordingly agreed tom绿约园可以规定 对于按照第1款之二确定的尋行,可对罪犯杀取治
indicate in paragraph 1 that article 4 shall apply to the善后护理、改造勤重荮参与社会生活方面的搢泛,作为判華或愆处的替
offences established "by the Parties", in accordance with代办法,,作为判擧或筠处的补乞
paragraph 1 of article 2 of this Convention. One representative proposed to insert the word "concerned" after the#约国应确保其法院和拥有管辖权的其他主管当局能够考虑到使第丄款所
words "by the Parties"..
The Group agreed to the addition行为成为特别严重的罪行的事实情节,例如:
of this word in square brackets.(a)罪犯所属的某一有组织的犯罪集团涉及该项犯罪;
87. Concerning paragraph 3, consideration was given to(b)罪犯涉及其他的国际性有组织犯罪活动;
the words "shall" and "may" left in square brackets. Some(c)罪犯涉及由此项犯罪促成的其他非法活动;
representatives indicated that, if made mandatory, the(a)罪犯使用暴力或武器; ‘ 236 “ (e)罪犯担任某一公职而且所犯罪行与该公职有关;
provision would be incompatible with their constitutional“⑴危害或利用未成年人;
or legal system and unacceptable by their legislative authorities. Reference was made to article 36 of the 1961 Main Conference documents 65“(f)之二犯罪行为发生在某一教养所,或某一教育机构或社会服务设施,
Convention, in which a similar provision had been made或在紧靠这些机构的邻近地方,或在学童和学生用以进行教育、体育
optional. Several other representatives emphasized the和社会活动的其他地方;
need for ensuring the effectiveness of the Convention andu
expressed the view that countries Parties to the Convention that make extradition conditional on the existence of(S)在国外或国内有前科罪行,特别是类似的草行,但以締约国国内
a treaty should have the obligation to consider the Convention as the legal basis for extradition when receiving法所允许的程度为限。
requests for extradition from Parties with which they have“3之二缔约国应尽力确保,对于犯有本条所述罪行的人进行的起诉,在行使
no extradition treaty.本国的法律酌处权时,应使对这些罪行的执法措施取得最大的成效,并适当考虑到
88. One representative pointed out that the wording of必须儆戒人们不犯此种罪行。
paragraph 3 should anyway ensure equality of those countries with those that do not need a treaty basis, but may“4.締约国应确保其法院或其他主管当局对于已判定犯有本条第1款所列罪行
use their national law as the basis for extradition while的人,在考虑最终的早释或假释问题时,应注意到这类罪行的严重桂质以及本条第
having, according to paragraph 4, the obligation to consider3款所列举的情节.
drug-related offences defined in the Convention as offences“5.各締约国应对适用于第1款所述舉行的时效法规,菌情劁定严厉的规定。
for which extradition may be granted between themselves.如罪犯逃避某一締约国的司法处置,则应使此种规定更为严厉。
The same representative further pointed out that in the last“6.各締约国应依照其法律制度,采取适当措施,碚保在其領土内发现的被指
analysis the use of "shall" or "may" did not make any real控或被判定犯有本条第1款所列萆行的人,能在必要的刑事诉讼中出庭
difference since, even if the provision was drafted in the“7.为了各締约国之间根据本公约进行合串,包括特别是tt第3、4、5、
mandatory form, it created no obligation to extradite but6条规定进行合作,凡依照本条所确定的罪行均不得看作是财经罪或政治罪或认为
only an obligation to consider the Convention as a basis是出于政絲机,但不应M締约国的宪法限制和鉢的国内法,
for extradition. His analysis of the legal implications of“ 8 ,本条的内容绝不应影响到其所述罪行只应由某一締约国的国内法加以阐述
paragraph 3 was agreed upon by several other representatives. One representative stated that some countries need而且此种罪行应根据该国内法予以起诉命惩罚的原孤”
a specific extradition treaty and cannot consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition.K “非法钣运”的定义
89.“非法贩运”系指第2条第1款和第1款之二所列的犯罪行为。 ‘ 237 B.
In the light of the discussion, the Group decided to列入第1条的其性定义
retain paragraph 3 with both the mandatory and optional“麻管局”系指国际麻醉品管制局。
alternatives in square brackets.“麻委会”系指经社理事会的麻薛药品委员会。
90. A proposal was made to amend paragraph 5 to indicate that "except as otherwise provided in this article",‘‘理事会”系指联合国经济及社会理事会。
extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided for‘‘秘书长”系指钹合圆秘书长。
by the law of the requested Party or by applicable extradition treaties, "including the grounds upon which theC.第1条的引导句
requested Party may refuse extradition", it being noted‘‘除另有明文指定命文中另有规定者外》下列各项定义应适用于整个公约:’’
that these grounds may include, inter alia, prosecution for文件 E/CONF 82/C. 1/L. 18/Add. 4
reasons of race, religion, nationality or political opinion.[原件:英文]
The Group agreed to the proposal, subject to the placing[1988 12 月 15 日]
of the introductory exception clause in square brackets, as第 2 条 t
in the view of some representatives its implications were一 . 基本提 案
at this stage unforeseeable as there was as yet no agreement with regard to all the provisions of the article.1 会议收到的文所载第 2 条之二案文如下 :
91. Concerning paragraph 6, it was pointed out that this“第2条之二
provision had already been scrutinized by the Group and“管辖权
provisionally included in square brackets as a new penultimate paragraph of article 2..
The Group had now to consider whether the provision was to be retained in article 2各締约国
or incorporated in article 4.“(a)在遇到下述情况时,应视需要采取必要的措施,以〔确立〕〔行使〕 ‘ 238 本国对其按照笫2蚤笫1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
92. Some representatives reiterated their reservation regarding the paragraph, in view of the constitutional, legal“㈠犯罪行为发生在其领土内;
and judicial requisites which precluded in their respective“ a犯罪行为发生在犯案时系按本国法律注册的船只或飞机上;
countries the extradition for political offences; in their“㈨在遇到下述情况时,可视需要采取必要的揞施,以〔确立〕〔行使〕
opinion, the paragraph should be deleted.本国对其按照笫2条笫1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
93. Several representatives considered that such an objection stemmed from a problem of interpretation. In their“ H 〔如嫌犯在其领土内〕,为本国国民或在其领土内有惯常居所者;
view, the paragraph would neither constitute an exception“㈡犯罪行为发生在该缔约国按笫1 2条事先获准可予扣押的船只上,
to the principle of non-extradition for political offences,但这科管辖权只应根据该条笫5款和笫7款所述协定或安排行使;
nor a threat to the right of asylum or a violation of“(©犯罪行为属于第2条第1款(b)项笫曰目中所确定的罪行之一,并
individual human rights. The main thrust of the provisionC作为一科预备行动〕发生在本国领土外,目的是想在其领土内
was to ensure that Parties would act in good faith and that进行笫2条第1款所列的某项犯罪行为.〕
offences in article 2, paragraph 1, would not be construed“〔2 各结约国:
as political or fiscal. Attention was drawn to other cases“O)当婊犯在其领土内,并且基于下述理由不把他引渡给另一鍤约国时,
where qualification of political offences had been excluded as, for instance, in the Convention on the Prevention也应视窖要采取必要的措施,以〔确立〕〔行使〕本国对其按照第
and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and international instruments relating to terrorism or hijacking. In that2条笫1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
connection several representatives suggested that the provision should consist of a simple, straightforward statement that offences in article 2, paragraph 1, would not be”H犯罪行为发生在其领土内或犯案时系按本国法律注册的船只或
considered as political or fiscal.飞机上;
94. In the light of the discussion, the Group agreed to“㈡〔如搛犯在其领土内〕,为本国国民或在其领土内有惯常居所
delete paragraph 6 of article 4 and replace the new penultimate paragraph of article 2 by a provision stipulating者;
that for the purpose of cooperation between Parties under‘‘(Q嫌犯在请求囯面临死刑;〕
this Convention, including, in particular, cooperation under“〔©请求囯施加的刑罚将比被请求国的刑罚更严厉;〕〕
articles 3, 4, 5 and 6, offences established in accordance“〔(b)当搛犯在其领土内,并且基于上述fe烦所明定的理由之外的任何其
with this article shall not be considered as political or他理由不把他引渡给另一结约国时,也可视霜要采取“的措施,
fiscal offences or regarded as politically motivated.以〔确立〕〔行使〕本国对其按照笫2条笫1款所确定的犯罪行为
95. In order to address the reservation of States having constitutional difficulties and problems associated with the fundamental principles of their domestic law, the Group agreed to include a provision at the end of the new penultimate paragraph of article 2 to the effect that the application of this provision shall be without prejudice to the constitutional limitations of the Parties and the fundamental principles of their domestic law. The Group also agreed that the Convention was not intended to prejudice the right to asylum in conformity with international law, and one representative proposed specific language to this effect to be added to the text. The above provisions were placed in square brackets as no consensus was reached. 96. The word "fiscal" was placed in square brackets as some representatives were of the view that, with regard to grounds for refusal of extradition, fiscal offences should not be given the same consideration as offences of a political nature. One representative stated that in extradition treaties only political, not fiscal, offences were normally considered as non-extraditable offences. The idea that fiscal offences were non-extraditable offences was not settled internationally and hence unacceptable, as it would unduly weaken the new Convention. Two representatives proposed the deletion of reference to fiscal offences. One representative emphasized the necessity of retaining reference to fiscal offences particularly since, in the experience of his Government, assistance in the field of extradition and mutual legal assistance had been refused on the grounds that the offences were in violation of fiscal or customs laws. 97. One representative considered that reference to article 4 in the new penultimate paragraph of article 2 was superfluous and should be deleted given the amended provision of paragraph 5. 98. Some representatives indicated that in the event that the amended new penultimate paragraph of article 2 was not retained, consideration should be given to including such a provision in article 4. 66 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 99. Concerning paragraph 7 (renumbered 6 following deletion of paragraph 6 of the revised draft), two representatives considered that the refusal of extradition on the ground of nationality should be unconditionally excluded. They therefore favoured the deletion of the exception clause included in the revised draft. 100. Many other representatives indicated on the contrary that non-extradition of nationals was a fundamental principle of international criminal law, recognized and protected in their country at the constitutional or legislative level. In view of such domestic legal constraints, paragraph 7 should be deleted. 101. Most of the representatives who spoke in favour of deletion agreed however to accept the retention of the paragraph, on condition that the safeguards, as formulated in the revised draft, be included. These safeguards should refer not only to the constitution but also to the domestic law of the Parties. One representative requested that the fundamental domestic law and the domestic legal system be also mentioned. 102. One representative indicated that even though the extradition of nationals was allowed in his country, he nevertheless supported the deletion of the provision; he considered that, since most of other countries had legal obstacles to the extradition of nationals, the paragraph would in practice have no application because of lack of reciprocity. This opinion was shared by some other representatives. 103. One representative expressed the view that the first sentence, in which the obligation to facilitate extradition was stated, should be the only one retained. A safeguard clause referring to domestic constitutional or legal limitations should open the first sentence. 104. One representative, supported by some others, proposed the inclusion, at the end of paragraph 7, of a new sentence covering the cases where States had a discretionary power to grant the extradition of nationals. According to the suggested provision, the Parties should endeavour to see this power exercised. It was pointed out that the other的管辖权.〕〕
provisions of the paragraph did not deal with the cases“3«本公约不排除行使按国内法确立的任何刑亊管辖权.” ‘ 239 二修正案
where a discretionary power existed and that an encouragement to grant extradition in such cases would be useful.2. 对第 2 条之二提出修正案的有:德意志民主共和国 ( 1 /
105.L-2 2 ).
One representative recalled that the idea of a link丹麦、芬兰、挪威和瑞典(E/C0EF.82/C.1/JL.23)以及以色列
between paragraphs 7 and 10 had been at the origin of the(E/COU F 82/ C 1/ L -2 4 )o
latest version of the revised text.3.
Countries that had legal这些修正案的内容如下:
obstacles to the extradition of nationals had made a step forward in accepting paragraph 7. Other countries in'第1款(a)项(=)目
which extradition was subject to strict evidentiary requirements, such as the requirement for prima facie evidence,德意志民主共和国(EyCQWF.Sa/C -l/L'22 ) 莬1款(a)顼㈡目改为:
had accepted to endeavour to minimize these requirements“犯罪行为发生在犯案时悬桂其国旗的船只或按其法律注册的飞机上;”
as indicated in paragraph 10. The two paragraphs therefore reflected a balanced effort from both sides. The deletion of paragraph 7 could upset this balance.重新拟订的笫2条之二
106. The Group decided to retain paragraph 7 (renumbered as paragraph 6) with the inclusion of the additions丹麦、芬兰、挪威和瑞典(^/COl^-SZ/C-l/L-23 )
proposed in the course of the discussion, keeping in square将第2条之二的案文改为:
brackets the points on which divergent positions could not“1.各缔约国在遇到下述情况时,应采取必要的措施,以确立本国对其按照第
be reconciled. In order to reflect the link between paragraphs 7 and 10, the Group agreed on a structural change consisting in moving paragraph 10 forward and placing it immediately after paragraph 7 (renumbered 6).2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
107. In its consideration of paragraph 8, the Group“(a)㈠犯罪行为发生在其领土内;
endeavoured to simplify the revised text and to sort out“㈡行为发生在犯案时系按本国法律注册的船只或飞机上;
the substantial issues on which no agreement had been“ 0>)在不连反本国宪法的跟制和本国法律制度的基本原则的情况下,
reached during the previous discussions. Several proposals‘H犯罪行为系为本国国民或在其领土内有惯常居所者所作;
were made to add precision or clarity to the wording of the‘C=)犯罪行为发生在该结约国按笫1 2条已事先获准可予扣押的船只
paragraph.上,但这湃管辖权只应根据该条第5款和第7款所述协定或安排
108.行使; ‘ 240 “曰犯罪行为属于第2条第1款(b)项第曰目中所确定的罪行之一.
In subparagraph 8(a), the Group approved from a
linguistic standpoint, a suggestion to refer to "the request发生在本国领土之外,其目的是想在其领土内进行第2条第1款
of the Party requesting extradition" in order to avoid所列的某项犯罪行为.
ambiguity about the requesting Party.“㈣嫌犯在其领土内,并且没有根据另一缔约国的请求予以引渡.
109. One representative proposed that the words "offence of a similar nature" in subparagraph 8(b), be replaced with the words "offence of the same nature" in“2.本公约不排除行使按国内法确立的任何刑事管辖权.”
order to avoid the dangers involved in the appreciation of( E/C0KF-82/0-1^-2 4 )
analogy between offences.将第2条之二案文改为如下: “1.
In this connection, he emphasized his belief that the punishment of drug traffickers各结约国
should be commensurate with the gravity of the offence“(a)在遇到下述情况时,应视需要采取必要的措施,以确立和行使本国对
and involve a minimum of 2 or 3 years imprisonment.其按照第2条第1縫磽定的犯罪行为的管辖权:
Another proposal consisted in the replacement of the“㈠犯罪行为发生在其领土内J
words "has jurisdiction" with "can exercise jurisdiction",“㈡犯罪行为发生在犯案时系按本国法律注册的船只或飞机_b
since exercise of jurisdiction could be barred by several“㈢犯罪行为系为本国国民或在其领土内有惯常居所者所作j
circumstances such as diplomatic immunity, concern to“㈣搛犯在其领土内,并且不把他引渡给根据第㈠、㈡或㈢目确立了
avoid double jeopardy, or the statute of limitations.管辖权的任一结约国j
110. Attention was drawn by one representative to the“(b)在遇到下述情况时,可视需要采取必要的措私以确立和行使本国对
importance of the words "to another Party" in the expression "if it does not extradite him to another Party". The其按照第2条第1款所确定的犯卷行为的管辖权:
provision should in his view only apply to cases where“㈠犯罪行为发生在该締约国按第1 2条事先已获准可予扣押的船只
extradition had been refused between Parties to this Convention.±3但这种管辖权只应拫据该条第5款和笫7款所述协定或安排
111. The condition that the Party in whose territory the行铯
offender is present should act "at the request of the requesting Party" gave rise to substantive objections from“㈡犯罪行为属于第2条第1款(b)项苐㈢目中所确定的罪行之一,并
several representatives. In the opinion of some of them,(作为一种预备行动〕发生在本国领土之外,其目的是想在其领
this condition was incompatible with the sovereignty of土内进行苐2条苐1款所列的某项犯舉行为。
States; the right to prosecute should not be conditional on"2.本公约不排除行使按国内法确立的任何刑事管辖札” ‘ 241 三.第一委员会的议事过程
the existence of a request.A.
In response to this objection, it
was pointed out that the condition of a request only concerned the international obligation to submit the case for4.第一委员会于1 9 8 8年1 2月7日至1 2月1 5日举行的棼18、19、
prosecution under this Convention;2 1 .
the right or obligation2 2和3 3次会议上讨论了第2条之二及其有关的修正案。委员会于19 8 8
to prosecute according to domestic law would in no way年....月 ...曰举行的棼....次会议上审议了起草委员会的报告。
be affected by this requirement.B.
To further clarify this审议情况和决定
point, reference was made to paragraph 3 of article 2 bis,第1款
according to which the Convention did not exclude any第1款(a)项的引导句
criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with domestic law.5.
One representative suggested that this provision委员会同意保留基本提案中所载的引导句,但倒去“行使” 一词。
could be reproduced in paragraph 8 in order to avoid any6.菲律宾代表对诩去“行使” 一词表示保留。
misunderstanding on this point.第1款(a)项㈠目
112.7.
Several other representatives objected to the condition of a request on the ground that the international obligation to prosecute should be unconditional and in any委员会同意保留基本提案中所载6德1款(a)项㈠目。
case mandatory. If extradition was refused, submission of the case for prosecution should, in their view, be automatically secured in line with the principle aut dedere aut Main Conference documents 67 judicare. Reference was made in this respect to the provisions of several conventions such as article 7 of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, adopted at Montreal in 1971, and article 10 of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, adopted in 1988, which provided for an obligation to submit the case for prosecution as soon as extradition was refused without any reference to a request from the requesting Party. It was further pointed out that crimes against humanity usually gave rise to universal jurisdiction and that for countries signatory to the Quito Declaration against Traffic in Narcotic Drugs, offences of illicit traffic in drugs were qualified as a crime against humanity. 113. Several representatives who favoured the retention of the condition of a request indicated that they would not agree with the creation of universal jurisdiction over the offences related to the illicit traffic in drugs. Some representatives further outlined the practical advantages of retaining the condition of a request. In some instances, confronted with an obstacle to extradite, both the requested and the requesting Parties could prefer to avoid prosecution and wait until extradition would become possible. 114. During the discussion, it appeared to one representative that all references to article 2 bis in article 4, paragraph 8, could in fact be deleted. In his view, the only relevant point was whether the Party had jurisdiction, whatever the ground might be; there was no reason to limit cases of jurisdiction to the cases provided for in article 2 bis. Paragraph 8(a)(ii) should also be deleted. Paragraph 8, the reading of which was complicated by all those references to article 2 bis, would be much clearer. This amendment would also affect paragraph 2 of article 2 bis which would no longer be necessary. This proposal met with the approval of many representatives. 115. One representative however pointed out that these deletions, associated with the deletion of paragraph 2 of article 2 bis, would upset the logic of paragraph 8. Once references to article 2 bis were deleted, the only ground for jurisdiction would be the domestic law of the Party. Some countries had no extraterritorial jurisdiction over nationals having committed an offence abroad; they would therefore dispense with the obligation to prosecute whereas other countries where domestic law had created such a jurisdiction would be obliged to prosecute. Reciprocity in the obligations of States Parties would thus disappear. Another representative supported this analysis of the implication of the suggested deletions. One of these representatives requested that the appropriate references to article 2 bis should be retained in paragraph 8(a)(i). 116. The opening words of the paragraph "Without prejudice to the exercise of any other jurisdiction", gave rise to a number of comments. In connection with the proposed deletion of all references to article 2 bis, it was pointed out that those opening words should also be deleted; since no more reference to specific grounds of jurisdiction was made, there was no longer a need to refer to "any other jurisdiction". Some representatives, however, favoured the retention of the opening words. One representative who objected to the deletion of all references to article 2 bis considered that mention of article 2 bis could be reintroduced in the opening words which the would be kept and formulated as follows: "Without prejudice to the power of each Party to exercise jurisdiction in accordance with article 2 bis or with its domestic law". The latter reference to domestic law would also take care of the concern about the safeguard of the sovereign power of States to prosecute. 117. The Group agreed on a formulation of paragraph 8 reflecting the suggestions made in the course of the discussion, with square brackets, where appropriate, to indicate the particular points on which divergent positions could not be reconciled. 118. As regards paragraph 9, one representative expressed the view that it was contrary to the constitution of his country and should be deleted. The Group agreed to a suggestion that, as long as the fate of paragraph 7 (renumbered 6) left in square brackets was not decided, the reference in paragraph 9 to paragraph 7 should disappear and be substituted with a paraphrase of paragraph 7. 119. In paragraph 12 (11), one representative favoured the replacement of "shall consider" by "may consider", since his country was not in a position to agree with the transfer of persons sentenced to imprisonment. Several representatives pointed out that the obligation to consider entering into agreements was already couched in weak terms and that the optional formulation would make it useless. In the absence of agreement on this point, the Group decided to include both words in square brackets. Article 5 120. Before entering in the consideration of article 5, the Group heard a statement from a representative regarding the proposal of his Government to introduce a new article 1 bis dealing with the scope of the Convention. The provisions of the proposed article, inspired from the substance of treaties already in force between his Government and other countries, emphasized the legal and sovereign equality of States, the principle of non-intervention in the domestic affairs, and the respect for the competence and territorial jurisdiction of the respective Parties. It should be clearly stated in the Convention that the application of its provisions would be subject to national laws and regulations and was not to prejudice the security, public policy or other essential interests of States Parties. 121. The Group took as a basis for discussion of article 5 the revised draft of that article annexed to the report of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its tenth special session, taking into account a redraft of the whole article presented by two Governments and amendments to some paragraphs proposed by one Government. 122. Several representatives stressed the importance of defining at the outset the scope of the article and suggested that its provisions should address mutual legal assistance in a specific manner so as to make it quite distinct from assistance of an administrative nature and other forms of cooperation envisaged in article 6. In this connection, it was deemed essential to include the word "legal" in the 68 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances title of the article. One representative observed that the content of article 5 went beyond legal assistance strictu sensu and that the title should be modified accordingly to include the transfer of criminal proceedings; alternatively, provisions dealing with the transfer of criminal proceedings could be moved to a new article dealing with that subject. The Group agreed that the title of article 5 should read "Mutual Legal Assistance".莬1款该颅㈡目
123.8.
With regard to paragraph 1, several representatives关于莬1款(a)项a目,委员会接受了德意志民主共和国提出轵修正案(E/
expressed their preference for the proposed redraft which,C0K!F.82/C.1/:L.22 ) 即,在“船只” 一词前增加“悬桂其国旗的” 一语.
in their view, was clearer, more concise and positive in its并同意经此修改的基本提案。 9.委员会请起草委员会考虑是否宜用“船舶” 一词取代“船只”。 ‘ 242 第I款(b)项的引导句
formulation.10.
The safeguard clauses in paragraph 1 of the委员会决定保留该项经定的任选性质,因此,同意保留基本提案中所载的 行文。委员会并同意倒去“行使” 一词。
initial revised draft should, whenever applicable, be第1款(b)项㈠目 11.委员会同意基本提案中所载第1款⑶项㈠目案文,但烧去方括号中各词,
moved to the respective paragraphs of the article.并有一项谅餑:这样截不减损莬1款㈣项㈠目关于结约国对在其领土上所犯的春行
124.琮立管辖杈的义务的规定 o 12.
Several other representatives stressed the importance of retaining safeguard clauses in the introductory葙律宾代表对该项规定表示保留。
sentence of paragraph 1 so as to specify that the provisions% 1款㈦项O目
of the article would be implemented with due regard to the13.鉴于其与涉及诲上非法嚴运的第1 2条规定有重大联系,委员会听取了第 二委员会报告员就该委员会同意的第1 2条的最后案文所作的发言。
constitutional, legal and administrative systems of Parties14.参照第12条的新行文,澳大利亚代表口头提出了第1款(b)项之二约重拟 的草案,委员会同意经美利坚合众国代表修正后的这一案文。
as well as relevant treaties or arrangements.15.
There was委员会达成一项谅解:该目中所用的“事先获准” 一语的含义指須先给子 批准方可根据篙1 2条采取适当行动。
general agreement that application of the provisions of第1款(b)项曰目 16.委员会同意基本提案所载第1款㈦项曰目的案文 但倒去“作为一科蒗备
article 5 was to be subject to the national laws of the行动” 一语,并将“所列的” 一语改为“按照...所确定的”。 ‘ 243 第2喜人
requested Party.17.委员会对第2款的审议重点是基本提案中所载的案文以及丹麦、芬兰、掷 威和瑞典就该款提出的修改意见(E/COEi、8Z/C.l/:L.23 )。
125.18. 经过对提案的一般性讨论,委员会审议了一项折衷案文.
With regard to dual criminality, several representatives indicated that this requirement should not apply to其目的是照頋代
all the cases of mutual legal assistance contemplated in表们的不同意见,一些代表主张钼去该款,一些代表主张采用文件E/C0i:i、82/ C-1/L.23中所载的修正案文 另一些代表则支持保留基本提案中所载该款的结
article 5. The view was expressed that dual criminality构和内容,只是修正为只列举两聍拒绝引渡之理由。
should be considered in conjunction with safeguard clauses19.据此,委员会同意对基本提案所载第2款案文作如下修正:
in other paragraphs of the article or included in paragraph 11 as one of the grounds of refusal of mutual legal(a)捌去苐2款(a)项引导句中“行使”一词j (b)在第2款(a)项㈠目的‘‘船只” 一词前增加“悬挂其国旗的,,一语; ⑷将第2款⑷项㈡目跟定为“犯罪行为系为本国国民新作"; ⑷删去第2款(a)项曰目的两种案文;并
assistance. Attention was drawn to the provision of paragraph 1 of article 1 of the European Convention on Mutual(e)翅去第2款(b)項中的“行使” 一词以及“基于上述(s.)项芴列举的理白 之外的任何其他理由” 一语。 20.委员会同意经如此修正的莬2款案文。苹律宾代表对苐2款㈥项二目表
Assistance in Criminal Matters to the effect that it was示保留,马来酉亚代表则对第2款⑶项表示保留。
sufficient, for the purpose of mutual assistance, that the第3款
punishment of the offence fell within the jurisdiction of21.委员会同意基本提案所载第3款案文。
the judicial authorities of the requesting Party.四.
On the转交起草委员会的案文
other hand, some representatives felt that the principle of22.委员会同意下述案文,并将其转交起草委员会审议。
dual criminality should be retained in paragraph 1 as it“ 1.各締约国
was considered a prerequisite for mutual legal assistance.“ (a)在遇到下述情况时,应视需要果取必要的措旋:以确立本国对其 按照第2条第1款所确定的罪行的管辖权: ‘ 244 “ H罪行发生在其领土内;
126. Some representatives were of the view that the“㈡罪行发生在犯案时悬挂其国旗的钻只犮按其法律注罱约飞钍
provisions of paragraph 1 should indicate that Parties(b)在遇到下述情况时,可视籍要采取必要的措施,以确立本国对其 按照第2条第1款所确定的罪行的管辖权i
should provide one another mutual assistance "upon request"; some other representatives considered that it“㈠进行该犯罪的人为本囯国民或在其领土内有惯常居新者;
would be sufficient to state that such assistance should be“㈡犯罪行为发生在该締约国按第1 2条事先获准对之采取适当 行动的船舶但这聍管辖权只应根据该条第4款湘第9款
provided "pursuant to this article".所述协定或安排行铯 “㈢该罪行属于第2条第I款⑶项第S目中所f角定的罪行之一,
127. In view of the divergent viewpoints, the Group并发生在本国领土外,目的是在其领土内进行按照笫2条第
decided to refer the further elaboration of paragraph 1 to1款所确定的某项猊尋。
an informal working group.各结约囯: ㈣当熳祀在其领土内,并且基于下述理由不把他引渡到另一结约国
128. The informal working group agreed not to include时,也应采取必旻的措旋,以_立本国对其按照第2条貧1款所 确定的罪行的营辖权:
a safeguard clause in paragraph 1 and to state therein that㈠罪行发生在其领土内或犯案时悬挂其国旗的般只或按其法律
Parties shall afford one another, pursuant to this article,注册的飞彳?Lb或 ㈡进行犯舉约人系为本国国民。 (b)当嫌犯在其领土内,并且不把他引渡到另一缔约国时,也可呆玖
the widest measure of mutual legal assistance in any必要的措拖以确立本国对其按照第2条第1款所确定的狍罪n
investigations, prosecutions and judicial proceedings in为的管辖权。 本公约不排除行使按国内法确立的任何刑事管辖轧” ‘ 245 文件 E/CONF. 82/C .1/L. 18/Add. 2
relation to a criminal offence established in accordance[原件:英文] [1988年12月6曰] 第3条 基本提案 1.会议收到的文件E/COEL82/3所载第3条欽如下: “第3条 “1.从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中荻得的、或用#类犯罪行为的收益、 麻醉药品和精神药物、材料和设备以及其他工具 均应予以没收。、.为此目的,各 締约国应视需要采取各秭必要的措施,以便没收:
with article 2, paragraph 1. It was also agreed to include“(a)从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中获得的收益或与这类收益等值的
a new paragraph 2 containing alternative safeguard clauses.财产:
These were placed in square brackets as no agreement was“ Cb)用于或企图用于进行按第2条苐1款确定的犯罪行为的麻醉药品和精 神药物: "(c)用于或企图用于非法生产、加工或制造这类药品或药物的材料和设备: “ (d)用于或企图用于进行按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为的其他工具。
reached as to which should be retained."2.
Paragraph 2 as a各締约国还应视需要采取各种必要的措施,以便得以确定、追查、冻结或
whole was also placed in square brackets.扣押第1款所述的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,从而达到最终予以没收的目
129.的。 44 3.
The informal working group agreed to introduce as为实施本条所述各项措施,各締约国应授权其法院或其他主管当局下令提
an additional ground for refusal of mutual legal assistance供或扣押银行,酎务或商业记录。締约国不得以保守银行秘密为由拒绝按照本款
the case where the authorities of the requested Party的M^:采取行动。 ‘ 246 “4. (a)根据对按第2条第1款确定的某一犯罪行为拥有管辖权的另一締约国
would be prohibited by domestic law from carrying out a依本条 提出的请求,在 土上有本条第1款所述收益、财产、
request made with regard to the same offence having been工具或任何其他物品的締约国即应:
committed within the territory of that Party.“㈠向其主管当局索取没收令,并在取得此项命令后即予以执行:或
130. Another ground for refusal of mutual legal assistance was added to cover the case where the request would“㈡向其主管当局@由请求国按第1款规定发出的对放置于被请求
be contrary to the constitution, fundamental legal principles or to the law of the requested Party. However, since国领土内的第I款所述收益、財产、工具或任何其他物品的没收
there was no general agreement with regard to the inclusion of these grounds for refusal of assistance, these words令,以便在其请求的范围内予以执行。
were placed in square brackets.“ 0>)根据对按第2条第1款璃定的某一犯罪行为拥有管辖权的另一締约国
131. There was agreement to indicate that requests shall依本条贼提出的请求,被请求国应棘措施璃定、追查、冻结或扣
be executed in accordance with the domestic law of the押第1款所述收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品,以便由请求国或按
requested Party and, to the extent not contrary to the law根据本款⑷项规定提出的请求由被请求国发出没收令最终予以没收。
of the requested Party and where possible, in accordance“〔(c)被请求国按本款㈨项和(b)项所作出的任何决@采取的任何行动,均
with the requirements specified in the request.应符合并遵守其国内法的条件和它在与请求国关系方面受制约的任何
132. The Group agreed to delete paragraph 2 of article 5双边或多边条约、协定或安排所规定的条件。〕
of the revised draft as its provisions, exhortative in nature,‘‘⑷第5条各款的规定(《有关规定”〕作必要更改后可以适用。除第
were considered superfluous.5条第〔8〕款所列情报外,按本条提出的请求还应包括以下各项:
133. Several representatives said that the introductory“㈠如系按(a)H项提出的请求,应有对拟予没收的財产的说明和请求
sentence of paragraph 3 should be phrased in a flexible国所依据的事实的陈I以便被请求国能够根据其国内法获得没
manner so as not to be made mandatory; the word "may"收令:
should therefore be preferred to "shall". Moreover, the“O结系按(a)O项提出的请求,须附有该请求所依据的由请求国法院
listing should not purport to be exhaustive but only indicative of some of the relevant modalities of assistance available to Parties. Some other representatives were of the发出的没收令的法律上可接受的副本,事实的陈述,和关于请求
view that in order to introduce a modicum of assurance as执行没收令范围的情报:
to what forms of assistance may be expected from Parties“㈢如系按CD)项提出的请求,须有请求国所依据的事实的陈述和对所
the provisions of paragraph 3 should be of a mandatory请求采取的行动的说明。
nature, and therefore preferred the use of "shall". Alternatively, it was proposed that paragraph 3 could include two‘‘(e)各締约国应向联合国秘书长发出通知,指明其在按本条规定依其他締
lists dealing respectively with the modalities of assistance约国的请求采取行动时,将适周㈨项所规定的何种程序。
that are of a mandatory nature and those that are to be“ (f)〔对采取本款(a)项和⑶项所述措施,締约国可要求必须有某一有关条
applied at the discretion of the Parties.约为依据。〕〔在这种情况下,締约国可视本公约为必要的条约依据。〕 ‘ 247 5 .
Several other representatives were of the opinion that the introductory sentence should merely state that mutual assistance would(a)
include the items listed in the subsequent subparagraphs“(b)
without making any reference as to whether the provisions“ 6 . (a)
of the paragraph were to be of a discretionary or mandatory nature.各締约国应谋求缔结双边和多边条约、协定或安排,以贯彻或提高根
134. In order to reflect the non-exhaustive character of据本条进行的国际合作的有效性。
the list and thereby extend the scope of assistance which締约国按照本条第1款或第4款的规定所没收的收益或財产,应由该
the Parties may wish to envisage, the Group agreed to締约国按照其法律和行政程序加以处I
include in the article a new paragraph to the effect that締约国按本条的规定应另一締约国的请求采取行动时,可特别考虑就
Parties may afford one another any other forms of mutual下述事项缔结协定:
legal assistance allowed by the domestic law of the requested Party.㈠将这类收益和跗产的价值,或变卖这类收益或财产所得的款项,
135. Several representatives considered that the wording或其中相当一部分,捐给专门从事打击非法贩运及滥用麻醉药品
of subparagraph 3(a) was ambiguous; the formula "taking和精神药物的政府间机构;
evidence" was particularly open to misinterpretation. In㈡按照本国法像行政程序或为此目的而締结的双边或多边协定,
their view, the provision should be reformulated so as to经常或逐案地与其他缔约国分享这类收益或财产 或由变卖这类
make it clear that it concerned statements to be taken for Main Conference documents 69收益或財产所得«项。
evidentiary purposes. The Group agreed to refer the provision to the informal working group for reconsideration.如杲收益已与合法来源所得的财产相混合,则在不损害任何扣押或冻
136. The Group agreed to retain subparagraphs 3(b) and结杈力的情况下,应没收这类财产中估计与已混合的收益的价值相当
(c) of the revised draft dealing respectively with effecting的价也
service of judicial documents and executing requests for如果收益已转化或变换成其他财产,则应对这类其他财产,作为收益
searches and seizures.的替代,采取本条所述的措孤
137. Several representatives considered that subparagraph 3(d) should be deleted as the terms "sites" and对〔明显看出是〕从下述来源取得的收入或其他利益也〔应〕可采取
"objects" were ambiguous. It was also indicated that the此类措施:
provision as such was unusual in existing Conventions;— 收益 :
besides it was already covered in subparagraph 3(c). Some-由收益转化或变换成的財产:或
other representatives were of the view that it represented一与收益相混合的财产。
a useful form of mutual legal assistance particularly for
reconstituting offences committed in the territory of other'各締约国得考虑确保关于应予没收的收益或其他财产的合法性的举证责任
States or for verifying evidence based on the interview of可予转换,但这种行动应符合其国内法律的原则和司法程序的性质。
witnesses. In order to make the provision more specific it<<8
was proposed that it should be amended so as to restrict-对本条各项规定的解释不应损害善意的第三者的权利。
its application to objects and sites related to the commission of the offences established under article 2, paragraph 1.“ 9.本条任何规定均不得影响其所述措施应依締约国的国内法并在该法确立的
138. The Group agreed to delete subparagraph 3(e) as条件下加以规定和执行的原则。”
it duplicated other forms of assistance covered in paragraph 3.“(b)
139. Some representatives indicated that if the provisions of subparagraph 3(f) were to be retained they should(c) ‘ 248 二修正案
be subject to a safeguard clause as some national laws2.对第3条提出修正案的有墨西哥(E/cOHF.sys,附件四,第1 1 1页)、
prohibited certain categories of objects from leaving the德意志民主共和国(E/COHF.SyC. 1/1^ 2 )、荷兰(
national territory. One representative proposed to replace工 .11) 、 ^ ^ ( E/COITI".G VC . 3/1,. 1 2 ), 法国 (E/COHF.SA/C.J^A .
the word "exchanging" by "providing" and to specify that15) 、 美利坚合众国 ( ) 、 德意志联邦共和国、墨 西
this form of assistance was for the purpose of prosecution哥、荷兰、西班牙和委内瑞拉(EZCOUL8^/C.IYL . 1 7 )和也门(E/COIFP .
of offences in article 2, paragraph 1. The Group agreed to8ycw o )
refer the provision to the informal working group for further consideration.3.这些修正案的内容如下:
140. One representative proposed to amend subparagraph 3(g) to make it conform with the requirements and第1款
conditions which he intended to introduce in paragraph 3德意志民主共和国(E/COHI'#8a/C#I/
of article 3.修正第I款并加入标恩使之成为:
141. Several representatives advocated the deletion of“没收
the words "freezing and seizing" in subparagraph 3(h) for“1.各缔约国应采取必要的措施以便能够没收:
the reason that unlike article 3 where international cooperation was provided for the purpose of confiscation,“ (a)从按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中得到的收益或价值相当于此种
this provision had the limited objective of facilitating investigation or prosecution. One representative, however,收益的财产i
considered that those words should be retained as it was“㈨得自或用于或意图用于按照第2条第1款所确定的犯罪行为的麻薛药
necessary, even for purposes of investigation or prosecution, to ensure that the proceeds are not dispersed.品和精神药物、材料和设备或其他工具。”
142.印度(E/coite.8^C# l/L.
Subparagraph 3(i) was deleted as its substance was12 )
incorporated in a new paragraph (see paragraph 134将第I款的引导句和第1款(b)项修改为:
above).“从按第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为中获得的、或用于这类犯罪行为的财产、
143. One representative proposed that subparagraph 3(j)收益、麻醉药品和精神药物、清单A和清单B所列的物质、材料和设备,以及其他
should make it clear that those who may be called upon工具,均应予以没收或充公。为此目的,各缔约国应视需要采取各种必要的措施
to assist investigations or participate in proceedings have以便没收或充公: ‘ 249 “ (b)用于或企图用于进行按第2条第I款所确定的犯罪行为的麻醉药品湘精神
consented to do so; alternatively it was suggested that in药物以及清单A湘清单S所列的物质;,,
order to also cover cases where consent was not requiredE/COHP.82/3 , PA 件四,第 ill页)
the provision should be amended to indicate that it was将第1款(a)项修正为:
applicable only to persons who were prepared to so assist.“由于按照第2条第1款确定的犯罪行为而得来的收益,或其价值相当于此种
144. Following informal discussions the Group agreed to收益的有关财产I ”
delete subparagraph 3 (j) and the proposed reformulation in第2款、第3款和第4款(a)项至(b)项
subparagraphs 4(b) and (c) in the revised draft and include墨西哥(EZCOH、8^/3,附件四,第111页)
in a separate paragraph a provision to the effect that upon将第2款、第3款和第4款(a)项至0>)项修改为:
request, the Parties shall facilitate or encourage, to the"2.各缔约国承担义务向其主管的立法机构建议采取必要的措施,使其有关的
extent consistent with national law and practice, the presence or availability of persons, including persons in custody, who consent or are prepared to assist in investigations国家当局能够(如尚未这样做)确定、追查、冻结或者预防性封存、扣押或缴获第
or participate in proceedings. The words "consent" andI款所述的收益,财产,工具或任何其他物品,以便最终加以没收。
"are prepared" were kept in square brackets as no agreement was reached regarding which of the terms should be3.为执行本条所述的各科措施,各締约国承担义夯建议其主管的立法机构釆
retained. One representative announced that in due course取必要的措施,授权(如果尚未这样做)其法院或其他主管部门,在其国家立法明
he would propose, for insertion in another part of the draft确允许的限度内并严格遵弓琨家立法,命令提供、扣押或缴获有关的银行记录、财务
Convention, a provision dealing with the safe conduct of记录或商业记泰缔约11只有在为严格遵守本国立法所必需时,才能以保守银行
persons in custody transferred for testimonial purposes.机密为由,拒绝按本款规定采取行动。
145.4.
The Group agreed to include in a separate article(a)㈠谋求由其主管当局犮布扣押或缴获令,并在得到此科命令后,予以
the proposed reformulation of subparagraph 4(a) to the执行;或
effect that Parties shall give favourable consideration to㈡将请求国按照第1款规定犮布的扣押或缴获令提交其主管当局,以
the possibility of transferring to one another proceedings便加以执行,只要该项命令涉及存放在被请求国领土内的第1款所
for criminal prosecution of offences enumerated in article 2, paragraph 1, of this Convention in cases where such述收益、财产.工具或任何其他物品。
transfer is to be considered in the interest of a proper(b)在对于第2条第1款所确定的某一犯罪行为拥有管辖权的另一缔约厘
administration of justice. (See paragraphs 183-186 below.)提出请求后,被请求国应按照第5条的有关规定采取措施,以期使其 ‘ 250 主管当局能够确定、追查、冻结或者预防性封存、扣押或缴获第1款
146. The Group agreed to take as a basis for discussion所述的收益、财产、工具或任何其他物品*以便在不违反本款(C)顼规
of paragraph 5 the corresponding provisions contained in定的情况下,或者在请求厘发布命令,或者遵照㈨项所述请求,在被
the proposed redraft of the whole article which were found请求厘发布命令,最终加以没收。”
to be couched in clearer, more flexible language. According to the redraft, the paragraphs of article 5 concerning第4款(c)项
the designation of a responsible authority, the language of法国(E/C O HP . 8 Z/0.1/L . 15 )
requests, the information to be contained therein, the周下列案文代替第4款(0顼:
modalities of execution and the grounds for refusal shall«应由被请求茵作出本款(a颇命办颃规定之决定或釆取其中规定之行动,作出
apply to requests made pursuant to this article if the此类决定或釆取此类行动应依据其国内法湘诉讼规则或它在与请求国关系方面受其
Parties in question are not bound by a treaty of mutual制约的任何双边或多边条约、协定或安掭”
legal assistance. If these Parties are bound by such a treaty,第4款(e颅
the procedural provisions of that treaty shall apply to德意志联邦共湘国.墨西哥,荷兰.西班牙和委内瑞拉(E/conf. 82/c.l /
the request unless the Parties agree to apply the abovementioned paragraphs of article 5 in lieu thereof.L.17 )
147. Some representatives considered that paragraph 5用下列案文代替第4款(e)项:
should make it clear that the Convention did not supersede“各締约圆应向秘书长提供其为实行本款而颁布的法律湘条例的文本以及其后
existing mutual legal assistance treaties. In that connection对这些法律和条例所作的任何修改的文各”
it was proposed that a provision be introduced along the第6款(c)项
lines of paragraph 2 of article 26 of the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters stipulating也门(E/CO HP .82/C. 1/i . 20 )
that the provisions of article 5 shall not affect obligations用下列案文代替第6款fc)顼:
incurred under the terms of any other bilateral or multilateral international convention which contain or may contain clauses governing specific effects of mutual assistance in a given field. One representative considered that“应对从下述来源取得的收入采取此类搢施:
a more flexible formula would be preferable and proposed"(a)收益; ‘ 251 “(b)由收益导致的财产或已变换成财产的收益;
the inclusion of a new provision along the lines of article 11 of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful“(c)与收益相混合而价值不超过收益价值的财产。”
Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, adopted at第8款
Montreal in 1971, to indicate that the provisions of article 5 shall not affect obligations under any other treaties,荷兰(E/C O 卵 ZZ/C . l/L. 11 )
bilateral or multilateral, which govern, in whole or in part,G8款中加入下句:
mutual assistance in criminal matters.“然而,各締约国可考虑规定,如果具体情况需要并且符合其屆内法原则,关于
148. One representative expressed the view that other当事方在转移构成收益的射产的所有权,或在授予对于这秭财产的物杈或个人权利
mutual legal assistance treaties should supersede the provisions of the article only when their provisions were more时但否是出于善意的问题的举证责任应予调转 ”
favourable than those provided for by the new Convention. 70 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances也门(E/C0KF.8&C . 1XL.20 )
149. Several representatives expressed their reservation用下列案文代替第8款:
regarding the applicability to requests made pursuant to“对本条各顼规定的解释不应损害善意的第三方收回它已支付的价值的权孤”
article 5 of the paragraphs of the article to which reference三.第一委员会的议事过程
was made in the proposed redraft;A.
one representative considered that the provisions of paragraph 5 should apply to
the article as a whole and not only to the said paragraphs.4.第一委员会于1 9 8 8年1 1月3 0日至12月5日举行的第5至第13次
150. Several representatives considered that reference to procedural provisions was limitative and proposed the deletion of the word "procedural". The Group agreed to place the word in square brackets as several other representatives considered that it should be retained. 151. The Group agreed to delete the words "to the request" so as to give a general scope to the provision. 152. Concerning paragraph 5 in square brackets in the revised draft providing for the designation of an authority to execute requests for mutual assistance, one representative expressed the opinion that, if mandatory, such a provision might upset existing networks of mutual assistance. In the opinion of other representatives this would, on the contrary, prove useful in giving clear guidance as to where requests should be sent. 153. Some representatives pointed out that the designation of a single authority did not address adequately the situation of Federal States or States where mutual assistance in criminal proceedings was within the purview of various jurisdictions. The possibility of establishing more than one authority should be provided for. If this was not expressly stipulated, it should at least be the understanding that the use of the word "authority" in the singular would not be construed as excluding such a possibility. 154. In response to the same concern, another representative suggested that mention should be made that the designated authority could delegate its power. It was observed, however, that in the case of a variety of jurisdictions of equal standing, the notion of delegation was inadequate. Some representatives also stressed that delegation of power was an internal matter and should not be touched upon in the Convention. 155. Consideration was given by the Group to the proposed redraft of the whole article stipulating that the designated authority could either execute requests or "transmit them to the competent authorities for execution". Some representatives expressed the view that the designated authority should always be the one competent for execution. Several other representatives stressed that the authority competent to execute might vary according to the request and be distinct from the designated authority. The transmission of requests should therefore be mentioned in the paragraph. 156. As regards paragraph 6 of the revised draft concerning channels of communication between designated authorities, several representatives favoured diplomatic channels for the communication of requests for assistance in criminal proceedings. The use of diplomatic channels would ensure that the request reached die competent service and would secure practical facilities for translation and mail servicing. 157. Other representatives considered that the obligation to communicate through diplomatic channels would have a hampering effect on cooperation. In their view, direct communication between designated authorities was far more expeditious and efficient; it was pointed out that small countries often had a limited network of diplomatic representation and that diplomatic channels did not function smoothly in all regions. 158. Several representatives considered that there was a need for flexibility in this matter. Parties should have an option as to channels of communication. It was also observed that Parties which favoured resorting to diplomatic channels could choose the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as their designated authority. 159. Several representatives considered that inspiration for a flexible solution could be found in article 35(e) of the 1961 Convention. This provision, if adjusted to the matter under consideration, would provide for an expeditious transmittal of requests to the designated bodies, without prejudice to the right of a Party to require that requests be sent through the diplomatic channel. 160. With regard to paragraph 7 of the revised draft, several representatives objected to the possibility of requests being made orally; the term "orally" in itself was considered ambiguous. Several representatives indicated that written requests were the standard practice. It was however pointed out by one observer that the International Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance for the Prevention, Investigation and Repression of Customs会议上讨论了第3条及其有关的修正案。
Offences, adopted at Nairobi in 1977, provided for theB.审议情况和决定
possibility of requests being made orally with a view to第1款
expediting the exchange of information between Parties in5.委员会审议了印度E/C0EE.82/C.1/L . 12)和墨西哥代教E/
urgent circumstances. It was also pointed out that in certain circumstances, especially where other channels of第1 1 1页)对提出的修正案,以及德意志民主共 ‘ 252 和国关于以更加简明的案文取代原第1款的提议(E/COEE.82/C.I/:L.2 )。
communication between countries were slow, the use of6,经@意见之后,墨西哥代表撤回了其对第1款(a)项的修正I
oral communications could be the most expeditious manner of submitting requests for mutual legal assistance and7.对印度在其修正案中麟议的于第1款和第1款(b)项和髓药物” 一词
that the Convention should not preclude this possibility.U插入“清单A和清单B所列物质”的措辞,委员会决定,在就第2条第1款进
161. Several representatives indicated that several conventions provided that requests had to be written in the行的讨论取得任何结果之前似不宜添入该句。关于“没收,,和“秘”的用法,
language of the requested Party. It was pointed out that in委员会决定,应在关于定义的第1条中明确地表明,该条中所使用的“没收” 一词
the case of countries with several official languages, it在意思上含有充公的概念。委员会还同意在第1条中列入有关《财产”和“收益”
would be appropriate for them to indicate the language in的定Xo
which requests had to be transmitted.8".
To that effect, one在审议了德意志民主共和国建议的新的第1款(E/COKF. 82/C 1/L.
representative stressed that the paragraph should stipulate2 ) .并考虑了有关的口头建议后,委员会对新的案文表示同意,但词时认为应删
that the language or languages to be used by the Parties去第1款⑴项中开头的《得自或”这几个字,而增添“以任何方式”字样。
shall be communicated to the Secretary-General. Another第2款
representative proposed that the request be solely in9.墨西哥代表介绍了载于文件E/CONF. 82/ 3 ,附件四,第1 1 1页的对
writing. The added requirement of a language acceptable第2条的修正兔 @论之后,墨西哥代表撤因了其修正兔
to the requested Party could present conceivable problems,10.委员会同意基本提案的案文,但需将“以便”改为“以使其主管当局”。
as when the requested Party opted for a language unknown11.委员会请起草委员会在不同的语文文本,特别是西班牙文文本中寻«宜
to or not well understood by the requesting Party.的术语来表达《 free zing ”(確结”一词的概么
162. The Group considered the information that should第3款
be contained in requests for mutual legal assistance, taking12.墨西哥介绍了载打件E/C0U:E".82/3 ,附件四,第1 1 1页的对
as a basis for discussion the proposed redraft of paragraph 8.第3款的修正I 考虑到本条第9款将会解 使提出该修正案的初衷,因此该
163. With regard to subparagraph 8(a), the proposed修正案«回。
redraft provided that the name of the competent authority Main Conference documents 7113.委员会同意基本提案中第3款的案乞 ‘ 253 第4詉冯项至第4款(a)项㈡目
conducting the investigation or proceeding to which the14.委员会同意基本綠中第4款⑶项的案乞
request relates should be indicated in the request for15.墨西哥代表撤回了其对第4款(a)项的修正案(H/C0EF.82/3 ),附件
mutual legal assistance. Some representatives suggested四,第1 1 1页)。
that in addition to the name of the competent authority, its16.委员会同意美利坚合众国对第4款⑶项H目提出的新E/COBP. 82/
functions should be specified so as to indicate in whatC-1/L. 16 )。 其内容如下:
capacity it was acting. Another representative expressed“㈠向其主管当局提出请+以取得没收令,并在取得此项命令后即予以
the view that the transmitting authority, which may be执行!或”
different from the competent authority, should also be17.委员会请起草委员会确保此项规定的措辞在各语文文本中丧持一致,并特
identified.别考虑是否可以用“得到” 一词取代上述案文中“取得” 一词。
164.18.
One representative suggested that the authority委员会同意基本提案中关于第4款(a)项(二目的案文。委员会请起草委员会
conducting prosecution should also be mentioned. Another确保有关案文在各个不同语文文本中保持一致,特别是关于“在其请求的范围内予
representative expressed reservation as regards the mentioning of the competent authority conducting investigation. It was suggested that the provision should be reduced以执行” 一句的案文。
to stating the name of the authority making the request第4款⑴项
and that the other items of information be moved to subparagraph 8 (b).19.委员会同意基本提案中第4款(b)项的案文。
165. The Group began consideration of the proposed第4款(c)项
redraft of subparagraph 8(b) stipulating that the subjectmatter and nature of the investigation or proceeding to20.委员会审议了法国代表提议的新的第4款(C)项(E/C0ITF.82/C.1/I^
which the request relates, including a summary of the15)。 经过讨论,委员会同意将建议的案文修正如下:
relevant facts, should be contained in the request. The“被请求国按本款(a)项积b)项中的规定作出的决定或采取的行动,均应符合
Group agreed to include the nature of the prosecution as并遵守其国内法的条件,并符合其话讼规则或它在与请求国关系方面受其
an additional information to be furnished. Some representatives considered that the inclusion of a summary of the制约的任何双边或多边条约、协定或安。 ‘ 254 锘4款01)顼至fi颅㈢目 21 委员会同意仍在第4款⑴项中提及关于相互法律协助的第5条中的有关规
relevant facts was not essential and would be cumbersome良它贼在其对该条的审议结fe后使此项中的规定与第5条相一致。
in practice.22.
However one representative, on the basis of委员会同意载于基本提案中的第4款(d)H、(d)U和(d)曰各项的案文,但同
his country's experience, attached great importance to the时应删去第4款(d)项㈡目中的%院” 一词。
inclusion of this item.第 4 款 _
166.23.
The Group agreed to refer the provisions of paragraph 8 to the informal working group for further consideration.普遍同意删除基本提案中第4款⑷项的案文。
167.24. 魏会救了一些代表团提议的第4款(e)项的备綠文(E/C0OT.
The Group considered paragraph 12 of article 5 of82/
the revised draft and agreed to include it in the article.c*l/H7)。经过一般性讨论和非正式协商.委员会同意将本项的案文修正如
168. With regard to paragraph 13 of the revised draft it下:
was considered that the first part of the provision, to the“各締约国应向秘书长提供本国据以实施本款规定的任何法律和条例的文
effect that Parties shall carry out their obligations under本以及这些法律和条例日后的任何修改文本。,,
the provisions of this article in conformity with any treaties of mutual legal assistance that may exist between第4款(f)项和增加的第4款(g)项
them, should be deleted as its provisions were already covered in paragraphs 4 and 5 of the article. The Group agreed to retain the second part of the paragraph exhorting Parties to consider the possibility of concluding bilateral or regional agreements that would serve the purposes, and give practical effect to the provisions, of this article. One representative said that it was important that informal law enforcement assistance not be unintentionally constrained by the formalities of article 5 and proposed that language to this effect be included in the article. 169. One representative proposed that the following additional provisions, drawn from paragraph 4(b) of article 5 of the revised draft and article 12 of the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, be included in article 5 as paragraph 10 ter: "A witness or expert, or a person, summoned to answer for acts forming the subject of proceedings against him, appearing before the authorities of the requesting Party, shall not be prosecuted or detained or subjected to any other restriction of his personal liberty in the territory of that Party in respect of acts or convictions prior to his departure from the territory of the requested Party. Such immunity shall cease when the witness or expert or person having had, for a period of fifteen consecutive days from the date when his presence is no longer required by the judicial authorities, an opportunity of leaving, has nevertheless remained in the territory or, having left it, has returned." 170. Several representatives expressed support for the inclusion of this proposal which, in their opinion, would serve to encourage witnesses and experts to make themselves available to the requesting Party for the purpose of assisting in judicial proceedings. 171. With regard to the first sentence, several representatives objected to the use of the word "summoned" which, in their view, would make the paragraph inconsistent with the provisions of the article since they did not provide for an obligation for the transfer of witnesses or experts. It was stressed that the transfer of witnesses or experts should in any case be of a voluntary nature and subject to the consent of the persons concerned. The Group agreed to replace the word "summoned" by the words "who consent to give evidence in the requesting Party". 172. The provision of the first sentence was also amended to indicate that the transferred person shall not be prosecuted, detained, or "punished", and neither subjected to any other restriction of his personal liberty in the territory of that Party in respect of acts, "omissions" and "convictions", "nor shall advantage be taken of the person for the purpose of civil proceedings". 173. Several representatives objected to the use of the word "immunity" in the second sentence as, in their view, the term was applicable only to consular personnel and diplomats. The Group agreed to replace the term by "safe conduct". 174. With regard to witnesses or experts that could have left the territory of the requesting Party after their presence was no longer required by the judicial authorities, the Group agreed to amend the provision to indicate that safe conduct should cease only when such persons have remained in the requesting State "voluntarily" or "returned on their own free will". It was proposed that the period of fifteen consecutive days should be changed to a month. 175. One representative expressed the view that the provision should not be too detailed and that the modalities of application should be left to the Parties. 176. While there was agreement on the general purpose of the article, the time limit did not permit an in-depth consideration of the substantive content and formulation of the proposal and of the amendments. The Group therefore agreed to place the paragraph in square brackets and submit it to the plenipotentiary conference for further consideration. 72 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 177. With regard to the location of the paragraph in article 5, several representatives expressed their preference for placing the provision immediately after paragraph 3 ter because of its relation with the substance of that paragraph. Other representatives considered that the additional paragraph should be governed by the provisions of paragraph 5 and proposed that it be placed somewhere between paragraphs 8 and 13. 178. No agreement was reached regarding the location of the paragraph. The Group decided to include it as an additional paragraph in article 5 and to leave to the plenipotentiary conference the final decision with regard to its location. 179. One representative proposed the inclusion of a new paragraph to the effect that the ordinary costs of executing a request shall be borne by the requested Party and that if expenses of an extraordinary nature were, or would be, required to fulfil the request, the Parties should consult to determine the terms and conditions under which the request should be executed. He also proposed for inclusion a provision to the effect that reasons shall be given for any refusal of mutual legal assistance. The Group agreed to include both proposals in article 5 and to leave to the plenipotentiary conference the further consideration of its content, formulation and location. 180. One representative requested that the second sentence of paragraph 5, which proposes to restrict the application of specific mutual legal assistance treaties, be placed in square brackets. Another representative requested that the last clause at the end of paragraph 5 reading "and unless the Parties agree to apply paragraphs 8 to 13 of this article in lieu thereof' should be placed in square brackets as it was unacceptable to his Government. Another representative proposed that paragraph life) of the text should be placed in square brackets pending a more acceptable formulation. One representative proposed that the word "any" before the word "investigations" in paragraph 1 should be placed in square brackets and that further reference to "investigations" in the article could be deleted. Another representative proposed that the words "and by the competent authorities" in paragraph 9 be placed in square brackets as its meaning was ambiguous; in his view, the provision concerning competent authorities in this paragraph should be considered in conjunction with the ground for refusal of legal assistance specified in subparagraph 11(e). The Group agreed to these proposals. 181. Another representative considered that article 5 in its present formulation would not be acceptable if paragraphs 1-4 of article 6 were not subsequently amended. He also reiterated his reservation as regards subparagraph 3(g) of article 5, which in his view should be amended along the lines of the amendment he would propose to paragraph 3 of article 3. 182. With regard to the formulation and content of article 5 as a whole, there was general agreement that in25.委员会决定将基本提案中第4款(f)项的规定分列为第4款(f)项和(g)项。基
contrast to article 4 where it was felt that the Group had本提案第4款(f)项的前两句合并修改如下:
gone as far as possible in reaching agreement on a compromise text, article 5 was in an interim stage because“如某一締约国对于采取本款(a)项和(D)项所述措施要求必须有一顼有关的 条约为依据.则该締约国应将本公约视为必要和充分的条约依据。” 26.法国和日本的代表对此规定表示保留。 27.基本提案第4款(f)项的第三句经修改后构成新增的笫4款te)项如下: ‘‘各締约国应谋求締结双边和多边条约、协定或安排.以提高根据本条进 行的国际合作的有效也“ ‘ 255 28 委员会同意基本提案第5款(a)项的案文。它请起草委员会确保各语文之
time did not permit the Group to reconcile the divergent positions on a number of issues nor agree on a definitive formulation. 183. The Group considered the proposal to include a间,特别是阿控伯文文本用词的一致。
new article 5 bis to the effect that Parties shall give29.委员会同意基本提案第5款(b)项的案文,但是由于语法原軋需将首句的
favourable consideration to the possibility of transferring“締约国” 一词改为“某一締约国”。
to one another proceedings for criminal prosecution of第6款
offences enumerated in article 2, paragraph 1 of the Convention in cases where such transfer is to be considered in笫6款(a)项
the interests of a proper administration of justice.30*.
(See委员会同意第6款ia)项的案文,但有一项谅解,即其规定不影响本条第8 款的实觚
paragraph 145 above.31.
)埃及和菲躲的代表对第6款(a)项的实质性规絲示保留。
184.第6款(b)项 32.
Several representatives expressed their reservation,委员会同意基本提案中所载的第6款(b)项的案文,但有一项谅解,即本规
particularly on account of the ambiguous wording of the定还包括转移给个人或法人团体的收益。
proposal.33. 菲律宾代表对本款规定表示保留。 第6款(c)项 34.
In this connection, it was proposed that the word也门代表介绍了莬6款(c)项的修正提案(E/COKF.82/C. 1/^*20)。
"favourable" should be deleted. One representative was of35.经过讨论.委员会同意保留基本提案中第6款(c)项的案文.但在第一行中 -删除“明显看出是”字样.列入“应”字。委员会还同意在本款末尾增加如下字
the view that the proposal would be in violation to the样:“只要这些收益是从犯罪行为中薪得的收屯”加拿大和美国的代表对增加
constitution of his country and prejudice sovereignty.上述字样表示保留,因为如果他们提议的“收益”^_(丑/001?;^82/3,第 ‘ 256 109页)得以通过,则增加这句话实属多余的重复。
185. One representative, supported by three others,36*委员会认为,第6款中使用的‘‘应可”等字样并不意味着在每一秭情况下 都有义务予以没收,而是说没收是可以采取的一项措施。
while expressing reservation for the formulation of the37 輿地利、法国.日本、菲律宾和瑞士等国的代表对委员会同意的第6款案 文表示保留。 第7款
provision, considered that it was relevant in the context of38.委员会同意基本提案中第7款的案文,但需在“司法程序”后加上“和其 他程序”字样。
article 5 and proposed that it should be reformulated to第8款 39.荷兰和也门的代表介绍了他们关于第8款的修正案(分别为E/COHF 82^ ‘ 1/1« 11 ^E/c OUT 82/C . l/i'20 )o
indicate that Parties, at their discretion, may inform each40.委员会没有接受也门提议增加的字样(E/CONF*82/C.1/L*20),也 没有接受荷兰提议增加的句子 ( ), 而是同意保 嚇
other of proceedings as may contribute to a better administration of justice.提案中的第8款案文。 41.对于荷兰的修正案,又提出了一项提案,建议把其实质性内容列入第7款。
186. The Group agreed to submit article 5 bis in square委员会没有同意这项提议。
brackets to the plenipotentiary conference for further consideration.42.委员会决定将其如下谅解记录在案 即商定的第8款规定不因本条第1款
Article 6 bis和第6款而受到损害。
187. The Group considered the proposed additional article 6 bis referred to it by the Commission on Narcotic第9款
Drugs.43.委员会决定接受基本提案中的第9款案文。 ‘ 257 牙买加的提案(E/COUF. 82yc 1/L. 9)
188.44 .
Many representatives expressed support for the inclusion of the new article in the Convention so as to meet牙买加代表在义议及第3条时再次提出了其代表团৿对第2条龛7
the special concern of transit States, a great number of出的修正案 45.第4款(c)项行文修改后,提出这项修正案的动因巳得到考虑,并达成一项
which were developing countries with limited resources.谅解:在第4、第5条之下审议这一修正案更为适宜,因此,这一修正案已撤回 笫3条的标题
They emphasized that consideration of this article was46.委员会同意第3条的标题为“没收”.
definitely within the mandate of the Review Group.与第3条有关的定义
189. Several representatives indicated that in their view没收和充公
the proposed additional article was superfluous as its concern was duly reflected in paragraph 5 of article 6. Several#提案‘‘没收,系指由法院判决剥夺收益;”
other representatives, in support for the inclusion of the加:^和美利坚合众国(Vcohi: 8^/3,附件四,笫1 0 8页) “ ‘ ,系指由法院或其他合法当局下令剥夺财产;”
proposed article 6 bis as a separate article, indicated that墨西哥(^COB H 82X3,附件四,笫1 0 7页): "’系指经由法院判决确定剥夺某些收益;”
the provision of paragraph 5 of article 6 dealt with a47.委员会以美国和加拿大提交的案文为基础审议了没收的定义
specific form of technical assistance whereas those of48.委员会就“ confiscation ”或“ forfeiture ”二词应分别定义抑或一
article 6 bis covered other aspects of financial and economic assistance within the context of international cooperation which were necessary for fighting effectively并定义的问题交换了意见,随后商定,尤其是因为一些国家仅用‘‘
the illicit traffic.c
190. Several representatives considered that the discussion of the substantive content and formulation of the。 nfiseati< m ” 一词,故只对“wmfiscation ” 一词下定义,同时表明其中包含“ forfeiture ” 的含义. 49.经讨论并提出建议,委员会同意以下定义: “ ‘没收’’ 一语在适用时亦包含充公之义,系指经由法院或其他主管当局下 令永久剥夺财产;“ ‘ 258 50.委员会将以下谅解记录在案:“没收”定义中所用的‘‘财产”一词也包含 ‘‘收益”,并且,“永久” 一词表示没收为审案之最终结果,与临时性措施不同. 冻结和扣押 鉢提 案 ( 文 A ) : “‘ 系指由法院或其他主管当局下 令禁止收益的转iL变换、处㈣流动; (备选案文E ) : M 1 系指暂时禁止财产的转让、变换、处置 或流动; (备选案文A ): “ ‘ ff,系指根据法院或其他主管当局之命令对 收益加以扣留或控制i (备选案文B ): “‘扣押,系指由主管当局对财产加以扣留或控制 加拿大和美国(E/coirn 82/3,附件四,第1 0 7页): “ * 冻结’系指暂时禁止射产的转让、变换、处置或流动;” “‘扣押’系指由法院或其他主管当局对财产加以扣留或控制;” 墨西哥(^COUF . S2/B,附件四,第1 0 7页):
proposed article raised complex and sensitive issues which7 t
the Group, given the limited time at its disposal, wouldm 1 或预防性封锁系指由有关主管当局采取的旨在暂时禁止财 产的转移、变换、处置或流动的防范措施;”
not be able to address in a satisfactory manner. Some“ ‘ M,或缴获系指由主管当局对财产加以扣留或控制;”
representatives indicated that the inclusion of the proposed51.鉴于并非所有国内法均便用这两个用语,并且该条中的规定将冻结或扣押 作为任选措施,委员会经一般性讨论后决定将这两个用语合并为一个定义.
additional article in the Convention was a political decision which should be left to the Conference.52.
Main Conference documents 73委员会同意的由加拿大提议并经美国修改的这两个用语的合并的定义如下: “ ‘‘座差’或‘ infi’系指根据法院或主管当局的命令暂时禁止财产 之转让、变换、处置或流动,或对财产加以扣留或控制;” ‘ 259 收益
191. The Group agreed to place the proposed article in基本提案:‘‘ ’«'系指各种财产,不论其为物质的或非物质的、 动产或非动产、有形或无形,以及证明对这种财产享有所有权或杈益的凭
square brackets and submit it to the plenipotentiary conference for a final decision as to whether it warranted据和文书.”
inclusion in the Convention. Two representatives expressed their reservation concerning this decision; they加拿大和美国(E/coim 82^3,附件四,笫1 0 8页): “ ‘收益, 系指直接或间接通过根据本《公约》所确定的犯罪行为而 莸得或取得的任何财产;”
considered that the proposed additional article should not53.委员会以加拿大和美国提出的案文为基袖审议了“收益,,一语的定义
be given the same status as the other articles of the draft54.委员会㈣拿大和美国提出的‘‘收益” 一词的定义(E/COUF. 82/3附 件四,第1 0 8页达成了一致意见,并修正如下:
Convention which had been substantially considered bya
the open-ended intergovernmental expert group, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the Review Group. In their‘收益,系指直接或间接地通过进行根据第二条所确定的犯罪而得到
view the proposed article should be submitted to the的或取得的任何财产;” 55.奥地利、法国和日太代表对在奴中维持“直接或间接地”i赫保留,
Conference annexed with the other proposals not considered by the Group.56.关于“直接或间接地”一语的使用,委员会在其记录中载有如下谅解,即 收益与犯罪之间可能存在的直接和间接联系将由国内法具体阐明和作出定义.
Review of the remaining articles and related draft texts57.委员会请起草委员会确保收益的定义适合于本条中使诩该用语的各辩场合.
192. In connection with item 5 of the agenda, and as财产 基本提案:“财产”系指财产和各秭资产,不论其为物质的或非物质的、动产或非动产、有形的或无形的,以及证明对这科财产或资产享有所
indicated in paragraph 17 above, several representatives有权或权益的凭据和文书。” 加拿大和美国(E/COHr. 82L/3,附件四,第1 0 8页)
made statements concerning articles 6 and 12.‘‘财产,,系指各斜资产和任何其他东西而不问其为物质的或非物质的、
193. Regarding article 6, one representative proposed动产I动产、有形的或无形的,以及证明对这种资产或其他东西享有所 有权或权益的诬据和丈书;”
that in order to take into account the combination of drug offences with economic offences, subparagraph 1 (a)58 委员会审议了以加拿大和美国关于“射产,1 一词的提议案文为基础的定义 ‘ 260 59.委员会同意保加利亚储提出的口头修正,将“description,,改为
should be amended to indicate that the information to be“Mud”并将“凭据”改为“法律文件”,从而避免各语文翻译的困难和法律餑 释的困难。委员会还同意删除‘‘和饪何其他东西”字样。
exchanged between the competent national agencies and60.委员会同意“财产”的定义如下: “财产,系指各秭资产,不论其为物质的或非物质的 动产或非动
services should also include commercial and economic产、有形或无形.以及iE明对这秭资产享有所有杈或权益的法律文件或文
transactions.书;”
194.61.
With regard to article 12, many representatives reiterated the reservation of their Governments with regard to the phrase "beyond the external limits of the territorial sea", in paragraph 3, which the expert group had委员会将其下述谅解记录在案,即财产的定义中使用的“资产”一词包括
substituted for the phrase "and is on the high seas as各科形式的财产,并要求起草委员会在各个语文中寻找一个相应的词或提法来表达 这一广泛的含义。
defined in Part VII of the United Nations Convention on合法的第三方 基本提案:“合法的第三方”系指出于善意并对犯罪情况不知情而合 法地取得了拥有、使用、控制或占有收益的杈利的任何个人,公司或其他
the Law of the Sea". In their view, the adoption of that法人; 也门(E/COKF . 82/C . 1/1.19 ):”合法的第三方”系指出于善
wording could imply that third States would be attributed意并对犯罪情况事先不知情而合法地取得了收回它已支付的价值的权利的 任何自然人或法人 62.委员会认为,既然“合法”一词在第3条第8款中已由“善意”一词代替,
certain rights in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) which就无需对“善意的第三方”一语给予特定的定义a因为这是人们都十分理解的.且 在国内法中获得广泛的接受。鉴于这一理解 也门代表撤回了他的修正案。 63.委员会决定删除“合法的第三方”的定义,并让各締约厘自己解释“善意” 一词的含义。 64.荷兰湘菲律宾的代表对这一决定表示保留。 65.鉴于人们对拉丁语“ bc.na finde ”(善意)一词在各科语文中的含义 的普遍理解,委员会请起草委员会在各种语文中尽可能使用该词: ‘ 261 工具 加拿大湘美国(EZC0I?;F«82/3 ,附件四,第1 0 8页):“‘工
were not contemplated in the United Nations Convention具,系指周于或准备周于根据本《公约》所确定的犯罪的任何财产;”
on the Law of the Sea, adopted in 1982, and upset the66.委员会认为‘‘工具”一词不需具体定义,因为从其上下文可明显得出其含
delicate balance between the rights of coastal States and意。
third States in the EEZ.67.
The formulation contained in the委员会同意 除该词*由各国的国内司法系统对该词下定义“追查,,
original draft of article 12 proposed by the Secretariat#提案(备选案文A) : “ ‘追查,系指确定收益的真正性质 来
should, in their view, be retained.源,处理.流动或所有权;”
195.(备选案文B ): “追查,系指确定财产的性质.
Several representatives placed on record their来源 处置 流
interpretation of article 12, which in their view was not in动或所有权;”
conflict with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. They considered that attempts加拿大和美国(E/C0NF.82/3,附件四,第108页):‘追查’系指确定收益的性质、
to interpret the provisions of that Convention was beyond来源、地点、处置、流动、在财产中的权益或所有权;”
the scope of the mandate of the Review Group.68.
The view委员会同意不对“追查”一词下任何定义,因为该词在第3条案文中的含
was expressed that an in-depth consideration of the provisions of articles 6 and 12 was outside the mandate of the义不言自明
Review Group since, under agenda item 5, the Group was第1条的标题
called upon to review the remaining articles only with a69.委员会同意第1条的标题应为“定义” ‘ 262 四:转交起草委员会的案文
view to making those changes that may be necessary to70.委员会同意下述案文,并将其转交起草委员会审H
achieve overall consistency of the draft text of the Convention. One representative stated that consideration of article 12 was within the mandate of the Review Group.“没收
Draft final clauses“第3条
196.“1.
The Group took note of a proposal by the Commission of the European Communities to amend article I of各締约国应采取必要的措施以便能够没收:
the draft final clauses to the effect that regional economic“⑷从按照第2条第1款确定的罪行中得到的收益或价值相当于此种
integration organizations which have competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of收益的財产;
international agreements in matters covered by the Convention may become Parties to the Convention, and that“⑴用于或意图用于按照第2条莬1款确定的罪行的麻醉药品和精神
references under the Convention to Parties, States or national services, shall be applicable to these organizations药物、材料和设备或其他工具.
within the limits of their competences.“2.
The Group agreed各締约囯还应采取必要的措施,使其主管当局得以确定、追查、冻结或扣
to amend the text of article I of the draft final clauses as押第1款所述的收益、财产、#或任何其他物品,以便最终予以没也 “3.为执行本条所述的措施.各締约国应授杈其法院或其他主管当局下#供
proposed.或扣押银行记录、财务记录或商业记录.締约国不得以保守银行秘密为由拒
Chapter IV绝按照本款的规定釆取行动.
ORGANIZATION OF THE CONFERENCE“4. (a)根据对按苐2条笫1款确定的某一罪行拥有管辖权的另一締约国
A.依本条规定提出的请求.
Rules of procedure在其领土上存有本条第1款所述收良财产、