BOOKLET - RADIATION EFFECTS AND SOURCES (GRAPHICS)_ES
Correct misalignment Change languages order
BOOKLET - RADIATION EFFECTS AND SOURCES (GRAPHICS) UNEP Radiation Booklet Graphics for translation_20160531.docx (English)BOOKLET - RADIATION EFFECTS AND SOURCES (GRAPHICS) V1603197.docx (Spanish)
EnglishV.16-03197 (S) English Spanish
TitleTitle
TextText
Dose used in radiotherapyDose used in radiotherapy Dosis utilizada en radioterapia
Astronaut dose (4 months)Astronaut dose (4 months) Dosis de los astronautas (4 meses)
CT scan of the abdomenCT scan of the abdomen Tomografía computarizada (TC) del abdomen
Worker dose in nuclear industry (1 year)Worker dose in nuclear industry (1 year) Dosis de los trabajadores de la industria nuclear (1 año)
Chest X-ray or flight (20 hours)Chest X-ray or flight (20 hours) Radiografía de tórax o vuelo en avión (20 horas) Dental X-ray
Dental X-rayRadiografía dental
Brazil nuts (30 g)Brazil nuts (30 g) Nueces de Brasil (30 g)
FootnoteFootnote
EnglishEnglish Spanish
TitleTitle
Examples of different applications using radiationExamples of different applications using radiation Tipos de radiación utilizada en distintas aplicaciones
TextText
RadiospectrumRadiospectrum
MicrowaveEspectro radioeléctrico
Microwave Microondas Infrared Infrarrojo
InfraredUltraviolet
UltravioletUltravioleta
Visible lightVisible light
Luz visible X-rays Rayos X Gamma rays Rayos gamma
X-raysCosmic rays
Gamma raysRadiación cósmica
Cosmic raysNon-ionizing radiation
Non-ionizing radiationRadiación no ionizante
Ionizing radiationIonizing radiation
FrequencyRadiación ionizante
EnergyFrequency
Frecuencia Energy Energía eV eV
eVHz
HzHz
FootnoteFootnote
Non-ionizing radiation does not have enough energy —measured in electron volts (eV) — to make changes to atoms or molecules.Non-ionizing radiation does not have enough energy —measured in electron volts (eV) — to make changes to atoms or molecules. La radiación ionizante no tiene energía suficiente — medida en electronvoltios (eV) — para modificar la estructura de moléculas o átomos.
EnglishEnglish
TitleSpanish Title The atom
The atomEl átomo
TextText
Atomic numberAtomic number
SymbolNúmero atómico
BSymbol
NameSímbolo
B B Name Nombre BORON
BORONBORO
number of electronsnumber of electrons
number of protonsnúmero de electrones
electronnumber of protons
protonnúmero de protones
electron electrón proton protón neutron
neutronneutrón
FootnoteFootnote
An atom is composed of a nucleus of uncharged neutrons and positively-charged protons surrounded by a cloud of negatively-charged electrons.An atom is composed of a nucleus of uncharged neutrons and positively-charged protons surrounded by a cloud of negatively-charged electrons.
In uncharged atoms, the number of electrons and protons is equal, representing the atomic number of the element.In uncharged atoms, the number of electrons and protons is equal, representing the atomic number of the element.
English Title X-ray tube Text Anode
Electron beam Glass (vacuum)El átomo está formado por un núcleo de neutrones (de carga nula) y protones (de carga positiva) rodeado de una nube de electrones (de carga negativa).
Cathode X-rays Footnote English Title
Uranium-238—radioactive decay chainEn los átomos sin carga, el número de electrones y protones es igual, y representa el número atómico del elemento.
TextEnglish
238USpanish
4.5 billion yearsTitle
234ThX-ray tube
24 daysTubo de rayos X
234PaText
1.17 minAnode
234UÁnodo
250 000 yearsElectron beam
230ThHaz de electrones
80 000 yearsGlass (vacuum)
226RaVidrio (al vacío)
1 602 yearsCathode
222RnCátodo
3.8 daysX-rays
218PoRayos X
3 minFootnote
214PbEnglish
27 minSpanish
214BiTitle
19.7 minUranium-238—radioactive decay chain
214Po 160 μsecUranio 238 — cadena de desintegración radiactiva
210PbText
22 years238U
210Bi238U
5 days4.5 billion years
210Po4.500 millones de años
138 days234Th
206Pb234Th
Stable24 days
alpha decay24 días
beta decay234Pa
gamma decay234Pa
Different types of decay and their half-lives1.17 min
Footnote1,17 min
English234U
Title234U
Radiation quantities250 000 years
Text Physical quantity250.000 años
Activity230Th
The number of nuclear transformations of energy per unit of time.230Th
It is measured as decays per second and80 000 years
expressed in becquerels (Bq).80.000 años
Absorbed dose226Ra
The amount of energy deposited by radiation in a unit mass of material, such as a tissue or organ.226Ra
It is expressed in grays (Gy), which corresponds to joules1 602 years
per kilogram.1.602 años
Calculated quantity222Rn
Equivalent dose222Rn
The absorbed dose multiplied by a radiation factor (wR)3.8 days
that takes into account the way different types of3,8 días
radiation cause biological harm in a tissue or organ.218Po
It is expressed in sieverts (Sv), which corresponds to218Po
joules per kilogram.3 min
Effective dose3 min
The equivalent dose multiplied by organ factors (wT)214Pb
that take into account the susceptibility to harm214Pb
of different tissues and organs.27 min
It is expressed in27 min
sieverts (Sv), which corresponds to joules per kilogram.214Bi
Collective effective214Bi
dose19.7 min
Sum of all effective doses of a population or group of19,7 min
people exposed to radiation.214Po
It is expressed in214Po
man-sieverts (man Sv).160 μsec
Footnote160 μs
English210Pb
Title210Pb
Penetrating power of different types of radiation22 years
Text22 años
alpha particle210Bi
beta particle210Bi
X-rays5 days
gamma rays5 días
neutron particle210Po
Paper210Po
Body138 days
Steel138 días
Concrete206Pb
electron206Pb
protonStable
neutronEstable
Footnotealpha decay
EnglishDesintegración alfa
Titlebeta decay
Sources of information on radiation effectsDesintegración beta
Textgamma decay
Population studiesDesintegración gamma
Clinical investigationsDifferent types of decay and their half-lives
Animal experiments Cell experimentsDiferentes tipos de desintegración y períodos de semidesintegración
FootnoteFootnote
EnglishEnglish
TitleSpanish
Dose bands used by UNSCEARTitle
Text High doseRadiation quantities
Moderate dose Low doseCantidades de radiación
Very low doseText
More than ~ 1 GyPhysical quantity
~100 mGy to ~1 GyCantidad física
~10 mGy to ~ 100mGyActivity
Less than ~ 10 mGyActividad
Severe radiation accidents (e.g. fireman at the Chernobyl accident)The number of nuclear transformations of energy per unit of time.
Recovery operation workers after the Chernobyl accidentIt is measured as decays per second and
Multiple computer tomography (CT) scansexpressed in becquerels (Bq).
Conventional radiography (i.e without CT) Footnote EnglishNúmero de transformaciones nucleares de energía por unidad de tiempo.
Title Radiation damage to DNA strand TextSe mide en desintegraciones por segundo y se expresa en becquerelios (Bq).
Single breakAbsorbed dose
Double breakDosis absorbida
Footnote α = alpha particle, b = beta particle and g = gamma rays.The amount of energy deposited by radiation in a unit mass of material, such as a tissue or organ.
English Title Accidental exposure in medicineIt is expressed in grays (Gy), which corresponds to joules
Textper kilogram.
Radiotherapy involves the delivery of high doses to patients.Cantidad de energía depositada por la radiación en una unidad de masa de material, como un tejido u órgano.
Therefore, prevention ofSe expresa en gray (Gy), que corresponden a julios por kilogramo.
acute effects is a priority.Calculated quantity
FootnoteCantidad calculada
EnglishEquivalent dose
TitleDosis equivalente
Cancer appearance after radiation exposureThe absorbed dose multiplied by a radiation factor (wR)
Text Leukaemia Years after exposurethat takes into account the way different types of
Solid cancers (except thyriod) Occurrences Footnoteradiation cause biological harm in a tissue or organ.
English Title Particularly radiosensitive organs in childrenIt is expressed in sieverts (Sv), which corresponds to
Text Brain Skin Thyroid Breast
Bone marrowjoules per kilogram.
Children exposed to radiation at ages below 20 years are about twice as likely to develop brain cancer as adults exposed to the same dose. A similar association was noticed forDosis absorbida multiplicada por un factor de ponderación de la radiación (wR), que tiene en cuenta los diferentes tipos de daño biológico que causa la radiación en un tejido u órgano.
breast cancer when girls were exposed at ages below 20 years.Se expresa en sievert (Sy), que corresponden a julios por kilogramo.
FootnoteEffective dose
English TitleDosis efectiva
Radiation exposure pathways for embryosThe equivalent dose multiplied by organ factors (wT)
Text Internal exposure through mothers ingesting radiopharmaceuticalsthat take into account the susceptibility to harm of different tissues and organs. It is expressed in
or radioactive (contaminated) food or drink.sieverts (Sv), which corresponds to joules per kilogram.
External exposure through mothers being exposed to X- or gamma rays. X- or gamma raysDosis equivalente multiplicada por un factor de ponderación de los tejidos (wT), que tiene en cuenta la susceptibilidad de distintos
Footnote English Titletejidos y órganos al daño.
Ranges of acute lethal doses for some animals and plantsSe expresa en sievert (Sv), que corresponden a julios por kilogramo.
Text Viruses Bacteria Insects
Reptiles Fish Higher plants Birds Mammals
Acute lethal dose (Gy)Collective effective
Footnotedose
EnglishDosis efectiva
Titlecolectiva
Relationship of radiation doses and health effects TextSum of all effective doses of a population or group of
Burns, radiation sickness and deathpeople exposed to radiation.
Statistically observable in populations (epidemiology)It is expressed in
Clinically observable in individualsman-sieverts (man Sv).
Increasing risk of cancer about 5% per Sv Biologically plausibleSuma de todas las dosis efectivas recibidas por una población o grupo de personas expuestas a radiación.
Statistical limitationsSe expresa en sievert-hombre (Sv-hombre).
Very lowFootnote
LowEnglish
ModerateSpanish
HighTitle
Dose Natural background, occupational dosesPenetrating power of different types of radiation
Chernobyl child thyroid dosesPoder de penetración de diferentes tipos de radiación
Chernobyl firemenText alpha particle
Probability of effectpartícula alfa
Footnotebeta particle
Englishpartícula beta
TitleX-rays
Worldwide distribution of radiation exposurerayos X gamma rays
Textrayos gamma
Cosmic 13%neutron particle
Soil 16%Partícula neutrónica
Food 9%Paper
Medical 20%Papel
Radon 42%Body
External dosesCuerpo humano
Internal dosesSteel
ArtificialAcero
FootnoteConcrete
EnglishHormigón
Titleelectron
Annual doses from cosmic radiation*electrón
Textproton
Space shuttleprotón
Mount Everest 8.8 kmneutron
Mont Blanc 4.8 kmneutrón
Lhasa Tibet 3.7 kmFootnote
Jumbo jet ~10 kmEnglish
Mexico City 2.3 kmSpanish Title
Empire State Building 450 m Sea level 0 mSources of information on radiation effects
* Based on the assumption of exposure at these locations for a year.Fuentes de información sobre los efectos de la radiación
FootnoteText
English TitlePopulation studies
Radon entries to buildingsEstudios en la población
TextClinical investigations
Air pressureInvestigaciones clínicas
Ground poresAnimal experiments
Plumbing pipes and fixturesExperimentos en animales
Radon in soilCell experiments
Gaps and cavityExperimentos con células
Floor gapsFootnote
FootnoteEnglish
EnglishSpanish
TitleTitle
Average effective doses per person in the United States (2007)Dose bands used by UNSCEAR Rangos dosimétricos utilizados por el UNSCEAR
TextText
All others 0.14 mSvHigh dose
Interventional radiology 0.40 mSvDosis alta
Diagnostic radiography 0.30 mSvModerate dose
Nuclear medicine 0.80 mSvDosis moderada
CT scans 1.5 mSvLow dose
Natural sources 3.1 mSvDosis baja
Total medical exposure 3 mSvVery low dose
FootnoteDosis muy baja
EnglishMore than ~ 1 Gy
TitleMás de ~ 1 Gy
Global exposure from radiology (1988–2008)~100 mGy to ~1 Gy
Text~ 100 mGy a ~ 1 Gy
COLLETIVE EFFECTIVE DOSE (1000 man Sv)~10 mGy to ~ 100mGy
UNSCEAR SURVEY~ 10 mGy a ~ 100 mGy
FootnoteLess than ~ 10 mGy
English TitleMenos de ~ 10 mGy
Global exposure from nuclear medicine (1988–2008)Severe radiation accidents (e.g. fireman at the Chernobyl accident)
Text COLLETIVE EFFECTIVE DOSE (1000 man Sv) UNSCEAR SURVEYAccidentes radiológicos graves (por ejemplo, el accidente de Chernobyl y sus efectos en los bomberos)
Footnote English TitleRecovery operation workers after the Chernobyl accident
World-average dose per person from nuclear test falloutTrabajadores de la operación de recuperación después del accidente de Chernobyl
Text ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE (mSv) YEARMultiple computer tomography (CT) scans
Footnote English TitleMúltiples tomografías computarizadas (TC)
Nuclear power plants worldwide (2010)Conventional radiography (i.e without CT)
Text Canada-18 United States-104Radiografía convencional (es decir, sin TC)
Mexico-2Footnote
Brazil-2English
Argentina-2Spanish
Finland-4Title
Sweden-10 Slovakia-4Radiation damage to DNA strand
Czech Republic-6 United Kingdom-19 Netherlands-1Daños causados por la radiación en las hebras del ADN
Belgium-7Text
Germany-17Single break
France-58 Spain-8Rotura de una sola hebra
Switzerland-5Double break
Slovenia-1Rotura de doble hebra
Hungary-4Footnote
Armenia-1 South Africa-2 Ukraine-15α = alpha particle, b = beta particle and g = gamma rays.
Romania-2 Bulgaria-2α = partícula alfa;
Russian Federation-32b = partícula beta;
China-19γ = rayos gamma.
India-19English
Pakistan-2Spanish
Japan-54Title
Republic of Korea-21 Footnote EnglishAccidental exposure in medicine
Title Main processes in the nuclear industryExposición accidental en la medicina
TextText
Conversion, enrichment and refinement prepares uranium for use as fuel.Radiotherapy involves the delivery of high doses to patients.
Milling extracts uranium from ore.Therefore, prevention of
The residues become tailings, containing long-lived radionuclides in low concentrations.acute effects is a priority.
Natural uranium is extracted mainly by open pit or underground mining.La radioterapia supone la administración de dosis altas a los pacientes.
Fuel fabrication produces fuel rods, generally from uranium in ceramic pellets, encased in metal tubes.Por ello, es prioritario prevenir los efectos agudos. Footnote English
Reprocessing of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel can be recycled as fuel after conversion and enrichment.Spanish Title Cancer appearance after radiation exposure
High-level waste including spent fuel is currently held in interim storage pending final disposal in deep geological sites.Aparición de un cáncer tras exposición a radiación
Research and power reactors, where the nuclei of uranium atoms split (fission) and release energy used to heat water.Text Leukaemia Leucemia
Radioactive by-products make the fuel less efficient.Years after exposure
After 12-24 months spent fuel is removed from the reactor.Años transcurridos desde la exposición
Radioisotopes produced in reactors can be separated out for use in medicine and industry.Solid cancers (except thyriod)
Low- and intermediate-level waste is mostly disposed of in shallow burial sites on land.Tumores cancerosos sólidos (excepto los de tiroides)
Deep geological repositoryOccurrences
Surface storageNúmero de casos
Shallow and intermediate depthFootnote
FootnoteEnglish
EnglishSpanish
TitleTitle
Average thyroid doses after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident Text MinskParticularly radiosensitive organs in children Órganos especialmente radiosensibles de los niños
BrestText
RovnoBrain
BELARUSCerebro
MogilevSkin
GomelPiel
Chernobyl NPPThyroid
UKRAINETiroides
ZhytomyrBreast
KiyevMama
ChernigovBone marrow
BryanskMédula ósea
Kaluga RUSSIAN FEDERATION OrelChildren exposed to radiation at ages below 20 years are about twice as likely to develop brain cancer as adults exposed to the same dose.
TulaA similar association was noticed for
Footnote English Titlebreast cancer when girls were exposed at ages below 20 years.
Average thyroid doses after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station accident Text YAMAGATALos niños y adolescentes menores de 20 años expuestos a radiación tienen alrededor del doble de probabilidades de contraer un tumor cerebral que los adultos expuestos a la misma dosis.
MIYAGI NIIGATA FUKUSHIMASe ha observado un riesgo similar de cáncer de mama entre las niñas y adolescentes menores de 20 años expuestas a radiación.
GUNMAFootnote
TOCHIGIEnglish
IBARAKISpanish
Fukushima-Daiichi NPPTitle
Areas not assessed at district levelRadiation exposure pathways for embryos
Areas assessed separately Footnote EnglishVías de exposición de los embriones a radiación
TitleText
Thickness measurement device using radiationInternal exposure through mothers ingesting radiopharmaceuticals
Text Radioactive sourceor radioactive (contaminated) food or drink.
Rollers Paper Radiation detector to control rollersExposición interna debida a la ingestión de radiofármacos o alimentos sólidos y líquidos radiactivos (contaminados) por la madre.
Footnote English TitleExternal exposure through mothers being exposed to X- or gamma rays.
Geothermal generation of energyVía externa, por exposición de la madre a rayos X o rayos gamma.
TextX- or gamma rays
Electricity generating stationRayos X o rayos gamma
Cold waterFootnote
Steam and hot waterEnglish
FootnoteSpanish
EnglishTitle
TitleRanges of acute lethal doses for some animals and plants
Smoke detector function using radiationRangos de las dosis agudas letales para algunos animales y plantas
TextText
Ionizing chamberViruses Virus
Metal plateBacteria
Smoke particlesBacterias
ScreenInsects
Alpha particleInsectos
Radioactive source (e.g. americium)Reptiles
FootnoteReptiles
EnglishFish
TitlePeces
Worldwide estimates of serious radiation accidents*Higher plants Plantas superiores Birds
TextAves
Type of accidentMammals
Accidents at nuclear facilitiesMamíferos
Industrial accidentsAcute lethal dose (Gy)
Orphan source accidentsDosis aguda letal (Gy)
Accidents in academia/researchFootnote English
Accidents in medicineSpanish
UnknownTitle
*Based on accidents which have been reported officially or published.Relationship of radiation doses and health effects
It it expected that the number of unreported accidents, especially in medicine, is much largerRelación entre las dosis de radiación y los efectos en la salud
FootnoteText
English TitleBurns, radiation sickness and death
Average public exposure by radiation sources* TextQuemaduras, síndrome de irradiación y muerte
Natural sources 2.4 mSvStatistically observable in populations (epidemiology)
Food Cosmic Soil Radon
Artificial sources 0.65 mSvEstadísticamente observable en la población (epidemiología)
Nuclear power plantsClinically observable in individuals
Chernobyl accident Weapon falloutClínicamente observable en las personas
Nuclear medicine Radiology FootnoteIncreasing risk of cancer about 5% per Sv
* Rounded estimates of the effective dose to a person in a year (world average).Riesgo de cáncer aumenta en alrededor del 5% por Sv
EnglishBiologically plausible
TitleBiológicamente plausible
Trends in global radiological exposure of workers (mSv)*Statistical limitations Limitaciones estadísticas
TextVery low
SourcesMuy baja
NaturalLow
AircrewBaja
Coal miningModerate
Other miningModerada
MiscellaneousHigh
TotalAlta
ArtificialDose
Medical usesDosis
Nuclear industryNatural background, occupational doses
Other industriesRadiación natural de fondo, dosis ocupacionales
FootnoteChernobyl child thyroid doses
*Estimates of average effective dose per worker in a year.Dosis de radiación en tiroides recibidas por los niños de Chernobyl
** Uranium mining is included in nuclear industry.Chernobyl firemen Bomberos de Chernobyl Probability of effect
Probabilidad del efecto Footnote English Spanish Title
Worldwide distribution of radiation exposure Distribución mundial de la exposición a fuentes de radiación Text Cosmic 13% Cósmica 13%
Soil 16% Suelo 16% Food 9% Alimentos 9% Medical 20%
Aparatos médicos 20% Radon 42% Radón 42% External doses Dosis externas
Internal doses Dosis internas Artificial Artificiales Footnote
English Spanish Title Annual doses from cosmic radiation* Dosis anuales por radiación cósmica*
Text Space shuttle Transbordador espacial Mount Everest 8.8 km Monte Everest 8,8 km
Mont Blanc 4.8 km Mont Blanc 4,8 km Lhasa Tibet 3.7 km Lhasa (Tíbet) 3,7 km Jumbo jet ~10 km
Avión jumbo ~ 10 km Mexico City 2.3 km Ciudad de México 2,3 km Empire State Building 450 m Edificio Empire State 450 m
Sea level 0 m A nivel del mar * Based on the assumption of exposure at these locations for a year. * Exposición hipotética de 1 año. Footnote
English Spanish Title Radon entries to buildings Vías de penetración del radón en los edificios
Text Air pressure Presión atmosférica Ground pores Poros del suelo
Plumbing pipes and fixtures Tuberías y accesorios de fontanería Radon in soil Radón acumulado en el suelo Gaps and cavity
Interespacio y cámaras de las paredes Floor gaps Junturas del pavimento Footnote English
Spanish Title Average effective doses per person in the United States (2007) Dosis efectivas medias por persona en los Estados Unidos (2007) Text
All others 0.14 mSv Todas las demás 0,14 mSv Interventional radiology 0.40 mSv Intervenciones radiológicas 0,40 mSv Diagnostic radiography 0.30 mSv
Radiografía de diagnóstico 0,30 mSv Nuclear medicine 0.80 mSv Medicina nuclear 0,80 mSv CT scans 1.5 mSv Tomografías CT 1,5 mSv
Natural sources 3.1 mSv Fuentes naturales 3,1 mSv Total medical exposure 3 mSv Total de la exposición médica 3 mSv Footnote
English Spanish Title Global exposure from radiology (1988–2008) Exposición mundial causada por la radiología (1988–2008)
Text COLLETIVE EFFECTIVE DOSE (1000 man Sv) DOSIS EFECTIVA COLECTIVA (1.000 Sv-hombre) UNSCEAR SURVEY ESTUDIO DEL UNSCEAR
Footnote English Spanish Title Global exposure from nuclear medicine (1988–2008)
Exposición mundial causada por la medicina nuclear (1988–2008) Text COLLETIVE EFFECTIVE DOSE (1000 man Sv) DOSIS EFECTIVA COLECTIVA (1.000 Sv-hombre) UNSCEAR SURVEY
ESTUDIO DEL UNSCEAR Footnote English Spanish Title
World-average dose per person from nuclear test fallout Dosis media mundial por persona de radiactividad residual de ensayos nucleares Text ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE (mSv) DOSIS EFECTIVA ANUAL (mSv)
YEAR AÑO Footnote English Spanish
Title Nuclear power plants worldwide (2010) Centrales de energía nuclear en todo el mundo (2010) Text Canada-18
Canadá-18 United States-104 Estados Unidos-104 Mexico-2 México-2
Brazil-2 Brasil-2 Argentina-2 Argentina-2 Finland-4
Finlandia-4 Sweden-10 Suecia-10 Slovakia-4 Eslovaquia-4
Czech Republic-6 República Checa-6 United Kingdom-19 Reino Unido-19 Netherlands-1
Países Bajos-1 Belgium-7 Bélgica-7 Germany-17 Alemania-17
France-58 Francia-58 Spain-8 España-8 Switzerland-5
Suiza-5 Slovenia-1 Eslovenia-1 Hungary-4 Hungría-4
Armenia-1 Armenia-1 South Africa-2 Sudáfrica-2 Ukraine-15
Ucrania-15 Romania-2 Rumania-2 Bulgaria-2 Bulgaria-2
Russian Federation-32 Federación de Rusia-32 China-19 China-19 India-19
India-19 Pakistan-2 Pakistán-2 Japan-54 Japón-54
Republic of Korea-21 República de Corea-21 Footnote English Spanish
Title Main processes in the nuclear industry Procesos principales en la industria nuclear Text Conversion, enrichment and refinement prepares uranium for use as fuel.
La conversión, el enriquecimiento y la refinación preparan el uranio para utilizarlo como combustible. Milling extracts uranium from ore. The residues become tailings, containing long-lived radionuclides in low concentrations.
Mediante la molienda se extrae uranio del mineral de uranio. Los residuos se convierten en colas que contienen radionucleidos de período largo en concentraciones bajas.
Natural uranium is extracted mainly by open pit or underground mining. El uranio natural se extrae principalmente mediante minería a cielo abierto o subterránea. Fuel fabrication produces fuel rods, generally from uranium in ceramic pellets, encased in metal tubes. La fabricación de combustible produce varillas de combustible, generalmente de uranio en pastillas de cerámica, que se introducen en tubos metálicos. Reprocessing of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel can be recycled as fuel after conversion and enrichment.
Al reprocesar el uranio y el plutonio del combustible gastado se puede reciclarlos como combustible después de su conversión y enriquecimiento. High-level waste including spent fuel is currently held in interim storage pending final disposal in deep geological sites. Los desechos de actividad alta, como el combustible gastado, se envían actualmente a recintos de almacenamiento provisional en espera de su disposición final en emplazamientos geológicos a gran profundidad. Research and power reactors, where the nuclei of uranium atoms split (fission) and release energy used to heat water. Reactores nucleares para la generación de energía o de investigación, donde los núcleos de átomos de uranio se fisionan y liberan energía que se utiliza para calentar agua.
Radioactive by-products make the fuel less efficient. After 12-24 months spent fuel is removed from the reactor. El material radiactivo resultante de reacciones nucleares resta eficiencia al combustible.
Transcurridos 12 a 24 meses el combustible gastado se elimina del reactor. Radioisotopes produced in reactors can be separated out for use in medicine and industry.
Los radioisótopos producidos en los reactores pueden separarse para utilizarlos en la medicina y la industria. Low- and intermediate-level waste is mostly disposed of in shallow burial sites on land.
Los desechos de actividad baja y media se eliminan principalmente en vertederos cercanos a la superficie. Deep geological repository Repositorio geológico subterráneo Surface storage Recintos de almacenamiento en la superficie
Shallow and intermediate depth Profundidad baja e intermedia Footnote English Spanish
Title Average thyroid doses after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident Dosis medias en la tiroides tras el accidente en la central nuclear de Chernobyl Text Minsk
Minsk Brest Brest Rovno Rovno
BELARUS BELARÚS Mogilev Mogilev Gomel
Gomel Chernobyl NPP Central nuclear de Chernobyl UKRAINE UCRANIA
Zhytomyr Zhytomyr Kiyev Kiev Chernigov
Chernigov Bryansk Bryansk Kaluga Kaluga
RUSSIAN FEDERATION FEDERACIÓN DE RUSIA Orel Orel Tula
Tula Footnote English Spanish Title
Average thyroid doses after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station ]accident Dosis medias en la tiroides de lactantes tras el accidente en la central nuclear de Fukushima-Daiichi Text YAMAGATA YAMAGATA
MIYAGI MIYAGI NIIGATA NIIGATA FUKUSHIMA
FUKUSHIMA GUNMA GUNMA TOCHIGI TOCHIGI
IBARAKI IBARAKI Fukushima-Daiichi NPP Central nuclear de Fukushima-Daiichi Areas not assessed at district level
Zonas sin evaluar a nivel de distrito Areas assessed separately Zonas evaluadas por separado Footnote English
Spanish Title Thickness measurement device using radiation Dispositivo de medición de espesores por medio de radiación Text
Radioactive source Fuente de radiactividad Rollers Rodillos Paper
Papel Radiation detector to control rollers Detector de radiación a rodillos de control Footnote English
Spanish Title Geothermal generation of energy Generación de electricidad mediante energía geotérmica Text
Electricity generating station Central eléctrica Cold water Agua fría Steam and hot water
Vapor y agua caliente Footnote English Spanish Title
Smoke detector function using radiation Uso de fuente radiactiva en detector de humo Text Ionizing chamber Cámara de ionización
Metal plate Placa metálica Smoke particles Partículas de humo Screen
Filtro Battery Batería Alpha particle Partícula alfa
Radioactive source (e.g. americium) Fuente radiactiva (por ejemplo, americio) Footnote English Spanish
Title Worldwide estimates of serious radiation accidents* Número mundial estimado de accidentes radiológicos graves* Text Type of accident
Tipo de accidente Accidents at nuclear facilities En instalaciones nucleares Industrial accidents En la industria
Orphan source accidents Causados por fuentes huérfanas Accidents in academia/research En instituciones académicas y de investigación Accidents in medicine
En la medicina Unknown No hay información *Based on accidents which have been reported officially or published. It it expected that the number of unreported accidents, especially in medicine, is much larger
* Las cifras corresponden a los accidentes que se han comunicado o dado a conocer oficialmente. Se considera que el número de los que no se han comunicado es mucho mayor, especialmente en el ámbito de la medicina. Footnote English
Spanish Title Average public exposure by radiation sources* Exposición media del público, por fuente de radiación* Text
Natural sources 2.4 mSv Fuentes naturales 2,4 mSv Food Alimentos Cosmic
Rayos cósmicos Soil El suelo Radon Radón
Artificial sources 0.65 mSv Fuentes artificiales 0,65 mSv Nuclear power plants Centrales nucleares Chernobyl accident
Accidente de Chernobyl Weapon fallout Radiactividad residual de ensayos de armas nucleares Nuclear medicine Medicina nuclear
Radiology Radiología Footnote * Rounded estimates of the effective dose to a person in a year (world average). * Estimaciones redondeadas de la dosis efectiva recibida por una persona en el curso de 1 año (media mundial).
English Spanish Title Trends in global radiological exposure of workers (mSv)* Tendencias mundiales de la exposición a radiación en el trabajo (en mSv)*
Text Sources Fuentes Natural Naturales
Aircrew Tripulaciones de aeronaves Coal mining Mineros del carbón Other mining
Otros mineros Miscellaneous Trabajadores de diversos sectores Total Total
Artificial Artificiales Medical uses Operadores de aparatos médicos Nuclear industry
Trabajadores de la industria nuclear Other industries Trabajadores de otras industrias Footnote *Estimates of average effective dose per worker in a year.
* Estimaciones de la dosis efectiva media que recibe un trabajador en 1 año. ** Uranium mining is included in nuclear industry. ** Los mineros que extraen uranio se incluyen entre los trabajadores de la industria nuclear.