CAC_COSP_IRG_I_3_1_ADD_19_EC
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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.19 V1501516.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.19 V1501515.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.19*CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.19
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
6 March 20156 March 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.19CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.19
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.19CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.19
V.15-01516 (E) 170315 180315V.15-01515 (C) GZ 010415 010415
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Implementation Review Group实施情况审议组
Sixth session第六届会议
Vienna, 1-5 June 20152015年6月1日至5日,维也纳
*临时议程项目2
Reissued for technical reasons on 17 March 2015. Item 2 of the provisional agenda ***
CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1.CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1。
Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption审议《联合国反腐败公约》实施情况
Executive summary提要
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Addendum增编
Contents目录
Page页次
Executive summary提要
22
Armenia亚美尼亚
22
II. Executive summary二. 提要
Armenia亚美尼亚
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Armenia in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:亚美尼亚在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和体制框架概述
Article 6 of the Constitution of Armenia states that generally accepted rules of international law and international conventions, once they have been ratified and have come into effect, shall form an integral part of Armenia’s domestic law and shall override any other contrary provision of domestic law.亚美尼亚《宪法》第6条规定,已被普遍接受的国际法和国际公约规则,一经批准并生效,即构成亚美尼亚国内法的一个组成部分,且优先于国内法中任何其他相悖的规定。
Accordingly, the United Nations Convention against Corruption has become an integral part of Armenia’s domestic law following ratification of the Convention by Parliament on 8 March 2007, and entry into force on 7 April 2007 in accordance with article 68 of the Convention.因此,自2007年3月8日获得议会批准之后,《联合国反腐败公约》便成为了亚美尼亚国内法的一个重要组成部分,并已根据《公约》第六十八条于2007年4月7日生效。
The Convention ranks high among statutory instruments, just below the Constitution but above other laws.在所有法律文书中,《公约》占有至为重要的位置,其地位要优于其他法律,仅次于《宪法》。
Accordingly, the provisions of the Convention override any other contrary provision in domestic law.因此,《公约》的条款要优先于任何国内法中任何其他相悖的规定。
The legal system of Armenia belongs to the civil law system.亚美尼亚的法律体系属于大陆法体系。
Armenia is a presidential republic, where the President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.亚美尼亚是一个总统制共和国,总统由民选产生,任期五年。
The executive power is exercised by the Government.行政权由政府实施。
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President; the Council of Ministers is appointed by the Prime Minister.总理由总统任命,内阁由总理任命。
Armenia has a unicameral parliament, the National Assembly, elected for a four-year term.亚美尼亚的议会为单一制议会,称为国民议会,任期四年。
Armenia is a part of the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan of the OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia.亚美尼亚是经合组织东欧和中亚反腐败网络伊斯坦布尔反腐败行动计划的成员之一。
Armenia is a member of MONEYVAL and joined GRECO in 2004.该国是评价反洗钱和反恐融资措施专家委员会的一名成员,并于2004年加入了反腐败国家集团。
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)
The provisions of article 15(a) of the Convention against Corruption are reflected in Articles 312 and 312.1 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Armenia (“CC”). Article 15(b) of the Convention against Corruption has been implemented through Articles 311 and 311.1 CC.《反腐败公约》第十五条第一款的内容反映在《亚美尼亚共和国刑法典》第312和第312.1条中。
The definition of an “official” is provided by Article 308(3) CC, which largely corresponds to article 2 of the Convention against Corruption.《反腐败公约》第十五条第二款的内容通过《刑法典》第311条和第311.1条予以实施。
However, the element “or entity” (as third party beneficiary, cf.《刑法典》第308(3)条对“官员”的定义做出了规定,该定义与《反腐败公约》第二条的内容基本一致。
art. 15, Convention against Corruption) is missing from Articles 311, 311.1, 312 and 312.1 CC.然而,《刑法典》第311、311.1、312和312.1条中没有提及“或实体”(即第三方受益人,参照《反腐败公约》第十五条)这一要素。
Although the term “person” as used in the CC is not limited to natural persons, if the beneficiary is an entity such as a political party, the bribing thereof is not covered.虽然《刑法典》中使用的“人员”一词并不仅限于自然人,但如果受益人为政党之类的一个实体,则便不涵盖所涉及的贿赂行为。
Moreover, it was acknowledged by Armenian officials that the number of convictions for bribery offences is very low.此外,亚美尼亚官员承认,因贿赂罪行定罪的数目很少。
Foreign public officials are equated with domestic officials in Article 308(4)(1) and (2) CC, which provide that, for the purpose of Articles 311, 311.2, 312, 312.2 and 313 CC, an official is also a public official of a foreign State or of an international or supranational organization.《刑法典》第308(4)(1)和(2)条将外国公职人员与国内官员一视同仁,其规定,《刑法典》第311、311.2、312、312.2以及第313条中所指的官员也指外国的公职人员或者国际或超国家组织的公职人员。
However, the definition of foreign officials in Article 308(4)(1) CC is not as comprehensive as that in article 2(b) of the Convention against Corruption.然而,《刑法典》第308(4)(1)条对外国官员的定义却不如《反腐败公约》第二条第二款中的定义全面。
Trading in influence is criminalized in Articles 311.2 and 312.2 CC.《刑法典》第311.2和第312.2条将影响力交易定为犯罪。
Article 21 of the Convention against Corruption is implemented through Article 200 CC, as amended in 2012.通过2012年修订的《刑法典》第200条实施《反腐败公约》第二十一条。
Moreover, in accordance with Article 201 CC, bribing the participants and organizers of professional and commercial sports competitions or shows is criminalized.此外,根据《刑法典》第201条,贿赂专业、商业体育比赛或演出的参与者和组织者的行为被定为犯罪。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)
Armenia has criminalized money-laundering and concealment through Article 190 CC.亚美尼亚通过《刑法典》第190条将洗钱和窝赃定为犯罪。
Part 5 of that article provides an exhaustive list of predicate offences.该条第5部分规定了详尽的上游犯罪清单。
A judgment of the Court of Cassation of Armenia dated 24 February 2011 narrows the scope of Article 190 CC in cases where possession or use of the proceeds of crime is promised in advance, but the “special purpose of concealment and involvement into legal turnover of proceeds of crime” is not established.亚美尼亚上诉法院2011年2月24日的判决缩小了《刑法典》第190条在事先允诺占有或使用犯罪所得但“窝赃和参与使犯罪所得合法化行为的具体目的”并不明确的情况下的范围。
Still, acquisition of the proceeds of crime without prior promise is criminalized under Article 216 CC.根据《刑法典》第216条,未经事先允诺获取犯罪所得行为被定为犯罪。
Acquisition, possession or use of the proceeds of crime promised in advance but in the absence of the special purpose will constitute abetting in accordance with Article 38(5) CC.根据《刑法典》第38(5)条,事先允诺获取、占有或使用犯罪所得但没有具体目的的行为仍构成教唆罪。
However, the sanctions for offences under Article 190 CC and Article 216 CC differ.然而,《刑法典》第190条和第216条对犯罪行为的制裁有所不同。
Article 33 CC provides that sanctions for a criminal offence are not only applied to completed crimes but also to attempted crimes or anybody who prepares a crime.《刑法典》第33条规定,对犯罪行为的制裁不只适用于犯罪既遂,也适用于犯罪未遂,或者预备犯罪的任何人。
Mere conspiracy to commit a crime is not criminalized.仅共谋实施犯罪的行为未被定为犯罪。
The preparation of a crime is criminalized only in cases of grave and particularly grave crimes.只有犯罪情节严重或特别严重的情况才会将预备犯罪行为定为犯罪。
Money-laundering offences are punishable irrespective of the place where the predicate offence was committed, although foreign predicate offences are not specifically covered.无论上游犯罪的地点为何,洗钱罪都应受到处罚,不过并没有明确涵盖外国上游犯罪。
Self-laundering is criminalized.自洗钱被定为了犯罪。
Only concealment of grave and particularly grave crimes, which had not been previously promised, is criminalized.只有未经提前允诺的犯罪情节严重或特别严重的窝赃行为被定为犯罪。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条)
Article 179 CC criminalizes large-scale embezzlement.《刑法典》第179条将巨额贪污定为犯罪。
Small-scale embezzlement is an offence under Article 53 of the Code of Administrative Offences.根据《行政犯罪法》第53条,小额贪污属犯罪。
However, the element “or entity” for purposes of third party beneficiaries is missing from Article 179 CC.然而,《刑法典》第179条没有提及第三方受益人“或实体”这一要素。
Moreover, unlike that provision, article 17 of the Convention against Corruption is not limited to property of a “significant scale” but covers “any other thing of value”.此外,与《刑法典》第179条不同,《反腐败公约》第十七条不仅限于“巨额”财产,而且也包括“其他贵重物品”。
The provision of article 19 of the Convention against Corruption is implemented in Article 308 CC.通过《刑法典》第308条实施《反腐败公约》第十九条。
Armenia has considered criminalizing illicit enrichment but decided not to establish the offence due to constitutional obstacles.亚美尼亚曾考虑将资产非法增加定为犯罪,但由于宪法障碍,最终决定不设立该罪行。
Embezzlement of property in the private sector is criminalized in Article 179 CC, Article 53 of the Code of Administrative Offences and — if committed by means of a computer — Article 181 CC.《刑法典》第179条、《行政犯罪法》第53条(通过电脑实施犯罪)和《刑法典》第181条将私营部门的财产贪污定为了犯罪。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)妨害司法(第二十五条)
A number of provisions, notably Article 332 CC, deal with the obstruction of justice (Arts. 332, 337, 340, 341, 347, 350 CC).多项条款(《刑法典》第332、337、340、341、347和350条)述及了妨害司法,其中最重要的是《刑法典》第332条。
They cover interference with witnesses as well as law enforcement officers.这些条款涵盖干扰证人和执法人员的行为。
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)法人责任(第二十六条)
Except for money-laundering, Armenian legislation does not provide for criminal or administrative liability of legal persons.除洗钱之外,亚美尼亚立法没有对法人的刑事或行政责任作出规定。
The civil liability of legal persons is enshrined in Article 60 of the Civil Code.《民法典》第60条规定了法人的民事责任。
Legal persons involved in money-laundering are subject to administrative sanctions pursuant to Article 28 of the Law on Combating Money-laundering and Terrorism Financing.根据《打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义行为法》第28条,参与洗钱的法人应受到行政制裁。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)参与和未遂(第二十七条)
Article 27(1) of the Convention against Corruption is implemented in Articles 37 (complicity), 38 and 39 (types of accomplices) CC.通过《刑法典》第37条(共犯)、38条和39条(共犯的类别)实施《反腐败公约》第二十七条第一款。
Article 34 CC provides for the criminalization of attempts.《刑法典》第34条将未遂定为犯罪。
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
Sanctions for corruption crimes take into account the gravity of the offence.对腐败罪的制裁应考虑到犯罪的严重性。
The President, Members of Parliament and the Human Rights Defender enjoy immunities for actions arising from their status.总统、议会成员和维权人士在采取与之身份相关的行动时享有豁免权。
A Member of Parliament may not be arrested without the consent of the National Assembly except when caught in the act.未经国民议会许可,不能逮捕议会成员,除非其被当场抓住。
These immunities can be lifted for prosecution and Armenia has provided examples of this.若要起诉,则可取消这些豁免权,亚美尼亚也提供了相关的实例。
Article 37 Criminal Procedure Code (“CPC”) defines circumstances when criminal prosecution may not be conducted and criminal proceedings and criminal prosecution may be terminated.《刑事诉讼法》第37条界定了不能提起刑事起诉以及可能终止刑事诉讼程序和刑事起诉的情形。
This concerns the case of active repentance (Art. 72 CC), reconciliation with the victim (Art. 73 CC) and change of situation (Art. 74 CC).这涉及主动悔改(《刑法典》第72条)、与受害者达成和解(《刑法典》第73条)以及情况有变(《刑法典》第74条)的情况。
Articles 134-136 CPC concern bail and address the need to ensure the presence of the defendant at subsequent criminal proceedings.《刑事诉讼法》第134至136条涉及保释及需要确保被告在其后的刑事诉讼中出庭的问题。
The gravity of the offence is taken into account when considering the eventuality of early release or parole.在考虑提前释放或假释时要考虑到犯罪情节的严重性。
The provision of article 30(6) of the Convention against Corruption is implemented through Article 152 CPC.通过《刑事诉讼法》第152条实施《反腐败公约》第三十条第六款的内容。
In accordance with Article 52 CC, persons can be prohibited from holding certain positions in state and local self-government bodies as a result of corruption offences.根据《刑法典》第52条,可以因腐败罪行禁止所涉人员担任国家和地方自治政府机构的某些职务。
There is no explicit legislation on the question whether Armenia can apply disciplinary and criminal sanctions simultaneously.没有关于亚美尼亚是否可同时适用纪律处分和刑事制裁这一问题的明确立法。
Armenian legislation promotes the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences.亚美尼亚立法促进被判定犯罪的人员重新融入社会。
In particular, Article 121 of the Penitentiary Code defines the responsibilities of the institution executing a penal sentence with respect to assisting a convict released from a sentence.《教养法》第121条还特别界定了执行刑事判决的机构在帮助刑满释放人员方面的责任。
The Criminal Code contains norms to encourage cooperation between law enforcement bodies and citizens, which also apply to cooperating perpetrators or participants in crime.《刑法典》载有一些规范鼓励执法机构和公民开展合作,这些规范同样适用于积极配合的犯罪分子或犯罪参与人员。
However, currently there is a three-day deadline after giving the bribe (cf. Arts. 200(5), 312(4) and 312.1(4) CC) for providing information to the authorities in order to qualify for (automatic or discretionary) exemption from criminal liability.然而,目前订有一个3天的期限,行贿后在此期限内向当局提供信息(参照《刑法典》第200(5)、312(4)和312.1(4)条),便有资格(自动或酌处)免除刑事责任。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)保护证人和举报人(第三十二条和三十三条)
Chapter 12 CPC is dedicated to the protection of persons participating in criminal proceedings.《刑事诉讼法》第12章专门涉及保护参与刑事诉讼的人员这一问题。
In particular, Articles 98 and 98.1 CPC define the protected persons and provide for protection measures.《刑事诉讼法》第98和第98.1条特别界定了受保护的人员,并规定了保护措施。
While the legal regime in place seems very comprehensive, there is very little practice and there are no corruption-related cases.虽然出台的法律体系似乎非常全面,但相关实践却很少,而且没有与腐败相关的案件。
The lack of financial means is a problem for the witness protection programme.保护证人方案的一个问题是缺乏财政资源。
The protection of reporting persons has been implemented with regard to criminal procedure.在刑事诉讼程序中对举报人实施保护。
However, according to Article 177(1) CPC, anonymous whistle-blower reports cannot be the basis for opening a criminal investigation.然而,根据《刑事诉讼法》第177(1)条,不能根据匿名举报人的举报启动刑事调查。
Protection outside criminal law is ensured by keeping the whistle-blower’s identity secret.通过举报人身份保密确保提供刑法之外的保护。
The police operate a hotline for whistle-blowers.警察开设了供举报者拨打的热线。
Moreover, there is a financial incentive paid by the State for whistle-blowers and for providing information.此外,国家向举报人和提供信息予以资金奖励。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
Article 55(4) CC foresees compulsory confiscation of the proceeds of crime and instruments used or intended for use in the commission of money-laundering and predicate offences. However, according to the case law, Article 55(4) CC can only be applied if there is a conviction for money-laundering. In the absence of such a conviction, only Article 55(3) CC is applicable, which is narrower since it only covers grave and very grave crimes. Moreover, under Article 55(3) CC, no value confiscation exists. The new institute of forfeiture stipulated by a draft law would be applicable to all crimes which may result in the acquisition of proceeds of crime. Armenia has not implemented article 31(1)(b) of the Convention against Corruption outside money-laundering. Tracing, freezing and seizing measures can be taken according to the CPC. Armenia has not established an asset management agency to specifically dispose of frozen, seized or confiscated property. Confiscated property is transferred to the State Budget. The seized property is preserved in accordance with Article 236 CPC. Article 55(1) and (2) CC provide for confiscation of property or a part thereof; the size of property confiscation is to be determined by court. Article 233 CPC will apply prior to a conviction. The issue of bank secrecy is regulated by the Law on Bank Secrecy (LBS), the Law on Combating Money-Laundering and Terrorism Financing, the CPC, and the Law on Operative and Search Activities 2007 (LOSA). Prior to the instigation of a criminal case, law enforcement bodies can obtain information covered by financial secrecy, including bank secrecy, pursuant to Article 29 LOSA. After the instigation of a criminal case, law enforcement bodies can obtain such information on the basis of Article 10 LBS and Article 172 CPC. However, due to an apparent conflict of the provisions of the LOSA and CPC with the LBS, the courts in practice make it impossible for law enforcement agencies to directly obtain information covered by bank secrecy from financial institutions prior to the initiation of a criminal case or during the investigation stage, when a “suspect” or “accused” has not yet been identified. Also, the information provided to the authorities based on Article 13.1. LBS or Article 13 of the Law on Combating Money-Laundering and Terrorism Financing does not seem to constitute formal evidence and therefore may not be used in court. The reversal of the burden of proof for purposes of confiscation has not been implemented due to the presumption of innocence under the Constitution. The rights of bona fide third parties in confiscation matters are protected under Article 55 CC. Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41) The statutory limitation period for corruption offences has recently been increased. According to Article 75 CC, it is dependent on the gravity of the offence, ranging from 2 to 15 years from the date the offence is completed. In cases where a person is convicted of a criminal offence committed outside the territory of Armenia and has repeatedly committed a crime within the territory of Armenia, the previous conviction may be taken into account (Art. 17 CC). Jurisdiction (art. 42) Armenia has implemented the territorial principle and the active and passive personality principle for establishing jurisdiction in Article 14 CC. Jurisdiction in respect of persons having committed a criminal offence outside the territory of Armenia is governed by Article 15 CC. Armenian citizens having committed a criminal offence in the territory of another State shall not be extradited to another State. However, in case of refusal to extradite a person, criminal prosecution for crimes committed in the territory of a foreign State shall be carried out in Armenia (Art. 16(5) CC). Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35) Corruption can be a factor in changing or rescinding a contract, although the Civil Code does not expressly provide for this. According to Article 55 CC, property can be confiscated on the grounds of corruption. According to Article 59 CPC, the victim has a right to receive compensation for damage caused by actions prohibited by the CC. Moreover, according to Article 168 CPC, the Court costs a defendant must pay include the amounts of money paid to the victim as a compensation for damages caused by the offence. Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39) There is not one specialized agency in Armenia but a number of institutions or units that specialize in the fight against corruption. The Police of Armenia is one of these. In fighting corruption, the police have developed active cooperation with other law enforcement agencies, particularly the Prosecutor-General’s Office, the National Security Service, the customs and tax authorities and a number of civil society organizations. A specialized Directorate-General within the police, the Directorate-General for Combating Organized Crime, has been created. Apart from law enforcement, the institutional framework also includes two non-permanent bodies: the Anti-Corruption Council and the Anti-Corruption Strategy Implementation Monitoring Commission. The Anti-Corruption Council is chaired by the Prime Minister and is tasked to coordinate the implementation of the anti-corruption strategy. The Monitoring Commission is headed by a Presidential Assistant and monitors the implementation of the Anti-Corruption Strategy and internal anti-corruption programs. According to the “Concept for the Fight against Corruption in the Public Administration System” adopted by decision of the outgoing Cabinet of Ministers on 10 April 2014, the institutional mechanism for the implementation of the future Anti-Corruption Strategy will be slightly changed. There are memorandums of understanding between the police, the National Security Service and the prosecution service on the one hand, and the Financial Intelligence Unit on the other hand. Training has been organized to encourage citizens to give information; there are awareness-raising programmes on TV; the website of the prosecutor’s office publishes information about corruption cases; the authorities encourage whistle-blowing and have created a hotline for the public to give information on bribery. 2.2. Successes and good practices Overall, the following successes and good practices in implementing Chapter III of the Convention are highlighted: The reviewing experts consider the new Article 312.2 CC to be very advanced. However, in the absence of case law, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness of this provision in practice. 2.3. Challenges in implementation The following steps could further strengthen existing anti-corruption measures: Article 15(a) of the Convention against Corruption requires that all legal entities are also covered as third party beneficiaries. Even though the term “another person” can be interpreted as covering the person he/she represents, including legal entities, Articles 312 and 312.1 CC could be amended for the sake of clarity and to cover, for example, political parties; Article 15(b) of the Convention against Corruption requires that all legal entities are also covered as third party beneficiaries. Even though the term “another person” can be interpreted as covering the person he/she represents, including legal entities, Articles 311 and 311.1 CC could be amended for the sake of clarity and to cover, for example. political parties; The definition of foreign officials in Article 308(4)(1) CC should be brought in line with article 2(b) of the Convention against Corruption (art. 16 of the Convention against Corruption); Armenia should furnish copies of its money-laundering laws to the Secretary-General of the United Nations (art. 23(2)(d) of the Convention against Corruption); Armenia is encouraged to consider penalizing minor offences of concealment (art. 24 of the Convention against Corruption); Armenia should amend its laws in order to fully implement article 31(1)(b) of the Convention against Corruption; Armenia should fully ensure that its courts or other competent authorities can order that bank, financial or commercial records be made available or seized; that obstacles that may arise out of the application of bank secrecy laws can be overcome effectively (arts. 31(7) and 40 of the Convention against Corruption); Armenia is encouraged to apply in practice the witness protection programme and to provide adequate financial support for it (art. 32(1) of the Convention against Corruption); Armenia is encouraged to enhance cooperation between law enforcement authorities and citizens (art. 37 of the Convention against Corruption). 2.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention Armenia would be interested in receiving advice on good practices to criminalize illicit enrichment for consideration in future amendments of the CC; Armenia would be interested in receiving assistance in investigating crimes committed by means of computers; Armenia would appreciate receiving advice on good practices concerning the protection of whistle-blowers outside criminal law; Armenia has indicated that the law enforcement agencies need assistance in the field of collecting evidence to combat the crimes related to corruption. Particularly, the assistance could consist of legal advice, training for law enforcement officers, etc.; Capacity-building programmes for authorities responsible for the establishment and management of reporting programmes and mechanisms. 3. Chapter IV: International cooperation 3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47) Extradition based on the Convention against Corruption is regulated directly by the Convention per Article 6 of the Constitution of Armenia. The questions not specifically addressed in the Convention are regulated by domestic legislation (Art. 16 CC and Chapter 54 CPC (Arts. 478-480)). However, notably, the relevant domestic legislation provisions do not expressly address all the details of the extradition process based on the Convention against Corruption. The principle of dual criminality is applied to Convention-based extradition requests via the direct application of the Convention against Corruption, per Article 6 of the Constitution of Armenia. Other relevant domestic legislation provisions of Armenia (Art. 16 CC, Chapter 54 of CPC) do not contain any dual criminality requirements applicable to such requests. Armenia does not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty and considers the Convention against Corruption as a legal basis for extradition in respect to corruption offences. Convention against Corruption offences are recognized as extraditable per the direct application of the Convention. Articles 478.1, 478.2 and 478.3 CPC contain provisions streamlining the arrest and detention for extradition of persons who commit crimes outside of Armenia.《刑法典》第55(4)条规定强制没收犯罪所得及在洗钱和上游犯罪过程中所使用的或企图使用的工具。
The extradition of nationals is prohibited, except when permitted by ratified international agreements (Art. 30.1 of the Constitution); however, Article 16 of CC does not contain that exception.然而,根据判例法,只有被判定犯有洗钱罪之后才能适用《刑法典》第55(4)条。
According to Article 479 (9) CPC, Armenia will prosecute any person, including its nationals, in case of refusal of extradition if there are sufficient grounds under the CPC to instigate the prosecution.在未定罪情况下,只能适用《刑法典》第55(3)条,该条款的覆盖范围更窄,因为其只涵盖严重和特别严重的犯罪。
Such conditions would also include a dual criminality requirement.此外,根据《刑法典》第55(3)条,不存在价值没收。 法律草案规定的新充公原则将适用于所有可能导致获取犯罪所得的犯罪。
Additionally, according to Article 479(9) CPC, in cases provided by corresponding international treaties (such as the Convention against Corruption) the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Armenia shall take over the relevant case regarding criminal prosecution from the court proceedings of the relevant State.除洗钱之外,亚美尼亚未实施《反腐败公约》第三十一条第一款第二项的内容。
Based on the direct application of the Convention against Corruption (para.可根据《刑事诉讼法》采取追踪、冻结和扣押措施。 亚美尼亚尚未建立专门处置被冻结、被扣押或被没收财产的资产管理机构。
13 of art. 44) and Article 499 CPC, Armenia, upon application of the requesting State party, will consider the enforcement of the sentence imposed under the domestic law of the requesting State party or the remainder thereof.被没收财产会被转至国家预算。
The guarantees of the fair treatment of persons whose extradition is sought are provided for by Article 478.4 CPC.根据《刑事诉讼法》第236条对被扣押的财产进行保管。
Extradition requests received by Armenia based on the Convention against Corruption cannot be refused on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters per the direct application of the Convention.《刑法典》第55(1)和(2)条对没收财产或部分没收财产作出了规定;财产的没收数量将由法院决定。
Armenia will, before refusing extradition and where appropriate, consult with the requesting State party to provide it with ample opportunity to present its opinions and to provide information relevant to its allegation per the direct application of the Convention.《刑事诉讼法》第233条可以在定罪之前适用。
Armenia has entered into a number of bilateral and multilateral agreements to enhance the effectiveness of extradition, including the European Convention on Extradition (1957), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Convention on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases (1993) and the CIS Convention on Legal Assistance in Legal Affairs on Civil, Family and Criminal Cases (2002).《银行保密法》、《打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义法》、《刑事诉讼法》以及《行动和搜查活动法》(2007年)对银行保密问题进行了规定。
Armenia is also a party to bilateral and multilateral international agreements governing the transfer of prisoners, including the Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons of the Council of Europe (1983) and the CIS Convention on the Transfer of Convicted Persons (1998).在对刑事案件开展调查之前,执法机构可以根据《行动和搜查活动法》第29条,获得属于金融保密,包括银行保密范畴的信息。
Armenia would consider the possibility of transferring criminal proceedings and may perform such transfers.在刑事案件调查开始之后,执法机构可以根据《银行保密法》第10条和《刑事诉讼法》第172条获得此类信息。
The country also ratified a number of multilateral conventions on the transfer of proceedings, including the European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters (1972) and the CIS Convention on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases (1993).然而,由于《行动和搜查活动法》和《刑事诉讼法》的条款与《银行保密法》有明显冲突,因此在实践中,当“嫌疑人”或“被告”尚未确定时,执法机构在刑事案件启动之前或调查阶段期间无法从金融机构直接获得属银行保密范畴的信息。
However, no example of the transfer of proceedings relevant to corruption offences has been observed to date.另外,根据《银行保密法》第13.1条或《打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义法》第13条向执法机构提供的信息似乎不能构成正式证据,因此可能无法当庭使用。 由于《宪法》规定的无罪推定原则,未针对没收事宜颠倒举证责任。
Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)《刑法典》第55条规定保护善意第三方在没收事宜中的权利。
Similarly to extradition, the provision of mutual legal assistance based on the Convention against Corruption is regulated directly by the Convention per Article 6 of the Constitution of Armenia.时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条) 最近延长了腐败犯罪的时效期限。 根据《刑法典》第75条,视犯罪情节的严重性,时效期限自犯罪完成之日起从2年至15年不等。 如果一人因在亚美尼亚境外所实施的犯罪而被定罪且在亚美尼亚境内多次实施同一种犯罪,可能会考虑之前的定罪情况(《刑法典》第17条)。 管辖权(第四十二条) 亚美尼亚《刑法典》第14条在确立管辖权方面实施属地原则及主动和被动属人原则。 《刑法典》第15条确立了对在亚美尼亚境外实施刑事犯罪的人员的管辖权。 在另一国境内实施犯罪的亚美尼亚公民不应被引渡到该国。 然而,在拒绝引渡某人的请求的情况下,对其在外国境内所犯罪行的刑事起诉将在亚美尼亚境内进行(《刑法典》第16(5)条)。 腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条) 虽然《民法典》未作出明确规定,但腐败可以作为更改或废除合同的一个因素。 根据《刑法典》第55条,可以腐败为由没收财产。 根据《刑事诉讼法》第59条,受害者有权因《刑法典》所禁止的行为而受到的损害获得赔偿。 此外,根据《刑事诉讼法》第168条,被告必须支付的法院费用包括作为犯罪造成的损害的赔偿向受害者支付的金额。 专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条) 亚美尼亚未设有专职机关,但却有若干机构或部门专门负责反腐。 亚美尼亚警察局便是其中之一。 在打击腐败方面,警察局与其他执法机构积极开展合作,尤其是与检察长办公室、国家安全局、海关和税务机关以及一些民间社会组织积极合作。 警察局设立了一个专门的总司,即打击有组织犯罪总司。 除执法之外,该体制框架还包括两个非常设机构:反腐败委员会和反腐战略实施监测委员会。 反腐委员会的主席为总理,任务是协调反腐战略的实施。 监测委员会的负责人为总统助理,其负责监测反腐战略和内部反腐方案的实施。 根据卸任内阁成员2014年4月10日通过的“公共行政系统打击腐败的概念”,负责实施未来反腐战略的体制机制将略有改变。 警察局、国家安全局和检察机关与金融情报部门签署了谅解备忘录。 已经组织了培训,以鼓励公民提供信息;电视上有许多提高认识的节目;检察官办公室经常在网站上公布关于腐败案件的信息;当局鼓励进行举报,并设立了热线,供公众提供有关贿赂的信息。 2.2. 成功经验和良好做法 总体而言,在实施《公约》第三章方面取得了下述成功经验和良好做法,着重说明如下: 审议专家认为《刑法典》中的新条款,即第312.2条非常先进。 但是,由于缺乏判例法,很难判断该条款在实践中的效力。 2.3. 实施方面的挑战 下列措施可进一步加强现有的反腐败措施: 《反腐败公约》第十五条第一款规定,所有法律实体也都包括在第三方受益人范畴之内。 即使“他人”可以解读为涵盖其所代表的人员,包括法律实体,但是为了清晰起见,以及为了涵盖如政党等实体,仍然可以对《刑法典》第312条和第312.1条进行修订; 《反腐败公约》第十五条第二款规定,所有法律实体也都包括在第三方受益人范畴之内。 即使“他人”可以被解读为涵盖其所代表的人员,包括法律实体,但是为了清晰起见,以及为了涵盖如政党等实体,仍然可以对《刑法典》第311和第311.1条进行修订; 《刑法典》第308(4)(1)条关于外国官员的定义应当与《反腐败公约》第二条第二款保持一致(《反腐败公约》第十六条); 亚美尼亚应向联合国秘书长提交其洗钱相关法律的副本(《反腐败公约》第二十三条第二款第四项); 鼓励亚美尼亚考虑对较轻的窝赃罪进行处罚(《反腐败公约》第二十四条); 亚美尼亚应当对其法律进行修订以充分实施《反腐败公约》第三十一条第一款第二项; 亚美尼亚应充分确保其法院或其他主管机关可以下令提供或扣押银行、财务或商业记录;确保可有效克服适用银行保密法律方面遇到的障碍(《反腐败公约》第三十一条第七款和第四十条); 鼓励亚美尼亚在实践中适用证人保护方案,并为其提供充足的财力支持(《反腐败公约》第三十二条第一款); 鼓励亚美尼亚增强执法当局和公民之间的合作(《反腐败公约》第三十七条)。
The questions not specifically addressed in the Convention shall be regulated by domestic legislation (Chapter 54 of CPC).2.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面指明的技术援助需要
However, no actual examples of the provision of such assistance exist to date.亚美尼亚愿意在将来对《刑法典》进行修正时,获得有关将资产非法增加定为犯罪的良好做法方面的建议; 亚美尼亚愿意在调查通过计算机实施犯罪方面获得援助;
The authorities also indicated that there was no case management system in place that would allow for a proper recording of incoming mutual legal assistance requests.亚美尼亚希望获得关于在刑事法律之外保护举报人方面的良好做法的建议;
Armenian authorities confirmed that they would be willing to provide the widest measure of mutual legal assistance in investigations, prosecutions and judicial proceedings in relation to the Convention against Corruption offences.亚美尼亚表示,执法机构在打击腐败相关罪行的证据收集方面需要援助。 尤其是,援助可以包括法律建议,对执法人员进行培训等; 针对负责建立和管理报告方案和机制的机关的能力建设方案。 3. 第四章:国际合作 3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述 引渡;被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、四十五和四十七条) 根据《亚美尼亚宪法》第6条,基于《公约》的引渡受《反腐败公约》直接规范。 国内立法对《公约》没有明确述及的问题做出了规定(《刑法典》第16条和《刑事诉讼法》第54章(第478至480条))。 然而,值得注意的是,相关国内立法条款并没有明确述及基于《反腐败公约》的引渡程序的所有细节。 根据《亚美尼亚宪法》第6条,两国共认犯罪原则适用于通过直接适用《反腐败公约》的基于《公约》的引渡请求。
Chapter 54 of CPC does not contain a dual criminality requirement applicable to the mutual legal assistance process based on an international treaty such as the Convention against Corruption.亚美尼亚其他相关国内立法条款(《刑法典》第16条和《刑事诉讼法》第54章)未载有任何适用于此类请求的两国共认犯罪要求。
Armenia will be able to provide mutual legal assistance to the fullest extent possible in relation to offences for which a legal person may be held liable to other States parties based on the self-execution of paragraph 2 of article 46 of the Convention against Corruption.亚美尼亚不以订有条约作为引渡的条件,并将《反腐败公约》视为腐败犯罪相关引渡的法律基础。
Without prejudice to domestic law and inquiries and criminal proceedings in Armenia, the competent authorities of Armenia may, without prior request, transmit information relating to criminal matters to a competent authority in another State party per the direct application of the Convention.经直接适用《反腐败公约》,《反腐败公约》中的罪行被视为可引渡的罪行。
Armenia will not decline mutual legal assistance requests on the ground of bank secrecy per the direct application of the Convention.《刑事诉讼法》第478.1、478.2和478.3条载有一些简化引渡在亚美尼亚境外实施犯罪者的逮捕和羁押程序的条款。 除非经所批准的国际协定许可,否则禁止引渡国民(《宪法》第30.1条);然而,《刑法典》第16条并不包含该例外情况。
The procedural requirements of mutual legal assistance included in paragraphs 10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of article 46 of the Convention against Corruption are self-executing and can be applied directly as per Article 6 of the Constitution.根据《刑事诉讼法》第479(9)条,在拒绝引渡请求时,如果根据《刑事诉讼法》有充分理由提起诉讼,亚美尼亚将对包括其国民在内的任何人员提起诉讼。
Armenia designated the Prosecutor General’s Office as the central authority for requests relevant to legal assistance in pretrial period and the Ministry of Justice as the central authority for requests relevant to legal assistance during a trial period and with regard to the execution of court judgments.该条件也包括两国共认犯罪要求。
Armenia will accept the requests in Armenian, Russian and English.此外,根据《刑事诉讼法》第479(9)条,在相关国际条约(如《反腐败公约》)规定的情况下,亚美尼亚共和国检察长将从有关国家的法院诉讼中接管相关的刑事诉讼案件。
Article 477 CPC stipulates that the requests may be refused based on the grounds provided by international treaties of Armenia.在直接适用《反腐败公约》(第四十四条第十三款)和《刑事诉讼法》第499条的基础上,根据请求缔约国的申请,亚美尼亚会考虑执行根据请求缔约国本国法律判处的刑罚或者尚未服满的刑期。 《刑事诉讼法》第478.4条规定,要确保寻求引渡的人员得到公正对待。
A request may be also refused when its execution may harm the constitutional order, sovereignty, national security of Armenia, and if the possibility of refusing execution of the request on these grounds is envisaged by at least one international treaty in force between Armenia and the requesting State.亚美尼亚直接适用《反腐败公约》,不会仅以犯罪被视为涉及财税事项为由拒绝其收到的基于《公约》的引渡请求。
Article 477 does not contain the consideration of the offence to involve fiscal matters as a ground of refusal of the request.亚美尼亚直接适用《公约》,在拒绝引渡请求前将在适当情况下与请求缔约国磋商,以使有充分机会陈述自己的意见和提供与其陈述有关的资料。
According to Article 475(5) CPC, Armenian authorities shall notify the corresponding authorities of the foreign State if the execution of a legal assistance request is impossible, and the reasons therefor.亚美尼亚缔结了一系列双边和多边协定,以提高引渡的效力,其中包括《欧洲引渡公约》(1957年)、《独立国家联合体(独联体)民事、家庭、刑事案件法律援助和法律关系公约》(1993年)以及《独联体民事、家庭、刑事案件法律事务法律援助公约》(2002年)。 亚美尼亚也是关于被判刑人员移管的双边和多边国际协定的缔约方,其中包括《欧洲委员会被判刑人员移管公约》(1983年)和《独联体被判刑人员移管公约》(1998年)。
Armenia indicated that it would take as full account as possible of any deadlines suggested by the requested State party in accordance with the Convention against Corruption.亚美尼亚会考虑刑事诉讼移交的可能性,也会执行此类移交程序。 该国还批准了多项有关刑事诉讼移交的多边公约,其中包括《欧洲刑事事项诉讼程序转移公约》(1972年)和《独联体民事、家庭和刑事案件法律援助和法律关系公约》(1993年)。 但是,迄今尚未发现任何与腐败犯罪相关的诉讼程序移交的实例。
Mutual legal assistance may be postponed on the ground that it interferes with an ongoing investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding.司法协助(第四十六条) 与引渡类似,根据《亚美尼亚宪法》第6条,基于《反腐败公约》的司法协助的提供受《反腐败公约》直接规范。 国内立法对《公约》没有明确述及的问题做出了规定(《刑事诉讼法》第54章)。 然而,迄今为止,还没有提供此类援助的实例。 当局还表明,目前还没有出台能对收到的司法协助请求进行适当记录的案件管理系统。 亚美尼亚当局证实,愿意向与《反腐败公约》相关的调查、起诉和审判程序提供最广泛的司法协助。 《刑事诉讼法》第54章未载有适用于基于《反腐败公约》等国际条约的司法协助程序的两国共认犯罪要求。 对于根据《反腐败公约》第四十六条第二款的自行生效内容可能追究法人对其他缔约国负有责任的犯罪,亚美尼亚将能够尽可能充分地提供司法协助。 在不损害国内法律、调查和刑事诉讼的前提下,亚美尼亚的主管机关可能会不经事先请求向直接适用《公约》的其他缔约国的主管机关转递与刑事事项相关的资料。 亚美尼亚直接适用《公约》,不会以银行保密为理由拒绝司法协助请求。 根据《宪法》第6条,《反腐败公约》第四十六条第十、十二、十五、十六、十八、十九、二十和二十一款包括的司法协助程序请求能自行生效,并可直接适用。 亚美尼亚指定检察长办公室为与审判前司法协助相关请求的中央机关,司法部为审判期间司法协助和法院判决执行相关请求的主管机关。 亚美尼亚将接受以亚美尼亚文、俄文和英文提交的请求。 《刑事诉讼法》第477条规定,可能会以亚美尼亚实施的国际条约规定的理由拒绝请求。 执行请求可能损害亚美尼亚的宪法令、主权和国家安全,并且亚美尼亚和请求国之间至少一项正在实施的国际条约也提出可根据上述理由拒绝执行请求,则该请求可能被拒绝。 第477条未提及将犯罪涉及财税事项视为拒绝请求的一个理由。 根据《刑事诉讼法》第475(5)条,如果无法执行司法协助请求,亚美尼亚当局会通知外国相应的机关,并告知其原因。 亚美尼亚表示,将根据《反腐败公约》尽可能充分地考虑到被请求国提出的任何期限。
Before refusing or postponing a request, Armenia will consult with the requesting State party per the direct application of the Convention.可以以司法协助妨碍正在进行的调查、起诉或审判程序为理由而暂缓进行。
Provisions of paragraph 27 of article 36 of the Convention regarding the safe conduct for witness, expert or other protection are self-executing and can be applied directly as per Article 6 of the Constitution.在拒绝或暂缓请求之前,亚美尼亚会与直接适用《公约》的请求缔约国协商。
Armenia has signed a number of international agreements on legal assistance in criminal matters, including the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (1959), the CIS Convention on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases (1993) and the CIS Convention on Legal Assistance in Legal Affairs on Civil, Family and Criminal Cases (2002).根据《宪法》第6条,《公约》第三十六条第二十七款有关证人、鉴定人的安全保障或其他保护的条款可自行生效,可以直接适用。
There are also cooperation memorandums and agreements signed between the Prosecutor General’s Office and the Ministry of Justice of Armenia with their counterparts in other countries.亚美尼亚已经签署了若干关于刑事事项法律援助的国际协定,包括《欧洲刑事事项互助公约》(1959年)、《独联体民事、家庭和刑事案件法律援助和法律关系公约》(1993年)以及《独立国家联合体民事、家庭、刑事案件法律事务法律援助公约》(2002年)。
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50)检察长办公室和亚美尼亚司法部与其他国家的相应部门也签署了合作备忘录和协定。
Armenia has concluded a number of bilateral and multilateral agreements on the fight against crime and corruption which also relate to the exchange of operational information in the investigation of corruption cases.执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
Armenia has a legislative basis to exchange, where appropriate, information with other States parties concerning specific means and methods used to commit offences covered by the Convention against Corruption, including the use of false identities, forged, altered or false documents and other means of concealing activities.亚美尼亚缔结了若干打击犯罪和腐败且与交流侦查腐败案件的行动信息相关的双边和多边协定。
Armenia has a mechanism for the exchange of information regarding early identification of the Convention against Corruption offences.亚美尼亚立法规定,与其他缔约国酌情交换关于为实施《反腐败公约》所涵盖的犯罪而采用的具体手段和方法的资料,包括利用虚假身份、经伪造、变造或者假冒的证件和其他旨在掩饰活动的手段。
However, no actual examples of such exchanges were provided.亚美尼亚有一项交流及早发现《反腐败公约》所涵盖罪行相关信息的机制。
Armenia considers the Convention against Corruption to be the basis for mutual law enforcement cooperation in respect of the offences covered by it.然而,未提供此类交流的实案。
Armenia would be willing to establish joint investigative bodies with other States parties, but no such arrangements have been established to date.亚美尼亚将《反腐败公约》作为针对其所涵盖犯罪进行相互执法合作的基础。
Armenia also additionally clarified that the conduct of joint investigations would require special agreements or arrangements with relevant authorities of other States parties.亚美尼亚愿意与其他缔约国成立联合侦查机构,但迄今还未作出此类安排。
If necessary, article 49 of the Convention against Corruption can be a legal basis for the establishment of joint investigation teams with other States parties as well.另外,亚美尼亚还表示,开展联合侦查需要与其他缔约国的相关机关签署特别协定或安排。
According to LOSA, competent authorities may conduct controlled deliveries and use other special investigative techniques, such as electronic or other forms of surveillance and undercover operations.若有必要,《反腐败公约》第四十九条也可以作为与其他缔约国成立联合侦查小组的法律依据。
Evidence derived from such activities is admissible in court.根据《行动和搜查活动法》,主管机关可以实施控制下交付,并使用其他特殊侦查手段,如电子或其他形式的监视以及特工行动。
3.2. Successes and good practices法庭可以采信由这些活动获得的证据。
Overall, the following points are regarded as successes and good practices in the framework of implementing Chapter IV of the Convention against Corruption:3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
The provisions of Paragraph 2 of Article 478.2 CPC allowing for the expedited delivery of the motion of the competent body of the foreign State for provisional arrest, or the decision or criminal judgement thereof on selecting detention as a measure of restraint of the person whose extradition is sought; this applies, particularly, via INTERPOL or any other international organization conducting the prosecution of the person which Armenia is a member of, and is regarded as conducive to efficient international cooperation for the purposes of extradition;总的来看,在实施《反腐败公约》第四章的范围内,以下几点可被视作成功经验和良好做法:
The provisions of Article 476 (1(2)) stipulating a detailed procedure for the execution of an incoming mutual legal assistance request, where it is based on more than one international treaty, are regarded as conducive to the efficient execution of mutual legal assistance requests.《刑事诉讼法》第478.2条第2款之条款允许加速发送外国主管机构的临时逮捕请求,或者选择将拘留作为限制要求被引渡者的措施的决定或刑事判决;这尤其适用于通过刑警组织或任何亚美尼亚加入的对该人员提起诉讼的其他国际组织为进行引渡而开展有效的国际合作,并被认为有利于开展此类合作;
3.3. Challenges in implementation The following points could serve as a framework to strengthen and consolidate the actions taken by Armenia to combat corruption: To adopt a guideline applicable to the extradition and mutual legal assistance procedures based on the Convention against Corruption to ensure that such procedures may be conducted in the most efficient way; To streamline efforts to put in place a case management system allowing the classification and use of statistics for both extradition and mutual legal assistance, including on issues of using the Convention against Corruption as a legal basis; To consider further expediting extradition procedures and simplifying evidentiary requirements relating thereto in respect of any offence to which the Convention against Corruption applies; which could be also addressed in a detailed guideline for processing extradition requests under the Convention against Corruption for relevant Armenian authorities in charge of extradition; To continue to ensure that any crime established in accordance with the Convention against Corruption is not considered or identified as a political offence in any extradition treaty to be concluded between Armenia and other States parties to the Convention against Corruption; To harmonize the provisions of Article 16 of CC with Article 30.1 of the Constitution; To explore the possibility of continuing the practice of concluding bilateral extradition treaties to enhance the effectiveness of extradition; To explore the possibility of concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements that would specifically serve the purposes of and give practical effect to or enhance the provisions of article 46 of the Convention against Corruption, with a particular focus on corruption offences; To explore the possibility of continuing the practice of establishing more channels of communication with the competent authorities of other States parties to the Convention against Corruption; To explore the possibility of taking further steps to enhance law enforcement cooperation in conducting inquiries with respect to Convention against Corruption offences; To explore the possibility of considering taking further steps to enhance the implementation of subparagraph 1(c) of article 46 of the Convention against Corruption; To explore the possibility of considering taking further steps to enhance the implementation of subparagraph 1 (e) of article 46 of the Convention against Corruption; To explore the possibility of continuing the practice of conclusion of appropriate bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements for using special investigative techniques in the context of cooperation at the international level.第476(1(2))条之条款规定了执行所收到的司法协助请求的详细程序,该程序以不止一项国际条约为基础,这些条款被视为有利于有效执行司法协助请求。
3.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention3.3. 实施方面的挑战
Technical assistance in setting up of the case management system allowing the classification and use of statistics for both extradition and mutual legal assistance;下述几点可作为一个框架,以加强和巩固亚美尼亚打击腐败而采取的行动:
Technical assistance in the preparation of the guideline applicable to the extradition and mutual legal assistance procedures based on the Convention against Corruption;通过一项适用于基于《反腐败公约》的引渡和司法协助程序的指南,以确保可以最为有效的方式开展此类程序;
Regarding article 48 of the Convention against Corruption, a summary of good practices/lessons learned, technical assistance (e.g. set-up and management of databases/information-sharing systems), on-site assistance by a relevant expert and, specifically, technical assistance to enhance cooperation tools in response to corruption offences committed through the use of modern technology (para.精简为推出案件管理系统以方便对引渡和司法协助统计数据进行分类和加以使用所做的努力,包括将《反腐败公约》作为法律依据的问题的统计数据; 考虑进一步加快引渡程序,简化与《反腐败公约》所适用的任何罪行相关的证据要求;还可以通过向亚美尼亚负责引渡的相关提供根据《反腐败公约》处理引渡请求的详细指南解决该问题; 继续确保任何根据《反腐败公约》确立的犯罪在亚美尼亚和《反腐败公约》其他缔约国之间即将缔结的任何引渡条约中不被视为或定为一项政治罪行; 统一《刑法典》第16条和《宪法》第30.1条的内容; 探索继续缔结双边引渡条约以促进引渡的有效性的可能性; 探索缔结特别有助于实现《反腐败公约》第四十六条目的、具体实施或者加强该条规定且重点关注腐败罪的双边或多边协定或安排的可能性; 探索继续建立更多与《反腐败公约》其他缔约国主管机关沟通的渠道的可能性; 探索进一步采取措施以开展执法合作调查《反腐败公约》所涵盖罪行的可能性; 探索考虑进一步采取措施以加强《反腐败公约》第四十六条第一款第三项实施情况的可能性; 探索考虑进一步采取措施以加强《反腐败公约》第四十六条第一款第五项实施情况的可能性; 探索继续为在国际一级合作时使用特殊侦查手段而缔结适当的双边或多边协定或安排的可能性。 3.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面指明的技术援助需要 建立案件管理系统以方便对引渡和司法协助统计数据进行分类和加以使用方面的技术援助; 编制适用于基于《反腐败公约》的引渡和司法协助程序的指南方面的技术援助;
3 of art. 48).就《反腐败公约》第四十八条而言,总结良好做法/汲取的经验、技术援助(例如建立和管理数据库/信息共享系统)以及由相关专家提供的现场援助,以及特别是旨在完善对借助现代技术实施腐败犯罪做出反应的合作工具的技术援助(第四十八条第三款)。