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2002/13采取行动促进有效预防犯罪
Action to promote effective crime prevention经济及社会理事会,
The Economic and Social Council,铭记其1996年7月23日第1996/16号决议,其中理事会请秘书长继续促进联合国预防犯罪和刑事司法标准和规范的使用和适用,
Bearing in mind its resolution 1996/16 of 23 July 1996, in which it requested the Secretary-General to continue to promote the use and application of United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice matters,回顾其1997年7月21日第1997/33号决议附件所载“负责任的预防犯罪的要素:标准和规范”,特别是该附件第14段至第23段所载有关社区参与预防犯罪的要素,以及1999年9月8日至10日在布宜诺斯艾利斯举行的关于负责任的预防犯罪要素:解决传统的和新出现的犯罪问题专家小组会议所起草的负责任的预防犯罪要素订正草案,
Recalling the elements of responsible crime prevention: standards and norms annexed to its resolution 1997/33 of 21 July 1997, in particular those relating to community involvement in crime prevention contained in paragraphs 14 to 23 of that annex, as well as the revised draft elements of responsible crime prevention prepared by the Expert Group Meeting on Elements of Responsible Crime Prevention: Addressing Traditional and Emerging Crime Problems, held in Buenos Aires from 8 to 10 September 1999,注意到法国、荷兰和加拿大政府与设在蒙特利尔的国际预防犯罪中心合作于1999年10月3日至6日在加拿大蒙特利尔举行的预防犯罪专家国际学术讨论会,该会议是第十届联合国预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会的一个筹备会议, 注意到2000年4月10日至17日在维也纳举行的第十届联合国预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会期间组织的关于社区参与预防犯罪的讲习班审议了负责任的预防犯罪要素草案,
Taking note of the international colloquium of crime prevention experts convened in Montreal, Canada, from 3 to 6 October 1999, by the Governments of France, the Netherlands and Canada, in collaboration with the International Centre for the Prevention of Crime in Montreal, as a preparatory meeting for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,承认有必要增补和最后审订负责任的预防犯罪要素草案,
Noting that the draft elements of responsible crime prevention were considered at the workshop on community involvement in crime prevention held at the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held in Vienna from 10 to 17 April 2000,意识到通过以知识为基础的做法大量减少犯罪和受害情形大有可为以及有效地预防犯罪能够对个人及其财产的安全和保障以及世界各地社区的生活质量作出贡献,
Acknowledging the need to update and finalize the draft elements of responsible crime prevention,注意到大会题为“执行《关于犯罪与司法:迎接二十一世纪的挑战的维也纳宣言》的行动计划”的2002年1月31日第56/261号决议,特别是预防犯罪方面的行动,以便落实《维也纳宣言》 第11、13、20、21、24和25段所作的承诺,
Aware of the scope for significant reductions in crime and victimization through knowledge-based approaches, and of the contribution that effective crime prevention can make in terms of the safety and security of individuals and their property, as well as the quality of life in communities around the world,深信有必要为履行《维也纳宣言》所作承诺而推动一项协力开展的议程,
Taking note of General Assembly resolution 56/261 of 31 January 2002, entitled “Plans of action for the implementation of the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century”, in particular the action on crime prevention in order to follow up the commitments undertaken in paragraphs 11, 13, 20, 21, 24 and 25 of the Vienna Declaration,赞赏地注意到预防犯罪专家组于2002年1月21日至24日在加拿大温哥华举行会议时所进行的工作,以及秘书长为根据该区域间会议的成果编写一份载有预防犯罪指导原则订正草案和拟议的国际行动优先领域的报告 所进行的工作,
Convinced of the need to advance a collaborative agenda for action with respect to the commitments made in the Vienna Declaration,承认各会员国在其政府结构、社会特点和经济能力方面的独特性,而且这些因素将会影响其预防犯罪方案的范围和实施,
Noting with appreciation the work of the Group of Experts on Crime Prevention at their meeting held in Vancouver, Canada, from 21 to 24 January 2002, and the work of the Secretary-General in preparing a report on the results of that interregional meeting, containing revised draft guidelines for crime prevention and proposed priority areas for international action,还承认环境的变化和预防犯罪方针的发展可能要求进一步制订和调整预防犯罪准则,
Recognizing that each Member State is unique in its governmental structure, social characteristics and economic capacity and that those factors will influence the scope and implementation of its crime prevention programmes,1. 认可本决议所附《预防犯罪准则》,以期提供有效预防犯罪的要素;
Recognizing also that changing circumstances and evolving approaches to crime prevention may require further elaboration and adaptation of crime prevention guidelines,2. 请各会员国酌情利用准则制订或加强本国在预防犯罪和刑事司法领域的政策;
1.3.
Accepts the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime, annexed to the present resolution, with a view to providing elements for effective crime prevention;请联合国有关机构和其他专门组织根据准则的规定加强预防犯罪领域的机构间协调与合作,并为此目的在联合国系统内广泛分发准则;
2.4.
Invites Member States to draw upon the Guidelines, as appropriate, in the development or strengthening of their policies in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice;请秘书处药物管制和预防犯罪办事处国际预防犯罪中心同会员国、联合国预防犯罪和刑事司法方案网各研究所及联合国系统其他有关实体协商,根据药物管制和预防犯罪办事处的准则编拟预防犯罪领域的技术援助提案;
3.5.
Requests relevant United Nations bodies and other specialized organizations to strengthen inter-agency coordination and cooperation in crime prevention, as set out in the Guidelines, and, to that end, to disseminate the Guidelines widely within the United Nations system;各请会员国建立或加强国际、区域和国家预防犯罪网络,以便制订以知识为基础的战略,交流各种切实可行而且有希望的做法,确定可传播这些做法的要素,并向世界各地社区传播这些知识;
4.6.
Requests the Centre for International Crime Prevention of the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention of the Secretariat, in consultation with Member States, the institutes of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network and other relevant entities in the United Nations system, to prepare a proposal for technical assistance in the area of crime prevention, in accordance with the guidelines of the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention;请秘书长向预防犯罪和刑事司法委员会第十四届会议报告本决议的执行情况。
5. Requests Member States to establish or strengthen international, regional and national crime prevention networks, with a view to developing knowledge-based strategies, exchanging proven and promising practices, identifying elements of their transferability and making such knowledge available to communities throughout the world; 6. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its fourteenth session on the implementation of the present resolution. 37th plenary meeting第37次全体会议
24 July 20022002年7月24日
Annex附件
Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime预防犯罪准则
I.一.
Introduction导言
1. There is clear evidence that well-planned crime prevention strategies not only prevent crime and victimization, but also promote community safety and contribute to the sustainable development of countries. Effective, responsible crime prevention enhances the quality of life of all citizens. It has long-term benefits in terms of reducing the costs associated with the formal criminal justice system, as well as other social costs that result from crime. Crime prevention offers opportunities for a humane and more cost-effective approach to the problems of crime. The present Guidelines outline the necessary elements for effective crime prevention.1. 有明显证据表明,经过周密计划的预防犯罪战略不仅能够预防犯罪和受害,而且能够提高社区的安全性并有利于国家的可持续发展。有效的和负责任的预防犯罪能够提高全体公民的生活质量,在降低正规的刑事司法系统的成本及其他由犯罪导致的社会费用方面具有长期效益。预防犯罪为采用更有成本效益的方法来解决犯罪问题提供了可能性。本准则概述了有效预防犯罪的必要要素。
II.二.
Conceptual frame of reference概念的参照基准
2.2.
It is the responsibility of all levels of government to create, maintain and promote a context within which relevant governmental institutions and all segments of civil society, including the corporate sector, can better play their part in preventing crime.各级政府有责任创造、维持和促进一个有利的环境,使有关政府机构和包括企业界在内的民间社会各部分在预防犯罪方面都能很好地发挥作用。
3. For the purposes of the present Guidelines, “crime prevention” comprises strategies and measures that seek to reduce the risk of crimes occurring, and their potential harmful effects on individuals and society, including fear of crime, by intervening to influence their multiple causes.3.
The enforcement of laws, sentences and corrections, while also performing preventive functions, falls outside the scope of the Guidelines, given the comprehensive coverage of the subject in other United Nations instruments.就本准则而言,“预防犯罪”包括谋求降低犯罪行为发生的风险及其对个人和社会的潜在有害影响包括惧怕犯罪的各种战略和措施,通过干预来影响犯罪的多种原因。执法、惩处和改造尽管也起着预防的作用,但不在本准则的范围之内,因为这一主题已在联合国其他文书中详加论述。
4.4.
The present Guidelines address crime and its effects on victims and society and take into account the growing internationalization of criminal activities.本准则针对犯罪及其对被害人和社会的影响,并且考虑到了犯罪活动日益增长的国际性。
5. Community involvement and cooperation/ partnerships represent important elements of the concept of crime prevention set out herein.5.
While the term “community” may be defined in different ways, its essence in this context is the involvement of civil society at the local level.社区参与和合作/伙伴关系是这里提出的预防犯罪概念的重要要素。虽然“社区”一词可以用不同方式加以定义,但在这里的基本含义是地方一级民间社会的参与。
6.6.
Crime prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches, including those which:预防犯罪包括各种办法,其中有:
(a) Promote the well-being of people and encourage pro-social behaviour through social, economic, health and educational measures, with a particular emphasis on children and youth, and focus on the risk and protective factors associated with crime and victimization (prevention through social development or social crime prevention);(a) 通过社会、经济、卫生和教育方面的措施提高人民的福利并且鼓励亲社会的行为,特别关注儿童与青少年,并重视与犯罪和受害有关的风险和保护性因素(通过社会发展或社会犯罪预防加以预防);
(b) Change the conditions in neighbourhoods that influence offending, victimization and the insecurity that results from crime by building on the initiatives, expertise and commitment of community members (locally based crime prevention);(b) 通过社区成员的各种活动、专门知识和承诺来改变居民点中那些对犯罪和受害具有影响的条件以及犯罪所导致的不安定情况(以当地为基础的犯罪预防);
(c) Prevent the occurrence of crimes by reducing opportunities, increasing risks of being apprehended and minimizing benefits, including through environmental design, and by providing assistance and information to potential and actual victims (situational crime prevention);(c) 通过减少机会,提高被捕风险和使获利最小化,包括通过环境设计和向潜在的和实际的受害者提供援助和信息,以预防犯罪的发生(从环境方面预防犯罪);
(d) Prevent recidivism by assisting in the social reintegration of offenders and other preventive mechanisms (reintegration programmes).(d) 通过帮助罪犯融入社会和其他预防机制来预防再次犯罪(重返社会方案)。
III.三.
Basic principles基本原则
Government leadership政府领导
7.7.
All levels of government should play a leadership role in developing effective and humane crime prevention strategies and in creating and maintaining institutional frameworks for their implementation and review.各级政府在制定有效的和人道的预防犯罪战略和在为战略的实施和审查建立和维持体制框架方面,应当发挥领导作用。
Socio-economic development and inclusion社会经济发展与包容
8. Crime prevention considerations should be integrated into all relevant social and economic policies and programmes, including those addressing employment, education, health, housing and urban planning, poverty, social marginalization and exclusion.8.
Particular emphasis should be placed on communities, families, children and youth at risk.对预防犯罪的考虑应当纳入所有相关的社会及经济政策与方案中,包括针对就业、教育、卫生、住房和城市规划、贫穷、社会边缘化和排斥等问题的政策和方案。应当特别关注社区、家庭、问题儿童与青少年。
Cooperation/partnerships合作/伙伴关系
9. Cooperation/partnerships should be an integral part of effective crime prevention, given the wide-ranging nature of the causes of crime and the skills and responsibilities required to address them.9.
This includes partnerships working across ministries and between authorities, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, the business sector and private citizens.合作/伙伴关系应当是有效预防犯罪的一个组成部分,因为犯罪的原因是多种多样的,解决犯罪问题所需要的技巧和责任也是多种多样的。这种伙伴关系包括各部委之间的伙伴关系以及当局、社区组织、商业部门和公民个人之间的伙伴关系。
Sustainability/accountability可持续性/问责制
10. Crime prevention requires adequate resources, including funding for structures and activities, in order to be sustained.10.
There should be clear accountability for funding, implementation and evaluation and for the achievement of planned results.预防犯罪需要有充足的资源,包括为各个机构和各种活动提供资金,以便持续开展这一活动。对于筹资、执行和评价,以及对于预期结果的实现,应当有明确的问责制。
Knowledge base知识基础
11.11.
Crime prevention strategies, policies, programmes and actions should be based on a broad, multidisciplinary foundation of knowledge about crime problems, their multiple causes and promising and proven practices.预防犯罪的战略、政策、方案和行动应当建立在有关犯罪问题、犯罪的多种原因以及有希望并经过验证的做法的广泛、跨学科的知识基础之上。
Human rights/rule of law/culture of lawfulness人权/法治/守法文化
12. The rule of law and those human rights which are recognized in international instruments to which Member States are parties must be respected in all aspects of crime prevention.12.
A culture of lawfulness should be actively promoted in crime prevention.法治和各会员国所加入的各项国际文书承认的人权必须在预防犯罪的所有方面受到尊重。在预防犯罪中应当积极倡导守法文化。
Interdependency相互依存
13.13.
National crime prevention diagnoses and strategies should, where appropriate, take account of links between local criminal problems and international organized crime.在适宜时,国家预防犯罪的判断和战略应当考虑当地的犯罪问题与国际有组织犯罪之间的联系。
Differentiation区别对待
14.14.
Crime prevention strategies should, when appropriate, pay due regard to the different needs of men and women and consider the special needs of vulnerable members of society.预防犯罪战略应当酌情适当关注男女需要的不同,并考虑到易受伤害的社会成员的特殊需要。
IV.四.
Organization, methods and approaches组织、方法和途径
15. Recognizing that all States have unique governmental structures, this section sets out tools and methodologies that Governments and all segments of civil society should consider in developing strategies to prevent crime and reduce victimization.15.
It draws on international good practice.意识到各国拥有自己独特的政府结构,本节阐述了政府及民间社会各阶层在制定战略以预防犯罪和减少受害者时应当考虑的手段和方法,并借鉴了国际上的良好做法。
Community involvement社区参与
16. In some of the areas listed below, Governments bear the primary responsibility. However, the active participation of communities and other segments of civil society is an essential part of effective crime prevention. Communities, in particular, should play an important part in identifying crime prevention priorities, in implementation and evaluation, and in helping to identify a sustainable resource base.16. 在下文所列的一些领域,各国政府承担着首要责任。然而,社区及民间社会其他方面的积极参与是有效预防犯罪的一个必不可少的方面。尤其是社区应当在确定预防犯罪的重点、执行和评价以及帮助查明可持续的资源库方面发挥重要作用。
A OrganizationA. 组织
Government structures政府结构
17. Governments should include prevention as a permanent part of their structures and programmes for controlling crime, ensuring that clear responsibilities and goals exist within government for the organization of crime prevention, by, inter alia: (a) Establishing centres or focal points with expertise and resources; (b) Establishing a crime prevention plan with clear priorities and targets; (c) Establishing linkages and coordination between relevant government agencies or departments; (d) Fostering partnerships with non-governmental organizations, the business, private and professional sectors and the community; (e) Seeking the active participation of the public in crime prevention by informing it of the need for and means of action and its role. Training and capacity-building 18. Governments should support the development of crime prevention skills by: (a) Providing professional development for senior officials in relevant agencies; (b) Encouraging universities, colleges and other relevant educational agencies to offer basic and advanced courses, including in collaboration with practitioners; (c) Working with the educational and professional sectors to develop certification and professional qualifications; (d) Promoting the capacity of communities to develop and respond to their needs. Supporting partnerships 19. Governments and all segments of civil society should support the principle of partnership, where appropriate, including: (a) Advancing knowledge of the importance of this principle and the components of successful partnerships, including the need for all of the partners to have clear and transparent roles; (b) Fostering the formation of partnerships at different levels and across sectors; (c) Facilitating the efficient operation of partnerships. Sustainability 20. Governments and other funding bodies should strive to achieve sustainability of demonstrably effective crime prevention programmes and initiatives through, inter alia: (a) Reviewing resource allocation to establish and maintain an appropriate balance between crime prevention and the criminal justice and other systems, to be more effective in preventing crime and victimization; (b) Establishing clear accountability for funding, programming and coordinating crime prevention initiatives; (c) Encouraging community involvement in sustainability. B Methods Knowledge base 21. As appropriate, Governments and/or civil society should facilitate knowledge-based crime prevention by, inter alia: (a) Providing the information necessary for communities to address crime problems; (b) Supporting the generation of useful and practically applicable knowledge that is scientifically reliable and valid; (c) Supporting the organization and synthesis of knowledge and identifying and addressing gaps in the knowledge base; (d) Sharing that knowledge, as appropriate, among, inter alia, researchers, policy makers, educators, practitioners from other relevant sectors and the wider community; (e) Applying this knowledge in replicating successful interventions, developing new initiatives and anticipating new crime problems and prevention opportunities; (f) Establishing data systems to help manage crime prevention more cost-effectively, including by conducting regular surveys of victimization and offending; (g) Promoting the application of those data in order to reduce repeat victimization, persistent offending and areas with a high level of crime. Planning interventions 22. Those planning interventions should promote a process that includes: (a) A systematic analysis of crime problems, their causes, risk factors and consequences, in particular at the local level; (b) A plan that draws on the most appropriate approach and adapts interventions to the specific local problem and context; (c) An implementation plan to deliver appropriate interventions that are efficient, effective and sustainable; (d) Mobilizing entities that are able to tackle causes; (e) Monitoring and evaluation. Support evaluation 23. Governments, other funding bodies and those involved in programme development and delivery should: (a) Undertake short- and longer-term evaluation to test rigorously what works, where and why; (b) Undertake cost-benefit analyses; (c) Assess the extent to which action results in a reduction in levels of crime and victimization, in the seriousness of crime and in fear of crime; (d) Systematically assess the outcomes and unintended consequences, both positive and negative, of action, such as a decrease in crime rates or the stigmatization of individuals and/or communities. C Approaches 24. This section expands upon the social development and situational crime prevention approaches. It also outlines approaches that Governments and civil society should endeavour to follow in order to prevent organized crime. Social development 25. Governments should address the risk factors of crime and victimization by: (a) Promoting protective factors through comprehensive and non-stigmatizing social and economic development programmes, including health, education, housing and employment; (b) Promoting activities that redress marginalization and exclusion; (c) Promoting positive conflict resolution; (d) Using education and public awareness strategies to foster a culture of lawfulness and tolerance while respecting cultural identities. Situational 26. Governments and civil society, including, where appropriate, the corporate sector, should support the development of situational crime prevention programmes by, inter alia:17. 各国政府应当把预防作为其遏制犯罪的机构和方案的一个长期任务,确保政府内部对于预防犯罪的组织工作责任明确、目标清楚,特别是通过:
(a) Improved environmental design;(a) 建立具有专门知识和资源的中心或联络点;
(b) Appropriate methods of surveillance that are sensitive to the right to privacy;(b) 制订重点和目标明确的预防犯罪计划;
(c) Encouraging the design of consumer goods to make them more resistant to crime;(c) 在有关政府机构或部门之间建立联系并进行协调;
(d) Target “hardening” without impinging upon the quality of the built environment or limiting free access to public space;(d) 与非政府组织、商界、私营部门和专业团体以及社区发展伙伴关系;
(e) Implementing strategies to prevent repeat victimization.(e) 通过向公众宣传行动的必要性和手段及其作用,鼓励公众积极参与预防犯罪。
Prevention of organized crime培训与能力建设 18. 各国政府应当支持开发预防犯罪的技能,办法是:
27. Governments and civil society should endeavour to analyse and address the links between transnational organized crime and national and local crime problems by, inter alia:(a) 向有关机构高级官员提供专业发展机会; (b) 鼓励各大学、学院和其他有关教育机构开设基础班和高级班,包括与从事这项工作的人员合作; (c) 与教育部门和专业团体一起做提供证明和专业资格证书的工作; (d) 提高社区发展和满足自身需要的能力。 支持伙伴关系 19. 各国政府及民间社会各阶层应当支持伙伴关系原则,其中酌情包括: (a) 宣传该原则的重要性及成功的伙伴关系的要素,包括所有伙伴有必要具有明确而透明的角色; (b) 促进在不同级别和跨部门建立伙伴关系; (c) 为伙伴关系的有效运作提供便利。 可持续性 20. 各国政府及其他供资机构应当努力使经证明有效的犯罪预防方案和举措可持续地开办下去,特别是通过:
(a) Reducing existing and future opportunities for organized criminal groups to participate in lawful markets with the proceeds of crime, through appropriate legislative, administrative or other measures;(a) 审查资金分配情况,以在预防犯罪与刑事司法及其他系统之间建立并维持适当的平衡,目的是更有效地预防犯罪与被害;
(b) Developing measures to prevent the misuse by organized criminal groups of tender procedures conducted by public authorities and of subsidies and licences granted by public authorities for commercial activity;(b) 为预防犯罪活动的筹资、方案编制和协调建立明确的问责制;
(c) Designing crime prevention strategies, where appropriate, to protect socially marginalized groups, especially women and children, who are vulnerable to the action of organized criminal groups, including trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants.(c) 鼓励社区参与促进这些方案和举措的可持续性。
V.B.
International cooperation方法
Standards and norms知识基础
28.21.
In promoting international action in crime prevention, Member States are invited to take into account the main international instruments related to human rights and crime prevention to which they are parties, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (General Assembly resolution 44/25, annex), the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (General Assembly resolution 48/104), the United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (the Riyadh Guidelines) (General Assembly resolution 45/112, annex), the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (General Assembly resolution 40/34, annex), the guidelines for cooperation and technical assistance in the field of urban crime prevention (resolution 1995/9, annex), as well as the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century (General Assembly resolution 55/59, annex) and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto (General Assembly resolution 55/25, annexes I-III, and resolution 55/255, annex).各国政府和/或民间社会应当酌情促进以知识为基础的犯罪预防,特别是通过:
Technical assistance(a) 为社区解决犯罪问题提供必要的信息;
29. Member States and relevant international funding organizations should provide financial and technical assistance, including capacity-building and training, to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, communities and other relevant organizations for the implementation of effective crime prevention and community safety strategies at the regional, national and local levels. In that context, special attention should be given to research and action on crime prevention through social development.(b) 支持产生有科学依据的、有效的、切合实际的有用知识;
Networking(c) 促进整理和综合知识,并且查明和弥补知识库中的空白;
30. Member States should strengthen or establish international, regional and national crime prevention networks with a view to exchanging proven and promising practices, identifying elements of their transferability and making such knowledge available to communities throughout the world.(d) 在研究人员、决策者、教育工作者、来自其他有关部门的从业者和更广泛的团体之间交流有关知识;
Links between transnational and local crime(e) 运用这一知识在别处进行成功的干预,制定新的举措,预测新的犯罪问题并防患于未然;
31. Member States should collaborate to analyse and address the links between transnational organized crime and national and local crime problems.(f) 建立数据库系统来帮助更有成本效益地管理犯罪预防工作,包括对犯罪与受害情况进行定期调查;
Prioritizing crime prevention(g) 鼓励运用这些数据来减少再次受害、惯常犯罪和高犯罪率地区。
32. The Centre for International Crime Prevention of the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention of the Secretariat, the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network of affiliated and associated institutes and other relevant United Nations entities should include in their priorities crime prevention as set out in these Guidelines, set up a coordination mechanism and establish a roster of experts to undertake needs assessment and to provide technical advice.有计划地进行干预
Dissemination22. 有计划地进行干预应当促进包括以下各方面的一个过程: (a) 系统分析犯罪问题、其原因、风险因素和后果,特别是在地方一级; (b) 利用最适宜的方法并根据当地的具体问题和情况制订干预计划; (c) 制订进行高效率、有成效和可持续的适当干预的实施计划; (d) 动员那些能够治本的实体; (e) 监督和评价。 支持评价 23. 各国政府、其他供资机构和参与制定和实施计划的机构应当: (a) 进行短期和长期评价,严格验证是什么在起作用,在哪里和为什么起作用; (b) 进行成本效益分析; (c) 评估活动导致犯罪和受害程度的下降情况,犯罪严重程度的下降情况,以及对犯罪的恐惧心理的减轻程度; (d) 系统评估活动的结果和出乎意料的后果,不管是正面的还是反面的,例如犯罪率降低或个人和/或社区的指责。 C. 途径 24. 本节详细阐述了通过社会发展和从环境方面预防犯罪的途径,还概述了各国政府和民间社会在预防有组织犯罪方面应当尽量遵循的方法。 社会发展 25. 各国政府应当消除犯罪和受害的风险因素,办法是: (a) 通过综合的和非谴责性的社会和经济发展方案,包括卫生、教育、住房和就业方案,促进保护性因素; (b) 倡导消除边缘化和排斥的活动; (c) 倡导积极的冲突解决办法; (d) 利用教育和公众宣传战略来培育尊重文化特性、守法和容忍的文化。 环境方面 26. 各国政府和民间社会,在适宜时包括企业界,应当支持制定从环境方面预防犯罪的方案,特别是通过: (a) 改进环境设计; (b) 谨慎对待隐私权的、恰当的监督方法; (c) 鼓励设计更易抵制犯罪的消费品; (d) 使目标“难以得手”,但又不影响现有环境的质量或限制进入公共场所的自由; (e) 实施预防再次被害的战略。 预防有组织犯罪 27. 各国政府和民间社会应当致力于分析和应对跨国有组织犯罪与国内和当地犯罪问题之间的联系,特别是采取以下办法: (a) 通过适当的立法、行政或其他措施减少有组织犯罪集团现在和将来用犯罪所得参与合法市场的机会; (b) 制定措施,防止有组织犯罪集团滥用政府当局操作的招标程序以及政府当局为商业活动发放的补贴和许可证; (c) 酌情设计犯罪预防战略,以保护处于社会边缘的群体,尤其是妇女和儿童,他们容易受到有组织犯罪集团的活动的伤害,比如贩卖人口和偷运移民。 五. 国际合作 标准和规范 28. 请各会员国在促进预防犯罪的国际行动中考虑到它们已加入的有关人权和预防犯罪的主要国际文书,例如《儿童权利公约》(大会第44/25号决议,附件)、《消除对妇女的暴力行为宣言》(大会第48/104号决议)、《联合国预防少年犯罪准则》(《利雅得准则》)(大会第45/112号决议,附件)、《为罪行和滥用权力行为受害者取得公理的基本原则宣言》(大会第40/34号决议,附件)、《预防城市犯罪方面的合作和技术援助准则》(第1995/9号决议,附件)、《关于犯罪与司法:迎接二十一世纪的挑战的维也纳宣言》(大会第55/59号决议,附件)以及《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》及其议定书(大会第55/25号决议,附件一至三,以及大会第55/255号决议,附件)。 技术援助 29. 各会员国及有关国际供资组织应当向发展中国家和转型期经济国家、社区及其他有关组织提供财政和技术援助,包括能力建设和培训,以便在区域、国家和地方各级实施有效预防犯罪战略和社区安全战略。在这方面,应当特别关注通过社会发展预防犯罪方面的研究和行动。 网络建设 30. 各会员国应当加强或建立国际、区域和国家预防犯罪网,以便交流各种切实可行而且有希望的做法,确定可传播这些做法的要素,并向世界各地的社区传播这些知识。 跨国犯罪与地方犯罪之间的联系 31. 各会员国应当共同分析和应对跨国有组织犯罪与国家和地方犯罪问题之间的联系。 将预防犯罪作为优先事项 32. 秘书处药物管制和预防犯罪办事处国际预防犯罪中心、联合国预防犯罪和刑事司法方案网各附属研究所和联系研究所以及联合国其他相关实体应当按照本准则的规定,将预防犯罪作为它们的优先事项,建立协调机制并拟订从事需求评估和技术咨询的专家名册。 传播
33.33.
Relevant United Nations bodies and other organizations should cooperate to produce crime prevention information in as many languages as possible, using both print and electronic media.联合国有关机构及其他组织应当进行合作,用尽可能多的语文提供预防犯罪方面的信息,不管是使用印刷媒体还是电子媒体。
General Assembly resolution 55/59, annex.大会第55/59号决议,附件。
E/CN.15/2002/4.E/CN.15/2002/4。
See Compendium of United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.92.IV.1 and corrigendum).见《联合国预防犯罪和刑事司法标准和规范简编》(联合国出版物,出售品编号C.92.IV.1和更正)。