A_AC_105_C_1_103_ADD_1_EC
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A/AC.105/C.1/103/ADD.1 V1187796.doc (English)A/AC.105/C.1/103/ADD.1 V1187795.doc (Chinese)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space和平利用外层空间委员会
Scientific and Technical Subcommittee科学和技术小组委员会
Forty-ninth session第四十九届会议
Vienna, 6-17 February 20122012年2月6日至17日,维也纳
Item 14 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目14
Long-term sustainability of outer space activities外层空间活动的长期可持续性
Information on experiences and practices related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities关于外层空间活动长期可持续性相关经验和做法的信息
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
I. Introduction一. 导言
The present addendum has been prepared by the Secretariat on the basis of information received from the following United Nations entities and intergovernmental bodies: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and Office for Disarmament Affairs of the Secretariat; and from the following other international organizations and bodies: Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Group on Earth Observations secretariat.本增编是由秘书处根据从联合国实体和政府间机构(亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、国际电信联盟、联合国教育、科学及文化组织和秘书处裁军事务厅)以及其他国际组织和机构(空间数据系统协商委员会、欧洲利用气象卫星组织和地球观测组织秘书处)收到的资料编写而成。
II. Replies received from United Nations entities and intergovernmental bodies二. 从联合国实体和政府间机构收到的答复
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[2 December 2011][2011年12月2日]
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is the regional development arm of the United Nations for the Asia-Pacific region. ESCAP is the most comprehensive of the five United Nations regional commissions; with the membership of 62 Governments, it focuses on issues that are most effectively addressed through regional cooperation.亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会(亚太经社会)是联合国亚太区域发展分支机构。亚太经社会是联合国五个区域委员会中最具广泛性的机构;其成员包括62个国家的政府,侧重于通过区域合作最有效解决的问题。
The regional strategy of ESCAP on space applications for disaster risk reduction focuses on regional and subregional cooperative mechanisms, to better support disaster risk reduction as part of an overall sustainable development strategy, in keeping with the Millennium Development Goals, the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Hyogo Framework for Action. At its 67th session, in May 2011, the Commission supported the ESCAP secretariat’s continued promotion and development of innovative projects for sustainable development that made effective use of information and communications technology (ICT) and space technology in areas such as transport, including satellite-based navigation and positioning systems, and of ICT in the area of trade.亚太经社会关于空间应用减少自然灾害风险的区域战略侧重于区域和分区域合作机制,以便按照《千年发展目标》、可持续发展问题世界峰会以及《兵库行动纲领》的要求,作为整个可持续发展战略的一部分为减少灾害风险提供更好的支持。在2011年5月第六十七届会议上,亚太经社会支持其秘书处继续促进和发展可持续发展方面的创新项目,这些项目在运输等领域有效地使用信息和通信技术以及空间技术,包括借助卫星的导航和定位系统,而且还在贸易领域有效地使用信息和通信技术。
The subject of space applications for disaster risk reduction and management is addressed by ESCAP through both sectoral and multisectoral approaches. The Regional Space Applications Programme for Sustainable Development (RESAP) is aimed at promoting the use of space applications for inclusive, resilient and sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific. It does this through policy research and advocacy, capacity-building and the promotion of regional cooperative mechanisms.亚太经社会通过部门层面和多部门层面处理空间应用减少和管理灾害风险的课题。可持续发展区域空间应用方案着眼于通过促进使用空间应用来实现亚洲及太平洋地区的包容性、弹性和可持续发展。该方案为此进行政策研究,开展宣传,进行能力建设和促进区域合作机制。
Under RESAP, the Regional Cooperative Mechanism for Disaster Monitoring and Early Warning, Particularly Drought, was established and launched in Nanjing, China, in September 2010 with the support of China, India, Thailand and other stakeholders. The Mechanism is aimed at providing space-based technical tools with a focus on drought, and eventually other types of disasters, beginning with floods, will be incorporated.在该方案之下,2010年9月在中国、印度、泰国和其他利益相关方的支持下,在中国南京建立了特别针对干旱的灾害监测和早期预警区域合作机制。该机制旨在提供侧重于干旱的天基技术工具,最终将纳入由水灾引起的其他类型灾害。
The Mechanism will consist of a platform designed to provide satellite information products and services for disaster monitoring and early warning; an information portal for accessing drought disaster management-related information, technical resources and services of the Mechanism; and capacity-building through various technical and non-technical advisory services, training sessions and workshops to assist less capable drought-prone countries in developing institutional capacities for disaster monitoring and early warning at the national level. It will also facilitate the assessment of risks and contribute to the formulation of policies, programmes and projects for the holistic management of drought, including mitigation, preparedness, response, relief and recovery.该机制将有几个组成部分:平台,旨在提供灾害监测和早期预警方面的卫星信息产品和服务;信息门户,用以评价该机制的干旱灾害管理相关信息、技术资源和服务;能力建设,通过各种技术和非技术咨询服务、培训班和讲习班,协助能力较差的多灾国家发展国家一级的灾害监测和早期预警方面的机构能力。该机制还将便利风险评价并对制订干旱总体管理(包括减灾、防灾、反应、救济和恢复)方面的政策、方案和项目作出贡献。
In connection with the capacity-building framework of the Mechanism, national training workshops focused on enabling access to and the use of satellite imagery for enhancing countries’ capacity for disaster emergency response, risk reduction and development were held in Palau, Papua New Guinea, Tuvalu and Fiji in August and September 2011. Other subjects included access to and the availability and usefulness of satellite imagery data and products from experimental, research and thematic satellites. Specific requests were also made to address data gaps and to facilitate more effective access to satellite imagery and products, as well as the development of a geo-referenced database repository with a view to implementing the National Disaster Risk Management Framework of related Pacific countries. Feedback and requests will be used in the strengthening of the current RESAP framework and the work to operationalize the Mechanism.结合该机制的能力建设框架,2011年8月和9月在帕劳、巴布亚新几内亚、图瓦卢和斐济举办了几次国家培训讲习班,侧重点是如何获取和使用卫星图象以加强各国在灾害应急措施、减少风险和发展方面的能力。其他问题包括各种实验卫星、研究卫星和主题卫星的卫星图象数据和产品的获取、提供和功用问题。还提出一些具体请求,涉及数据鸿沟以及促进更有效地获取卫星图像和产品,以及开发一个地理参数数据库存储处,以期执行某些相关太平洋国家的国家灾害风险管理框架。所收到的反馈和请求将用以加强现在的可持续发展区域空间应用方案框架和该机制的落实工作。
For the next steps, the Mechanism is working to enhance the joint research among the members of the Mechanism on data standardization, starting with drought data. The research and conceptualization would be based on the concept notes provided by the members and would be combined with space-based data, ground observation data and historical data so as to achieve more effective monitoring and early warning for drought events and to identify high-risk drought-prone areas.为了执行下面几个步骤,该机制正在着手加强机制各成员之间关于数据标准化的共同研究,先从干旱数据入手。研究和构想将以成员提供的概念说明为依据,然后综合天基数据、地面观测数据和历史数据,以实现对干旱事件更有效的监测和早期预警并查明高风险干旱多发地区。
The ESCAP secretariat continues to support training courses hosted by RESAP training network partners, such as the course on geo-information, held in Indonesia, from 25 July to 7 August 2010. In addition to enabling networking among like-minded colleagues from around the region, the courses provide participants with up-to-date skills that they can share with their local counterparts. These arrangements have been ongoing for more than 10 years, and more than 200 participants have gained substantive knowledge from training on various relevant themes related to space applications.可持续发展区域空间应用方案秘书处继续支持由该方案培训网络伙伴主办的培训课程,例如2010年7月25日至8月7日在印度尼西亚举办的地理信息培训班。除了促进在本区域具有同样想法的同行之间建立网络之外,该培训班为学员提供了最新技能,他们可以与本国的同行分享这些技能。这些安排已经持续了十多年,200多位学员从关于空间应用的各种相关主题培训中获得了实务知识。
ESCAP also organized a workshop on developing capacity for resilience to water-related disasters in Pakistan through space applications and flood risk management, in Islamabad from 1 to 4 March 2011, in response to the flood catastrophe in Pakistan. The workshop was aimed at developing national capacity to deal with these priority areas of disaster risk management and enabling the country to deal effectively with other potential impacts of climate change, including the melting of glaciers, drought and desertification, spread of pests and diseases and sea-level rise.针对巴基斯坦发生的洪灾,亚太经社会还于2011年3月1日至4日在伊斯兰堡举办了一次关于通过空间应用和水灾风险管理发展应对巴基斯坦水涝相关灾害弹性能力的讲习班。讲习班旨在发展本国应对灾害风险管理的这些优先领域的能力,并使该国能够有效地对付气候变化带来的其他潜在影响,包括冰川溶化、干旱和沙漠化、病虫害蔓延以及海平面升高。
ESCAP co-organized a regional workshop on using space applications for managing water-related disaster risks in Asia, in Bangkok from 7 to 9 December 2010. Supported by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and the Asian Development Bank, the workshop provided an opportunity for flood forecasters and river managers from 11 ESCAP member States to exchange information on the application of space-based technology to measures such as flood risk assessment, flood monitoring, forecast and early warning, and evacuation.2010年12月7日至9日,亚太经社会在曼谷合办了一次关于利用空间应用管理亚洲水涝相关灾害风险的区域讲习班。在日本宇宙航空研究开发机构和亚洲开发银行的支持下,讲习班为亚太经社会11个成员国的洪水预报人员和河流管理人员提供了一个机会,交流关于天基技术应用于洪水风险评估、洪水监测、预报和早期预警以及人员撤退等方面措施的信息。
The workshop also had a training session on the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) which is a flood-runoff analysis system for more effective and efficient flood forecasting, targeting developing countries. IFAS implements interfaces to input both ground-based and satellite-based rainfall data, Geographic Information System (GIS) functions and interfaces to display output results.讲习班还举行了一次关于洪水综合分析系统的培训班,该系统是一种用于更有效、更高效洪水预报的洪水溢流分析系统,对象是发展中国家。这个系统有输入从地面和卫星获得的降雨量数据的界面,具备地理信息系统功能,还有显示输出结果的界面。
The ESCAP secretariat is planning and working to establish a regional cooperative mechanism for disaster communication capacities, the core component of which will be emergency communication, in collaboration with members of the Regional Inter-Agency Working Group on ICT, in particular the International Telecommunication Union and the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity. The mechanism, based on a multi-stakeholder approach and public-private partnership, is aimed at establishing an affordable and sustainable implementation of deployable satellite communications-enriched disaster response capabilities in the Asia-Pacific region.亚太经社会秘书处与信息和通信技术问题机构间区域工作组成员合作,特别是与国际电信联盟和亚洲太平洋电信共同体合作,正在计划并着手建立灾害通信能力方面的区域合作机制,其核心组成部分将是应急通信能力。这个机制采取面向多个利害相关方的做法和建立公私营伙伴关系,着眼于以可承受和可持续的方式在亚太区域建立起借助卫星通信强化的可部署型灾害应对能力。
The ESCAP secretariat is implementing a project entitled “Improving disaster preparedness in the ESCAP region”, aimed at strengthening the capacity of countries with special needs to implement the Hyogo Framework for Action through the use of standardized statistical and geographical information tools. The project is expected to have two major accomplishments: (a) Governments will be able to establish and use geo-referenced statistical systems for disaster risk identification, preparedness, post-disaster assessment and recovery planning; and (b) a regional network will be established to link communities of practice for GIS, statistical and information, communications and space technology applications.亚太经社会秘书处正在执行一个题为“改善亚太经社会区域防灾状况”的项目,其目的是加强有特殊需要的国家借助标准化统计工具和地理信息工具落实《兵库行动纲领》的能力。这个项目预期将取得两项重大成就:(a)各国政府将能够为灾害风险确定、防范、灾后评估和恢复规划而建立和使用地理参数统计系统;(b)将建立一个区域网络,把地理信息系统、统计、信息、通信以及空间技术应用方面的各个实践社区连接起来。
This will be achieved by conducting needs assessments and other activities through a survey and two expert group meetings, the development of a standardized geo-referenced statistical information system, the organization of two training workshops for government officials, the conduct of technical advisory missions, the establishment of an online community of practice and a regional knowledge-sharing workshop.为实现这些目标将进行需要评估和开展一些其他活动,包括进行一次调查和举行两次专家组会议,开发一个标准化地理参数统计信息系统,为政府官员举办两次培训讲习班,派出技术咨询团,建立一个网上实践群体,并举办一次区域范围知识交流讲习班。
The ESCAP secretariat is planning to update a compendium of information on the space application capabilities of the countries in the region through inputs from all stakeholders, including countries, satellite operators and service providers. Relevant capabilities, initiatives and some best practices on the use of space technology for disaster management will be collected and collated.亚太经社会秘书处正在筹划增补关于本区域各国空间应用能力的信息概要,办法是由包括国家、卫星运营商和服务提供商在内的所有利害相关方提供投入。还将收集并核对空间技术用于灾害管理方面的相关能力、举措和某些最佳做法。
International Telecommunication Union国际电信联盟
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[17 November 2011][2011年11月17日]
International Telecommunication Union radio regulatory framework for space services国际电信联盟空间业务无线电监管框架
1. Introduction1. 导言
The rights and obligations of the member States of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the domain of international frequency management of the spectrum/orbit resource are incorporated in the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union and in the Radio Regulations that complement them. Those instruments contain the main principles and lay down the specific regulations governing the following major elements:国际电信联盟(国际电联)各成员国在频谱/轨道资源国际频率管理领域的权利和义务载于《国际电信联盟章程和公约》以及起补充作用的《无线电条例》。上述文书载有主要原则,并规定了管理以下主要内容的具体条例:
(a) Frequency spectrum allocations to different categories of radiocommunication services;(a) 不同无线电通讯服务类别的频谱分配;
(b) Rights and obligations of member administrations in obtaining access to the spectrum/orbit resource;(b) 成员国行政当局获取频谱/轨道资源的权利和义务;
(c) International recognition of those rights by recording frequency assignments and, as appropriate, any associated orbits, including the geostationary-satellite orbits, used or intended to be used in the Master International Frequency Register.(c) 通过记录频率分配以及酌情记录任何相关轨道,包括在《国际总频率登记》中使用的或打算使用的地球静止卫星轨道,使上述权利获得国际认可;
Those regulations are based on the main principles of efficient use of and equitable access to the spectrum/orbit resource, as laid down in provision No. 196 of the ITU Constitution (art. 44), which stipulates,上述条例依据的是有效利用和公平获取频谱/轨道资源的主要原则,如《国际电联章程》第196项条款(第44条)所确定,其中规定:
In using frequency bands for radio services, member States shall bear in mind that radio frequencies and any associated orbits, including the geostationary-satellite orbit, are limited natural resources and that they must be used rationally, efficiently and economically, in conformity with the provisions of the Radio Regulations, so that countries or groups of countries may have equitable access to those orbits and frequencies, taking into account the special needs of the developing countries and the geographical situation of particular countries.成员国使用频带提供无线电服务时,应当铭记,无线电频率及任何相关轨道,包括地球静止卫星轨道,均属于有限的自然资源;必须根据《无线电条例》的规定合理、有效和节约利用,以便各国或各国家组可以公平地获取这些轨道和频率,同时考虑发展中国家的特殊需求及特定国家的地域状况。
As indicated in that provision, further detailed regulations and procedures governing spectrum/orbit use are contained in the Radio Regulations, which are a binding international treaty.如该条规定所示,《无线电条例》载有更为详细的管理频谱/轨道利用的规章和程序,因而是具有约束性的国际条约。
Specific procedures have been established to ensure international recognition of the frequencies used and to safeguard the rights of administrations when they comply with those procedures.具体程序业已确立,以确保所使用的频率获得国际认可,并在行政当局遵守上述程序时保护其权利。
The fact that the ITU Constitution and Convention and the Radio Regulations that complement them are intergovernmental treaties ratified by governments means that those governments undertake:《国际电联章程和公约》以及起补充作用的《无线电条例》是各国政府批准的政府间条约,这意味着上述政府承诺:
(a) To apply the provisions in their countries;(a) 在国内适用相关规定;
(b) To adopt adequate national legislation that includes, as the basic minimum, the essential provisions of that international treaty.(b) 通过充分的国家立法,并作为最低限度的基本要求,在相关立法中纳入该国际条约的必要规定。
The international Radio Regulations are nevertheless oriented mainly towards matters of a global or regional character, and in many areas there is scope for making special arrangements on a bilateral or multilateral basis.然而,国际《无线电条例》主要着眼于全球或区域性事项,并且在许多领域仍有以双边或多边形式确定特殊安排的余地。
Over the last 40 years, the space regulatory framework has been constantly adapted to changing circumstances and has achieved the necessary flexibility in satisfying the two major, but not always compatible, requirements of efficiency and equity. The dramatic development of telecommunication services has seen an increasing demand for spectrum/orbit usage for practically all space communication services. This increase is attributable to many factors, including not only technological progress, but also political, social and structural changes around the world and their impact on the liberalization of telecommunication services, the introduction of non-geostationary-satellite orbit satellite systems for commercial communications and scientific and radionavigation applications, growing market orientation, the change in the way this widening market is shared between private and State-owned service providers and the general globalization and commercialization of communication systems.40年来,不断对空间监管框架做出调整,以适应千变万化的环境,并且在满足效率和公平这两个主要的但往往不可兼得的要求方面实现必要的灵活性。电信服务的急剧发展,使得将频谱/轨道用于实际上所有空间通讯服务的需求日益增加。这一需求增长是由许多因素引起的,其中不仅包括技术的进步,而且还包括:世界各地的政治、社会和结构变革及其对电信服务自由化的影响,采用用于商业通信的非地球静止卫星轨道的卫星系统及科学和无线电导航应用,不断加强市场定向,私营和国有服务提供者之间分享这一正在拓宽的市场的方式的改变,以及通信系统的普遍全球化和商业化。
2. International Telecommunication Union Radio Regulations2. 国际电信联盟《无线电条例》
(a) Leading international radio regulatory instrument(a) 最重要的国际无线电监管文书
The ITU Radio Regulations, as a leading instrument in the international radio regulatory set-up, are based on the use of two main concepts:国际电联《无线电条例》是国际无线电监管安排中最重要的文书,它的依据是利用两个主要概念:
(a) The concept of block allocations of frequencies that are intended for use by defined radio services — table of frequency allocations as contained in article 5 of the Radio Regulations. This concept generally provides common frequency allocations to mutually compatible services operating with similar technical characteristics in specific parts of the spectrum. It also provides a stable planning environment for administrations, equipment manufacturers and users;(a) 频率区块配置概念,计划为特定无线电服务使用——如《无线电条例》第5条所载的频率分配表。这一概念通常为与具有类似的技术特征、在具体频谱部分实施的相互兼容的服务提供同频率分配。它还为行政当局、设备制造商和用户提供稳定的规划环境;
(b) The concept of voluntary or mandatory regulatory procedures (for coordination, notification and recording) adapted to the allocation structure.(b) 适应于分配结构的自愿或强制监管程序概念(用于协调、通知和记录)。
(b) Objectives(b) 目标
The Radio Regulations have the following objectives:《无线电条例》具有以下目标:
(a) To facilitate equitable access to and rational use of the natural resources of the radio-frequency spectrum and any associated orbits, including GSO;(a) 促进无线电频谱和包括地球静止轨道在内的任何相关轨道的自然资源的公平获取和合理使用;
(b) To ensure the availability, and protection from harmful interference, of the frequencies provided for distress and safety purposes;(b) 确保为灾害和安全之目的提供的频率可以利用并防止有害干扰;
(c) To assist in the prevention and resolution of cases of harmful interference between the radio services of different administrations;(c) 协助预防和解决不同行政当局的无线电服务之间发生有害干扰的情况;
(d) To facilitate the efficient and effective operation of all radiocommunication services;(d) 推动所有无线电通信服务高效和有效运行;
(e) To provide for and, where necessary, regulate new applications of radiocommunication technology.(e) 提供并视必要监管无线电通信技术的新型应用。
3. References3. 参考
The BR International Frequency Information Circular (Space Services) is a service document, published once every two weeks by the Radiocommunication Bureau in accordance with provisions No. 20.2 to 20.6 and No. 20.15 of the ITU Radio Regulations, available from www.itu.int/ITU-R/go/space-brific/en.《无线电通信局国际频率信息通报》(空间服务)是一份服务性文件,由无线电通信局依照国际电联《无线电条例》第20.2至20.6条及第20.15条的规定隔周出版,可从网站www.itu.int/ITU-R/go/space-brific/en上查阅。
The Space Network List is a reference list of regulatory publications concerning planned or existing space stations, Earth stations and radio astronomy stations, available from www.itu.int/ITU-R/space/snl/index.html.《空间网络一览表》是一份关于规划中或现有的空间站、地球站和无线电天文学站的监管出版物参考清单,可从网站www.itu.int/ITU-R/space/snl/ index.html上查阅。
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization联合国教育、科学及文化组织
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[27 October 2011][2011年10月27日]
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has participated in the sessions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and has been following with great interest the enormous range of activities that the Committee undertakes. At certain sessions, the Committee has decided to include the topic of “Space for heritage”, which has given UNESCO an important role in such sessions. UNESCO is thankful to the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat and the Committee for all joint cooperation.联合国教育、科学及文化组织(教科文组织)参加了和平利用外层空间委员会的历届会议,并且怀着极大的兴趣参与了该委员会开展的诸多活动。该委员会在一些届会上决定纳入“遗产空间”议题,从而赋予教科文组织在这些届会上发挥重要作用。教科文组织感谢秘书处外层空间事务厅和委员会的所有协力合作。
The Committee undertakes a wide range of activities, all of which are in some way related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.委员会广泛开展各种活动,所有这些活动均在某种程度上与外层空间活动的长期可持续性相关。
Outer space activities can become sustainable only if there is greater access to space data, if space agencies can ensure that they have proper national support to continue their activities and if the young generation is trained to acquire the skills necessary for them to join the space forces of the future.只有在扩大利用空间数据、空间机构能够确保为各国继续开展活动提供合理支持以及年青一代经过培训后获得了他们加入未来的空间力量的必要技能的情况下,外层空间活动才可能是可持续的。
The Committee is involved in all of these aspects, with the assistance of the Office for Outer Space Affairs and UNESCO. Therefore, UNESCO suggests that the definition of a larger view of what the Committee means for the long-term sustainability of outer space activities be explored. At this moment, in the Committee, that notion is uniquely linked with space debris, which certainly has an impact on our global observing systems and is one of the topics the Committee is mandated to address. However, long-term sustainability of outer space activities involves much more than just space debris.在外层空间事务厅和教科文组织的协助下,委员会参与了上述所有方面的活动。因此,教科文组织建议,应当探讨委员会关于外层空间活动的长期可持续性的长远看法。此时此刻,在委员会看来,这一理念与空间碎片具有独特的关联性,这必然给我们的全球观测系统产生影响,并且该理念是责成委员会讨论的议题之一。然而,外层空间活动的长期可持续性不仅仅涉及空间碎片。
It is important to clarify this issue because, while the topic of long-term sustainability of outer space activities is perfectly understood in the Committee to be related with space debris, the same topic will have a completely different meaning for people who are not familiar with the Committee. Therefore, we recommend that the Committee describe all the activities that it has endorsed to ensure the long-term sustainability of outer space activities. Afterwards the Committee can focus on the issue of space debris as one component, but not the only one.澄清这一问题非常重要,因为,委员会虽然完全理解外层空间活动的长期可持续性议题与空间碎片相关,但同一议题对于不熟悉委员会工作的人而言具有完全不同的意义。因此,我们建议,委员会应当描述其已核可确保外层空间活动的长期可持续性的所有活动。之后,委员会可以重点关注空间碎片问题,以此作为一个组成部分而不是唯一存在的问题。
UNESCO is not involved in the area of space debris and therefore cannot provide any input on this specific topic. However, if the topic is the long-term sustainability of outer space activities in a broader sense, as is indicated in paragraph 14 (a) of the terms of reference of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities (A/66/20, annex II), then UNESCO can make significant contributions.教科文组织不参与空间碎片领域的工作,因而无法提供有关这一具体议题的任何信息。然而,如果议题是广义上的外层空间活动的长期可持续性,如外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的职权范围(A/66/20,附件二)第14(a)段所示,那么,教科文组织可以做出重要贡献。
To provide a better idea of what we are referring to, consider, for example, the Land Remote Sensing Satellite (Landsat) programme of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Landsat is a unique satellite that has been acquiring data for over 40 years. It is therefore extremely important for such a sensor to have long-term sustainability. It is a unique tool that, acquiring images of the Earth always using a similar sensor, band and resolution, enables comparisons revealing changes to the Earth’s surface over the past 40 years.为针对我们所提及的内容提供更好的想法,请考虑,例如美国国家航空航天局(美国航天局)的大地遥感卫星方案。大地遥感卫星是一种独特的卫星,40多年来一直在获取数据。因此,这种传感器具有长期可持续性是极为重要的。它是一种独特的工具,始终利用类似的传感器、带宽和分辨率获取地球图像,通过比较揭示过去40年地球表面的变化。整个国际社会担心,大地遥感卫星方案难以为继的可能性何时会出现。
The whole international community was worried when the possibility arose that the Landsat programme might not continue. UNESCO has received a proposal to consider a portion of the United States Geological Survey Landsat archive of Earth imagery to be included in activities preserving humanity’s documentary history (Memory of the World Register). There are many other applications for which the long-term sustainability of outer space activities needs to be ensured. If the Committee would like to take on these other areas, it will be important to map the overlap with other space-related organizations in this field.教科文组织收到一项提案,建议审议一部分将纳入保护人类文献史(《世界记忆名录》)活动的美国地质调查局有关地球影像的大地遥感卫星档案。许多其他应用情况必须确保外层空间活动的长期可持续性。如果委员会想要涉足这些领域,绘制与该领域其他空间相关组织工作重叠的图表是非常重要的。
Another extremely important area for the long-term sustainability of outer space activities is capacity-building. The more countries have access and use space data for their national sustainable development, the more space agencies will ensure the sustainability of the associated space data services. Some relevant topics are addressed under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security. Therefore, coordination with such initiatives is needed.另一个对于外层空间活动的长期可持续性极为重要的领域是能力建设。能够获取和使用空间数据促进可持续发展的国家越多,确保相关空间数据服务的可持续性的空间机构就越多。一些相关议题是在地球观测组织、全球对地观测分布式系统及全球环境和安全监测之下讨论的。因此,必须与这些倡议相协调。
UNESCO would be interested in working with other United Nations organizations, in particular the Office for Outer Space Affairs, and space agencies if the mandate of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities is extended beyond the topic of space debris. However, such an extension should be effected giving careful consideration to complementarity with the mandates of other space-related organizations.教科文组织有意与其他联合国组织尤其是外层空间事务厅合作,以及与空间机构合作,但外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的任务规定必须加以扩展,以超出空间碎片议题的范围。然而,应在认真考虑到与其他空间组织的任务规定的互补性的同时,进行这种扩展。
Office for Disarmament Affairs of the Secretariat秘书处裁军事务厅
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[3 November 2011][2011年11月3日]
Since 1982 the prevention of an arms race in outer space has been one of the four core issues on the agenda of the Geneva-based Conference on Disarmament.自1982年以来,防止外层空间军备竞赛一直是设在日内瓦的裁军谈判会议议程的四大核心问题之一。
From a historical perspective, it should be recalled that it was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that, in 1981, wished to have the issue placed on the agenda of the General Assembly as a separate item and submitted a draft treaty on the prohibition of the stationing of weapons of any kind in outer space. In the same year, the Assembly, on the initiative of the Eastern European States, as well as others, adopted resolution 36/99, in which it requested the Committee on Disarmament (as the Conference on Disarmament was called at the time) to start negotiations on a treaty prohibiting the stationing of weapons of any kind in outer space. Also in 1981, on the basis of the initiative of a group of Western countries, the Assembly adopted resolution 36/97 C, in which it requested the Committee on Disarmament to “consider as a matter of priority the question of negotiating an effective and verifiable agreement to prohibit anti-satellite systems” as an important step towards the prevention of an arms race in outer space. Clearly, a divergence of views among the Member States of the United Nations, as well as among the members of the Committee on Disarmament, on the next steps to be taken to prevent an arms race in outer space has existed since the early years of the consideration of this issue.从历史观点来看,应当回顾的是,正是苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟在1981年希望将这一问题作为一个单独项目列入大会议程,并提交一份关于禁止在外层空间驻留任何种类武器的条约草案。同一年,大会根据东欧国家以及其他国家的倡议,通过了第36/99号决议,要求裁军委员会(裁军谈判会议在当时的名称)开始就禁止在外层空间驻留任何种类武器的条约进行谈判。同样在1981年,根据一些西方国家的倡议,大会通过了第36/97 C号决议,要求裁军委员会“作为一个优先事项,考虑通过谈判达成一项有效且可核实的协定,禁止反卫星系统,”这是防止外层空间军备竞赛的一个重要步骤。显然,从审议这一问题的最初几年起,联合国各会员国以及裁军委员会各成员之间针对为防止外层空间军备竞赛而采取的随后步骤存在意见分歧。
From 1985 to 1994, an Ad Hoc Committee was established in the Conference on Disarmament to “examine, as a first step at this stage, through substantive and general consideration, issues relevant to the prevention of an arms race in outer space” and taking into account “all existing agreements, existing proposals and future initiatives” (CD/584).从1985年至1994年,在裁军谈判会议内部设立了一个特设委员会,“作为这一阶段的第一步,通过实质性和普遍性审议,考察与防止外层空间军备竞赛有关的问题”,同时考虑“所有现有协定、现有提案和未来倡议”(CD/584)。
Among the latest developments on this issue is the new draft treaty on prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space and of the threat or use of force against outer space objects (CD/1839), submitted in 2008 by the Russian Federation and China to the Conference on Disarmament for its consideration. While at that time a number of delegations welcomed the draft treaty, no consensus within the Conference on Disarmament was reached then, nor has one been reached today, on the negotiation of such a treaty.有关这一问题的最新进展之一是,拟定了一项新的防止在外空部署武器和对外空物体使用武力或威胁使用武力的条约草案(CD/1839),该草案由俄罗斯联邦和中国于2008年提交裁军谈判会议供其审议。虽然当时一些代表团对该条约草案表示欢迎,但在裁军谈判会议内部没有就此条约的谈判达成共识,至今也没有达成一致意见。
It should also be recalled that the decision for the establishment of a programme of work for the 2009 session of the Conference on Disarmament (CD/1864), which represents the only programme of work that the members of the Conference on Disarmament have agreed to in more than a decade, provided for the establishment of a working group to discuss substantively, without limitation, all issues related to the prevention of an arms race in outer space. That decision did not, however, provide for a negotiating mandate for the Group. Unfortunately, for reasons unrelated to the prevention of an arms race in outer space, there was no agreement on the implementation of CD/1864.还应当回顾,关于确立裁军谈判会议2009年届会工作计划的决定(CD/1864)是裁军谈判会议成员同意在十多年内实施的唯一一项工作计划,该决定规定设立一个工作组,不受限制地对与防止外层空间军备竞赛有关的所有问题进行实质性讨论。然而,该决定没有规定工作组的谈判任务。遗憾的是,由于与防止外层空间军备竞赛无关,没有就实施第CD/1864号文件达成一致意见。
Despite the formal absence of a working group on the prevention of an arms race in outer space, scheduled debates on this issue take place every year in plenary or informal meetings of the Conference on Disarmament. Such discussions provide an invaluable platform for the exchange of views, although they do not seem to have bridged completely the divergent views among delegations on the issue.尽管在形式上缺乏防止外层空间军备竞赛工作组,但每年在裁军谈判会议全体会议或非正式会议上都会安排对这一问题进行辩论。这些讨论似乎没有完全弥补各代表团就这一问题产生的意见分歧,但提供了一个交流意见的重要平台。
Most recently, the General Assembly, in its resolution 65/68, entitled “Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities”, requested the Secretary-General to establish, on the basis of equitable geographical distribution, a group of governmental experts to conduct a study, commencing in 2012, on outer space transparency and confidence-building measures, making use of the relevant reports of the Secretary-General, without prejudice to the substantive discussions on the prevention of an arms race in outer space within the framework of the Conference on Disarmament, and to submit to the Assembly at its sixty-eighth session a report with an annex containing the study of governmental experts.最近,大会在题为“外层空间活动中的透明度和建立信任措施”的第65/68号决议中,请秘书长在公平地域分配基础上设立一个政府专家组,利用秘书长的相关报告,在不妨碍在裁军谈判会议框架内就防止外层空间军备竞赛问题进行的实质性讨论的情况下,自2012年起,对外层空间的透明度和建立信任措施进行研究,并向大会第六十八届会议提交一份报告,在其附件中载列政府专家的研究报告。
The possibility is not to be excluded, although it is by no means certain, that the report of the group of governmental experts could push forward the discussions and perhaps the negotiations on the prevention of an arms race in outer space in the Conference on Disarmament. In fact, increased transparency and confidence-building measures could create a climate of greater trust and possibly also facilitate the negotiation of a treaty, although the final word on this rests, as always, with the States members of the Conference on Disarmament.这种可能性不会被排除在外,尽管在任何情况下都不确定政府专家组的报告可能推进讨论,或许能够推进裁军谈判会议就防止外层空间军备竞赛进行的谈判。事实上,提高透明度和建立信任措施能够营造一种加强信任的氛围,也可能促进条约谈判,但这方面的最终决定始终由裁军谈判会议成员国做出。
III. Replies received from other international organizations and bodies三. 从其他国际组织和机构收到的答复
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems空间数据系统协商委员会
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[4 November 2011][2011年11月4日]
A. IntroductionA. 导言
The present abbreviated version of the report of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is provided to comply with limitations on documents submitted for translation into the languages of the United Nations. Readers are encouraged to read the full report, which contains more context and background on the work of the Consultative Committee.空间数据系统协商委员会报告的本缩略版是为了符合为翻译成联合国语文所提交文件的限制条件而提供的。鼓励读者阅读报告全文,其中载有关于协商委员会工作的更多情况和背景。
The present short, informal report is intended to respond to the request from the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the Secretariat. The response was solicited to support the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee.本简短的非正式报告意在对秘书处外层空间事务厅提出的要求做出答复。征求答复的目的是,为和平利用外层空间委员会外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组及科学和技术小组委员会的工作提供支持。
The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems was formed in 1982 by the major space agencies of the world to provide a forum for the discussion of common problems in the development and operation of space data systems.空间数据系统协商委员会于1982年由世界主要空间机构组建,旨在为讨论发展和运行空间数据系统中的常见问题提供一个论坛。
It is currently composed of 11 member agencies, 28 observer agencies and over 140 industrial associates.目前该委员会由11个成员机构、28个观察员机构和140多个业界伙伴组成。
The charter of the Consultative Committee is available from http://public.ccsds.org/about/charter.aspx, and much more information is to be found at www.ccsds.org.协商委员会的章程可从网站http://public.ccsds.org/about/charter.aspx上查阅,更多信息还可从网站www.ccsds.org上查阅。
Unlike many standards organizations, the Consultative Committee distributes its standards free of charge.与许多标准组织不同,协商委员会免费分发其各项标准。
B. PrefaceB. 前言
The ability of nations, agencies and companies to have spacecraft and ground facilities with compatible communications and data systems is the first and foremost linchpin of sustainability. Enabling joint missions, lower costs and more efficient missions with greater return is clearly a major step towards long-term sustainability.国家、机构和公司拥有具有兼容性通信和数据系统的航天器和地面设施的能力,是可持续性的首要关键问题。使得能够联合执行任务、降低成本和提高任务效率以取得更大回报,显然是实现长期可持续性的主要步骤。
The Consultative Committee contributes to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities by virtue of the technical standards documents that it produces. The standards, when adopted by space-flight programmes and projects around the world, enable, in summary:协商委员会通过其编制的技术标准文件,推动外层空间活动的长期可持续性。这些标准被用于世界各地的航天计划和项目之后,总的说来能够促进:
(a) International cooperation in space-flight activities;(a) 航天活动方面的国际合作;
(b) Efficient development and operations between the elements of a large organization (such as the centres or contractors supporting an agency);(b) 大型组织各部门之间的有效发展和运行(如支持一个机构的中心或承包商);
(c) Lower cost through greater commercialization of components;(c) 通过加强各组成部分的商业化降低成本;
(d) Efficient operations, such as rapid contingency operations when one agency must unexpectedly provide communications for another agency’s spacecraft.(d) 在一个机构必须出人意料地为另一个机构的航天器提供通信服务时,开展有效运行,如实施快速应急行动。
All of these benefits contribute directly to improvements in the sustainability of outer space activities. The primary objective, however, of Consultative Committee member agencies is the first item, the ability of the agencies to join together in internationally cooperative space-flight missions. This means that Consultative Committee standards will first and foremost provide capabilities that promote regional and interregional cooperation, one of the central objectives of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.所有上述惠益都直接推动外层空间活动可持续性的进展。然而,协商委员会成员机构的首要目标是第一项,各机构联合起来履行国际合作航天任务的能力。这就意味着协商委员会标准将首先提供促进区域和区域间合作的能力,这是和平利用外层空间委员会的核心目标之一。
The report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on its fifty-fourth session (A/66/20) stressed the need to support regional and interregional cooperation in the field of space activities. Active promotion by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the adoption of interoperability-enabling standards, including Consultative Committee standards, would certainly lead to progress towards that objective. The Consultative Committee would welcome support from the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to recruit strong technical participation by additional agencies.和平利用外层空间委员会第五十四届会议的报告(A/66/20)强调支持空间活动领域的区域和区域间合作的必要性。和平利用外层空间委员会积极推动采用有利于实现互操作性的标准(包括协商委员会的标准),必然会促使在实现这一目标方面取得进展。协商委员会欢迎和平利用外层空间委员会为吸引更多机构实现强有力的技术参与而提供的支持。
One technical area warrants special attention, namely, in the space internetworking services area, the work on delay/disruption-tolerant networking (DTN). A consortium of space agencies known as the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) has defined a vision of future space internetworking and framed it as the solar system Internet (SSI). SSI brings to space-flight programmes an adaptation of the terrestrial approach to the Internet that can deal with the unique environment of space flight (as terrestrial Internet protocols cannot). Because SSI uses DTN, IOAG has asked the Consultative Committee to take the next step to realize SSI: development of the SSI architecture and the supporting DTN protocols that will enable collaborating nations to support each other with this networked infrastructure.一个技术领域,即在空间互联网服务领域,保证特别关注关于延迟/中断容忍网络的工作。一个称为机构间业务咨询小组的空间机构联盟确定了未来空间互联网的远景,并将其限定为太阳系互联网。太阳系互联网为适应航天计划调整地面互联网方法,从而能够处理空间飞行的独特环境(而地面互联网协议却做不到)。由于太阳系互联网利用延迟/中断容忍网络,机构间业务咨询小组要求协商委员会采取下一个步骤实现太阳系互联网:开发太阳系互联网结构,以及支持能够使各国合作利用该联网的基础设施以彼此提供支助的延迟/中断容忍网络协议。随后遵循与地面互联网所采用的自动路径选择相同的范例,根据这一范例,许多组织通过自身系统提供数据包和信息路径为其他组织提供支持。然而,这种互联网适应于中断的通信和长时间光速延迟,这些是外层空间环境所固有的特征。显然,这种能力将通过推动空间活动领域的区域和区域间合作,支持和平利用外层空间委员会的目标,这与由于地面互联网而在地球上实现的类似惠益相关。
This follows the same paradigm of automated routing that the terrestrial Internet uses, wherein many organizations support other organizations by providing packet and message routing through their systems.
However, this Internet is adapted to the disrupted communications and long lightspeed delays that are inherent in the outer space environment.
Clearly, such a capability will support the goals of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space by enabling regional and interregional cooperation in space activities, a correlation to similar benefits that are realized on Earth because of the terrestrial Internet.
C. Addressing the major points concerning the scope of the terms of reference of the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space ActivitiesC. 讨论有关外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组的职权范围的主要观点
The major points concerning the scope of the terms of reference of the Working Group (A/66/20, annex II, sect. IV, para. 14) are set out below, followed by the responses of the Consultative Committee.工作组职权范围的主要观点(A/66/20,附件二,第四节第14段)列于下文,随后是协商委员会的答复。
1. Sustainable space utilization supporting sustainable development on Earth1. 有助于全球可持续发展的可持续空间利用
Compliance with Consultative Committee standards allows lower-cost exploitation of space by developed countries because of joint collaboration and mission cost-sharing. Lower cost translates into more sustainability.由于协力合作和分摊飞行任务的费用,遵循协商委员会标准使发达国家空间探索的成本得以降低。降低成本可转化为更大的可持续性。
Compliance with Consultative Committee standards allows developing countries to enter into the exploitation of space with systems compatible with those of developed countries, and sustainability benefits such as lower costs, joint mission capability and overall equitable access to communications functions, similar to that enjoyed by the developed countries.遵循协商委员会标准使发展中国家能够利用与发达国家兼容的系统,以及与发达国家所享有的类似的降低成本、联合执行飞行任务的能力和全面公平利用通信功能等可持续性惠益,进入空间探索。
2. Space debris2. 空间碎片
The Consultative Committee Navigation Working Group provides a discipline-oriented forum for detailed discussions and development of technical flight dynamics standards (e.g., representation of the trajectories of orbiting objects, representation of spacecraft attitudes, exchange of tracking data, design of manoeuvres, predicted orbital events, etc.). In the area of space debris, the discussions and development are heavily focused on the development of a standard that will be used to communicate information about a conjunction of objects in space once it has been predicted. Space conjunctions represent potential collisions that can exacerbate conditions in the space-debris environment. The Navigation Working Group is developing a standard called the “conjunction data message” (CDM) to communicate information about a predicted conjunction to satellite owners and operators.协商委员会导航工作组为详细讨论和编制飞行动力学技术标准(即表示轨道物体的轨迹、表示航天器姿态、追踪数据交流、调动设计和预测轨道事件等)提供以学科为导向的论坛。在空间碎片领域,上述讨论和编制主要侧重于编制将用于一旦被预测到便需要就空间物体会合的信息进行交流的标准。空间会合是指会恶化空间碎片环境条件的可能发生的碰撞。导航工作组正在编制一项题为“会合数据信息”的标准,用于向卫星所有者和操作者传递与预测的会合相关的信息。会合信息包括卫星所有者和操作者可能在他们认为必要时用于评价碰撞风险和规划演练的数据。利用“会合数据信息”标准将通过推动碰撞发生前进行的预防努力,促进空间环境的长期可持续性。一些组织已经表示有兴趣利用其空间监测网络设施,编制会合数据信息。
Conjunction information includes data that may be used by satellite owners and operators to evaluate the risk of a collision and plan manoeuvres if they are deemed necessary.
Use of the CDM standard will promote long-term sustainability of the space environment by contributing to efforts to prevent collisions before they happen.
Several organizations have already indicated an interest in using their space surveillance network facilities to produce conjunction data messages.
3. Space weather3. 空间气象
Traditional Consultative Committee protocols provide capabilities and benefits as described earlier to solar research space-flight missions that improve space weather prediction capabilities.传统的协商委员会协议为太阳研究空间飞行任务提供如前所述的能力和惠益,这些任务有助于提高空间气象预测的能力。
New advanced space Internet working protocols, which are in development in Consultative Committee’s working groups, have the potential of providing “sensor web” capabilities to automate the reaction of multiple orbital research spacecraft for faster responses to space weather events.先进的新型空间互联网协议正在由协商委员会工作组编制,有可能提供“传感器网络”能力,以使多轨道研究航天器自动做出反应,从而加快对空间气象事件的应对。
4. Space operations4. 空间作业
Compliance with Consultative Committee standards can enable short-notice contingency support. Missions in trouble can rapidly configure unplanned communications sessions with other agencies’ communications assets. There have been two incidents where compliance with standards allowed one agency to “rescue” another agency’s mission, involving the United Kingdom’s Space Technology Research Vehicle mission and the European Space Agency (ESA) X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission-Newton.遵循协商委员会标准能够实现快速应急支持。身处困境的飞行任务可以利用其他机构的通信资产迅速部署计划外的通信任务。有两个事例表明,遵循标准使得一个机构能够“拯救”另一个机构的飞行任务:即联合王国的空间技术研究飞行器任务和欧洲航天局(欧空局)的牛顿X射线多镜头任务。
Operations efficiencies are achieved when standards are used because operations and maintenance teams become familiar with the characteristics of the protocols, and those protocols and the associated experience and training carry over to new missions. This enhances operations capabilities and ground-crew performance with lower costs, thus contributing further to sustainable space missions.使用标准能够实现操作效率,因为操作和维护小组熟悉协议的特征,并且这些协议及相关经验和培训可以被带到新的任务中。这就增强了作业能力,并以较低的成本提高了地面人员的绩效,从而进一步推动可持续的空间任务。
5. Tools to support collaborative space situational awareness5. 支助协作认识空间状况的工具
As described in the response under (b) above, the Consultative Committee Navigation Working Group has standardized several navigation message formats, intended to be exchanged between mission control centres. When the messages are exchanged between control centres, they increase the situational awareness of spacecraft flight control teams (for all missions) and of onboard crews (for human space-flight missions).正如以上(b)段项下的答复中所述,协商委员会导航工作组规范了一些意在飞行任务控制中心之间进行交流的导航信息的格式。这些信息在控制中心之间交流时,提高了(所有飞行任务)航天器飞行控制小组和(载人航天飞行任务)机组人员对相关状况的认识。
While several message formats have been completed and are in operational use, the Working Group is now focusing on the conjunction data message, a communications capability that focuses totally on collision avoidance (as mentioned above).虽然一些信息格式业已完成并已投入实际应用,但是工作组目前正在重点关注会合数据信息,这是完全侧重于避免碰撞的一种通信能力(如上所述)。
Enhanced communications between mission control teams using other Consultative Committee ground-to-ground standards (such as service interfaces in the mission operations standards from the Spacecraft Monitor and Control Working Group) will naturally increase the level of space situational awareness for parties on both sides of the service interface. The standards will allow the exchange of real-time command and telemetry, planning data and eventually other functions such as simulations and training. Experience from the International Space Station (ISS) programme has shown that large collaborative programmes have a need to exchange an extensive variety of specialized data (command history, antenna management, payload health and status, etc.). For the ISS programme, such data formats were the “proprietary” internal formats of the agencies that “owned” the data, and the result was that either expensive format conversions (multiple conversions per data type per agency) were required, or else the operations concept had to change to deal with the inability to exchange the data.利用协商委员会地对地标准(如航天器监测和控制工作组提供的飞行任务操作标准中的服务接口)加强飞行任务控制小组之间的通信,自然会提高服务接口两边各方的对空间状况的认识水平。这些标准有助于交流实时命令和遥测技术、规划数据及最终的模拟和培训等其他功能。从国际空间站方案获得的经验表明,大型协作方案有必要交流种类广泛的专业数据(命令历史记录、天线管理、有效载荷健康和状态等)。对于国际空间站方案而言,这些数据格式是“拥有”数据的机构“专有”的内部格式,其结果是,必须进行昂贵的格式转换(每个机构每种数据类别进行多种转换),或者必须改变操作理念,以解决不能交换数据的问题。协商委员会的努力如果取得成功,则会防止未来方案产生这种障碍。更自由、更有效地交流这些复杂的数据类型的能力将促使增进协作控制中心对状况的认识。
The efforts of the Consultative Committee, if successful, will prevent this obstacle from arising for future programmes.
The ability to more freely and efficiently exchange these complex data types will result in increased situational awareness among collaborating control centres. 6. Regulatory regimes6. 管理制度
Consultative Committee teams perform technology development and standardization. This is conducive to the transfer of approved technologies from one agency to another as part of the standard development process. It also effectively provides technology transfer to agencies that use the standards, because they benefit from the technology development that was part and parcel of the development of the technical standard.协商委员会小组行使技术开发和标准化的职能。这有利于经核准的技术从一个机构向另一个机构进行转让,以此作为标准编制过程的一部分。它还向使用标准的机构有效提供技术转让,因为它们受益于技术开发,这是编制技术标准不可分割的一部分。
For the coming age of the solar system Internet, a loosely coupled volunteer-oriented governance framework will be needed by the collaborating space agencies, to enable cooperative Internet-style automated routing across multi-agency assets, as is done on the terrestrial Internet. The same coordination functions will be needed (address assignments, etc.) as are provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for the terrestrial Internet. Of course, with the initially small population of solar system Internet-enabled spacecraft, a full governance model will not be needed for some time.对于太阳系互联网的未来时代,开展协作的空间机构必须制定松散连结且以志愿人员为主导的管理框架,以实现多机构资产的合作型互联网式自动路径选择,如在地面互联网所实现的一样。与地面互联网的互联网工程工作队所提供的功能相同的协调功能(地址任务等)是必不可少的。诚然,由于最初太阳系互联网驱动的航天器数量不多,有时无需完整的管理模式。
7. Guidance for actors in the space arena7. 对空间领域行动者的指导
Technical standards development and compliance are an asset that all agencies need and many project and programme managers shun. The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space should actively promote standards for specific technology touch-points where they most enable cooperative missions. As noted in section II above, of all the potential technology areas involved in space flight, interoperability in the area of communications and data exchange provide the greatest benefit to collaborating entities. The Committee should promote that guidance in that area to actors in the space arena, as humankind begins in earnest to explore the solar system.技术标准的编制和遵守是所有机构需要而方案管理者回避的一种优势。和平利用外层空间委员会应当积极推广最有利于协作性飞行任务的特定技术接触点标准。如以上第二节所指出的一样,在涉及空间飞行的所有潜在技术领域中,通信和数据交换领域的互操作性为合作实体提供了最大的惠益。委员会应当向空间领域行动者宣传该领域的指导方针,因为人类真正展开了对太阳系的探索。
D. RecommendationsD. 建议
The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems recommends that the Committee and its working groups broadly advocate the adoption of interoperability-enabling standards by the space-flight missions of the developed and developing nations of the world.空间数据系统协商委员会建议,委员会及其工作组广泛倡导全世界发达国家和发展中国家的空间飞行任务采用有利于实现互操作性的标准。
While the Consultative Committee agencies are engaged in communications and data-system standards because the Consultative Committee believes it is the most critical area for enabling interoperability, the Consultative Committee recognizes that there are other technology areas that also affect interoperability. The Consultative Committee and its working groups should promote the adoption of such standards, including, but not limited to, its standards.虽然协商委员会各机构参与了通信和数据系统标准的编制,因为协商委员会认为这是促进实现互操作性最关键的领域,但是协商委员会认识到,还有其他技术领域同样会给互操作性带来影响。协商委员会及其工作组应当促进这些标准的应用,包括但不仅限于委员会的标准。
The Consultative Committee recommends that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its working groups encourage broader participation in the development of new standards that enable interoperability, but only by organizations that have technical skills in the technology area.协商委员会建议,和平利用外层空间委员会及其工作组鼓励更广泛地参与有利于实现互操作性的新标准的编制,但仅由在技术领域拥有技术能力的组织来实施。
The Consultative Committee welcomes participation in standards development by any nation or organization in the world that endeavours to promote cooperative space-flight missions. However, track records indicate that participants must have genuine technical skills in the technology area; otherwise, they hamper the already difficult process of developing internationally interoperable standards.协商委员会欢迎全世界努力促进合作性空间飞行任务的任何国家或组织参与标准的编制。然而,历史记录表明,参与者必须真正拥有技术领域的技术能力;否则,他们会妨碍国际上原本已经困难重重的编制互操作性标准的进程。
Any organization that can contribute resources and technical skills to these difficult but rewarding tasks is invited to first browse the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems website and Collaborative Work Environment area at www.ccsds.org to familiarize themselves with the current technology efforts, and then contact either the Chairs of the working group on the area that they are interested in (see contact information on the website) or the Consultative Committee secretariat at Secretariat@mailman.ccsds.org.能够向这些困难但有益的任务提供资源和技术能力的任何组织应邀率先浏览空间数据系统协商委员会网站及协同合作环境领域(www.ccsds.org),以使其熟悉当前的技术努力,随后与其感兴趣的领域的工作组负责人联系(见网站的联系人信息),或与协商委员会秘书处联系(Secretariat@mailman.ccsds.org)。
E. SummaryE. 总结
The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems welcomes the interest of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities in the promotion of standards that enable interoperability between space-flight missions (the primary objective of the Consultative Committee), cost efficiencies, operational flexibility and the improved ability of developing regions to cooperate in space-flight activities (a Committee objective).和平利用外层空间委员会和外层空间活动长期可持续性工作组有兴趣宣传有利于实现空间飞行任务之间的互操作性(协商委员会的首要目标)、成本效率、操作灵活性和增强发展中区域在空间飞行活动中开展合作的能力(委员会的一项目标)的标准,空间数据系统协商委员会对此表示欢迎。
The recommendations above are offered in the spirit of promoting the common interests of the Consultative Committee and the community of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The Consultative Committee sincerely hopes that they are helpful in raising awareness of this work in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and that it has provided the appropriate background information to support the recommendations.上述建议是本着促进协商委员会与和平利用外层空间委员会社区的共同利益的精神提出的。协商委员会真诚地希望它们有助于提高和平利用外层空间委员会对这项工作的认识,并且为支持上述建议提供了适当的背景资料。
In the area of communications and data standards, if the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space or its Working Group have a need for any further information or support from the Consultative Committee, the secretariat should be notified and, if agency resources permit, it will be pleased to provide support.在通信和数据标准领域,如果和平利用外层空间委员会或其工作组需要了解更多信息或获得协商委员会的支持,则应当告知秘书处,并且如果机构资源允许,秘书处将很高兴提供支持。
European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites欧洲利用气象卫星组织
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[4 November 2011][2011年11月4日]
Introduction导言
In recent years the need to preserve outer space for future usage has been recognized worldwide. According to the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), it has been a common understanding since the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space published its technical report on space debris, in 1999, that man-made space debris today poses little risk to ordinary unmanned spacecraft in Earth orbit, but the population of debris is growing, and the probability of collisions that could lead to damage will consequently increase. It has, however, now become common practice to consider the risk of collision with orbital debris in planning manned missions, so the implementation of some debris mitigation measures today is a prudent and necessary step towards preserving the space environment for future generations.近年来全世界广泛认识到为今后之计而保全外层空间的必要性。机构间空间碎片协调委员会(空间碎片协委会)认为,自和平利用外层空间委员会1999年发布其关于空间碎片的技术报告以来已经形成广泛共识,即人为产生的空间碎片目前对地球轨道上普通未载人航天器没有造成多大风险,但碎片数量正在不断增加,有可能造成损害的碰撞机率也因此而增加。但是,在计划进行载人飞行任务时考虑到与轨道碎片的碰撞风险,现已成为很普通的做法,因此,现如今采取某些缓减碎片的措施是为后代保全空间环境而采取的一种谨慎而必要的步骤。
The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) has followed the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines and reached full compliance with them for the end-of-life operations of Meteosat-5 and Meteosat-6.欧洲利用气象卫星组织(欧洲气象卫星组织)已遵循空间碎片协委会《空间碎片缓减准则》,对气象卫星5号和气象卫星6号进行了完全符合这些准则的终结寿命操作。
However, owing both to the operations of low Earth orbit missions (e.g. Metop) and to the rapid evolution of space debris documentation, EUMETSAT decided to establish the Space Debris Working Group to coordinate the EUMETSAT internal activities on this topic. The Working Group was established in April 2011 with the following tasks:但是,由于低地轨道任务(如Metop)投入运作以及空间碎片相关文件的迅速演变发展,欧洲气象卫星组织决定设立空间碎片工作组,以协调欧洲气象卫星组织在这个问题上的内部活动。工作组于2011年4月成立,任务如下:
(a) Establishment of the EUMETSAT guidelines on space debris mitigation;(a) 确立欧洲气象卫星组织关于空间碎片减缓的准则;
(b) Establishment, coordination and documentation of the operational aspects of end-of-life and conjunction warning and collision avoidance operations;(b) 确定并协调终结寿命和会合警告的操作方面以及避免碰撞操作并拟订相关文件;
(c) Support for EUMETSAT programmes for coordination with external agencies on space debris matters;(c) 为欧洲气象卫星组织的各种方案与外部机构协调空间碎片事项提供支持;
(d) Review of applicable standards and guidelines (e.g. IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, European Code of Conduct on Space Debris Mitigation, International Organization for Standardization standard 24113 (ISO 24113), European Commission code of conduct for outer space activities).(d) 审查各种适用的标准和准则(例如,空间碎片协委会《空间碎片缓减准则》、《欧洲缓减空间碎片行为守则》、国际标准化组织第24113号标准(ISO 24113)、欧盟委员会关于外层空间活动的行为守则)。
The Space Debris Working Group includes EUMETSAT staff with expertise in fields ranging from flight dynamics to satellite operations and legal matters. The Working Group meets up to twice per year to review the mitigation guidelines and to review the status of in-flight satellites with respect to the space debris guidelines.空间碎片工作组中的欧洲气象卫星组织工作人员具备从飞行动力学到卫星操作以及法律事项等领域的专门知识。工作组每年开两次会,审查缓减准则,并结合空间碎片准则审查飞行中卫星的状况。
The following paragraphs describe the current status of the Working Group’s tasks.以下各段说明工作组各项任务的现状。
Activities on space debris mitigation缓减空间碎片方面的活动
1.1. 准则
Guidelines
The EUMETSAT guidelines are intended to establish the EUMETSAT policy for space debris mitigation. They are largely inspired by the recently published space debris mitigation requirements (ISO 24113), and they require an assessment of EUMETSAT satellites against those requirements. A distinction is made between existing projects, for which ISO 24113 is taken as a reference, and future projects, for which ISO 24113 is proposed to be applicable. The guidelines also define a “waiver process” and an “approval agent” for space debris matters.欧洲气象卫星组织准则旨在确立该组织的空间碎片缓减政策。这些准则主要是根据最近公布的空间碎片缓减要求(ISO 24113)拟定的,要求参照这些缓减要求评估欧洲气象卫星组织的卫星。对于现有项目和未来项目作了区分,前者以ISO 24113号标准为参照依据,对于后者则提议适用ISO 24113号标准。这些准则还界定了对空间碎片事项的“豁免程序”和“批准代理人”。
A first version of the EUMETSAT guidelines was drafted in July 2011 and is currently under review by the Space Debris Working Group. Once that review is completed, the guidelines will be submitted to EUMETSAT senior management and, if approved, will be released before the end of 2011.欧洲气象卫星组织准则初稿拟于2011年7月,目前正在由空间碎片工作组审查。审查完成后,这些准则将提交欧洲气象卫星组织高级管理层,如果获得批准,将在2011年年底之前发布。
2. End-of-life and conjunction warning and collision avoidance operations2. 终结寿命操作以及会合警告和避免碰撞操作
(a) End-of-life operations(a) 终结寿命操作
Both Meteosat-5 and Meteosat-6 have been re-orbited by EUMETSAT, in April 2007 and April 2011, respectively.欧洲气象卫星组织已于2007年4月和2011年4月分别对气象卫星5号和气象卫星6号进行了转轨。
For Meteosat-5 the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines were followed and full compliance with them achieved as far as end-of-life operations were concerned.对于气象卫星5号,遵循空间碎片协委会《空间碎片缓减准则》,所执行的终结寿命操作完全符合这些准则。
For Meteosat-6, ISO 24113 was followed and full compliance with it achieved as far as end-of-life operations were concerned (see below).对于气象卫星6号,遵循ISO 24113号标准,所进行的终结寿命操作完全符合这一标准(见下文)。
Meteosat-6 end-of-life operations气象卫星6号的终结寿命操作
The re-orbiting of Meteosat-6 was performed in accordance with the space debris regulations and in particular with ISO 24113. The activities took place between 28 March and 2 May 2011. The following activities were performed:对气象卫星6号的转轨操作是根据有关的空间碎片条例,特别是根据ISO 24113号标准进行的。2011年3月28日至5月2日期间进行了有关活动。实施了下列各项活动:
(a) Pre-re-orbiting tests:(a) 转轨预测试:
(i) Full Earth imaging with redundant electronics;㈠ 利用冗余电子设备进行地球全景成像;
(ii) Full Earth imaging with nominal electronics;㈡ 利用正常电子设备进行地球全景成像;
(iii) Rapid scans imaging with nominal electronics;㈢ 利用正常电子设备进行迅速扫描成像;
(iv) Redundant detectors test;㈣ 冗于探测器测试
(v) Mission picture transmission coaxial switch test;㈤ 任务图像转换同心轴切换测试;
(vi) Fuel onboard measurement test;㈥ 机载燃料测量测试;
(b) Re-orbiting manoeuvres;(b) 转轨机动;
(c) Spacecraft payload and platform passivation operations;(c) 航天器有效载荷和平台钝化操作;
(d) Final orbit determination.(d) 最后轨道确定。
After the end-of-life tests, which were designed primarily to check the status of the redundant units after so many years in orbit, the proper re-orbiting operations started on 11 April 2011, as planned. The Meteosat-6 re-orbiting operations were prepared by EUMETSAT using the sequences used for the Meteosat-5 re-orbiting as a basis. The re-orbiting operations were reviewed by Thales Alenia Space and were provided to the European Space Operations Center and the Centre national d’études spatiales for comment. Regular teleconferences with Thales Alenia Space were held throughout the most critical phases of the re-orbiting operations to get the necessary support and advice in case of unexpected behaviours.终结寿命测试主要是为了检验冗余设备在轨多年之后的状况,测试完成后,2011年4月11日按计划开始进行适当的转轨操作。气象卫星6号的换轨操作由欧洲气象卫星组织准备,以气象卫星5号转轨所使用的数列作为依据。转轨操作程序由Thales Alenia Space进行了审查,并提供给欧洲空间操作中心和法国空间研究中心征求意见。在转轨操作最关键阶段的整个过程中与Thales Alenia Space定期举行电话会议,以便在出现意外行为时获得必要支持和建议。
In compliance with the space debris mitigation guidelines of ISO 24113, the objective was to raise the orbit of Meteosat-6 to at least 250 km above the geostationary ring and, at the same time, to reduce the satellite spin rate. The reduction of spin rate minimizes the risk that satellite debris will re-enter the geostationary ring, should the satellite decompose into fragments in the long term.按照空间碎片缓减准则ISO 24113,目标是升高气象卫星6号的轨道,使之至少达到地球静止轨道圈之上250公里,同时降低卫星的自旋速率。降低自旋速率后,即使卫星经过很长时期后解体为碎块,也可将卫星碎片重新进入地球静止轨道圈的风险降至最低程度。
For the re-orbiting operations a fuel budget of 3.9 kg was estimated, based on a “bookkeeping” method.按照“簿记”方法,在转轨操作中,燃料组件的预计重量为3.9公斤。
Several manoeuvres were performed between 11 and 15 April 2011, followed by a venting of the fuel pipes and tanks to achieve a final orbit of approximately 350 km (perigee) x 384 km (apogee) above the geostationary ring with a final spin rate of approximately 72 rpm (with the initial spin rate having been about 99.9 rpm).2011年4月11日至15日期间实施几次机动之后排放了燃料管和燃料箱,最后达到的轨道高度约为地球静止轨道圈之上350公里(近地点) x 384公里(远地点),最后自旋速率约为每分钟72圈(初始自旋速率为每分钟99.9圈。
The actual fuel mass was found to be about 3.7 kg (i.e. about 200 g less than estimated).实际燃料组块重量测定为约3.7公斤(即比预测重量少了大约200克)。
The satellite switch-off was completed on 2 May 2011. The last command to Meteosat-6 was sent at 0908 hours UTC, marking the end of the satellite’s operational life after more than 17 years in orbit operations.2011年5月2日完成了该卫星的关机。协调世界时9时8分向气象卫星6号发出最后指令,标志着这颗卫星经过17年之久的在轨运行之后运行寿命终结。
All the Meteosat-6 re-orbiting operations were successful, the fuel budget was quite accurate and the ISO 24113 recommendations were fulfilled with good margins.气象卫星6号的所有转轨操作都取得了成功,燃料组件重量的预测相当准确,ISO 24113各项建议得到充分落实。
(b) Conjunction warning and collision avoidance operations(b) 会合警告和避免碰撞操作
A conjunction warning service was requested by EUMETSAT via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to the Joint Space Operations Command of the United States Air Force and is currently in place for all EUMETSAT in-flight satellites. That service provides both warning messages and regular screening messages to the operations teams whenever a piece of debris is close to one of the EUMETSAT operational satellites. On the basis of that information, the EUMETSAT operations teams can decide whether to perform a collision avoidance manoeuvre or not. In addition, the service allows checking, before each manoeuvre, to see if the planned manoeuvre brings the satellite any closer to a piece of debris.欧洲气象卫星组织通过美国国家海洋和大气局向美国空军联合空间运行指挥部提出会合警告服务请求之后,现已向欧洲气象卫星组织的所有飞行中卫星提供此种服务。只要有碎片接近欧洲气象卫星组织的运行卫星,这项服务就会向运行小组发出警告信号和常规筛选信号。欧洲气象卫星组织操作小组可以根据这一信息决定是否进行避撞机动。另外,这项服务允许在每次机动之前检验所计划的机动是否会使有关卫星与某一碎片更为接近。
Meteorological operational satellite collision avoidance manoeuvre on 1 May 20112011年5月1日实施的气象运行卫星避撞机动
In late April 2011, the satellite collision warning process that EUMETSAT established with the United States Air Force Joint Space Operations Command identified a high-risk debris conjunction event concerning Metop-A. After the analysis performed by the EUMETSAT flight dynamics team, it was decided that the manoeuvre would be performed, as the risk of collision was significantly higher than the acceptable threshold. The burn took place on 1 May 2011 at 0328 hours UTC, in accordance with the manual procedure for unplanned manoeuvres. As usual for an in-plane manoeuvre, this required an outage of both the Space Environment Monitor and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (as they both had to be in safe modes before the firing), and a general degradation of all the other products during the manoeuvre mode. This is the first time that EUMETSAT has had to manoeuvre Metop-A because of a collision risk.2011年4月下旬,欧洲气象卫星组织与美国空军联合空间运行指挥部建立的卫星碰撞警告系统发现了一起与Metop-A有关的高风险碎片会合事件。经欧洲气象卫星组织飞行动状小组进行分析,决定实施机动,因为碰撞风险显著高于可接受的临界点。2011年5月1日,在协调世界时3时28分,按照对计划外机动的手动程序实施了击毁行动。与机内机动的通常做法一样,这一行动要求同时中断空间环境监测系统和地球臭氧层监测实验(这两个系统必须在射击之前进入安全运行模式),机动模式期间所有其他产品全面进入衰减状态。这是欧洲气象卫星组织第一次因为碰撞风险而对Metop-A实施机动。
Group on Earth Observations secretariat地球观测组织秘书处
[Original: English][原文:英文]
[4 November 2011][2011年11月4日]
A. IntroductionA. 导言
Recognizing the need for better environmental information, political leaders at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002, called for urgent action on Earth observation. Earth Observation Summits in Washington, D.C., Tokyo and Brussels and declarations by three of the annual Group of Eight Summits built on that momentum. Acting on a clear international consensus, ministers established the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in 2005 with a mandate to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).由于认识到提高环境信息质量的必要性,政治领导人于2002年在南非约翰内斯堡举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议上,呼吁针对地球观测采取紧急行动。哥伦比亚特区华盛顿、东京和布鲁塞尔的地球观测高峰会议和八国集团首脑会议三次年度会议的宣言在该势头上有所发展。各国部长按照明确的国际共识行事,于2005年建立了地球观测组织,其任务是设立全球对地观测分布式系统(全球测地系统)。
To establish the System of Systems, governments and organizations have been interconnecting their space-based and in situ observation systems. They have formed partnerships to fill gaps in observing systems, promoted full and open access to data and information, developed interoperability and other technical standards, built the capacity of users to access GEOSS and nurtured new cross-cutting and multidisciplinary data sets. Those actions are making it possible to share resources, data and information for the benefit of all humankind.为了建立分布式系统,各国政府和组织一直将其天基和原地观测系统相互连接。它们结成了伙伴关系,以填补观测系统中的空白,促进完全开放的数据和信息获取,编制互操作性和其他技术标准,培养用户进入全球测地系统的能力,生成新的跨领域和多学科数据集。这些行动有助于为了全人类的利益共享资源、数据和信息。
The cross-cutting data, decision-support products and end-to-end information services that are increasingly available through GEOSS are improving the ability of governments to promote “green” economic growth, manage natural ecosystems and resources, ensure food security for a global population that may reach 9 billion by mid-century, respond more effectively to disasters, and address climate change, biodiversity loss and other global challenges. Sustained space-based observations are an essential component of the ability of GEOSS to deliver those services.跨领域数据、决策支持的产品和端对端信息服务,日益可通过全球测地系统提供,并正在提高各国政府的能力,以促进“绿色”经济增长,管理自然生态系统和资源,确保可能在本世纪中叶之前达到90亿的全球人口的粮食安全,更有效地应对灾害,以及解决气候变化、生物多样性丧失和其他全球挑战问题。持续不断的天基观测是全球测地系统能够提供上述服务的必要组成部分。
B. Societal benefitsB. 社会惠益
GEO is serving nine key societal benefit areas. It is supplying concrete examples of how decision makers can use Earth-observation data and services to address major global opportunities and challenges. None of those societal benefit areas exists in isolation: the full value of GEOSS lies in its ability to integrate information across disciplines. The nine societal benefits are as follows:地球观测组织正在为九个主要的社会惠益领域服务。它提供决策者可以如何利用地球观测数据和服务应对全球主要机遇和挑战的具体事例。没有一个社会惠益领域是孤立存在的:全球测地系统的全部价值在于其将各学科的信息融合在一起的能力。九个社会惠益列示如下:
1. Reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters.1. 减少自然和人为灾害造成的生命及财产损失。
Rapid access to weather forecasts, data on land and ocean conditions, maps of transport links and hospitals, seismographic data and information on socio-economic variables can strengthen disaster preparedness, prediction and response.快速获得天气预报、陆地和海洋条件数据、运输环节和医院绘图、地震数据和社会经济变量信息,有助于加强灾害准备、预测和应对能力。
Key disaster-management services available through GEOSS include the Global Early Warning System for Wildland Fire, Sentinel Asia and (for Africa and Central and South America) the Charter on Cooperation to Achieve the Coordinated Use of Space Facilities in the Event of Natural or Technological Disasters (also called the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters), the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Emergency Management Service and the Mesoamerican Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR).通过全球测地系统提供的关键灾害管理服务包括全球野火预警系统、“亚洲哨兵”和(非洲和中美洲及南美洲)《在发生自然和技术灾害时协调使用空间设施的合作宪章》(又称为《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》)、全球环境与安全监测(全球环境监测)应急管理服务及中美洲观察与监测系统。
2. Understanding how the environment affects human health.2. 了解环境如何影响人的健康。
Key environmental variables include airborne, marine and water pollutants;
stratospheric ozone depletion;
land-use change;
food security and nutrition; noise levels; population trends; and weather-related stresses and disease vectors.关键的环境变数包括航空、海洋和水污染物;平流层臭氧消耗;土地利用变化;粮食安全与营养;噪声级;人口趋势;以及天气相关压力和疾病媒介物。
For example, analyses of desertification trends and forecasts of windstorms are being used to provide early warning of epidemics in Africa’s “meningitis belt”; this allows the World Health Organization and local health experts to target their vaccination programmes more effectively.例如,荒漠化趋势分析和风暴预测正被用于为非洲的“脑膜炎带”流行病提供预警;这使得世界卫生组织和地方健康专家能够更有效地实施其疫苗接种计划。
3. Promoting sustainable energy.3. 促进可持续的能源。
Earth observations are vital for monitoring and forecasting fluctuations in hydropower, solar, ocean and wind energy sources; assessing and predicting the environmental impacts of energy exploration, extraction, transportation and consumption; reducing weather-related and other risks to energy infrastructure; and matching energy supply with demand.地球观测对于以下方面至关重要:监测和预报水电、太阳、海洋和风力能源的波动;评估和预测能源开发、利用、运输和消耗的环境影响;减少给能源基础设施带来的天气相关风险及其他风险;使能源供应与需求相匹配。
To support solar energy planners, for example, GEO is coordinating a solar data programme that offers one-stop access to databases, applications and information relating to solar radiation trends and patterns.例如,为了支持太阳能规划者,地球观测组织正在协调实施一项太阳数据方案,该方案为与太阳辐射趋势和模式有关的数据库、应用软件和信息提供一站式获取机会。
4. Addressing climate variability and change.4. 应对气候多变性和气候变化。
GEO is a leading advocate for maintaining and strengthening the climate observation capacities of atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic monitoring systems.地球观测组织是保持和加强大气、地面和海洋监测系统的气候观测能力的首要倡导者。
For example, 20-plus GEO members are contributing to the global array of some 3,000 robotic Argo buoys that are monitoring ocean temperatures and salinity.例如,20多个地球观测组织成员正在推进监测海洋温度和盐度的大约3,000个阿尔戈号自动观测浮标的全球阵列。
GEO members are also establishing essential decision-support services, such as an innovative system for monitoring and verifying forest carbon content and a Climate for Development in Africa programme.地球观测组织成员还在建立必要的决策支持服务,如用于监测和证实森林碳含量的创新系统和非洲气候促进发展方案。
5. Improved water-cycle forecasting.5. 加强水循环预测。
National meteorological and hydrological services, along with several United Nations agencies, are collaborating through the GEO “Integration of in situ and satellite data for water-cycle monitoring” project.国家气象水文部门,会同一些联合国机构,正在通过地球观测组织“整合原地和卫星数据促进水循环监测”项目开展合作。
That project is aimed at filling gaps in global measurements, standardizing metadata and improving the accuracy of data and predictions.该项目旨在填补全球测量中的空白,规范元数据,提高数据和预测的准确性。
Other ongoing initiatives relate to information products on precipitation, soil moisture and groundwater.其他正在实施的倡议涉及关于降雨量、土壤水分和地下水的信息产品。
6. Interlinking weather forecasting systems with other Earth observation systems.6. 把气象预报系统与其他地球观测系统相互连结起来。
By integrating weather data with the growing number of data sets available in fields such as biodiversity, health, energy and water management, GEOSS will greatly expand the uses to which weather information and forecasts can be put.通过将气象数据与生物多样性、卫生、能源和水管理等领域不断增长的现有数据集整合起来,全球测地系统将极大地扩大气象信息和预报可能提供的用途。
Other efforts to improve the value of weather forecasting include the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)-led THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble project (TIGGE), which is aimed at accelerating improvements in the accuracy of one-day to two-week weather forecasts.其他增强气象预报价值的努力包括世界气象组织(气象组织)牵头的观测系统研究与可预报性试验交互式全球大集合项目,其目的是加快一天到两周气象预报准确性的改善情况。
7. Monitoring ecosystems and generating maps and other decision-support tools.7. 监测生态系统和生成地图及其他决策支持工具。
One team is working to improve the classification and mapping of diverse ecosystems.一个小组正在努力完善不同生态系统的分类和绘图。
Another is extending a South American network for monitoring ocean temperatures and chlorophyll to the global scale.另一个小组正在将南美洲海洋温度和叶绿素监测网络扩大到全球规模。
Still others are collaborating on monitoring and delineating protected areas, including UNESCO World Heritage sites; measuring the impact of tourism and other socio-economic activities on ecosystems; assessing the vulnerability of sea basins around the world; and assessing the vulnerability of mountain regions.还有一些小组正在协力监测和标划保护区,包括教科文组织世界遗产地;测量旅游业及其他社会经济活动对生态系统的影响;评估世界各地海洋盆地的脆弱性;以及评估山区的脆弱性。
8. Developing an agricultural monitoring system of systems.8. 发展农业监测分布式系统。
Farmers and policymakers require accurate forecasts and cross-cutting data on food production and supplies, storms and droughts, climate change and variability, water levels, market demand and changes in productive land and ocean areas.农民和决策者需要有关粮食生产和供应、暴雨和干旱、气候变化和变数、水位、市场需求以及可耕地和海洋区域变化的准确预报和跨领域数据。
They need this information to respond to immediate challenges and opportunities, to craft longer-term strategies for adapting their farming practices to changing conditions and to ensure the sustainable management of fisheries and grazing lands.他们需要这些信息来应对当前的挑战和机遇,精心编制使农业实践适应不断变化的条件的更长期战略,确保渔业和牧场的可持续管理。
Enhanced Earth observations will also assist international relief organizations in planning more effectively for famines.加强地球观测还将有助于国际救济组织更有效地对饥荒问题进行规划。
9. Supporting the conservation and sustainable use of the world’s biological diversity.9. 支持世界生物多样性的保护和可持续利用。
The GEO Biodiversity Observation Network, known as “the biodiversity arm of GEOSS”, is interlinking the field’s numerous stand-alone databases and observation systems to improve assessments of plant and animal populations, track the spread of invasive alien species and promote information-sharing and cost savings.地球观测组织生物多样性观测网络被称为“全球测地系统的生物多样性武器”,正在将该领域的无数独立的数据库和观测系统相互连结起来,加强植物和动物种群的评估,追踪外来入侵物种的分布,促进信息共享和成本节约。
It will also connect those systems to other Earth-observation networks that generate relevant data, such as climate and pollution indicators.它还将这些系统与其他生成相关数据(如气候和污染指标)的地球观测网络连接起来。
C. Space component of the Global Earth Observation System of SystemsC. 全球对地观测分布式系统的空间部分
The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is a long-standing GEO participating organization that contributes the space component of GEOSS. CEOS supports GEO stakeholders with Earth-observation data, information products and related expertise. CEOS agencies supported the establishment of GEO, and CEOS has since made continuous and growing contributions to GEO through a wide range of Earth-observation initiatives. Today, CEOS and its member agencies support nearly half of the projects in the GEO workplan.地球观测卫星委员会是地球观测组织的长期参与组织,为全球测地系统的空间部分服务。地球观测卫星委员会通过地球观测数据、信息产品和相关专门知识为地球观测组织利益攸关方提供支助。地球观测卫星委员会各机构支持地球观测组织的建立,自此,地球观测卫星委员会通过各种各样的地球观测倡议,为地球观测组织做出了持久且日益增加的贡献。如今,地球观测卫星委员会及其成员机构为地球观测组织工作计划中将近一半的项目提供支助。
CEOS is coordinating a series of “virtual constellations” for GEO.
Those constellations help to harmonize and maximize efforts by CEOS agencies to deploy Earth-observation missions that contribute to GEOSS, address emerging data gaps, avoid overlaps among systems and make maximum use of existing satellite assets. A virtual constellation consists of multiple satellites, ground systems and related data-delivery systems mobilized in a coordinated manner for greater efficiency. The six currently existing constellations address atmospheric composition, land surface imaging, ocean colour radiometry, ocean surface topography, ocean surface vector wind, and precipitation. The establishment of a sea surface temperature constellation is also under consideration.地球观测卫星委员会正在为地球观测组织协调实施一系列“虚拟星座”。这些星座有助于协调地球观测卫星委员会各机构的努力并将其最大化,部署推动全球测地系统的地球观测任务,解决不断出现的数据缺口问题,避免各系统之间的重叠,最大限度地利用现有卫星优势。虚拟星座包括为了提高效率、以协调方式动员的多种卫星、地面系统和相关数据交付系统。目前六个现有的星座涉及大气构成、地面成像、水色辐射、海面形态、海面风场和降雨量问题。同时,正在考虑建立海面温度星座。
CEOS working groups are enhancing coordination and cooperation among CEOS agencies in specific topical areas that provide broad international benefits.
The Working Group on Information Systems and Services, for example, provides a range of data and information services to enhance access to Earth observation data based on common guidelines for effective interoperability.
The Working Group on Calibration and Validation addresses issues related to calibrating and validating sensor systems and their derived products; this enables reliable comparisons and the synergistic use of information across global Earth-observing systems. The Working Group on Education, Training, and Capacity-Building is now focusing its efforts on capacity-building and “data democracy”. The newly formed Working Group on Climate will coordinate and encourage inter-agency activities in the area of space-based climate monitoring.地球观测卫星委员会工作组正在扩大其各机构在特定议题领域的协调与合作,这些领域提供广泛的国际惠益。例如,信息系统和服务工作组提供了广泛的数据和信息服务,以扩大根据有效的互操作性通用指导方针获取地球观测数据的机会。标准化和合法化工作组处理与传感系统及其衍生产品实现标准化和合法化有关的问题;这使得能够进行可靠的比较并协同利用全球地球观测系统的信息。教育、培训和能力建设工作组目前正在将其工作重点放在能力建设和“数据民主”上。新成立的气候问题工作组将协调和鼓励天基气候监测领域的机构间活动。
CEOS is responding to user needs for systematic satellite observations as identified by the Global Climate Observing System. That work is being carried out in close consultation and coordination with GEO and in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.地球观测卫星委员会正在响应全球气候观测系统所确认的用户对系统性卫星观测的需求。正在与地球观测组织紧密协商和合作,并在《联合国气候变化框架公约》的支持下开展此项工作。
The GEO Forest Carbon Tracking initiative provides coordinated satellite data and processing in support of the GEO Global Forest Observation Initiative. It fosters the sustained availability of satellite and ground observations for national forest inventories and information systems. That Initiative will support the long-term observation needs of the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the implementation of the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD-plus).地球观测组织森林碳追踪倡议提供了协调一致的卫星数据,并为了支持地球观测组织全球森林观测倡议进行数据加工。它促进持久提供国家森林资源目录和信息系统的卫星和地面观测能力。该倡议将支持《气候变化框架公约》的长期观测需求和《联合国关于降低发展中国家因森林砍伐和退化所致排放的合作方案》(《联合国降低毁林排放方案》)的实施。
The data democracy initiative is aimed at building the capacity, particularly in developing countries, to access key data sets free of charge. Additional data democracy initiatives include enhanced data dissemination capabilities, the sharing of software tools, increased training and the transfer of technology to end-users. In this context, CEOS agencies recognize that the GEOSS Data-Sharing Principles should serve as the basis for access to data for the public good. In particular, CEOS agencies will contribute to the GEOSS Data Collection of Open Resources for Everyone by making several data sets available on a full and open basis.数据民主倡议旨在培养能力,尤其是培养发展中国家的能力,以免费获取关键数据集。附加数据民主倡议包括加强数据传播能力、共享软件工具、加强培训以及向终端用户转让技术。在这种情况下,地球观测卫星委员会各机构认识到,全球测地系统数据共享原则应充当为了公众利益获取数据的依据。特别是,地球观测卫星委员会各机构将通过以完全公开的方式提供一些数据集,推动全球测地系统向每个人开放资源的数据收集工作。
Space agencies have begun to provide data in support of the GEO Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM). That initiative is intended to demonstrate the value of the coordinated use of a wide range of satellite and in situ data for improving the productivity of various crop types and for enhancing food security. Created by the GEO Agricultural Monitoring Community of Practice, JECAM also serves as a scientific precursor to the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative, which is being launched in response to a request by the Group of Twenty Ministers of Agriculture. CEOS is consulting with the GEO Agricultural Monitoring Community of Practice to assess its needs for future satellite data.空间机构已开始为支持地球观测组织作物评估与监测联合试验提供数据。该倡议意在展示协调利用各种各样的卫星和原地数据提高各类作物产量和加强粮食安全的重要性。由地球观测组织农业监测实践社区创建,作物评估与监测联合试验还是地球观测组织全球农业监测倡议的科学先驱,正在应二十国集团农业部长的要求启动该倡议。地球观测卫星委员会正在与地球观测组织农业监测实践社区开展协商,以评估对未来卫星数据的需求。
D. Satellites and disastersD. 卫星与灾害
Space agencies and other GEO partners are working together to expand the use of satellite images and maps for managing the risks posed by fires, floods, earthquakes and other hazards. They are evaluating user needs and matching them with existing or planned technologies and data sets, and they are expanding international access to satellite images via the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. Satellites have a uniquely valuable vantage point for monitoring many kinds of large-scale disasters, from forest fires to overflowing rivers to earthquake-prone zones. Remotely sensed data can be provided in near-real time or with very little delay and can include maps, optical images or radar images that accurately measure the burnt area, heat, flood extent, land displacement and other key variables.空间机构及地球观测组织其他合作伙伴正在协力扩大卫星图像和图表的利用,以管理火灾、洪水、地震及其他危害所带来的风险。它们正在评价用户需求,并将其与现有或规划的技术和数据集相匹配;同时,它们正在通过《空间与重大灾害问题国际宪章》扩大国际上获取卫星图像的机会。卫星在监测多种大规模灾害——从森林火灾到河水泛滥再到地震多发区——方面具有独一无二的重要优势。遥感数据可以接近实时的提供或几乎毫不延迟,其中可包括能够准确测量林火面积、热量、洪水范围、陆地沉降及其他关键变数的地图、光学图像或雷达图像。
The Geohazard Supersites initiative coordinates the existing space- and ground-based observation resources of GEO members.
This global scientific collaboration is aimed at improving the scientific understanding of the risks of earthquakes and volcanic events in selected regions.
The “supersites” currently being addressed are L’Aquila (Italy), Chile, Mount Etna, Haiti, Istanbul, Los Angeles (United States), Mount Vesuvius, Seattle (United States)/Vancouver (Canada) and Tokyo.
The supersites partnership consists of space agencies, which provide satellite radar, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and other Earth-observation data;
the providers of ground-based geophysical data, such as seismic and Global Positioning System data;
and scientists and decision makers who use and analyse those data. The Geohazard Supersites initiative provides a cyber-infrastructure platform with a single web entry point that allows fast, easy and free-of-charge access to a complete satellite and ground-based geophysical data set derived from diverse sources and geophysical disciplines. This interdisciplinary approach of using data from satellite radar (SAR interferometry), seismology and other Earth-science domains provides the unique potential of narrowing down the scientific uncertainty about future disastrous events. The data can also be used by civil protection agencies responsible for the production of reliable and detailed risk scenarios and consequent emergency plans and by urban planners responsible for land-use planning in risk-prone areas.地质灾害超级站点倡议协调地球观测组织成员的现有天基和地基观测资源。这种全球科技合作旨在提高对特定区域的地震和火山事件风险的科学理解。目前正在讨论的“超级站点”是拉奎拉(意大利)、智利、埃特纳火山、海地、伊斯坦布尔、洛杉矶(美国)、维苏威火山、西雅图(美国)/温哥华(加拿大)和东京。超级站点伙伴关系包括:提供卫星雷达、综合孔径雷达和其他地球观测数据的空间机构;地震和全球定位系统数据等地基地球物理数据的提供者;使用和分析这些数据的科学家和决策者。地质灾害超级站点倡议提供数字化基础设施平台,它拥有一个网络入口点,能够快速、容易和免费获取各种来源和地球物理学科所产生的整套卫星和地基地球物理数据集。这种利用卫星雷达(综合孔径雷达干涉测量法)、地震学及其他地球科学领域的数据的跨学科办法提供了减少对未来灾害事件的科学不确定性的独特潜力。这些数据还能够为负责编制可靠和详细的风险情景和相应的应急计划的平民保护机构以及负责风险多发区土地利用规划的城市规划者所用。
CEOS has conducted a comprehensive study of the requirements of disaster managers for satellite data.
It looked at requirements for seven different types of disaster, on a global basis, and across the full cycle of disaster management. Using an analysis by the World Bank, the authors of the study were able to determine which areas of the world were more likely to be severely affected by disasters and to establish user requirements associated with those areas on a priority basis. The report was eventually validated by representative users from disaster management organizations and space agencies from around the world. It was presented at a meeting in Bonn organized by the Office for Outer Space Affairs, where 100 participants from various meteorological, disaster relief and emergency management agencies provided feedback on both the methodology and specific user requirements.地球观测卫星委员会已对卫星数据灾害管理者的要求进行了全面研究。它考察了全球及灾害管理整个周期中七种不同类型的灾害的要求。利用世界银行的分析,研究报告的作者能够确定世界上哪些地区更可能受到灾害的严重影响,并根据优先顺序确立与这些地区有关的用户要求。该报告最终经灾害管理组织的代表用户和世界各地的空间机构进行验证,在外层空间事务厅组织的波恩会议上被提出,来自各种气象、灾害救援和应急管理机构的100名与会者提供了关于方法和具体用户要求的反馈。该用户要求报告于2009年完成,目前是侧重于具体卫星数据集的全面差距分析的起点。
Completed in 2009, that user-requirements report is now the starting point for a comprehensive gap analysis focused on specific satellite data sets. The CEOS Disaster Satellite-Based Augmentation Team is working in conjunction with the CEOS Systems Engineering Office to review the specific disaster-related user requirements highlighted in the report and is identifying observation and measurement parameters, which in turn will be tracked against the CEOS database of existing and planned missions for the 2010-2030 time frame. The current Systems Engineering Office database shows 339 (of 415) missions, 391 (of 984) instruments and 88 (of 146) measurements to be relevant to disasters in general. Those measurements are a mixture of atmosphere, land and ocean parameters.地球观测卫星委员会灾害卫星扩增小组正在与地球观测卫星委员会系统工程处联合审查报告中强调的具体灾害相关用户要求,并且正在确定观测和测量参数,反过来将根据地球观测卫星委员会2010-2030年期间现有和计划的飞行任务数据库追踪这些参数。当前的系统工程处数据库显示339次飞行任务(总共415次)、391种仪器(总共984种)和88次测量(总共146次)总体上与灾害有关。这些测量综合了大气、陆地和海洋参数。测量要求依据的是全球测地系统的10年期实施计划。更详细的差距分析要求更好地定义测量及其与相关飞行任务相匹配的详细要求。
Measurement requirements are based on the GEOSS 10-year implementation plan.
More detailed gap analyses require a better definition of measurements and their detailed requirements to match relevant missions. Work is currently under way on flooding and is expected to be completed by late 2011. In parallel to the gap analysis, work is under way in the CEOS Working Group on Information Systems and Services to develop a data-dissemination model to integrate and make use of existing technologies within the Working Group, i.e. sensor web, web service, grid and clearing house for disaster response. The Working Group will then implement a prototype to demonstrate the use of those integrated technologies for disaster response.目前正在对水灾进行研究,此项工作可望于2011年底完成。与差距分析同时进行的是,地球观测卫星委员会信息系统和服务工作组正在开展工作,以制定整合和利用工作组内部现有技术的数据传播模式,即用于应对灾害的传感网、网络服务、坐标网和信息交换所。该工作组随后将实施展示使用综合应灾技术的模式。
E. Satellites and communicationsE. 卫星与通信
GEO is protecting radio frequencies for Earth observations. Acknowledging the increasing pressure from telecommunications and other sectors on the frequency bands used by the Earth observation community, GEO actively participates in frequency management processes in order to ensure the long-term availability of radio frequencies for terrestrial, oceanic, airborne and space-based observations and data dissemination and avoid any harmful interference that could jeopardize related observations. That effort is currently being handled through the participation of a number of GEO participants, in particular WMO in meetings of the International Telecommunication Union, either during regular working parties or World Radiocommunication Conferences. GEO has established the GEONETCast global data dissemination system.地球观测组织正在保护地球观测的无线电频率。地球观测组织确认电信及其他部门对地球观测界所使用的频带的压力日益增加,因而积极参与频率管理进程,以确保地面、海洋、航空和天基观测和数据传播的无线电频率的长期可持续性,并避免可能危及相关观测的任何有害干扰。此项努力目前正通过地球观测组织的一些参与者尤其是气象组织,在工作队例会期间或世界无线电通信会议期间参加国际电信联盟会议来开展。
GEONETCast ensures access to Earth observation data by broadcasting data from dozens of leading data providers to decision makers around the world.
The data are transmitted via advanced communications satellites to thousands of low-cost, off-the-shelf receivers.
GEONETCast also provides dedicated training and alert channels for capacity-building and risk reduction, particularly in developing countries.
GEONETCast is a low-cost information-delivery system that transmits satellite and in situ data, products and services from GEOSS to users through communications satellites.
It is a key means of dissemination for GEOSS.
The system’s current coverage is provided by the China Meteorological Administration, which operates FENGYUNCast over Asia and parts of the Pacific;
the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), which operates EUMETCast over Europe, Africa and parts of the Americas; and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States, which operates GEONETCast Americas over North, Central and South America as well as the Caribbean. The Russian Federation has also indicated its interest in providing additional regional coverage. WMO is also a GEONETCast partner and contributes its experience in global systems for disseminating weather-related data.地球观测组织已建立GEONETCast全球数据传播系统。GEONETCast确保通过向世界各地的决策者播送数十名主要数据提供者提供的数据,获取地球观测数据。这些数据通过先进的通信卫星向成千上万低成本、现成的接收器传播。GEONETCast还提供能力建设和风险降低专门培训和警报渠道,尤其在发展中国家开展这项工作。GEONETCast是一种低成本的信息提供系统,通过通信卫星将全球测地系统提供的卫星和原地数据、产品和服务传播给用户。这是全球测地系统的主要传播手段。该系统目前的覆盖范围提供者包括:中国国家气象局,其在亚洲和太平洋许多地方运行FENGYUNCast;欧洲气象卫星应用组织,其在欧洲、非洲和美洲的许多地方运行EUMETCast;美国国家海洋与大气管理局,其在北美洲、中美洲和南美洲以及加勒比运行GEONETCast Americas。俄罗斯联邦也表示有兴趣提供附加区域覆盖范围。气象组织还是GEONETCast的合作伙伴,有助于其积累在全球传播气象相关数据系统方面的经验。
A/AC.105/C.1/L.310.* A/AC.105/C.1/L.310。
1 The full version of the ITU report on the radio regulatory framework for space services will be distributed to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee as a conference room paper and will be made available on the website of the Office for Outer Space Affairs.1 国际电联关于空间服务无线电监管框架的报告全文将作为会议室文件分发给科学和技术小组委员会,并刊登在外层空间事务厅网站。
2 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1825, No. 31251.2 联合国,《条约汇编》,第1825卷,第31251号。
3 International Telecommunication Union, Radio Regulations (Geneva, 2008).3 国际电信联盟,《无线电条例》(日内瓦,2008年)。