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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.7 V1501263.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.7 V1501262.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
24 February 201524 February 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
V.15-01263 (E) 030315 040315V.15-01262 (C) GL 090315 090315
Implementation Review Group实施情况审议组
Sixth session第六届会议
Vienna, 1-5 June 20152015年6月1日至5日,维也纳
Item 2 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目2
Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption审议《联合国反腐败公约》实施情况
Executive summary提要
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Executive summary二. 提要
II. Executive summary二. 提要
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Nauru in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:瑙鲁在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和体制框架概述
The Convention was acceded to by the Government of Nauru and it entered into force on 11 August 2012.瑙鲁政府于2012年8月11日加入《公约》并使之生效。
Nauru deposited its instrument of ratification with the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 12 July 2012.瑙鲁于2012年7月12日向联合国秘书长交存了其批准书。
The implementing legislation includes, among others, the Constitution of the Republic of Nauru, the Criminal Code 1899 (CC), the Criminal Procedure Act 1972, the Anti-Money Laundering Act 2008 (AMLA), the Proceeds of Crime Act 2004 (POCA), the Public Service Act 1998, the Criminal Justice Act 1999, the Extradition Act 1973 and the Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act 2004 (MACMA).正在实施的法规主要包括《瑙鲁共和国宪法》、1899年《刑法典》、1972年《刑事诉讼法》、2008年《反洗钱法》、2004年《犯罪所得法》、1998年《公务员法》、1999年《刑事司法法》、1973年《引渡法》和2004年《刑事事项互助法》。
The CC was under review at the time of the country visit.国家访问之时正在审查《刑法典》。
The Australian Attorney-General’s Department has been working with the Government of Nauru to prepare draft legislation as part of the Criminal Code reform process.澳大利亚司法部一直与瑙鲁政府合作编写立法草案,作为《刑法典》改革进程的一部分。
Section 51 of the Interpretation Act 2011 sets out that any relevant treaty or other international agreement to which Nauru is a party may be considered when interpreting a written law or statutory instrument in order to: (a) resolve an ambiguous or obscure provision of the law; or (b) confirm or displace the apparent meaning of the law; or (c) find the meaning of the law when its apparent meaning leads to a result that is clearly absurd or is unreasonable.2011年《解释法》第51条规定,在解释一部成文法或法定文书时,瑙鲁所缔结的任何相关条约或其他国际协定可视为用于:(a)解决一项不明或难解的法律规定;(b)确认或取代明显的法律含义;或(c)在明显的法律含义导致显然荒谬或不合理的结果时找出该法律的含义。
The Supreme Court is the highest court in Nauru and may hear constitutional issues.最高法院是瑙鲁最高权力法院,可以审理宪法问题。
Cases can be appealed to a two-judge Appellate Court.案件可上诉至由两名法官组成的上诉法院。
Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but Appellate Court rulings involving non-Constitutional matters can be appealed to Australia’s High Court; in practice, however, this rarely happens.议会不能推翻法院的裁决,但涉及非宪法事项的上诉法院裁定可上诉至澳大利亚高等法院;实际上这种情况很少发生。
Lower courts consist of the District Court and the Family Court.下级法院由地区法院和家事法院组成。
At the time of review, the judiciary consisted of the Chief Justice, two judges, the registrar of the Supreme Court and the Resident Magistrate.审议之时,司法机关包括首席法官、两名法官、最高法院书记官长和驻地治安法官。
Finally, there also are two administrative tribunals: the Public Service Appeal Board and the Police Service Board.最后,还有两个行政法庭:公共事务上诉委员会和警察事务委员会。
Relevant institutions in the fight against corruption include the Ministry for Justice and Border Control, Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), Financial Intelligence Unit, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, National Police, the Judiciary, Nauru Correctional Services, Office of the Director of Audit and the Nauru Revenue Office/Department of Finance.打击腐败的相关机构包括司法和边境管制部、检察署、金融情报处、外交和贸易部、国家警察署、司法机关、瑙鲁惩教局、审计长办公室和瑙鲁财政部税务局。
Nauru has been assessed by the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG) as to its anti-money-laundering framework.亚太反洗钱小组对瑙鲁反洗钱框架进行了评估。
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Nauru has not adopted a comprehensive definition of “public official” or “public servant” that extends to judicial officers, persons performing public functions and other public officials, in accordance with article 2 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption.瑙鲁尚未采用“公职人员”或“公务员”的全面定义,根据《联合国反腐败公约》第二条,该定义扩大到司法官员、履行公共职能人员和其他政府官员。
Regarding statistics on corruption cases investigated, prosecuted and adjudicated, it was confirmed during the country visit that there have only been two cases of embezzlement and one case of money-laundering in the past 3-4 years.关于侦查、起诉和审判的腐败案件统计数字,国家访问期间已确认,过去三至四年里仅发现两起贪污案件和一起洗钱案件。
The absence of case examples affects the analysis of the implementation of the chapter by Nauru, insofar as it was not possible to reach a determination of the effective implementation of the legislative framework in practice.在不可能确定立法框架是否得到切实有效执行的情况下,缺少案件实例影响对瑙鲁实施本章情况的分析。
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)
Active and passive bribery of persons employed in the public service and certain other officials is criminalized principally in sections 59, 60, 87, 103, 118, 120 and 121 of the CC.《刑法典》第59、60、87、103、118、120和121条原则上将担任公职者和其他一些官员的所涉行贿受贿定为刑事罪。
However, not all public officials under the Convention are covered.但并非《公约》规定的所有公职人员都包括在内。
There have been no completed prosecutions arising from allegations of corruption pursuant to chapter VIII (Offences against the Executive and the Legislative) of the CC.没有根据《刑法典》第八章(违反行政和立法规定的犯罪)审结的因腐败指控而起诉的案件。
Nauru has not criminalized the bribery of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations.瑙鲁未将贿赂外国公职人员或国际公共组织官员定为刑事罪。
Nauru relies on the general bribery provisions to pursue cases of trading in influence.瑙鲁凭借一般贿赂条款处理影响力交易案件。
While Nauru’s existing bribery provisions could partially cover the relevant conduct, they do not extend to all public officials, nor is the concept of abuse of “real or supposed influence” clearly covered.瑙鲁现有贿赂规定可能部分涵盖相关行为,但并没有扩大到所有公职人员,也没有明确涵盖滥用“实际影响力或者被认为具有的影响力”的概念。
Nauru has not criminalized bribery in the private sector.瑙鲁未将私营部门内的贿赂定为刑事罪。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)
The offence of money-laundering is provided in Nauru’s AMLA (sections 2 and 3).瑙鲁《反洗钱法》(第2和3条)对洗钱犯罪作了规定。
Section 3 contains the physical and material elements of the money-laundering offence as required under the Convention.第3条载有《公约》所规定的洗钱犯罪的实际和重大要素。
For the conversion or transfer of property, there is no requirement to prove that it is for the purpose of concealing or disguising its illicit origin.对于转换或转移财产,不要求证明其目的是隐瞒或掩饰该财产的非法来源。
Nauru has adopted measures that mostly cover the participatory acts outlined in article 23 (1) (b) (ii) (e.g. acts of participation and association do not seem to be specifically covered).瑙鲁已采取的措施主要涵盖《公约》第二十三条第一款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项第2目所概述的参与行为(如,似乎并没有具体涵盖参与和协同实施的行为)。
AMLA uses a threshold approach for predicate offences which includes most but not all Convention offences.《反洗钱法》对上游犯罪采用门槛方法,其中包括《公约》确定的多数但并非全部犯罪。
There has been one successful prosecution of a money-laundering case in Nauru in 2010.2010年瑙鲁成功起诉了一起洗钱案件。
Section 2 of AMLA addresses the concealment of proceeds of crime, although the continued retention of criminal proceeds does not seem to be covered.《反洗钱法》第2条述及隐瞒犯罪所得的行为,但似乎不包括继续保留犯罪所得的情形。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条)
CC provisions criminalize theft and related offences (sections 390-399), obtaining property by false pretences (426-431) and misappropriation by members of local authorities (440) as well as false accounting (441-442).《刑法典》各项条款将盗窃和相关犯罪(第390-399条)、以虚假借口取得财产(第426-431条)和地方当局官员挪用财产(第440条)以及造假账(第441-442条)定为刑事罪。
The legislative measures provided in the domestic laws of Nauru are limited to the embezzlement of certain types of property.瑙鲁本国法所规定的立法措施仅限于贪污某些类型的财产。
Nauru’s theft offence covers only inanimate and moveable “things” that are the property “of any person”.瑙鲁的盗窃罪仅涵盖作为“他人”财产的无生命和可移动的“物品”。
There have been two cases of theft by public servants in the past five years.过去5年里发生了两起公务员盗窃案件。
Nauru’s offence of abuse of office (i.e.瑙鲁的滥用职权罪(即《刑法典》第92、93、112、136条)仅限于“损害他人权利的任意行为”,但没有扩大到公职人员在执行公务时实施的任何违法行为。
sections 92, 93, 112, 136 CC) is limited to “arbitrary acts prejudicial to the rights of another” and does not extend to any violation of law committed by a public official in the discharge of official functions.瑙鲁尚未将资产非法增加定为刑事罪。
Nauru has not criminalized illicit enrichment.但要求议会成员依照《行为守则》申报其外部利益。
However, members of Parliament are required to declare their outside interests under the Code of Conduct.一些规定涉及私营部门内的贪污,特别是第437和438条述及欺诈性挪用财产和公司职员的虚假陈述,其诉讼时效与公共部门的贪污案件相同。
A number of provisions are relevant to embezzlement in the private sector, in particular articles 437 and 438 regarding the fraudulent appropriation of property and false statements by officials of companies, with the same limitations as in the case of embezzlement in the public sector.妨害司法(第二十五条)
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)《刑法典》第57、122、126、127、128、129、130、132、133和140条原则上将妨害司法定为犯罪。
Obstruction of justice is criminalized principally in sections 57, 122, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 133 and 140 CC.尤其是第127条(贿赂证人)似乎涵盖贿赂证人的行为并且可扩大到具体手段(使用人身暴力、威胁或恐吓),而第140条设想可以扩大到干扰审判或执法人员的行为。
In particular, section 127 (Corruption of Witnesses) appears to cover the bribery of witnesses and could extend to the specified means (use of physical force, threats or intimidation) while section 140 could conceivably extend to interference with justice or law enforcement officials.没有妨害司法的案例。
There have been no cases of obstruction of justice.法人责任(第二十六条)
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)瑙鲁规定了法人的刑事责任,但没有进行过相关侦查或诉讼程序,也没有发现公司因腐败或洗钱被处以罚款、解散或吊销执照的刑事案件或行政案件。
Nauru has established the criminal liability of legal persons, although there have been no related investigations or proceedings and no criminal or administrative cases where companies were fined, dissolved or their licences withdrawn for corruption or money-laundering.参与和未遂(第二十七条)
Participation and attempt (art. 27)参与犯罪被定为刑事罪(《刑法典》第7条述及主犯,第8条述及为达到共同目的而实施的犯罪,第10和544条述及由事实确立的从犯,第132和541条述及共谋犯罪)。
Participation in offences is criminalized (section 7 CC on principal offenders, section 8 on offences committed in prosecution of common purpose, sections 10 and 544 on accessories after the fact and sections 132 and 541 on conspiracies).《刑法典》第4条涵盖犯罪未遂。
Attempts are covered (section 4 CC).没有相关侦查或起诉案例。
There were no related investigations or prosecutions.起诉、审判和制裁; 与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)通常根据犯罪的严重性来确定制裁措施。
The determination of sanctions generally takes into account the gravity of offences.根据1976年《议会权力、特权与豁免法》,议员审议议会事项的公务行为享有免于民事或刑事诉讼的权利,在议会开会期间还享有未经议长同意免于因任何刑事犯罪在议会场所被逮捕的刑事豁免权。
According to the Parliamentary Powers, Privileges and Immunities Act 1976, members of Parliament enjoy functional immunity from civil or criminal proceedings for conduct in the consideration of parliamentary matters as well as criminal immunity from arrest for any criminal offence without the consent of the Speaker while in the Parliament premises when Parliament is in session.但是对议员提出起诉不需要获得同意。
No consent is needed, however, for their prosecution.过去两年里没有相关案例。
In the past two years there have been no related cases.总统或任何其他公务员都不享有刑事豁免权。
Neither the President nor any other public servant enjoys criminal immunity.还确认,此前未在腐败相关案件中使用过总统赦免。
It was also confirmed that the presidential pardon has not previously been used in corruption-related cases.瑙鲁实行自由裁量起诉制度。
Nauru follows a system of discretionary prosecution.虽然检察长拥有广泛的起诉自由裁量权,但确立了若干法律保障,要求他以符合公共利益的方式,在取得充分证据的基础上审慎行使该自由裁量权。
While the DPP has broad discretion to prosecute, several legal safeguards are in place that require him to exercise this discretion judiciously, in the public interest and based on the sufficiency of evidence.检察长的起诉决定须接受司法审查,但没有发生过此类案件。
Prosecution decisions by the DPP are subject to judicial review, although there have been no such cases.目前使用的是澳大利亚起诉准则,瑙鲁的独立准则正在制定中。
The prosecution guidelines of Australia are currently being used, and independent guidelines for Nauru are under development.2010年已采取步骤加强检察署的独立性,使其成为司法部的一个宪政部门。
Steps were taken in 2010 to increase the independence of the DPP by making it a constitutional office in the Ministry of Justice.检察长在起诉的权力方面不向任何其他部门或职位负责,但在行政上他接受司法秘书的预算和资源分配。
The DPP is not accountable to any other office or position with regard to the powers of prosecution, although administratively he is subject to the Secretary for Justice for budget and resource allocations.检察长不能指导或控制警察的侦查工作。
The DPP cannot direct or control investigations by the police.设定保外候审的条件的目的是确保被告人在刑事诉讼中出庭。
Conditions on release pending trial are designed to ensure the presence of the defendant at criminal proceedings.瑙鲁已设立假释委员会,该委员会向司法部提出假释决定方面的建议。
Nauru has a Parole Board that recommends determinations on parole to the Minister of Justice.任何这类申请都必须有一份列明支持假释的决定的理由的完整清单来佐证,社区支持也必不可少。
Any such applications must be supported by a completed checklist setting out the grounds for decision to support parole, and community support is needed.自2010年以来,在腐败相关事项上已有两人获得假释。
Since 2010, two persons have been released on parole in corruption-related matters.对定罪后停职和解职作了规定。
Suspension and dismissal on conviction are provided for. However, few investigations have been carried out and no charges applied.但是进行的侦查很少,并且没有适用任何指控。
The disqualification of accused persons from holding public office is limited due to the lack of a definition of “public official” or “public servant”.由于缺乏“公职人员”或“公务员”的定义,被告人被取消担任公职的资格是有限的。
Nauru operates a prisoner rehabilitation programme that encompasses education for youth (e.g. math and life skills), counselling and community programmes, as well as regular family visits (twice a week).瑙鲁实行囚犯改造方案,其中包括青年教育(例如,数学和生活技能)、辅导和社区方案,以及家人定期探视(每周两次)。
It was explained that approximately 90 per cent of prisoners participate in the rehabilitation programme.瑙鲁解释说,大约90%的囚犯参加了改造方案。
At the time of the country visit there were about 14 persons in prison.国家访问之时,约有14人被关在监狱中。
Nauru has not established measures to encourage defendants and persons who participated in the commission of offences to cooperate in investigations and prosecutions, and to provide testimony or evidence in line with the article 37.瑙鲁没有制定措施鼓励被告和参与实施犯罪行的个人配合调查和起诉并根据《公约》第三十七条提供证词或证据。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)
Nauru has in place procedural measures to ensure the safety of witnesses.瑙鲁制定了程序性措施以确保证人的安全。
These include the housing of witnesses with police guards in the island’s main hotel and the potential to place witnesses in the island’s “safe house” (although it has never been used).其中包括在岛上的主要酒店向证人提供有警察守卫的住房以及可能把证人安置在岛上的“安全屋”(但从未使用过)。
The court also has at its disposal the ability to use restraining orders or impose bail conditions regarding non-contact with witnesses.法院还能够自行使用禁止令或施加不接触证人的保释条件。
While legal measures criminalize actions of those who prevent or attempt to prevent witnesses or persons who provide evidence in court from appearing, other acts of interference that do not cause the witness to be absent are not covered.法律措施将阻止或企图阻止人证人或在法院提供证据者出庭的行为定为犯罪,但未造成证人不能出庭的其他干扰行为未包括在内。
Limited evidentiary measures to protect witnesses and experts and few protections for victims are in place.保护证人和鉴定人的证据措施有限,对被害人的保护也寥寥无几。
There have been no cases of witness protection in corruption-related matters.没有腐败相关事项上保护证人的案例。
Nauru has not adopted measures to protect reporting persons and whistle-blowers in cases involving Convention offences (art. 33).瑙鲁没有采取措施在涉及《公约》规定的犯罪(第三十三条)的案件中保护举报人和揭发人。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)冻结、扣押和没收; 银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
POCA and AMLA provide for confiscation, including provisional measures.《犯罪所得法》和《反洗钱法》对没收作了规定,包括临时措施。
Under section 17 of POCA, the Court may make a forfeiture order against tainted property in relation of to a person’s conviction of a serious offence on the application of the Secretary for Justice (which includes the DPP under section 2).根据《犯罪所得法》第17条,法院可以根据司法秘书(根据第2条包括检察长)的申请,对因严重犯罪而被定罪者的污点财产作出没收命令。
“Serious offence” is defined (section 3) to include any offence in or outside Nauru that is punishable by imprisonment for not less than 12 months and that includes money-laundering.“严重犯罪”被定义(第3条)为包括在瑙鲁境内或境外实施、可判处不少于12个月监禁的任何犯罪,也包括洗钱。
Similar provisions exist under the Anti-Money Laundering Act 2008.2008年《反洗钱法》作了类似的规定。
“Tainted property” under POCA may be inferred under certain circumstances to be proceeds from or instrumentalities used in the commission of crime and property of corresponding value (subsection 17(2)); however, it is restricted to property found in the person’s possession or under his control.《犯罪所得法》规定的“污点财产”在某些情况下可以推断为实施犯罪所取得的收益或使用的工具以及具有相应价值的财产(第17(2)条);但仅限于被认定为由该人持有或掌控的财产。
There is no provision for instrumentalities “destined for use” in the commission of a serious offence.没有对“拟用于”实施严重犯罪的工具作出规定。
Sections 50, 35 and 36 of POCA provide for restraining orders against property under certain conditions to prevent the dealing or disposal of the property, as well as the search for and seizure of suspected tainted property under a search warrant.《犯罪所得法》第50、35和36条规定,某些条件下对财产实行禁止令以防止处理或处置该财产,并根据搜查令搜查和扣押疑似污点财产。
Under section 54 of AMLA the court may make a freezing order to prevent the dealing or disposal of the property.根据《反洗钱法》第54条,法院可作出冻结令以防止处理或处置该财产。
Part VI of AMLA provides the police various powers to identify and trace tainted property: search and seizure, production of documents and monitoring orders.《反洗钱法》第六部分规定了警察查明和追踪污点财产的各种权力:搜查和扣押、编制文件和监督命令的执行。
There have been no related cases of confiscation, freezing or seizure.没有相关的没收、冻结或扣押案例。
The procedure needed to obtain a court-issued warrant for investigating authorities to access government and financial or commercial records has led to delays in practice.获得法院签发的令状使侦查机关能够查阅政府和财务或商业记录所需的程序在实践中造成延迟。
There are no banks operating in Nauru.瑙鲁没有营业银行。
POCA provides the National Police Force with powers to compel production and to search and seize documents and other information.《犯罪所得法》规定国家警察部队有权迫使有关方出示文件以及有权搜查和扣押文件和其他资料。
The NPF has authority to apply to the court for a production order to seize and obtain records (section 79 POCA).国家警察部队有权向法院申请出示令以扣押和获得记录(《犯罪所得法》第79条)。
Additional powers relating to the monitoring of accounts and the search for and seizure of tainted property (used to commit a serious offence or the proceeds of a serious offence) are also contained in POCA.与监测账户及搜查和扣押污点财产(用于实施严重犯罪或严重犯罪的收益)有关的其他权力也载于《犯罪所得法》。
Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)时效; 犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)
Indictable offences carry no limitation period in Nauru.瑙鲁可起诉的犯罪不具有时效期限。
Previous convictions, including foreign convictions, can be taken into account during sentencing.判决期间可以考虑到以往的定罪,包括外国定罪。
Jurisdiction (art. 42)管辖权(第四十二条)
Jurisdiction over offences committed on board vessels and aircraft appear to be regulated as an extension of Nauru’s territorial jurisdiction and is specifically addressed for money-laundering offences.对在船只和航空器上所实施犯罪的管辖权的规定似乎是瑙鲁属地管辖权的延伸,并且具体涉及洗钱犯罪。
Nauru has not adopted the active and passive personality principles or the State protection principle in its domestic law.瑙鲁没有在本国法中采用主动和被动属人管辖权原则或国家保护原则。
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)
Nauru has not adopted measures to address consequences of corruption.瑙鲁尚未采取措施处理腐败行为的后果。
Sections 121 and 121A of the Criminal Procedure Act 1972 provide for the power of courts to award expenses or compensation orders.1972年《刑事诉讼法》第121和121A条规定了法院作出支出或赔偿命令的权力。
There have been no related cases.没有发现相关案例。
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条)
The key authorities include the Department of Public Prosecutions (DPP), Nauru Police Force and Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU).主要主管机关包括检察署、瑙鲁警察部队和金融情报处。
There is also a Public Audit Office and Public Service Board.还有公共审计办公室和公务员委员会。
Limited information was available regarding the effective functioning of these bodies (resources and training).可获得有关这些机构有效运作(资源和培训)的资料有限。
The police are situated in the President’s office, and there are no clear provisions establishing their independence, in particular with respect to sensitive or other investigations and operations.警察署设在总统府,没有明确规定来确立其独立性,特别是在敏感或其他侦查和行动方面。
The FIU is situated in the Ministry of Justice and is subject to its administrative supervision, including budgetary allocations.金融情报处设在司法部,接受司法部的行政监督,包括预算拨款。
There are no legal provisions to address the independence of the FIU and the adoption of relevant measures is under consideration.没有任何法律规定述及金融情报处的独立性,正在审议是否采取相关措施。
Government institutions in Nauru are situated in close proximity to each other and there is generally close coordination among them.瑙鲁政府机构的位置都比较靠近,通常彼此之间会密切协调。
Basic arrangements are in place for cooperation among the authorities (police, FIU, DPP, Public Service).已作出基本安排,促进主管机关(警察署、金融情报处、检察署、公务员委员会)之间的合作。
There are memorandums of understanding in place between the Nauru police and the FIU, as well as Nauru police and the customs department, to enhance law enforcement coordination.瑙鲁警察署和金融情报处之间以及瑙鲁警察署和海关部门之间签订了谅解备忘录,以加强执法协调。
While there is no comprehensive programme of interaction or outreach to the private sector, basic arrangements facilitate cooperation with the private sector, including the activities of the FIU and Nauru Agency Corporation (NAC), which provides shareholder and nominee services to domestic and foreign companies in accordance with Nauru’s domestic law.虽然没有出台与私营部门进行互动或外联的综合方案,但一些基本安排促进了与私营部门的合作,包括金融情报处和瑙鲁代理公司的活动,该公司依照瑙鲁本国法向国内和外国公司提供股东和提名人服务。
There are no civil society organizations on the island.岛上没有民间社会组织。
There is no specific duty to report corruption by public officials.没有规定举报公职人员腐败行为的具体义务。
2.2. Successes and good practices2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
The absence of a statute of limitations for indictable offences.可起诉的犯罪没有时效。
Nauru’s efforts to establish and operate the prisoner rehabilitation programme.瑙鲁努力确立和实施囚犯改造方案。
2.3. Challenges in implementation2.3. 实施方面的挑战
In the interest of greater legal certainty, it is recommended that Nauru adopt a comprehensive definition of public servants that extends to judicial officers, persons performing public functions and other public officials, in accordance with article 2 of the Convention.为了有更大的法律确定性,建议瑙鲁依照《公约》第二条采用公务员的全面定义,该定义扩大到司法官员、履行公共职能人员和其他公职人员。
Enact a comprehensive bribery offence covering all public officials in line with article 15.根据第十五条,颁布一项全面的涵盖所有公职人员的贿赂罪。
Criminalize the bribery of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations (art. 16).将贿赂外国公职人员和国际公共组织官员定为犯罪(第十六条)。
Adopt a comprehensive offence of embezzlement, misappropriation and diversion of property in line with article 17.根据第十七条,采用一项全面的贪污、挪用和侵犯财产罪。
Consider adopting a relevant provision criminalizing trading in influence (art. 18).考虑通过一项有关规定将影响力交易定为刑事罪(第十八条)。
Consider adopting a relevant provision on abuse of functions in accordance with article 19.根据第十九条,考虑通过一项针对滥用职权的相关规定。
Nauru may wish to adopt a provision criminalizing illicit enrichment (art. 20).瑙鲁不妨通过一项条款将资产非法增加定为刑事罪(第二十条)。
Consider adopting relevant measures to criminalize bribery in the private sector (art. 21).考虑采取相关措施将私营部门内的贿赂定为刑事罪(第二十一条)。
Nauru may wish to expand its offence of embezzlement to fully cover embezzlement in the private sector (art. 22).瑙鲁不妨扩大其贪污罪范围,以充分涵盖私营部门内的贪污(第二十二条)。
Ensure that proceeds and instrumentalities from the widest range of predicate offences, including Convention offences, are subject to confiscation, freezing and seizure; address participatory acts to money-laundering outlined in article 23 (1) (b) (ii); monitor the risk of money-laundering going forward to ensure the effective implementation of the anti-money-laundering provisions; and furnish copies of the anti-money-laundering laws to the United Nations.确保从最广泛的上游犯罪(包括《公约》所规定的犯罪)获得的收益和使用的工具应予没收、冻结和扣押;处理第二十三条第一款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项第2目概述的参与洗钱行为;监测洗钱继续发生的风险,确保有效实施反洗钱规定;向联合国提供反洗钱法律文本。
Ensure coverage of instrumentalities “destined for use” in the commission of serious offences in the POCA (art. 31).确保涵盖“拟用于”实施《犯罪所得法》所列严重犯罪的工具(第三十一条)。
Review available options to simplify and streamline the procedure for investigating authorities to obtain a court-issued warrant to access government and financial or commercial records, which has led to delays in practice, including the possibility for investigating agencies to obtain government records under administrative powers; and strengthen measures on document retention and security (arts. 31 and 40).审查简化和精简侦查机关获得法院签发的令状以查阅政府和财务或商务记录的程序(在实践中已造成延迟)的现有选择,包括侦查机关依照行政权力获得政府记录的可能性;并加强有关文件留存和安全的措施(第三十一和四十条)。
Take steps to strengthen protections for witnesses, experts and victims, including their physical protection and procedural or evidentiary measures, in accordance with national priorities and existing means, and consider entering into relocation agreements (art. 32).根据国家优先事项和现有手段,采取步骤加强对证人、鉴定人和被害人的保护,包括人身保护及程序和证据措施,并考虑订立移管协定(第三十二条)。
Consider adopting measures to protect whistle-blowers and provide for their effective enforcement (art. 33).考虑采取措施保护举报人并对有效执行这些措施作出规定(第三十三条)。
Adopt measures to address consequences of corruption, including the withdrawal of contracts, licences and other remedial measures (art. 34).采取措施消除腐败行为的后果,包括撤销合同、许可证和其他补救措施(第三十四条)。
Adopt measures to strengthen the independence of criminal justice institutions, in particular the police, FIU and judiciary; efforts under consideration by Nauru in this regard are welcomed (art. 36).采取措施加强刑事司法机构的独立性,尤其是警察部门、金融情报处和司法机关;欢迎瑙鲁考虑作出这方面的努力(第三十六条)。
There is a need for capacity-building of criminal justice institutions in Nauru, in particular the police, FIU and judiciary, to strengthen investigative skills and financial investigations, as well as prosecutions and adjudications of corruption and economic crime cases, involving all relevant institutions.瑙鲁刑事司法机构,尤其是在警察部门、金融情报处和司法机关,需要进行能力建设,以加强侦查技能和金融调查,以及对涉及所有相关机构的腐败和经济犯罪案件进行起诉和判决。
Adopt measures to encourage the cooperation of offenders in investigations and prosecutions; for example, through the possibility of mitigated punishment, plea-bargaining or immunity from prosecution (art. 37).采取措施鼓励犯罪人配合调查和起诉;例如,通过减轻处罚、辩诉交易或免予起诉的可能性(第三十七条)。
Consider taking additional steps to strengthen coordination measures among national authorities, for example to encourage public servants to report information to relevant authorities and to cooperate in investigations or prosecutions (art. 38).考虑采取补充措施,加强国家主管部门之间的协调措施,例如,鼓励公务员向有关当局报告相关信息及配合调查或起诉(第三十八条)。
Nauru may wish to consider taking measures to encourage or require public officials, nationals and residents to report corruption to the appropriate authorities (art. 39).瑙鲁似宜考虑采取措施,鼓励或要求公职人员、国民和居民向适当主管部门举报腐败行为(第三十九条)。
Consider adopting the active and passive personality principles and the State protection principle in its domestic law.考虑在本国法中采用主动和被动属人管辖权原则和国家保护原则。
2.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention2.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要
Legislative drafting/legal advice with regard to articles 16, 17, 21, 23, 24, 30, 32, 33, 34, 37, 40, 41 and 42.针对第十六、十七、二十一、二十三、二十四、三十、三十二、三十三、三十四、三十七、四十、四十一和四十二条的立法起草/法律咨询意见。
Good practices/lessons learned with regard to articles 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40 and 42.第三十、三十二、三十三、三十四、三十六、三十七、三十九、四十和四十二条方面的良好做法/吸取的教训。
Capacity-building assistance to national authorities with regard to articles 32, 33 and 36.针对第三十二、三十三和三十六条协助国家主管部门开展能力建设。
3. Chapter IV: International cooperation3. 第四章:国际合作
3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
Extradition (art. 44)引渡(第四十四条)
Extradition is governed by the Extradition Act 1973, which applies to designated countries, subject generally to reciprocity (section 4(5)).引渡受1973年《引渡法》管辖,该法适用于指定的国家,通常遵循对等原则(第4(5)条)。
Nauru does not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty.瑙鲁不以订有条约作为引渡的条件。
Nauru only has one bilateral extradition treaty, with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.瑙鲁只与大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国订立了一项双边引渡条约。
In principle, the Convention could be used as a legal basis insofar as it is in compliance with the Extradition Act, but there has been no experience in its application.原则上,只要符合《引渡法》,《公约》便可以作为法律依据,但没有适用《公约》方面的经验。
Nauru also subscribes to the Commonwealth (London) Scheme on Extradition.瑙鲁还签署了《英联邦内(伦敦)引渡办法》。
Nauru adopts a list approach to extraditable offences (schedule section 5), which includes most Convention offences; moreover, the minimum imprisonment term of one year for an offence to be extraditable covers most but not all Convention offences.瑙鲁针对可引渡犯罪采用制定清单办法(附表第5节),其中包括《公约》规定的多数犯罪;此外,最短一年监禁期的可引渡犯罪涵盖《公约》确定的多数但并非全部犯罪。
Certain offences covered by the Convention are not covered or are only partially covered as relevant offences under the Schedule to the Extradition Act, including bribery of foreign public officials and illicit enrichment.《公约》所涵盖的某些犯罪并不包括在内,或只是作为《引渡法》附表下的相关犯罪被部分涵盖,包括贿赂外国公职人员和资产非法增加。
Sections 5 (1) (a) and (b) of the Extradition Act provide for the principle of dual criminality.《引渡法》第5(1)条(a)和(b)项对双重犯罪原则作了规定。
During the country visit, the reviewers were informed of only one designated country, namely the United Kingdom.国家访问期间,审议者获悉只有一个指定的国家,即联合王国。
The designation of additional countries requires an order by Cabinet and there appear to be no obstacles to expanding the list.指定更多的国家需要由内阁发布命令,在扩充该清单方面似乎不存在任何障碍。
Political offences are exempted from extradition under the Extradition Act (section 6(1)).《引渡法》规定,政治罪免予引渡(第6(1)条)。
Nauru appears to have legislatively complied with the requirement of fair treatment by virtue of the due process provisions (article 10 of the Constitution) and sections 7-10 of the Extradition Act.瑙鲁凭借正当诉讼程序规定(《宪法》第10条)和《引渡法》第7-10条,似乎在立法上符合公平待遇的要求。
The issues of fair treatment or discriminatory purpose have not been invoked to date.截至目前,不曾援引过公平待遇或歧视目的的问题。
No person has been extradited from Nauru, but the Republic of Korea has made an extradition request to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Nauru.没有人从瑙鲁引渡出境,但大韩民国已经向瑙鲁外交和贸易部提出了引渡请求。
The offences in question relate to fraud and forgery in the Republic of Korea.所述犯罪涉及在大韩民国实施欺诈和伪造。
To date, this request has not been complied with, as there is an ongoing legal proceeding in Nauru.到目前为止,该请求尚未履行,因为瑙鲁正在走法律程序。
The Cabinet decided that after this proceeding has been concluded, the request would be considered.内阁决定,在该程序结束之后就会考虑这一请求。
Two extradition requests have been received, from Australia and Japan, in relation to the extradition of Nauruan nationals.已收到澳大利亚和日本提出的引渡瑙鲁国民的两项引渡请求。
Both nationals went voluntarily, and therefore the formal request did not need to be acted on.这两名国民都是自愿前往,因此不需要就该正式请求采取行动。
However, the national authorities confirmed that they would have extradited the nationals, subject to the Extradition Act and that there would be no impediments to the extradition of Nauruan nationals generally.但相关国家主管部门证实,他们将依照《引渡法》引渡所述国民,总体而言引渡瑙鲁国民不会有任何障碍。
Nauru does not refuse extradition on the basis of nationality.瑙鲁不以国籍为由拒绝引渡。
Therefore, Nauru’s legislation does not allow for conditional extradition.因此,瑙鲁的立法不允许有条件引渡。
Refusal to extradite for the purpose of enforcing a sentence on the grounds that the person is a national is not a part of the domestic law of Nauru.瑙鲁本国法中没有规定以有关人员属于本国国民为由拒绝为了执行判决之目的进行引渡。
Transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 45 and 47)被判刑人的移管; 刑事诉讼的移交(第四十五和四十七条)
Nauru does not have domestic legislation that covers the transfer of sentenced persons.瑙鲁没有涵盖被判刑人移管问题的国内立法。
It would therefore need to give effect, through domestic legislation, to the Scheme for the Transfer of Convicted Offenders within the Commonwealth.因此必须通过国内立法使《英联邦成员国间移交既决罪犯计划》生效。
Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)司法协助(第四十六条)
There have been no outgoing or incoming MLA requests.没有发出或收到司法协助请求。
The absence of case examples affects the analysis of the implementation of the article, insofar as it was not possible to reach a determination of the effective implementation of the legislative framework in practice.在不可能确定立法框架是否得到切实有效执行的情况下,缺少案件实例影响对实施本条情况的分析。
Nauru requires dual criminality (section 3, MACMA).瑙鲁有两国共认犯罪的要求(《刑事事项互助法》第3条)。
The challenge identified is that not all offences covered by the Convention qualify as offences for which MLA may be provided.已认明的挑战是,并非《公约》涵盖的所有犯罪都有资格作为可因之提供司法协助的犯罪。
In principle, Nauru could use the Convention as a legal basis for MLA in corruption-related matters, although there has been no experience in its application.原则上,瑙鲁可以把《公约》用作腐败相关事项中提供司法协助的法律依据,但还没有适用《公约》方面的经验。
The central authority for MLA is the Minister of Justice.负责司法协助的中央机关是司法部。
The Minister may exercise his discretion to provide information spontaneously in relation to money-laundering offences, pursuant to the Proceeds of Crime Act.部长可以行使酌处权,依照《犯罪所得法》自主提供与洗钱犯罪有关的信息。
There is nothing in the domestic legislation that stipulates that Nauru would not decline to render MLA on the ground of bank secrecy or on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.国内立法中没有任何条款规定瑙鲁不得以银行保密为由或仅以犯罪也被视为涉及财税事项为由拒绝提供司法协助。
MACMA sets out the requirements of consent of the person and conditions of transfer for purposes of giving evidence or testimony.《刑事事项互助法》规定了为举证或作证之目的征得相关人同意和设定移管条件的要求。
However, procedures could be further simplified and streamlined to allow for extradition to be dealt with efficiently and effectively, including the transfer and return of a person without delay (art. 46(11)(b)).但可以进一步简化和精简程序,以便能够高效率和有成效地处理引渡案件,包括毫不迟延地移送和交还有关人员(第四十六条第十一款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项)。
Incoming requests must be in writing or by e-mail, although oral requests would be accepted if followed by a formal written request.收到的请求必须是书面或电子邮件形式,但如果接受口头请求,则随后应提供正式的书面请求。
Nauru has not made the requisite depositary notification concerning its central authority or acceptable languages for MLA.瑙鲁尚未发出有关司法协助方面的中央机关或能够接受的语文的必备保存通知。
Nauru would permit a hearing to take place by videoconference to the extent that such facilities are available.在可提供相关设施的情况下,瑙鲁将允许通过视频会议审理案件。
Nauru would not use information other than for the purpose stated in the request without the prior consent of the requested State.未经被请求国事先同意,瑙鲁不会将信息用于请求中所述之目的以外的目的。
If Nauru were to disclose information or evidence that is exculpatory to an accused person, the Government would consult with or notify the requested State prior to disclosure.瑙鲁若要披露可证明被告人无罪的信息或证据,政府将在披露之前与被请求国磋商或通知被请求国。
A court order would be required in order to provide information that is not available to the general public in relation to an MLA request.如果要提供不可提供给一般公众的有关司法协助请求信息,必须获得法院命令。
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50)执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
Law enforcement cooperation is carried out through agreements and arrangements, as well as on an ad hoc basis.通过协定和安排展开执法合作,也会开展临时执法合作。
The Transnational Crime Unit (TCU) cooperates internationally, not only through the Pacific Transnational Crime Network (PTCN), but also with the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), through the Pacific Transnational Crime Coordination Centre (PTCCC), situated in Apia.跨国犯罪处不仅通过太平洋跨国犯罪问题网络开展国际合作,还与国际刑事警察组织(刑警组织)通过位于阿皮亚的太平洋跨国犯罪问题协调中心在国际层面开展合作。
Nauru is involved as part of the Pacific Islands Forum secretariat, Pacific Islands Chiefs of Police, Oceania Customs Organization and Pacific Patrol Boat Program.瑙鲁加入了太平洋岛屿论坛秘书处、太平洋岛屿警察局长组织、大洋洲海关组织和太平洋巡逻艇方案。
Nauru authorities also cooperate with various other international law enforcement agencies and private industry.瑙鲁各主管机关还与其他国际执法机构和私营业界合作。
The FIU currently has informal connections with other FIUs.金融情报处与其他金融情报机构建立了非正式的联系。
A memorandum of understanding is being drafted with the Pacific Islands Forum countries.正在与太平洋岛屿论坛国家共同起草一项谅解备忘录。
The FIU is also part of the Pacific Association of FIUs, but not yet a member of the Egmont Group.金融情报处还参加了太平洋金融情报机构协会,但还不是埃格蒙特集团成员。
The FIU officer has benefited from training provided by the Asia/Pacific Group on Money-Laundering.金融情报处官员得益于亚太反洗钱小组提供的培训。
There are two Australian Federal Police liaison officers in the Nauruan National Police Force.瑙鲁国家警察部队中有两名澳大利亚联邦警察局联络官。
Nauruan officials have been posted in the PTCCC in Apia.瑙鲁官员已派驻阿皮亚太平洋跨国犯罪问题协调中心。
Moreover, the Force has benefited from training overseas such as in Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America.此外,警察部队已从澳大利亚、新西兰和美利坚合众国等海外培训中受益。
There appear to be no limitations to law enforcement cooperation in relation to case-specific inquiries and Nauru is able to cooperate within its means to respond to offences committed, also through the use of modern technology where it is available.与具体案件调查有关的执法合作似乎没有限制,瑙鲁能够在其力所能及的范围内进行合作,对所实施的犯罪作出应对,如有的话也可使用现代技术。
In principle, Nauru could use the Convention as a legal basis for law enforcement cooperation, although there has been no experience in its application.原则上,瑙鲁可以把《公约》用作执法合作的法律依据,但还没有适用《公约》方面的经验。
There is nothing that prevents Nauru from carrying out joint investigations on a case-by-case basis.没有任何规定阻碍瑙鲁视具体个案情况开展联合侦查。
There is one reported ongoing joint investigation where the offence was committed in Nauru in relation to money-laundering, but the person is now located in New Zealand.已报告一项正在进行的联合侦查,针对的是在瑙鲁实施的涉及洗钱的犯罪,但目前此人在新西兰。
Nauru has not adopted measures to allow for the appropriate use by its competent authorities of special investigative techniques, and to allow for the admissibility in court of evidence derived therefrom.瑙鲁尚未采取措施允许其主管机关适当使用特殊侦查手段并允许法院采信由这些手段产生的证据。
3.2. Successes and good practices3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Nauru’s international law enforcement cooperation, especially through the TCU.瑙鲁主要通过跨国犯罪处开展国际执法合作。
3.3. Challenges in implementation3.3. 实施方面的挑战
The following steps could further strengthen existing anti-corruption measures:下列步骤可进一步加强现有的反腐败措施:
Criminalize all the mandatory Convention offences, and consider criminalizing the optional offences, and include them as extraditable offences in the Extradition Act (including to allow for offences that satisfy the dual criminality requirement of the Extradition Act to be deemed extraditable); also designate additional countries pursuant to section 4 of the Extradition Act and give effect in domestic law to the London Scheme for Extradition within the Commonwealth.将《公约》规定的所有强制性犯罪定为刑事罪,并考虑将任择性犯罪定为刑事罪,同时将这些犯罪作为可引渡犯罪列入《引渡法》(包括允许满足《引渡法》中两国共认犯罪要求的罪行被视为可引渡犯罪);还根据《引渡法》第4条指定更多的国家,在本国法中使《英联邦内伦敦引渡办法》生效。
Consider granting extradition requests that include several separate offences, one of which is extraditable (art. 44 (3)).考虑批准包括几项独立犯罪而其中一项可予引渡的引渡请求(第四十四条第三款)。
Consider simplifying and streamlining procedures and evidentiary requirements in order to allow for extradition requests to be dealt with efficiently and effectively; this may include the adoption of a request management system and internal guidelines, and should include consultation with other States in such procedures (art. 44 (17)).考虑简化和精简程序和证据要求,以便能够高效率和有成效地处理引渡请求;这可能包括采用一种请求管理制度和内部指导方针,还应包括在此类程序中与其他国家进行磋商(第四十四条第十七款)。
Amend the Extradition Act to allow for refusal on the grounds of discriminatory purpose (art. 44 (15)).修订《引渡法》以允许拒绝基于歧视理由的引渡请求(第四十四条第十五款)。
Stipulate in its legislation that Nauru will not refuse extradition on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters (art. 44 (16)).在国内立法中规定瑙鲁不得仅以犯罪也被视为涉及财税事项为由而拒绝引渡(第四十四条第十六款)。
Consider giving effect, through domestic legislation, to the Scheme for the Transfer of Convicted Offenders within the Commonwealth; and consider entering into agreements or arrangements on the transfer of sentenced persons in order for such persons to complete their sentences in the requesting countries.考虑通过国内立法使《英联邦成员国间移交既决罪犯计划》生效;考虑缔结关于移管被判刑人的协定或安排,以便此类人员在请求引渡国服满刑期。
Criminalize all mandatory Convention offences, and consider criminalizing the optional Convention offences, that are currently not established as crimes in domestic legislation to satisfy the dual criminality requirements of MACMA.将《公约》确定的所有强制性犯罪定为刑事罪,并考虑将目前在本国立法中尚未定为犯罪的《公约》所确定的任择性犯罪定为刑事罪,以满足《刑事事项互助法》的双重犯罪要求。
If consistent with its domestic legal system, take such legislative measures as may be necessary to ensure that MLA involving non-coercive measures is afforded in the absence of double criminality, in line with article 46 (9) (b).如果与国内法律制度一致,采取必要的此类立法措施,确保按照第四十六条第九款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项的规定,在非双重犯罪的情况下提供涉及非强制性措施的司法协助。
Consider granting legal authority to the competent authority to proactively transmit information (beyond money-laundering offences) to a foreign competent authority in relation to MLA, without a prior request, where such information could assist in the investigation and prosecution of Convention offences.考虑授予主管机关法定权限,在信息可协助调查和起诉《公约》所规定的犯罪时,无需事先请求,主动将与司法协助有关的信息(洗钱犯罪信息以外信息)转递给外国主管机关。
Introduce legislative provisions that stipulate that Nauru will not decline to render MLA on the ground of bank secrecy.引入立法条款,规定瑙鲁不得以银行保密为由拒绝提供司法协助。
Consider simplifying and streamlining procedures and evidentiary requirements in order to allow for MLA to be dealt with efficiently and effectively, including the transfer and return of a person without delay, pursuant to article 46 (11) (b) of the Convention.考虑简化和精简程序和证据要求,以便高效率和有成效地处理司法协助,包括根据《公约》第四十六条第十一款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项的规定毫不迟延地移送和交还有关人员。
Notify the United Nations of its central authority and acceptable language(s) for purposes of MLA (art. 46 (13) and (14)).将其主管司法协助的中央机关和能够为司法协助之目的接受的语文通知联合国(第四十六条第十三和十四款)。
Introduce legislative provisions that stipulate that Nauru will not decline to render MLA on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.引入立法条款,规定瑙鲁不得仅以犯罪也被视为涉及财税事项为由拒绝提供司法协助。
Consider giving effect to the use of the Convention as a legal basis for MLA.考虑促成将《公约》用作司法协助的法律依据。
Consider introducing special investigative techniques, as may be necessary and within existing resources, and providing the corresponding training to law enforcement personnel.考虑在现有资源范围内,视需要采用特殊侦查手段,并向执法人员提供相应的培训)。
3.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention3.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要
Legislative drafting/legal advice with regard to articles 44, 45, 46, 47 and 50.针对第四十四、四十五、四十六、四十七和五十条的立法起草/法律咨询意见。
Good practices/lessons learned with regard to articles 44, 45, 46, 47, 49 and 50.第四十四、四十五、四十六、四十七、四十九和五十条方面的良好做法/吸取的教训。
Capacity-building assistance to national authorities with regard to articles 44, 46, 48 and 49.针对第四十四、四十六、四十八和四十九条协助国家主管部门开展能力建设。
Other assistance with regard to articles 44, 46, 48 and 49.针对第四十四、四十六、四十八和四十九条提供其他援助。