A_65_93_EC
Correct misalignment Change languages order
A/65/93 V1054622.doc (english)A/65/93 V1054621.doc (chinese)
D;@VIE@In^#^20100621152153BARTLV1-E.TXTD;@VIE@In^#^20100621152153BARTLV1-C.TXT
Sixty-fifth session Item 108 of the preliminary list* International drug control第六十五届会议 暂定项目表*项目108 国际药物管制
International cooperation against the world drug problem国际合作对付世界毒品问题
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
Summary摘要
The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 64/182, entitled “International cooperation against the world drug problem”, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to submit to it at its sixty-fifth session a report on the implementation of that resolution.本报告是根据大会题为“国际合作对付世界毒品问题”的第64/182号决议编写的。 大会在该决议中请秘书长就该决议执行情况向大会第六十五届会议提交报告。
The report provides an overview of the status of implementation of the mandates relating to international drug control by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.本报告概括介绍了麻醉药品委员会和联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室执行与国际药物管制有关的任务授权的情况。
It also provides an overview of the world drug situation.其中还概括介绍了世界毒品形势。
Contents目录
Page页次
Introduction导言
33
International cooperation against the world drug problem:合作对付世界毒品问题:
action by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs麻醉药品委员会所采取的行动
54
Action by the United Nations system and other international organizations联合国系统和其他国际组织采取的行动
97
Health dimension健康方面
98
Supply dimension供应方面
109
Illicit drug crop monitoring and sustainable livelihoods非法药物作物监测和可持续的生计
1311
Emerging issues新出现的问题
1412
Data collection and research数据收集和研究
1613
Scientific and forensic support科学和法医学支助
1614
Strengthening the drug programme of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime加强联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室的毒品问题方案
1714
Conclusions and recommendations结论和建议
1916
Introduction一. 导言
In its resolution 64/182, the General Assembly expressed grave concern about the fact that, despite continuing increased efforts by States, relevant organizations, civil society and non-governmental organizations, the world drug problem continued to constitute a serious threat to public health, the safety and the well-being of humanity, in particular children and young people and their families, and the national security and sovereignty of States, and that it undermined socio-economic and political stability and sustainable development.大会第64/182号决议表示严重关注各国、相关组织、民间社会和非政府组织虽持续加紧努力,但世界毒品问题仍严重威胁公众健康和安全及全人类福祉,特别是儿童和青年及其家庭的福祉,以及各国的国家安全和主权,而且也破坏社会、经济和政治的稳定及可持续发展。
The Assembly reaffirmed that the world drug problem remained a common and shared responsibility that required effective and increased international cooperation and demanded an integrated, multidisciplinary and balanced approach to supply and demand reduction strategies.大会重申,世界毒品问题仍然是一项共同分担的责任,需要加强开展有效的国际合作并要求采用一种统筹、多学科和平衡的做法来推行减少供应和减少需求的战略。
Also in that resolution, the General Assembly adopted the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, as adopted at the high-level segment of the fifty-second session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, and called upon States to take the measures necessary to implement the goals and targets referred to therein.在该决议中,大会通过了麻醉药品委员会第五十二届会议高级别部分通过的《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》,并呼吁各国采取必要措施,落实其中所述的目标和指标。
It also called upon States to strengthen international and regional cooperation to counter the threat to the international community caused by the illicit production of and trafficking in drugs, as well as other aspects of the world drug problem.大会还吁请各国加强国际和区域合作,对付非法生产和贩运毒品活动对国际社会造成的威胁以及世界毒品问题的其他方面。
Further in that resolution, the General Assembly encouraged the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board to strengthen their work on the control of precursors and other chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and urged all Governments to provide the fullest possible financial and political support to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) so as to enable it to continue, expand, improve and strengthen its operational and technical cooperation activities, within its mandates, so as to enhance the capacity of Member States in countering the world drug problem.在该决议中,大会还鼓励麻醉药品委员会和国际麻醉品管制局加强其工作,对用于非法制造麻醉药品和精神药物的前体和其他化学品进行管制,并敦促所有国家政府向联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室(毒品和犯罪问题办公室)提供尽可能充足的财政和政治支持,使其能够在任务规定范围内,继续、扩大、改进和加强其业务和技术合作活动,以提高会员国应对世界毒品问题的能力。
The present report provides an overview of the world drug situation and on the status of implementation of the mandates relating to international drug control by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and by the United Nations system, in particular UNODC.本报告概括介绍了世界毒品形势,以及麻醉药品委员会和联合国系统特别是毒品和犯罪问题办公室执行与国际药物管制有关的任务授权的情况。
Overview of the world drug situation世界毒品形势概览
There have been a number of encouraging developments in global cocaine and heroin markets recently:全球可卡因和海洛因市场最近的若干发展情况令人鼓舞:
the global area under opium poppy cultivation declined to 181,400 hectares (ha) in 2009, that is, by 23 per cent since 2007; global opium production fell from 8,890 tons in 2007 to 7,754 tons in 2009 (13 per cent), and potential heroin production declined from 757 tons in 2007 to 657 tons in 2009; the global area under coca bush cultivation declined to 158,800 ha in 2009 that is, by 13 per cent since 2007 or by 28 per cent since 2000; and estimated global cocaine production fell from 1,024 tons in 2007 to 865 tons in 2008 (16 per cent).2009年全球罂粟种植面积减至181,400公顷,自2007年以来减幅为23%;全球鸦片产量自2007年的8,890吨减至2009年的7,754吨(13%),海洛因潜在产量从2007年的757吨减至2009年的657吨;2009年全球古柯树种植面积减至158,800公顷,自2007年以来减幅为13%,自2000年以来减幅为28%;全球可卡因估计产量从2007年的1,024吨减至2008年的865吨(16%)。
Global fresh coca leaf production fell by 14 per cent between 2007 and 2009.在2007至2009年期间,全球新鲜古柯叶产量减少了14%。
Between 13,000 and 66,100 tons of herbal cannabis were produced in 2008, as were between 2,200 and 9,900 tons of cannabis resin.2008年的大麻药草产量在13,000至66,100吨之间,大麻树脂产量在2,200至9,900吨之间。
Between 161 and 588 tons of amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone and related substances were manufactured in 2008.2008年苯丙胺、去氧麻黄碱、甲卡西酮和相关物质的产量在161至588吨之间。
Between 55 and 133 tons of drugs marketed “ecstasy” were manufactured.作为摇头丸销售的毒品产量在55至133吨之间。
Although Afghanistan is the source of most of the world’s illicit opiates (6,900 tons of opium or 89 per cent of the world total in 2009), significant quantities are also produced in Myanmar (330 tons) and Latin America (notably in Colombia and Mexico).阿富汗是全世界大多数非法阿片剂的原产地(2009年鸦片产量为6,900吨,占世界总量的89%),但缅甸(330吨)和拉丁美洲(特别是哥伦比亚和墨西哥)的产量也很大。
There are indications that the downward trend in global opium production over the period 2007-2009 will continue in 2010.有迹象表明, 2010年的全球鸦片产量将保持2007-2009年期间的下降趋势。
More than one third of the countries reporting to UNODC have detected the manufacture of amphetamine-type stimulants in their territories.向毒品和犯罪问题办公室报告的国家中有三分之一以上查明在本国领土上有制造苯丙胺类兴奋剂的活动。
The number of clandestine laboratories involved in the manufacture of such stimulants reportedly increased by 20 per cent in 2008.据报告,参与制造这类兴奋剂的秘密加工点在2008年增加了20%。
The most notable global trend in cannabis production in recent years has been the growth of indoor cultivation, especially in Europe, Australia and North America.近年来最引人注意的全球大麻生产趋势是室内种植量有所增长,特别是在欧洲、澳大利亚和北美洲。
Indoor cannabis cultivation is an illicit activity and increasingly a source of profit for organized criminal groups.室内大麻种植属于非法活动,正越来越多地成为有组织犯罪集团的收益来源。
Global cocaine seizures have stabilized over recent years.全球可卡因缉获量近几年保持稳定。
Seizures have declined in North America and Europe, but have risen in South and Central America.北美洲和欧洲的缉获量有所下降,但南美洲和中美洲的缉获量有所上升。
Opiate seizures continue to increase, in particular in the countries neighbouring Afghanistan.阿片剂缉获量继续上升,特别是在阿富汗邻国。
Global seizures of amphetamine and methamphetamine remained largely stable at very high levels in 2008.2008年全球苯丙胺和去氧麻黄碱的缉获量大多保持在很高的水平上。
Global cannabis herb seizures increased over the period 2006-2008 (by 23 per cent), especially in South America, reaching levels last reported in 2004.2006-2008年期间全球大麻药草的缉获量有所上升(升幅为23%),特别是在南美洲,达到了2004年报告的数量。
Global cannabis resin seizures increased by 62 per cent over the period 2006-2008.2006-2008年期间全球大麻树脂缉获量上升了62%。
Large increases in cannabis resin seizures in 2008 were reported from the Near and Middle East region, as well as from Europe and Africa.2008年近东和中东区域以及欧洲和非洲均报告大麻树脂缉获量大幅上升。
Globally, UNODC estimates that between 155 million and 250 million people (3.5-5.7 per cent of the population aged 15-64) used illicit substances at least once in 2008.在全球范围,据毒品和犯罪问题办公室估计,2008年至少使用过一次非法药物的约有1.55亿至2.5亿人(占15-64岁人口的3.5%-5.7%)。
Cannabis users comprise the largest number of illicit drug users (129 million-190 million people).在非法药物使用者中,大麻使用者的人数最多(1.29亿至1.9亿人)。
Substances in the amphetamine group are the second most commonly used drugs, followed by cocaine and opiates.第二大普遍使用的药物是苯丙胺类物质,其次是可卡因和阿片剂。
Based on the global estimates of the number of users of cannabis, opiates, cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants, it is estimated that there were between 16 million and 38 million problem drug users in the world in 2008.根据大麻、阿片剂、可卡因和苯丙胺类兴奋剂使用者人数的全球估计数,估计2008年全世界问题吸毒者人数在1,600万至3,800万之间。
Drug use has stabilized in the developed world.发达国家的吸毒情况已有所稳定。
However, there are signs of an increase in drug use in developing countries, and growing abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants and prescription drugs around the world.但有迹象表明,发展中国家的吸毒情况有所增加,全世界滥用苯丙胺类兴奋剂和处方药的情况正在增加。
It is estimated that in 2008, globally, between 12 and 30 per cent of problem users had received treatment in the previous year, which means that between 11 million and 33.5 million problem drug users did not receive treatment that year.据估计,2008年全球有12%至30%的问题吸毒者在上一年接受了治疗,这意味着,那一年有1,100万至3,350万问题吸毒者没有接受治疗。
The world’s largest heroin market is Western Europe, about half of which is concentrated in just three countries:全世界最大的海洛因市场是西欧,约有一半集中在以下三个国家:
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Italy and France.大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、意大利和法国。
Heroin use appears to be decreasing in most Western European countries, although the harm associated with heroin use seems to be increasing, as reflected in heroin-induced deaths.多数西欧国家的海洛因使用情况似乎正在减少,但与使用海洛因有关的伤害似乎正在增加,这反映在海洛因所造成的死亡人数上。
International cooperation against the world drug problem:二. 国际合作对付世界毒品问题:
action by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs麻醉药品委员会所采取的行动
At the fifty-third session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, held from 8 to 12 March 2010, it was noted that the impact of the world drug problem on the social, economic, health, political and governance aspects of society continued to be significant and that the world drug problem undermined sustainable development, political stability and democratic institutions.在2010年3月8日至12日举行的麻醉药品委员会第五十三届会议上,有发言者指出,世界毒品问题对社会的社会、经济、健康、政治和治理方面的影响仍然很严重,世界毒品问题损害了可持续发展、政治稳定和民主体制。
It was noted that in the Political Declaration and Plan of Action, it had been recognized that the three international drug control conventions continued to provide the international legal framework for drug control and international cooperation.有发言者指出,《政治宣言和行动计划》确认三项国际药物管制公约继续为药物管制和国际合作提供了国际法律框架。
Other international instruments, such as the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention against Corruption, were also relevant in tackling the world drug problem.其他国际文书,如《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》和《联合国反腐败公约》,在处理世界毒品问题方面也很有意义。
The nexus between illicit drugs and criminal activities such as trafficking in firearms and precursors, the manufacture of synthetic drugs, money-laundering, corruption and the financing of terrorism was underlined by some speakers.一些发言者强调了非法药物与诸如贩运枪支和前体、制造合成毒品、洗钱、腐败和资助恐怖主义活动等犯罪活动之间的联系。
Several speakers reported on national drug control legislation adopted by their Governments and on national drug control strategies or action plans promoting a balanced, multidisciplinary approach, as well as on action taken by their Governments in the area of demand reduction, including prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration programmes.几位发言者报告了本国政府通过的国家药物管制立法和促进采取平衡、多学科办法的国家药物管制战略或行动计划,还报告了本国政府在减少需求方面采取的行动,包括预防、治疗、康复和重新融入社会方案。
Increases in the abuse of certain drugs and the proliferation of new substances, such as designer drugs, synthetic cannabinoids and cannabis plants rich in tetrahydrocannabinol, as well as the increased abuse of substances not under international control were noted.有发言者提到某些药物的滥用现象增多,特制药物、合成大麻素和富含四氢大麻酚的大麻植物等新药物扩散,以及不受国际管制的药物的滥用现象增多等问题。
The crucial role played by non-governmental organizations in preventing drug abuse and providing treatment and care for drug abusers was acknowledged, and the benefits of and the need for a continuous, strong partnership between the public sector and civil society were acknowledged.有发言者承认非政府组织在预防药物的滥用及向药物滥用者提供治疗和护理方面发挥的关键作用,并承认公共部门与民间团体之间继续密切合作的益处和必要性。
The Commission adopted its resolution 53/2, entitled “Preventing the use of illicit drugs within Member States and strengthening international cooperation on policies of drug abuse prevention”.委员会通过了题为“防止会员国内的吸毒行为并加强在预防药物滥用政策方面的国际合作”的第53/2号决议。
It also adopted its resolution 53/9, entitled “Achieving universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support for drug users and people living with or affected by HIV”, in which it requested UNODC to support increased capacity and resources for the provision of comprehensive prevention programmes and treatment, care and related support services, and to significantly expand its work with relevant civil society groups in order to address the gap in access to services for people living with or affected by HIV, including drug users.还通过了题为“实现向吸毒者以及受艾滋病毒感染或影响者普遍提供预防、治疗、护理和支助”的第53/9号决议。 委员会在该决议中请毒品和犯罪问题办公室支持提高提供全面预防方案和治疗、护理及相关支助服务的能力并增加这方面的资源,并大力扩展与民间社会相关团体的合作,以弥补包括吸毒者在内的受艾滋病毒感染或影响者获得服务方面的差距。
The Commission also adopted its resolution 53/10, entitled “Measures to protect children and young people from drug abuse”, in which it invited States that had not yet done so to develop, implement and evaluate evidence-based plans and strategies aimed at reinforcing the prevention of drug abuse at all levels of school education and to consider incorporating such initiatives into public-health and educational programmes.委员会还通过了题为“保护儿童和年轻人免受吸毒之害的措施”的第53/10号决议,其中请尚未这样做的国家制定、实施和评价循证计划和战略,以求在学校教育的所有层次加大预防吸毒的力度,并考虑把这类举措融入公共保健和教育方案之中。
Several speakers emphasized the importance of international cooperation in combating drug trafficking.一些发言者强调了国际合作对打击毒品贩运的重要性。
They referred to agreements on extradition and mutual legal assistance, the sharing of information, best practices in the field of law enforcement and joint investigations.他们提到了引渡和司法协助方面的协定、共享信息、执法领域的最佳做法和联合侦查。
The Triangular Initiative, the Paris Pact Initiative and other regional initiatives such as the Rainbow Strategy were noted, and mechanisms such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China Cooperative Operations in Response to Dangerous Drugs (ACCORD), Project Prism, Project Cohesion and Operation Canal were mentioned.提到了三方举措、《巴黎公约》举措和如彩虹战略等其他区域举措,以及东南亚国家联盟(东盟)与中国合作行动对付危险药物、棱晶项目、聚合项目和运河行动等机制。
The Commission adopted its resolution 53/8, entitled “Strengthening international cooperation in countering the world drug problem focusing on drug trafficking and related offences”, in which it urged States to take effective measures at the national, regional and international levels to coordinate their actions and intensify their cooperation in order to prevent and act against drug trafficking and related criminal offences, both national and transnational, and called for increased technical and financial assistance to be provided to Member States.委员会通过了题为“加强国际合作,以贩毒和相关犯罪为重点,应对世界毒品问题”的第53/8号决议,其中促请各国在国家、区域和国际各级采取有效措施,以协调行动,加强合作,预防和打击国内和国际毒品贩运和相关犯罪活动,并吁请增加向会员国提供的技术和财政援助。
The importance of alternative development as a means to promoting lawful, viable and sustainable licit income-generating opportunities for small farmers engaged in the illicit cultivation of crops used for the illicit production of narcotic drugs was reiterated.有与会者重申了替代发展的重要性,可藉此推动向从事非法种植麻醉药品非法生产所用作物的小农提供合法、可行而且可持续的创收机会。
Speakers recognized that the reduction in illicit crop cultivation was a result of the enhanced promotion of alternative livelihoods coupled with intensified counter-narcotics action and good governance.发言者承认,加紧推行替代生计做法,同时加大力度打击麻醉品并实施良好治理,才能减少非法作物种植。
The importance of incorporating alternative development programmes, including preventive alternative development, where appropriate, into international development programmes and poverty alleviation strategies was stressed.发言者强调应当适时把包括预防性替代发展在内的替代发展方案纳入国际发展方案和减贫战略。
The Commission adopted its resolution 53/6, entitled “Follow-up to the promotion of best practices and lessons learned for the sustainability and integrality of alternative development programmes and the proposal to organize an international workshop and conference on alternative development”.委员会通过了题为“推广最佳做法和经验教训以促进替代发展方案的可持续性和综合性的后续行动以及举办替代发展问题国际讲习班和会议的提议”的第53/6号决议。
That conference will be held in Thailand in November 2010.这次会议将于2010年11月在泰国举行。
Concern was expressed about the manufacture and consumption of amphetamine-type stimulants, the growing dimension of trafficking in those stimulants and the increasing sophistication of transnational organized crime groups engaged in their manufacture.几位发言者对苯丙胺类兴奋剂的制造和消费、贩运规模日趋扩大和从事这些兴奋剂制造的跨国有组织犯罪集团的手法更为狡诈深表关切。
The number of people seeking treatment for abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants had increased, as had the number of clandestine laboratories involved in the production of such stimulants that was being dismantled.因滥用苯丙胺类兴奋剂而寻求治疗的人数和被捣毁的参与生产这类兴奋剂的地下加工点数量均有所增加。
Attention was also drawn to efforts made in preventing the diversion of precursor chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of those stimulants.还有发言者提请注意到在防止这类兴奋剂非法制造所用的前体化学品转移方面所作的努力。
The Commission adopted its resolution 53/15, entitled “Strengthening international cooperation and regulatory and institutional frameworks for the control of substances frequently used in the manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances”, in which the Commission invited Member States to take measures to strengthen international cooperation and exchange of information regarding the identification of new routes and modi operandi of criminal organizations dedicated to the diversion or smuggling of precursors and to continue contributing to the efforts of the International Narcotics Control Board.委员会通过了题为“加强国际合作和对麻醉药品和精神药物制造中常用物质的法规管制框架和机构管制框架”的第53/15号决议,其中委员会请会员国采取措施,在查明犯罪组织专门用于转移或偷运前体的新路线和作案手法方面,加强国际合作和信息交流,并继续协助国际麻醉品管制局作出努力。
In its decision 53/1, the Commission, on the recommendation of the Board, decided to transfer phenylacetic acid from Table II to Table I of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988.委员会在关于麻管局建议的第53/1号决定中,决定将苯乙酸从1988年《联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》表二转至表一。
The threat posed by opium originating in Afghanistan was seen as a very serious issue.产自阿富汗的鸦片所造成的威胁被视为十分严重的问题。
Illicit opium poppy cultivation, production and trafficking posed a serious threat to development and governance in Afghanistan, the surrounding region and worldwide.非法罂粟种植、生产和贩运对阿富汗、其周边地区乃至全世界的发展和治理都造成了严重的威胁。
The Commission adopted its resolution 53/5, entitled “Strengthening regional cooperation between Afghanistan and transit States and the contribution of all affected countries to counter-narcotics efforts, based on the principle of common and shared responsibility”, in which the Commission encouraged Member States to enhance coordination through existing regional mechanisms, in particular through the Paris Pact Initiative, in order to strengthen cross-border cooperation and information exchange with a view to countering trafficking in illicit drugs originating in Afghanistan.委员会通过了题为“在共同和分担责任原则基础上加强阿富汗与过境国之间的区域合作和所有受影响国家对禁毒工作的贡献”的第53/5号决议,其中委员会鼓励会员国通过现有区域机制特别是通过《巴黎公约》举措加强协调,以加强在打击阿富汗原产非法药物方面的跨界合作和信息交流。
The efforts made by countries of the Andean region to decrease the area under illicit coca bush cultivation were acknowledged.有发言者承认安第斯地区各国为减少古柯树非法种植面积而作出的努力。
Trafficking in cocaine through West Africa was referred to with concern, particularly because of the region’s fragile infrastructure.有发言者关切地提到了经由西非贩运可卡因的现象,其主要原因是该地区基础设施薄弱。
Pursuant to Commission resolution 52/12, entitled “Improving the collection, reporting and analysis of data to monitor the implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem”, an open-ended intergovernmental expert working group held a meeting in Vienna from 12 to 15 January 2010 to make specific recommendations on ways to improve tools for the collection, collation, analysis and reporting of relevant drug-related data and on the possibility of adopting a single, comprehensive data collection tool.按照题为“改进数据的收集、报告和分析以监测《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》的落实情况”的委员会第52/12号决议,一个不限成员名额的政府间专家工作组于2010年1月12日至15日在维也纳举行了会议,以便就如何改进用于收集、整理、分析和报告毒品相关数据的工具,以及是否可能采用单一的综合性数据收集工具等问题,提供具体的建议。
At its fifty-third session, the Commission adopted its decision 53/2, entitled “Follow-up to the revised draft annual report questionnaire”, in which it decided to reconvene the expert group on data collection, established pursuant to Commission resolution 52/12, to discuss any unresolved issues and finalize the data collection tool so that the Commission could adopt the revised comprehensive data collection tool at its reconvened fifty-third session, to be held in December 2010.委员会第五十三届会议通过了题为“经修订的年度报告调查表草案的后续行动”的第53/2号决定,其中决定重新召集根据委员会第52/12号决议设立的数据收集问题专家组,讨论任何未决问题并最后确定数据收集工具,使委员会得以在拟于2010年12月举行的第五十三届会议续会上通过经修订的全面数据收集工具。
Appreciation for the assistance provided by UNODC was expressed.有发言者表示赞赏毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供的协助。
Appreciation was also expressed for the development of thematic and regional programmes by the Office, whose implementation was viewed as a major step towards improving the funding situation of UNODC.还有发言者表示赞赏毒品和犯罪问题办公室所制定的主题方案和区域方案,据认为,这些方案的实施是向改进毒品和犯罪问题办公室供资情况迈出的重要一步。
Support was expressed for the work of the working group on governance and finance, which, it was noted, provided a forum for dialogue among Member States and between Member States and the Secretariat.发言者对管理和财务问题工作组的工作表示支持,指出工作组为会员国之间以及会员国同秘书处之间的对话提供了一个论坛。
Concern was expressed regarding the financial situation of UNODC and the decrease in general-purpose funding.有发言者对毒品和犯罪问题办公室的财务状况和普通用途资金减少的问题表示关切。
In that connection, at its fifty-third session the Commission decided to recommend to the Economic and Social Council the approval of a draft resolution, entitled “Realignment of the functions of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and changes to the strategic framework”, for adoption by the General Assembly.在这方面,委员会第五十三届会议决定建议经济及社会理事会核准题为“联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室职能的重新调整和对战略框架的修改”的决议草案,以供大会通过。
Should that draft resolution be adopted, the Assembly would request the Secretary-General, in his proposed programme budget for the biennium 2012-2013, to devote due attention to the resource requirements for meeting the mandates entrusted to UNODC, with particular focus on under-resourced areas.若该决议草案获得通过,大会将请秘书长在其2012-2013两年期方案概算中适当注意为完成毒品和犯罪问题办公室被赋予的任务而需要的资源数量,并特别注重于资源不足的领域。
Action of the subsidiary bodies附属机构的行动
Five meetings of the subsidiary bodies of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs were held in 2009:2009年,麻醉药品委员会各附属机构一共举行了五次会议:
the Eighth Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Europe, held in Vienna from 16 to 18 June; the Nineteenth Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Latin America and the Caribbean, held at Isla Margarita, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, from 28 September to 2 October; the Thirty-third Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Asia and the Pacific, held in Denpasar, Indonesia, from 6 to 9 October; the Nineteenth Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Africa, held in Windhoek from 12 to 16 October; and the forty-fourth session of the Subcommission on Illicit Drug Traffic and Related Matters in the Near and Middle East, held in Vienna from 16 to 19 November.6月16日至18日在维也纳举行的欧洲各国禁毒执法机构负责人第八次会议;9月28日至10月2日在委内瑞拉玻利瓦尔共和国玛格丽塔岛举行的拉丁美洲和加勒比各国禁毒执法机构负责人第十九次会议;10月6日至9日在印度尼西亚登巴萨举行的亚洲及太平洋各国禁毒执法机构负责人第三十三次会议;10月12日至16日在温得和克举行的非洲各国禁毒执法机构负责人第十九次会议;11月16日至19日在维也纳举行的近东和中东非法药物贩运和有关事项小组委员会第四十四届会议。
The subsidiary bodies provided drug law enforcement authorities from countries of specific regions with the opportunity to exchange information, enhance their cooperation at the technical and operational levels in the area of drug control at regional, subregional and bilateral levels, and build trust and partnerships among counterparts in different countries.各附属机构使各区域的国家的禁毒执法机构有机会交流信息,在区域、次区域和双边层面增进药物管制领域的技术和行动方面的合作,并在各个国家的对应部门之间建立信任和合作伙伴关系。
They transmitted their recommendations to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (E/CN.7/2010/5).这些机构将各项建议传达给麻醉药品委员会(E/CN.7/2010/5)。
Noteworthy was the Nineteenth Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Latin America and the Caribbean, which was attended by representatives of 10 West African States and advanced interregional cooperation between States in Latin America and the Caribbean and States in West Africa on countering cocaine trafficking.值得注意的是拉丁美洲和加勒比各国禁毒执法机构负责人第十九次会议,其中有10个西非国家的代表参加。 这次会议推进了拉丁美洲和加勒比国家与西非国家在打击可卡因贩运方面的区域间合作。
Action by the United Nations system and other international organizations三. 联合国系统和其他国际组织采取的行动
Through its drug programme, UNODC aims to make the world safer from drugs by supporting the work of the Commission and its subsidiary bodies and by supporting Member States through research to expand the evidence base for policy and operational decisions; normative work to assist States in the ratification and implementation of international drug control conventions; the development of domestic legislation on drugs and the provision of substantive and secretariat services for treaty bodies and governing bodies; field-based technical cooperation and the development and implementation of regional and thematic programmes.毒品和犯罪问题办公室意图通过其毒品问题方案减轻毒品对世界的危害,为此支助麻醉药品委员会及其附属机构的工作,并通过以下途径支助会员国: 开展研究,以便为制定政策和行动决定扩大证据库;进行规范性工作,以协助各国批准和实施各项国际药物管制公约;制订关于毒品的国内立法,并为条约机构和理事机构提供实质性服务和秘书处服务;开展外地技术合作以及制定和执行区域方案和专题方案。
Health dimension健康方面
Reducing drug abuse and its health and social consequences减少吸毒并减轻其对健康和社会造成的后果
The World Health Organization and UNODC continue to work with Governments and other partners to scale up and achieve universal access to drug treatment.世界卫生组织与毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续与各国政府和其他伙伴合作,以扩大戒毒治疗并实现其普及化。
UNODC is also working with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS to prevent the spread of HIV among people who inject drugs.毒品和犯罪问题办公室还正在与联合国艾滋病毒/艾滋病联合方案合作,以防止艾滋病毒在注射吸毒的人群中蔓延。
UNODC supports and promotes evidence-based programmes for the prevention of drug use in schools, families, the workplace and the community.毒品和犯罪问题办公室支持并促进在学校、家庭、工作场所和社区预防吸毒的循证方案。
UNODC has been supporting selected States in adapting and implementing a drug education curriculum based on the life-skills approach, which has been found, in scientific-level evaluations, to be effective in many countries.毒品和犯罪问题办公室一直在支助选定的国家根据生活技能办法调整并实施毒品教育课程。 科学评估发现,这一办法在许多国家都产生了效果。
Families with young children and adolescents are supported with cost-effective family skills training programmes for parents and children to improve family bonding, parental monitoring and supervision, and communication of positive family values.对于有儿童和青少年子女的家庭,为家长和子女开办效费比高的家庭技巧训练方案,目的是改善家庭关系、加强家长监督,并更好地传达积极的家庭价值观。
UNODC has published a compilation of evidence-based family skills training programmes as a tool for governments, policymakers, research institutions and non-governmental organizations.毒品和犯罪问题办公室出版了循证家庭技巧训练方案汇编,作为政府、政策制定者、研究院所和非政府组织的工具。
UNODC has identified global guidelines for both public and private companies on how to develop and implement programmes to decrease drug use, reduce tardiness, absenteeism and accidents, and increase productivity.毒品和犯罪问题办公室已经为公共和私营公司如何制定和实施方案减少吸毒、怠工、旷工和事故并提高生产力确定了总括指导方针。
Moreover, UNODC is pursuing collaboration with the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization for preventing drug use in the workplace.此外,毒品和犯罪问题办公室正在与国际劳工组织和世界卫生组织协作防止在工作场所吸毒的现象。
Access to treatment, health care and social services, including prevention of HIV/AIDS and other drug-related diseases提供治疗、保健和社会服务,包括预防艾滋病毒/艾滋病和其他与毒品有关的疾病
UNODC works with governments, policymakers, professionals and the media to counteract stigma and discrimination against drug users, drug-dependent individuals and people living with HIV, while actively promoting evidence-based treatment and supporting human rights and humanitarian procedures in the context of treatment for drug dependence.毒品和犯罪问题办公室与政府、政策制定者、专业人员及媒体合作抵制对吸毒者、药物依赖者及艾滋病毒携带者的侮辱和歧视,同时在药物依赖治疗方面积极推广循证治疗,并支持人权和人道主义做法。
UNODC promotes a comprehensive approach and provides technical assistance to support governments and non-governmental organizations in scaling up treatment services and building a rehabilitation-oriented continuum of care, from outreach activities to a wide variety of clinical programmes.毒品和犯罪问题办公室推动一种综合性的方法,并提供技术援助,支助政府和非政府组织增加治疗服务并建立以康复为重点的连续护理系统,范围从推广活动到各种各样的临床医疗方案。
It disseminates good practices and evidence-based methodologies to enhance professional qualifications, promotes treatment for drug dependence as an alternative to criminal justice sanctions, provides training and supports the expansion and improvement of services to 25 countries in five regions.毒品和犯罪问题办公室传播良好做法和循证方法,以提高专业人员的素质,促进作为刑事司法处罚替代办法的药物依赖治疗,提供培训,支助将服务扩展到五大区域的25个国家,并改善这些服务。
The joint UNODC-World Health Organization programme on drug dependence treatment and care (2009-2013) involves governments, clinical centres for drug dependence treatment, hospitals for infectious diseases, universities, municipalities and civil society organizations.参与毒品和犯罪问题办公室—世界卫生组织药物依赖治疗和护理联合方案(2009-2013年)的有政府、药物依赖治疗临床医疗中心、传染病医院、大学、大城市和民间社会组织。
The joint programme advocates evidence-based and human rights-based drug dependence treatment services and provides technical assistance to promote the delivery of low-cost, evidence-based, mainstreamed services.该联合方案倡导以人权为基础的循证药物依赖治疗服务,并提供技术援助以促进提供费用低的主流化循证服务。
The joint programme is currently being implemented in South-Eastern Europe, but in the future it will be implemented as part of all UNODC activities in the field of drug dependence treatment and care.该联合方案目前正在东南欧实施,但今后将作为毒品和犯罪问题办公室在药物依赖治疗和护理领域开展的所有活动的一部分进行实施。
UNODC has been responding to HIV/AIDS by assisting States in implementing large-scale and wide-ranging interventions to prevent HIV infection, and in providing care and support to people living with HIV and AIDS in prison settings and among injecting drug users and people vulnerable to human trafficking in over 50 countries in all key regions.毒品和犯罪问题办公室一直在应对艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题,协助各国采取各种各样大规模的干预措施,预防艾滋病毒感染,并向所有主要区域的50多个国家的监狱中艾滋病毒和艾滋病感染者以及注射吸毒者和易遭人口贩运之害者提供护理和支助服务。
UNODC has continued to work closely with representatives of civil society, Governments and multilateral donors to address the uneven and often low coverage and quality of services among those most at risk of contracting HIV, provided technical support for the development of human rights-based, gender-responsive and equitable policies and programmes in line with related international standards, and built the capacity of civil society to reduce stigma and discrimination and improve access to HIV prevention and care services.毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续与民间社会、国家政府和多边捐助方的代表密切合作,处理对最有可能感染艾滋病毒的人口提供的服务覆盖率和质量不平衡且通常很低的问题,提供技术援助,协助按照有关的国际标准制定以人权为基础、有性别针对性的公平的政策和方案,并建设民间社会的能力,从而减少羞辱和歧视,使人们更方便地享受艾滋病毒预防和护理服务。
Supply dimension供应方面
Transnational organized criminal groups have adopted an entrepreneurial approach and have been diversifying their activities and functions, increasing their capacity to engage in illegal activities.跨国有组织犯罪集团采用了企业经营办法,其活动和功能一直在花样翻新,同时也提高了其从事非法活动的能力。
These new tactics, which include the extensive use of modern technologies and new methods of laundering money, present new challenges to law enforcement authorities.这些新策略包括广泛使用现代技术和新的洗钱方法,给执法机关带来了新的挑战。
Regional and interregional cooperation, including the exchange of information and best practices on the latest trends in drug trafficking and abuse, has proven to be most effective in fighting illicit drugs.实践证明,区域合作和区域间合作,包括交流贩毒和吸毒最新趋势方面的信息和最佳做法,是打击非法药物的最有效的办法。
UNODC continues to focus its technical assistance on introducing better management, control and selection practices at borders; building community confidence in legal systems by developing the professional capacity of investigation and prosecution agencies; and targeting the proceeds of crime by countering money-laundering.毒品和犯罪问题办公室技术援助的重点仍然是在边境实行更好的管理、控制和抽查做法;通过提高侦查和起诉机关的专业能力,增进社会对法律系统的信心;通过打击洗钱锁定犯罪所得。
Communication is essential in developing effective responses aimed at reducing the supply of illicit drugs and is at the heart of UNODC strategies in this key thematic area.通信对于制定有效对策减少非法药物供应至关重要,也是毒品和犯罪问题办公室在这一主要专题领域的战略的核心。
During the period under review, UNODC made practical progress in supporting States in establishing operational frameworks essential for communication in the management of their borders.在本报告所涉期间,毒品和犯罪问题办公室在支助各国建立边境管理中的通信所必不可少的业务框架方面取得了实际进展。
The Central Asian Regional Information and Coordination Centre (CARICC), inaugurated in December 2009, is facilitating the exchange of information and analysis of drug trafficking trends in support of the operations carried out by the law enforcement agencies of the five Central Asian States, as well as of Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation.中亚区域信息和协调中心于2009年12月启动,目前正在促进信息交流和对贩毒活动趋势的分析,支助5个中亚国家、阿塞拜疆和俄罗斯联邦的执法机构所开展的行动。
During its pilot phase, CARICC supported the dismantling of 12 transnational heroin smuggling networks and the seizure of more than 200 kg of heroin.中亚区域信息和协调中心在试运行阶段协助捣毁了12个跨国海洛因走私网络,缉获海洛因200多公斤。
A counter-narcotics intelligence-sharing centre is foreseen for the Persian Gulf.预计将为波斯湾地区建立一个禁毒情报共享中心。
More than 90 per cent of global trade is transported by sea, and the volume of those flows is rapidly increasing, making the smuggling of narcotics and precursors via containers increasingly attractive for criminals and harder for law enforcement officials to detect.全球贸易中有90%以上是通过海上运输的,海上流通量正在迅速上升,因而通过集装箱走私麻醉品和前体对犯罪分子的吸引力越来越大,执法官员查获的难度也更高。
The Container Control Programme of UNODC, a partnership with the World Customs Organization, has strengthened the capacity of staff at ports to intercept containers with illicit cargoes by using profiling and intelligence-sharing techniques, as demonstrated by increased seizures in key ports worldwide.毒品和犯罪问题办公室与国际海关组织合作进行的集装箱管制方案加强了港口工作人员使用剖面分析和情报交流技术拦截载有非法货物的集装箱的能力,全世界主要港口缉获量增加即为明证。
Special operational units established under the Programme operate in Ecuador, Ghana, Pakistan and Senegal, and will soon operate in Turkmenistan, at other seaports and dry ports in the Central Asian region, at ports on the Caspian Sea and at key installations in South America, Central America and the Caribbean.在该方案下设立的特别行动股在厄瓜多尔、加纳、巴基斯坦和塞内加尔开展行动,不久将在以下地区开展行动: 土库曼斯坦、中亚区域其他海港和陆港、里海港口以及南美洲、中美洲和加勒比的主要港口。
UNODC, in partnership with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the Secretariat, the United Nations Office for West Africa and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), has started a technical assistance initiative to support the establishment of operational cross-border cooperation in West Africa for investigating drug trafficking and organized crime.毒品和犯罪问题办公室与秘书处维持和平行动部、联合国西非办事处和国际刑事警察组织(刑警组织)合作,启动了一个技术援助举措,以支助在西非建立跨国界行动合作,侦查贩毒和有组织犯罪。
Transnational crime units are being established in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea Bissau, Liberia and Sierra Leone.正在科特迪瓦、几内亚比绍、利比里亚和塞拉利昂组建跨国犯罪股。
The transnational crime units are multi-agency teams acting as the primary point of contact in their country on drug trafficking and cross-border organized crime matters.跨国犯罪股是跨机构的小组,担任本国在贩毒和跨国界有组织犯罪事项上的主要联络点。
These specialized resources will strengthen law enforcement capability in West Africa and support the implementation of the Regional Action Plan to Address the Growing Problem of Illicit Drug Trafficking, Organized Crimes and Drug Abuse in West Africa (2008-2011) of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).这些专业资源将加强西非执法机关的能力,并支助执行西非国家经济共同体(西非经共体)的《解决西非日益严重的非法药物贩运、有组织犯罪和吸毒问题区域行动计划(2008-2011年)》。
UNODC, through its Global Programme against Money-Laundering, has provided hands-on advice and assistance to practitioners involved in countering money-laundering and the financing of terrorism, including law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges and financial intelligence unit personnel, from more than 85 jurisdictions.毒品和犯罪问题办公室通过其打击洗钱全球方案,已向参与打击洗钱和恐怖主义融资的从业人员提供了实际操作咨询和援助,其中包括来自至少85个法域的执法人员、检察人员、法官和金融情报机构工作人员。
Specific initiatives have been built around awareness-raising and capacity- and institution-building, in particular the setting up of financial intelligence units, the development of training tools and asset confiscation networks in Southern Africa and South America, and the delivery of technical assistance at the national and regional levels.已经围绕增强意识及建设能力和制度制定了具体的举措,特别是在南部非洲和南美洲设立金融情报机构、开发培训工具和建立资产没收网,以及在国家和区域各级执行技术援助。
The work of the Global Programme is supported by field-based technical advisers (in Africa, Central Asia, Latin America, the Pacific Islands and South-East Asia) who provide in-depth assistance to countries or groups of countries through regional mechanisms for countering money-laundering and the financing of terrorism.该全球方案的工作由驻外地技术顾问支助(在非洲、中亚、拉丁美洲、太平洋岛屿和东南亚),他们通过打击洗钱和恐怖主义融资的区域机制,向各国或国家集团提供了深入的援助。
Regional initiatives to counter illicit production of and trafficking in drugs打击非法生产和贩运毒品的区域举措
At the regional level, UNODC seeks a convergence of the interests of regional partners through the promotion of integrated regional strategies to counter the production of, trafficking in and abuse of drugs; support for the implementation of cross-border operational initiatives; and international cooperation on criminal matters, including mutual legal assistance and extradition.在区域一级,毒品和犯罪问题办公室通过以下途径,力求统一区域合作伙伴的利益: 促进综合性的区域战略,以打击制毒、贩毒和吸毒活动;支助实施跨国界行动举措;开展刑事事项国际合作,其中包括司法协助和引渡。
The international community has developed priority programmes aimed at stemming trafficking in and consumption of opiates originating in Afghanistan.国际社会已经制定了旨在遏制原产于阿富汗的阿片剂的贩运和消费的优先方案。
As a result of the Paris Pact Initiative, an international partnership of over 55 countries and international organizations, UNODC has been able to devise a regional cooperation strategy for Afghanistan and neighbouring countries known as the Rainbow Strategy.《巴黎公约》举措是超过55个国家和国际组织的国际伙伴关系,通过该举措,毒品和犯罪问题办公室得以为阿富汗及其邻国制定一个区域合作战略,称为“彩虹战略”。
The Strategy aims to reduce the supply of, trafficking in and consumption of opiates in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries, in particular by strengthening the capacities of States to target criminal networks operating in the region, dismantle them and seize their financial resources.该战略旨在减少阿富汗及其邻国的阿片剂供应、贩运和消费,特别是加强各国的能力,以集中打击、瓦解在该区域活动的犯罪网络并没收其经济资源。 47. 2009年最重要的活动包括:
Among the most significant highlights for 2009 were the formulation of a third phase of the Paris Pact Initiative and the finalization of the UNODC regional programme for Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (involving Afghanistan, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan).制定了《巴黎公约》举措第三期,最后完成了毒品和犯罪问题办公室为阿富汗及其邻国制定的区域方案(参与国包括阿富汗、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、巴基斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、土库曼斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦)。
The regional programme will strengthen existing interventions at the regional level through activities that promote regional cross-border cooperation and coordination in the fields of law enforcement, criminal justice, drug demand reduction, HIV/AIDS, money-laundering and forensics.该区域方案将开展活动,在执法、刑事司法、减少毒品需求、艾滋病毒/艾滋病、洗钱和法医学等领域促进区域跨国界合作与协调,从而加强区域一级现有的干预措施。
In October 2009, experts on counter-narcotics law enforcement and drug demand reduction met in Paris and analysed current and possible future trends with regard to trafficking in and abuse of heroin originating in Afghanistan in Western Europe and identified current challenges and good practices in the fields of supply and demand reduction in Western Europe.2009年10月,禁毒执法和减少毒品需求方面的专家在巴黎举行会议,分析了阿富汗原产海洛因在西欧的贩运和滥用情况目前的趋势和今后可能出现的趋势,确定了西欧减少供应和需求领域当前的挑战和良好做法。
Participants in the meeting of a technical working group held in Tashkent in November 2009 explored the regulation of hawaladars in Afghanistan, in particular with respect to cash flows into and out of the country (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 45).2009年11月在塔什干举行了技术工作组会议,与会者特别针对出入该国的现金流问题,探讨了阿富汗非正式交易商的条例(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第45段)。
The Triangular Initiative aims to improve counter-narcotics cooperation between Afghanistan, Iran (Islamic Republic of) and Pakistan.三方举措旨在增进阿富汗、伊朗伊斯兰共和国和巴基斯坦三国的禁毒合作。
Three joint operations have already been carried out, information is being shared and further steps (including involving border liaison offices) are planned.已经开展了三次联合行动,正在交流信息并计划今后的步骤(包括使边境联络处参与)。
On 27 October 2009, ministers from those three countries met in Vienna and agreed on next steps to be taken in the framework of the Triangular Initiative.2009年10月27日,三国部长在维也纳举行会议,商定了今后在三方举措框架内所要采取的步骤。
At the Vienna meeting, the three parties agreed to appoint permanent liaison officers to the joint planning cell, establish border liaison offices and step up the number of joint patrols and joint operations.在维也纳会议上,三方商定任命常驻联络官到联合规划小组任职,设立边境联络处,并增加巡逻和联合行动的次数。
A senior official meeting is planned for July 2010 and the next ministerial-level meeting is planned for November 2010 in Pakistan.计划于2010年7月举行高级官员会议,2010年11月在巴基斯坦举行下一次部长级会议。
The Triangular Initiative has recently been linked up to CARICC.最近已将三方举措同中亚区域信息和协调中心联系起来。
With regard to the control of precursors, the Targeted Anti-trafficking Regional Communication, Expertise and Training (TARCET) initiative, promoted by UNODC in Afghanistan and in source and transit countries, recorded significant seizures during 2008 (55 tons of precursors and 20 tons of acetic anhydride).在前体管制方面,毒品和犯罪问题办公室在阿富汗以及来源国和过境国推动开展的目标明确的打击贩运区域通信、专门知识与培训举措在2008年期间缉获了大批货物(55吨前体和20吨醋酸酐)。
The second phase of the TARCET initiative, facilitated and coordinated by UNODC in the second half of 2009, resulted in important seizures of acetic anhydride in Pakistan and operations in Tajikistan (October 2009) and elsewhere in the region, as a result of which 26 tons of acetic anhydride were seized, as well as several tons of other chemicals.该举措第二期在2009年下半年得到了毒品和犯罪问题办公室的协助和协调,在巴基斯坦缉获了大量醋酸酐,在塔吉克斯坦及该区域其他地区的行动中(2009年10月)缉获了26吨醋酸酐和几吨其他化学品。
In addition, in March 2010 a record 16 tons of acetic anhydride were seized in Karachi, Pakistan.此外,2010年3月在巴基斯坦卡拉奇缉获了创纪录的16吨醋酸酐。
Enhanced triangular cooperation has been sought in Central America and the Caribbean between the Caribbean Community and the Central American Integration System.在中美洲和加勒比争取增进加勒比共同体和中美洲一体化系统之间的三方合作。
UNODC is providing support for the implementation of the Santo Domingo Partnership and Monitoring Mechanism, adopted in Santo Domingo in February 2009, to strengthen regional cooperation in the fight against illicit drugs and crime (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 82).毒品和犯罪问题办公室正在为执行2009年2月在圣多明各通过的圣多明各伙伴关系和监测机制提供支助,以加强打击毒品和犯罪方面的区域合作(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第82段)。
UNODC worked with the African Union Commission in support of the African Union Plan of Action on Drug Control and Crime Prevention (2007-2012).毒品和犯罪问题办公室与非洲联盟委员会合作支助非洲联盟药物管制和犯罪预防行动计划(2007-2012年)。
A joint UNODC-African Union Commission project was launched to strengthen the capacity of the Commission in the area of drug control and combating organized crime (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 81).启动了毒品和犯罪问题办公室—非洲联盟委员会联合项目,以加强非洲联盟委员会在药物管制和打击有组织犯罪方面的能力(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第81段)。
Illicit drug crop monitoring and sustainable livelihoods非法药物作物监测和可持续的生计
Global opium production has declined strongly from its peak in 2007, mainly due to a significant reduction of opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan.全球鸦片产量与2007年的峰值相比大为减少,主要是因为阿富汗的罂粟种植量大幅减少。
The small increases in opium production that occurred in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar did not offset that reduction.老挝人民民主共和国和缅甸的鸦片产量稍有增加,但并未抵消上述减少的数量。
Opium production in 2009 in the three countries where UNODC supported monitoring systems — Afghanistan, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar — was 11 per cent lower than in 2008 and 16 per cent lower than in 2007.毒品和犯罪问题办公室支助了阿富汗、老挝人民民主共和国和缅甸这三个国家的监测系统,2009年这三国的鸦片产量比2008年低11%,比2007年低16%。
In 2009, Afghan farmers earned about twice as much cultivating one hectare of opium poppy as they did cultivating one hectare of wheat.2009年,阿富汗农民种植一公顷鸦片的收入是种植一公顷小麦收入的约两倍。
In the past, that ratio had been much greater.而过去这一比率要大得多。
Under such conditions, distribution of improved wheat seeds and fertilizer in key areas could lead to a significant reduction in opium poppy cultivation.在这种情形下,在主要地区分发改良麦种和化肥可大幅减少罂粟种植量。
In Afghanistan and Myanmar, opium poppy cultivation continues to be associated with areas of insurgent activity (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 3).在阿富汗和缅甸,罂粟种植仍然与叛乱活动地区有关(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第3段)。
The global area under coca cultivation decreased by 5 per cent last year, from 167,600 ha in 2008 to 158,800 ha in 2009.全球古柯种植面积去年减少了5%,从2008年的167,600公顷减至2009年的158,800公顷。
This change is mainly due to a significant decrease in Colombia, not offset by increases in Bolivia (Plurinational State of) and Peru.这一变化主要是因为哥伦比亚有大幅减少,且未被多民族玻利维亚国和秘鲁增加的数量抵消。
The global area under coca cultivation declined by 28 per cent over the period 2000-2009.2000-2009年期间全球古柯种植面积减少了28%。
In 2009, Colombia represented about 43 per cent of global cultivation, with Peru contributing 38 per cent and the Plurinational State of Bolivia 19 per cent.2009年,哥伦比亚占全球种植面积的约43%,秘鲁占38%,多民族玻利维亚国占19%。
In 2009, UNODC exercised its catalytic role by focusing on the promotion of South-South cooperation.2009年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室侧重于推动南南合作,发挥了其促进作用。
With a view to leveraging the work done in Peru in strengthening and creating farmer-led small business enterprises, a seminar and field visit to various farming villages in Peru where alternative development projects are under way were held for participants from China, Colombia, Ecuador, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Thailand (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 5).在秘鲁,在加强并建立以农民为主导的小型商业企业方面开展了工作。 为使这项工作发挥影响,举办了一次研讨会,来自中国、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔、老挝人民民主共和国、缅甸和泰国的与会者还实地参观了秘鲁正在实施替代发展项目的各种农业村庄(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第5段)。
In Peru, UNODC established and supported cooperative enterprises that generated more than $90 million in exports in 2009, benefiting local farming families and communities.在秘鲁,毒品和犯罪问题办公室建立并支助了一些合作社企业,这些企业2009年创造的出口额超过9,000万美元,惠及了当地的农民家庭和社区。
Most of the enterprises emerging from that training and sustainable development project now operate independently under the management of farmers who formerly cultivated coca (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 6).由这一培训和可持续发展项目而产生的企业目前大多独立经营,由以前种植古柯的农民管理(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第6段)。
UNODC redoubled its efforts to address the growing issue of food security in the post-opium environment in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar.毒品和犯罪问题办公室已加倍努力,处理老挝人民民主共和国和缅甸的鸦片后环境中不断加剧的粮食安全问题。
In November 2009, UNODC signed with the Government of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic an agreement for a project, funded by the Government of Germany, on increasing food security and promoting licit crop production and small farmer enterprise development, building on collaborative interventions with the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the Royal Project Foundation of Thailand (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 7).2009年11月,毒品和犯罪问题办公室与老挝人民民主共和国政府签署了一份项目协议,在德国政府的资助下,以与亚洲开发银行、联合国工业发展组织和泰国皇家项目基金会开展的协作干预为基础,加强粮食安全并促进合法作物生产和小型农民企业发展(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第7段)。
UNODC continues to work with the Government of Myanmar to reach agreement on the implementation of a similar project in Pekhon, southern Shan State.毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续与缅甸政府合作,以便达成协议在掸邦南部的佩孔实施类似的项目。
In 2009, UNODC began to incorporate environmental conservation components into its alternative development strategy in Peru, to address the impact that deforestation and erosion due to illegal logging as well as trafficking in and poaching of wildlife, are having on rural farming communities.2009年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室着手在秘鲁将环境保护内容纳入其替代发展战略,以处理因非法采伐造成的毁林和侵蚀问题以及贩运和偷猎野生动植物对乡村的农业社区造成的影响。
In 2010, UNODC will continue its work to incorporate environmental conservation into its alternative development programmes.2010年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室将继续开展工作,将环境保护纳入其替代发展方案。
In 2010, UNODC will promote the conservation of forests and wildlife in a pilot project to be carried out in farming villages in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 8).2010年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室将在老挝人民民主共和国的农业村庄中开展一个试点项目,促进保护森林和野生动植物的工作(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第8段)。
With a view to addressing Millennium Development Goal 8, to develop a global partnership for development, UNODC will, through its membership in the Global Donor Platform for Rural Development, continue to advocate the inclusion of alternative development strategies and concepts into broad-based national agricultural and rural development strategies (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 9).为了实现千年发展目标8,即建立促进发展的全球伙伴关系,毒品和犯罪问题办公室将通过其全球农村发展捐助者论坛成员的身份,继续倡导将替代发展战略和概念纳入基础广泛的国家农业和农村发展战略(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第9段)。
Emerging issues新出现的问题
The evolving threat of Afghan opiates阿富汗阿片剂的不断演变的威胁
Afghanistan has the world monopoly of opium poppy cultivation, the raw material for the world’s deadliest drug:阿富汗在世界罂粟种植方面居垄断地位。
heroin. While opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan has decreased over the past two years and a growing number of Afghan provinces have become poppy-free, 92 per cent of the world’s opium poppy is cultivated in Afghanistan. The 900 tons of opium and 375 tons of heroin trafficked from Afghanistan every year have devastating consequences on the health and security of countries along the Balkan and Eurasian drug routes stretching all the way to Europe, the Russian Federation, India and China.罂粟是世界上最致命的毒品海洛因的原料。 阿富汗的罂粟种植在过去两年中有所减少,越来越多的阿富汗省份根除了罂粟,但全世界仍有92%的罂粟是在阿富汗种植的,每年从阿富汗贩运的900吨鸦片和375吨海洛因对延伸到欧洲、俄罗斯联邦、印度和中国的巴尔干和欧亚毒品线路沿途各国的健康与安全造成了极大的破坏。
The heroin trafficking market is worth $65 billion, catering to 15 million addicts, causing up to 100,000 deaths per year, contributing to the spread of HIV at an unprecedented rate and funding criminal groups, insurgents and terrorists.海洛因贩运市场价值650亿美元,供应1,500万成瘾者,每年造成多达100,000人死亡,促使艾滋病毒以前所未有的速度蔓延,为犯罪集团、叛乱分子和恐怖分子提供了资金。
UNODC estimates that in 2009 the opium trade in Afghanistan was worth $2.8 billion.据毒品和犯罪问题办公室估计,2009年阿富汗的鸦片交易价值28亿美元。
Since 2006, much more opium has been produced in Afghanistan than is consumed in the world at large and there is now an unaccounted stockpile of 12,000 tons of opium originating in Afghanistan, enough to satisfy more than two years of world heroin demand.自2006年起,阿富汗生产的鸦片大大超出了全世界的消费量,目前产自阿富汗的鸦片存量有12,000吨下落不明,这一数量足以满足全世界两年以上的海洛因需求量。
In Afghanistan, the increase in opium production has been reflected in the growth of rates of addiction to narcotics:在阿富汗,鸦片产量增加反映在麻醉品成瘾人数的增长率上:
between 2005 and 2009, the number of regular opium users jumped from 150,000 to 230,000, while the number of heroin users increased from 50,000 to 120,000.2005年至2009年,经常吸食鸦片的人数从150,000人跃升至230,000人,海洛因使用者的人数也从50,000人增至120,000人。
New drug production trends and trafficking routes in West Africa西非新的毒品生产趋势和贩运路线
UNODC has previously highlighted West Africa’s vulnerability as a transit area for South American cocaine destined for European markets.毒品和犯罪问题办公室早已强调指出了西非作为南美洲可卡因运往欧洲市场的过境区的脆弱性。
For example, in 2010 a fleet of cargo planes was discovered transporting cocaine into West Africa and the Sahel.例如,2010年发现有一队货机将可卡因运送到西非和萨赫勒地区。
In 2009, significant quantities of precursor chemicals used to produce methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) were seized in Guinea, together with industrial-scale equipment for such production.2009年,在几内亚缉获了用于生产二亚甲基双氧苯丙胺(摇头丸)的大量前体化学品,同时缉获的还有用于这类生产的工业规模设备。
That is the strongest evidence to date that criminal groups operating in West Africa are producing or preparing to produce amphetamine-type stimulants — a worrying development for the troubled subregion (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 48).这是迄今为止最确凿的证据,证明在西非活动的犯罪集团正在生产或准备生产苯丙胺类兴奋剂——对于这一动荡的次区域来说,这一发展情况令人担忧(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第48段)。
UNODC was successful in drawing the attention of the international community to the security threat posed to West Africa by drug trafficking and transnational organized crime.毒品和犯罪问题办公室成功地使国际社会注意到贩毒和跨国有组织犯罪对西非构成的安全威胁。
In July 2009, the Security Council took note of the UNODC report entitled Transnational Trafficking and the Rule of Law in West Africa:2009年7月,安全理事会注意到毒品和犯罪问题办公室题为“跨国贩运和西非法治:
A Threat Assessment and commended the support provided to the ECOWAS Regional Action Plan on Illicit Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime for the period 2008-2011.威胁评估”的报告,并赞扬对2008-2011年《西非经共体解决非法药物贩运和有组织犯罪问题的区域行动计划》提供的支助。
In November and December 2009, the Executive Director of UNODC addressed the Security Council on the situation in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa and the African continent as a whole and was subsequently requested by members of the Security Council to provide the Council with regular updates on the situation and progress made with regard to the challenges faced by West Africa related to drug trafficking and organized crime (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 49).2009年11月和12月,毒品和犯罪问题办公室执行主任向安全理事会介绍了几内亚比绍、西非和整个非洲大陆的情况。 之后,安全理事会成员请执行主任定期向安理会介绍西非在贩毒和有组织犯罪方面所面临的挑战和取得的进展的最新情况(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第49段)。
Drug trafficking and instability in transit countries过境国的贩毒和不稳定情况
Drug trafficking can pose a threat to political stability in two ways.贩毒对政治稳定造成威胁的方式有两种。
The first involves countries where insurgents and illegal armed groups draw funds from taxing, or even managing, drug production and trafficking.一种是国中叛乱分子和非法武装集团通过对毒品生产和贩运进行收费甚至管理来取得资金。
The second involves countries that do not face such a situation, but where drug traffickers become powerful enough to take on the State through violent confrontation or high-level corruption.另一种是,有的国家没有上述情形,但毒贩的力量大到可以通过暴力冲突或高层腐败与国家对抗。
The impact that the drug trade has on levels of violence and corruption in transit countries is particularly evident in Latin America, the Caribbean and West Africa.毒品交易对过境国暴力和腐败程度的影响在拉丁美洲、加勒比和西非尤为显著。
Measures must be taken to ensure that transnational organized crime does not contribute to instability, including, when relevant, building crime prevention into international efforts to foster peace and the rule of law.必须采取措施确保不稳定的局势不会因跨国有组织犯罪而加重,包括在适当情形下,将预防犯罪纳入促进和平与法治的国际努力中。
Data collection and research数据收集和研究
UNODC released the World Drug Report 2010 in June 2010.毒品和犯罪问题办公室于2010年6月发表了《2010年世界毒品报告》。
The report provided detailed estimates and trends on production, trafficking and consumption in the markets for opium/heroin, coca/cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, the three key transnational drug markets.该报告详细介绍了鸦片/海洛因、古柯/可卡因、大麻和苯丙胺类兴奋剂的市场(三个主要的跨国毒品市场)中生产、贩运和消费的估计数和趋势。
While also drawing on other sources where relevant, the statistics presented were mainly gathered through the annual reports questionnaire and the illicit crop surveys produced in cooperation with Member States.所提供的统计数据在适当之处借鉴了其他来源,但主要是通过年度报告调查表和与会员国合作进行的非法作物调查收集的。
In 2009, UNODC assisted States by supporting illicit drug crop monitoring.2009年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室向各国提供了援助,支助非法药物作物监测工作。
During the period under review, crop monitoring surveys were conducted in Afghanistan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Colombia, Ecuador, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Peru (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 2).在本报告所涉期间,在阿富汗、多民族玻利维亚国、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔、老挝人民民主共和国、缅甸和秘鲁进行了作物监测调查(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第2段)。
In December 2009, UNODC issued the Afghanistan Opium Survey 2009, providing the potential gross export value of Afghanistan’s opiates for that year.2009年12月,毒品和犯罪问题办公室发表了《2009年阿富汗鸦片调查》,提供了当年阿富汗阿片剂的潜在出口总额。
In February 2010, UNODC issued a report entitled Crime and Instability:2010年 2月,毒品和犯罪问题办公室发表了题为《犯罪与不稳定:
Case Studies of Transnational Threats, which deals with the impact of cocaine and heroin flows in Africa.跨国威胁的案例研究》的报告,其中说明了非洲可卡因流和海洛因流的影响。
The UNODC Afghanistan Opium Survey 2010:毒品和犯罪问题办公室《2010年阿富汗鸦片调查:
Winter Rapid Assessment, based on farmers’ intentions at the time of planting, gave a first indication of what Afghanistan’s opium harvest would look like in 2010.冬季快速评估》根据农民种植时的意图,初步指明了2010年阿富汗的鸦片收获情况。
In June 2010, UNODC issued the executive summary of a survey entitled “Drug Use in Afghanistan”.2010年6月,毒品和犯罪问题办公室发表了题为“阿富汗吸毒情况”的概览的内容提要。
Scientific and forensic support科学和法医学支助
Pursuant to Commission resolution 52/7, UNODC developed a web-based portal for its international collaborative exercises, a proficiency-testing scheme for drug analysis laboratories, which provides the instant, personalized and confidential evaluation of results submitted by participating laboratories and currently supports some 60 laboratories in 34 Member States.根据委员会第52/7号决议,毒品和犯罪问题办公室为其国际协作工作开发了一个网上门户,为药物分析实验室制定了一项能力测试计划,该计划对参与的实验室所提交的结果立即进行专项保密评价,目前支助34个会员国的大约60个实验室。
Support to the laboratory and law enforcement sectors resulted in the development of tools such as the multilingual dictionary of precursors and a computer-based training module on using UNODC drug test kits, as well as a series of best practice manuals related to aspects of quality management (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 69).在支助实验室和执法部门的过程中,开发了一些工具,如多语种前体词典和关于使用毒品和犯罪问题办公室药物检验箱的计算机培训模块,以及一系列有关质量管理的各个方面的最佳做法手册(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/ CN.15/2010/3,第69段)。
Strengthening the drug programme of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime四. 加强联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室的毒品问题方案
Strategy for the period 2008-2011 for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室2008-2011年期间的战略:
a regional and thematic approach区域性和专题性方法
In 2009, UNODC steadily pursued a comprehensive strategic approach based on the development of interlinked regional and thematic programmes.2009年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室坚持根据相互联系的区域方案和专题方案的制定情况,采用一种综合性战略办法。
Thematic programmes provide policy guidance that is translated into activities by way of the regional programmes.专题方案提供的政策指导通过区域方案转化为各种活动。
In the development of the regional programmes, UNODC ensures full consultation with Member States concerned with respect to their priorities and sets out clear objectives for the provision of technical assistance and partnership-building (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 71).在制定区域方案时,毒品和犯罪问题办公室确保与有关会员国就其优先事项进行充分协商,并为提供技术援助和建立合作伙伴关系确定明确的目标(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第71段)。
The regional programmatic approach has several aims:区域方案办法有以下几个目标:
full ownership by partner countries through alignment with national and regional policies and priorities; (b) an integrated framework linking the normative and operational aspects of the work of UNODC to provide know-how and expertise at the national and regional levels; (c) a move from a project-based approach to a programme approach; and (d) more effective cooperation and planning with other United Nations entities and multilateral donors.(a)通过与国家政策和区域政策以及优先事项保持一致,实现伙伴国家完全的主权;(b)用一个综合框架将毒品和犯罪问题办公室工作的规范性方面和业务方面联系起来,以便在国家和区域层面提供专门知识;(c)从以项目为基础的办法转为方案办法;(d)与联合国其他实体和多边捐助方进行更有效的合作和规划。
In line with the new approach, UNODC has developed a new generation of regional programmes covering East Asia and the Pacific, East Africa, Central America and the Caribbean and the Balkans.按照新办法,毒品和犯罪问题办公室制定了新一代区域方案,涵盖东亚和太平洋、东非、中美洲和加勒比以及巴尔干等区域。
Further regional programmes will be launched in 2010, including for West Africa, North Africa and the Middle East, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Central Asia, West Asia and the Southern Cone of Latin America (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 72).将在2010年启动更多的区域方案,其中包括西非、北非和中东、南部非洲、中部非洲、中亚、西亚和拉丁美洲南锥体等区域的方案(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第72段)。
That approach has secured a stronger sense of ownership and political endorsement by countries of the regions concerned through an extensive consultation process culminating in regional expert and ministerial meetings held in Nairobi, Belgrade, Santo Domingo and Managua.上述办法通过一个广泛协商程序,确保有关区域各国产生更强的自主权感,并取得其政治核可。 该程序结束于分别在内罗毕、贝尔格莱德、圣多明各和马那瓜举行的区域专家和部长级会议。
The new approach in field programming means, inter alia, that gradually UNODC will move towards a more unified system of fund allocation, monitoring and reporting, thus reducing the administrative burden of individual project management (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 73).实地方案制定工作的新办法意味着,除其他外,毒品和犯罪问题办公室将逐渐转向使用更统一的资金分配、监督和报告系统,从而减轻单独的项目管理的行政负担(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第73段)。
Despite a continuous decline in its general-purpose resources, UNODC has managed to double its technical cooperation field delivery over the past two years, although that increase is mainly due to the increased size of the programme in a few countries (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 74).尽管普通用途资源持续减少,毒品和犯罪问题办公室仍设法在过去两年中将其技术合作的外地执行额翻了一番,只是这一增长的主要原因是在一些国家开展的方案规模有所扩大(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第74段)。
Governance and financial situation治理和财务状况
While UNODC has seen significant growth in special-purpose voluntary contributions (from $64 million in 2003 to more than $215 million in 2009), the General Assembly currently allocates less than 1 per cent of the United Nations regular budget to UNODC.毒品和犯罪问题办公室的特别用途自愿捐款已大幅增加(从2003年的6,400万美元增至2009年的2.15亿美元),但大会目前拨给毒品和犯罪问题办公室的经费还不到联合国经常预算的1%。
In the two-year budget period of 2010-2011, this amounted to $42.6 million.在2010-2011年两年期预算中,这一数额为4,260万美元。
While general-purpose funds represent less than 6 per cent of the total funding available to UNODC, in 2009 there was a sharp and unexpected decline of 26 per cent in general-purpose income that presented the Office with an immediate challenge to reduce costs.普通用途资金不到毒品和犯罪问题办公室所掌握的资金总额的6%,但2009年普通用途收入意外骤降26%,令毒品和犯罪问题办公室不得不立即削减费用。
As a result, dramatic cuts were made, including through the abolition of 29 posts relying on general-purpose funds and significant reductions to operating expenses, travel, training, consultancies and contractual services.由此而进行的大幅削减包括撤消了依赖普通用途资金的29个职位,并大幅减少了业务费用、差旅、培训、咨询和订约承办事务。
In addition, UNODC took steps to overcome this situation by rationalizing and simplifying its fragmented, project-based approach with the development of integrated regional and thematic programmes.此外,为克服这一困境,毒品和犯罪问题办公室还采取步骤,将制定综合性区域和专题方案所采用的以项目为基础的分散办法进行合理化和简化。
The savings required had a disproportionate impact on the day-to-day functioning of UNODC and presented a serious challenge, in particular in areas such as evaluation, policy analysis and research, advocacy and strategic planning.所要求的节约对毒品和犯罪问题办公室的日常运作有太大影响,也带来了严峻的挑战,特别是在评价、政策分析与研究、宣传和战略性规划等方面。
Information received from donors in 2010 indicates that general-purpose income would drop further, from $11.7 million (budget estimate) to $10.8 million in 2010 and to $10.4 million in 2011.2010年从捐助方收到的资料表明,普通用途收入将进一步下降,从1,170万美元(概算)降至2010年的1,080万美元,2011年降至1,040万美元。
At the same time, special-purpose income dropped from $270.6 million in 2008 to an estimated $197.9 million in 2009, a decline of 26.9 per cent.与此同时,特别用途收入也从2008年的2.706亿美元减至2009年的估计1.979亿美元,减少了26.9%。
In addition, most voluntary contributions are tightly earmarked for specific projects and leave little operating flexibility to respond to complex programming and management challenges.此外,多数自愿捐款都是严格为特定项目提供的专用资金,几乎不可能灵活操作以应对方案规划和管理等方面复杂的难题。
In view of these financial difficulties, the consolidated budget for the biennium 2010-2011 for UNODC, which was approved by the Commission in December 2009, is a fiscally austere budget, based on the level of 2009 income (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 76).由于上述财务困难,委员会于2009年12月核准的毒品和犯罪问题办公室2010-2011两年期合并预算是一项财务紧缩预算,以2009年的收入水平为基础(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3,第76段)。
The present funding model of UNODC is not sustainable, as the Office continues to rely on a handful of donors; core funding (general-purpose funds and the regular budget) is not assured and predictable; and the funding levels are not commensurate with the mandate.毒品和犯罪问题办公室目前的筹资模式是不可持续的,因为办公室继续依赖少数几个捐助方;核心资金(普通用途资金和经常预算)无法保证,也不可预测;筹资数额与任务授权也不相称。
For the first time in the history of UNODC, at the time of adoption of the programme budget of the United Nations for the biennium 2010-2011, the General Assembly expressed concern at the overall financial situation of UNODC and requested the Secretary-General to submit proposals in his proposed programme budget for the biennium 2012-2013 to ensure that the Office had sufficient resources to carry out its mandate (Assembly resolution 64/243, para. 85).大会在通过2010-2011两年期联合国方案预算时,在毒品和犯罪问题办公室的历史上前所未有地对其总体财务状况表示关切,还请秘书长在其2012-2013两年期拟议方案预算中提出建议,以确保毒品和犯罪问题办公室有足够的资源执行任务(大会第64/243号决议,第85段)。
UNODC intensified cooperation with its major, emerging and national donors on a number of important issues involving policy, funding and operational priorities with a view to obtain voluntary contributions for its drug programme.在涉及政策、供资和业务优先事项的若干重要问题上,毒品和犯罪问题办公室加强了与主要捐助方、新捐助方和国家捐助方之间的合作,以便为其毒品问题方案取得自愿捐款。
Donations were received from other contributors, such as United Nations agencies, international financial institutions and private foundations.收到了联合国机构、国际金融机构和私营基金会等其他捐助方的捐助。
The Governments of Brazil, Colombia and Mexico provided significant cost-sharing contributions for the local support budget of UNODC field offices and programmes.巴西、哥伦比亚和墨西哥政府通过分摊费用,为毒品和犯罪问题办公室外地办事处和方案的当地支助预算提供了大量捐助。
UNODC strengthened its partnerships with other United Nations agencies and has been successful in mobilizing resources for inter-agency projects.毒品和犯罪问题办公室加强了与联合国其他机构之间的伙伴关系,并成功为一些机构间项目筹集了资源。
In 2009, UNODC and the European Commission held annual policy consultations at the senior level.2009年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室与欧盟委员会举行了高级别年度政策磋商。
In operational terms, cooperation between the European Commission and UNODC was enhanced and reached an unprecedented, high level (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, para. 80).在业务方面,欧盟委员会与毒品和犯罪问题办公室之间的合作得到了加强,达到了前所未有的高度(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3, 第 80段)。
Pursuant to Commission resolution 52/13, entitled “Improving the governance and financial situation of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime”, and Economic and Social Council decision 2009/251, entitled “Frequency and duration of the reconvened sessions of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice”, a standing open-ended intergovernmental working group was established to discuss and formulate recommendations on how to improve the governance structure and financial situation of UNODC.按照委员会题为“改善联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室的管理和财务状况”的第52/13号决议,以及经济及社会理事会题为“麻醉药品委员会和预防犯罪和刑事司法委员会届会续会的次数和会期”的第2009/251号决定,设立了一个不限成员名额的政府间常设工作组,以讨论如何改进毒品和犯罪问题办公室管理结构和财务状况的问题并制定建议。
The working group held numerous formal and informal meetings in 2009 and 2010 and provided a forum for dialogue between Member States and the Secretariat.该工作组在2009和2010年举行了多次正式和非正式会议,为会员国和秘书处之间进行对话提供了一个论坛。
Conclusions and recommendations五. 结论和建议
The impact of the world drug problem on the social, economic, health, political and governance aspects of society continues to be significant and undermines sustainable development, political stability and democratic institutions.世界毒品问题对社会的社会、经济、卫生、政治和治理方面的影响仍然很严重,也有损于可持续发展、政治稳定和民主制度。
Member States have an obligation to continue to invest in drug control and take further action in the years to come.各会员国有义务继续在药物管制方面进行投资并在今后几年采取进一步的行动。
Drug use and drug dependence have a range of health and social consequences for individuals, their families and the community, such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, mental health disorders, crime and violence, traffic and other accidents and lost productivity in the workplace.吸毒和药物依赖对个人、其家庭和社区造成一系列健康和社会后果,如艾滋病毒/艾滋病、肝炎、肺结核、精神病、犯罪和暴力、交通事故和其他事故、工作场所的生产力损失。
Effective prevention and early interventions, as well as a multidisciplinary approach, are essential elements of drug demand reduction policies (E/2010/28-E/CN.7/2010/18, paras. 11 and 37 (c)).有效预防、早期干预和多学科做法是减少毒品需求政策的基本要素(E/2010/28-E/CN.7/2010/18,第11和37(c)段)。
Comprehensive approaches need to include due attention to social and economic issues, such as unemployment and poverty, that contribute to the circumstances that render members of socially marginalized groups vulnerable to becoming drug users and victims or perpetrators of crime (A/64/120, para. 32).综合性的办法需要包括适当注意社会和经济问题,如失业和贫困问题,因为在这些问题所造成的环境中,社会边缘群体中的人易成为吸毒者并沦为犯罪受害者或实施者(A/64/120,第32段)。
Drug abuse can be prevented, treated and controlled.药物滥用是可以预防、治疗和控制的。
Member States should upgrade their preventive interventions and integrate drug treatment into public health programmes.会员国应改进本国的预防性干预措施,并将戒毒治疗纳入公共卫生方案。
Programmes for drug abuse prevention and the treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers should be based on scientific evidence and respect for the human rights and the dignity of individuals.预防药物滥用并对药物滥用者进行治疗并使之康复的方案需要以科学依据和尊重个人人权和尊严为基础。
Drug abusers should be sent to treatment, not to jail.应将药物滥用者送去治疗,而不是送进监狱。
Drug treatment should not amount to degrading punishment and people should not be sentenced to death for drug-related offences.戒毒治疗不应意味着令人羞辱的惩罚,对与毒品有关的犯罪也不应处以死刑。
Member States should provide drug abuse prevention training to primary health-care workers, teachers, parents, media professionals and police officers; prevention efforts should address all levels of risk, and should be carried out in various settings (the school, the family and the community, as well as through the media), tailored for the target population groups and mainstreamed in national education and health policies.会员国应向初级保健工作者、教师、父母、媒体专业人员和警官提供药物滥用预防培训,预防工作应当涉及所有程度的风险,且应在各种场所进行(学校、家庭、社区,以及通过媒体),为目标群体量身定做,并纳入国家教育和卫生政策的主流。
Training of doctors, nurses and social workers should include the understanding of drug addiction as a chronic multifactorial health disorder.对医生、护士和社会工作者的培训应当包括了解吸毒成瘾是一种多因素慢性疾病。
Illicit drugs pose a growing security threat.非法药物对安全造成了日益严重的威胁。
Unless Member States deal effectively with the menace posed by drug trafficking and organized crime, their security — even their sovereignty — will be under threat.除非会员国有效处理贩毒和有组织犯罪所造成的威胁,否则其安全—甚至主权—将受到威胁。
Greater attention should be paid to security, justice and development in vulnerable regions such as the Balkans, Central and West Asia, Central America and East and West Africa.应当多加关注脆弱区域(如巴尔干、中亚和西亚、中美洲、东非和西非)的安全、司法和发展情况。
Member States should implement the United Nations drug control conventions, as well as the Organized Crime Convention and the Convention against Corruption, in the effort to prevent and control drug-related crime that is posing a serious security threat in many parts of the world.与毒品有关的犯罪正在世界许多地区造成了严重的安全威胁,会员国在努力预防和遏制这类犯罪时,应当执行联合国各项药物管制公约,以及《有组织犯罪公约》和《反腐败公约》。
Greater development assistance and a strengthening of the rule of law are needed in countries that are vulnerable to the cultivation and production of and trafficking in illicit drugs.易发生非法药物种植、生产和贩运活动的国家需要更多的发展援助并加强法治。
Without these essentials, States risk instability and will face even greater challenges in reaching the Millennium Development Goals.如果没有这些基本要素,各国便有不稳定之虞,在实现千年发展目标方面也会面临更大的困难。
Member States can only combat the threats posed by opiates originating in Afghanistan by addressing all links in the chain:会员国要抗击阿富汗原产阿片剂所造成的威胁,唯一的办法是处理链条上的所有环节:
assistance to farmers to reduce supply, drug abuse prevention and treatment to curb demand, and law enforcement against traffickers.协助农民减少供应,预防和治疗药物滥用以遏制需求,以及对贩运分子进行执法。
In order to further reduce the biggest source of heroin, there must also be better security, development and governance in Afghanistan.为了进一步减少海洛因的最大来源,还必须在阿富汗增进安全、发展和治理。
In the fight against drug trafficking, success depends on information exchange and intelligence-led operations that target the major transnational networks.在打击贩毒过程中,成功与否取决于信息交流和以主要的跨国网络为目标、以情报为主导的行动。
In order to tackle the transnational threat of drug trafficking, Member States should regard intelligence-sharing as a way of strengthening sovereignty, not surrendering it.为了应对贩毒活动的跨国威胁,会员国应将情报共享视为加强主权的方式,而非交出主权的方式。
Member States should continue to strengthen the global effort in preventing the diversion of precursor chemicals for the manufacturing of drugs and continue to cooperate with the International Narcotics Control Board in this area.在预防用于制造毒品的前体化学品的转移方面,会员国应当继续加强全球努力,并继续与国际麻醉品管制局进行这方面的合作。
The subsidiary bodies of the Commission should continue to consider ways to enhance the practical impact of operational law enforcement efforts at the regional level and actively consider and take action, where required, on their recommendations.委员会各附属机构应当继续审议通过哪些途径加强区域一级执法行动的实际影响,并积极审议附属机构的各项建议,在必要情况下就此采取行动。
Member States should continue to strengthen drug data collection activities and reporting to the United Nations through periodic questionnaires and reports on individual seizures.会员国应当继续加强毒品数据收集活动,并通过周期性的调查表和每次缉获情况报告,向联合国汇报。
Member States should commit resources to help developing countries to design and improve systems for the generation, management, analysis, reporting and use of information on illicit drugs necessary for policy and programme development.会员国应当承诺提供资源,帮助发展中国家设计和改进政策制定和方案制定所必需的毒品信息生成、管理、分析、报告和使用系统。
The limited regular budget resources, coupled with a further reduction in general purpose funding and a projected decline in programme volume will continue to impact the ability of UNODC to promote policymaking and provide expertise to Member States.经常预算资源有限,普通用途资金进一步减少,据预测方案工作量也将减少,这些问题将继续影响着毒品和犯罪问题办公室促进政策制定并向会员国提供专门知识的能力。
In line with General Assembly resolution 64/243, entitled “Questions relating to the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2010-2011”, in which the Assembly expressed concern at the overall financial situation of UNODC and requested the Secretary-General to submit proposals in his proposed programme budget for the biennium 2012-2013 to ensure that the Office had sufficient resources to carry out its mandate, Member States should provide regular and adequate core resources to UNODC.大会题为“与2010-2011两年期拟议方案预算有关的问题”的第64/243号决议表示关切毒品和犯罪问题办公室的总体财务状况,并请秘书长在2012-2013两年期拟议方案预算中提交有关建议,以确保该办公室有足够的资源执行任务。 按照该决议,会员国应定期向毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供充足的核心资源。
This would enable the Office to respond to the increasing demand from Member States for support in the areas mandated to the Office, including support for the implementation of its technical assistance and regional programmes.这样毒品和犯罪问题办公室才能满足会员国在该办公室所负责的领域中的日益增多的支助需求,包括支助执行其技术援助和区域方案。
A/65/50.A/65/50。
1 A/64/92-E/2009/98, sect. II.A.1 A/64/92-E/2009/98,第二节A。
2 World Drug Report 2010 (United Nations publication, Sales No.2 《2010年世界毒品报告》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:
E.10.XI.13).E.10.XI.13)。
3 UNODC received 110 replies from Member States to the drug abuse section of the questionnaire and 114 replies to the illicit supply of drugs section.3 毒品和犯罪问题办公室收到会员国对调查表中药物滥用部分的答复110份和对非法药物供应部分的答复114份。
4 Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2010, Supplement No. 8 (E/2010/28), paras. 43 and 46.4 《经济及社会理事会正式记录,2010年,补编第8号》(E/2010/28),第43和46段。
5 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2225, No. 39574.5 联合国,《条约汇编》,第2225卷,第39574号。
6 Ibid., vol. 2349, No. 42146.6 同上,第2349卷,第42146号。
7 Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2010, Supplement No. 8 (E/2010/28), para. 44.7 《经济及社会理事会正式记录,2010年,补编第8号》(E/2010/28),第44段。
8 Ibid., para. 48.8 同上,第48段。
9 Ibid., paras. 51-53 and 69.9 同上,第51-53段和第69段。
10 Ibid., paras. 26 and 54.10 同上,第26和54段。
11 Ibid., paras. 98 and 99.11 同上,第98和99段。
12 Ibid., para. 93.12 同上,第93段。
13 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1582, No. 27627.13 联合国,《条约汇编》,第1582卷,第27627号。
14 Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2010, Supplement No. 8 (E/2010/28), paras. 43 and 92.14 《经济及社会理事会正式记录,2010年,补编第8号》(E/2010/28),第43和92段。
15 Ibid., para. 95.15 同上,第95段。
16 Ibid., paras. 57 and 156.16 同上,第57和156段。
17 Ibid., para. 162.17 同上,第162段。
18 For a detailed account of the activities of UNODC, see the relevant report of the Executive Director (E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3).18 毒品和犯罪问题办公室各项活动的详细介绍见执行主任的相关报告(E/CN.7/2010/3-E/CN.15/2010/3)。
19 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Afghanistan Opium Survey 2009 (December 2009); United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Opium Poppy Cultivation in South-East Asia:19 联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室,《2009年阿富汗鸦片调查》(2009年12月);联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室,《东南亚的鸦片种植情况:
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar (December 2009).老挝人民民主共和国、缅甸》(2009年12月)。
20 Multilingual Dictionary of Precursors and Chemicals Frequently Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances under International Control (United Nations publication, Sales No.20 《受国际管制的经常用于非法制造麻醉药品和精神药物的前体和化学品多语种词典》(联合国出版物,出售品编号:
M.09.XI.14).M.09.XI.14)。
202
V.10-54622V.10-54621
V.10-54622V.10-54621
1917
United Nations联合国
A/65/93A/65/93
General Assembly大 会
Distr.:Distr.:
General 22 June 2010 Original:General 22 June 2010 Chinese Original:
EnglishEnglish
V.10-54622 (E) 290610 300610V.10-54621 (C) GX 130710 130710
1054622*1054621*
«ODS JOB NO»V1054622«ODS JOB NO»«ODS JOB NO»V1054621«ODS JOB NO»
«ODS DOC SYMBOL1»A/65/93«ODS DOC SYMBOL1»«ODS DOC SYMBOL1»A/65/93«ODS DOC SYMBOL1»
«ODS DOC SYMBOL2»«ODS DOC SYMBOL2»«ODS DOC SYMBOL2»«ODS DOC SYMBOL2»
A/65/93A/65/93
A/65/93A/65/93
Author:Author:
whitesYANG
Template:Template:
Normal.dotNormal.dot
Last saved by:Last saved by:
stanglYANG
Revision number:Revision number:
292
Application:Application:
Microsoft Office Word Total editing time:Microsoft Office Word
02:20:00 Last printed:Last printed:
2010/06/29 09:22:002010/07/14 07:51:00
Created:Created:
2010/06/28 07:23:002010/07/14 07:54:00
Last saved:Last saved:
2010/06/29 10:55:002010/07/14 07:54:00
Company:Company:
UNODCUNODC
JobNo:JobNo:
10546221054621
Symbol1:Symbol1:
A/65/93A/65/93
Translator:Operator:
Oxygen:yang
Operator: Sarah WhiteOxygen: