A_68_126_EC
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A/68/126 V1384742.doc (English)A/68/126 V1384741.doc (Chinese)
Sixty-eighth session第六十八届会议
Item 109 of the preliminary list暂定项目表项目109
International drug control国际药物管制
International cooperation against the world drug problem国际合作对付世界毒品问题
Report of the Secretary-General秘书长的报告
Summary摘要
The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 67/193, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to submit to it at its sixty-eighth session a report on the implementation of that resolution. The report provides an overview of the world drug situation and of the implementation of the mandates relating to international drug control by Member States, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, other entities of the United Nations system and relevant international organizations. It also provides information on the preparations for the high-level review of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, to be held in 2014, and contains recommendations for consideration by the Assembly in preparing for the special session on the world drug problem to be held in 2016.本报告根据大会第67/193号决议编写,大会在该决议中请秘书长向其第六十八届会议提交有关该决议执行情况的报告。本报告概括介绍了世界毒品形势以及各会员国、联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室、联合国系统其他机构及有关国际组织对国际药物管制有关任务授权的执行情况。报告还介绍了将于2014年举行的《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》高级别审议的筹备情况,并载有筹备将于2016年举行的世界毒品问题特别会议方面的各项建议,供大会审议。
Contents目录
Page页次
1. Introduction一. 导言
33
2. Overview of the world drug situation二. 世界毒品形势概览
33
3. International cooperation against the world drug problem三. 国际合作对付世界毒品问题
55
A. Action by the Commission on Narcotic DrugsA. 麻醉药品委员会采取的行动
55
B. Action by subsidiary bodiesB. 各附属机构的行动
66
4. Demand reduction and related measures四. 减少需求和相关措施
76
A. Reducing drug abuse and its health and social consequencesA. 减少吸毒及其健康和社会影响
76
B. Access to treatment, health care and social services, including prevention of HIV/AIDS and other drug-related diseasesB. 普及治疗、保健和社会服务,包括预防艾滋病毒/艾滋病和其他毒品相关疾病
87
5. Supply reduction and related measures五. 减少供应和相关措施
98
A. Regional and international cooperation in countering the world drug problem and the principle of common and shared responsibilityA. 区域和国际合作应对世界毒品问题,以及共同和分担的责任原则
98
B. Sustainable crop control strategies targeting the illicit cultivation of crops used for the production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substancesB. 针对非法种植麻醉药品和精神药物生产所用作物的可持续作物控制战略
1210
6. Countering money-laundering and promoting judicial cooperation六. 打击洗钱和促进司法合作
1311
7. Data collection and research七. 数据收集与研究
1412
8. Governance and financial situation of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime八. 联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室的治理和财务状况
15 9.13
Assessing progress made in the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem九. 评估会员国在落实《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》方面取得的进展
1714
10. Recommendations十. 建议
1815
I. Introduction一. 导言
1.
At its sixty-fourth session, the General Assembly adopted the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, in which Member States reaffirmed their commitment to ensure that all aspects of demand reduction, supply reduction and international cooperation were addressed in full conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, international law and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and, in particular, with full respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, the principle of non-intervention in the internal affairs of States, all human rights, fundamental freedoms, the inherent dignity of all individuals and the principles of equal rights and mutual respect among States.1. 大会第六十四届会议通过了《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》,其中,各会员国重申承诺,确保在处理减少需求、减少供应和国际合作各方面问题时,充分遵守《联合国宪章》、国际法和《世界人权宣言》的宗旨和原则,特别是充分尊重国家主权和领土完整、不干涉国家内政原则、所有人权、基本自由、所有人的固有尊严和国家间权利平等和相互尊重原则。
2. In its resolution 67/193, entitled “International cooperation against the world drug problem”, the General Assembly reiterated its call upon States to take, in a timely manner, the measures necessary to implement the actions and attain the goals and targets set out in the Political Declaration and Plan of Action.2. 在题为“国际合作对付世界毒品问题”的第67/193号决议中,大会再次吁请各国及时采取必要措施,实施《政治宣言和行动计划》所列各项行动,实现其中规定的目标和具体目标。
In the same resolution, the Assembly also decided to convene, early in 2016, a special session on the world drug problem, following the high-level review of the progress made in the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action, which would be conducted by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its fifty-seventh session, in March 2014.在同一项决议中,大会还决定在2014年3月麻醉药品委员会第五十七届会议对会员国执行《政治宣言和行动计划》的进展情况进行高级别审议之后,于2016年初召开一届关于世界毒品问题的特别会议。
3. The present report, prepared pursuant to Assembly resolution 67/193, provides an overview of the world drug situation as well as an overview of the implementation of the mandates relating to international drug control by Member States, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), other entities of the United Nations system and relevant international organizations.3. 本报告根据大会第67/193号决议编写,概括介绍了世界毒品形势以及各会员国、联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室(毒品和犯罪问题办公室)、联合国系统其他机构及有关国际组织对国际药物管制有关任务授权的执行情况。
It follows the structure of the Political Declaration and the Plan of Action in highlighting the priorities followed by Member States and UNODC, including through the work of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs.报告按照《政治宣言和行动计划》的结构,突出了各会员国及毒品和犯罪问题办公室所遵循的优先事项,包括通过麻醉药品委员会的工作。
It also provides information on the preparations for the high-level review of the implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action, to be conducted by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2014, and contains recommendations for consideration by the Assembly in preparing for the special session of the General Assembly on the world drug problem to be held in 2016.报告还介绍了麻醉药品委员会将于2014年对《政治宣言和行动计划》执行情况进行高级别审议的筹备情况,并载有筹备将于2016年举行的世界毒品问题大会特别会议方面的各项建议,供大会审议。
II. Overview of the world drug situation二. 世界毒品形势概览
4. The information presented in the present section is based on data submitted by Member States through the annual report questionnaire concerning action taken to implement the Political Declaration and Plan of Action, and on data contained in the World Drug Report 2013.4. 本节介绍的信息基于各会员国通过年度报告调查表提交的数据,涉及为执行《政治宣言和行动计划》而采取的行动,同时还基于《2013年世界毒品报告》所载数据。
Illicit production of and trafficking in opium鸦片的非法生产和贩运
5. In 2012, UNODC and its national counterparts conducted opium surveys in Afghanistan and South-East Asia.5. 2012年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室及其各国家对应机构在阿富汗和东南亚进行了鸦片调查。
6. Afghanistan remained by far the largest source country for opiates worldwide.6. 迄今为止,阿富汗依然是全世界最大的阿片剂来源国。
The total area under opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan in 2012 was estimated at 154,000 hectares, an 18 per cent increase compared with 2011.2012年,阿富汗的罂粟种植总面积估计为154,000公顷,比2011年增长了18%。
Nevertheless, potential production of opium fell by 36 per cent in 2012, to 3,700 tons, owing to a combination of a disease affecting the opium poppy and adverse weather conditions.但是,2012年,鸦片的潜在产量降至3,700吨,减少了36%,原因是罂粟遭遇病害和恶劣天气条件的共同作用。
With a total area of over 58,000 hectares in 2012, most opium poppy cultivation in South-East Asia took place in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar.2012年,东南亚的多数罂粟种植活动发生在老挝人民民主共和国和缅甸,总面积超过了58,000公顷。
Mexico remained the largest opium-poppy growing country in the Americas.墨西哥依然是美洲最大的罂粟种植国。
7. As of 2011, global aggregate seizures of morphine and heroin had increased by approximately half over a period of three years, in spite of the decreasing trend in production during the period 2007-2010.7. 尽管2007-2010年间的产量呈减产趋势,但截至2011年,吗啡和海洛因的全球缉获总量三年期间增长了约一半。
8. While heroin use was reportedly decreasing or stabilizing in established markets in North America and West and Central Europe, data on seizures and heroin use suggested that heroin markets were expanding in some parts of Africa and Asia.8. 据报告,北美及西欧和中欧既有市场的海洛因使用量在减少或保持稳定,但缉获量和海洛因使用量数据表明,非洲和亚洲一些地区的海洛因市场在不断扩大。
Illicit manufacture of and trafficking in cocaine可卡因的非法制造和贩运
9. In 2011, UNODC and its national counterparts conducted coca surveys in Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Colombia and Peru.9. 2011年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室及其各国家对应机构在多民族玻利维亚国、哥伦比亚和秘鲁进行了古柯调查。
10. The cocaine market declined strongly during the period 2006-2012 in North America, and in Western and Central Europe it appeared to have stabilized following many years of increase.10. 2006-2012年间,北美及西欧和中欧的可卡因市场大幅减少,经过多年的增长之后,该市场似乎趋于稳定。
However, in recent years, there have been indications of increasing cocaine consumption in countries in Asia and Africa.然而,近年来,有迹象表明亚洲和非洲各国的可卡因消费量日趋增长。
11. Global illicit cultivation of coca bush in 2011 remained around the levels reported for 2010 (about 155,600 hectares).11. 2011年,古柯树的全球非法种植量仍维持在2010年报告的水平(约155,660公顷)。
Despite uncertainty in the global estimates of cocaine manufacture, it can be assumed that those levels also remained unchanged (between 776 and 1,051 tons in 2011).尽管全球的可卡因制造量估计数不能确定,但可以假设这些数值也保持不变。
12. After a relatively stable period between 2005 and 2009, global cocaine seizures declined in both 2010 and 2011.12. 经过2005至2009年这段相对平稳的时期之后,2010年和2011年的全球可卡因缉获量有所下降。
However, the geographic distribution of seizures remained unchanged, with the major producing and transit regions of South America, Central America and the Caribbean accounting for 71 per cent of global seizures in 2011 (compared with 74 per cent in 2009).然而,缉获的地域分布仍保持不变,2011年,主要的生产和中转区域南美、中美和加勒比占全球缉获量的71%(2009年占74%)。
Seizures in the traditional consumer markets of North America and Europe accounted for 28.7 per cent of global cocaine seizures.北美和欧洲的传统消费市场占全球可卡因缉获量的28.7%。
Illicit production of and trafficking in cannabis大麻的非法生产和贩运
13. Cannabis is the world’s most widely used illicit substance.13. 大麻是世界上使用最广泛的非法药物。
Given the relative ease with which cannabis herb (marijuana) can be produced, demand is often met through local production.由于大麻药草(大麻烟)的生产可能比较容易,其需求通常由当地生产来满足。
As a result, trafficking flows for cannabis tend to be more localized than those for other plant-based illicit drugs.因此,较之于其他植物类非法药物,大麻药草的贩运通常呈本地化状态。
14. North America continues to account for more than half of global cannabis herb seizures, mainly owing to the quantities seized in Mexico and the United States of America.14. 北美的大麻药草缉获量依然占全球缉获量的一半以上,这主要是因为墨西哥和美利坚合众国境内的缉获量。
Large quantities are also seized in South America and Africa.南美和非洲的缴获量也很大。
15. In contrast with cannabis herb, production of cannabis resin is concentrated in a small number of countries.15. 与大麻药草相比,大麻树脂的生产集中在少数国家。
Consequently, trafficking of cannabis resin tends to follow flows that are more distinct.因此,大麻树脂的贩运往往遵循更独特的流向。
One of those flows is into Europe from Morocco; another is from Afghanistan into and through neighbouring countries.其中的一种流向是从摩洛哥流入欧洲;另一种是从阿富汗流入其邻国和流经其邻国。
Illicit manufacture of and trafficking in amphetamine-type stimulants and new psychoactive substances, and the increasing diversion of precursors苯丙胺类兴奋剂和新型精神活性物质的非法制造和贩运以及日益严重的前体转移
16. Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) remain a significant global threat, with increasing levels of seizures and use, manufacture spreading to new markets and increasing diversion of precursor chemicals.16. 苯丙胺类兴奋剂的缉获量和使用量日益增加,生产逐步蔓延至新的市场,并且前体化学品转移日益严重,因此,苯丙胺类兴奋剂依然是一个严重的全球威胁。
Use of ATS remained steady in their traditional markets, namely, North America and Oceania, while increasing use was noted in East and South-East Asia and Africa.传统市场,即北美和大洋洲的苯丙胺类兴奋剂使用量保持稳定,同时注意到东亚和东南亚及非洲的使用量日趋增加。
Seizures of ATS reached new highs across all regions, with Asia, North America and Europe registering the most marked increases.所有区域的苯丙胺类兴奋剂缉获量均达到新高,亚洲、北美和欧洲的增幅最为显著。
17. The emergence of new psychoactive substances continues to pose major challenges for authorities worldwide.17. 新型精神活性物质的出现继续给世界各地当局带来巨大挑战。
On the basis of information submitted by Member States and a network of drug analysis laboratories in response to a questionnaire, UNODC prepared a report entitled The Challenge of New Psychoactive Substances, which provided the first global overview of the emergence of the substances.根据会员国和药物分析实验室网络针对调查表提交的信息,毒品和犯罪问题办公室编写了一份题为“新型精神活性物质的挑战”的报告,该报告提供了各种物质出现情况的第一份全球概览。
At its fifty-sixth session, in March 2013, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs adopted resolution 56/4, entitled “Enhancing international cooperation in the identification and reporting of new psychoactive substances”, in which the Commission urged UNODC to continue to develop the voluntary electronic portal of the international collaborative exercises to enable timely and comprehensive sharing of information on new psychoactive substances, including analytical methodologies, reference documents and mass spectra.在2013年3月举行的第五十六届会议上,麻醉药品委员会通过了题为“在识别和报告新的精神活性物质方面加强国际合作”的第56/4号决议,其中,委员会促请毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续开发国际协作活动自愿电子门户网站,以促成及时全面地分享有关新的精神活性物质的信息,包括分析方法、参考文件和质量谱。
18. Global amphetamine seizures followed a generally increasing trend during the period 2001-2009, driven in part by increases in Captagon seizures in the Near and Middle East and South-West Asia, which overtook Europe in terms of total seizures.18. 2001-2009年间,全球苯丙胺缉获量呈总体上升趋势,部分原因是近东和中东及西南亚苯丙氨乙茶碱缉获量增加,从缉获总量来看,这些地区超过了欧洲。
19. After relatively stable levels of seizures leading up to 2008, the annual amount of methamphetamine seized globally increased rapidly in 2011 and was more than three times the amount recorded in 2008.19. 去氧麻黄碱的缉获量2008年之前相对稳定,之后,2011年全球的年度缉获量快速增长,超过了2008年记录数量的三倍。
20. In recent years, the global market for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as “ecstasy”, showed a marked decline, with global seizures falling from record levels in 2007 to 3.5 tons in 2011.20. 近年来,二亚甲基双氧苯丙胺,俗称“摇头丸”的全球市场明显缩小,全球缉获量从2007年的创纪录水平降至2011年的3.5吨。
III. International cooperation against the world drug problem三. 国际合作对付世界毒品问题
A. Action by the Commission on Narcotic DrugsA. 麻醉药品委员会采取的行动
21. At its fifty-sixth session, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs adopted 16 resolutions relating to international drug control and one decision relating to changes in the scope of control of substances.21. 麻醉药品委员会在其第五十六届会议上通过了16项与国际药物管制问题有关的决议,以及一项与物质管制范围的变化有关的决定。
One draft resolution, entitled “United Nations Guiding Principles on Alternative Development”, was recommended for approval by the Economic and Social Council for adoption by the General Assembly.委员会还提出一项题为“联合国替代发展问题指导原则”的决议草案,供经济及社会理事会核准,并供大会通过。
22. Issues covered by the adopted resolutions included supply reduction, new psychoactive substances, forensic drug profiling, HIV/AIDS, international control of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, the principle of common and shared responsibility, data collection, precursors, tramadol and alternative development.22. 通过的各项决议涵盖的问题包括减少供应、新型精神活性药物、法医学毒品特征分析、艾滋病毒/艾滋病、麻醉药品和精神活性物质的国际管制、共同和分担的责任原则、数据收集、前体、曲马多和替代发展。
23. In its decision 56/1, entitled “Transfer of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid from Schedule IV to Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971”, the Commission, upon recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO), decided, by 41 votes to 1, with no abstentions, to transfer gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) from Schedule IV to Schedule II of the 1971 Convention.23. 在委员会题为“将γ-羟丁酸从1971年《精神药物公约》附表四转至附表二”的第56/1号决定中,委员会应世界卫生组织(世卫组织)的建议,以41票对1票、零票弃权,决定将γ-羟丁酸从1971年《精神药物公约》附表四转至附表二。
24. Three round-table discussions were held at the fifty-sixth session of the Commission on the following topics: demand reduction and related measures; supply reduction and related matters; and countering money-laundering and promoting judicial cooperation to enhance international cooperation.24. 委员会第五十六届会议就下列专题举行了三次圆桌讨论会:减少需求和相关措施;减少供应和相关事项;打击洗钱和促进司法合作以加强国际合作。
25.
The International Narcotics Control Board presented its annual report for 2012 and its report for 2012 on the implementation of article 12 of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 during the session, and speakers expressed appreciation and support for the work of the Board, and recognized its role in monitoring the implementation of the international drug control conventions and in ensuring the availability of internationally controlled substances for licit uses.25. 会议期间,国际麻醉药品管制局提交了其2012年年度报告及其2012年关于1988年《联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》第12条执行情况的报告。 许多发言者表示赞赏并支持麻管局的工作,并承认麻管局在监测国际毒品管制公约的执行情况并确保为合法用途供应国际管制物质方面发挥的作用。
26. The need to address challenges posed by new psychotropic substances and the use of cannabis seeds for illicit cultivation was stressed.26. 会议强调需要应对新型精神药物以及使用大麻籽进行非法种植造成的挑战。
The Commission also decided to include in the agenda of its next session a sub-item on challenges and future work of the Commission and WHO in the review of substances for possible scheduling recommendations, in order to assist Member States in applying the existing scheduling procedures as contained in the three international drug control conventions.委员会还决定在其下届会议的议程中列入关于委员会和世卫组织在审查可能建议改列的物质方面的挑战和今后工作的分项目,以协助会员国适用三项国际毒品管制条约所载的现有改列程序。
B. Action by subsidiary bodiesB. 各附属机构的行动
27.
Four meetings of subsidiary bodies of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs were held in 2012: the Twenty-second Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Africa, was held in Accra from 25 to 29 June; the Twenty-second Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Latin America and the Caribbean, was held in Antigua, Guatemala, from 1 to 5 October; the Thirty-sixth Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Asia and the Pacific, was held in Bangkok from 30 October to 2 November; and the forty-seventh session of the Subcommission on Illicit Drug Traffic and Related Matters in the Near and Middle East was held in Antalya, Turkey, from 19 to 23 November.27. 2012年,麻醉药品委员会各附属机构共举行了4次会议:6月25日至29日在阿卡拉举行了非洲国家禁毒执法机构负责人第二十二次会议;10月1日至5日在危地马拉安提瓜举行了拉丁美洲和加勒比国家禁毒执法机构负责人第二十二次会议;10月30日至11月2日在曼谷举行了亚洲太平洋国家禁毒执法机构负责人第三十六次会议;以及11月19日至23日在土耳其安塔利亚举行了近东和中东麻醉品非法贩运和有关事项小组委员会第四十七届会议。
28. Those subsidiary bodies addressed issues of priority in drug law enforcement in their regions and reviewed progress made in the implementation of recommendations made at previous sessions.28. 这些附属机构讨论了各自区域的禁毒执法重点问题,并审查了执行前几届会议上提出的建议的进展情况。
IV. Demand reduction and related measures四. 减少需求和相关措施
29. Within its thematic programme that addresses health and human development vulnerabilities in the context of drugs and crime, UNODC has increased its emphasis on compassionate and ethical demand reduction, rehabilitation and related health-protection measures as part of its efforts to put a health-centred and humanitarian approach at the heart of drug control policy.29. 在毒品和犯罪问题领域应对健康和人的发展脆弱性的专题方案范围内,毒品和犯罪问题办公室更加强调了以同情和合乎道德的方式减少需求,注重康复和相关的健康保护措施,这也是其坚持以围绕健康的人道主义办法为药物管制政策核心的工作的一部分。
A. Reducing drug abuse and its health and social consequencesA. 减少吸毒及其健康和社会影响
30. UNODC increased its collaboration with WHO on improving the coverage and quality of services for the treatment and care of drug use disorders, based on scientific evidence and ethical standards.30. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室加强了与世卫组织的合作,扩大了以科学证据和道德标准为基础的吸毒病症治疗和护理服务的覆盖面,并提高了服务质量。
31. A major achievement of UNODC efforts in the area of treatment has been the successful implementation of a knowledge-sharing mechanism through which professionals from a wide range of disciplines related to drug dependence treatment have been trained.31. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室在治疗领域所做的努力取得的重大成就是成功实施了一项知识共享机制,通过该机制对来自多个学科的专业人员开展了与药物依赖治疗有关的培训。
32. Work has continued on the promotion of a global coordinated response from public institutions and non-governmental organizations to protect children and adolescents at risk of drug dependence, and/or those affected by drug use dependence and its health and social consequences.32. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续促进公共机构和非政府组织采取全球性协调对策,保护面临药物依赖风险的儿童和青少年和(或)受药物依赖影响的儿童和青少年,并应对其健康和社会影响。
The first phase is being piloted in Afghanistan and it is expected that the second phase will reach as many countries and regions as funds allow.第一阶段的试点是阿富汗,在资金允许的情况下,预计第二阶段将尽可能触及到更多国家和区域。
33. The UNODC programme on family skills training in drug abuse prevention and the UNODC Youth Initiative were expanded, supporting prevention activities in a growing number of countries.33. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室的药物滥用预防家庭技能培训方案和毒品和犯罪问题办公室的青年倡议已经扩大,支持越来越多的国家开展预防活动。
A number of activities were carried out in 12 countries in four different regions with the objective of implementing evidence-based family skills training programmes to prevent drug use, HIV/AIDS, and crime and delinquency among young people by strengthening and improving the capacity of families to take care of their children.毒品和犯罪问题办公室在4个不同区域的12个国家开展了多项活动,目的是实施循证的家庭技能培训方案,以通过加强和提高家庭照顾其子女的能力,防止青年吸毒、感染艾滋病毒/艾滋病以及实施犯罪和违法乱纪行为。
Over 3,500 family members have been reached so far under these programmes.迄今,已有3,500名家庭成员受益于这些方案。
34. UNODC published International Standards on Drug Use Prevention and launched the Prevention Strategy and Policymakers Initiative to create regional prevention hubs, starting in Central America, North Africa, Central Asia and East Asia.34. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室公布了《关于预防吸毒的国际标准》,并推出了《预防战略和决策者倡议》,以从中美洲、北非、中亚和东亚开始,创建区域预防中心。
The International Standards aim to empower Member States to develop comprehensive and effective drug prevention systems, and to promote healthy lifestyles, particularly among young people.该国际标准旨在使会员国能够制定全面且有效的预防吸毒制度,并促进健康的生活方式,尤其是在青年当中。
The ultimate goal is to form a common, science-based foundation for prevention work.最终目标是形成以科学为依据的预防工作的共同基础。
The International Standards are aimed at national-level policymakers.《国际标准》面向的是国家一级的决策者。
35. Pursuant to Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 54/6, entitled “Promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse”, UNODC has initiated the review and revision of model laws.35. 根据麻醉药品委员会题为“促进用于医疗和科研目的的国际管制麻醉药品和精神药物的充分供应并同时防止其被转移和滥用”的第54/6号决议,毒品和犯罪问题办公室启动了对示范法的审查和修订。
B. Access to treatment, health care and social services, including prevention of HIV/AIDS and other drug-related diseasesB. 普及治疗、保健和社会服务,包括预防艾滋病毒/艾滋病和其他毒品相关疾病
36. UNODC is responding to HIV/AIDS among drug users and in prison settings, in line with its mandates, reaching over 100 countries worldwide.36. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室正在全球100多个国家,根据其任务授权应对与吸毒者和监狱环境有关的艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题。
The Office is building the evidence base for public health approaches to HIV prevention, treatment and care services, and is facilitating the review and adaptation of national legislation and policies concerning narcotic drugs, criminal justice, prison management and HIV.该办公室正在为针对艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理服务的公共卫生做法建立证据基础,并正在促进审查和修改与麻醉药品、刑事司法、监狱管理和艾滋病毒有关的国家立法和政策。
Those efforts are aimed at strengthening regulations, policies and legislative reforms, which are critical for evidence-informed and human rights-focused HIV services for people who use drugs and those living in prisons and other closed settings.这些努力旨在加强管理条例、政策和立法改革,这对于向吸毒者及生活在监狱和其他封闭环境中的人提供以证据为依据和注重人权的艾滋病毒服务至关重要。
37. The delivery of HIV services, technical assistance and advocacy by UNODC and its production and dissemination of strategic information and global guidelines have facilitated the scaling up of needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy and other evidence-based responses for people who use opioids and/or stimulant drugs in key countries.37. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供艾滋病毒相关服务、技术援助,开展宣传,并编制和传播战略信息和全球准则,这有助于逐步扩大针对主要国家类阿片和(或)兴奋剂药物使用者的针头和针筒方案、类鸦片替代疗法和其他循证对策。
Access to timely and uninterrupted antiretroviral therapy for people using drugs and for people in prisons and other closed settings who are living with HIV has also been expanded.感染艾滋病毒的吸毒者及生活在监狱和其他封闭环境中的人及时且不间断地获得抗逆转录病毒治疗的机会也有所扩大。
38. UNODC made notable progress in advancing global dialogue and advocacy on gender-responsive HIV/AIDS programmes and on improving equitable access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care services for female drug users and female prisoners, for example in Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan and Ukraine.38. 在增进就对性别问题有敏感认识的艾滋病毒/艾滋病方案及增加女性吸毒者和女囚犯公平获得艾滋病毒/艾滋病预防、治疗和护理服务的机会开展全球对话和宣传方面,毒品和犯罪问题办公室取得了显著进展,例如在阿富汗、尼泊尔、巴基斯坦和乌克兰。
The capacity of service providers to deliver gender-specific services was significantly enhanced, and that work informed the development of targeted interventions, including with regard to mother-to-child transmission of HIV, female drug users and women living in prisons and other closed settings.服务提供者提供有性别区分的服务能力大大提高,此项工作为定向干预措施的制定提供了依据,包括与艾滋病毒母婴传播、女性吸毒者及生活在监狱和其他封闭环境中的妇女有关的干预措施。
39. UNODC, together with the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), drafted the policy brief “HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons and other closed settings: a comprehensive package of interventions”, in which 15 essential interventions for prisons and other closed settings are outlined.39. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室与国际劳工组织(劳工组织)、联合国开发计划署(开发署)、世卫组织和联合国艾滋病毒/艾滋病联合规划署(艾滋病规划署)一道起草了“监狱和其他封闭环境中的艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理:综合干预成套方案”的政策简报,其中概述了15项针对监狱和其他封闭环境的基本干预措施。
The document is aimed at guiding relevant decision makers when planning and implementing responses to HIV in prisons and other closed settings.该文件旨在为相关决策者规划和实施监狱和其他封闭环境中应对艾滋病毒的措施提供指导。
40. UNODC organized the Global Technical Meeting on Stimulant Drug Use and HIV, held in São Paulo, Brazil, from 25 to 27 January 2012, which was attended by leading experts in stimulant use and HIV and representatives from the UNAIDS secretariat, UNDP and civil society.40. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室于2012年1月25日至27日在巴西圣保罗举行了关于兴奋药物使用和艾滋病毒的全球技术会议,兴奋剂使用和艾滋病毒领域的主要专家及来自艾滋病规划署秘书处、开发署和民间社会的代表出席了会议。
The experts recommended a targeted approach to address the unique needs of certain groups of non-injecting drug users, especially those who use crack cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants, as they intersect with HIV prevention, treatment and care.专家建议采取具有针对性的办法,应对某些非注射吸毒群体,特别是吸食快克可卡因和苯丙胺类兴奋剂的吸毒者的独特需求,因为其需求中交织着对艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理的需求。
UNODC contributed to the finalization of the WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS Technical Guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users: 2012 Revision, which contains an expanded framework for assessing the quality of key HIV interventions for people who inject drugs.毒品和犯罪问题办公室帮助对《世卫组织、毒品和犯罪问题办公室和艾滋病署关于各国订立指标向注射吸毒者普及艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理的技术指南:2012年修订本》定稿,其中载有一项经扩大的与注射吸毒者有关的关键艾滋病毒干预措施质量评估框架。
41.
In order to intensify efforts to achieve the targets of the Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS: Intensifying Our Efforts to Eliminate HIV and AIDS (General Assembly resolution 65/277, annex), in particular the target of reducing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs by 50 per cent by 2015, UNODC selected, jointly with global and regional civil society organizations, 24 high-priority countries for the period 2013-2015.41. 为加大努力实现《关于艾滋病毒和艾滋病问题的政治宣言:加大行动力度,消灭艾滋病毒和艾滋病》(大会第65/277号决议,附件)的各项指标,特别是到2015年将注射吸毒者的艾滋病毒传染率降低50%的指标,毒品和犯罪问题办公室联合全球和区域民间社会组织为2012-2015年间选出了24个高度优先的国家。
A joint workplan between UNODC and civil society organizations was developed, which contains specific outputs and deliverables that will contribute to achieving the target.毒品和犯罪问题办公室与民间社会组织制定了一份联合工作计划,其中载有将有助于实现这一目标的具体产出和可兑现的目标。
42.
In its resolution 56/6, entitled “Intensifying the efforts to achieve the targets of the 2011 Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS among people who use drugs, in particular the target to reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs by 50 per cent by 2015”, the Commission strongly requested Member States, in accordance with national legislation, to reinforce the coordination among relevant national authorities, inter alia, health, criminal justice and law enforcement authorities, as well as civil society, and to develop strategies to ensure that HIV prevention, treatment, care and support for people who use drugs, in particular people who inject drugs, are affordable, available and accessible in order to achieve maximum efficiency of those interventions, without stigma or discrimination and while ensuring gender equality.42. 在其题为“加大行动力度,在吸毒者中实现2011年《关于艾滋病毒和艾滋病问题的政治宣言》的各项指标,特别是到2015年将注射吸毒者的艾滋病毒传染率降低50%的指标”的第56/6号决议中,委员会强烈请求会员国按照国家立法加强卫生、刑事司法和执法机关等相关的国家机关及民间社会之间的协调,并制定战略以确保针对吸毒者尤其是注射吸毒者的艾滋病毒预防、治疗、护理和支助服务可负担、可获得和可利用,以便在没有污名或歧视并确保性别平等的条件下实现这些干预措施的最高效率。
V. Supply reduction and related measures五. 减少供应和相关措施
43. UNODC provides technical assistance to requesting Member States to build the capacity of law enforcement and judicial authorities, improve border control and counter the laundering of proceeds of crime.43. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室向提出请求的会员国提供技术援助,以建设执法和司法机关的能力,加强边境管制,以及打击清洗犯罪所得的行为。
Given the close links between drug trafficking and the activities of transnational organized criminal groups, UNODC assistance is based on the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention against Corruption.鉴于贩运毒品与跨国有组织犯罪团伙活动之间联系密切,毒品和犯罪问题办公室的援助基于1988年《联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》和《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》。
Alternative livelihood programmes also serve as an important component in strategies to reduce supply.在减少供应战略中,替代生计方案也是一个重要组成部分。
A. Regional and international cooperation in countering the world drug problem and the principle of common and shared responsibilityA. 区域和国际合作应对世界毒品问题,以及共同和分担的责任原则
44. Through its regional programmes for West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Arab States, and in close partnership with regional mechanisms, including the African Union, UNODC aimed to promote regional cooperation to address the drug problem.44. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室通过其针对西非、东非、南部非洲和阿拉伯国家的区域方案,并与包括非洲联盟在内的区域机制密切合作,旨在促进区域合作应对毒品问题。
Initiatives in that area include: the response to the crisis in the Sahel 2013-2017; the West Africa Coast Initiative (a joint initiative between UNODC, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the Secretariat, the Department of Political Affairs of the Secretariat, the United Nations Office for West Africa and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); and the ongoing establishment of transnational crime units to promote counter-trafficking cooperation among East African countries.该领域的举措包括:应对2013-2017年萨赫勒危机;西非海岸倡议(毒品和犯罪问题办公室、秘书处维持和平行动部、秘书处政治事务部、联合国西非办事处和国际刑事警察组织(国际刑警组织)之间的一项联合倡议);以及正在设立跨国犯罪问题股,以促进东非国家间打击贩运方面的合作。
In its resolution 56/16, entitled “Enhancing international cooperation to strengthen efforts in West Africa to counter illicit drug trafficking”, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs invited UNODC and Member States to continue to provide technical assistance, upon request, to support the Economic Community of West African States and Member States in their efforts to combat drug trafficking.在其题为“加强国际合作,加大在西非打击非法药物贩运的力度”的第56/16号决议中,麻醉药品委员会请毒品和犯罪问题办公室及会员国继续按请求提供技术援助,以支助西非国家经济共同体和会员国在打击毒品贩运方面做出努力。
45. UNODC continues to support the strengthening of national capacities in order to reduce drug demand and drug-related social and health consequences, including in prison settings, in line with international standards and norms.45. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续支助加强国家能力,以根据国际标准和规范减少毒品需求及与毒品有关的社会和健康影响,包括在监狱环境中。
In 2013, as part of a comprehensive programme in Nigeria funded by the European Union, UNODC initiated a project dealing with drug use prevention and treatment and drug trafficking and related organized crime.2013年,作为欧洲联盟资助的尼日利亚综合方案的一部分,毒品和犯罪问题办公室启动了一项涉及预防吸毒和治疗及毒品贩运和相关有组织犯罪的项目。
46. The regional programme framework for East Asia and the Pacific for the period 2009-2012 has been extended to the end of 2013 and the new regional programme for East Asia for the period 2014-2017 is under preparation.46. 2009-2012年间东亚和太平洋区域方案框架已延期至2013年底,新的2014-2017年间东亚和太平洋区域方案正在编制之中。
UNODC continued to participate as an observer in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Senior Officials Meeting on Drug Matters and the ASEAN Senior Officials Meeting on Transnational Crime.毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续作为观察员参加东南亚国家联盟(东盟)毒品问题高级官员会议以及东盟跨国犯罪问题高级官员会议。
UNODC and ASEAN share concerns about worsening regional trends regarding opium and amphetamine-type stimulants.毒品和犯罪问题办公室与东盟都对鸦片和苯丙胺类兴奋剂的区域趋势日益恶化表示关切。
47. UNODC activities in South Asian countries have focused on HIV prevention among drug users, including those in prisons, and on drug law enforcement.47. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室在南亚各国的活动重点是吸毒者(包括狱中)的艾滋病毒预防和禁毒执法。
The Office has established a platform for information exchange and cooperation with the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).该办公室建立了一个与南亚区域合作联盟(南盟)的信息交流和合作平台。
Joint technical cooperation activities were carried out in the areas of drug law enforcement and drug use and HIV prevention in selected SAARC countries.在部分南盟国家开展了禁毒执法及吸毒和艾滋病毒预防领域的联合技术合作活动。
A regional programme for South Asia for the period 2013-2014 was launched in May 2013.2013年5月启动了2013-2014年间南亚区域方案。
48. UNODC continues to provide legal and implementation advice, upon request, with regard to the international drug control framework, which comprises the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the 1988 Convention.48. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续应请求提供与国际毒品管制框架有关的法律和实施咨询意见,这些框架包括经《1972年议定书》修正的《1961年麻醉品单一公约》、《1971年精神药物公约》和《1988年公约》。
In the course of 2012, three additional instruments of ratification or accession to the 1988 Convention were deposited.2012年间,另交存了3份《1988年公约》的批准书和加入书。
UNODC further provided legislative assessment and assistance services in respect of the conventions to five countries in Africa, South-Eastern Europe and South-East Asia.毒品和犯罪问题办公室进一步向非洲、东南欧和东南亚的5个国家提供了与这些公约有关的法律评估和援助服务。
49. Through its regional programme for promoting counter-narcotics efforts in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries for the period 2011-2014, UNODC is continuing its work towards forging a regional response in West and Central Asia by bringing together various activities taking place at the national level in each country.49. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室正通过其2011-2014年间促进阿富汗及其邻国禁毒工作的区域方案,继续致力于在西亚和中亚形成区域对策,具体方法是统筹各国在国家一级开展的各种活动。
The framework covers Afghanistan, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Pakistan and the five Central Asian countries, and is focused on drug control and improved support for cross-regional efforts to counter the Afghan drug trade at the regional level, supporting the objective of enhancing confidence and trust.该框架涵盖阿富汗、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、巴基斯坦及5个中亚国家,重点是毒品管制及加强对跨区域努力的支助,以在区域一级打击阿富汗的毒品贸易,支助实现增强信心和信任的目标。
50. The newly developed interregional drug control approach of UNODC connects its programmes and initiatives to stem the trafficking of drugs originating in Afghanistan.50. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室新制定的区域间毒品管制办法将其相关方案和举措连在一起,遏制源自阿富汗的毒品贩运活动。
The approach fosters enhanced exchange of intelligence, upgraded training capacities, more effective action against drug-related financial flows and money-laundering and expanded maritime cooperation, focusing on connecting the law enforcement-related components of existing programmes and initiatives.该办法侧重于将现有方案和举措的执法相关组成部分结合起来,促进加强了情报交换,提高了培训能力,增强了打击毒品相关资金流动和洗钱活动的有效性,并扩大了海事合作。
51.
The Third Ministerial Conference of the Paris Pact Partners on Combating Illicit Traffic in Opiates Originating in Afghanistan adopted the Vienna Declaration in February 2012 as the framework and road map for enhanced cooperation for all future interventions within four areas: regional initiatives; financial flows linked to illicit traffic in opiates; preventing the diversion of precursor chemicals; and reducing drug abuse and dependence.51. 《巴黎公约》伙伴方打击源自阿富汗的阿片剂非法贩运问题第三次部长级会议于2012年2月通过了《维也纳宣言》,将此作为在以下4个领域今后所有干预措施方面加强合作的框架和路线图:区域举措;与阿片剂非法贩运相关联的资金流动;防止前体化学品转移用途;以及减少药物滥用和依赖性。
The objective of the fourth phase (2013-2016) of the Paris Pact initiative is to demonstrate the results of heightened collaboration among its 78 partners in the above-mentioned four priority areas.《巴黎公约》举措第四阶段(2013-2016年)的目标是展示其78个合作伙伴在上述4个优先领域加强合作所取得的成果。
In its resolution 56/3, entitled “Strengthening international cooperation in combating illicit opiates originating in Afghanistan through continuous and reinforced support to the Paris Pact initiative”, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs reiterated that the Vienna Declaration, including its four main thematic areas, was considered a road map for concrete action and international cooperation under the Paris Pact initiative for the upcoming period.在题为“通过持续且更有力地支持《巴黎公约》举措加强国际合作打击源自阿富汗的非法阿片剂”的第56/3号决议中,麻醉药品委员会重申了《维也纳宣言》,包括其中的四个主要专题领域,被视为今后时期在《巴黎公约》举措下采取具体行动和开展国际合作的路线图。
52. In May 2012, UNODC launched the regional programme for South-Eastern Europe for the period 2012-2015, which will link the work of UNODC in Europe to its work in West and Central Asia and will be a strong platform for countering the trafficking of heroin along the Balkan corridor, which runs from Afghanistan to Western and Central Europe.52. 2012年5月,毒品和犯罪问题办公室启动了2012-2015年间东南欧区域方案,该方案将把该办公室在欧洲的工作同其在西亚和中亚的工作联系在一起,并将成为打击巴尔干走廊沿线海洛因贩运的一个有力平台,海洛因自阿富汗沿该线路流入西欧和中欧。
The underlying principle driving the regional programme is shared responsibility among countries and among different bodies and organizations.推动该区域方案的基本原则是各国及各机构和组织间应分担责任。
53. Since its launch, the regional programme for South-Eastern Europe has undertaken important activities to assist Member States, at their request, in countering drug trafficking, as well as addressing transnational organized crime, corruption, money-laundering and drug abuse.53. 自启动以来,东南欧区域方案开展了重要活动,应会员国的请求,协助其打击毒品贩运,并解决跨国有组织犯罪、腐败、洗钱和药物滥用问题。
54. UNODC established its first liaison and partnership office in Mexico in October 2012.54. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室于2012年10月在墨西哥设立了其第一个联络和伙伴关系办公室。
The second liaison and partnership office was launched in Brazil during the UNODC Executive Director’s visit to the country in May 2013.第二个联络和伙伴关系办公室于2013年5月毒品和犯罪问题办公室执行主任访问巴西期间启动。
Both offices will allow UNODC to focus on the delivery of regional and South-South cooperation, including outside the region.这两个办公室将使毒品和犯罪问题办公室能够把重点放在提供区域和南南合作上,包括在该区域以外。
55. UNODC expects to launch its first regional programme for the Caribbean, for the period 2013-2016, in support of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Crime and Security Strategy 2013.55. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室有望推出其首个2013-2016年间加勒比区域方案,以为加勒比共同体(加共体)2013年犯罪和安全问题战略提供支持。
UNODC is undertaking negotiations with relevant stakeholders in order to develop a new regional programme for Central America, aligned with regional and national policies and priorities, including the Central American Security Strategy of the Central American Integration System.毒品和犯罪问题办公室正与相关的利益攸关方举行谈判,以便根据区域和国家政策和优先事项,包括中美洲一体化体系的中美洲安全战略,制定一项新的中美洲区域方案。
56. The links between trafficking in and misuse of firearms and organized crime, including drug trafficking, are illustrated by, inter alia, the fact that firearms are a lucrative trafficking commodity.56. 枪支是一种利润丰厚的贩运商品,这一事实除其他外说明,枪支贩运和滥用与有组织犯罪(包括毒品贩运)之间存在联系。
Findings derived from crime scene analysis or arms seizures provide a further indication of the possible cause-and-effect relationship between trafficked arms and the crimes committed by organized crime groups or otherwise related to the illicit drug trade.从犯罪现场分析或武器缉获行动中得出的结论进一步表明,武器贩运与有组织犯罪团伙实施的犯罪或与非法药物贸易之间可能存在因果关系。
57. UNODC is developing a study on trafficking in firearms and its links to other cross-border trafficking flows in order to establish possible links to various forms of organized crime.57. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室目前正在就枪支贩运及其同其他跨界贩运流的联系开展研究以确定其与各种有组织犯罪之间可能存在的联系。
The study will enable the production of more reliable and evidence-based information on the dimension and impact of firearms trafficking and on its possible links to various forms of organized crime.该研究将有助于产生枪支贩运的严重程度和影响及其与各种有组织犯罪可能存在的联系的更为可靠且更加循证的信息。
It will assist Member States in enhancing responses to counter trafficking in firearms and related crimes.研究将有助于会员国加强打击枪支贩运及相关犯罪的各项对策。
58. A technical assistance programme addressing the threat of organized crime and trafficking is the joint World Customs Organization and UNODC Container Control Programme, which assists law enforcement agencies in identifying and inspecting high-risk maritime containers through the setting up of profiling units and the implementation of a phased training approach.58. 世界海关组织与毒品和犯罪问题办公室集装箱控制方案联合实施了一项技术援助方案,应对有组织犯罪和贩运带来的各种威胁,该方案将通过建立特征分析股和采用分阶段培训办法,帮助执法机构查明和检查高风险的海上集装箱。
To date, the Programme is operational in 19 Member States and there are plans to expand it significantly in the future.迄今,该方案已在19个会员国运行,计划未来将对其进行大规模推广。
Regional and international cooperation is made possible through ContainerComm, a unique, web-based communication tool that allows encrypted and secured, real-time and standardized communication of data such as warning messages, seizure reports, feedback, alerts and other relevant law enforcement-related information.ContainerComm使区域和国际合作得以开展,这是一种独特的网络通信工具,使得采用加密方法、安全、实时且标准化的交流预警信息、缉获报告、反馈、警报等数据以及其他执法相关信息成为可能。
B. Sustainable crop control strategies targeting the illicit cultivation of crops used for the production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substancesB. 针对非法种植麻醉药品和精神药物生产所用作物的可持续作物控制战略
59. UNODC focused its work on addressing illicit crop cultivation through development-oriented drug control programmes in Afghanistan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Colombia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Peru.59. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室的工作重点是在阿富汗、多民族玻利维亚国、哥伦比亚、老挝人民民主共和国、缅甸和秘鲁通过以发展为导向的药物管制方案,解决非法作物种植问题。
60. In Colombia and Peru, UNODC alternative development programmes improved the social and economic situation of families in specific coca bush-growing areas through farmer-led small business enterprises, which were able to increase revenues on the international markets.60. 在哥伦比亚和秘鲁,毒品和犯罪问题办公室的替代发展方案通过农民领导的小型商业企业,改善了特定古柯树种植地区家庭的社会经济状况,这种企业能够增加在国际市场上的收入。
In Peru alone, exports of products stemming from alternative development amounted to more than $150 million in 2012.2012年,仅秘鲁源自替代发展的产品出口总额就超过了1.5亿美元。
61. A significant role was played by Peru in promoting best practices and lessons learned from alternative development programmes, based on the country’s extensive expertise in that regard.61. 秘鲁根据其在替代发展方面拥有的广泛专门知识,在推广良好做法和从替代发展方案中汲取的经验教训过程中发挥了重要作用。
Peru hosted a visit from the Government of Afghanistan, during which the delegation travelled to UNODC alternative development project sites in the Huánuco region, to learn about the successes and challenges of the programmes and to explore potential South-South cooperation.秘鲁接待了阿富汗政府代表团的访问,其间该代表团前往瓦努科区域毒品和犯罪问题办公室替代发展项目现场参观,了解了这些方案的成功经验和面临的挑战,并探讨了开展南南合作的可能性。
62. In the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the focus of the programmes was to generate jobs and legitimate income through productive forestry and agroforestry practices and to halt the deterioration in natural resources resulting from coca monoculture.62. 在多民族玻利维亚国,方案的重点是通过生产性林业和农林业做法创造工作岗位和合法收入,并制止古柯单一种植造成的自然资源状况恶化。
63. In Myanmar, UNODC alternative development programmes targeted the improvement of food security in opium poppy-growing communities.63. 在缅甸,毒品和犯罪问题办公室替代发展方案旨在改善罂粟种植社区的粮食安全状况。
The programmes promoted advanced farming practices and the diversification of income-generating activities.该方案推广了先进的耕作做法,并促进了创收活动的多样化。
A first general assessment of the situation in Shan State was undertaken in February 2013 to evaluate the scope of the long-term technical assistance required to address opium poppy cultivation.首次掸邦状况总体评估于2013年2月开展,以评价解决罂粟种植问题所需的长期技术援助的范围。
64.
In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, UNODC, in cooperation with the Royal Project Foundation and the Highland Research and Development Institute of Thailand, provided technical assistance to opium poppy-growing communities on innovative technology in agriculture, which enabled the improvement of food security and increased the annual cash income of villages.64. 在老挝人民民主共和国,毒品和犯罪问题办公室与泰国的皇家项目基金会和山地研究与发展研究所合作,为罂粟种植社区提供了农业创新技术方面的技术援助,这帮助改善了粮食安全状况,并增加了各村每年的现金收入。
65. With a view to fostering international cooperation based on the principles of shared responsibility and an integrated and balanced approach, the high-level International Conference on Alternative Development was held in Lima from 14 to 16 November 2012, as follow-up to the International Seminar Workshop on Sustainable Alternative Development, held in Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai, Thailand, from 6 to 12 November 2011.65. 为在分担的责任原则及综合和平衡方法的基础上促进国际合作,2012年11月14日至16日在利马举行了替代发展问题高级别国际会议,将此作为2011年11月6日至12日在清莱和清迈举行的可持续替代发展问题国际研讨讲习班的后续行动。
The outcome of the Conference was the adoption of the Lima Declaration on Alternative Development and the International Guiding Principles on Alternative Development, which contain both policy and technical guidance for Member States and international organizations on alternative development.会议的成果是通过《替代发展问题利马宣言》和《替代发展国际指导原则》,其中载有提供给会员国和国际组织的与替代发展有关的政策和技术指导。
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs, at its fifty-sixth session, recommended to the Economic and Social Council the approval of the Guiding Principles for adoption by the General Assembly.麻醉药品委员会在其第五十六届会议上建议经济及社会理事会核准《指导原则》,供大会通过。
VI. Countering money-laundering and promoting judicial cooperation六. 打击洗钱活动和促进司法合作
66. UNODC staff, based both at headquarters and in the field, provided training on countering money-laundering and the financing of terrorism, as well as capacity-building and mentoring, to a range of countries in 2012, through the UNODC Global Programme against Money-Laundering, Proceeds of Crime and the Financing of Terrorism.66. 2012年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室总部和外地的工作人员通过毒品和犯罪问题办公室打击洗钱、犯罪所得和资助恐怖主义行为全球方案,向多个国家提供了打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义行为及能力建设和辅导方面的培训。
The Office provided long-term assistance in the development of viable regimes to counter money-laundering and the financing of terrorism to 43 countries in nine subregions through the delivery of training; international conferences, in partnership with other agencies and organizations, where possible; and substantive legal reviews.在制定可行的打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义行为的制度方面,该办公室通过提供培训,在可能的情况下与其他机构和组织合作举行国际会议,以及开展实质性法律审查,向43个国家提供了长期援助。
67.
UNODC prepared and delivered tailored training to the staff of financial intelligence units, law enforcement authorities, customs and border control agencies, and judicial authorities in practical and operational aspects of countering money-laundering and the financing of terrorism, such as the conduct of financial analysis and investigations, the prevention of cash smuggling, criminal asset confiscation and management, and the prosecution of money-laundering and other financial crimes.67. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室为金融情报股、执法机关、海关和边境管制机构以及司法机关的工作人员筹办并提供了有针对性的培训,培训涉及打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义行为的实际和业务方面,如开展金融分析和调查、预防现金走私、没收和管理犯罪资产以及起诉洗钱和其他金融犯罪。
Field-based mentors in West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Central Asia (until July 2012) and the Mekong subregion provided hands-on, tailored mentoring and guidance to authorities in the countries of their areas of responsibility.西非、东非、南部非洲、中亚(直到2012年7月)和湄公河次区域的外地专家导师为其责任区内各国的有关机关提供了手把手且有针对性的辅导和指导。
The Office continued providing support to the Asset Recovery Network of the Financial Action Task Force of South America against Money-Laundering, as well as the Asset Recovery Inter-Agency Network for Southern Africa.该办公室继续为南美洲反洗钱金融行动工作队资产追回网络及南部非洲资产追回问题机构间网络提供支助。
It also worked with Member States in Asia Pacific and in West Africa to begin the creation of similar networks in those subregions.它还与亚洲—太平洋和西非的会员国一道着手在这些次区域建立类似网络。
68. UNODC participated in conferences and workshops on the topics of illicit financial flows from Afghan opiates, as part of its work under the Paris Pact initiative, and on illicit financial flows from piracy off the coast of Somalia in association with partners such as the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, the World Bank and INTERPOL.68. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室作为其在《巴黎公约》举措下开展的工作的一部分,参加了关于阿富汗阿片剂活动产生的非法资金流动专题的会议和讲习班,并与索马里沿海海盗问题联络小组、世界银行和国际刑警组织等合作伙伴一道参加了关于索马里沿海海盗活动产生的非法资金流的会议和讲习班。
The Office also conducted legal reviews and provided assistance to enhance legal and regulatory frameworks in four countries and continued to support the International Money Laundering Information Network (IMoLIN) (www.imolin.org) and its Anti-Money Laundering International Database.该办公室还在4个国家开展了法律审查,并提供了援助,以加强其法律和管制框架,并且继续为国际洗钱信息网(www.imolin.org)及其反洗钱问题国际数据库提供支助。
VII. Data collection and research七. 数据收集与研究
69. UNODC continued to support countries in improving data availability and developed a set of training materials for the annual report questionnaire, which were used to build the capacity of experts from Central Asia and Oceania.69. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续支持各国提高数据可用率,并为年度报告调查表编制了一套培训材料,这些材料已用于建设中亚和大洋洲专家的能力。
Expert advice was also provided on drug use surveys and drug monitoring systems in West Africa and Pakistan.在西非和巴基斯坦还提供了关于毒品用量调查和毒品监测系统的专家意见。
70. UNODC continued to assist various Governments in the monitoring of illicit crops and production of drugs.70. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续协助各国政府监测非法作物和毒品生产情况。
In 2012, technical support was provided to Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in monitoring coca bush cultivation, to the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar in monitoring opium poppy cultivation and to Afghanistan and Mexico in monitoring opium poppy and cannabis cultivation.2012年提供了以下技术支持:在多民族玻利维亚国、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔和秘鲁监测古柯树种植,在老挝人民民主共和国和缅甸监测罂粟种植以及在阿富汗和墨西哥监测罂粟和大麻种植。
71. The 2013 edition of the World Drug Report provides an overview of recent trends and the current situation in terms of illicit production and trafficking, as well as consumption and health-related consequences of drug use, as measured by treatment for drug dependence, drug-related morbidity and drug-related deaths.71. 《世界毒品报告》的2013年版概述了非法生产和贩运方面的近期趋势和现状,以及毒品消费情况和吸毒对健康造成的相关后果,如从药物依赖治疗、与毒品有关的发病率和与毒品有关的死亡方面来衡量。
The report contains a discussion of the phenomenon of new psychoactive substances, which have dynamic, fast-mutating producers and “product lines” that have emerged over the past decade, as well as suggestions for an early warning system and options for control mechanisms for such substances at different levels.报告讨论了新型精神活性物质的现象,这种物质在最近十年出现了生产商和“生产线”灵活多变特点,报告还载有与预警系统有关的各项建议,以及针对各级的此类物质管制机制的备选办法。
72. UNODC published a report entitled Misuse of Licit Trade for Opiate Trafficking in Western and Central Asia: A Threat Assessment, which has been used by law enforcement institutions, policymakers, researchers and the general public.72. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室发布了题为“西亚和中亚合法贸易被滥用于阿片剂贩运:威胁评估”的报告,该报告已被执法机构、决策者、研究人员和大众所用。
73. In 2011, UNODC initiated research on the market for cannabis seeds for illicit purposes, paying particular attention to trade over the Internet.73. 2011年,毒品和犯罪问题办公室开始研究用于非法目的的大麻籽市场,特别关注通过互联网进行的交易。
UNODC reported to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its fifty-sixth session on the preliminary results of the market study undertaken, which showed the different roles that cannabis seeds play in the cultivation and production of cannabis.毒品和犯罪问题办公室向麻醉药品委员会第五十六届会议报告了开展市场研究的初步结果,结果显示了大麻籽在大麻种植和生产方面起了各种作用。
The report also provides a broad picture of the major flows and the driving forces of the related markets.报告还概括介绍了主要流动及相关市场驱动力量的大概情况。
74. Monitoring the illicit manufacture of, trafficking in and use of ATS is a challenge for many Governments, and functional systems for monitoring them are largely located in developed countries.74. 对于许多国家政府来说,监测非法制造、贩运和使用苯丙胺类兴奋剂是一个巨大挑战。
运行正常的苯丙胺类兴奋剂监测系统主要分布在发达国家。
The UNODC global Synthetics Monitoring: Analysis, Reporting and Trends (SMART) programme continued to provide regular reports on emerging patterns and trends in the fast-changing global synthetic drugs situation.毒品和犯罪问题办公室的全球“合成药物监测:分析、报告和趋势”方案继续提供关于快速变化的全球合成药物情况的新增模式和趋势的定期报告。
In June 2012, the global SMART programme presented a situation report on ATS in West Africa, which warned of an increase in their trafficking, manufacture and use.2012年6月,全球“合成药物监测:分析、报告和趋势”方案提供了关于西非苯丙胺类兴奋剂的情况报告,其中警告说,此类物质的贩运、制造和使用出现增长。
In the Accra declaration, annexed to Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 56/2, Governments were encouraged to review the training, equipment and preparedness of their law enforcement authorities to be able to respond to the threat posed by ATS and their illicit manufacture and the competent national authorities of States participating in meetings of the Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Africa, were urged to share information on the ATS phenomenon with UNODC through, inter alia, its global SMART programme.麻醉药品委员会第56/2号决议所附的《阿克拉宣言》鼓励各国政府审查其执法机关的培训、装备和准备情况,以便能够应对苯丙胺类兴奋剂及其非法制造所造成的威胁,并促请非洲各国禁毒执法机构负责人会议与会国的国家主管机关除其他外通过其全球“合成药物监测:分析、报告和趋势”方案,与毒品和犯罪问题办公室共享与苯丙胺类兴奋剂现象有关的信息。
75. UNODC efforts to enhance the analytical capacity of drug analysis laboratories to meet internationally accepted standards included developing and making available new manuals and guidelines on procedural approaches, methods for forensic analysis and laboratory best practices.75. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室为加强药物分析实验室的分析能力以符合国际公认的标准做出了各种努力,其中包括编制并提供与程序方法、法医分析方法和实验室最佳做法有关的新手册和准则。
The significant increase in the number of national drug testing laboratories participating in the international collaborative exercises, an important part of the UNODC international quality assurance programme, demonstrates the increased awareness of benefits of the programme and the need for such support to assure the quality of test results.参与国际协作活动——毒品和犯罪问题办公室国际质量保证方案的一个重要组成部分——的国家药物检测实验室的数目大增,这表明对方案带来的好处的认识有所提高,并表明需要获得此类支助,以保证检测结果的质量。
This was achieved through collaboration with regional laboratory networks and the execution of regional programmes with a drug analysis component.这是通过与区域实验室网络进行协作并实行载有药物分析组成部分的区域方案实现的。
VIII. Governance and financial situation of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime八. 联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室的治理和财务状况
76. The updated strategy for the period 2012-2015 for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was developed in consultation with Member States at meetings of the standing open-ended intergovernmental working group on improving the governance and financial situation of UNODC.76. 在改进毒品和犯罪问题办公室治理和财务状况问题不限成员名额常设政府间工作组的会议上,与会员国协商制定了联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室2012-2015年间最新战略。
The strategy provides the overarching political vision for UNODC and is implemented through the strategic frameworks for 2012-2013 and 2014-2015.该战略为毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供了总体的政治愿景,并通过2012-2013年和2014-2015年战略框架来执行。
UNODC is engaged in efforts to institutionalize results-based management and continues to engage with all stakeholders in discussions on the post-2015 development framework with a view to highlighting the links between development, justice and security and to creating a shared technical understanding of issues related to monitoring those areas.毒品和犯罪问题办公室积极参与,努力使成果管理制制度化,并继续在2015年后发展框架的讨论中与所有利益攸关方接触,以突显发展、公正与安全之间的联系,并在技术上对与监测这些领域有关的问题达成共识。
77. UNODC engages in technical cooperation pursuant to its integrated programming approach, comprising thematic and regional programmes, which provide a normative, policy and operational framework for thematic priorities and reflect regional priorities and strategies.77. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室根据其综合方案编制方法开展技术合作,该方法由专题方案和区域方案组成,提供与专题优先事项有关的规范、政策和业务框架,并反映区域优先事项和战略。
The regional programmes, complemented by country programmes in selected locations, are developed in close consultation with and endorsed by regional entities and partner countries.区域方案由一些地点的国家方案来补充,是与区域实体和伙伴国密切协商制定的,并获得了其核可。
Those programmes facilitate collaboration with the United Nations Development Group regional teams, the United Nations country teams and related United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks, thus providing opportunities for joint programming between UNODC and its partners.这些方案便利同联合国发展集团区域小组、联合国国家工作队及相关联合国发展援助框架协作,因此为毒品和犯罪问题办公室同其合作伙伴进行联合方案编制提供了机会。
78. In its technical assistance work, UNODC continued joining forces and strengthening coordination with other agencies and organizations.78. 在其技术援助工作方面,毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续联合各种力量,并加强同其他机构和组织的协调。
The Office cooperated with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) to mainstream human rights into its programmes and activities, in line with its internal guidance note on the promotion and protection of human rights, and to implement the human rights due diligence policy on United Nations support to non-United Nations security forces.该办公室与联合国人权事务高级专员办事处(人权高专办)合作,根据其促进和保护人权的内部指导说明将人权纳入了其方案和活动主流,并实施了关于联合国向非联合国安全部队提供支持的人权尽职政策。
In its capacity as co-chair of the United Nations system task force on transnational organized crime and drug trafficking as threats to security and stability, UNODC advanced the implementation of system-wide initiatives aimed at ensuring comprehensive and holistic responses.毒品和犯罪问题办公室以联合国系统威胁安全与稳定的跨国有组织犯罪和毒品贩运问题工作队共同主席的身份,推动实施了旨在确保做出全面和整体应对的全系统举措。
79. UNODC made major progress in establishing an office-wide evaluation culture.79. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室在整个机构创建评价文化方面取得了重大进展。
Its Independent Evaluation Unit completed four in-depth evaluations of strategic importance to Member States and UNODC in relation to the integrated programming approach, in addition to the backstopping of 48 project evaluations and 21 participatory self-evaluations.除为48项项目评价和21项参与性自我评价提供支助外,其独立评价股还完成了与综合性方案编制方法对会员国及毒品和犯罪问题办公室的战略意义有关的4项深入评价。
Further progress included training of staff on evaluation management; recruitment of an Evaluation Officer in Kabul; and the development of all key evaluation normative tools, a website, a tool for participatory self-evaluations, a database of international evaluation consultants, and an evaluation portal and tracking system of evaluation recommendations, which is soon to be finalized.其他进展包括对工作人员开展评价管理培训;在喀布尔征聘了一名评价干事;以及开发了所有关键的评价规范工具、一个网站、一个参与性自我评价工具、一个国际评价顾问数据库,以及一个评价门户网站和评价建议跟踪系统,该系统即将完成。
80. The financial situation of UNODC remained vulnerable.80. 毒品和犯罪问题办公室的财务状况依然脆弱。
Less than 1 per cent of the regular budget of the United Nations is allocated to the Office.联合国经常预算给该办公室的拨款不到1%。
Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/233, the Secretary-General submitted proposals in his proposed programme budget for 2012-2013 to ensure that UNODC would have sufficient resources.按照大会第65/233号决议,秘书长在其2012-2013年拟议方案概算中提交了提案,确保毒品和犯罪问题办公室有充足的资源。
As a result, the Assembly approved a small increase of $1.7 million under section 16 of the regular budget, from $39.2 million in the biennium 2010-2011 to $40.9 million in the biennium 2012-2013.因此,大会核准了经常预算第16款下数额为170万美元的小幅增资,从2010-2011两年期的3,920万美元增至2012-2013两年期的4,090万美元。
The consolidated budget for the biennium 2012-2013 for UNODC, as revised, is $617.8 million, of which 13.6 per cent comes from regular budget funds (and includes regular budget resources under sections 1, 16, 23 and 29F of the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2012-2013) and $533.7 million from extrabudgetary resources.经订正的毒品和犯罪问题办公室2012-2013两年期合并预算数额为6.178亿美元,其中有13.6%来自经常预算资金(并且包括2012-2013两年期拟议方案预算第1、第16、第23和第29F款所载的经常预算资源),有5.337亿美元来自预算外资源。
Moreover, low levels of non-earmarked or soft-earmarked funding represent key challenges to the effective implementation of UNODC mandates and programmes and put a strain on management, coordination and normative functions.此外,非专用供资或未硬性指定用途的供资数额偏低,是有效执行工发组织任务授权和方案的主要挑战,并给管理、协调和规范职能造成了压力。
IX.
Assessing progress made in the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem九. 评估会员国在落实《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》方面取得的进展
81. As reflected in the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, Member States decided that the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, at its fifty-seventh session, in 2014, should conduct a high-level review of the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and its Plan of Action.81. 如《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》中所述,会员国决定麻醉药品委员会2014年第五十七届会议对会员国执行《政治宣言》及其《行动计划》情况进行一次高级别审议。
82. In its resolution 67/193, the General Assembly decided to convene, early in 2016, a special session of the Assembly on the world drug problem, which would review the progress in the implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action, including an assessment of the achievements and challenges in countering the world drug problem, within the framework of the three international drug control conventions and other relevant United Nations instruments.82. 大会第67/193号决议决定将在2016年初召开一届关于世界毒品问题的大会特别会议,此次会议将在三项国际药物管制公约以及联合国其他相关文书框架内审查《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》的落实进展,包括评估在对付世界毒品问题上取得的成就和遇到的挑战。
The Secretary-General welcomes this discussion as it is clear that we are facing great challenges and several Member States have expressed an interest in having a renewed debate over how to best address the world drug problem.秘书长对这样一次讨论表示欢迎,显然,国际社会面临着严重的挑战,有些会员国表示乐于见到就如何才能最好地处理世界毒品问题重开辩论。
This provides an opportunity for Member States to exchange ideas and experiences on what has, and has not worked in the fight against drugs and crime and engage in an open and comprehensive discussion on this important issue.这将成为一次机会,会员国能借以交流看法和经验,看看在打击毒品和犯罪方面有哪些成功和不成功,并就这个重要问题开展公开和全面的讨论。
83. At its fifty-sixth session, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs adopted resolution 56/12, entitled “Preparations for the high-level review of the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem”.83. 麻醉药品委员会第五十六届会议通过了题为“会员国落实《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》情况高级别审议会议的筹备工作”的第56/12号决议。
In that resolution the Commission decided that the high-level review should be held during its fifty-seventh session, for a period of two days, in addition to the five days usually scheduled for the regular sessions of the Commission, and that it should consist of a general debate on progress achieved and challenges in implementing the Political Declaration and Plan of Action and round-table discussions on the three pillars of the Plan of Action.在此项决议中,委员会决定高级别审议应在其第五十七届会议期间举行,为期两天,在通常为委员会常会安排的五天之外,并决定审议应包括关于落实《政治宣言和行动计划》方面取得的进展和遇到的挑战的一般性辩论和关于《行动计划》三个支柱的圆桌讨论会。
84. In the same resolution, the Commission resolved that a brief joint ministerial statement should be issued at the conclusion of the high-level review, identifying, on the basis of the review of the progress made in the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action, achievements, challenges and priorities for further action, in the framework of the three international drug control conventions and other relevant United Nations instruments.84. 在同一决议中,委员会议定高级别审议结束时应发表一项部长级简要联合声明,在对会员国落实《政治宣言和行动计划》方面取得的进展进行审议的基础上,在三项国际毒品管制公约和其他相关联合国文书的框架内确定成就、挑战和进一步行动的优先事项。
85. The Commission also resolved that the outcome of the high-level review should be submitted to the General Assembly for its consideration, in view of, inter alia, the special session of the Assembly on the world drug problem to be held in 2016.85. 委员会还议定鉴于除其他外将于2016年举行大会关于世界毒品问题的特别会议,高级别审议的成果应提交大会审议。
86.
Also in its resolution 56/12, the Commission recommended to the Assembly that the Commission, as the central policymaking body within the United Nations system dealing with drug-related matters, play its leading role in the preparatory process for the special session of the Assembly on the world drug problem to be convened in early 2016, including by presenting its proposals, through the Economic and Social Council, regarding progress made in the implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action.86. 委员会还在其第56/12号决议中建议大会确定委员会作为联合国系统处理毒品相关事项的中央决策机构,在将于2016年初期召开的大会世界毒品问题特别会议的筹备进程中发挥牵头作用,包括通过经济及社会理事会就落实《政治宣言和行动计划》方面取得的进展提出建议。
87. The General Assembly is expected to define the envisaged outcome of the special session on the world drug problem, including the format and content of that outcome.87. 预计大会将确定关于世界毒品问题的特别会议的预期成果,其中包括成果的形式和内容。
88. The Assembly is also expected to further specify preparations for the special session, particularly with regard to the role that the Commission on Narcotic Drugs is envisaged to play in those preparations.88. 还预计大会将进一步具体确定特别会议的筹备工作,尤其是麻醉药品委员会预计将在这些筹备工作中发挥的作用。
The Assembly may decide that the Commission is to be established as a preparatory body for the special session, as was the case for the special session of the General Assembly on the world drug problem held in 1998.同1998年举行的关于世界毒品问题的大会特别会议一样,大会可能决定麻醉药品委员会作为特别会议的筹备机构。
X. Recommendations十. 建议
89. It is recommended that the General Assembly consider taking the following actions:89. 建议大会考虑采取下列行动:
(a) Urge Member States that have not yet done so to adhere to the drug control conventions, and urge all States to fully implement all the provisions of the conventions, including with regard to effective regulatory controls and provision of information, in accordance with the conventions and the relevant resolutions of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly;(a) 促请尚未恪守药物管制公约的会员国恪守有关公约,并促请所有国家按照各公约和麻醉药品委员会、经济及社会理事会和大会的相关决议全面执行所有公约规定,包括与有效监管和提供信息有关的规定;
(b) Urge Member States to take, in a timely manner, the measures necessary to implement the actions and attain the goals and targets set out in the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, adopted by the General Assembly at its sixty-fourth session;(b) 促请各会员国及时采取必要措施,实施大会第六十四届会议通过的《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》所列各项行动并实现其中规定的目标和具体目标;
(c) Encourage Member States to give special consideration to the linkages between international drug control and development, especially in the context of preparations for the post-2015 development agenda;(c) 鼓励各会员国,尤其是在筹备2015年后发展议程背景下,特别考虑国际药物管制与发展之间的联系;
(d) Urge Member States to continue to actively cooperate with the International Narcotics Control Board in the exercise of its mandate and to ensure that an appropriate level of resources is made available to the Board to enable it to engage with Governments to effectively monitor compliance by States with the drug control conventions;(d) 促请各会员国继续与国际麻醉品管制局积极合作,执行其授权任务,确保向麻管局提供适当水平的资源,使其能与各国政府一起有效监测各国遵守药物管制公约的情况;
Demand reduction and related measures减少需求和相关措施
(e) Urge Member States to renew their efforts to increase the coverage of interventions to prevent drug use and to increase access to services for the treatment, care and rehabilitation of people suffering from drug dependence that are based on scientific evidence, gender-responsiveness, human rights and the dignity of the patients;(e) 促请各会员国继续努力扩大干预措施覆盖面,以防止吸毒,增加药物依赖人员获得基于科学证据、对性别平等问题有敏感认识、人权和病人尊严的治疗、护理和康复服务的机会;
(f) Request UNODC, taking into consideration the International Standards on Drug Use Prevention and the efforts made with WHO in the framework of the joint programme on drug dependence treatment and care, to continue gathering information on national and international experiences and best practices on drug prevention, treatment, care and rehabilitation, to make available information on activities and instruments based on scientific evidence and to provide States with guidance and assistance in developing strategies and programmes to incorporate those successful experiences;(f) 请毒品和犯罪问题办公室考虑到《关于预防吸毒的国际标准》及世卫组织在药物依赖治疗和护理联合方案框架方面做出的努力,继续收集关于药物预防、治疗、护理和康复方面的国家及国际经验和最佳做法的信息,提供基于科学证据的活动及文书信息以及向各国提供制定战略和方案方面的指导和援助,以纳入这些成功经验;
(g) Invite Member States to ensure that adequate access to HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs, in particular people who inject drugs, includes providing the nine core interventions contained in the WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS Technical Guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users: 2012 Revision as appropriate, without stigma or discrimination and while ensuring gender equality;(g) 请各会员国确保向吸毒者,特别是注射吸毒者充分提供艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理服务,包括在没有污名或歧视并确保性别平等的条件下,酌情提供《世卫组织、毒品和犯罪问题办公室、艾滋病规划署关于各国订立指标向注射吸毒者普及艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理的技术指南:2012年修订本》所载的9项核心干预措施;
(h) Invite Member States to ensure that adequate access to HIV prevention, treatment and care for people in prisons and other closed settings includes providing the 15 core interventions outlined in the UNODC, ILO, UNDP, WHO and UNAIDS policy brief “HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons and other closed settings: a comprehensive package of interventions” as appropriate, without stigma or discrimination and while ensuring gender equality;(h) 请各会员国确保向监狱和其他封闭环境中的人员充分提供艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理服务,包括在没有污名或歧视并确保性别平等的条件下,酌情提供世卫组织、毒品和犯罪问题办公室和艾滋病规划署关于“监狱和其他封闭环境中的艾滋病毒预防、治疗和护理:综合干预措施成套方案”的政策简报所列的15项核心干预措施;
Supply reduction and related measures减少供应和相关措施
(i) Encourage Member States to review their national legislation to ensure that drug law enforcement authorities are empowered to deal with new challenges presented by pre-precursor substances, non-controlled licit chemicals and the emergence of new psychoactive substances that are sourced by drug traffickers;(i) 鼓励各会员国审查本国立法,以确保其禁毒执法机关能够处理前体物质、非管制合法化学品以及贩毒分子从某些来源获得的新的精神活性物质的出现所造成的新难题;
(j) Call upon Member States to encourage their law enforcement authorities and prosecutorial services to cooperate with their counterparts in foreign jurisdictions in order to investigate, arrest and prosecute transnational criminal organizations, including drug trafficking networks;(j) 吁请各会员国鼓励其执法机关和检察部门与外国法域的对应机关开展合作,以调查、逮捕和起诉跨国有组织犯罪组织,包括毒品贩运网络;
(k) Call upon Member States to enhance drug law enforcement capabilities in order to carry out forensic analysis of seized drugs and precursor chemicals to support the successful investigation and prosecution of those persons responsible for their trafficking;(k) 吁请各会员国加强禁毒能力,以对缉获的毒品和前体化学品进行法医分析,从而为成功调查和起诉这些贩运行为的责任人提供支持;
(l) Encourage Member States to design alternative development programmes in line with the International Guiding Principles on Alternative Development to ensure that both a reduction in illicit crop cultivation and an improvement in social and economic conditions in target areas are achieved;(l) 鼓励各会员国根据《替代发展国际指导原则》制定替代发展方案,以确保减少非法作物种植,并改善目标区域的社会经济条件;
(m) Encourage Member States to facilitate market access for products stemming from alternative development to contribute to long-term legitimate income generation for small farming communities;(m) 鼓励各会员国便利源自替代发展的产品的市场准入,以帮助为小农社区创造长期的合法收入;
Countering money-laundering and promoting judicial cooperation打击洗钱活动和推动开展司法合作
(n) Request Member States to fully implement and enforce legal and regulatory frameworks to prevent money-laundering and illicit financial flows and to confiscate and recover illicit assets, in compliance with United Nations conventions and internationally accepted standards;(n) 请各会员国充分实施并执行法律和监管框架,以遵照有关的联合国公约和国际公认的标准防止洗钱和非法资金流动,并没收和追回非法资产;
(o) Request Member States to ensure sufficient domestic legislative frameworks to criminalize the laundering of money derived from drug trafficking, precursor diversion and other serious crimes of a transnational nature;(o) 请各会员国确保有适当的国内法律框架,以将毒品贩运、前体转移和其他跨国性质严重犯罪所得的洗钱行为确定为犯罪;
(p) Request Member States to strengthen financial and regulatory regimes for banks and non-bank financial institutions, and for designated non-financial business and professional entities;(p) 请各会员国加强针对银行、非银行金融机构和指定的非金融性企业与专业机构的金融和监管制度;
(q) Request Member States to implement effective detection, investigation, prosecution and conviction measures for money-laundering and related crimes;(q) 请各会员国针对洗钱及相关犯罪,实施有效的侦查、调查、起诉和定罪措施;
(r) Invite Member States to promote effective cooperation in strategies for countering money-laundering and in conducting money-laundering cases by strengthening mechanisms for domestic inter-agency coordination and information-sharing as well as regional and international networks for the exchange of operational information among competent authorities, in particular financial intelligence units;(r) 请各会员国通过加强国内机构间协调与信息共享机制,并通过加强主管机构特别是金融情报部门之间的业务情报交流区域和国际网络,促进打击洗钱战略和洗钱案件中的有效合作;
(s) Encourage Member States to make use of the tools to combat money-laundering and the financing of terrorism developed by UNODC, such as the model laws and IMoLIN;(s) 鼓励会员国利用毒品和犯罪问题办公室开发的各项打击洗钱和资助恐怖主义的工具,如示范法和国际洗钱信息网;
Data collection and research数据收集与研究
(t) Reiterate that the information available on illicit drug trends from many subregions and countries remains incomplete and is therefore insufficient for providing a sound base for analysis, supporting evidence-informed policy development or measuring the progress made in addressing the world drug situation;(t) 重申源自许多次区域和国家的非法药物趋势的现有信息仍欠全面,因此不足以为分析、支持制定以证据为依据的政策,或者衡量在应对世界毒品形势方面取得的进展提供良好依据;
(u) Urge Member States to report data and information related to illicit drug trends through mandated data-collection tools, the annual report questionnaire and the individual drug seizure reports, regularly and in a timely manner to UNODC;(u) 促请各会员国通过授权的数据收集工具、年度报告调查表和缉毒个案报告定期并及时向毒品和犯罪问题办公室报告与非法药物趋势有关的数据和信息;
(v) Invite the Commission on Narcotics Drugs to strengthen the capacity of UNODC to collect, analyse and disseminate accurate, reliable, objective and comparable data through mandated data-collection tools and other regional and international mechanisms, and for UNODC to reflect such information in the reports to the Commission and in the World Drug Report;(v) 请麻醉药品委员会增强毒品和犯罪问题办公室的能力,以通过授权的数据收集工具及其他区域和国际机制收集、分析和传播准确、可靠、客观和可比较的数据,并请毒品和犯罪问题办公室在向委员会提交的报告和《世界毒品报告》中体现这些信息;
(w) Request UNODC to support Member States that lack the capacity to collect accurate, reliable and comparable data and information on illicit drug production, trafficking and use, with a view to increasing their capacity to provide information through mandated data-collection tools, and urge Member States to support UNODC in this work;(w) 请毒品和犯罪问题办公室为在收集非法药物生产、贩运和使用的准确、可靠和可比较数据方面缺乏相关能力的国家提供支助,以便提高其通过授权的数据工具提供信息的能力,并促请各会员国支持毒品和犯罪问题办公室的这一工作;
(x) Request UNODC to continue to assist Member States in the collection of information and monitoring of emerging trends in the composition, production and distribution of new psychoactive substances, as well as patterns of use of those substances, and to encourage Member States to share relevant data and information with regard to patterns of use, risks to public health, forensic data and the regulation of new psychoactive substances;(x) 请毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续协助各会员国收集信息,监测新型精神活性物质的成份、生产和销售方面的新趋势以及这些物质的使用方式,并鼓励各会员国分享与使用方式、对公共健康带来的风险、法医数据和新型精神活性物质管制有关的数据和信息;
(y) Encourage UNODC to continue to support the work of drug-testing and forensic laboratories and their efforts to implement best-practice procedures and standardized approaches, and to assist them in monitoring their performance on a global scale, thus facilitating the exchange of forensic information and data worldwide;(y) 鼓励毒品和犯罪问题办公室继续支助药物检测和法医实验室的工作,以及其为采用最佳做法程序和标准化做法所做的各种努力,并协助它们在全球范围监测其业绩情况,从而便利在世界各地交流法医信息和数据;
Governance and financial situation of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室的治理和财务状况
(z) Encourage Member States to continue to actively participate in the standing open-ended intergovernmental working group on improving the governance and financial situation of UNODC;(z) 鼓励各会员国继续积极参加改进毒品和犯罪问题办公室治理和财务状况问题不限成员名额常设政府间工作组;
(aa) Urge Member States to continue to support the work of the Independent Evaluation Unit;(aa) 促请各会员国继续支持独立评价股的工作;
(bb) Urge Member States to address, as a matter of urgency, the need to provide UNODC with adequate, predictable and stable resources, including additional regular budget resources, to enable it to implement its mandated work in a sustainable manner, and to provide UNODC the necessary voluntary contributions, preferably non-earmarked or soft-earmarked, to enable the Office to effectively respond to the increasing demand for technical assistance and to expand and consolidate its technical cooperation with regional bodies and partner countries worldwide;(bb) 促请各会员国,作为一个紧迫事项,解决向毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供充足、可预测和稳定资源的需要,包括追加经常预算资源,使其能够以可持续方式开展其授权工作,并向毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供必要的自愿捐款,最好是非专用或未硬性指定用途的捐款,以使该办公室能够有效应对日益增加的技术援助需求,并扩大和加强其同世界各地区域机构和伙伴国的技术合作;
Preparations for the special session of the General Assembly on the world drug problem to be held in 2016将于2016年举行的世界毒品问题大会特别会议的筹备
(cc) Encourage Member States to actively participate in the Commission on Narcotic Drugs high-level review of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, to be held in 2014;(cc) 鼓励各会员国积极参与麻醉药品委员会将于2014年举行的《关于开展国际合作以综合、平衡战略应对世界毒品问题的政治宣言和行动计划》高级别审议;
(dd) Decide that the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, as the central policymaking body within the United Nations system dealing with drug-related matters, play its leading role in the preparatory process for the special session of the General Assembly on the world drug problem to be held in 2016, including by presenting its proposals, through the Economic and Social Council, regarding progress made in the implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action;(dd) 决定确定麻醉药品委员会为联合国系统处理毒品相关事项的中央决策机构,在将于2016年召开的世界毒品问题大会特别会议的筹备进程中发挥牵头作用,包括通过经济及社会理事会就落实《政治宣言和行动计划》方面取得的进展提出建议;
(ee) Define the content and format of the envisaged outcome of the special session on the world drug problem and further clarify the preparatory work to be undertaken by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs;(ee) 确定世界毒品问题特别会议预期成果的内容和形式,并进一步阐明拟由麻醉药品委员会开展的筹备工作;
(ff) Invite Governments to make extrabudgetary contributions available to UNODC to meet costs related to the special session on the world drug problem.(ff) 请各国政府向毒品和犯罪问题办公室提供预算外捐款,以支付与世界毒品问题特别会议有关的费用。
* A/68/50.* A/68/50。
1 See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2009, Supplement No. 8 (E/2009/28), chap. I, sect. C.1 见《经济及社会理事会正式记录,2009年,补编第8号》(E/2009/28),第一章,C节。
2 United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6.2 联合国出版物,出售品编号:E.13.XI.6。
3 Available from www.unodc.org/documents/scientific/NPS_2013_SMART.pdf.3 可查阅www.unodc. org/documents/scientific/nps_2013_SMART.pdf。
4 Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2012 (E/INCB/2012/1).4 《国际麻醉品管制局2012年报告》(E/INCB/2012/1)。
5 Precursors and Chemicals Frequently Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances: Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2012 on the Implementation of Article 12 of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 (E/INCB/2012/4).5 《经常用于非法制造麻醉药品和精神药物的前体和化学品:国际麻醉品管制局2012年关于1988年<联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约>第12条执行情况的报告》(E/INCB/2012/4)。
6 See E/CN.7/2013/5.6 见E/CN.7/2013/5。
7 Available from www.unodc.org/documents/prevention/prevention_standards.pdf.7 可查阅www.unodc.org/documents/prevention/prevention_standards.pdf。
8 Available from www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/Opiate_Trafficking_and_Trade_Agreements_english_web.pdf.8 可查阅www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/Opiate_Trafficking_and_Trade_ Agreements_english_web.pdf。
9 Available from www.unodc.org/documents/scientific/ATS_West_Africa_final_2012.pdf. 10 Seven regional programmes are in place: for East Africa; West Africa;9 可查阅www.unodc.org/documents/scientific/ATS_West_Africa_final_2012.pdf。
the Arab States;
Central America;
South-East Asia and Pacific; South-Eastern Europe; and Afghanistan and neighbouring countries.