A_CONF_199_20_EC
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A/CONF.199/20 A_CONF_199_20e.doc (English)A/CONF.199/20 A_CONF_199_20c.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联 合 国
Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August- 4 September 2002可持续发展问题世界首脑 会议的报告
United Nations ( New York, 2002 * Reissued for technical reasons.2002年8月26日至9月4日,南非约翰内斯堡
A/CONF.199/20*A/CONF.199/20*
Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development联合国 ( 2002年,纽约 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的报告
Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August- 4 September 20022002年8月26日至9月4日,南非约翰内斯堡 * 由于技术上的理由重新印发。
A/CONF.199/20*A/CONF.199/20
Note说明
Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures.联合国文件都用英文大写字母附加数字编号。
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers.本出版物年用名称及其材料的编制方式并不意味着联合国秘书处对于任何国家、领土、城市或地区、或其当局的法律地位,或对于其边界的划分,表示任何意见。
A/CONF.199/20*A/CONF.199/20*
United Nations publication联合国出版物
Sales No. E.出售品编号:C.
03.II.03.II.
A.A.
11
ISBN 92-1-104521-5ISBN
Contents目录
Chapter章次
Page页次
Resolutions adopted by the Summit首脑会议通过的决议
11
Political Declaration1. 政治宣言
11
Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development2. 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划
65
Expression of thanks to the people and Government of South Africa3. 对南非政府和人民表示感谢
7363
Credentials of representatives to the World Summit on Sustainable Development4. 出席可持续发展问题世界首脑会议代表的全权证书
7363
Attendance and organization of work出席情况和工作安排
7464
Date and place of the SummitA. 首脑会议日期和地点
7464
AttendanceB. 出席
7464
Opening of the SummitC. 首脑会议开幕
7973
Election of the President and other officers of the SummitD. 选举首脑会议主席和主席团其他成员
7973
Adoption of the rules of procedureE. 通过议事规则
8074
Adoption of the agenda and other organizational mattersF. 通过议程和其他组织事项
8074
Accreditation of intergovernmental organizationsG. 认可政府间组织参加会议
8174
Organization of work, including the establishment of the Main CommitteeH. 工作安排,包括成立主要委员会
8175
Credentials of representatives to the SummitI. 出席首脑会议代表的全权证书
8175
DocumentationJ. 文件
8175
Partnership events伙伴活动
8276
General debate一般性辩论
109101
General statements by non-State entitiesA. 非国家实体的一般性发言
109101
General statements by high-level officialsB. 高级官员的一般性发言
111102
Multi-stakeholder event多方利益攸关者的活动
116106
Round tables圆桌会议
119109
Report of the Main Committee主要委员会的报告
136123
Organization of workA. 工作安排
136123
Action taken by the Main CommitteeB. 主要委员会采取的行动
136123
Adoption of the Political Declaration通过政治宣言
138125
Adoption of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development通过可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划
139126
Report of the Credentials Committee全权证书委员会的报告
147133
Adoption of the report of the Summit通过首脑会议的报告
149135
Closure of the Summit首脑会议闭幕
150136
Annexes附件 一. 文件清单
I. List of documents137
151二. 开幕词
II. Opening statements140
154三. 并行活动和相关活动
III. Parallel and associated activities150
166第一章
Chapter I首脑会议通过的决议
Resolutions adopted by the Summit决议1*
Resolution 1* Political Declaration政治宣言
The World Summit on Sustainable Development,可持续发展问题世界首脑会议,
Having met in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002,于2002年8月26日至9月4日在南非约翰内斯堡举行了会议,
1. Adopts the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development, which is annexed to the present resolution;1. 通过了本决议所附可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的《约翰内斯堡可持续发展声明》;
2. Recommends to the General Assembly that it endorse the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development as adopted by the Summit.2. 建议大会核可首脑会议通过的《约翰内斯堡可持续发展声明》。
Annex Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development* 2002年9月4日在第17次全体会议上通过,讨论情况见第八章。
From our origins to the future附件
1. We, the representatives of the peoples of the world, assembled at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2 to 4 September 2002, reaffirm our commitment to sustainable development.《约翰内斯堡可持续发展声明》
2. We commit ourselves to building a humane, equitable and caring global society, cognizant of the need for human dignity for all.从人类的发源地走向未来
3. At the beginning of this Summit, the children of the world spoke to us in a simple yet clear voice that the future belongs to them, and accordingly challenged all of us to ensure that through our actions they will inherit a world free of the indignity and indecency occasioned by poverty, environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development.1. 我们,世界各国人民的代表,于2002年9月2日至4日在南非约翰内斯堡的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议上聚集一堂,重申我们对可持续发展的承诺。
4. As part of our response to these children, who represent our collective future, all of us, coming from every corner of the world, informed by different life experiences, are united and moved by a deeply felt sense that we urgently need to create a new and brighter world of hope.2. 我们承诺建立一个崇尚人性、公平和相互关怀的全球社会,这个社会认识到人人都必须享有人的尊严。
5. Accordingly, we assume a collective responsibility to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development — economic development, social development and environmental protection — at the local, national, regional and global levels.3. 在首脑会议开幕时,全世界的儿童用简单而明确的声音告诉我们,未来属于他们。这些话语激励我们每一个人一定要通过我们的行动,使儿童继承一个美好的世界,在这个世界里不会因为贫穷、环境恶化和不可持续的发展格局,而使人的尊严受到伤害、行为有失体统。
6. From this continent, the cradle of humanity, we declare, through the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the present Declaration, our responsibility to one another, to the greater community of life and to our children.4. 儿童代表了我们共同的未来。我们来自世界各个角落,了解各种不同人生经历的所有人必须团结起来,我们迫切需要有一种强烈的使命感,促使我们创造一个充满希望、更加光明的崭新世界,这是我们对子孙的部分答复。
7. Recognizing that humankind is at a crossroads, we have united in a common resolve to make a determined effort to respond positively to the need to produce a practical and visible plan to bring about poverty eradication and human development.5. 为此,我们担负起一项共同的责任,即在地方、国家、区域和全球各级促进和加强经济发展、社会发展和环境保护这几个相互依存、相互增强的可持续发展支柱。
From Stockholm to Rio de Janeiro to Johannesburg6. 我们在人类的摇篮非洲大陆宣布,我们通过《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》和本《宣言》彼此承担责任、并对更大的人生大家庭及子孙后代负有责任。
8. Thirty years ago, in Stockholm, we agreed on the urgent need to respond to the problem of environmental deterioration. Ten years ago, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, we agreed that the protection of the environment and social and economic development are fundamental to sustainable development, based on the Rio Principles. To achieve such development, we adopted the global programme entitled Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,3 to which we reaffirm our commitment. The Rio Conference was a significant milestone that set a new agenda for sustainable development.7. 我们认识到人类正处于十字路口。我们因共同的决心而团结在一起,坚定不移地积极响应需要,以制定一项消除贫穷和人类发展的切实可行的计划。
9. Between Rio and Johannesburg, the world’s nations have met in several major conferences under the auspices of the United Nations, including the International Conference on Financing for Development, as well as the Doha Ministerial Conference. These conferences defined for the world a comprehensive vision for the future of humanity.从斯德哥尔摩到里约热内卢和约翰内斯堡
10. At the Johannesburg Summit, we have achieved much in bringing together a rich tapestry of peoples and views in a constructive search for a common path towards a world that respects and implements the vision of sustainable development. The Johannesburg Summit has also confirmed that significant progress has been made towards achieving a global consensus and partnership among all the people of our planet.8. 30年前在斯德哥尔摩,我们认定迫切需要应付环境恶化问题。 10年前在里约热内卢举行的联合国环境与发展问题会议 上,我们认为环境保护和社会及经济发展是按照里约原则推动可持续发展的基石。为了实现可持续发展,我们通过了题为《21世纪议程》 的全球性方案和《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》,3 对此,我们再次表示我们的承诺。里约会议是一个重大里程碑,它提出了可持续发展的新议程。
The challenges we face9. 从里约到约翰内斯堡之间的这段时间内,世界各国在联合国主持下举行了若干次重要会议,其中包括发展筹资问题国际会议 和多哈部长级会议。 这些会议为世界勾划了人类未来的广阔前景。
11. We recognize that poverty eradication, changing consumption and production patterns and protecting and managing the natural resource base for economic and social development are overarching objectives of and essential requirements for sustainable development.10. 在约翰内斯堡首脑会议期间,我们在将世界各国人民聚集起来和综合各种不同意见,以积极寻求一条共同道路方面取得了重大进展,这条共同道路就是创造一个尊重和推行可持续发展远景的世界。约翰内斯堡首脑会议还证实,在使我们星球上的人民达成全球共识和建立伙伴关系方面也取得了重大进展。
12. The deep fault line that divides human society between the rich and the poor and the ever-increasing gap between the developed and developing worlds pose a major threat to global prosperity, security and stability.我们面临的挑战
13. The global environment continues to suffer. Loss of biodiversity continues, fish stocks continue to be depleted, desertification claims more and more fertile land, the adverse effects of climate change are already evident, natural disasters are more frequent and more devastating, and developing countries more vulnerable, and air, water and marine pollution continue to rob millions of a decent life.11. 我们确认,消除贫穷、改变消费和生产格局、保护和管理自然资源基础以促进经济和社会发展,是压倒一切的可持续发展目标和根本要求。
14. Globalization has added a new dimension to these challenges. The rapid integration of markets, mobility of capital and significant increases in investment flows around the world have opened new challenges and opportunities for the pursuit of sustainable development. But the benefits and costs of globalization are unevenly distributed, with developing countries facing special difficulties in meeting this challenge.12. 在人类社会铸起穷富不可跨越的鸿沟以及发达国家与发展中国家之间的差距日益扩大,对全球的繁荣、安全和稳定构成了重大威胁。
15. We risk the entrenchment of these global disparities and unless we act in a manner that fundamentally changes their lives the poor of the world may lose confidence in their representatives and the democratic systems to which we remain committed, seeing their representatives as nothing more than sounding brass or tinkling cymbals.13. 全球环境继续遭殃。生物多样性仍在丧失;鱼类继续耗竭,荒漠化吞噬了更多的良田;气候变化已产生明显的不利影响;自然灾害更加频繁、毁灭性更大;发展中国家更易受害;空气、饮水和海洋污染继续毁灭了无数人安逸的生活。
Our commitment to sustainable development14. 全球化为上述挑战增加了新的方面。在全世界范围内,市场迅速一体化、资本积极调动、投资流量大大增强,为促进可持续发展带来新挑战,创造新机会。但是,全球化产生的利益和付出的代价没有得到均衡分配,发展中国家在应付这一挑战方面遇到了特殊困难。
16. We are determined to ensure that our rich diversity, which is our collective strength, will be used for constructive partnership for change and for the achievement of the common goal of sustainable development.15. 我们担当着在全球范围铸造这种鸿沟的风险。如果我们不采取行动从根本上改变穷人的生活,全世界的穷人可能对他们的代表和我们坚持承诺的民主制度丧失信心,认为他们的代表人物不过是一些喜欢吹嘘的空谈家而已。
17. Recognizing the importance of building human solidarity, we urge the promotion of dialogue and cooperation among the world’s civilizations and peoples, irrespective of race, disabilities, religion, language, culture or tradition.我们对可持续发展的承诺
18. We welcome the focus of the Johannesburg Summit on the indivisibility of human dignity and are resolved, through decisions on targets, timetables and partnerships, to speedily increase access to such basic requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate shelter, energy, health care, food security and the protection of biodiversity. At the same time, we will work together to help one another gain access to financial resources, benefit from the opening of markets, ensure capacity-building, use modern technology to bring about development and make sure that there is technology transfer, human resource development, education and training to banish underdevelopment forever.16. 我们丰富的多样性是我们的共同实力,我们决心保证将它用来建立建设性伙伴关系,以促成变革和实现可持续发展的共同目标。
19. We reaffirm our pledge to place particular focus on, and give priority attention to, the fight against the worldwide conditions that pose severe threats to the sustainable development of our people, which include: chronic hunger; malnutrition; foreign occupation; armed conflict; illicit drug problems; organized crime; corruption; natural disasters; illicit arms trafficking; trafficking in persons; terrorism; intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and other hatreds; xenophobia; and endemic, communicable and chronic diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.17. 我们认识到加强人类团结的重要性,要求促进世界不同文明和各国人民之间的对话与合作,不论种族、是否残疾、宗教、语言、文化或传统等因素。
20. We are committed to ensuring that women’s empowerment, emancipation and gender equality are integrated in all the activities encompassed within Agenda 21, the Millennium development goals and the Plan of Implementation of the Summit.18. 我们欢迎约翰内斯堡首脑会议将重点集中于人的尊严的不可分割性。我们决心通过关于目标、时间表和伙伴关系的各项决定,加快步伐进一步满足享有清洁饮水、公共卫生、适当的住房、能源、保健、粮食安全和保护生物多样性等方面的基本要求。与此同时,我们将共同努力,彼此帮助,以获得财政资源、利用开放的市场、确保能力建设、使用现代技术实现发展,并确保为永远消除不发达状况,进行技术转让、人力资源开发、教育和培训。
21. We recognize the reality that global society has the means and is endowed with the resources to address the challenges of poverty eradication and sustainable development confronting all humanity. Together, we will take extra steps to ensure that these available resources are used to the benefit of humanity.19. 我们再次誓言要特别集中精力和优先注意打击在全球范围对我们人民的可持续发展构成严重威胁的各种状况,其中包括:长期饥饿;营养不良;外国占领;武装冲突;非法贩毒问题;有组织犯罪;腐败;自然灾害、非法武器贩运;人口贩运;恐怖主义、不容忍、煽动种族、族裔、宗教和其他仇恨;仇外心理;以及地方病、传染性疾病和慢性病,特别是艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾和结核病。
22. In this regard, to contribute to the achievement of our development goals and targets, we urge developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts reach the internationally agreed levels of official development assistance.20. 我们致力于确保将赋予妇女权力、妇女解放和两性平等融入到《21世纪议程》、《千年发展目标》 和《首脑会议执行计划》所列的各项活动。
23. We welcome and support the emergence of stronger regional groupings and alliances, such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, to promote regional cooperation, improved international cooperation and sustainable development.21. 我们承认,全球社会有办法也有资源去应付全人类在消除贫穷和可持续发展方面所面临的挑战。我们将共同采取进一步步骤,确保利用这些可得资源造福于人类。
24. We shall continue to pay special attention to the developmental needs of small island developing States and the least developed countries.22. 在这方面,为了促成实现我们的发展目标和指标,我们敦请尚未作出具体努力的发达国家作出努力,使官方发展援助达到国际商定的水平。 23. 为了促进区域合作、改进国际合作和推动可持续发展,我们欢迎和支持建立像非洲发展新伙伴这样的更强大的区域集团和联盟。
25. We reaffirm the vital role of the indigenous peoples in sustainable development.24. 我们将继续特别注意小岛屿发展中国家和最不发达国家的发展需要。
26. We recognize that sustainable development requires a long-term perspective and broad-based participation in policy formulation, decision-making and implementation at all levels. As social partners, we will continue to work for stable partnerships with all major groups, respecting the independent, important roles of each of them.25. 我们重申土著人民可在可持续发展中发挥重大作用。
27. We agree that in pursuit of its legitimate activities the private sector, including both large and small companies, has a duty to contribute to the evolution of equitable and sustainable communities and societies.26. 我们确认,可持续发展需要具有长远观点,需要对各个级别的政策拟订、决策和实施过程广泛参与。作为社会伙伴,我们将继续努力与各主要集团建立稳定的伙伴关系,尊重每一个集团的独立性和重要作用。
28. We also agree to provide assistance to increase income-generating employment opportunities, taking into account the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work of the International Labour Organization.27. 我们认为,私营部门,包括大小公司,在从事合法活动时,有义务为发展公平和可持续的社区和社会作出贡献。
29. We agree that there is a need for private sector corporations to enforce corporate accountability, which should take place within a transparent and stable regulatory environment.28. 我们还同意为增加产生收入的就业机会提供协助,同时考虑到国际劳工组织《关于工作中的基本原则和权利宣言》。
30. We undertake to strengthen and improve governance at all levels for the effective implementation of Agenda 21, the Millennium development goals and the Plan of Implementation of the Summit.29. 我们还认为,私营部门公司有必要加强公司问责制,这应当在一个透明和稳定的制度环境下执行。
Multilateralism is the future30. 我们承诺加强和改善各级政府的管理工作,以有效执行《21世纪议程》、《千年发展目标》和《首脑会议执行计划》。
31. To achieve our goals of sustainable development, we need more effective, democratic and accountable international and multilateral institutions.多边主义是未来
32. We reaffirm our commitment to the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and international law, as well as to the strengthening of multilateralism. We support the leadership role of the United Nations as the most universal and representative organization in the world, which is best placed to promote sustainable development.31. 为实现我们的可持续发展目标,我们需要有更讲究实效、更加民主和更加负责的国际和多边机构。
33. We further commit ourselves to monitor progress at regular intervals towards the achievement of our sustainable development goals and objectives.32. 我们重申维护《联合国宪章》的原则和宗旨、国际法以及致力于加强多边主义。我们支持联合国发挥领导作用,它是世界上最具有普遍性和代表性的组织,是最能促进可持续发展的机构。
Making it happen!33. 我们还承诺定期监测在实现可持续发展目标方面所取得的进展。
34. We are in agreement that this must be an inclusive process, involving all the major groups and Governments that participated in the historic Johannesburg Summit.力求实现目标!
35. We commit ourselves to act together, united by a common determination to save our planet, promote human development and achieve universal prosperity and peace.34. 我们一直认为,这必须是一个包容性的过程,应让参加约翰内斯堡历史性首脑会议的所有主要集团和政府都参加进来。
36. We commit ourselves to the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and to expediting the achievement of the time-bound, socio-economic and environmental targets contained therein.35. 我们承诺采取联合行动,为共同的决心团结起来,以拯救我们的地球、促进人类发展、实现普遍繁荣与和平。
37. From the African continent, the cradle of humankind, we solemnly pledge to the peoples of the world and the generations that will surely inherit this Earth that we are determined to ensure that our collective hope for sustainable development is realized.36. 我们承诺执行《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》及加速实现其中所列规定时限的社会经济和环境指标。
Resolution 2*37. 我们在人类的摇篮非洲大陆,向全世界人民和向地球的当然继承人我们的子孙后代庄严宣誓,我们决心一定要实现可持续发展的共同希望。
Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development决议2*
The World Summit on Sustainable Development,《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议,
Having met in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002,于2002年8月26日至9月4日在南非约翰内斯堡举行了会议,
1. Adopts the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, which is annexed to the present resolution;1. 通过了本决议所附的《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》;
2. Recommends to the General Assembly that it endorse the Plan of Implementation as adopted by the Summit.2. 建议大会核可首脑会议通过的《执行计划》。 * 2002年9月4日在第17次全体会议上通过,讨论情况见第九章。
Annex Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development附件 《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》
Contents目录
Chapter章次
Paragraphs Page段次 页次
Introduction导言
1–6 81-6 7
Poverty eradication消除贫穷
7–13 97-13 8
Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production改变不可持续的消费形态和生产形态
14–23 1314-23 11
Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development保护和管理经济和社会发展的自然资源基础
24–46 2024-46 17
Sustainable development in a globalizing world在一个全球化世界中实现可持续发展
47–52 3747-52 33
Health and sustainable development健康和可持续发展
53–57 3953-57 33
Sustainable development of small island developing States小岛屿发展中国家的可持续发展
58–61 4158-61 35
Sustainable development for Africa非洲可持续发展
62–71 4362-71 37
Other regional initiatives其他区域倡议
72–80 4872-79 42
Sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean拉丁美洲及加勒比的可持续发展
73–74 4973-74 42
Sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific亚洲及太平洋的可持续发展
75–76 4975-76 42
Sustainable development in the West Asia region西亚区域的可持续发展
77–78 5077-78 43
Sustainable development in the Economic Commission for Europe region欧洲经济委员会(欧经会)区域的可持续发展
79–80 5079 43
Means of implementation执行手段
81–136 5081-136 43
Institutional framework for sustainable development可持续发展的体制框架
137–170 64137-170 55
Objectives目标
139 64139 55
Strengthening the institutional framework for sustainable development at the international level在国际一级加强可持续发展的体制框架
140–142 65140-142 56
Role of the General Assembly大会的作用
143 66143 57
Role of the Economic and Social Council经济及社会理事会的作用
144 67144 57
Role and function of the Commission on Sustainable Development可持续发展委员会的作用和职能
145–150 67145-150 58
Role of international institutions国际组织的作用
151–157 69151-157 59
Strengthening institutional arrangements for sustainable development at the regional level加强区域一级的可持续发展体制的安排
158–161 70159-161 60
Strengthening institutional frameworks for sustainable development at the national level加强国家一级可持续发展体制框架
162–167 71162-167 61
Participation of major groups主要群体的参与
168–170 72168-170 62
I.一.
Introduction导言
1. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, provided the fundamental principles and the programme of action for achieving sustainable development. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the Rio principles, the full implementation of Agenda 212 and the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21. We also commit ourselves to achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration and in the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and international agreements since 1992. 2. The present plan of implementation will further build on the achievements made since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and expedite the realization of the remaining goals. To this end, we commit ourselves to undertaking concrete actions and measures at all levels and to enhancing international cooperation, taking into account the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. These efforts will also promote the integration of the three components of sustainable development — economic development, social development and environmental protection — as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars. Poverty eradication, changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development are overarching objectives of, and essential requirements for, sustainable development.1. 1992年在里约热内卢召开的联合国环境和发展会议 为实现可持续发展提供了根本原则和行动纲领。我们强烈确认对里约原则、 全面执行《21世纪议程》2和《进一步执行21世纪议程方案》 的承诺。我们还承诺实现国际商定的发展目标,包括载于《联合国千年宣言》 的目标和1992年以来联合国主要会议和国际协定的成果。
3. We recognize that the implementation of the outcomes of the Summit should benefit all, particularly women, youth, children and vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the implementation should involve all relevant actors through partnerships, especially between Governments of the North and South, on the one hand, and between Governments and major groups, on the other, to achieve the widely shared goals of sustainable development. As reflected in the Monterrey Consensus, such partnerships are key to pursuing sustainable development in a globalizing world.2. 本执行计划将在联合国环境和发展会议以来成就的基础上前进,加速实现其余的目标。为此目的,我们致力于在各级采取具体行动和措施并增进国际合作,同时考虑到里约原则,特别包括《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》 原则7所规定的共同但又有区别的责任的原则。这些努力还将促进可持续发展的三个即各自独立又彼此强化的支柱组成部分:经济发展、社会发展和环境保护融为一体,消除贫穷和改变难以持续的增长和消费模式、以及保护和管理经济、社会发展的自然资源基础,是可持续发展的首要目标,也是根本要求。
4. Good governance within each country and at the international level is essential for sustainable development. At the domestic level, sound environmental, social and economic policies, democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people, the rule of law, anti-corruption measures, gender equality and an enabling environment for investment are the basis for sustainable development. As a result of globalization, external factors have become critical in determining the success or failure of developing countries in their national efforts. The gap between developed and developing countries points to the continued need for a dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of finance, technology transfer, debt and trade and full and effective participation of developing countries in global decision-making, if the momentum for global progress towards sustainable development is to be maintained and increased.3. 我们认识到执行首脑会议的决定有利于所有人,特别是妇女、青少年、儿童和弱势群体。此外,执行中还应通过伙伴合作,尤其是北方和南方政府之间、各政府和主要集团之间的伙伴合作,吸收所有相关行动者来参与,实现普遍同意的可持续发展目标。从《蒙特雷共识》 可见,此种伙伴合作是在日益全球化的世界中实现可持续发展的关键。
5. Peace, security, stability and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, as well as respect for cultural diversity, are essential for achieving sustainable development and ensuring that sustainable development benefits all.4. 各国内部和国际上的良好治理是可持续发展不可缺少的。在各国国内,健全的环境、社会和经济政策,听取人民需要的民主体制,法治,反腐败措施,性别平等和有利的投资环境,均为可持续发展的基础。由于全球化,外部因素已经成为决定发展中国家及其国民努力成败的至关重要因素。发达国家和发展中国家之间的差距指明,要维持并加快全球实现可持续发展的势头,需要继续建立具有活力和有利的国际经济环境,这种环境支持国际合作,尤其是在金融、技术转让、债务和贸易等领域,并支持发展中国家全面和有效参与全球决策过程。
6. We acknowledge the importance of ethics for sustainable development and, therefore, emphasize the need to consider ethics in the implementation of Agenda 21.5. 和平、安全、稳定和尊重人权与包括发展权在内的基本自由,及尊重文化多样性,是实现可持续发展和确保可持续发展使人人获益所必不可少的。 6. 我们承认道德操守对可持续发展的重要性,因此我们强调有必要在执行《21世纪议程》方面考虑道德问题。
II.二.
Poverty eradication消除贫穷
7. Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, particularly for developing countries. Although each country has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development and poverty eradication and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized, concerted and concrete measures are required at all levels to enable developing countries to achieve their sustainable development goals as related to the internationally agreed poverty-related targets and goals, including those contained in Agenda 21, the relevant outcomes of other United Nations conferences and the United Nations Millennium Declaration. This would include actions at all levels to:7. 今日世界面临的最严重全球性挑战是消除贫穷,这是可持续发展,尤其是发展中国家的可持续发展,必不可少的条件。虽然各国对本国的可持续发展和消除贫穷负有首要责任,虽然各国的国家政策和发展战略绝对应当尽力强调,但是为发展中国家实现包括《21世纪议程》、其他联合国会议的有关决定、联合国千年发展目标的国际商定的与贫穷相关的目标,仍然需要在各所有各级协调采取具体措施。各级行动包括: (a) 至迟在2015年使每天收入1美元以下的人口比例、和挨饿的人以及无法得到安全饮用水的人口比例降低一半; (b) 设立一个世界团结基金,以消灭贫穷,促进发展中国家的社会发展和人类发展,方法将由大会确定,同时强调捐助的自愿性质,必须避免现有联合国基金的重迭,并鼓励相对于政府的私营部门和个别公民在资助这项事业方面发挥作用; (c) 制订可持续发展和地方与社区发展的国家方案,并在本国减轻贫穷战略中认为适当时,促进对贫穷人民及其组织赋予权力。方案应反映他们的优先关注事项,并使他们能够更多获得生产资源、公共服务和机构,特别是土地、水、就业机会、信贷、教育和卫生等; (d) 促进妇女在男女平等的基础上有平等机会知道并充分参与各级决策,将性别观点纳入所有政策和战略的主流,消除对妇女一切形式的暴力和歧视,并提高妇女和女童的地位、保健和经济福祉;办法是通过全面和平等地获得经济机会、土地、信贷、教育和保健服务; (e) 制定政策和方法,增加土著人民和他们的社区获得经济活动的机会,酌情利用培训、技术援助和信贷机构等措施,增加他们的就业。认识到传统地依靠和直接依靠可再生资源和生态系统、包括可持续收获等,应仍然是土著人民和他们的社区在文化、经济、物质上的福祉所必要的; (f) 为人人提供基本保健服务并减少环境健康威胁,同时考虑到儿童的特殊需要和贫穷、健康和环境之间的联系;向发展中国家和经济转型期国家提供资金、技术援助和知识转让; (g) 确保世界各地的儿童,不论男女童,都能上完小学全部课程,并都有平等的机会接受所有各级教育; (h) 向贫穷人民,特别是妇女和土著人民,提供获得农业资源的机会,并酌情促进承认和保护土著和共有财产资源管理体系的土地保有权安排; (i) 建设基本的农村基础设施、使经济多样化、改善运输和为乡村贫穷者改善进入市场条件、提供市场信息、提供信贷,以支持可持续农业和乡村发展; (j) 通过利益有关者多边办法和国营-民营伙伴合作,向特别是发展中国家的中、小农户、渔民和乡村贫民转让自然资源管理等基本可持续农业的技术和知识,目的是增加农业生产和粮食安全; (k) 提倡例如社区性的伙伴关系,将城乡人民和企业联系,通过收获和粮食技术和管理,及公平有效的分配体系,增加粮食供应和可负担性; (l) 通过对改进的气候和天气资料与预测,预警体系、土地和自然资源管理、土地管理、农业耕作方式和生态系统保护的利用,以防治荒漠化、减轻干旱和洪水灾害,扭转和尽量减少目前土地和水资源的退化趋势,包括提供充足和可预测的资金,执行《联合国关于在发生严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化的公约》, 作为消除贫困的首要工具之一; (m) 增加获得环境卫生服务的机会,以增进健康,减少婴儿和儿童的死亡率,在已制定国家可持续发展战略和减轻贫穷战略的国家,将水和环境卫生列为其中的优先事项。
(a) Halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’s people whose income is less than 1 dollar a day and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water;8. 必须提供:清洁饮水和适当卫生以保护人类健康和环境。在这方面,我们议定按照《千年宣言》所述至迟在2015年将得不到或负担不起安全饮用水的人口比例减半,并将得不到基本环境卫生服务的人数减半。这将包括在各级采取行动以便:
(b) Establish a world solidarity fund to eradicate poverty and to promote social and human development in the developing countries pursuant to modalities to be determined by the General Assembly, while stressing the voluntary nature of the contributions and the need to avoid duplication of existing United Nations funds, and encouraging the role of the private sector and individual citizens relative to Governments in funding the endeavours;(a) 拟订并执行有效率的家庭环境卫生系统; (b) 改善公共机构特别是学校的环境卫生; (c) 提倡安全卫生习惯; (d) 提高教育和推广工作,特别是针对儿童,以此改变行为习惯; (e) 提倡负担得起的和社会上、文化上可以接受的技术和做法; (f) 拟订创新的筹措经费和结伙伴办法; (g) 将环境卫生纳入水资源管理战略。 9. 采取联合行动,并更好地在各级协力为可持续发展充分增进人们获得可靠廉价能源服务的机会,以实现千年发展目标,包括在2015年之前使贫穷人口减少一半的目标,并作为一种手段来提供其他重要的减贫服务,铭记能源的提供有利于消除贫穷。这方面包括在各级采取行动以便: (a) 加强使用可靠、廉价、经济上可行、社会上可接受且无害环境的能源服务和资源,考虑到国家特点和处境,可用的方式很多,例如加强农村电器化和分散能源系统,增加使用可再生能源、洁净的液态和气态燃料并提高能源效率,加强区域和国际合作支助国家努力,包括通过能力建设,财政和技术援助和革新金融机制,包括微型和中型各级,认识到向贫穷人口提供服务的特定因素; (b) 进一步使用现代生物质技术和薪材来源和供应,使生物质业务商业化,在农村地区和可持续进行这种作业的地区使用农作物残根; (c) 促进可持续使用生物质和适当的其他可再生能源,方式是改进目前的使用方法,例如管理资源、更有效使用薪材以及新的或改进的产品和技术; (d) 支持转用较洁净的液态和气态燃料,如果这种使用经视为更加无害环境、社会上可接受且费用效率较高; (e) 制定国家能源政策和管理架构,以帮助创造能源部门所需的经济、社会和体制条件,加强使用可靠、廉价、经济上可行、社会上可接受且无害环境的能源服务,促进农村、近郊和都市等地区的可持续发展和消除贫穷; (f) 加强国际和区域合作以便进一步使用可靠、廉价、经济上可行、社会上可接受且无害环境的能源服务,作为消除贫穷方案的一个组成部分,方式是创造有利的环境并满足能力建设的需要,酌情特别注意农村和偏远地区; (g) 在发达国家的财政和技术支助下,包括通过公私合伙关系,加紧协助和促使贫穷人口得以使用可靠、廉价、商业上可行、社会上可接受且无害环境的能源服务,考虑到制定关于能源促进可持续发展的国家政策可发挥的作用,铭记发展中国家为提高人民生活标准需要大量增加能源服务,而且能源服务对于消除贫穷和提高生活标准也有积极影响。 10. 加强工业发展对消除贫穷和可持续自然资源管理的贡献。这方面包括所有各级的行动如下: (a) 提供协助并调动资源为提高发展中国家的工业生产力和竞争能力以及工业发展,包括以彼第此议定的优惠条件转让无害环境的技术; (b) 提供协助以增加创收的就业机会,同时考虑到国际劳工组织关于工作的基本原则和权利宣言;
(c) Develop national programmes for sustainable development and local and community development, where appropriate within country-owned poverty reduction strategies, to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty and their organizations. These programmes should reflect their priorities and enable them to increase access to productive resources, public services and institutions, in particular land, water, employment opportunities, credit, education and health;(c) 促进微型、小型和中型企业的发展,包括以培训、教育和技能加强等方式,特别着重于以农工业作为农村社区的生计提供者;
(d) Promote women’s equal access to and full participation in, on the basis of equality with men, decision-making at all levels, mainstreaming gender perspectives in all policies and strategies, eliminating all forms of violence and discrimination against women and improving the status, health and economic welfare of women and girls through full and equal access to economic opportunity, land, credit, education and health-care services;(d) 酌情向发展中国家的农村社区提供财政和技术支助,使他们能够在小规模采矿业中得到安全的可持续谋生机会;
(e) Develop policies and ways and means to improve access by indigenous people and their communities to economic activities and increase their employment through, where appropriate, measures such as training, technical assistance and credit facilities. Recognize that traditional and direct dependence on renewable resources and ecosystems, including sustainable harvesting, continues to be essential to the cultural, economic and physical well-being of indigenous people and their communities;(e) 向发展中国家提供支助,发展提供或保存烹饪和热水用燃料的安全低成本技术;
(f) Deliver basic health services for all and reduce environmental health threats, taking into account the special needs of children and the linkages between poverty, health and environment, with provision of financial resources, technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing countries and countries with economies in transition;(f) 提供自然资源管理方面的支助,以便为贫穷人口建立可持续生计。
(g) Ensure that children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and will have equal access to all levels of education;11. 按照“无贫民窟城市”倡议,在2020年之前实现生活在贫民窟的至少1亿居民生活的重大改善。这方面包括在各级采取行动以便:
(h) Provide access to agricultural resources for people living in poverty, especially women and indigenous communities, and promote, as appropriate, land tenure arrangements that recognize and protect indigenous and common property resource management systems;(a) 加强使用土地和财产,向都市和农村贫穷人口提供足够的住房和基本服务,特别注意女性户长;
(i) Build basic rural infrastructure, diversify the economy and improve transportation and access to markets, market information and credit for the rural poor to support sustainable agriculture and rural development;(b) 利用低成本的可持续材料和适当技术为贫穷人口建造适当的安全住房,为此向应发展中国家提供财政和技术支助,考虑到他们的文化、气候、特殊社会条件和易受自然灾害影响等情况;
(j) Transfer basic sustainable agricultural techniques and knowledge, including natural resource management, to small and medium-scale farmers, fishers and the rural poor, especially in developing countries, including through multi-stakeholder approaches and public-private partnerships aimed at increasing agriculture production and food security;(c) 通过适当的国家政策来增加都市贫穷人口的正当就业、信贷和收入,促进男女机会均等;
(k) Increase food availability and affordability, including through harvest and food technology and management, as well as equitable and efficient distribution systems, by promoting, for example, community-based partnerships linking urban and rural people and enterprises;(d) 去除不利于微型企业和非正式部门的不必要规章和其他障碍;
(l) Combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and floods through measures such as improved use of climate and weather information and forecasts, early warning systems, land and natural resource management, agricultural practices and ecosystem conservation in order to reverse current trends and minimize degradation of land and water resources, including through the provision of adequate and predictable financial resources to implement the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, as one of the tools for poverty eradication;(e) 支持地方当局在都市发展计划的框架内制定贫民窟改善方案,使人们,特别是贫穷人口便于取得关于住房法律的信息。
(m) Increase access to sanitation to improve human health and reduce infant and child mortality, prioritizing water and sanitation in national sustainable development strategies and poverty reduction strategies where they exist.12. 立即采取有效措施来消除如劳工组织第182号公约所界定的最有害的童工形式,并制订和执行战略来消除违反公认国际标准的童工。
8. The provision of clean drinking water and adequate sanitation is necessary to protect human health and the environment.13. 促进国际合作,应要求协助发展中国家解决童工问题及其根本原因,方式除其他外包括旨在缓解贫穷状况的社会和经济政策,同时强调劳工标准不应用于保护主义贸易的目的。 三.
In this respect, we agree to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water (as outlined in the Millennium Declaration) and the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation, which would include actions at all levels to:改变不可持续的消费形态和生产形态 14. 根本改变社会的生产和消费方式是实现全球可持续发展所必不可少的。所有国家都应努力提倡可持续的消费形态和生产形态,由发达国家带头,而且所有国家都可从此进程中获益,同时考虑到里约原则,除其他外,包括《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》原则7所载的共同但有区别的责任的原则。各国政府、有关国际组织、私营部门和所有主要群体都应该在努力改变不可持续的消费形态和生产形态方面发挥积极作用。这将包括按下文所述在各级采取的行动。 15. 鼓励和促进拟定一项10年方案框架,支持区域和国家倡议,加速转向可持续消费和生产,在生态系统的承受能力范围内促进社会和经济发展,方法是提高资源利用和生产工艺的效率和可持续性,减少资源退化、污染和浪费,处理经济增长与环境退化的问题,并酌情使它们脱钩。所有国家均应考虑到发展中国家的发展需要和能力,由发展中国家带头,采取行动,通过从各来源调动财政和技术援助和协助发展中国家建设能力。这将需要在各级采取下列行动,以便: (a) 考虑到一些国家采用的标准可能不恰当,可能会对其他国家、特别是发展中国家带来不必要的经济社会代价,确定具体活动、工具、措施以及监测和评估机制,包括衡量进展的目录指标; (b) 采取和执行有关政策和措施,采用《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》原则16所述污染者付清理费原则,提倡可持续生产形态和消费形态; (c) 拟订生产和消费政策,以改进所提供的产品和服务,同时减少对环境和健康的影响,酌情利用科学办法,如从出厂到最后消费的分析; (d) 拟订各项方案,考虑到当地、全国和区域的文化价值观, 通过教育、公共和消费者资讯、广告和其他媒体,增进人们对可持续生产形态和消费形态重要性的认识,特别是在所有国家、尤其是发达国家提高年轻人和有关阶层的认识; (e) 酌情自愿拟定并采用有效、具有透明度、可核查、不误导和非歧视的消费者资讯工具,提供关于可持续生产和消费的资料,包括人体健康和安全方面的资料。这些工具不应被用作伪装的贸易壁垒; (f)凡彼此已有协议,均利用所有来源的财政支助,提高生态效率,同有关国际组织合作,为发展中国家和转型期经济国家培养能力、转让技术和交流技术; 16. 在所有国家通过奖励、支助办法以及建立适当管制、财政和法律框架的政策,增加在清洁生产和生态效率方面的投资;这将包括在各级采取行动以便: (a) 制订和支持清洁生产方案和中心以及效率更高的生产方法,提供奖励,培养建设,协助企业、特别是中小型企业、尤其是发展中国家的这些企业提高生产率,促进可持续发展; (b) 向中小型公司提供政府资助的贷款、风险资本、技术援助、训练方案等等,鼓励在所有国家对清洁生产和生态效率投资,同时避免采用不符合世贸组织规则的扭曲贸易措施; (c) 收集和传播关于清洁生产、生态效率和环境管理方面符合成本效益的例子的资料,促进公共机构和私营机构交流关于无害环境技术的最佳做法和专门技能; (d) 为中小型企业开设关于如何利用信息和传播技术的培训方案。 17. 将生产和消费形态问题纳入可持续发展政策、方案和战略,并酌情纳入减贫战略。 18. 加强公司、环境和社会的责任制和问责制。这将包括各级的行动,以:
(a) Develop and implement efficient household sanitation systems;(a) 考虑到国际标准化组织的标准以及关于可持续性汇报的全球汇报计划等,并考虑到《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》原则11,鼓励产业通过自愿主动行动,包括环境管理制度、行为守则、核证以及关于环境和社会问题的公开汇报,提高社会和环境业绩;
(b) Improve sanitation in public institutions, especially schools;(b) 鼓励企业同其营运所在社区以及其他利益有关者进行对话;
(c) Promote safe hygiene practices;(c) 鼓励金融机构在其决策进程中考虑到可持续发展问题;
(d) Promote education and outreach focused on children, as agents of behavioural change;(d) 制订以工作地点为基础的伙伴关系和方案,包括训练和教育方案。
(e) Promote affordable and socially and culturally acceptable technologies and practices;19. 鼓励各级有关当局在国家和地方发展规划、基础设施投资、企业发展、公共采购等决策中考虑到可持续发展问题。这将包括各级的行动,以:
(f) Develop innovative financing and partnership mechanisms;(a) 在基础设施投资和企业发展决策等方面协助拟定可持续发展战略和方案;
(g) Integrate sanitation into water resources management strategies.(b) 适当顾及公共利益,不扭曲国际贸易与投资,考虑到原则上应由污染者承担污染费用的办法,继续促进环境费用国际化,并促进利用经济工具;
9. Take joint actions and improve efforts to work together at all levels to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development sufficient to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium development goals, including the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by 2015, and as a means to generate other important services that mitigate poverty, bearing in mind that access to energy facilitates the eradication of poverty. This would include actions at all levels to:(c) 促进推行能鼓励发展和推广无害环境的货物和服务的公共采购政策。
(a) Improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services and resources, taking into account national specificities and circumstances, through various means, such as enhanced rural electrification and decentralized energy systems, increased use of renewables, cleaner liquid and gaseous fuels and enhanced energy efficiency, by intensifying regional and international cooperation in support of national efforts, including through capacity-building, financial and technological assistance and innovative financing mechanisms, including at the micro- and meso- levels, recognizing the specific factors for providing access to the poor;(d) 培养能力,提供培训,协助有关当局执行本段所列各项主动行动。
(b) Improve access to modern biomass technologies and fuelwood sources and supplies and commercialize biomass operations, including the use of agricultural residues, in rural areas and where such practices are sustainable;(e) 利用环境影响评估程序。
(c) Promote a sustainable use of biomass and, as appropriate, other renewable energies through improvement of current patterns of use, such as management of resources, more efficient use of fuelwood and new or improved products and technologies;* * *
(d) Support the transition to the cleaner use of liquid and gaseous fossil fuels, where considered more environmentally sound, socially acceptable and cost-effective;20. 要求各国政府、各区域组织和国际组织以及其他利益有关者考虑到国家和区域特点和具体情况,并考虑到各国因在造成全球环境退化方面作用不同而负有共同但有区别的责任,执行可持续发展委员会第九届会议通过的关于可持续发展的能源利用的建议和结论,包括下文所列问题和备选办法。这将包括在各级采取行动,以便:
(e) Develop national energy policies and regulatory frameworks that will help to create the necessary economic, social and institutional conditions in the energy sector to improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services for sustainable development and poverty eradication in rural, peri-urban and urban areas;(a) 按照可持续发展委员会关于可持续发展的能源的第9/1号决定 A节第3段和D节第30段所载的结论和建议,采取进一步行动,进行动员,提供财政资源,转让技术,培养能力,推广无害环境的技术;
(f) Enhance international and regional cooperation to improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services, as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes, by facilitating the creation of enabling environments and addressing capacity-building needs, with special attention to rural and isolated areas, as appropriate;(b) 将能源方面的考虑纳入社会经济方案,特别是纳入主要的消耗能源部门的政策,纳入公共部门、运输、工业、农业、城市土地利用、旅游业、建筑等长期消耗能源的基础设施的规划、运作和维持;
(g) Assist and facilitate on an accelerated basis, with the financial and technical assistance of developed countries, including through public-private partnerships, the access of the poor to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services, taking into account the instrumental role of developing national policies on energy for sustainable development, bearing in mind that in developing countries sharp increases in energy services are required to improve the standards of living of their populations and that energy services have positive impacts on poverty eradication and improve standards of living.(c) 开发和传播代用能源技术,增加可再生能源在能源组合中所占份额,提高能源效率,更多依赖先进的能源技术,包括清洁的矿物燃料技术;
10. Strengthen the contribution of industrial development to poverty eradication and sustainable natural resource management. This would include actions at all levels to:(d) 酌情更多结合利用可再生能源,提高能源效率,更多依赖先进的能源技术,包括采用清洁的先进矿物燃料技术,以可持续方式利用传统能源资源,满足对能源服务的与日俱增的长期需要,实现可持续发展; (e) 使能源供应多样化,开发先进、更加洁净、效率更高、价格适宜和成本效益高的能源技术,包括矿物燃料技术和可再生能源技术(包括水力发电),并以相互商定的优惠条件向发展中国家转让这些技术。亟需大量增加可再生能源的全球份额,以便扩大其对能源供应总量的贡献,同时认识到国家和自愿区域目标以及倡议的作用,并确保能源政策有助于发展中国家努力消除贫穷。另外,定期评价现有资料,以审查为此目的取得的进展。 (f) 通过向发展中国家提供财政和技术援助等途径,由私营部门参与,协助各种努力,减少原油生产气体燃烧和风干; (g) 在国际社会的支持下,发展和利用本地各种用途的能源和基础设施,促进《21世纪议程》当地团体等农村社区参与,开发和利用可再生能源技术,寻找本地简单的解决办法,满足其日常能源需要; (h) 在国际社会必要的支持下,拟订关于提高能源效率的本国方案,包括酌情加速采用高能效技术; (i)加速发展、传播和采用负担得起和清洁的能源效率和节用能源技术以及转让这种技术,特别是以有利的条件,包括相互同意的减让和优惠条件,转让给发展中国家; (j) 建议国际金融机构和其他机构的政策要支持发展中国家以及经济转型国家努力建立政策和管理框架,以便在以下领域建立公平竞争条件:可再生能源、能源效率、先进能源技术(包括先进和更清洁的矿物燃料技术)和集中、分送和分散的能源系统; (k) 促进在国家一级以及通过国际合作,在各种能源技术领域进一步进行研究和开发,包括可再生能源、能源效率和先进能源技术(包括先进和更清洁的矿物燃料技术);加强各国和区域研究与开发机构/中心,发展可靠、负担得起的、具有经济可行性、为社会接受和无害环境的能源,以促进可持续发展; (l) 促进在能源促进可持续发展示范中心间建立联系,包括区域网,方法是把促进可持续发展的有关能源技术主管中心连接起来,这些中心可支助和促进能力建设和技术转让活动并起资料交换的作用; (m) 促进教育,向男子和妇女提供关于可用能源和技术的资料; (n) 利用财务手段和机制,特别是全球环境基金任务规定范围内的手段和机制,为发展中国家、特别是最不发达国家和小岛屿发展中国家提供财务资源,以满足它们在以下方面的能力需求:培训、技术知识和加强各国机构,发展可靠、负担得起的、具有经济可行性、为社会接受和无害环境的能源,其中包括促进能源效率的提高和能源保护、可再生能源和先进能源技术,包括先进和更清洁的矿物燃料技术; (o) 支持努力改进能源市场在供应和需求方面的运作、透明度和信息,以便市场更加稳定和更可以预测,确保消费者获得可靠、负担得起的、具有经济可行性、为社会接受和无害环境的能源服务; (p) 减少市场扭曲的政策将促进建立与可持续发展相符的能源系统,方法是利用更加清晰的市场信号以及排除市场扭曲,包括改革税制,逐渐取消有害的补贴(如果有这种补贴),以表明它们对环境的影响,这种政策要充分顾及发展中国家的具体需要和情况,以尽量减少可能对它们的发展产生的不利影响; (q) 酌情采取行动,逐步取消该领域限制可持续发展的补贴,同时充分考虑到个别国家的具体状况和不同的发展水平,并考虑到它们的消极影响、尤其是对发展中国家的影响; (r) 鼓励各国政府改进全国能源市场的运作,使它支持可持续发展,消除市场壁垒,增加进入市场机会,同时要充分考虑到,这种政策应由每个国家决定,并应尤其顾及各国可持续发展战略(如果有这种战略)所列的每个国家的特征和能力以及发展水平; (s) 加强各国和区域能源机构或安排,以加强区域和国际关于能源促进可持续发展的合作,特别是协助发展中国家努力向各阶层人民提供可靠、负担得起的、具有经济可行性、为社会接受和无害环境的能源服务; (t) 考虑到各国的不同情况,尤其是根据各国政府、国际机构和利益攸关者(包括工商界)在获取能源、其中包括可再生能源、节能和先进能源技术(包括先进和更清洁的矿物燃料技术)领域中的经验教训,鼓励各国在可持续发展委员会第九届会议框架内,通过建立公共-私人伙伴关系,制订和采取行动; (u) 促进那些在现有授权任务范围内处理能源促进可持续发展问题各个方面的国际机构和机关之间的合作,同时铭记着《进一步执行21世纪议程的行动纲领》第46(h)段,酌情加强区域和国家活动,以便促进有关能源促进可持续发展的教育和能力建设; (v) 酌情加强和促进区域合作安排,以促进跨界能源贸易,包括供电网和石油与天然气管道的互相联结; (w) 加强并酌情促进区域、各国和国际的能源生产者和消费者间的对话论坛。 * * * 21. 促进国家、区域和地方各级有关运输服务和运输系统的决策采用统筹办法,以促进可持续发展,包括关于土地利用、基本设施、公共运输系统和货物运送网的政策和规划,以期提供安全、负担得起的、有效率的运输,提高能源效率,减少污染,减少拥挤,减少对健康的有害影响,限制城市的无计划扩展,同时顾及国家优先事项和情况。这需要在各级采取行动,以:
(a) Provide assistance and mobilize resources to enhance industrial productivity and competitiveness as well as industrial development in developing countries, including the transfer of environmentally sound technologies on preferential terms, as mutually agreed;(a) 执行促进可持续发展的运输战略,战略应反映区域、国家和当地的具体情况,以提高运输的效率和便利,降低费用,并改善城市空气质量和健康情况,减少温室气体排放量,办法包括研究发展较为无害环境、负担得起和社会上可以接受的更好的汽车技术。
(b) Provide assistance to increase income-generating employment opportunities, taking into account the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work of the International Labour Organization;(b) 促进投资和伙伴关系,以发展可持续的高能效多式运输系统,其中包括大众运输系统,改进农村地区的运输系统,并向发展中国家和经济转型国家提供技术和财务援助。
(c) Promote the development of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, including by means of training, education and skill enhancement, with a special focus on agro-industry as a provider of livelihoods for rural communities;* * * 22. 防止和尽量减少浪费,尽量再利用、回收利用和使用无害环境的替代物品,使各国政府和所有利益有关者参加,以尽量减少对环境的有害影响,提高资源的效率,并向发展中国家提供财务、技术和其他援助。这包括在各级采取行动,以: (a) 发展废物管理系统,最优先注重防止和尽量减少废物的产生、再利用和回收利用和无害环境的处置设施,包括回收废物中的能源的技术;鼓励小规模的废物回收利用倡议,以支持城市和农村的废物管理及提供创造收入的机会,并为发展中国家提供国际支助; (b) 鼓励生产可再利用的消费品和可生物降解的产品,以促进防止和尽量减少废物的产生。 * * * 23. 再次作出《21世纪议程》所载的承诺,在化学品出厂到最后消费的过程中对其以及对有害废物进行健全的管理,以促进可持续发展,保护人类健康和环境,其中力求确保在2020年,利用具有透明度的科学风险评估和科学风险管理程序,尽可能减少我们使用和生产的化学品对人类健康和环境产生严重的有害影响,同时铭记《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》原则15规定的预防方法,通过提供技术和财政援助,支持发展中国家加强健全管理化学品和有害废物的能力。这包括在各级采取行动,以: (a) 促进批准和执行关于化学品和危险废物的有关国际文书,其中包括《关于在国际贸易中对某些危险化学品和农药采用事先知情同意程序的鹿特丹公约》, 以使其于2003年生效和《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》,以使其于2004年生效,并鼓励和改进这些文书的执行以及支助发展中国家执行这些文书; (b) 根据政府间化学品安全论坛 的《巴伊亚宣言》和《2000年后行动优先事项》,于2005年进一步拟订国际化学品管理的战略办法,并敦促联合国环境规划署、化学品安全论坛、处理化学品管理问题的其他国际组织和其他有关国际组织和行动者酌情就此开展密切合作; (c) 鼓励各国尽快采用全球化学品统一分类和标签制度,以便在2008年全面实行这一制度; (d) 鼓励建立伙伴关系以促进以下列事项为目的的活动:加强对化学品的无害环境管理,执行多边环境协定,提高对化学品和危险废物相关问题的认识,以及鼓励更多地收集和利用科学资料; (e) 以符合有关国际文书、例如《控制危险废物越境转移及其处巴塞尔公约》 所规定义务的方式,促进努力防止危险化学品和危险废物跨界运送和处置造成的这些化学品的非法国际贩运; (f) 鼓励建立关于化学品的连贯一致移登记册;的综合资料,例如通过建立全国污染物释放和转移登记册; (g) 促进减少有害人体健康和环境的重金属构成的风险,具体做法包括审查有关研究结果,例如联合国环境规划署有关水银及其化合物的全球评估。 四. 保护和管理经济和社会发展的自然资源基础 24. 人类活动对生态系统品质影响日益增加,生态系统为人类福祉和经济活动提供必要的资源和服务。持续和综合管理自然资源的基础对可持续发展至关紧要。在这方面,为了尽早扭转自然资源损害的目前趋势,必须执行将国家以及酌情在区域一级通过的目标包括在内的战略,以保护生态系统和统一管理土地、水和生物质资源,同时加强区域、国家和地方的能力,其中包括在各级采取的行动如下。 * * * 25. 发起一项行动方案,提供财政和技术援助,以实现关于安全饮水的千年发展目标。在这方面,我们同意在至迟2015年使无法得到或负担不起安全饮用水的人口降低一半的《联合国千年宣言》目标,并使无法得到较好卫生设施的人口降低一半。这将包括在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 在各级调动国际、国内资金,转让技术,促进最佳做法并支持能力建设,用于发展水和环境卫生基础设施和服务,确保这些基础设施和服务满足穷人的需要,并照顾到性别; (b) 便利获得公开信息和在各级的参与,包括妇女的参与,支持与水资源管理和项目实施有关的政策和决策; (c) 促进政府在其他利害攸关者的支持下优先采取行动,国家一级和酌情在区域一级对水进行管理及进行能力建设,并促进和提供新的和额外财政资源,以执行《21世纪议程》第18章; (d) 采用负担得起的环境卫生技术以及工业和国内废水处理技术,以及减少地下水污染的影响,并在国家一级制定监测制度和有效的法律框架,以加紧防治水污染,减少卫生危害和保护生态系统; (e) 采用预防和保护措施,促进可持续的水利用,并处理水短缺问题。 26. 支持发展中国家到2005年年底前制定出水资源综合管理和提高用水效率的规划,需在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 制定和执行关于河流流域、水域和地下水综合管理的国家和区域战略,规划和方案,以及采取措施提高水基础设施的效率,减少流失,增加水的回收; (b) 使用包括管制、监测、自愿措施、市场工具和信息工具、土地使用管理和回收供水服务成本等整套政策工具,但回收供水服务成本的目标不应成为穷人获得安全用水的障碍,并采用综合水域管理办法; (c) 提高水资源使用效率,提倡优先注意满足人的基本需要,并均衡处理养护或恢复特别是脆弱环境中生态品质的需要,同人类家庭、工农业,包括保护饮用水质量的需要,促进各种用途的水的分配;
(d) Provide financial and technological support, as appropriate, to rural communities of developing countries to enable them to benefit from safe and sustainable livelihood opportunities in small-scale mining ventures; (e) Provide support to developing countries for the development of safe low-cost technologies that provide or conserve fuel for cooking and water heating; (f) Provide support for natural resource management for creating sustainable livelihoods for the poor. 11. By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, as proposed in the “Cities without slums” initiative. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Improve access to land and property, to adequate shelter and to basic services for the urban and rural poor, with special attention to female heads of household; (b) Use low-cost and sustainable materials and appropriate technologies for the construction of adequate and secure housing for the poor, with financial and technological assistance to developing countries, taking into account their culture, climate, specific social conditions and vulnerability to natural disasters; (c) Increase decent employment, credit and income for the urban poor, through appropriate national policies, promoting equal opportunities for women and men; (d) Remove unnecessary regulatory and other obstacles for microenterprises and the informal sector; (e) Support local authorities in elaborating slum upgrading programmes within the framework of urban development plans and facilitate access, particularly for the poor, to information on housing legislation. 12. Take immediate and effective measures to eliminate the worst forms of child labour as defined in International Labour Organization Convention No. 182, and elaborate and implement strategies for the elimination of child labour that is contrary to accepted international standards. 13. Promote international cooperation to assist developing countries, upon request, in addressing child labour and its root causes, inter alia, through social and economic policies aimed at poverty conditions, while stressing that labour standards should not be used for protectionist trade purposes. III. Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production 14. Fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development. All countries should promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, with the developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, taking into account the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Governments, relevant international organizations, the private sector and all major groups should play an active role in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns. This would include the actions at all levels set out below. 15. Encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production to promote social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems by addressing and, where appropriate, delinking economic growth and environmental degradation through improving efficiency and sustainability in the use of resources and production processes and reducing resource degradation, pollution and waste. All countries should take action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development needs and capabilities of developing countries, through mobilization, from all sources, of financial and technical assistance and capacity-building for developing countries. This would require actions at all levels to: (a) Identify specific activities, tools, policies, measures and monitoring and assessment mechanisms, including, where appropriate, life-cycle analysis and national indicators for measuring progress, bearing in mind that standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries; (b) Adopt and implement policies and measures aimed at promoting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, applying, inter alia, the polluter-pays principle described in principle 16 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; (c) Develop production and consumption policies to improve the products and services provided, while reducing environmental and health impacts, using, where appropriate, science-based approaches, such as life-cycle analysis; (d) Develop awareness-raising programmes on the importance of sustainable production and consumption patterns, particularly among youth and the relevant segments in all countries, especially in developed countries, through, inter alia, education, public and consumer information, advertising and other media, taking into account local, national and regional cultural values; (e) Develop and adopt, where appropriate, on a voluntary basis, effective, transparent, verifiable, non-misleading and non-discriminatory consumer information tools to provide information relating to sustainable consumption and production, including human health and safety aspects. These tools should not be used as disguised trade barriers; (f) Increase eco-efficiency, with financial support from all sources, where mutually agreed, for capacity-building, technology transfer and exchange of technology with developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in cooperation with relevant international organizations. 16. Increase investment in cleaner production and eco-efficiency in all countries through, inter alia, incentives and support schemes and policies directed at establishing appropriate regulatory, financial and legal frameworks. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Establish and support cleaner production programmes and centres and more efficient production methods by providing, inter alia, incentives and capacity-building to assist enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, particularly in developing countries, in improving productivity and sustainable development; (b) Provide incentives for investment in cleaner production and eco-efficiency in all countries, such as state-financed loans, venture capital, technical assistance and training programmes for small and medium-sized companies while avoiding trade-distorting measures inconsistent with the rules of the World Trade Organization; (c) Collect and disseminate information on cost-effective examples in cleaner production, eco-efficiency and environmental management and promote the exchange of best practices and know-how on environmentally sound technologies between public and private institutions; (d) Provide training programmes to small and medium-sized enterprises on the use of information and communication technologies. 17. Integrate the issue of production and consumption patterns into sustainable development policies, programmes and strategies, including, where applicable, into poverty reduction strategies. 18. Enhance corporate environmental and social responsibility and accountability. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Encourage industry to improve social and environmental performance through voluntary initiatives, including environmental management systems, codes of conduct, certification and public reporting on environmental and social issues, taking into account such initiatives as the International Organization for Standardization standards and Global Reporting Initiative guidelines on sustainability reporting, bearing in mind principle 11 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; (b) Encourage dialogue between enterprises and the communities in which they operate and other stakeholders; (c) Encourage financial institutions to incorporate sustainable development considerations into their decision-making processes; (d) Develop workplace-based partnerships and programmes, including training and education programmes. 19. Encourage relevant authorities at all levels to take sustainable development considerations into account in decision-making, including on national and local development planning, investment in infrastructure, business development and public procurement. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Provide support for the development of sustainable development strategies and programmes, including in decision-making on investment in infrastructure and business development; (b) Continue to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the costs of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment; (c) Promote public procurement policies that encourage development and diffusion of environmentally sound goods and services; (d) Provide capacity-building and training to assist relevant authorities with regard to the implementation of the initiatives listed in the present paragraph; (e) Use environmental impact assessment procedures. * * * 20. Call upon Governments as well as relevant regional and international organizations and other relevant stakeholders to implement, taking into account national and regional specificities and circumstances, the recommendations and conclusions adopted by the Commission on Sustainable Development concerning energy for sustainable development at its ninth session, including the issues and options set out below, bearing in mind that in view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Take further action to mobilize the provision of financial resources, technology transfer, capacity-building and the diffusion of environmentally sound technologies according to the recommendations and conclusions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, as contained in section A, paragraph 3, and section D, paragraph 30, of its decision 9/1 on energy for sustainable development; (b) Integrate energy considerations, including energy efficiency, affordability and accessibility, into socio-economic programmes, especially into policies of major energy-consuming sectors, and into the planning, operation and maintenance of long-lived energy consuming infrastructures, such as the public sector, transport, industry, agriculture, urban land use, tourism and construction sectors; (c) Develop and disseminate alternative energy technologies with the aim of giving a greater share of the energy mix to renewable energies, improving energy efficiency and greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies; (d) Combine, as appropriate, the increased use of renewable energy resources, more efficient use of energy, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and the sustainable use of traditional energy resources, which could meet the growing need for energy services in the longer term to achieve sustainable development; (e) Diversify energy supply by developing advanced, cleaner, more efficient, affordable and cost-effective energy technologies, including fossil fuel technologies and renewable energy technologies, hydro included, and their transfer to developing countries on concessional terms as mutually agreed. With a sense of urgency, substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources with the objective of increasing its contribution to total energy supply, recognizing the role of national and voluntary regional targets as well as initiatives, where they exist, and ensuring that energy policies are supportive to developing countries’ efforts to eradicate poverty, and regularly evaluate available data to review progress to this end; (f) Support efforts, including through provision of financial and technical assistance to developing countries, with the involvement of the private sector, to reduce flaring and venting of gas associated with crude oil production; (g) Develop and utilize indigenous energy sources and infrastructures for various local uses and promote rural community participation, including local Agenda 21 groups, with the support of the international community, in developing and utilizing renewable energy technologies to meet their daily energy needs to find simple and local solutions; (h) Establish domestic programmes for energy efficiency, including, as appropriate, by accelerating the deployment of energy efficiency technologies, with the necessary support of the international community; (i) Accelerate the development, dissemination and deployment of affordable and cleaner energy efficiency and energy conservation technologies, as well as the transfer of such technologies, in particular to developing countries, on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed; (j) Recommend that international financial institutions and other agencies’ policies support developing countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, in their own efforts to establish policy and regulatory frameworks which create a level playing field between the following: renewable energy, energy efficiency, advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and centralized, distributed and decentralized energy systems; (k) Promote increased research and development in the field of various energy technologies, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, both nationally and through international collaboration; strengthen national and regional research and development institutions/centres on reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy for sustainable development; (l) Promote networking between centres of excellence on energy for sustainable development, including regional networks, by linking competent centres on energy technologies for sustainable development that could support and promote efforts at capacity-building and technology transfer activities, particularly of developing countries, as well as serve as information clearing houses; (m) Promote education to provide information for both men and women about available energy sources and technologies; (n) Utilize financial instruments and mechanisms, in particular the Global Environment Facility, within its mandate, to provide financial resources to developing countries, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States, to meet their capacity needs for training, technical know-how and strengthening national institutions in reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy, including promoting energy efficiency and conservation, renewable energy and advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies; (o) Support efforts to improve the functioning, transparency and information about energy markets with respect to both supply and demand, with the aim of achieving greater stability and predictability, and to ensure consumer access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services; (p) Policies to reduce market distortions would promote energy systems compatible with sustainable development through the use of improved market signals and by removing market distortions, including restructuring taxation and phasing out harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, with such policies taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries, with the aim of minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development; (q) Take action, where appropriate, to phase out subsidies in this area that inhibit sustainable development, taking fully into account the specific conditions and different levels of development of individual countries and considering their adverse effect, particularly on developing countries; (r) Governments are encouraged to improve the functioning of national energy markets in such a way that they support sustainable development, overcome market barriers and improve accessibility, taking fully into account that such policies should be decided by each country, and that its own characteristics and capabilities and level of development should be considered, especially as reflected in national sustainable development strategies, where they exist; (s) Strengthen national and regional energy institutions or arrangements for enhancing regional and international cooperation on energy for sustainable development, in particular to assist developing countries in their domestic efforts to provide reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services to all sections of their populations; (t) Countries are urged to develop and implement actions within the framework of the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, including through public-private partnerships, taking into account the different circumstances of countries, based on lessons learned by Governments, international institutions and stakeholders, including business and industry, in the field of access to energy, including renewable energy and energy-efficiency and advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies; (u) Promote cooperation between international and regional institutions and bodies dealing with different aspects of energy for sustainable development within their existing mandate, bearing in mind paragraph 46 (h) of the Programme of Action for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, strengthening, as appropriate, regional and national activities for the promotion of education and capacity-building regarding energy for sustainable development; (v) Strengthen and facilitate, as appropriate, regional cooperation arrangements for promoting cross-border energy trade, including the interconnection of electricity grids and oil and natural gas pipelines; (w) Strengthen and, where appropriate, facilitate dialogue forums among regional, national and international producers and consumers of energy. * * * 21. Promote an integrated approach to policy-making at the national, regional and local levels for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development, including policies and planning for land use, infrastructure, public transport systems and goods delivery networks, with a view to providing safe, affordable and efficient transportation, increasing energy efficiency, reducing pollution, congestion and adverse health effects and limiting urban sprawl, taking into account national priorities and circumstances. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Implement transport strategies for sustainable development, reflecting specific regional, national and local conditions, to improve the affordability, efficiency and convenience of transportation as well as urban air quality and health and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including through the development of better vehicle technologies that are more environmentally sound, affordable and socially acceptable; (b) Promote investment and partnerships for the development of sustainable, energy efficient multi-modal transportation systems, including public mass transportation systems and better transportation systems in rural areas, with technical and financial assistance for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. * * * 22. Prevent and minimize waste and maximize reuse, recycling and use of environmentally friendly alternative materials, with the participation of government authorities and all stakeholders, in order to minimize adverse effects on the environment and improve resource efficiency, with financial, technical and other assistance for developing countries. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Develop waste management systems, with the highest priority placed on waste prevention and minimization, reuse and recycling, and environmentally sound disposal facilities, including technology to recapture the energy contained in waste, and encourage small-scale waste-recycling initiatives that support urban and rural waste management and provide income-generating opportunities, with international support for developing countries; (b) Promote waste prevention and minimization by encouraging production of reusable consumer goods and biodegradable products and developing the infrastructure required. * * * 23. Renew the commitment, as advanced in Agenda 21, to sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle and of hazardous wastes for sustainable development as well as for the protection of human health and the environment, inter alia, aiming to achieve, by 2020, that chemicals are used and produced in ways that lead to the minimization of significant adverse effects on human health and the environment, using transparent science-based risk assessment procedures and science-based risk management procedures, taking into account the precautionary approach, as set out in principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and support developing countries in strengthening their capacity for the sound management of chemicals and hazardous wastes by providing technical and financial assistance. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Promote the ratification and implementation of relevant international instruments on chemicals and hazardous waste, including the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedures for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade so that it can enter into force by 2003 and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants so that it can enter into force by 2004, and encourage and improve coordination as well as supporting developing countries in their implementation; (b) Further develop a strategic approach to international chemicals management based on the Bahia Declaration and Priorities for Action beyond 2000 of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety by 2005, and urge that the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Forum, other international organizations dealing with chemical management and other relevant international organizations and actors closely cooperate in this regard, as appropriate; (c) Encourage countries to implement the new globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of chemicals as soon as possible with a view to having the system fully operational by 2008; (d) Encourage partnerships to promote activities aimed at enhancing environmentally sound management of chemicals and hazardous wastes, implementing multilateral environmental agreements, raising awareness of issues relating to chemicals and hazardous waste and encouraging the collection and use of additional scientific data; (e) Promote efforts to prevent international illegal trafficking of hazardous chemicals and hazardous wastes and to prevent damage resulting from the transboundary movement and disposal of hazardous wastes in a manner consistent with obligations under relevant international instruments, such as the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal; (f) Encourage development of coherent and integrated information on chemicals, such as through national pollutant release and transfer registers; (g) Promote reduction of the risks posed by heavy metals that are harmful to human health and the environment, including through a review of relevant studies, such as the United Nations Environment Programme global assessment of mercury and its compounds. IV. Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development 24. Human activities are having an increasing impact on the integrity of ecosystems that provide essential resources and services for human well-being and economic activities. Managing the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner is essential for sustainable development. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities. This would include actions at all levels as set out below. 25. Launch a programme of actions, with financial and technical assistance, to achieve the Millennium development goal on safe drinking water. In this respect, we agree to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water, as outlined in the Millennium Declaration, and the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation, which would include actions at all levels to: (a) Mobilize international and domestic financial resources at all levels, transfer technology, promote best practice and support capacity-building for water and sanitation infrastructure and services development, ensuring that such infrastructure and services meet the needs of the poor and are gender-sensitive; (b) Facilitate access to public information and participation, including by women, at all levels in support of policy and decision-making related to water resources management and project implementation; (c) Promote priority action by Governments, with the support of all stakeholders, in water management and capacity-building at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level, and promote and provide new and additional financial resources and innovative technologies to implement chapter 18 of Agenda 21; (d) Intensify water pollution prevention to reduce health hazards and protect ecosystems by introducing technologies for affordable sanitation and industrial and domestic wastewater treatment, by mitigating the effects of groundwater contamination and by establishing, at the national level, monitoring systems and effective legal frameworks; (e) Adopt prevention and protection measures to promote sustainable water use and to address water shortages. 26. Develop integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries, through actions at all levels to: (a) Develop and implement national/regional strategies, plans and programmes with regard to integrated river basin, watershed and groundwater management and introduce measures to improve the efficiency of water infrastructure to reduce losses and increase recycling of water; (b) Employ the full range of policy instruments, including regulation, monitoring, voluntary measures, market and information-based tools, land-use management and cost recovery of water services, without cost recovery objectives becoming a barrier to access to safe water by poor people, and adopt an integrated water basin approach; (c) Improve the efficient use of water resources and promote their allocation among competing uses in a way that gives priority to the satisfaction of basic human needs and balances the requirement of preserving or restoring ecosystems and their functions, in particular in fragile environments, with human domestic, industrial and agriculture needs, including safeguarding drinking water quality; (d) Develop programmes for mitigating the effects of extreme water-related events; (e) Support the diffusion of technology and capacity-building for non-conventional water resources and conservation technologies, to developing countries and regions facing water scarcity conditions or subject to drought and desertification, through technical and financial support and capacity-building; (f) Support, where appropriate, efforts and programmes for energy-efficient, sustainable and cost-effective desalination of seawater, water recycling and water harvesting from coastal fogs in developing countries, through such measures as technological, technical and financial assistance and other modalities; (g) Facilitate the establishment of public-private partnerships and other forms of partnership that give priority to the needs of the poor, within stable and transparent national regulatory frameworks provided by Governments, while respecting local conditions, involving all concerned stakeholders, and monitoring the performance and improving accountability of public institutions and private companies. 27. Support developing countries and countries with economies in transition in their efforts to monitor and assess the quantity and quality of water resources, including through the establishment and/or further development of national monitoring networks and water resources databases and the development of relevant national indicators. 28. Improve water resource management and scientific understanding of the water cycle through cooperation in joint observation and research, and for this purpose encourage and promote knowledge-sharing and provide capacity-building and the transfer of technology, as mutually agreed, including remote-sensing and satellite technologies, particularly to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. 29. Promote effective coordination among the various international and intergovernmental bodies and processes working on water-related issues, both within the United Nations system and between the United Nations and international financial institutions, drawing on the contributions of other international institutions and civil society to inform intergovernmental decision-making; closer coordination should also be promoted to elaborate and support proposals and undertake activities related to the International Year of Freshwater, 2003 and beyond. * * * 30. Oceans, seas, islands and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical for global food security and for sustaining economic prosperity and the well-being of many national economies, particularly in developing countries. Ensuring the sustainable development of the oceans requires effective coordination and cooperation, including at the global and regional levels, between relevant bodies, and actions at all levels to: (a) Invite States to ratify or accede to and implement the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982, which provides the overall legal framework for ocean activities; (b) Promote the implementation of chapter 17 of Agenda 21, which provides the programme of action for achieving the sustainable development of oceans, coastal areas and seas through its programme areas of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas, including exclusive economic zones; marine environmental protection; sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources; addressing critical uncertainties for the management of the marine environment and climate change; strengthening international, including regional, cooperation and coordination; and sustainable development of small islands; (c) Establish an effective, transparent and regular inter-agency coordination mechanism on ocean and coastal issues within the United Nations system; (d) Encourage the application by 2010 of the ecosystem approach, noting the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem and decision V/6 of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity; (e) Promote integrated, multidisciplinary and multisectoral coastal and ocean management at the national level and encourage and assist coastal States in developing ocean policies and mechanisms on integrated coastal management; (f) Strengthen regional cooperation and coordination between the relevant regional organizations and programmes, the regional seas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme, regional fisheries management organizations and other regional science, health and development organizations; (g) Assist developing countries in coordinating policies and programmes at the regional and subregional levels aimed at the conservation and sustainable management of fishery resources and implement integrated coastal area management plans, including through the promotion of sustainable coastal and small-scale fishing activities and, where appropriate, the development of related infrastructure; (h) Take note of the work of the open-ended informal consultative process established by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 54/33 in order to facilitate the annual review by the Assembly of developments in ocean affairs and the upcoming review of its effectiveness and utility to be held at its fifty-seventh session under the terms of the above-mentioned resolution. 31. To achieve sustainable fisheries, the following actions are required at all levels: (a) Maintain or restore stocks to levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield with the aim of achieving these goals for depleted stocks on an urgent basis and where possible not later than 2015; (b) Ratify or accede to and effectively implement the relevant United Nations and, where appropriate, associated regional fisheries agreements or arrangements, noting in particular the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and the 1993 Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas; (c) Implement the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, taking note of the special requirements of developing countries as noted in its article 5, and the relevant international plans of action and technical guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; (d) Urgently develop and implement national and, where appropriate, regional plans of action, to put into effect the international plans of action of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in particular the International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity by 2005 and the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing by 2004. Establish effective monitoring, reporting and enforcement, and control of fishing vessels, including by flag States, to further the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing;(d) 制定方案,减少与水有关的极端事件的影响;
(e) Encourage relevant regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements to give due consideration to the rights, duties and interests of coastal States and the special requirements of developing States when addressing the issue of the allocation of share of fishery resources for straddling stocks and highly migratory fish stocks, mindful of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, on the high seas and within exclusive economic zones;(e) 通过提供技术和财政支助以及能力建设,将非常规水资源技术和能力建设以及养护技术传播给面临缺水或遭受干旱和荒漠化的发展中国家和地区;
(f) Eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and to over-capacity, while completing the efforts undertaken at the World Trade Organization to clarify and improve its disciplines on fisheries subsidies, taking into account the importance of this sector to developing countries;(f) 通过技术援助以及技术性和财政援助和其他方式,支持高能效、可持续和高成本效益的海水淡化、水回收和从发展中国家岸边的雾回收用过的水;
(g) Strengthen donor coordination and partnerships between international financial institutions, bilateral agencies and other relevant stakeholders to enable developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States and countries with economies in transition, to develop their national, regional and subregional capacities for infrastructure and integrated management and the sustainable use of fisheries;(g) 在政府提供的稳定和透明的国家管理框架内,便利建立优先照顾穷人需要的公私伙伴关系及其他形式的伙伴关系,同时尊重当地情况,吸纳一切相关的利益有关者参加,并监测效益和改进公共机构和私人公司的问责制。
(h) Support the sustainable development of aquaculture, including small-scale aquaculture, given its growing importance for food security and economic development.27. 支持发展中国家和转型期经济国家监测和评估水资源的数量和质量的工作,包括通过建立和(或)进一步发展国家监测网和水资源数据库并制定有关的国家指标。 28. 通过合作进行联合观测和研究,改善水资源管理和科学地了解水的周期,并为此目的鼓励并提倡知识分享,进行能力建设,相互商定特别向发展中国家和转型期经济国家转让技术,包括遥感和卫星技术。 29. 促进与水问题有关的各种国际和政府间机构及过程在联合国系统之内和联合国与国际金融机构之间的有效协调,并吸收其他国际机构和民间社会的意见,在知情后作出政府间决策,还应进行更密切的协调,就《国际淡水年(2003年)》之前和之后的活动,详细制定和支助各项建议并开展活动。 * * * 30. 大洋、各种海洋、岛屿和沿岸地区是地球生态系统的完整和必要的组成部分,是全球粮食安全、可持续经济繁荣和许多国家经济体,尤其是发展中国家的幸福的关键。保证海洋的可持续发展需要有关机构包括在全球和区域两级进行有效协调和合作,并在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 请各国批准或加入和执行1982年《联合国海洋法公约》, 该《公约》为海洋活动提供了总的法律框架;
32. In accordance with chapter 17 of Agenda 21, promote the conservation and management of the oceans through actions at all levels, giving due regard to the relevant international instruments to:(b) 促进执行《21世纪议程》第17章,该章规定了实现大洋、沿岸区和各种海洋可持续发展的行动纲领包括下列方案领域:沿海区、包括专属经济区的综合管理和可持续发展;海洋环境保护;可持续地善用和保护公海的海洋生物资源;处理海洋环境管理方面的重大不确定因素和气候变化;加强国际,包括区域的合作和协调;小岛屿的可持续发展;
(a) Maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable marine and coastal areas, including in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction; (b) Implement the work programme arising from the Jakarta Mandate on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity, including through the urgent mobilization of financial resources and technological assistance and the development of human and institutional capacity, particularly in developing countries; (c) Develop and facilitate the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, the elimination of destructive fishing practices, the establishment of marine protected areas consistent with international law and based on scientific information, including representative networks by 2012 and time/area closures for the protection of nursery grounds and periods, proper coastal land use and watershed planning and the integration of marine and coastal areas management into key sectors;(c) 在联合国系统内建立有效的、透明的和经常性的机构间海洋和沿岸问题协调机制;
(d) Develop national, regional and international programmes for halting the loss of marine biodiversity, including in coral reefs and wetlands;(d) 鼓励在2010年年底前推行生态系统办法,注意到《在海洋生态系统负责任渔业雷克雅未克宣言》 和《生物多样性公约》缔约国会议的第5/6号决定; (e) 促进在国家一级综合、多学科及多部门沿岸及海洋鼓励和协助沿海国制订关于综合沿岸管理的海洋政策及机制; (f) 加强有关区域组织和方案、环境规划署区域环境方案、区域渔业管理组织和其他区域科学卫生和发展组织之间的区域合作和协调; (g) 协助发展中国家在区域和分区域两级协调政策及方案,以养护和可持续管理渔业资源,并执行综合沿岸地区管理计划,包括通过促进可持续沿岸及小规模捕鱼活动,并酌情建立相关基础设施; (h) 注意到联合国大会第54/33号决议建立的不限参加者名额的非正式协商进程为便利大会每年审查海洋事务的发展情况而进行的工作,以及大会第五十七届会议上即将根据上述决议的规定对于该进程的效果和作用进行审查; 31. 为实现可持续渔业,应在各级采取以下行动: (a) 维持种群数量或使之恢复到可以生产最佳可持续产出的水平,以期为枯竭的种群紧急实现这些目标,在可能情况下不迟于2015年实现; (b) 批准或加入和有效执行有关的联合国渔业协定或安排,并酌情执行有关区域渔业协定和安排,尤其是《执行1982年12月10日联合国海洋法公约有关养护和管理跨界鱼类种群和高度洄游鱼类种群的规定的协定》 以及1993年《促进公海渔船遵守国际养护和管理措施的协定》; (c) 执行1995年《负责任渔业行动守则》, 并考虑到第5款、以及联合国粮食及农业组织有关国际行动计划和技术准则所述发展中国家的特殊需要; (d) 紧急制定和实施国家行动计划,并酌情实施区域行动计划,实施粮农组织国际行动计划,特别是在2005年年底前实施《管理捕捞能力国际行动计划》和2004年年底前实施《预防、阻止和消除非法、未报告和无管制的捕捞活动国际行动计划》。建立有效监测、报告和强制执行以及控制渔船包括由船旗国进行的机制,以进一步实行《预防、阻止和消除非法、未报告和无管制的捕捞活动国际行动计划》;
(e) Implement the Ramsar Convention, including its joint work programme with the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the programme of action called for by the International Coral Reef Initiative to strengthen joint management plans and international networking for wetland ecosystems in coastal zones, including coral reefs, mangroves, seaweed beds and tidal mud flats.(e) 鼓励有关区域渔业管理组织和安排,在审议分配跨界鱼类种群和高度洄游鱼类种群的渔业资源问题时充分考虑到沿海国的权利、义务和利益以及发展中国家的特别需求,顾及《联合国海洋法公约》的规定以及《执行1982年12月10日联合国海洋法公约有关在公海和专属经济区内养护和管理跨界鱼类种群和高度洄游鱼类种群的规定的协定》;
33. Advance implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities and the Montreal Declaration on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, with particular emphasis during the period from 2002 to 2006 on municipal wastewater, the physical alteration and destruction of habitats, and nutrients, by actions at all levels to:(f) 消除补贴导致非法、未报告和无管制的捕捞和能力过剩,完成世界贸易组织(世贸组织)所致力的澄清和改善渔业补贴纪律的工作,并考虑到这一部门对发展中国家的重要性; (g) 加强捐助者的合作和国际金融机构、双边机构和其他相关利益有关者之间的伙伴关系,使发展中国家,尤其是最不发达国家和小岛屿发展中国家和经济转型期国家发展本国、本区域和分区域的能力,促进渔业基础设施的综合管理和可持续利用; (h) 支助水产养殖,包括小规模水产养殖的可持续发展,考虑到它对粮食安全和经济发展越来越重要。 32. 按照《21世纪议程》第17章,促进养护和管理海洋,办法是在各级采取行动,并充分考虑到有关国际文书,以便: (a) 维持重要、脆弱的海洋和沿海地区,包括国际管辖以外地区的生产力和生物多样性; (b) 通过紧急调动资金、技术援助和尤其是在发展中国家开发人力和建设机构能力等,实施根据《关于养护和可持续利用海洋和沿海生物多样性的雅加达任务规定》 制定的工作方案; (c) 制定和便利使用多种办法和工具,包括生态系统办法,消除破坏性的捕鱼做法,在2010年年底前根据国际法和科学情报(包括代表参加的网络)建立海洋保护区,以及建立保护育苗场和期间的时间/地区包围圈,恰当的沿岸土地使用,分水规划并将海洋和沿岸地区管理纳入关键部门; (d) 制订国家、区域和国际方案,以阻止海洋生物多样性包括珊瑚礁和湿地的消失; (e) 实施《拉姆萨尔公约》, 包括与《生物多样性公约》 和《国际珊瑚礁倡议》要求执行的行动方案有关的联合工作方案,加强联合管理计划和沿海区湿地生态系统,包括珊瑚礁、红树林、海草床和感潮淤泥地的国际网络。 33. 提前执行《保护海洋环境免受陆上活动影响全球行动纲领》 和《保护海洋环境免受陆上活动影响蒙特利尔宣言》, 在2002至2006年期间特别侧重注意城市废水、生境的改变和破坏,及养分,在各级采取行动,以:
(a) Facilitate partnerships, scientific research and diffusion of technical knowledge; mobilize domestic, regional and international resources; and promote human and institutional capacity-building, paying particular attention to the needs of developing countries;(a) 促进伙伴关系、科学研究和传播技术知识;调动国内、区域和国际资源;提倡人力和机构能力建设,特别注意发展中国家的需要;
(b) Strengthen the capacity of developing countries in the development of their national and regional programmes and mechanisms to mainstream the objectives of the Global Programme of Action and to manage the risks and impacts of ocean pollution;(b) 加强发展中国家在下列方面的能力:制订本国和区域方案和机制,将《全球行动纲领》的目标纳入主流,并管理海洋污染的风险和影响;
(c) Elaborate regional programmes of action and improve the links with strategic plans for the sustainable development of coastal and marine resources, noting in particular areas that are subject to accelerated environmental changes and development pressures;(c) 拟订区域行动纲领并改进海岸和和海洋资源可持续发展战略计划的联系,特别注意环境加速变化和遭受发展压力的领域;
(d) Make every effort to achieve substantial progress by the next Global Programme of Action conference in 2006 to protect the marine environment from land-based activities.(d) 尽一切努力,在2006年下一次全球行动纲领会议举行之前取得实质性的进展,保护海洋环境不受陆上活动的影响。
34. Enhance maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from pollution by actions at all levels to:34. 为加强海洋安全和保护海洋环境不受污染,在各级采取行动,以便:
(a) Invite States to ratify or accede to and implement the conventions and protocols and other relevant instruments of the International Maritime Organization relating to the enhancement of maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from marine pollution and environmental damage caused by ships, including the use of toxic anti-fouling paints, and urge the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to consider stronger mechanisms to secure the implementation of IMO instruments by flag States;(a) 请批准、加入和执行国际海事组织(海事组织)有关下列方面的各项公约、议定书和其他有关文书:提高海洋安全和保护海洋环境免受船只包括使用有毒防污油漆造成的海洋污染和环境破坏,并促请国际海事组织(海事组织)考虑实施更大力的机制以确保船旗国执行海事组织的文书;
(b) Accelerate the development of measures to address invasive alien species in ballast water. Urge the International Maritime Organization to finalize its draft International Convention on the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments.(b) 加速制订各种措施,以处理压载水中的外来物种入侵的问题。敦促海事组织订定其将于2003年通过的《船只压载水和沈积物的控制和管理国际公约》草案。
35. Governments, taking into account their national circumstances, are encouraged, recalling paragraph 8 of resolution GC (44)/RES/17 of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and taking into account the very serious potential for environment and human health impacts of radioactive wastes, to make efforts to examine and further improve measures and internationally agreed regulations regarding safety, while stressing the importance of having effective liability mechanisms in place, relevant to international maritime transportation and other transboundary movement of radioactive material, radioactive waste and spent fuel, including, inter alia, arrangements for prior notification and consultations done in accordance with relevant international instruments.35. 回顾国际原子能机构大会GC(44)/RES/17号决议第8段,并考虑到放射性废物可能对环境和人类健康造成非常严重的影响,鼓励各国政府在考虑到其本国国情,作出努力审查并进一步改进关于安全问题的各种措施和国际议定的条例,同时强调必须设立有效的涉及下列方面的赔偿责任机制:辐射性材料、辐射性废物和用过的核燃料的国际海上运输和其他跨边界移动,其中特别包括依照有关国际文书事先通知和协商的安排。
36. Improve the scientific understanding and assessment of marine and coastal ecosystems as a fundamental basis for sound decision-making, through actions at all levels to:36. 改进对海洋和沿岸生态系统的科学认识和评估,作为健全决策的根本依据,通过各级的行动,以便:
(a) Increase scientific and technical collaboration, including integrated assessment at the global and regional levels, including the appropriate transfer of marine science and marine technologies and techniques for the conservation and management of living and non-living marine resources and expanding ocean-observing capabilities for the timely prediction and assessment of the state of marine environment;(a) 在全球和区域两级增加科技合作,包括适当转让海洋科学和海洋技术和养护以及管理海洋生物和非生物资源的技术,扩大海洋观测能力,及时预测和评估海洋环境状况;
(b) Establish by 2004 a regular process under the United Nations for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects, both current and foreseeable, building on existing regional assessments;(b) 在2004年在联合国建立一个经常过程,在现有区域评估的基础上,就海洋环境、包括社会经济方面的状况作出全球报告和评估;
(c) Build capacity in marine science, information and management, through, inter alia, promoting the use of environmental impact assessments and environmental evaluation and reporting techniques, for projects or activities that are potentially harmful to the coastal and marine environments and their living and non-living resources;(c) 建立海洋科学、信息和管理能力,除其他外,对于可能有害沿海和海洋环境及其生物和非生物资源的项目或活动,提倡使用环境影响评估和环境评价和报告技术;
(d) Strengthen the ability of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other relevant international and regional and subregional organizations to build national and local capacity in marine science and the sustainable management of oceans and their resources.(d) 加强联合国教育、科学及文化组织(教科文组织)政府间海洋学委员会、粮农组织和其他有关国际、区域和分区域组织下列的能力:在海洋科学以及海洋及其资源的可持续管理方面建立国家和地方能力。
* * ** * *
37. An integrated, multi-hazard, inclusive approach to address vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, is an essential element of a safer world in the twenty-first century. Actions are required at all levels to:37. 在21世纪,为了使世界更加安全,必须采取综合、对付多种危害和广泛包含的方法来处理脆弱性、风险评估和灾害管理的问题,包括预防、减轻、事先准备、应付和复原。必须在各级采取行动,以便:
(a) Strengthen the role of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and encourage the international community to provide the necessary financial resources to its Trust Fund;(a) 加强国际减少灾害战略的作用,鼓励国际社会向其信托基金提供必要的财政资源;
(b) Support the establishment of effective regional, subregional and national strategies and scientific and technical institutional support for disaster management;(b) 支助制定有效的区域、分区域和国家战略并为灾害管理提供机构性科学和技术支助;
(c) Strengthen the institutional capacities of countries and promote international joint observation and research, through improved surface-based monitoring and increased use of satellite data, dissemination of technical and scientific knowledge, and the provision of assistance to vulnerable countries;(c) 改进地面的监测和增加使用卫星数据,传播技术和科学知识,并向易受侵害的国家提供援助,以加强国家的机构能力和促进国际联合观测和研究;
(d) Reduce the risks of flooding and drought in vulnerable countries by, inter alia, promoting wetland and watershed protection and restoration, improved land-use planning, improving and applying more widely techniques and methodologies for assessing the potential adverse effects of climate change on wetlands and, as appropriate, assisting countries that are particularly vulnerable to those effects;(d) 除其他外,促进湿地和集水区的保护和复原,改进土地使用计划,更广泛应用改进的技术和方法来评估气候变化对湿地可能造成的不利影响,斟酌情况协助特别受这方面侵害的国家,以减低易受侵害的国家遭受水灾和干旱的危险;
(e) Improve techniques and methodologies for assessing the effects of climate change, and encourage the continuing assessment of those adverse effects by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;(e) 改进评估气候变化的影响的技术和方法,并鼓励政府间气候变化问题小组继续评估这种不利的影响;
(f) Encourage the dissemination and use of traditional and indigenous knowledge to mitigate the impact of disasters and promote community-based disaster management planning by local authorities, including through training activities and raising public awareness;(f) 鼓励传播和使用传统的和本地的知识,减轻自然灾害的影响,促进地方当局制订社区灾害管理计划,包括举行训练活动和提高大众的意识;
(g) Support the ongoing voluntary contribution of, as appropriate, non-governmental organizations, the scientific community and other partners in the management of natural disasters according to agreed, relevant guidelines;(g) 斟酌情况,依照议定的有关准则支助非政府组织、科技界和其他伙伴目前在自然灾害管理方面作出的自愿贡献;
(h) Develop and strengthen early warning systems and information networks in disaster management, consistent with the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction;(h) 发展和加强灾害管理的、符合国际减少灾害战略的早期警报系统和信息网络;
(i) Develop and strengthen capacity at all levels to collect and disseminate scientific and technical information, including the improvement of early warning systems for predicting extreme weather events, especially El Niño/La Niña, through the provision of assistance to institutions devoted to addressing such events, including the International Centre for the Study of the El Niño phenomenon;(i) 发展和加强各级收集和传播科技信息的能力,包括改进预测极端气候、特别是关于厄尔尼诺/拉尼娜现象的早期警报系统,向机构、包括国际厄尔尼诺现象研究中心提供专门应付这些气候的援助;
(j) Promote cooperation for the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to and recovery from major technological and other disasters with an adverse impact on the environment in order to enhance the capabilities of affected countries to cope with such situations.(j) 在对环境有不利影响的重大技术灾害和其他灾害后,提倡在预防、减轻、救济和灾后复原中进行合作,以便提高受灾害国家应对这一局面的能力。
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38. Change in the Earth’s climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind. We remain deeply concerned that all countries, particularly developing countries, including the least developed countries and small island developing States, face increased risks of negative impacts of climate change and recognize that, in this context, the problems of poverty, land degradation, access to water and food and human health remain at the centre of global attention. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the key instrument for addressing climate change, a global concern, and we reaffirm our commitment to achieving its ultimate objective of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner, in accordance with our common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Recalling the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in which heads of State and Government resolved to make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, preferably by the tenth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 2002, and to embark on the required reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases, States that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol strongly urge States that have not already done so to ratify it in a timely manner. Actions at all levels are required to:38. 全球气候变化及其所产生的不利影响是人类共同关心的问题。我们仍然深为关切所有国家,特别是发展中国家,其中包括最不发达国家和小岛屿发展中国家,日益面临气候改变的不良影响,并认识到在这方面,贫穷、土地退化、获取饮水和粮食和人类健康仍然是全球最关注的问题。《联合国气候变化框架公约》 是关于气候改变这项全球关注问题的关键文书,我们重申我们决心实现该公约的最终目标:将大气温室气体浓度稳定下来,使人类对气候系统进行的干挠不到达危险的程度,必须根据我们不同的责任和各自的能力,在一定的时限内实现这一目标,以便生态系统能够自然地适应气候变化,确保粮食生产不受到威胁、经济发展能够持续进行。回顾《联合国千年宣言》,各国元首和政府首脑在宣言中决心竭尽全力确保《联合国气候变化框架公约》的《京都议定书》 生效,最好在2002年联合国环境与发展会议十周年之前生效,而且开始按规定减少温室气体的排放,已批准《京都议定书》的国家大力敦促尚未这样做的国家及时批准该文书。需要在各级采取行动,以便:
(a) Meet all the commitments and obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;(a) 履行《联合国气候变化框架公约》下的一切承诺和义务;
(b) Work cooperatively towards achieving the objectives of the Convention;(b) 合作致力达成《公约》的各项目标;
(c) Provide technical and financial assistance and capacity-building to developing countries and countries with economies in transition in accordance with commitments under the Convention, including the Marrakesh Accords;(c) 按照在《公约》,包括《马拉克什协定》 下所作的承诺,向发展中国家和经济转型期国家提供技术和财政援助;
(d) Build and enhance scientific and technological capabilities, inter alia, through continuing support to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the exchange of scientific data and information especially in developing countries;(d) 为交换科学数据和资料,除了别的以外通过持续支助政府间气候变化问题小组,建立和加强科学和技术能力,尤其是在发展中国家;
(e) Develop and transfer technological solutions;(e) 开发和转让技术解决办法; (f) 发展和散播关键发展部门,特别是能源方面的创新技术,和这方面的投资,包括通过私营部门的参与、面向市场的办法、和有利的公共政策和国际合作;
(f) Develop and disseminate innovative technologies in regard to key sectors of development, particularly energy, and of investment in this regard, including through private sector involvement, market-oriented approaches, and supportive public policies and international cooperation;(g) 促进系统地观察地球的大气层、陆地和海洋,方法是改善观测站,扩大利用卫星,适当归纳这些观察结果,以产生可传播供各国,尤其是发展中国家使用的高质量数据;
(g) Promote the systematic observation of the Earth’s atmosphere, land and oceans by improving monitoring stations, increasing the use of satellites and appropriate integration of these observations to produce high-quality data that could be disseminated for the use of all countries, in particular developing countries;(h) 除了别的以外在与相关的国际组织,特别是各专门机构协作下,同《公约》合作,扩大实施国家、区域和国际战略,以监测地球的大气层、陆地和海洋,包括斟酌情况,实施全球综合观察战略;
(h) Enhance the implementation of national, regional and international strategies to monitor the Earth’s atmosphere, land and oceans, including, as appropriate, strategies for integrated global observations, inter alia, with the cooperation of relevant international organizations, especially the specialized agencies, in cooperation with the Convention;(i) 支持各项评估气候变化后果的倡议,例如北极理事会倡议,包括评估对地方和土著社区的环境、经济和社会影响。
(i) Support initiatives to assess the consequences of climate change, such as the Arctic Council initiative, including the environmental, economic and social impacts on local and indigenous communities.39. 铭记着里奥各项原则,特别包括下列原则:鉴于各国在造成全球环境退化方面的作用不同,而负有共同但有区别的责任,加强在国际、区域和国家各级的合作,减少空气污染,包括越境空气污染、酸沉积作用和臭氧枯竭并在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 加强发展中国家和经济转型期国家测量、减少和评估空气污染影响的能力,包括对健康的影响,并为这些活动提供财政和技术支助;
39. Enhance cooperation at the international, regional and national levels to reduce air pollution, including transboundary air pollution, acid deposition and ozone depletion, bearing in mind the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle that, in view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities, with actions at all levels to:(b) 确保在2003/2005年之前充分补充资金,促进执行《关于消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书》;
(a) Strengthen capacities of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to measure, reduce and assess the impacts of air pollution, including health impacts, and provide financial and technical support for these activities;(c) 进一步支持《保护臭氧层维也纳公约》和《蒙特利尔议定书》所建立的关于保护臭氧层的有效机制,包括其遵守机制;
(b) Facilitate implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer by ensuring adequate replenishment of its fund by 2003/2005;(d) 铭记臭氧枯竭和气候变化的科学和技术方面是相互有关的,在2010年之前,加强向发展中国家提供负担得起、容易得到、成本效益高、安全和无害环境的物质,以取代消耗臭氧层物质,协助这些国家遵守《蒙特利尔议定书》规定的分阶段淘汰计划;
(c) Further support the effective regime for the protection of the ozone layer established in the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol, including its compliance mechanism;(e) 采取措施对付非法贩运消耗臭氧层的物质。
(d) Improve access by developing countries to affordable, accessible, cost-effective, safe and environmentally sound alternatives to ozone-depleting substances by 2010, and assist them in complying with the phase-out schedule under the Montreal Protocol, bearing in mind that ozone depletion and climate change are scientifically and technically interrelated;* * *
(e) Take measures to address illegal traffic in ozone-depleting substances.40. 农业在满足不断增加的全球人口的需求方面发挥至关重要的作用,而且与消除贫穷密切相关,尤其是在发展中国家。必须提高妇女在农村发展、农业、营养和粮食安全等的所有层面和所有方面上的作用。可持续农业和农村发展,对于以环境上可持续的方式在扩大粮食生产和加强粮食安全及食品无害方面采取综合办法是至关重要的。这需要所有各级采取行动:
* * *(a) 实现《千年宣言》的目标,至迟在2015年将世界遭受饥馑的人口减少一半,并使他们及其家人达到足以维持安康的生活水平,包括足够的食物,办法包括促进粮食安全和与饥馑作斗争,并结合采取解决贫穷问题的措施,同时符合世界粮食问题首脑会议的结果,且各缔约国应履行《经济、社会、文化权利国际盟约》 第11条规定的义务;
40. Agriculture plays a crucial role in addressing the needs of a growing global population and is inextricably linked to poverty eradication, especially in developing countries. Enhancing the role of women at all levels and in all aspects of rural development, agriculture, nutrition and food security is imperative. Sustainable agriculture and rural development are essential to the implementation of an integrated approach to increasing food production and enhancing food security and food safety in an environmentally sustainable way. This would include actions at all levels to:(b) 根据可持续利用可再生资源和对社会经济和环境潜力的综合评估,制定和执行综合土地管理和用水计划,并加强政府、地方当局和社区监测和管理土地和水资源数量和质量的能力; (c) 扩大了解如何能可持续地使用、保护和管理水资源,提高淡水、沿海及海洋环境的长期可持续性; (d) 促进以可持续的方式加强土地生产力和在农业、林业、湿地、手工渔业和养殖业有效利用水资源的各项方案,尤其是通过基于土著和当地社区的办法; (e) 通过提供适当的技术和财政援助以支持发展中国家保护绿洲不致发生淤塞、土地退化和盐渍度增高等情况; (f) 扩大妇女在同可持续农业和粮食安全有关的所有方面和所有层面上的参与; (g) 整合关于土地使用办法的现有信息系统,办法是加强国家研究和推广服务以及农民组织,以便在有关国际组织的协助下,促进农民之间就诸如无害环境的低成本技术等方面的良好做法进行交流; (h) 酌情颁布各种措施,保护土著资源管理制度,并支持所有相关的利益有关者,不论男女,对农村规划和地方施政的贡献; (i) 通过各项政策,执行各种法律,确保界定明确、可实施的使用土地和水资源的权利,并促进土地保有权的法律保证,同时承认存在不同的国家法律和(或)获得土地和土地保有权制度,并向进行土地保有权制度改革的发展中国家以及经济转型期国家提供技术和财政援助以期提高可持续生计; (j) 扭转公共部门为可持续农业提供的经费不断下降的趋势,提供适当的技术和财政援助,和促进私营部门进行投资和支持发展中国家和经济转型期国家加强农业研究和自然资源管理的能力和向农牧界散播研究成果; (k) 采用面向市场的各种奖励措施,使农业企业和农民能监测和管理水资源的使用和水质,尤其是通过诸如小型灌溉系统、废水回收和再使用等办法; (l) 加强进入现有市场的机会,并开发增值农产品的新市场; (m) 在污染问题严重的发达国家和经济转型期国家,配合适当的技术协助,扩大重新开发褐土地; (n) 加强国际合作打击非法种植麻醉药品作物,考虑到它们产生的消极的社会、经济和环境影响; (o) 促进无害环境的、效果好而且效率高的土壤肥力改善办法和对农业害虫的控制; (p) 加强和改善现有各项提高可持续农产品和粮食安全的倡议间的协调; (q) 请尚未批准《粮农植物遗传资源国际公约》 的国家批准该公约; (r) 促进传统和土著农业系统的保护,可持续利用和管理,并加强土著的农业生产模式。 * * * 41. 加强执行《联合国关于在发生严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化的公约》,处理荒漠化和土地退化的原因以期保持和恢复土地,和处理因土地退化造成的贫穷现象。这需要在所有各级上采取行动,以便: (a) 调动充足的和可预计的财政资源,转让技术和在各级进行能力建设; (b) 制定国家行动方案,确保在国际社会的支持下,包括通过将项目的权力下放到地方一级,及时和有效地执行公约及其相关的项目; (c) 在根据《联合国气候变化框架公约》、《生物多样性公约》和《防治荒漠化公约》的规定拟定和执行各项计划和战略中,鼓励这几项公约继续探索和提高协同作用,同时,适当考虑到这几项公约各自的任务规定; (d) 采取综合措施,通过相关的政策和方案,防治荒漠化和减轻干旱的影响,例如通过土地、水和森林的管理、农业、农村发展、预警系统、环境、能源、自然资源、保健和教育以及消除贫穷和可持续发展战略等; (e) 提供当地承受得了的获得信息的办法,加强与荒漠化和干旱有关的监测和预警; (f) 呼吁全球环境基金第二届大会就全球环境基金理事会关于指定土地退化(荒漠化和毁林)为全球环境基金重点领域,以此作为全球环境基金支持成功执行《防治荒漠化公约》的一种手段的建议采取行动;并因而考虑使全球环境基金成为该《公约》的一个财政机制,其中考虑到《公约》缔约国会议的特权和决定,同时确认全球环境基金和《公约》全球机制在为拟订和执行各项行动方案提供和调动资源方面的补充作用; (g) 改善草原资源的可持续性,办法是加强管理和执法,并由国际社会向发展中国家提供财政和技术支助。 * * * 42. 山脉生态系统支持特定的生计,并包括重要的流域资源、生物多样性和独特的动植物群。其中许多十分脆弱,易遭受气候变化的不利影响,需要得到特定的保护。需要在各级采取行动,以便:
(a) Achieve the Millennium Declaration target to halve by the year 2015 the proportion of the world’s people who suffer from hunger and realize the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, including food, including by promoting food security and fighting hunger in combination with measures which address poverty, consistent with the outcome of the World Food Summit and, for States Parties, with their obligations under article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;(a) 制订和促进各种方案、政策和办法,综合可持续山脉发展的环境、经济和社会组成部分,并加强国际合作使它对消除贫穷方案产生积极影响,特别是在发展中国家里;
(b) Develop and implement integrated land management and water-use plans that are based on sustainable use of renewable resources and on integrated assessments of socio-economic and environmental potentials and strengthen the capacity of Governments, local authorities and communities to monitor and manage the quantity and quality of land and water resources;(b) 执行各项方案,酌情处理毁林、土地流失、土地退化、生物多样性减少、水流中断以及冰川缩退等问题;
(c) Increase understanding of the sustainable use, protection and management of water resources to advance long-term sustainability of freshwater, coastal and marine environments;(c) 酌情制订和执行各项对性别问题敏感的政策和方案,包括公共和私人投资的政策和方案,协助消除山地社区面临的不公平现象;
(d) Promote programmes to enhance in a sustainable manner the productivity of land and the efficient use of water resources in agriculture, forestry, wetlands, artisanal fisheries and aquaculture, especially through indigenous and local community-based approaches;(d) 执行各项方案,促进多样化和传统的山地经济、可持续生计和小规模生产体系,包括能更好地进入国内和国际市场、通信和运输规划,同时考虑到山脉的特殊敏感性;
(e) Support the efforts of developing countries to protect oases from silt, land degradation and increasing salinity by providing appropriate technical and financial assistance;(e) 促进山地社区全面参与和参加影响到它们的决策,并将土著人的知识、遗产和价值观念纳入所有发展倡议中;
(f) Enhance the participation of women in all aspects and at all levels relating to sustainable agriculture and food security;(f) 为应用研究和能力建设调动国内和国际支助,为发展中国家和经济转型期国家有效执行山脉生态系统的可持续发展提供财政和技术援助,并通过具体的计划、项目和方案,解决在山地生活的人的贫穷问题,对所有利益有关者提供充分的支持,同时考虑到2002年国际山岳年的精神。
(g) Integrate existing information systems on land-use practices by strengthening national research and extension services and farmer organizations to trigger farmer-to-farmer exchange on good practices, such as those related to environmentally sound, low-cost technologies, with the assistance of relevant international organizations;* * * 43. 促进可持续的旅游发展,包括非消费型生态旅游,其中考虑到2002年国际生态旅游年、2002联合国文化遗产年、2002年世界生态旅游首脑会议及其《魁北克宣言》和世界旅游组织通过的《全球旅游业道德守则》的精神,以增加旅游资源对旅游区人民的收益,同时保持旅游区文化与环境的完整性和加强生态敏感区和自然遗产的保护工作。促进可持续的旅游发展和能力建设,以帮助加强农村和当地社区的工作,这包括在各级采取以下行动: (a) 在各级加强国际合作、外国直接投资和与公营和私营部门的伙伴关系; (b) 制订包括教育和培训方案在内的各种方案,鼓励人们参与生态旅游、让土著和当地社区能从生态旅游中获得发展和收益并增强利益相关者在旅游发展和遗产保护中的合作,以改进环境、自然资源和文化遗产的保护工作; (c) 向发展中国家和转型期经济国家提供技术援助,支持可持续旅游业发展、投资和旅游意识的方案,改进国内旅游工作和促进企业家精神的发展; (d) 在世界旅游组织和其他有关组织的支持下,协助旅游区管理旅游景点的游览工作,以获得最大效益,同时确保游览对旅游景点的传统、文化和环境产生最小的消极影响和危害; (e) 促进经济活动的多样化,包括由新兴的当地企业,特别是中小企业通过市场准入、获得商业信息和参与开展经济活动。 * * * 44. 生物多样性在整个可持续发展和消除贫穷中发挥着关键作用,它对地球、人类福祉、人民生计和文化完整性也是必不可少的。不过,由于人类的活动,生物多样性目前正以前所未有的速度消失;只有根据《生物多样性公约》第15条的规定,让当地人民,特别是遗传资源原产国从生物多样性的保护和可持续利用中受益,才能扭转这种趋势。该《公约》是生物多样性的保护和可持续利用以及公正和公平分享遗传资源的使用收益的重要文书。更有效率和一致地执行《公约》的三项目标和在2010年底前大幅度降低目前生物多样性损失的速率,需要向发展中国家提供新的和额外的财务和技术资源,并需要在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 把《公约》的目标纳入全球、区域和国家的部门和跨部门方案和政策,特别是纳入国家经济部门和国际金融机构的方案和政策; (b) 作为与不同生态系统、部门和主题领域相关的一个交叉问题,根据《公约》促进目前可持续利用生物多样性的工作,包括可持续的旅游业; (c) 除其他外,通过编写关于共同责任和关注问题的联合计划和方案,其中适当考虑各自的任务,促进该《公约》和其他多边环境协议之间发挥有效的增效作用; (d) 执行《公约》及其各项规定,包括通过国家、区域和全球的行动纲领,特别是国家生物多样性的战略和行动计划,对其工作方案和决定积极采取后续行动,并加强它们与可持续发展和消除贫穷等有关跨学科战略、方案和政策的结合,包括促进以社区为基础的可持续利用生物多样性的主动行动; (e) 以及《公约》的目前工作所述,促进生态系统方式的广泛实施和进一步发展; (f) 在生态多样性,包括生态系统和世界遗产旧址的保护和可持续利用以及濒于灭绝物种的保护方面,促进具体的国际支助和伙伴关系,特别是通过适当渠道向发展中国家和转型期经济国家提供财政资源和技术; (g) 有效保护和可持续利用生物多样性,促进和支持生物多样性必不可少的热点地区和其他地区的主动行动并促进国家和区域生态网络和走廊的发展;
(h) Enact, as appropriate, measures that protect indigenous resource management systems and support the contribution of all appropriate stakeholders, men and women alike, in rural planning and development;(h) 向发展中国家提供财政和技术支助,包括能力建设,以便加强以土著人和社区为基础的生物多样性保护工作;
(i) Adopt policies and implement laws that guarantee well defined and enforceable land and water use rights and promote legal security of tenure, recognizing the existence of different national laws and/or systems of land access and tenure, and provide technical and financial assistance to developing countries as well as countries with economies in transition that are undertaking land tenure reform in order to enhance sustainable livelihoods;(i) 加强国家、区域和国际控制侵入性外来物种的工作,这是生物多样性损失的重要原因之一,并鼓励各级编写关于侵入性外来物种的有效工作方案;
(j) Reverse the declining trend in public sector finance for sustainable agriculture, provide appropriate technical and financial assistance, and promote private sector investment and support efforts in developing countries and countries with economies in transition to strengthen agricultural research and natural resource management capacity and dissemination of research results to the farming communities;(j) 承认当地和土著社区拥有传统知识、革新和惯例的权利,但须经国家立法批准,征得这些知识、革新和惯例的拥有者同意并在他们的参与下,制定和实施经双方商定的利用这些知识、革新和惯例的收益分享机制;
(k) Employ market-based incentives for agricultural enterprises and farmers to monitor and manage water use and quality, inter alia, by applying such methods as small-scale irrigation and wastewater recycling and reuse;(k) 鼓励和让所有利益相关者协助实现《公约》的目标,特别是确认青年、妇女和土著及当地社区在可持续地保护和利用生物多样性中的特定作用;
(l) Enhance access to existing markets and develop new markets for value-added agricultural products;(l) 促进土著和当地社区有效参与关于利用其传统知识的决定和决策工作;
(m) Increase brown-field redevelopment in developed countries and countries with economies in transition, with appropriate technical assistance where contamination is a serious problem;(m) 鼓励各方向发展中国家和转型期经济国家提供技术和财政支助,帮助它们根据本国优先事项和立法,除其他外酌情编写和实施国家的特有制度和传统制度,以保护和可持续利用生物多样性;
(n) Enhance international cooperation to combat the illicit cultivation of narcotic plants, taking into account their negative social, economic and environmental impacts;(n) 促进《关于取用遗传资源和公平及公正分享其利用资源的收益的波恩准则》的广泛执行并继续这方面的工作,作为一种投入,协助公约缔约国编写和起草关于取用资源和分享收益的立法、行政或政策的措施以及经双方商定的取用资源和分享收益的合同和其他安排;
(o) Promote programmes for the environmentally sound, effective and efficient use of soil fertility improvement practices and agricultural pest control;(o) 在《生物多样性公约》的框架内,考虑到波恩准则,经谈判成立一个国际制度,以促进和保障使用遗传资源所产生的利益得到公平及公正的分享;
(p) Strengthen and improve coordination of existing initiatives to enhance sustainable agricultural production and food security;(p) 鼓励各国圆满完成在世界知识产权组织知识产权与遗产资源、传统知识和民俗政府间委员会主持下和关于《公约》第8条(j)款和有关规定的不限成员名额特设工作组发起的一些现有的进程;
(q) Invite countries that have not done so to ratify the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture;(q) 根据《公约》第15条和第19条,促进各国采取具体措施,包括交换专家、培训人力资源和发展面向研究的机构能力等加强关于生物技术和生物安全性的科学和技术合作,取用以遗传资源为基础的生物技术成果和收益;
(r) Promote the conservation, and sustainable use and management of traditional and indigenous agricultural systems and strengthen indigenous models of agricultural production.(r) 正如《多哈部长级宣言》 所述,为了加强增效作用和相互支持,在不事先确定结果的情况下促进各国就该《公约》和国际贸易与知识产权协定的关系进行讨论;
* * *(s) 促进全球生物分类学倡议工作方案的执行工作;
41. Strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa,7 to address causes of desertification and land degradation in order to maintain and restore land, and to address poverty resulting from land degradation. This would include actions at all levels to:(t) 请还没有批准《生物多样性公约卡塔赫纳生物技术安全议定书和其他生物多样性协定》 的国家尽快这样做,并请已经批准这些协定的国家促进它们在国家、区域和国际三级的有效实施并从技术上和财政上在这方面支持发展中国家和转型期经济国家。 * * * 45. 森林和树木复盖将近三分之一的地球表面。对自然林和人造林、木材产品和非木材产品进行可持续森林管理是实现可持续发展所必不可少的,也是消除贫穷、大大减少伐林、遏止丧失森林多样性和减少土地和资源退化、提高粮食安全以及取用安全饮水和负担得起的能源的关键手段,这突出说明自然林木和人造林木的诸多益处,并有助于促进地球和人类的福祉。在国家和全球两级实现可持续森林管理,包括通过有关政府与利益相关者,包括民营部门、土著和当地社区及非政府组织,形成伙伴关系,是可持续发展的一项基本目标,将需要在所有各级采取行动:
(a) Mobilize adequate and predictable financial resources, transfer of technologies and capacity-building at all levels;(a) 提高对可持续森林管理的政治承诺,以之作为国际政治议程上的一项优先事项,同时通过综合办法充分顾及森林部门和其他部门之间的联系;
(b) Formulate national action programmes to ensure timely and effective implementation of the Convention and its related projects, with the support of the international community, including through decentralized projects at the local level;(b) 在森林问题合作伙伴关系的协助下,支助联合国森林问题论坛,以之作为在国家、区域和全球促进和协调可持续森林管理执行工作的关键性政府间机制,从而促进森林多样性的养护和可持续利用;
(c) Encourage the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification to continue exploring and enhancing synergies, with due regard to their respective mandates, in the elaboration and implementation of plans and strategies under the respective Conventions;(c) 在国际社会的支助下,立即对国内森林法的强制执行和森林产品、包括森林生物资源的非法国际贸易采取行动,并就这些领域内国家法规的强制执行提供人力和体制两方面的能力建设;
(d) Integrate measures to prevent and combat desertification as well as to mitigate the effects of drought through relevant policies and programmes, such as land, water and forest management, agriculture, rural development, early warning systems, environment, energy, natural resources, health and education, and poverty eradication and sustainable development strategies;(d) 在国家和国际两级立即采取行动,宣传和促进可以实现可持续砍伐木材的方法,促进提供财政资源及转让并开发无害环境技术,从而纠正不可持续的砍伐木材习惯;
(e) Provide affordable local access to information to improve monitoring and early warning related to desertification and drought;(e) 制订和执行各种倡议,以解决世界上目前深受贫穷和森林砍伐率偏高之苦的地区和国际合作将得到受害政府欢迎的地区的需要;
(f) Call on the Second Assembly of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to take action on the recommendations of the GEF Council concerning the designation of land degradation (desertification and deforestation) as a focal area of GEF as a means of GEF support for the successful implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification; and consequently, consider making GEF a financial mechanism of the Convention, taking into account the prerogatives and decisions of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, while recognizing the complementary roles of GEF and the Global Mechanism of the Convention in providing and mobilizing resources for the elaboration and implementation of action programmes;(f) 建立并加强伙伴关系及国际合作,以促进提供更多资金,转让无害环境技术、贸易、能力建设、森林法的执法和各级施政、以及土地和资源综合管理,以便实施可持续森林管理,包括政府间森林问题小组(森林小组)/森林问题论坛(森林论坛)关于采取行动的提案;
(g) Improve the sustainability of grassland resources through strengthening management and law enforcement and providing financial and technical support by the international community to developing countries.(g) 由各国和森林问题合作伙伴关系加速执行森林小组/森林论坛的行动建议,并加紧努力,向联合国森林问题论坛提出报告,以便为2005年的进度评估作出贡献;
* * *(h) 承认并支助当地及基于社区的森林管理制度,确保它们充分、有效地参与可持续森林管理;
42. Mountain ecosystems support particular livelihoods and include significant watershed resources, biological diversity and unique flora and fauna. Many are particularly fragile and vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and need specific protection. Actions at all levels are required to:(i) 同论坛、伙伴关系成员及其它与森林有关的进程和公约密切协作,并让所有利益相关者参与,实施《生物多样性公约》关于所有类型森林生物多样性的、面向行动的扩大工作方案。 * * * 46. 采矿、矿物和金属业对许多国家的经济和社会发展十分重要。矿物对现代生活是必需品。为了提高采矿、矿物和金属业对可持续发展的贡献,在所有各级需要采取下列行动: (a) 支持着手研究采矿、矿物和金属业对环境、经济、健康和社会方面在其整个生命周期中所产生的影响及惠益,包括对工人健康与安全的影响,以及利用伙伴关系,在各有关政府、非政府组织矿业公司和工人和其他利益相关者之间,促进国家和国际上的现有活动,以提高可持续采矿和矿物业的透明度和问责制; (b) 加强当地和土著社区及妇女等利益相关者的参与,遵照国家法规并考虑到重大的跨界影响,在采矿的整个生命周期,包括为复原而关闭矿场之后,在矿物、金属和采矿发展方面积极发挥作用; (c) 向发展中国家和经济转型国家提供资金、技术和能力建设支助,用于采矿和矿物加工,包括小型采矿、并在可能与适当时,提高增值加工提供最新科学技术信息,和回收与恢复已经退化的场地,从而促进可持续的采矿做法。 五. 在一个全球化的世界中实现可持续发展 47. 全球化不仅为可持续发展提供了机遇,同时也带来了挑战。我们承认,全球化和相互依赖为贸易、投资和资本流动、技术进步、包括信息技术的进步、世界经济增长、发展以及提高世界生活水平带来了新的机遇。与此同时,严峻的挑战依然存在,其中包括严重的经济危机、不安全、贫穷、排斥和社会中的不平等。发展中国家和转型期经济体国家面临着极为严峻的困难,它们很难应对这些挑战和机遇。全球化应具有充分的包容性和平等,并且尤其需要在国家和国际各级制定政策和采取措施,而且这些政策应在发展中国家和转型期经济体国家充分和切实有效地参与下拟定和实施,帮助它们对这些挑战和机遇作出切实有效的响应。这就要求在所有各级采取紧迫行动:
(a) Develop and promote programmes, policies and approaches that integrate environmental, economic and social components of sustainable mountain development and strengthen international cooperation for its positive impacts on poverty eradication programmes, especially in developing countries;(a) 继续促进开放、公平、有章可循、可预测和不歧视的多边贸易和金融体制,使所有力求实现可持续发展的国家受惠。支助圆满完成《多哈部长级宣言》所载的工作方案,执行《蒙特雷共识》。欢迎《多哈部长级宣言》决定把发展中国家的需要和利益列为《宣言》工作方案的中心,包括使对加强发展中国家有重要意义的产品有更多的市场准入机会;
(b) Implement programmes to address, where appropriate, deforestation, erosion, land degradation, loss of biodiversity, disruption of water flows and retreat of glaciers;(b) 鼓励国际金融和贸易机构继续努力,确保决策进程和机构结构公开透明;
(c) Develop and implement, where appropriate, gender-sensitive policies and programmes, including public and private investments that help eliminate inequities facing mountain communities;(c) 提高发展中国家、包括最不发达国家、内陆发展中国家和小岛屿发展中国家通过国际合作和旨在提高生产力、商业多样化和竞争力、社区企业经营能力、以及发展运输和通讯基础设施的措施,受益于贸易自由化带来的各种机遇;
(d) Implement programmes to promote diversification and traditional mountain economies, sustainable livelihoods and small-scale production systems, including specific training programmes and better access to national and international markets, communications and transport planning, taking into account the particular sensitivity of mountains;(d) 支助国际劳工组织,鼓励劳工组织按照《蒙特雷共识》第64段的指示,就全球化所涉社会问题进行研究;
(e) Promote full participation and involvement of mountain communities in decisions that affect them and integrate indigenous knowledge, heritage and values in all development initiatives;(e) 加强提供协调一致、切实有效和有针对性的与贸易相关的技术援助以及能力建设方案,包括利用现存和未来的市场准入机会,审查贸易、环境与发展之间的关系。
(f) Mobilize national and international support for applied research and capacity-building, provide financial and technical assistance for the effective implementation of the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and address the poverty among people living in mountains through concrete plans, projects and programmes, with sufficient support from all stakeholders, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of Mountains, 2002.48. 世贸组织成员执行《多哈部长级会议》的成果,进一步加强与贸易有关的技术援助和建设能力,把发展中国家的需要和利益列为世贸组织工作方案的核心,确保发展中国家积极有效地充分参与多边贸易谈判。
* * *49. 积极促进以里约原则为依据的共同责任和问责制、包括全面制定和切实有效地实施政府间协定和措施、国际倡议和公私伙伴关系,以及适当的国家管理条例,支助继续改善各国的共同做法。
43. Promote sustainable tourism development, including non-consumptive and eco-tourism, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of Eco-tourism 2002, the United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage in 2002, the World Eco-tourism Summit 2002 and its Quebec Declaration, and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism as adopted by the World Tourism Organization in order to increase the benefits from tourism resources for the population in host communities while maintaining the cultural and environmental integrity of the host communities and enhancing the protection of ecologically sensitive areas and natural heritages. Promote sustainable tourism development and capacity-building in order to contribute to the strengthening of rural and local communities. This would include actions at all levels to:50. 促进发展中国家鼓励提出公/私营倡议,以利于得到有关各国和金融市场的准确、及时和全面的资料。多边和区域金融机构应为此提供进一步的援助。
(a) Enhance international cooperation, foreign direct investment and partnerships with both private and public sectors, at all levels;51. 在国际金融机构、并酌情在区域开发银行的支助下,在发达和发展中国家、转型期经济体国家、以及发展中国家之间加强符合多边贸易体制的区域贸易和合作协定,以实现可持续发展的各项目标。
(b) Develop programmes, including education and training programmes, that encourage people to participate in eco-tourism, enable indigenous and local communities to develop and benefit from eco-tourism, and enhance stakeholder cooperation in tourism development and heritage preservation, in order to improve the protection of the environment, natural resources and cultural heritage;52. 根据相互商定的条件转让技术、提供财政和技术支助,协助发展中国家和转型期经济体国家弥补数字鸿沟,创造数字机会,并发挥信息和通讯技术用于发展的潜力。在这方面,特别要支助信息社会世界首脑会议。
(c) Provide technical assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to support sustainable tourism business development and investment and tourism awareness programmes, to improve domestic tourism, and to stimulate entrepreneurial development;六. 健康和可持续发展
(d) Assist host communities in managing visits to their tourism attractions for their maximum benefit, while ensuring the least negative impacts on and risks for their traditions, culture and environment, with the support of the World Tourism Organization and other relevant organizations;53. 《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》指出,人是可持续发展各种关切问题的中心,有权过上健康和富有成效的生活,与自然和睦相处。要想实现可持续发展的各个目标,必须消除各种普遍存在的能够削弱人类能力的疾病,同时使所有需要消除贫穷的人身体健康。现在迫切需要解决健康状况不佳的根源包括环境根源及其对发展的影响,同时特别重视妇女和儿童,以及残疾人、老年人和土著人等社会其它脆弱群体。
(e) Promote the diversification of economic activities, including through the facilitation of access to markets and commercial information, and participation of emerging local enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises.54. 提高保健系统的能力,以高效、容易利用和负担得起的方式向所有人提供基本保健服务,以预防、控制和治疗各种疾病,减少环境对健康造成的威胁,同时考虑到联合国近年召开的会议、首脑会议和特别会议的报告以及各国的法律、文化和宗教价值观。这包括在所有各级采取行动,以便:
* * *(a) 将包括将最弱势群体的健康关切问题纳入各项消除贫穷和可持续发展战略、政策和方案;
44. Biodiversity, which plays a critical role in overall sustainable development and poverty eradication, is essential to our planet, human well-being and to the livelihood and cultural integrity of people. However, biodiversity is currently being lost at unprecedented rates due to human activities; this trend can only be reversed if the local people benefit from the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, in particular in countries of origin of genetic resources, in accordance with article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention is the key instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources. A more efficient and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention and the achievement by 2010 of a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity will require the provision of new and additional financial and technical resources to developing countries, and includes actions at all levels to:(b) 确保公平和更好地提供可负担得起的高效保健服务,包括在各级保健系统开展预防工作、以负担得起的价格提供必需安全药物、免疫服务和安全疫苗以及医疗技术;
(a) Integrate the objectives of the Convention into global, regional and national sectoral and cross-sectoral programmes and policies, in particular in the programmes and policies of the economic sectors of countries and international financial institutions;(c) 向发展中国家和经济转型国家提供技术和财政援助,实施《确保人人享有健康战略》,其中包括建立健康信息系统以及关于发展风险的综合数据库;
(b) Promote the ongoing work under the Convention on the sustainable use on biological diversity, including on sustainable tourism, as a cross-cutting issue relevant to different ecosystems, sectors and thematic areas;(d) 改进保健服务部门人力资源的开发和管理;
(c) Encourage effective synergies between the Convention and other multilateral environmental agreements, inter alia, through the development of joint plans and programmes, with due regard to their respective mandates, regarding common responsibilities and concerns;(e) 促进和发展伙伴关系以推动保健教育,目标是至迟在2010年在全球范围普及健康知识,并酌情由联合国机构参与;
(d) Implement the Convention and its provisions, including active follow-up of its work programmes and decisions through national, regional and global action programmes, in particular the national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and strengthen their integration into relevant cross-sectoral strategies, programmes and policies, including those related to sustainable development and poverty eradication, including initiatives which promote community-based sustainable use of biological diversity;(f) 制订各种方案和倡议,以便至迟在2015年,以2000年时的比率为基准,将婴儿和5岁以下儿童死亡率降低三分之二,将产妇死亡率降低四分之三,并尽快减少发达国家和发展中国家之间以及各自内部的差距,特别注意消除女婴和女童比例过高、本可以避免的死亡率模式;
(e) Promote the wide implementation and further development of the ecosystem approach, as being elaborated in the ongoing work of the Convention;(g) 将研究努力和成果应用在优先的公众健康问题上,特别着眼于那些影响到易受感染以及弱势群体的问题,办法包括开发新疫苗、减少暴露在有损健康的风险下的机会、巩固平等获得保健服务、教育、培训以及医疗和技术的机会,并解决健康状况差所造成的继发效应;
(f) Promote concrete international support and partnership for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, including in ecosystems, at World Heritage sites and for the protection of endangered species, in particular through the appropriate channelling of financial resources and technology to developing countries and countries with economies in transition;(h) 促进保护、开发和运用有效的传统医药知识和做法,酌情与现代医学结合起来,确认土著和当地社区是传统知识和做法的维护者,同时酌情按照国际法,促进有效保护传统知识;
(g) To effectively conserve and sustainably use biodiversity, promote and support initiatives for hot spot areas and other areas essential for biodiversity and promote the development of national and regional ecological networks and corridors;(i) 确保妇女平等获得保健服务,特别关注产妇护理和产科急诊护理;
(h) Provide financial and technical support to developing countries, including capacity-building, in order to enhance indigenous and community-based biodiversity conservation efforts;(j) 按照近年联合国召开的各种会议和首脑会议的承诺和成果、包括世界儿童问题首脑会议、联合国环境与发展会议、国际人口与发展会议、社会发展问题世界首脑会议和第四次妇女问题世界会议的承诺和成果及其审查报告,有效促进所有年龄层人士的健康生活,包括促进其生殖健康和性健康;
(i) Strengthen national, regional and international efforts to control invasive alien species, which are one of the main causes of biodiversity loss, and encourage the development of effective work programme on invasive alien species at all levels;(k) 酌情提出国际能力建设倡议,评估健康和环境之间的联系,运用所获知识制订更有效的国家和区域政策,以应对环境给人类健康造成的威胁;
(j) Subject to national legislation, recognize the rights of local and indigenous communities who are holders of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, and, with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices, develop and implement benefit-sharing mechanisms on mutually agreed terms for the use of such knowledge, innovations and practices;(l) 在国际资金的支持下,并以相互商定的条件、包括建立公私多部门伙伴关系,向发展中国家和经济转型国家转让并传播适用于农村和城市地区的安全饮水、卫生和废物管理技术,同时考虑到国情和两性平等问题、包括妇女的具体技术需要;
(k) Encourage and enable all stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of the objectives of the Convention and, in particular, recognize the specific role of youth, women and indigenous and local communities in conserving and using biodiversity in a sustainable way;(m) 加强并促进劳工组织和世界卫生组织(卫生组织)的各种方案,减少因职业造成的死亡、伤害和病痛,将职业健康和促进公众健康联系起来,作为促进公众健康和教育的手段;
(l) Promote the effective participation of indigenous and local communities in decision and policy-making concerning the use of their traditional knowledge;(n) 确保所有人都能获得充足、安全、在文化上可接受且营养充分的食物,加强对消费者健康的保护,解决微营养素缺乏症问题,并实施现有的、国际商定承诺和有关标准及准则;
(m) Encourage technical and financial support to developing countries and countries with economies in transition in their efforts to develop and implement, as appropriate, inter alia, national sui generis systems and traditional systems according to national priorities and legislation, with a view to conserving and the sustainable use of biodiversity;(0) 制定或酌情加强预防、促进健康和治疗方案,解决非传染病情问题,例如心血管病、癌症、糖尿病、慢性呼吸道疾病、受伤、暴力伤害、心理健康失调和相关风险因素,包括酗酒、吸烟、不健康饮食和缺乏体育活动等。
(n) Promote the wide implementation of and continued work on the Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits arising out of their Utilization, as an input to assist the Parties when developing and drafting legislative, administrative or policy measures on access and benefit-sharing as well as contract and other arrangements under mutually agreed terms for access and benefit-sharing;55. 在商定的时间表内,实施大会第二十六届特别会议通过的《关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病问题的承诺宣言》, 特别强调受害最重国家不迟于2005年、全球范围不迟于2010年将15至24岁青年男女的艾滋病毒感染率减少25%,并防治疟疾、结核病和其它疾病。方法除其它外,包括:
(o) Negotiate within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity, bearing in mind the Bonn Guidelines, an international regime to promote and safeguard the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources;(a) 实施全国预防和治疗战略,采取区域及国际合作措施,并制订国际方案,向那些父母因艾滋病毒/艾滋病而双亡的孤儿提供特别援助;
(p) Encourage successful conclusion of existing processes under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore of the World Intellectual Property Organization, and in the ad hoc open-ended working group on article 8 (j) and related provisions of the Convention;(b) 兑现提供足够资源的承诺以支助全球防治艾滋病、肺结核和疟疾基金,同时增进最有需要的国家利用该基金的机会;
(q) Promote practicable measures for access to the results and benefits arising from biotechnologies based upon genetic resources, in accordance with articles 15 and 19 of the Convention, including through enhanced scientific and technical cooperation on biotechnology and biosafety, including the exchange of experts, training human resources and developing research-oriented institutional capacities;(c) 保护工人的健康并促进职业安全,特别应酌情考虑到自愿遵守国际劳工组织关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病和工作领域的业务守则,改善工作场所的条件;
(r) With a view to enhancing synergy and mutual supportiveness, taking into account the decisions under the relevant agreements, promote the discussions, without prejudging their outcome, with regard to the relationships between the Convention and agreements related to international trade and intellectual property rights, as outlined in the Doha Ministerial Declaration;(d) 调集充分的公共财政资源并鼓励私人财政资源支助穷人病的研发,例如,艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾和结核病,着眼于生物医学和保健研究以及开发新疫苗和新药。
(s) Promote the implementation of the programme of work of the Global Taxonomy Initiative; (t) Invite all States that have not already done so to ratify the Convention, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention and other biodiversity-related agreements, and invite those that have done so to promote their effective implementation at the national, regional and international levels and to support developing countries and countries with economies in transition technically and financially in this regard. * * * 45. Forests and trees cover nearly one third of the Earth’s surface. Sustainable forest management of both natural and planted forests and for timber and non-timber products is essential to achieving sustainable development as well as a critical means to eradicate poverty, significantly reduce deforestation, halt the loss of forest biodiversity and land and resource degradation and improve food security and access to safe drinking water and affordable energy; in addition, it highlights the multiple benefits of both natural and planted forests and trees and contributes to the well-being of the planet and humanity. The achievement of sustainable forest management, nationally and globally, including through partnerships among interested Governments and stakeholders, including the private sector, indigenous and local communities and non-governmental organizations, is an essential goal of sustainable development. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Enhance political commitment to achieve sustainable forest management by endorsing it as a priority on the international political agenda, taking full account of the linkages between the forest sector and other sectors through integrated approaches; (b) Support the United Nations Forum on Forests, with the assistance of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, as key intergovernmental mechanisms to facilitate and coordinate the implementation of sustainable forest management at the national, regional and global levels, thus contributing, inter alia, to the conservation and sustainable use of forest biodiversity; (c) Take immediate action on domestic forest law enforcement and illegal international trade in forest products, including in forest biological resources, with the support of the international community, and provide human and institutional capacity-building related to the enforcement of national legislation in those areas; (d) Take immediate action at the national and international levels to promote and facilitate the means to achieve sustainable timber harvesting and to facilitate the provision of financial resources and the transfer and development of environmentally sound technologies, and thereby address unsustainable timber-harvesting practices; (e) Develop and implement initiatives to address the needs of those parts of the world that currently suffer from poverty and the highest rates of deforestation and where international cooperation would be welcomed by affected Governments; (f) Create and strengthen partnerships and international cooperation to facilitate the provision of increased financial resources, the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, trade, capacity-building, forest law enforcement and governance at all levels and integrated land and resource management to implement sustainable forest management, including the proposals for action of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests/Intergovernmental Forum on Forests; (g) Accelerate implementation of the proposals for action of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests/Intergovernmental Forum on Forests by countries and by the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and intensify efforts on reporting to the United Nations Forum on Forests to contribute to an assessment of progress in 2005; (h) Recognize and support indigenous and community-based forest management systems to ensure their full and effective participation in sustainable forest management; (i) Implement the expanded action-oriented work programme of the Convention on Biological Diversity on all types of forest biological diversity, in close cooperation with the Forum, Partnership members and other forest-related processes and conventions, with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders. * * * 46. Mining, minerals and metals are important to the economic and social development of many countries. Minerals are essential for modern living. Enhancing the contribution of mining, minerals and metals to sustainable development includes actions at all levels to: (a) Support efforts to address the environmental, economic, health and social impacts and benefits of mining, minerals and metals throughout their life cycle, including workers’ health and safety, and use a range of partnerships, furthering existing activities at the national and international levels among interested Governments, intergovernmental organizations, mining companies and workers and other stakeholders to promote transparency and accountability for sustainable mining and minerals development; (b) Enhance the participation of stakeholders, including local and indigenous communities and women, to play an active role in minerals, metals and mining development throughout the life cycles of mining operations, including after closure for rehabilitation purposes, in accordance with national regulations and taking into account significant transboundary impacts; (c) Foster sustainable mining practices through the provision of financial, technical and capacity-building support to developing countries and countries with economies in transition for the mining and processing of minerals, including small-scale mining, and, where possible and appropriate, improve value-added processing, upgrade scientific and technological information and reclaim and rehabilitate degraded sites. V. Sustainable development in a globalizing world 47. Globalization offers opportunities and challenges for sustainable development. We recognize that globalization and interdependence are offering new opportunities for trade, investment and capital flows and advances in technology, including information technology, for the growth of the world economy, development and the improvement of living standards around the world. At the same time, there remain serious challenges, including serious financial crises, insecurity, poverty, exclusion and inequality within and among societies. The developing countries and countries with economies in transition face special difficulties in responding to those challenges and opportunities. Globalization should be fully inclusive and equitable, and there is a strong need for policies and measures at the national and international levels, formulated and implemented with the full and effective participation of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to help them to respond effectively to those challenges and opportunities. This will require urgent action at all levels to: (a) Continue to promote open, equitable, rules-based, predictable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading and financial systems that benefit all countries in the pursuit of sustainable development. Support the successful completion of the work programme contained in the Doha Ministerial Declaration and the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus. Welcome the decision contained in the Doha Ministerial Declaration to place the needs and interests of developing countries at the heart of the work programme of the Declaration, including through enhanced market access for products of interest to developing countries; (b) Encourage ongoing efforts by international financial and trade institutions to ensure that decision-making processes and institutional structures are open and transparent; (c) Enhance the capacities of developing countries, including the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States, to benefit from liberalized trade opportunities through international cooperation and measures aimed at improving productivity, commodity diversification and competitiveness, community-based entrepreneurial capacity and transportation and communication infrastructure development; (d) Support the International Labour Organization and encourage its ongoing work on the social dimension of globalization, as stated in paragraph 64 of the Monterrey Consensus; (e) Enhance the delivery of coordinated, effective and targeted trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building programmes, including taking advantage of existing and future market access opportunities, and examining the relationship between trade, environment and development. 48. Implement the outcomes of the Doha Ministerial Conference by the members of the World Trade Organization, further strengthen trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building and ensure the meaningful, effective and full participation of developing countries in multilateral trade negotiations by placing their needs and interests at the heart of the work programme of the World Trade Organization. 49. Actively promote corporate responsibility and accountability, based on the Rio principles, including through the full development and effective implementation of intergovernmental agreements and measures, international initiatives and public-private partnerships and appropriate national regulations, and support continuous improvement in corporate practices in all countries. 50. Strengthen the capacities of developing countries to encourage public/private initiatives that enhance the ease of access, accuracy, timeliness and coverage of information on countries and financial markets. Multilateral and regional financial institutions could provide further assistance for these purposes. 51. Strengthen regional trade and cooperation agreements, consistent with the multilateral trading system, among developed and developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as well as among developing countries, with the support of international finance institutions and regional development banks, as appropriate, with a view to achieving the objectives of sustainable development. 52. Assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition in narrowing the digital divide, creating digital opportunities and harnessing the potential of information and communication technologies for development through technology transfer on mutually agreed terms and the provision of financial and technical support and, in this context, support the World Summit on the Information Society. VI. Health and sustainable development 53. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development states that human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development, and that they are entitled to a healthy and productive life, in harmony with nature. The goals of sustainable development can only be achieved in the absence of a high prevalence of debilitating diseases, while obtaining health gains for the whole population requires poverty eradication. There is an urgent need to address the causes of ill health, including environmental causes, and their impact on development, with particular emphasis on women and children, as well as vulnerable groups of society, such as people with disabilities, elderly persons and indigenous people. 54. Strengthen the capacity of health-care systems to deliver basic health services to all in an efficient, accessible and affordable manner aimed at preventing, controlling and treating diseases, and to reduce environmental health threats, in conformity with human rights and fundamental freedoms and consistent with national laws and cultural and religious values, and taking into account the reports of relevant United Nations conferences and summits and of special sessions of the General Assembly. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Integrate the health concerns, including those of the most vulnerable populations, into strategies, policies and programmes for poverty eradication and sustainable development; (b) Promote equitable and improved access to affordable and efficient health-care services, including prevention, at all levels of the health system, essential and safe drugs at affordable prices, immunization services and safe vaccines and medical technology; (c) Provide technical and financial assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to implement the Health for All Strategy, including health information systems and integrated databases on development hazards; (d) Improve the development and management of human resources in health-care services; (e) Promote and develop partnerships to enhance health education with the objective of achieving improved health literacy on a global basis by 2010, with the involvement of United Nations agencies, as appropriate; (f) Develop programmes and initiatives to reduce, by the year 2015, mortality rates for infants and children under 5 by two thirds, and maternal mortality rates by three quarters, of the prevailing rate in 2000, and reduce disparities between and within developed and developing countries as quickly as possible, with particular attention to eliminating the pattern of disproportionate and preventable mortality among girl infants and children; (g) Target research efforts and apply research results to priority public health issues, in particular those affecting susceptible and vulnerable populations, through the development of new vaccines, reducing exposures to health risks, building on equal access to health-care services, education, training and medical treatment and technology and addressing the secondary effects of poor health; (h) Promote the preservation, development and use of effective traditional medicine knowledge and practices, where appropriate, in combination with modern medicine, recognizing indigenous and local communities as custodians of traditional knowledge and practices, while promoting effective protection of traditional knowledge, as appropriate, consistent with international law; (i) Ensure equal access of women to health-care services, giving particular attention to maternal and emergency obstetric care; (j) Address effectively, for all individuals of appropriate age, the promotion of healthy living, including their reproductive and sexual health, consistent with the commitments and outcomes of recent United Nations conferences and summits, including the World Summit for Children, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the International Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for Social Development and the Fourth World Conference on Women, and their respective reviews and reports; (k) Launch international capacity-building initiatives, as appropriate, that assess health and environment linkages and use the knowledge gained to create more effective national and regional policy responses to environmental threats to human health; (l) Transfer and disseminate, on mutually agreed terms, including through public-private multisector partnerships, with international financial support, technologies for safe water, sanitation and waste management for rural and urban areas in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, taking into account country-specific conditions and gender equality, including specific technology needs of women; (m) Strengthen and promote programmes of the International Labour Organization and World Health Organization to reduce occupational deaths, injuries and illnesses, and link occupational health with public health promotion as a means of promoting public health and education; (n) Improve availability and access for all to sufficient, safe, culturally acceptable and nutritionally adequate food, increase consumer health protection, address issues of micronutrient deficiency and implement existing internationally agreed commitments and relevant standards and guidelines; (o) Develop or strengthen, where applicable, preventive, promotive and curative programmes to address non-communicable diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, injuries, violence and mental health disorders and associated risk factors, including alcohol, tobacco, unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity. 55. Implement, within the agreed time frames, all commitments agreed in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by the General Assembly at its twenty-sixth special session, emphasizing in particular the reduction of HIV prevalence among young men and women aged 15 to 24 by 25 per cent in the most affected countries by 2005, and globally by 2010, as well as combat malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases by, inter alia: (a) Implementing national preventive and treatment strategies, regional and international cooperation measures and the development of international initiatives to provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS; (b) Fulfilling commitments for the provision of sufficient resources to support the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, while promoting access to the Fund by countries most in need; (c) Protecting the health of workers and promoting occupational safety, by, inter alia, taking into account, as appropriate, the voluntary Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work of the International Labour Organization, to improve conditions of the workplace; (d) Mobilizing adequate public, and encouraging private, financial resources for research and development on diseases of the poor, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, directed at biomedical and health research, as well as new vaccine and drug development. 56. Reduce respiratory diseases and other health impacts resulting from air pollution, with particular attention to women and children, by: (a) Strengthening regional and national programmes, including through public-private partnerships, with technical and financial assistance to developing countries; (b) Supporting the phasing out of lead in gasoline; (c) Strengthening and supporting efforts for the reduction of emissions through the use of cleaner fuels and modern pollution control techniques; (d) Assisting developing countries in providing affordable energy to rural communities, particularly to reduce dependence on traditional fuel sources for cooking and heating, which affect the health of women and children. 57. Phase out lead in lead-based paints and in other sources of human exposure, work to prevent, in particular, children’s exposure to lead and strengthen monitoring and surveillance efforts and the treatment of lead poisoning. VII. Sustainable development of small island developing States 58. Small island developing States are a special case both for environment and development. Although they continue to take the lead in the path towards sustainable development in their countries, they are increasingly constrained by the interplay of adverse factors clearly underlined in Agenda 21, the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the decisions adopted at the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Accelerate national and regional implementation of the Programme of Action, with adequate financial resources, including through Global Environment Facility focal areas, transfer of environmentally sound technologies and assistance for capacity-building from the international community; (b) Implement further sustainable fisheries management and improve financial returns from fisheries by supporting and strengthening relevant regional fisheries management organizations, as appropriate, such as the recently established Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism and such agreements as the Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean; (c) Assist small island developing States, including through the elaboration of specific initiatives, in delimiting and managing in a sustainable manner their coastal areas and exclusive economic zones and the continental shelf, including, where appropriate, the continental shelf areas beyond 200 miles from coastal baselines, as well as relevant regional management initiatives within the context of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the regional seas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme; (d) Provide support, including for capacity-building, for the development and further implementation of: (i) Small island developing States-specific components within programmes of work on marine and coastal biological diversity; (ii) Freshwater programmes for small island developing States, including through the Global Environment Facility focal areas; (e) Effectively reduce, prevent and control waste and pollution and their health-related impacts by undertaking initiatives by 2004 aimed at implementing the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities in small island developing States; (f) Work to ensure that, in the ongoing negotiations and elaboration of the World Trade Organization work programme on trade in small economies, due account is taken of small island developing States, which have severe structural handicaps in integrating into the global economy, within the context of the Doha development agenda; (g) Develop community-based initiatives on sustainable tourism by 2004 and build the capacities necessary to diversify tourism products, while protecting culture and traditions and effectively conserving and managing natural resources; (h) Extend assistance to small island developing States in support of local communities and appropriate national and regional organizations of small island developing States for comprehensive hazard and risk management, disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, and help relieve the consequences of disasters, extreme weather events and other emergencies; (i) Support the finalization and subsequent early operationalization, on agreed terms, of economic, social and environmental vulnerability indices and related indicators as tools for the achievement of the sustainable development of the small island developing States; (j) Assist small island developing States in mobilizing adequate resources and partnerships for their adaptation needs relating to the adverse effects of climate change, sea level rise and climate variability, consistent with commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, where applicable; (k) Support efforts by small island developing States to build capacities and institutional arrangements to implement intellectual property regimes. 59. Support the availability of adequate, affordable and environmentally sound energy services for the sustainable development of small island developing States by, inter alia: (a) Strengthening ongoing and supporting new efforts on energy supply and services, by 2004, including through the United Nations system and partnership initiatives; (b) Developing and promoting efficient use of sources of energy, including indigenous sources and renewable energy, and building the capacities of small island developing States for training, technical know-how and strengthening national institutions in the area of energy management. 60. Provide support to small island developing States to develop capacity and strengthen: (a) Health-care services for promoting equitable access to health care; (b) Health systems for making available necessary drugs and technology in a sustainable and affordable manner to fight and control communicable and non-communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, diabetes, malaria and dengue fever; (c) Efforts to reduce and manage waste and pollution and building capacity for maintaining and managing systems to deliver water and sanitation services, in both rural and urban areas; (d) Efforts to implement initiatives aimed at poverty eradication, which have been outlined in section II of the present document. 61. Undertake a full and comprehensive review of the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States in 2004, in accordance with the provisions set forth in General Assembly resolution S-22/2, and in this context requests the General Assembly at its fifty-seventh session to consider convening an international meeting for the sustainable development of small island developing States. VIII. Sustainable development for Africa 62. Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, sustainable development has remained elusive for many African countries. Poverty remains a major challenge and most countries on the continent have not benefited fully from the opportunities of globalization, further exacerbating the continent’s marginalization. Africa’s efforts to achieve sustainable development have been hindered by conflicts, insufficient investment, limited market access opportunities and supply side constraints, unsustainable debt burdens, historically declining levels of official development assistance and the impact of HIV/AIDS. The World Summit on Sustainable Development should reinvigorate the commitment of the international community to address these special challenges and give effect to a new vision based on concrete actions for the implementation of Agenda 21 in Africa. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is a commitment by African leaders to the people of Africa. It recognizes that partnerships among African countries themselves and between them and with the international community are key elements of a shared and common vision to eradicate poverty, and furthermore it aims to place their countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustained economic growth and sustainable development, while participating actively in the world economy and body politic. It provides a framework for sustainable development on the continent to be shared by all Africa’s people. The international community welcomes NEPAD and pledges its support to the implementation of this vision, including through utilization of the benefits of South-South cooperation supported, inter alia, by the Tokyo International Conference on African Development. It also pledges support for other existing development frameworks that are owned and driven nationally by African countries and that embody poverty reduction strategies, including poverty reduction strategy papers. Achieving sustainable development includes actions at all levels to:56. 减少空气污染造成的呼吸系统疾病和其它健康影响,特别注意妇女和儿童的情况,方法有:
(a) Create an enabling environment at the regional, subregional, national and local levels in order to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable development and support African efforts for peace, stability and security, the resolution and prevention of conflicts, democracy, good governance, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development and gender equality;(a) 加强区域和国家方案,其中包括通过公私伙伴关系,向发展中国家提供技术和财政援助;
(b) Support the implementation of the vision of NEPAD and other established regional and subregional efforts, including through financing, technical cooperation and institutional cooperation and human and institutional capacity-building at the regional, subregional and national levels, consistent with national policies, programmes and nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction and sustainable development, such as, where applicable, poverty reduction strategy papers;(b) 支持逐步去除汽油里的含铅量;
(c) Promote technology development, transfer and diffusion to Africa and further develop technology and knowledge available in African centres of excellence;(c) 通过使用更清洁的燃油和运用现代控制污染技术,加强并支持各种减少排放的努力;
(d) Support African countries in developing effective science and technology institutions and research activities capable of developing and adapting to world class technologies;(d) 协助发展中国家向农村社区提供负担得起的能源,特别应减少烹调和取暖对传统燃料来源的依赖性,因为它影响妇女和儿童的健康。 57. 逐步去除铅涂料和其他人体接触来源,努力特别预防儿童接触到铅,加强监测和监督努力,并治疗铅中毒患者。 七. 小岛屿发展中国家的可持续发展 58. 小岛屿发展中国家不管是对于环境还是对于发展来说,都是一个特殊例子。尽管它们在本国实现可持续发展的道路上继续起到牵头作用,但是在《二十一世纪议程》、《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》 以及大会第二十二届特别会议的各项决定中明确强调的各种消极因素的交叉作用下,它们正日益受到限制。因此,需要在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 加速在国家和区域两级实施《行动纲领》,提供足够的财政资源,其中包括通过全球环境基金重点领域,转让无害环境的技术,并由国际社会提供能力建设援助; (b) 进一步实施可持续渔业管理和酌情支持并加强最近建立的加勒比区域渔业机制等有关区域渔业管理组织以及《养护和管理西、中太平洋高度洄游渔类公约》等协定; (c) 根据《联合国海洋法公约》,通过拟订具体倡议及有关区域管理倡议和环境规划署海洋方案等,协助小岛屿发展中国家划定并以可持续的方式管理其沿海地区和专属经济区及大陆架(适当情况下包括离海岸基线200英里以外的大陆架区域); (d) 提供支助包括能力建设方面的支助,以制订并进一步实施: ㈠ 海洋和沿海生物多样性工作方案范围内针对小岛屿发展中国家的构成部分; ㈡ 小岛屿发展中国家淡水方案,包括通过全球环境基金重点领域提供支助;
(e) Support the development of national programmes and strategies to promote education within the context of nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction and strengthen research institutions in education in order to increase the capacity to fully support the achievement of internationally agreed development goals related to education, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration on ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will have equal access to all levels of education relevant to national needs;(e) 在2004年之前采取主动行动,在小岛屿发展中国家实施《保护海洋环境免受陆地活动污染全球行动纲领》,从而有效减少、防止及控制废物和污染以及与健康有关的重大影响;
(f) Enhance the industrial productivity, diversity and competitiveness of African countries through a combination of financial and technological support for the development of key infrastructure, access to technology, networking of research centres, adding value to export products, skills development and enhancing market access in support of sustainable development;(f) 在多哈发展议程的范围内设法确保在持续谈判过程中和拟订世界贸易组织关于小规模经济中的贸易问题工作方案过程中,适当考虑到那些在融入全球经济过程中有严重结构缺陷的小岛屿发展中国家;
(g) Enhance the contribution of the industrial sector, in particular mining, minerals and metals, to the sustainable development of Africa by supporting the development of effective and transparent regulatory and management frameworks and value addition, broad-based participation, social and environmental responsibility and increased market access in order to create an attractive and conducive environment for investment;(g) 在2004年之前制订以社区为基础的可持续旅游业倡议,并建设必要能力,使旅游业产品多样化,同时保护文化和传统并有效保存及管理自然资源;
(h) Provide financial and technical support to strengthen the capacity of African countries to undertake environmental legislative policy and institutional reform for sustainable development and to undertake environmental impact assessments and, as appropriate, to negotiate and implement multilateral environment agreements;(h) 向小岛屿发展中国家的地方社区以及适当的国家和区域组织提供援助,以便统筹进行危害和风险管理、灾害预防、缓解和防备,并帮助减轻灾害、极端天气情况和其它紧急情况所造成的后果;
(i) Develop projects, programmes and partnerships with relevant stakeholders and mobilize resources for the effective implementation of the outcome of the African Process for the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment;(i) 支持最后确定并早日按照商定的条件利用经济、社会和环境脆弱性指标及有关指标,将其作为实现小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展的工具;
(j) Deal effectively with energy problems in Africa, including through initiatives to:(j) 协助小岛屿发展中国家,调动充裕资源和伙伴关系,满足这些国家适当时根据《联合国气候变化框架公约》所作承诺适应气候变化的不利影响、海平面上升和气候多变等方面的需求;
(i) Establish and promote programmes, partnerships and initiatives to support Africa’s efforts to implement NEPAD objectives on energy, which seek to secure access for at least 35 per cent of the African population within 20 years, especially in rural areas;(k) 支助小岛屿发展中国家建设能力的努力,并支助为实施知识产权制度而作出的体制安排。 59. 支持提供小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展所需的足够、负担得起并无害环境的能源服务,除其他外: (a) 在2004年之前加强不断作出的能源供应和服务方面的努力并支持这方面新的努力,包括通过联合国系统和伙伴关系倡议; (b) 发展和促进高效利用能源,包括本地能源和可再生能源,并建设小岛屿发展中国家的培训和技术专门知识能力,加强能源管理领域的国家机构。 60. 支助小岛屿发展中国家发展能力和加强: (a) 保健服务;增进平等地获得保健服务的机会; (b) 保健制度,以负担得起的方式可持续地提供必要的药品和技术,以防治传染性和非传染性疾病,特别是艾滋病毒/艾滋病、肺结核、糖尿病、疟疾和登革热; (c) 减少和控制浪费和污染以及建设能力维持和管理农村和城市地区供水和环境卫生服务制度的努力; (d) 落实本文件第二节中所述消除贫穷倡议的努力。 61. 根据联合国大会第S-22/2号决议中的规定,在2004年对《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》的实施情况进行一次全面的综合审查,在这方面请联合国大会在其第五十七届会议上审议举行一次关于小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展的国际会议的问题。 八. 非洲可持续发展 62. 自从召开联合国环境与发展会议以来,可持续发展依然与许多非洲国家无缘。贫穷依然是一项重大挑战,非洲大陆大多数国家没有从全球化机会中充分受益,致使非洲进一步陷入边缘地位。冲突、投资不足、有限的市场准入机会和供应方方面的限制、难以持续承受的债务负担、从历史的角度来看官方发展援助流量不断减少以及艾滋病毒/艾滋病的影响阻碍了非洲实现可持续发展的努力。社会发展问题世界首脑会议应该促使国际社会再次承诺处理这些特别挑战,并在非洲采取具体行动执行《21世纪议程》,实现新的前景。非洲发展新伙伴关系是非洲领导人对非洲人民作出的承诺。它认识到,非洲各国之间以及与国际社会建立伙伴关系是消除贫穷这一共同远景的关键因素,此外,其目的是使非洲各国分别并且共同走上持续经济增长和可持续发展的道路,同时积极参与世界经济和政治实体。它为非洲全体人民均可共享的非洲大陆可持续发展提供了一个框架。国际社会欢迎非洲发展新伙伴关系,并保证支持实施这一前景,包括通过利用由非洲发展问题东京国际会议等支持的南南合作的惠益来做到这一点。它还保证支持非洲国家拥有自主权和主导权并且体现减贫战略的其他现有的发展框架,包括减贫战略文件。实现可持续发展包括在各级采取行动,以便: (a) 在区域、分区域、国家和地方各级创造一种有利的环境,以便实现持续经济增长和可持续发展,支持非洲努力实现和平、稳定和安全、解决和预防冲突、民主、善政、尊重包括发展权在内的人权和基本自由,和两性平等; (b) 支持执行非洲发展新伙伴关系的前景以及区域和分区域的现有努力,包括依照国家政策、国家方案和国家享有自主权和主导权的减贫和可持续发展战略,例如减贫战略文件,在区域、分区域和国家各级开展筹资、技术合作和机构合作以及人力建设和机构能力建设; (c) 促进对非洲的技术开发、转让和传播,并进一步发展非洲训练中心现有的技术和知识; (d) 支持非洲国家发展切实有效的科学技术机构以及能够发展适应世界级技术的研究活动; (e) 支持在国家享有自主权和主导权的减贫战略框架内,制定国家方案和战略促进教育,加强教育研究机构,提供充分支助实现国际商定与教育相关的发展目标,包括《千年宣言》中列出的目标,确保到2015年世界各国男女儿童都能完成小学全部课程,并确保男女儿童享有接受适应国家需要的各级教育的机会; (f) 在财政和技术上支持发展关键的基础设施、获得技术、与各研究中心建立联系,提高非洲国家工业生产力、多样性和竞争性,增加出口产品价值、发展技能并增加市场准入机会,以支持可持续发展; (g) 支持建立透明有效的管制和管理框架以及增值、基础广泛的参与、社会和环境责任以及扩大市场准入,加强工业部门、尤其是采矿、矿产和金属部门对非洲可持续发展的贡献,以便创造对投资具有吸引力的有利环境; (h) 提供财政和技术支助,加强非洲国家制定环境立法政策,开展有利于可持续发展的机构改革,开展环境影响评估,并酌情谈判和执行多边环境协定; (i) 与有关的利益有关者制定各种项目、方案并建立伙伴关系,调动资源,切实执行非洲开发和保护海洋和沿海环境进程的成果; (j) 通过下列主动行动,切实处理非洲的能源问题: ㈠ 订立并促进方案、伙伴关系和倡议,以支持非洲努力执行非洲发展新伙伴关系关于能源问题的目标,这些目标力图确保非洲至少35%的人口、特别是农村人口在20年内可以获得能源;
(ii) Provide support to implement other initiatives on energy, including the promotion of cleaner and more efficient use of natural gas and increased use of renewable energy, and to improve energy efficiency and access to advanced energy technologies, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas;㈡ 提供支助,用以执行关于能源问题的其他倡议,包括促进清洁、有效地使用天然气和增加使用可再生能源,提高能源效率,有机会获得先进的能源技术、包括清洁的矿物燃料技术,特别是在农村地区和近郊区;
(k) Assist African countries in mobilizing adequate resources for their adaptation needs relating to the adverse effects of climate change, extreme weather events, sea level rise and climate variability, and assist in developing national climate change strategies and mitigation programmes, and continue to take actions to mitigate the adverse effects on climate change in Africa, consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;(k) 依照《联合国气候变化框架公约》,协助非洲国家调集充足的资源,以便满足其与气候变化、极端的天气现象、海平面上升以及气候多变性的不利影响有关的应变需要,并协助制订国家气候变化战略和减灾方案,同时继续采取行动,以减轻气候变化在非洲产生的不利影响;
(l) Support African efforts to develop affordable transport systems and infrastructure that promote sustainable development and connectivity in Africa;(l) 支持非洲努力发展负担得起的运输系统和基础设施,促进非洲可持续发展和连通性;
(m) Further to paragraph 42 above, address the poverty affecting mountain communities in Africa;(m) 继上文第42段,处理影响着非洲山地社区的贫穷问题;
(n) Provide financial and technical support for afforestation and reforestation in Africa and to build capacity for sustainable forest management, including combating deforestation and measures to improve the policy and legal framework of the forest sector.(n) 为非洲植树造林和重新造林提供财政和技术援助,建设可持续森林管理能力,包括制止砍伐森林以及采取措施改善林业部门的政策和法律框架。
63. Provide financial and technical support for Africa’s efforts to implement the Convention to Combat Desertification at the national level and integrate indigenous knowledge systems into land and natural resources management practices, as appropriate, and improve extension services to rural communities and promote better land and watershed management practices, including through improved agricultural practices that address land degradation, in order to develop capacity for the implementation of national programmes.63. 提供财政和技术援助,支持非洲努力在国家一级执行《防治荒漠化公约》,酌情将本地知识系统纳入土地和自然资源的管理办法,改进对农村社区的推广服务,推广良好的土地和流域管理办法,包括改进农业管理,处理土地退化问题,以便发展执行国家方案的能力;
64. Mobilize financial and other support to develop and strengthen health systems that aim to:64. 调动财政和其他方面援助,发展应加强保健系统,以期:
(a) Promote equitable access to health-care services;(a) 促进有平等机会获得保健服务;
(b) Make available necessary drugs and technology in a sustainable and affordable manner to fight and control communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, and trypanosomiasis, as well as non-communicable diseases, including those caused by poverty;(b) 以可持续和负担得起的方式提供必要的药品和技术,以防止各种传染病,包括艾滋病毒/艾滋病、疟疾、结核病、锥虫病以及非传染性疾病,包括贫穷引起的各种疾病;
(c) Build capacity of medical and paramedical personnel;(c) 建立医务人员和医务护理人员的能力;
(d) Promote indigenous medical knowledge, as appropriate, including traditional medicine;(d) 酌情促进本地医疗知识,包括传统药物;
(e) Research and control Ebola disease.(e) 研究并控制伊波拉病。
65. Deal effectively with natural disasters and conflicts, including their humanitarian and environmental impacts, recognizing that conflicts in Africa have hindered, and in many cases obliterated, both the gains and efforts aimed at sustainable development, with the most vulnerable members of society, particularly women and children, being the most impacted victims, through efforts and initiatives, at all levels, to:65. 认识到非洲境内的冲突阻碍、在许多情况下甚至抵消了可持续发展的成就和努力,社会中最弱势成员、尤其是妇女和儿童是最严重的受害者,在各级作出努力并采取主动行动,切实处理自然灾害和各种冲突,包括其人道主义影响和环境影响,以期:
(a) Provide financial and technical assistance to strengthen the capacities of African countries, including institutional and human capacity, including at the local level, for effective disaster management, including observation and early warning systems, assessments, prevention, preparedness, response and recovery;(a) 提供财政和技术援助,加强非洲各国的能力,包括机构能力和人的能力,包括地方一级的能力,以便开展有效的灾害管理,包括观察和早期预警系统、评估、预防、备灾、应急和恢复工作;
(b) Provide support to African countries to enable them to better deal with the displacement of people as a result of natural disasters and conflicts and put in place rapid response mechanisms;(b) 向非洲国家提供支助,以便它们妥善处理自然灾害和冲突造成人们流离失所的现象,并建立快速反应机制;
(c) Support Africa’s efforts for the prevention and resolution, management and mitigation of conflicts and its early response to emerging conflict situations to avert tragic humanitarian consequences;(c) 支持非洲努力预防、解决、管理和消除冲突,对正在产生的冲突情势尽早作出反应,避免产生悲惨的人道主义后果、
(d) Provide support to refugee host countries in rehabilitating infrastructure and environment, including ecosystems and habitats, that were damaged in the process of receiving and settling refugees.(d) 支助难民东道国恢复基础设施和环境,包括在接受和安置难民过程中遭到破坏的生态系统和生境。
66. Promote integrated water resources development and optimize the upstream and downstream benefits therefrom, the development and effective management of water resources across all uses and the protection of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, including through initiatives at all levels, to:66. 促进综合水资源发展,扩大由此所产生的上游和下游惠益,在所有用水方面发展并有效管理水资源,并保护水质和水的生态系统,包括在各级采取主动行动,以期:
(a) Provide access to potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation and waste management at the household level through initiatives to encourage public and private investment in water supply and sanitation that give priority to the needs of the poor within stable and transparent national regulatory frameworks provided by Governments, while respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders and monitoring the performance and improving the accountability of public institutions and private companies; and develop critical water supply, reticulation and treatment infrastructure, and build capacity to maintain and manage systems to deliver water and sanitation services in both rural and urban areas;(a) 在家庭一级提供便携式家庭用水、卫生教育以及改进卫生和废物管理,其办法是采取主动行动,在政府提供的稳定、透明的国家管制框架范围内,鼓励对优先满足穷人需要的供水和卫生事业提供公共和私人投资,同时尊重当地情况;促使所有有关的利益有关者参与,监测公共机关和私营公司的业绩并改进其问责制;在农村和城市地区发展重要的供水、网络和处理基础设施,并建立能力,维持和管理供水和卫生服务系统;
(b) Develop and implement integrated river basin and watershed management strategies and plans for all major water bodies, consistent with paragraph 25 above;(b) 在符合上文第25段情况下,为所有重大的供水机构制定并执行河川流域和盆地综合管理战略和计划;
(c) Strengthen regional, subregional and national capacities for data collection and processing and for planning, research, monitoring, assessment and enforcement, as well as arrangements for water resource management;(c) 加强区域、分区域和国家收集和处理数据以及规划、研究、监测、评估和执法的能力以及对水资源管理作出安排的能力;
(d) Protect water resources, including groundwater and wetland ecosystems, against pollution, and, in cases of the most acute water scarcity, support efforts for developing non-conventional water resources, including the energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable desalination of seawater, rainwater harvesting and recycling of water.(d) 保护水资源、包括地下水和湿地生态系统不受污染,在发生最严重缺水现象时,支助各国努力发展非常规水资源,包括节能、成本低廉和可持续的海水淡化、收集雨水和水的再生。
67. Achieve significantly improved sustainable agricultural productivity and food security in furtherance of the agreed Millennium development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, in particular to halve by 2015 the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, including through initiatives at all levels to:67. 实现大幅提高可持续的农业生产率和粮食安全,以推进已商定的千年发展目标,包括《千年宣言》所列的目标,特别是在2015年之前将挨饿的人口比例减少一半,办法包括在所有各级采取主动行动,以:
(a) Support the development and implementation of national policies and programmes, including research programmes and development plans of African countries to regenerate their agricultural sector and sustainably develop their fisheries, and increase investment in infrastructure, technology and extension services, according to country needs. African countries should be in the process of developing and implementing food security strategies, within the context of national poverty eradication programmes, by 2005;(a) 支持根据国家的需要,制定并执行国家政策和方案,包括非洲国家的研究方案和开发计划,以复兴其农业部门,可持续地发展渔业,并增加在基础设施、技术和推广服务方面的投资。非洲国家应在2005年之前在国家消除贫穷方案的范围内制定和执行粮食安全战略;
(b) Promote and support efforts and initiatives to secure equitable access to land tenure and clarify resource rights and responsibilities, through land and tenure reform processes that respect the rule of law and are enshrined in national law, and provide access to credit for all, especially women, and that enable economic and social empowerment and poverty eradication as well as efficient and ecologically sound utilization of land and that enable women producers to become decision makers and owners in the sector, including the right to inherit land;(b) 通过尊重法制、国家法律所载列的土地和保有权的改革进程,促进并支持取得公平地使用土地和取得保有权并澄清资源的权利和责任的努力和倡议,并使所有人、特别是妇女拥有取得信贷的机会,而这将促成在经济和社会方面增强力量和消除贫穷,并以有效和无害生态的方式使用土地,并使妇女生产者成为该部门的决策者和所有人,包括土地的继承权;
(c) Improve market access for goods, including goods originating from African countries, in particular least developed countries, within the framework of the Doha Ministerial Declaration, without prejudging the outcome of the World Trade Organization negotiations, as well as within the framework of preferential agreements;(c) 在《多哈部长宣言》的框架内,改善包括来自非洲国家、特别是最不发达国家的货物在内的货物的市场准入机会,但不对世贸组织的谈判结果作预先判定,同时不超出优惠协定框架;
(d) Provide support for African countries to improve regional trade and economic integration between African countries. Attract and increase investment in regional market infrastructure;(d) 向非洲国家提供支助,以改善非洲国家间的区域贸易和经济一体化。吸引并增加对区域市场基础设施的投资;
(e) Support livestock development programmes aimed at progressive and effective control of animal diseases.(e) 支持旨在逐步、有效控制动物疾病的畜牧业发展方案。
68. Achieve sound management of chemicals, with particular focus on hazardous chemicals and wastes, inter alia, through initiatives to assist African countries in elaborating national chemical profiles and regional and national frameworks and strategies for chemical management and establishing chemical focal points.68. 特别是通过协助非洲国家制订国家化学品简况,订立区域和国家化学品管理框架和战略,并设立化学品协调中心,实现化学品的妥善管理,特别以有害化学品和废物为重点。
69. Bridge the digital divide and create digital opportunity in terms of access infrastructure and technology transfer and application through integrated initiatives for Africa. Create an enabling environment to attract investment, accelerate existing and new programmes and projects to connect essential institutions and stimulate the adoption of information communication technologies in government and commerce programmes and other aspects of national economic and social life.69. 通过非洲综合倡议,在连通的基础设施以及技术转让和应用方面弥补数字鸿沟,并创造数字机会。创造一个有利环境,以吸引投资、加快现有的和新的方案和项目的执行,以便使基本机构相互联接起来,并推动政府和商业方案以及国家经济和社会生活的其他方面采用信息通信技术。 70. 通过采取下列措施,支持非洲实现可持续的旅游业,以促进社会、经济和基础设施的发展:
70. Support Africa’s efforts to attain sustainable tourism that contributes to social, economic and infrastructure development through the following measures:(a) 在地方、国家和分区域各级实施项目,具体的重点是推销非洲的旅游产品,如探险旅游、生态旅游和文化旅游;
(a) Implementing projects at the local, national and subregional levels, with specific emphasis on marketing African tourism products, such as adventure tourism, ecotourism and cultural tourism;(b) 建立并支持国家和越界保护区,以推动按照生态系统办法开展生态系统的保护,并促进可持续的旅游业; (c) 尊重地方传统和文化,并促进在自然资源管理和生态旅游方面利用本地知识; (d) 协助东道社区对其旅游项目进行管理,以谋求最大利益,同时限制对其传统、文化和环境的不利影响; (e) 根据各缔约国在与生物多样性有关的协定包括《生物多样性公约》、《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》和各区域生物多样性公约等协定下所作的承诺,支持保护非洲生物多样性、可持续地使用其组成部分以及公正、公平地分享因使用遗传资源而产生的惠益;
(b) Establishing and supporting national and cross-border conservation areas to promote ecosystem conservation according to the ecosystem approach, and to promote sustainable tourism;71. 支持非洲国家努力执行《人居议程》和《伊斯坦布尔宣言》,办法是采取主动行动,在可持续的城市化和人类住区领域加强国家和地方的体制能力,为取得适当的住房和基本服务提供支助,并在城市和其他人类住区发展高效率、高功效的管理制度,并除其他外加强联合国人类住区规划署和环境规划署非洲城市水管理方案。
(c) Respecting local traditions and cultures and promoting the use of indigenous knowledge in natural resource management and ecotourism;九. 其他区域倡议 72. 在其他联合国区域以及区域、分区域和跨区域论坛内已经制定了重要倡议来促进可持续发展。国际社会欢迎这些努力并已取得成果,要求各级采取行动以便进一步发展这些倡议,同时鼓励区域内、区域间和国际在这方面进行合作,并表示支持各区域的国家进一步发展和实施这些倡议。
(d) Assisting host communities in managing their tourism projects for maximum benefit, while limiting negative impact on their traditions, culture and environment;A. 拉丁美洲及加勒比的可持续发展倡议
(e) Support the conservation of Africa’s biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, in accordance with commitments that countries have under biodiversity-related agreements to which they are parties, including such agreements as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, as well as regional biodiversity agreements.73. 拉丁美洲及加勒比的可持续发展倡议是该区域领导人所作的一项许诺,它依据2001年10月在里约热内卢通过的《2002年通向约翰内斯堡之路行动纲要》,并确认采取区域行动以争取实现可持续发展的重要性,并考虑到该区域的独一性、共同的前景和文化的多样性。其目标是在不同的可持续发展领域,如生物多样性、水资源、脆弱性与可持续的城市、社会方面(包括健康与贫穷)、经济方面(包括能源)和体制安排(包括能力建设、指标和民间社会的参与),采取具体行动,同时计及可持续发展的道德规范。
71. Support African countries in their efforts to implement the Habitat Agenda and the Istanbul Declaration through initiatives to strengthen national and local institutional capacities in the areas of sustainable urbanization and human settlements, provide support for adequate shelter and basic services and the development of efficient and effective governance systems in cities and other human settlements and strengthen, inter alia, the joint programme on managing water for African cities of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme.74. 该倡议设想在该区域各国之间开展可促进南南合作、并可依靠国家集团、以及包括金融机构在内的多边和区域组织支持的行动。作为一个合作框架,该倡议可与政府以及所有的主要群体建立伙伴关系。
IX.B.
Other regional initiatives亚洲及太平洋的可持续发展
72. Important initiatives have been developed within other United Nations regions and regional, subregional and transregional forums to promote sustainable development. The international community welcomes these efforts and the results already achieved, calls for actions at all levels for their further development, while encouraging interregional, intraregional and international cooperation in this respect, and expresses its support for their further development and implementation by the countries of the regions.75. 铭记《千年宣言》规定的至迟在2015年将贫穷人口减少一半的目标,《亚洲及太平洋区域可持续发展金边纲要》 确认该区域拥有世界一半以上的人口,也是世界贫困人口最多的区域。因此,该区域的可持续发展对于在全球一级实现可持续发展来说至关重要。
A. Sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean76. 《区域纲要》确定了供采取后续行动的七项倡议:为可持续发展进行能力建设,为可持续发展减贫、清洁生产和可持续能源、土地管理和生物多样性的保护、淡水资源、海洋以及沿海和海洋资源的保护、管理和使用、小岛屿国家的可持续发展、以及就大气和气候变化采取行动。将通过国家战略以及有关的区域和分区域战略采取后续行动,例如亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会组织的亚洲环境与发展问题第四次部长级会议通过的《无害环境和可持续发展区域行动纲要》和《北九洲干净环境倡议》。
73. The Initiative of Latin America and the Caribbean on Sustainable Development is an undertaking by the leaders of that region that, building on the Platform for Action on the Road to Johannesburg, 2002, which was approved in Rio de Janeiro in October 2001, recognizes the importance of regional actions towards sustainable development and takes into account the region’s singularities, shared visions and cultural diversity.C.
It is targeted towards the adoption of concrete actions in different areas of sustainable development, such as biodiversity, water resources, vulnerabilities and sustainable cities, social aspects, including health and poverty, economic aspects, including energy, and institutional arrangements, including capacity-building, indicators and participation of civil society, taking into account ethics for sustainable development.西亚区域的可持续发展
74. The Initiative envisages the development of actions among countries in the region that may foster South-South cooperation and may count with the support of groups of countries, as well as multilateral and regional organizations, including financial institutions. As a framework for cooperation, the Initiative is open to partnerships with governments and all major groups.77. 众所周知,西亚区域缺水,肥沃的土地资源有限。该区域在转向从事更加偏重知识、更高附加值商品的生产方面取得了进展。 78. 区域筹备会议确定了下列优先目标:减贫、减轻债务负担;以及自然资源的可持续管理,特别包括水资源的综合管理、实施旨在防治荒漠化的方案、沿海区的统筹管理以及土地和水污染的控制。 D. 欧洲经济委员会(欧经会)区域的可持续发展 79. 欧洲经济委员会关于可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的区域部长会议确认,该区域在全球以具体行动实现可持续发展的努力中可发挥重大的作用和负有重大的责任。该区域确认,区域各国的经济发展水平不同,需要采取不同的方法和机制来执行《21世纪议程》。为了以相互增强的方式来解决可持续发展的三个支柱部门,该区域在部长声明 中为欧经会区域可持续发展确定了其优先行动。 80. 为了促进该区域对可持续发展的承诺,目前正在区域、分区域和跨区域各级作出努力,除其他外包括欧洲环境进程;拟在2003年5月在基辅举行的第五届欧经会部长会议;为12个东欧国家制定环境战略;高加索和中亚;《中亚21世纪议程》;经合组织关于可持续发展的工作;欧盟可持续发展战略;以及区域和分区域与可持续发展有关的公约和进程,除其他外,包括《在环境问题上获得信息、公众参与决策和诉诸法律的公约》(《奥胡斯公约》)、《阿尔卑斯公约》、北美环境合作委员会、《国际边界水域条约》、北极理事会的《伊卡瑞特宣言》、《波罗的海21世纪议程》和《地中海21世纪议程》。 十. 执行手段 81. 要执行《21世纪议程》和实现国际商定的发展目标、包括载于《千年宣言》以及本行动计划的目标,各国自身和国际社会其他各方都必须在确认每个国家负有促进其本国发展的主要责任和国家政策及发展战略作用极其重要的基础上大力加紧努力,并充分考虑到各项里约原则,特别是考虑到共同但有区别的责任的原则,其中指示: “各国应本着全球伙伴精神开展合作,养护、保护和恢复地球生态系统的健康和完整。鉴于导致全球环境退化的不同因素,各国负有共同的但是有区别的责任。发达国家,鉴于其社会给全球环境造成的压力,以及它们所掌握的技术和财政资源,确认它们在国际社会谋求可持续发展方面所承担的责任。” 国际商定的发展目标,包括载于《千年宣言》和《21世纪议程》以及本行动计划的各项目标将需要依照《蒙特雷共识》,大幅度增加特别是流入发展中国家的资金流量,包括通过新的和其他资金来源,以便在实现这些目标和倡议所需的商定时限内在下列方面提供支助:落实它们所制定的国家政策和方案、扩大贸易机会、在彼此商定的减让和优惠基础上取得和转让无害环境技术、教育和提高认识、能力建设、决策信息和科学能力。为此目的取得进展将需要国际社会执行联合国各次主要会议的成果,例如第三次联合国最不发达国家问题会议 和小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展全球会议所通过的行动纲领、以及1992年以来各项有关的国际协定,特别是发展筹资问题国际会议和世界贸易组织第四次部长级会议的协定,包括借重它们作为实现可持续发展进程的一部分。 82. 为确保二十一世纪成为普及可持续发展的世纪,我们将首先调动并更加有效地利用资金和为实现国际商定的各项发展目标,包括载于《千年宣言》的目标创造必要的国家和国际经济条件,以便消除贫穷、改善社会状况、提高生活水准和保护我们的环境。 83. 在我们共同致力寻求增长、消除贫穷和促进可持续发展之时,确保为调集本国公私储蓄、维持适当水平的生产性投资和提高人的能力创造必要的内部条件,是一项关键挑战。关键的任务是,提高宏观经济政策的效率、一致性和连贯性。有利的国内环境对调动国内资源、提高生产力、减少资本外逃、鼓励私营部门、吸引并有效利用国际投资和援助至关重要。国际社会应当支持创造这种环境的努力。 84. 便利更多外国直接投资流动,从而支助发展中国家的可持续发展活动,包括建立基础设施,以及增进发展中国家可以从外国直接投资获得的利益,特别是采取行动,以便: (a) 创造必要的国内和国际条件,促进大幅增加流入发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家、对可持续发展极其关键的外国直接投资流量,特别是促进发展中国家基础设施发展和其他优先领域的外国直接投资流量,以补充它们调集的本国资源;
B. Sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific(b) 通过可以有助于可持续发展的出口信贷,鼓励对发展中国家和经济转型国家的外国直接投资;
75. Bearing in mind the target of halving the number of people who live in poverty by the year 2015, as provided in the Millennium Declaration, the Phnom Penh Regional Platform on Sustainable Development for Asia and the Pacific recognized that the region contains over half of the world’s population and the largest number of the world’s people living in poverty.85. 确认如果发展中国家要实现国际商定的发展目标,包括载于《千年宣言》的目标,将需要大幅增加官方发展援助和其他资源。为了争取对官方发展援助的支持,我们将通力合作,在国家和国际两极,进一步改善政策和发展战略,以便提高援助的效力,同时采取行动,以便: (a) 支付若干发达国家在发展筹资问题国际会议上宣布增加的官方发展援助承付款。敦促还没有使其向发展中国家提供的官方发展援助达到国民生产总值0.
Hence, sustainable development in the region is critical to achieving sustainable development at the global level.7%指标的发达国家作出具体努力,并依照于2001年5月20日在布鲁塞尔通过的《2001-2010十年期支援最不发达国家行动纲领》 第83段所载,有效落实他们就向最不发达国家提供官方发展援助所作的承诺。我们还鼓励发展中国家以取得的进展作为基础,依照发展筹资问题国际会议的成果,确保有效地利用官方发展援助来协助实现各项发展目标和指标。我们感谢所有捐助者的努力、赞扬其捐款超出、达到指标或朝向指标增多的捐助者并强调需要致力审查实现指标和目标的手段和时限;
76. The Regional Platform identified seven initiatives for follow-up action: capacity-building for sustainable development; poverty reduction for sustainable development; cleaner production and sustainable energy; land management and biodiversity conservation; protection and management of and access to freshwater resources; oceans, coastal and marine resources and sustainable development of small island developing States; and action on atmosphere and climate change. Follow-up actions of these initiatives will be taken through national strategies and relevant regional and subregional initiatives, such as the Regional Action Programme for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development and the Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment, adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific organized by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.(b) 鼓励受援国和捐助国以及国际机构使官方发展援助在促进消除贫穷和增进可持续经济增长及可持续发展方面更有效率和成效更高。在这方面,多边和双边金融和发展机构依照《蒙特雷共识》第43段加紧努力,特别是按最高标准协调其业务程序,从而降低业务往来的费用,并使官方发展援助的发放和交付更加灵活和更加配合发展中国家的需要,同时由受援国当家作主,考虑到国家发展需要和目标,并利用由发展中国家主导和驱动、包含了包括减贫战略文件在内的减贫战略的发展框架作为应要求交付援助的工具。
C. Sustainable development in the West Asia region86. 充分有效地利用现有的金融机制和机构,包括通过在所有各级采取行动,以便:
77. The West Asia region is known for its scarce water and limited fertile land resources. The region has made progress to a more knowledge-based production of higher value-added commodities.(a) 加强正在进行的努力,改革现有的国际金融结构,促进建立一个透明、公平和包容的体系,能够让发展中国家有效参与国际经济决策程序和机构,以及让它们有效和公平地参与金融标准和规则的拟订; (b) 特别是推动在来源国和目的地国采取措施,增进资金流动的透明化和改善有关的信息,以便有助于国际金融环境的稳定。减轻短期资本流动波动过分激烈所生影响的措施十分重要,切须加以审议;
78. The regional preparatory meeting endorsed the following priorities: poverty alleviation, relief of debt burden; and sustainable management of natural resources, including, inter alia, integrated water resources management, implementation of programmes to combat desertification, integrated coastal zone management and land and water pollution control.(c) 致力确保斟酌情况在及时、更加有保障和可预测的基础上向国际组织和机构提供资金,以促进其可持续发展活动、方案和项目; (d) 鼓励包括跨国公司、私营基金会和民间社会在内的私营部门向发展中国家提供资金和技术援助; (e) 支助为发展中国家和经济转型国家服务的新的和现有的公/私营部门筹资机制,以便特别是使小企业家和中小型企业和社区企业受惠并改善其基础结构,同时确保这些机制的透明度和问责制。 87. 欢迎全球环境基金第三次大量补充资金圆满结束,使该基金能处理新的中心领域以及现有领域中的供资需求,并继续对受援国、特别是发展中国家的需求和关切问题作出反应,同时进一步鼓励全球环境基金从主要的公私营组织筹措更多资金,通过更快、更简化的程序改进资金管理,并精简项目周期。 88. 探讨为发展目的开拓新的公私创新筹资来源的办法,条件是这些来源不会给发展中国家造成过重的负担,同时注意到《蒙特雷共识》第44段所述为发展目的使用特别提款权配额的建议。 89. 通过减免债务、斟酌情况勾销债务以及旨在全面解决发展中国家、特别是最贫穷、负债最重国家的债务问题的其他创新机制等行动,减轻难以持续的债务负担。因此,必要时应大力、迅速推行减免债务措施,包括在巴黎俱乐部和伦敦俱乐部以及其他有关论坛内推行,以促进债务可以持续承担并推动可持续发展,同时确认债务国和债权国必须分担预防和解决难以持续的债务状况的责任,并确认外债的减免可发挥重大作用,能释放资源以转用于与实现可持续的增长和发展相一致的活动。因此,我们支持《蒙特雷共识》中关于外债问题的第47至51段。减免债务安排应力求避免将任何不公平的负担施加于其他发展中国家。对最贫穷、最易受债务危害的国家应更多地使用赠款。鼓励各国制定国家综合战略,作为降低国家易受害程度的一项主要内容,对外债情况进行监测和管理。在这方面,需要采取下列行动: (a) 迅速、有效和全面执行增加优惠的重债穷国倡议,应通过增供资源为倡议筹足资金,并酌情考虑采取措施,以应付具有因自然灾害和严重不利的贸易条件冲击所造成的难以持续承受的债务负担或受冲突影响的发展中国家经济情况的根本变化,并计及为减少未偿债务已经执行的倡议; (b) 鼓励尚未参与重债穷国倡议的所有债权国参与这项倡议; (c) 在有关的国际论坛上让国际债务方和债权方一起及时有效地调整难以持续承担的债务,其中考虑到有必要酌情让私营部门参与解决债务引起的危机;
D. Sustainable development in the Economic Commission for Europe region(d) 确认一些不在重债穷国倡议之列的低收入国家、特别是面临特殊处境的国家的债务可持续问题;
79. The Economic Commission for Europe regional ministerial meeting for the World Summit on Sustainable Development recognized that the region has a major role to play and responsibilities in global efforts to achieve sustainable development by concrete actions. The region recognized that different levels of economic development in countries of the region may require the application of different approaches and mechanisms to implement Agenda 21. In order to address the three pillars of sustainable development in a mutually reinforcing way, the region identified its priority actions for sustainable development for the Economic Commission for Europe region in its Ministerial Statement to the Summit.(e) 鼓励探讨创新机制,以全面处理包括中等收入国家在内的发展中国家和转型期经济国家的债务问题。这种机制可包括债务换取可持续发展等手段;
80. In furtherance of the region’s commitment to sustainable development, there are ongoing efforts at the regional, subregional and transregional levels, including, inter alia, the Environment for Europe process; the fifth Economic Commission for Europe ministerial conference, to be held in Kiev in May 2003; the development of an environmental strategy for the 12 countries of Eastern Europe; the Caucasus and Central Asia; the Central Asian Agenda 21; work of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development on sustainable development, the European Union sustainable development strategy; and regional and subregional conventions and processes relevant to sustainable development, including, inter alia, the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), the Alpine Convention, the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the International Boundary Waters Treaty Act, the Iqaluit Declaration of the Arctic Council, the Baltic Agenda 21 and the Mediterranean Agenda 21.(f) 鼓励捐助国采取步骤,以确保不会因为减免债务提供资源而减少为发展中国家提供的官方发展援助资源。
X. Means of implementation90. 确认贸易在实现可持续发展和消除贫穷方面起着重要作用,我们鼓励世界贸易组织(世贸组织)成员继续执行世贸组织第四届部长级会议商定的工作方案。为使发展中国家、特别是其中的最不发达国家在世界贸易增长额中取得与其经济发展需要相称的份额,我们敦促世贸组织成员采取下列行动:
81. The implementation of Agenda 21 and the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration as well as in the present plan of action, require a substantially increased effort, both by countries themselves and by the rest of the international community, based on the recognition that each country has primary responsibility for its own development and that the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized, taking fully into account the Rio principles, including, in particular, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, which states:(a) 按照《蒙特雷共识》的规定,便利所有申请加入世贸组织的发展中国家,特别是最不发达国家,以及转型期经济国家加入世贸组织;
“States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.”(b) 支持多哈部长级会议通过的工作方案,作为发达国家和发展中国家将适当贸易政策纳入其各自发展政策和方案主流的一项重要承诺;
The internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration and Agenda 21, as well as in the present plan of action, will require significant increases in the flow of financial resources as elaborated in the Monterrey Consensus, including through new and additional financial resources, in particular to developing countries, to support the implementation of national policies and programmes developed by them, improved trade opportunities, access to and transfer of environmentally sound technologies on a concessional or preferential basis, as mutually agreed, education and awareness-raising, capacity-building and information for decision-making and scientific capabilities within the agreed time frame required to meet these goals and initiatives. Progress to this end will require that the international community implement the outcomes of major United Nations conferences, such as the programmes of action adopted at the Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries and the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, and relevant international agreements since 1992, particularly those of the International Conference on Financing for Development and the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization, including building on them as part of a process of achieving sustainable development.(c) 执行与贸易有关的实质技术援助和能力建设措施,并支持在多哈部长级会议之后设立的多哈发展议程全球信托基金,作为朝向确保与世贸组织有关的技术援助和能力建设有一个坚实、可预测的基础而迈出的重要的一步;
82. Mobilizing and increasing the effective use of financial resources and achieving the national and international economic conditions needed to fulfil internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, to eliminate poverty, improve social conditions and raise living standards and protect our environment, will be our first step to ensuring that the twenty-first century becomes the century of sustainable development for all.(d) 执行在《多哈宣言》中核可的《开展技术合作以促进能力建设、增长和融合新战略》;
83. In our common pursuit of growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development, a critical challenge is to ensure the necessary internal conditions for mobilizing domestic savings, both public and private, sustaining adequate levels of productive investment and increasing human capacity. A crucial task is to enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies. An enabling domestic environment is vital for mobilizing domestic resources, increasing productivity, reducing capital flight, encouraging the private sector and attracting and making effective use of international investment and assistance. Efforts to create such an environment should be supported by the international community.(e) 全力支持执行向最不发达国家提供贸易方面的技术援助综合框架,并敦促发展伙伴根据《多哈部长宣言》大幅增加对框架信托基金的捐助。
84. Facilitate greater flows of foreign direct investment so as to support the sustainable development activities, including the development of infrastructure, of developing countries, and enhance the benefits that developing countries can draw from foreign direct investment, with particular actions to:91. 我们根据《多哈宣言》以及在多哈作出的有关决定,决心采取具体行动,以处理发展中国家就执行世贸组织的一些协定和决定而提出的问题和关切事宜,其中包括它们在执行这些协定方面面临的困难和资源限制。
(a) Create the necessary domestic and international conditions to facilitate significant increases in the flow of foreign direct investment to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, which is critical to sustainable development, particularly foreign direct investment flows for infrastructure development and other priority areas in developing countries to supplement the domestic resources mobilized by them;92. 敦促世贸组织成员履行其在《多哈部长宣言》所作的承诺,特别是关于发展中国家尤其是最不发达国家出口商品的市场准入,特别是这些国家感兴趣领域的市场准入,办法是执行下列行动,并考虑到《多哈部长宣言》第45段的规定:
(b) Encourage foreign direct investment in developing countries and countries with economies in transition through export credits that could be instrumental to sustainable development;(a) 按照《多哈部长宣言》第44段,审查所有特殊和区别待遇规定,以加强这些规定,使之更加准确、有效并可实际操作;
85. Recognize that a substantial increase in official development assistance and other resources will be required if developing countries are to achieve the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration. To build support for official development assistance, we will cooperate to further improve policies and development strategies, both nationally and internationally, to enhance aid effectiveness, with actions to:(b) 争取减少和酌情取消对非农业产品的关税,包括减少或取消特别针对发展中国家重要出口产品的关税高峰、高额关税和关税升级以及非关税壁垒。涉及的产品应该全面,不设置优先排除。谈判工作应按照《多哈部长宣言》充分考虑到发展中国家和最不发达国家的特殊需要和利益,包括在削减关税的承诺中不实施全面互惠措施;
(a) Make available the increased commitments in official development assistance announced by several developed countries at the International Conference on Financing for Development. Urge the developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product as official development assistance to developing countries and effectively implement their commitment on such assistance to the least developed countries as contained in paragraph 83 of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2001-2010, which was adopted in Brussels on 20 May 2001. We also encourage developing countries to build on progress achieved in ensuring that official development assistance is used effectively to help achieve development goals and targets in accordance with the outcome of the International Conference on Financing for Development. We acknowledge the efforts of all donors, commend those donors whose contributions exceed, reach or are increasing towards the targets, and underline the importance of undertaking to examine the means and time frames for achieving the targets and goals;(c) 按照《多哈部长宣言》 第13和14段的规定,在不预先断定谈判结果情况下,履行承诺,开展《农业协定》第20条倡议的综合谈判。以大幅度提高市场准入,减少进而逐步取消各种出口补贴,大幅度减少扭曲贸易的国内支持措施,同时赞同向发展中国家提供特殊和区别待遇的规定应成为谈判所有要素的组成部分,并应载于宽减和承付表内并应酌情载于将商定的规则和行为准则,以便更为有效地运作,并使发展中国家能够切实考虑到其发展需求,包括粮食安全和农村发展。注意到世贸组织成员提出谈判提案中的非贸易事项,并按照《多哈部长宣言》,将根据《农业协定》规定,确认将在谈判中考虑到非贸易事项。
(b) Encourage recipient and donor countries, as well as international institutions, to make official development assistance more efficient and effective for poverty eradication, sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In this regard, intensify efforts by the multilateral and bilateral financial and development institutions, in accordance with paragraph 43 of the Monterrey Consensus, in particular to harmonize their operational procedures at the highest standards, so as to reduce transaction costs and make disbursement and delivery of official development assistance more flexible and more responsive to the needs of developing countries, taking into account national development needs and objectives under the ownership of recipient countries, and to use development frameworks that are owned and driven by developing countries and that embody poverty reduction strategies, including poverty reduction strategy papers, as vehicles for aid delivery, upon request.93. 呼吁尚未这样做的发达国家按照《2001-2010十年最不发达国家行动纲领》,致力于实现最不发达国家出口商品免关税、无配额准入的目标。
86. Make full and effective use of existing financial mechanisms and institutions, including through actions at all levels to:94. 决心按照《多哈部长宣言》第35段,积极实施世贸组织工作方案,以符合小型脆弱经济体特殊国情的方式,支持其努力实现可持续发展,处理与贸易有关问题和影响将这些经济体充分融入多边贸易系统的问题。
(a) Strengthen ongoing efforts to reform the existing international financial architecture to foster a transparent, equitable and inclusive system that is able to provide for the effective participation of developing countries in the international economic decision-making processes and institutions, as well as for their effective and equitable participation in the formulation of financial standards and codes;95. 特别通过财政和技术援助、国际援助经济多样化和可持续资源管理,使依赖商品的国家具备出口多样化的能力,并处理商品价格不稳定和贸易条件恶化的问题以及加强商品共同基金第二帐户之下支持可持续发展的活动。
(b) Promote, inter alia, measures in source and destination countries to improve transparency and information about financial flows to contribute to stability in the international financial environment. Measures that mitigate the impact of excessive volatility of short-term capital flows are important and must be considered;96. 通过建立公营私营伙伴关系,并除其他外,通过各级行动,包括在技术援助、技术开发和能力建设方面向发展中国家提供资助,使发展中国家和转型期经济国家从贸易自由化中获取更大的惠益,以期:
(c) Work to ensure that the funds are made available on a timely, more assured and predictable basis to international organizations and agencies, where appropriate, for their sustainable development activities, programmes and projects;(a) 加强贸易基础设施,加强体制;
(d) Encourage the private sector, including transnational corporations, private foundations and civil society institutions, to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries;(b) 提高发展中国家的出口多样化能力,并增加出口,以应付商品价格不稳和贸易条件恶化的现象;
(e) Support new and existing public/private sector financing mechanisms for developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to benefit in particular small entrepreneurs and small, medium-sized and community-based enterprises and to improve their infrastructure, while ensuring the transparency and accountability of such mechanisms.(c) 增加发展中国家出口商品中的增值部分。
87. Welcome the successful and substantial third replenishment of the Global Environment Facility, which will enable it to address the funding requirements of new focal areas and existing ones and continue to be responsive to the needs and concerns of its recipient countries, in particular developing countries, and further encourage the Global Environment Facility to leverage additional funds from key public and private organizations, improve the management of funds through more speedy and streamlined procedures and simplify its project cycle.97. 继续加强贸易、环境和发展的相互支持作用,以通过在所有各级采取行动实现可持续发展,以便:
88. Explore ways of generating new public and private innovative sources of finance for development purposes, provided that those sources do not unduly burden developing countries, noting the proposal to use special drawing rights allocations for development purposes, as set forth in paragraph 44 of the Monterrey Consensus.(a) 鼓励世贸组织贸易和环境委员会及贸易和发展委员会在其各自的任务范围内,按照《多哈部长宣言》的各项承诺分别作为一个论坛,确定和讨论谈判的发展和环境方面,以协助取得有助于可持续发展的成果;
89. Reduce unsustainable debt burden through such actions as debt relief and, as appropriate, debt cancellation and other innovative mechanisms geared to comprehensively address the debt problems of developing countries, in particular the poorest and most heavily indebted ones. Therefore, debt relief measures should, where appropriate, be pursued vigorously and expeditiously, including within the Paris and London Clubs and other relevant forums, in order to contribute to debt sustainability and facilitate sustainable development, while recognizing that debtors and creditors must share responsibility for preventing and resolving unsustainable debt situations, and that external debt relief can play a key role in liberating resources that can then be directed towards activities consistent with attaining sustainable growth and development. Therefore, we support paragraphs 47 to 51 of the Monterrey Consensus dealing with external debt. Debt relief arrangements should seek to avoid imposing any unfair burdens on other developing countries. There should be an increase in the use of grants for the poorest, debt-vulnerable countries. Countries are encouraged to develop national comprehensive strategies to monitor and manage external liabilities as a key element in reducing national vulnerabilities. In this regard, actions are required to:(b) 支持完成《多哈部长宣言》关于补贴的工作方案,以促进可持续发展,并加强环境和鼓励改革那些对环境造成严重消极影响并且同可持续发展不一致的补贴;
(a) Implement speedily, effectively and fully the enhanced heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative, which should be fully financed through additional resources, taking into consideration, as appropriate, measures to address any fundamental changes in the economic circumstances of those developing countries with unsustainable debt burden caused by natural catastrophes, severe terms-of-trade shocks or affected by conflict, taking into account initiatives which have been undertaken to reduce outstanding indebtedness;(c) 鼓励在世贸组织、贸发会议、开发计划署、环境规划署、劳工组织和其他相关的国际环境和发展及区域组织的秘书处之间努力促进贸易、环境与发展方面的合作,包括向发展中国家提供技术援助领域内的合作;
(b) Encourage participation in the HIPC initiative of all creditors that have not yet done so;(d) 鼓励在国家一级自愿采用环境影响评估手段,妥善查明贸易、环境和发展关联。进一步鼓励具有这方面经验的国家和国际组织为此目的向发展中国家提供技术援助。
(c) Bring international debtors and creditors together in relevant international forums to restructure unsustainable debt in a timely and efficient manner, taking into account the need to involve the private sector in the resolution of crises due to indebtedness, where appropriate;98. 促进多边贸易制度和多边环境协定之间符合可持续发展目标的相互支助,以支持通过世贸组织商定的工作方案,同时确认必须维持两套文书的完整性。
(d) Acknowledge the problems of the debt sustainability of some non-HIPC low-income countries, in particular those facing exceptional circumstances;99. 在国家、区域和国际各级,包括通过公私双方的伙伴关系采取进一步行动,补充和支持《多哈部长宣言》和《蒙特雷共识》,特别通过所有各级的行动,加强贸易自由化的利益,特别是对发展中国家以及转型期经济国的利益,以期:
(e) Encourage exploring innovative mechanisms to comprehensively address the debt problems of developing countries, including middle-income countries and countries with economies in transition. Such mechanisms may include debt-for-sustainable-development swaps;(a) 建立和加强符合多边贸易制度的现有贸易与合作协定,以实现可持续发展;
(f) Encourage donor countries to take steps to ensure that resources provided for debt relief do not detract from official development assistance resources intended for developing countries.(b) 支持世贸组织以市场为基础、相互兼容的自愿行动,创建并扩大无害环境货物和服务、包括有机农产品的国内和国际市场,通过能力建设以及向发展中国家提供技术援助来扩大环境和发展的利益;
90. Recognizing the major role that trade can play in achieving sustainable development and in eradicating poverty, we encourage members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to pursue the work programme agreed at their Fourth Ministerial Conference. In order for developing countries, especially the least developed among them, to secure their share in the growth of world trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development, we urge WTO members to take the following actions:(c) 支持采取各种措施,简化对贸易具有影响的国内条例和程序,并提高其透明度,以便协助出口商、尤其是发展中国家的出口商。
(a) Facilitate the accession of all developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, that apply for membership in WTO, in accordance with the Monterrey Consensus;100. 处理影响着许多发展中国家和最不发达国家的公共健康问题,尤其是艾滋病毒/艾滋病、肺结核、疟疾和其他传染病,同时注意到关于与贸易有关的知识产权协定(知识产权协定) 的《多哈宣言》的重要性,其中商定,与贸易有关的知识产权协定并不、也不应该妨碍世贸组织成员国采取措施保护公共健康。因此,我们再次表示决心信守与贸易有关的知识产权协定,同时重申,解释和执行该《协定》的方式可以、也应该支持世贸组织成员国保护公共健康的权利,尤其是促进人人能够获得药品。
(b) Support the work programme adopted at the Doha Ministerial Conference as an important commitment on the part of developed and developing countries to mainstream appropriate trade policies in their respective development policies and programmes;101. 各国应该开展合作,促进具有支助性的开放式国际经济制度,使所有国家实现经济增长和可持续发展,并且妥善处理环境恶化的问题,以保护环境为目的的贸易政策措施不应该成为任意或无理的歧视手段,也不应该以此为幌子限制国际贸易。应该避免在进口国管辖权之外采取单方面行动处理环境挑战。处理越界或全球性环境问题的关键措施应该尽可能达成国际协商一致意见。
(c) Implement substantial trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building measures and support the Doha Development Agenda Global Trust Fund, established after the Doha Ministerial Conference, as an important step forward in ensuring a sound and predictable basis for WTO-related technical assistance and capacity-building;102. 采取步骤,避免采取并且不采取任何单方面措施,如果这些措施不符合国际法和《联合国宪章》,妨碍受影响国家的民众、特别是妇女和儿童充分享受经济和社会发展,妨碍他们的福祉,阻碍他们充分享受人权、包括人人享有充分保证健康和福利的生活水平的权利以及获得粮食、医疗保健和必要社会服务的权利。确保不将粮食和药品作为施加政治压力的手段。
(d) Implement the New Strategy for Technical Cooperation for Capacity-Building, Growth and Integration endorsed in the Doha Declaration;103. 采取进一步有效措施,消除妨碍实现各国人民、尤其是处于殖民占领和外国占领之下人民的自决权利的各种障碍,这种障碍继续阻碍他们的经济和社会发展,不符合人的尊严和价值,必须予以打击和消除。必须依照国际人道主义法规定,保护处于外国占领之下的人民。
(e) Fully support the implementation of the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries and urge development partners to significantly increase contributions to the Trust Fund for the Framework, in accordance with the Doha Ministerial Declaration.104. 依照《关于各国依联合国宪章建立友好关系和合作的国际法则宣言》, 不得认为这种做法授权或鼓励采取行动彻底或局部破坏主权或损害主权和独立的平等权利和自决的原则,因而拥有政府代表无任何区别而属于其领土的全体人民。
91. In accordance with the Doha Declaration as well as with relevant decisions taken at Doha, we are determined to take concrete action to address issues and concerns raised by developing countries regarding the implementation of some WTO agreements and decisions, including the difficulties and resource constraints faced by them in fulfilling those agreements.* * *
92. Call upon members of the World Trade Organization to fulfil the commitments made in the Doha Ministerial Declaration, notably in terms of market access, in particular for products of export interest to developing countries, especially least developed countries, by implementing the following actions, taking into account paragraph 45 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration:105. 如同《21世纪议程》第34章的规定,促进、便利和酌情资助发展无害环境的技术和相应的技能,以及按照相互商定的有利条件、包括减让和优惠条件,特别是向发展中国家以及转型期经济国家转让、推广此类技术,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便:
(a) Review all special and differential treatment provisions with a view to strengthening them and making them more precise, effective and operational, in accordance with paragraph 44 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration;(a) 更有效地提供资料;
(b) Aim to reduce or, as appropriate, eliminate tariffs on non-agricultural products, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. Product coverage should be comprehensive and without a priori exclusions. The negotiations shall take fully into account the special needs and interests of developing and least developed countries, including through less than full reciprocity in reduction commitments, in accordance with the Doha Ministerial Declaration;(b) 促进发展中国家现有的国家机构能力,以便更多地获得和参与发展、转让和推广无害环境的技术和相应的技能;
(c) Fulfil, without prejudging the outcome of the negotiations, the commitment for comprehensive negotiations initiated under article 20 of the Agreement on Agriculture, as referred to in the Doha Ministerial Declaration, aiming at substantial improvements in market access, reductions of with a view to phasing out all forms of export subsidies, and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support, while agreeing that the provisions for special and differential treatment for developing countries shall be an integral part of all elements of the negotiations and shall be embodied in the schedules of concession and commitments and, as appropriate, in the rules and disciplines to be negotiated, so as to be operationally effective and to enable developing countries to effectively take account of their development needs, including food security and rural development. Take note of the non-trade concerns reflected in the negotiating proposals submitted by members of the World Trade Organization and confirm that non-trade concerns will be taken into account in the negotiations as provided for in the Agreement on Agriculture, in accordance with the Doha Ministerial Declaration.(c) 促进国家驱动的技术需求评估;
93. Call on developed countries that have not already done so to work towards the objective of duty-free and quota-free access for all least developed countries’ exports, as envisaged in the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2001-2010.(d) 在供应国和受援国制订法律和规章框架,加速公、私部门以成本效益高的方式转让无害环境的技术并支持落实这些技术;
94. Commit to actively pursue the work programme of the World Trade Organization to address the trade-related issues and concerns affecting the fuller integration of small, vulnerable economies into the multilateral trading system in a manner commensurate with their special circumstances and in support of their efforts towards sustainable development, in accordance with paragraph 35 of the Doha Declaration.(e) 促进受自然灾害影响的发展中国家获取和向其转让与预警系统和减灾方案有关的技术。
95. Build the capacity of commodity-dependent countries to diversify exports through, inter alia, financial and technical assistance, international assistance for economic diversification and sustainable resource management and address the instability of commodity prices and declining terms of trade, as well as strengthen the activities covered by the second account of the Common Fund for Commodities to support sustainable development.106. 尤其是在双边和区域各级,更好地向发展中国家转让技术,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便:
96. Enhance the benefits for developing countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, from trade liberalization, including through public-private partnerships, through, inter alia, action at all levels, including through financial support for technical assistance, the development of technology and capacity-building to developing countries to:(a) 增进各大学、研究所、政府机构和私营部门之间的相互沟通和协作、利益有关者关系和网络;
(a) Enhance trade infrastructure and strengthen institutions;(b) 发展和加强有关的机构支助结构的网络联系,此类结构包括技术和生产力中心、研究、培训和发展机构,以及国家和区域清洁生产中心;
(b) Increase developing country capacity to diversify and increase exports to cope with the instability of commodity prices and declining terms of trade;(c) 结成有利于投资和技术转让、发展和推广的伙伴关系,协助发展中国家以及经济转型期国家交流最佳做法及促进援助方案,并鼓励各公司和研究所相互协作,提高工业效率、农业生产力、环境管理和竞争力;
(c) Increase the value added of developing country exports.(d) 向发展中国家及经济转型期国家提供援助,帮助它们获得属于公有的或公共领域的无害环境技术以及公共领域现有的科技知识,并协助它们获得使其能够独立利用这一知识、争取实现其发展目标而必备的技能和专门知识;
97. Continue to enhance the mutual supportiveness of trade, environment and development with a view to achieving sustainable development through actions at all levels to:(e) 在发展无害环境技术及向发展中国家和转型期经济体转让、推广此类技术方面,支持现有机制,并酌情设立新机制。
(a) Encourage the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment and the WTO Committee on Trade and Development, within their respective mandates, to each act as a forum to identify and debate developmental and environmental aspects of the negotiations, in order to help achieve an outcome which benefits sustainable development in accordance with the commitments made under the Doha Ministerial Declaration;* * *
(b) Support the completion of the work programme of the Doha Ministerial Declaration on subsidies so as to promote sustainable development and enhance the environment, and encourage reform of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development;107. 协助发展中国家建设能力,加入更多多边及全球研究和发展方案。在这方面,加强并酌情在发展中国家设立可持续发展中心。
(c) Encourage efforts to promote cooperation on trade, environment and development, including in the field of providing technical assistance to developing countries, between the secretariats of WTO, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, and other relevant international environmental and development and regional organizations;108. 增强促进可持续发展的科技能力,采取行动增进有关研究与发展的协作和伙伴关系及其在各研究所、大学、私营部门、各国政府、非政府组织和网络之间的广泛应用,以及在发达国家和发展中国家科学家和学者之间的广泛应用,在这方面,鼓励同发展中国家科学英才中心建立联系并鼓励此类中心彼此建立网络。
(d) Encourage the voluntary use of environmental impact assessments as an important national-level tool to better identify trade, environment and development interlinkages. Further encourage countries and international organizations with experience in this field to provide technical assistance to developing countries for these purposes. 98. Promote mutual supportiveness between the multilateral trading system and the multilateral environmental agreements, consistent with sustainable development goals, in support of the work programme agreed through WTO, while recognizing the importance of maintaining the integrity of both sets of instruments. 99. Complement and support the Doha Ministerial Declaration and the Monterrey Consensus by undertaking further action at the national, regional and international levels, including through public/private partnerships, to enhance the benefits, in particular for developing countries as well as for countries with economies in transition, of trade liberalization, through, inter alia, actions at all levels to: (a) Establish and strengthen existing trade and cooperation agreements, consistent with the multilateral trading system, with a view to achieving sustainable development; (b) Support voluntary WTO-compatible market-based initiatives for the creation and expansion of domestic and international markets for environmentally friendly goods and services, including organic products, which maximize environmental and developmental benefits through, inter alia, capacity-building and technical assistance to developing countries; (c) Support measures to simplify and make more transparent domestic regulations and procedures that affect trade so as to assist exporters, particularly those from developing countries. 100. Address the public health problems affecting many developing and least developed countries, especially those resulting from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, while noting the importance of the Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and public health, in which it was agreed that the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent WTO members from taking measures to protect public health. Accordingly, while reiterating our commitment to the TRIPS Agreement, we reaffirm that the Agreement can and should be interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive of WTO members’ right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all. 101. States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries to better address the problems of environmental degradation. Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus. 102. Take steps with a view to the avoidance of, and refrain from, any unilateral measure not in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations that impedes the full achievement of economic and social development by the population of the affected countries, in particular women and children, that hinders their well-being or that creates obstacles to the full enjoyment of their human rights, including the right of everyone to a standard of living adequate for their health and well-being and their right to food, medical care and the necessary social services. Ensure that food and medicine are not used as tools for political pressure. 103. Take further effective measures to remove obstacles to the realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, in particular peoples living under colonial and foreign occupation, which continue to adversely affect their economic and social development and are incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person and must be combated and eliminated. People under foreign occupation must be protected in accordance with the provisions of international humanitarian law. 104. In accordance with the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, this shall not be construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States conducting themselves in compliance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples and thus possessed of a Government representing the whole people belonging to the territory without distinction of any kind. * * * 105. Promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, access to and the development, transfer and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how, in particular to developing countries and countries with economies in transition on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, as set out in chapter 34 of Agenda 21, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Provide information more effectively; (b) Enhance existing national institutional capacity in developing countries to improve access to and the development, transfer and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how; (c) Facilitate country-driven technology needs assessments; (d) Establish legal and regulatory frameworks in both supplier and recipient countries that expedite the transfer of environmentally sound technologies in a cost-effective manner by both public and private sectors and support their implementation; (e) Promote the access and transfer of technology related to early warning systems and to mitigation programmes to developing countries affected by natural disasters. 106. Improve the transfer of technologies to developing countries, in particular at the bilateral and regional levels, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Improve interaction and collaboration, stakeholder relationships and networks between and among universities, research institutions, government agencies and the private sector; (b) Develop and strengthen networking of related institutional support structures, such as technology and productivity centres, research, training and development institutions, and national and regional cleaner production centres; (c) Create partnerships conducive to investment and technology transfer, development and diffusion, to assist developing countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, in sharing best practices and promoting programmes of assistance, and encourage collaboration between corporations and research institutes to enhance industrial efficiency, agricultural productivity, environmental management and competitiveness; (d) Provide assistance to developing countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, in accessing environmentally sound technologies that are publicly owned or in the public domain, as well as available knowledge in the public domain on science and technology, and in accessing the know-how and expertise required in order for them to make independent use of this knowledge in pursuing their development goals; (e) Support existing mechanisms and, where appropriate, establish new mechanisms for the development, transfer and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries and economies in transition. * * * 107. Assist developing countries in building capacity to access a larger share of multilateral and global research and development programmes. In this regard, strengthen and, where appropriate, create centres for sustainable development in developing countries. 108. Build greater capacity in science and technology for sustainable development, with action to improve collaboration and partnerships on research and development and their widespread application among research institutions, universities, the private sector, governments, non-governmental organizations and networks, as well as between and among scientists and academics of developing and developed countries, and in this regard encourage networking with and between centres of scientific excellence in developing countries. 109. Improve policy and decision-making at all levels through, inter alia, improved collaboration between natural and social scientists, and between scientists and policy makers, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Increase the use of scientific knowledge and technology and increase the beneficial use of local and indigenous knowledge in a manner respectful of the holders of that knowledge and consistent with national law; (b) Make greater use of integrated scientific assessments, risk assessments and interdisciplinary and intersectoral approaches; (c) Continue to support and collaborate with international scientific assessments supporting decision-making, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the broad participation of developing country experts; (d) Assist developing countries in developing and implementing science and technology policies; (e) Establish partnerships between scientific, public and private institutions, including by integrating the advice of scientists into decision-making bodies to ensure a greater role for science, technology development and engineering sectors; (f) Promote and improve science-based decision-making and reaffirm the precautionary approach as set out in principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, which states: “In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.” 110. Assist developing countries, through international cooperation, in enhancing their capacity in their efforts to address issues pertaining to environmental protection, including in their formulation and implementation of policies for environmental management and protection, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Improve their use of science and technology for environmental monitoring, assessment models, accurate databases and integrated information systems; (b) Promote and, where appropriate, improve their use of satellite technologies for quality data collection, verification and updating, and further improve aerial and ground-based observations, in support of their efforts to collect quality, accurate, long-term, consistent and reliable data; (c) Set up and, where appropriate, further develop national statistical services capable of providing sound data on science education and research and development activities that are necessary for effective science and technology policy-making. 111. Establish regular channels between policy makers and the scientific community to request and receive science and technology advice for the implementation of Agenda 21 and create and strengthen networks for science and education for sustainable development, at all levels, with the aim of sharing knowledge, experience and best practices and building scientific capacities, particularly in developing countries. 112. Use information and communication technologies, where appropriate, as tools to increase the frequency of communication and the sharing of experience and knowledge and to improve the quality of and access to information and communications technology in all countries, building on the work facilitated by the United Nations Information and Communications Technology Task Force and the efforts of other relevant international and regional forums. 113. Support publicly funded research and development entities to engage in strategic alliances for the purpose of enhancing research and development to achieve cleaner production and product technologies, through, inter alia, the mobilization from all sources of adequate financial and technical resources, including new and additional resources, and encourage the transfer and diffusion of those technologies, in particular to developing countries. 114. Examine issues of global public interest through open, transparent and inclusive workshops to promote a better public understanding of such questions. 115. Further resolve to take concerted action against international terrorism, which causes serious obstacles to sustainable development. * * * 116. Education is critical for promoting sustainable development. It is therefore essential to mobilize necessary resources, including financial resources at all levels, by bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and the regional development banks, by civil society and by foundations, to complement the efforts by national governments to pursue the following goals and actions: (a) Meet the Millennium development goal of achieving universal primary education, ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling; (b) Provide all children, particularly those living in rural areas and those living in poverty, especially girls, with the access and opportunity to complete a full course of primary education. 117. Provide financial assistance and support to education, research, public awareness programmes and developmental institutions in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to: (a) Sustain their educational infrastructures and programmes, including those related to environment and public health education; (b) Consider means of avoiding the frequent, serious financial constraints faced by many institutions of higher learning, including universities around the world, particularly in developing countries and countries in transition. 118. Address the impact of HIV/AIDS on the educational system in those countries seriously affected by the pandemic. 119. Allocate national and international resources for basic education as proposed by the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All and for improved integration of sustainable development into education and in bilateral and multilateral development programmes, and improve integration between publicly funded research and development and development programmes. 120. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, as provided in the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all levels of education no later than 2015, to meet the development goals contained in the Millennium Declaration, with action to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building by gender mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system. 121. Integrate sustainable development into education systems at all levels of education in order to promote education as a key agent for change. 122. Develop, implement, monitor and review education action plans and programmes at the national, subnational and local levels, as appropriate, that reflect the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All and that are relevant to local conditions and needs leading to the achievement of community development and make education for sustainable development a part of those plans. 123. Provide all community members with a wide range of formal and non-formal continuing educational opportunities, including volunteer community service programmes, in order to end illiteracy and emphasize the importance of lifelong learning and promote sustainable development. 124. Support the use of education to promote sustainable development, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Integrate information and communications technology in school curriculum development to ensure its access by both rural and urban communities and provide assistance, particularly to developing countries, inter alia, for the establishment of an appropriate enabling environment required for such technology; (b) Promote, as appropriate, affordable and increased access to programmes for students, researchers and engineers from developing countries in the universities and research institutions of developed countries in order to promote the exchange of experience and capacity that will benefit all partners; (c) Continue to implement the work programme of the Commission on Sustainable Development on education for sustainable development; (d) Recommend to the United Nations General Assembly that it consider adopting a decade of education for sustainable development, starting in 2005. * * * 125. Enhance and accelerate human, institutional and infrastructure capacity-building initiatives and promote partnerships in that regard that respond to the specific needs of developing countries in the context of sustainable development. 126. Support local, national, subregional and regional initiatives with action to develop, use and adapt knowledge and techniques and to enhance local, national, subregional and regional centres of excellence for education, research and training in order to strengthen the knowledge capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition through, inter alia, the mobilization from all sources of adequate financial and other resources, including new and additional resources. 127. Provide technical and financial assistance to developing countries, including through the strengthening of capacity-building efforts, such as the United Nations Development Programme Capacity 21 programme, to: (a) Assess their own capacity development needs and opportunities at the individual, institutional and societal levels; (b) Design programmes for capacity-building and support for local, national and community-level programmes that focus on meeting the challenges of globalization more effectively and attaining the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration; (c) Develop the capacity of civil society, including youth, to participate, as appropriate, in designing, implementing and reviewing sustainable development policies and strategies at all levels; (d) Build and, where appropriate, strengthen national capacities for carrying out effective implementation of Agenda 21. * * * 128. Ensure access, at the national level, to environmental information and judicial and administrative proceedings in environmental matters, as well as public participation in decision-making, so as to further principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, taking into full account principles 5, 7 and 11 of the Declaration. 129. Strengthen national and regional information and statistical and analytical services relevant to sustainable development policies and programmes, including data disaggregated by sex, age and other factors, and encourage donors to provide financial and technical support to developing countries to enhance their capacity to formulate policies and implement programmes for sustainable development. 130. Encourage further work on indicators for sustainable development by countries at the national level, including integration of gender aspects, on a voluntary basis, in line with national conditions and priorities. 131. Promote further work on indicators, in conformity with paragraph 3 of decision 9/4 of the Commission on Sustainable Development. 132. Promote the development and wider use of earth observation technologies, including satellite remote sensing, global mapping and geographic information systems, to collect quality data on environmental impacts, land use and land-use changes, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Strengthen cooperation and coordination among global observing systems and research programmes for integrated global observations, taking into account the need for building capacity and sharing of data from ground-based observations, satellite remote sensing and other sources among all countries; (b) Develop information systems that make the sharing of valuable data possible, including the active exchange of Earth observation data; (c) Encourage initiatives and partnerships for global mapping. 133. Support countries, particularly developing countries, in their national efforts to: (a) Collect data that are accurate, long-term, consistent and reliable; (b) Use satellite and remote-sensing technologies for data collection and further improvement of ground-based observations; (c) Access, explore and use geographic information by utilizing the technologies of satellite remote sensing, satellite global positioning, mapping and geographic information systems. 134. Support efforts to prevent and mitigate the impacts of natural disasters, including through urgent actions at all levels to: (a) Provide affordable access to disaster-related information for early warning purposes; (b) Translate available data, particularly from global meteorological observation systems, into timely and useful products. 135. Develop and promote the wider application of environmental impact assessments, inter alia, as a national instrument, as appropriate, to provide essential decision-support information on projects that could cause significant adverse effects to the environment. 136. Promote and further develop methodologies at policy, strategy and project levels for sustainable development decision-making at the local and national levels, and where relevant at the regional level. In this regard, emphasize that the choice of the appropriate methodology to be used in countries should be adequate to their country-specific conditions and circumstances, should be on a voluntary basis and should conform to their development priority needs. XI. Institutional framework for sustainable development 137. An effective institutional framework for sustainable development at all levels is key to the full implementation of Agenda 21, the follow-up to the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and meeting emerging sustainable development challenges. Measures aimed at strengthening such a framework should build on the provisions of Agenda 21, as well as the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 of 1997, and the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and should promote the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, taking into account the Monterrey Consensus and relevant outcomes of other major United Nations conferences and international agreements since 1992. It should be responsive to the needs of all countries, taking into account the specific needs of developing countries including the means of implementation. It should lead to the strengthening of international bodies and organizations dealing with sustainable development, while respecting their existing mandates, as well as to the strengthening of relevant regional, national and local institutions. 138. Good governance is essential for sustainable development. Sound economic policies, solid democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people and improved infrastructure are the basis for sustained economic growth, poverty eradication, and employment creation. Freedom, peace and security, domestic stability, respect for human rights, including the right to development, and the rule of law, gender equality, market-oriented policies, and an overall commitment to just and democratic societies are also essential and mutually reinforcing. A. Objectives 139. Measures to strengthen institutional arrangements on sustainable development, at all levels, should be taken within the framework of Agenda 21, build on developments since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and lead to the achievement of, inter alia, the following objectives:109. 特别通过加强自然科学和社会科学工作者之间的协作,加强科学家和决策人员之间的协作,以改进所有各级的决策工作,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便:
(a) Strengthening commitments to sustainable development;(a) 增加科学知识和技术的利用,并以尊重该项知识拥有者并遵守国家法律的方式、增加当地和本地知识的有益利用;
(b) Integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in a balanced manner;(b) 更多地利用综合科学评估、风险评估和跨学科、跨部门办法;
(c) Strengthening of the implementation of Agenda 21, including through the mobilization of financial and technological resources, as well as capacity-building programmes, particularly for developing countries;(c) 继续支助帮助决策工作的国际科学评估并提供合作,由发展中国家专家广泛参与;此类评估包括政府间气候变化问题小组;
(d) Strengthening coherence, coordination and monitoring;(d) 协助发展中国家制定和实施科技政策;
(e) Promoting the rule of law and strengthening of governmental institutions;(e) 在科学、公共和私营部门之间结成伙伴关系,决策机构吸收科学家的意见,以确保科学、技术发展和工程部门发挥更大的作用。
(f) Increasing effectiveness and efficiency through limiting overlap and duplication of activities of international organizations, within and outside the United Nations system, based on their mandates and comparative advantages;(f) 促进和改进基于科学的决策,重申关于《环境与发展的里约宣言》原则15所述的谨填做法,其中指出:
(g) Enhancing participation and effective involvement of civil society and other relevant stakeholders in the implementation of Agenda 21, as well as promoting transparency and broad public participation;“为了保护环境,各国应根据自己的能力,广泛采用谨慎的做法。如果存在造成严重或不可扭转的破坏的威胁,不得以缺乏肯定的科学结论为理由而推迟采取成本效益高的措施防止环境恶化。” 110. 通过国际合作,协助发展中国家提高能力,以致力解决环境保护的问题,包括制定和实施环境管理和保护政策,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便:
(h) Strengthening capacities for sustainable development at all levels, including the local level, in particular those of developing countries;(a) 使发展中国家更多地应用科学技术,以监测环境、建立评估模式,准确数据库和综合信息系统; (b) 促进并酌情使发展中国家更多地应用卫星技术,以进行高质量数据收集、核查和更新,改进空中和地面观测,协助它们收集高质量、准确、长期、连贯和可靠的数据; (c) 建立并酌情加强建设国家统计部门,提供科学教育和研究发展活动的可靠数据,以便有效作出科学技术决策。
(i) Strengthening international cooperation aimed at reinforcing the implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit.111. 在决策人员和科学界之间建立经常性联系渠道,为执行《21世纪议程》征求和接受科学技术咨询意见;在所有级别建立并加强促进可持续发展的科学和教育网络,以便交流知识、经验和最佳做法,建设科学能力,尤其在发展中国家。
B. Strengthening the institutional framework for sustainable development at the international level112. 酌情运用信息和通信技术,更经常地进行沟通和交流经验和知识,在联合国信息和通信技术队工作和其他有关国际与地区论坛努力的基础上,提高所有国家信息通讯技术的质量,并扩大其获得信息通信技术的机会。 113. 支持公共资助的研究和发展实体,结成战略联盟,以便通过除其他外调集所有适当财政和技术资源来源,包括新的和更多的资源,来提升研究和发展,实现洁净生产与洁净产品技术,并鼓励转让和推广这些技术,尤其是向发展中国家转让推广。 114. 通过举办公开、透明、包容的讲习班,促使公众清楚地了解这些问题,从而审查关于全球公共利益的问题。 115. 进一步决心采取协调一致的行动,打击恐怖主义,恐怖主义对可持续发展构成了严重障碍。 * * * 116. 教育对促进可持续发展极为重要。因此,必须在各级动员金融机构等双边和多边捐助者,包括世界银行和区域开发银行、民间社会和基金的必要资源,以便补充各国政府的努力,实现以下目标和行动: (a) 实现《千年宣言》所载普及初等教育的目标,确保至迟在2015年,使世界各地的儿童,不论男女,都能完成全部初等教育; (b) 向所有儿童,尤其是农村地区儿童和贫穷儿童,特别是女童,都有机会入学和完成全部初等教育。
140.117.
The international community should:向发展中国家和经济转型期国家的教育、研究、公共认识方案和发展机构提供经费援助和支助,以便:
(a) Enhance the integration of sustainable development goals as reflected in Agenda 21 and support for implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit into the policies, work programmes and operational guidelines of relevant United Nations agencies, programmes and funds, the Global Environment Facility and international financial and trade institutions, within their mandates, while stressing that their activities should take full account of national programmes and priorities, particularly those of developing countries, as well as, where appropriate, countries with economies in transition, to achieve sustainable development;(a) 维护其教育基础设施和方案,包括环境和公共保健教育方面的基础设施和方案;
(b) Strengthen collaboration within and between the United Nations system, international financial institutions, the Global Environment Facility and the World Trade Organization, utilizing the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination, the United Nations Development Group, the Environment Management Group and other inter-agency coordinating bodies. Strengthened inter-agency collaboration should be pursued in all relevant contexts, with special emphasis on the operational level and involving partnership arrangements on specific issues, to support, in particular, the efforts of developing countries in implementing Agenda 21;(b) 考虑各种方法,免除世界各地许多高等学府,尤其是发展中国家和转型期国家大学经常面临的严重财务困难。
(c) Strengthen and better integrate the three dimensions of sustainable development policies and programmes and promote the full integration of sustainable development objectives into programmes and policies of bodies that have a primary focus on social issues.118.
In particular, the social dimension of sustainable development should be strengthened, inter alia, by emphasizing follow-up to the outcomes of the World Summit for Social Development and its five-year review, and taking into account their reports, and by support to social protection systems;在受艾滋病毒/艾滋病严重困扰的国家,解决该流行病对教育体制的影响。
(d) Fully implement the outcomes of the decision on international environmental governance adopted by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme at its seventh special session and invite the General Assembly at its fifty-seventh session to consider the important but complex issue of establishing universal membership for the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum;119. [商定]按照《达喀尔普及教育目标行动纲领》的提议,将国家和国际资源分配于:基础教育,更好地把可持续发展纳入教育以及双边和多边发展方案,并改进公共资助的研究发展与发展方案之间的一体化。
(e) Engage actively and constructively in ensuring the timely completion of the negotiations on a comprehensive United Nations convention against corruption, including the question of repatriation of funds illicitly acquired to countries of origin;120. 按照《达喀尔普及教育行动框架》的规定,至迟在2005年消除中小学教育中的性别悬殊现象,并不迟于2015年消除所有各级教育中的性别悬殊现象,实现《千年宣言》中的发展目标,为此采取行动把性别问题纳入主流,建立尊重性别平等的教育制度,确保平等获得各级和各种形式的教育、培训和能力建设。 121. 把可持续发展纳入各级教育系统之中,以便使教育成为变革的关键因素。
(f) Promote corporate responsibility and accountability and the exchange of best practices in the context of sustainable development, including, as appropriate, through multi-stakeholder dialogue, such as through the Commission on Sustainable Development, and other initiatives;122. 在国家、分区域和地方各级酌情制定、执行、监测和审查国家教育行动计划和方案,这些计划和方案既反映《达喀尔普及教育行动框架》又符合当地的条件和需要实现社区发展;并使可持续发展教育成为这些计划的一部分。
(g) Take concrete action to implement the Monterrey Consensus at all levels.123. 向全体社区成员提供广泛的正式和非正式成人教育机会,包括社区志愿服务方案,以便消除文盲,强调终生学习的重要性,并促进可持续发展。
141. Good governance at the international level is fundamental for achieving sustainable development. In order to ensure a dynamic and enabling international economic environment, it is important to promote global economic governance through addressing the international finance, trade, technology and investment patterns that have an impact on the development prospects of developing countries. To this effect, the international community should take all necessary and appropriate measures, including ensuring support for structural and macroeconomic reform, a comprehensive solution to the external debt problem and increasing market access for developing countries. Efforts to reform the international financial architecture need to be sustained with greater transparency and the effective participation of developing countries in decision-making processes. A universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system, as well as meaningful trade liberalization, can substantially stimulate development worldwide, benefiting countries at all stages of development.124. 支持运用教育推动可持续发展,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便:
142. A vibrant and effective United Nations system is fundamental to the promotion of international cooperation for sustainable development and to a global economic system that works for all. To this effect, a firm commitment to the ideals of the United Nations, the principles of international law and those enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, as well as to strengthening the United Nations system and other multilateral institutions and promoting the improvement of their operations, is essential. States should also fulfil their commitment to negotiate and finalize as soon as possible a United Nations convention against corruption in all its aspects, including the question of repatriation of funds illicitly acquired to countries of origin and also to promoting stronger cooperation to eliminate money laundering.(a) 把信息与通信技术编入学校课程,确保农村和城市社区都有机会获得这种技术,并援助、尤其援助发展中国家等,创造信息通信技术所需的有利环境;
C. Role of the General Assembly(b) 酌情使发展中国家的学生、研究人员和工程人员能有更多机会并负担得起地进入发达国家的大学和研究机构的课程,以便促进交流经验和能力,有利于所有合作伙伴; (c) 继续执行可持续发展委员会关于教育促进可持续发展的工作方案; (d) 建议联合国大会审议通过“可持续发展教育十年”,从2005年开始。 * * * 125. 加强和加速人力、体制和基础设施能力建设计划,并在这方面促进能够对发展中国家在可持续发展方面的特殊需求作出回应的伙伴关系。 126. 通过除其他外调集所有适当财政和其他资源来源,包括新的和更多的资源,来支持地方、国家、分区和区域倡议,采取行动发展、使用和根据当地情况调整适用知识和技能,加强地方、国家、分区和区域教育、研究和培训英才中心,从而加强发展中国家和经济转型期国家的知识能力。 127. 通过各种手段,包括通过诸如开发计划署21世纪能力方案等为加强能力建设而作的努力,向发展中国家提供技术和资金援助,以便: (a) 评估各国在个人、机构和社会能力发展方面的需求和机会; (b) 制定能力建设方案,支助当地、国家和社区方案,重点是更有效地迎接全球化挑战,实现国际上商定的发展目标,包括《千年宣言》所载的那些目标; (c) 开发包括青年在内的民间社会的能力,酌情参加各级可持续发展政策和战略的制定、执行和审查; (d) 建立,并酌情加强有效落实《21世纪议程》的国家能力。 * * * 128. 保证能获得国家一级的环境信息及关于环境事务的司法和行政记录,及保证公众能够参与决策过程,以促进《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》原则10,同时全面考虑到《宣言》的原则5、原则7和原则11。 129. 加强国家和区域有关可持续发展政策和方案的信息以及统计和分析方面的服务,其中包括按性别、年龄和其他因素分列的数据,并鼓励捐助者向发展中国家提供资金和技术支助,加强它们制定政策和实现可持续发展方案的能力。 130. 鼓励各国在国家一级,按照本国的条件和轻重缓急,在自愿的基础上进一步致力于可持续发展指标的工作,包括纳入性别角度。 131. 遵照可持续发展委员会第9/4号决定 第3段,促进进一步致力于关于各种指标的工作。 132. 推动发展和更广泛地使用地球观测技术,包括卫星遥感、全球绘图和地理信息系统,收集有关环境影响、土地使用和土地使用变化的高质量数据,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便: (a) 加强全球观测系统和研究方案之间的合作和协调,把全球观测综合起来,同时考虑到能力建设需要以及在所有国家间交流地面观测、卫星遥感和其他来源取得的资料的需要; (b) 发展能够实现交流宝贵数据的信息系统,包括积极交流地球观测数据; (c) 鼓励全球测绘方面的倡议和伙伴关系。 133. 支助各国,尤其是发展中国家在国家一级作出努力: (a) 收集准确、长期、一致和可靠的数据; (b) 运用卫星和遥感技术收集数据,进一步改进地面观测; (c) 应用卫星遥感、卫星全球定位、绘图和地理信息系统,获得、分析和使用地理信息。 134. 支助防止和减轻自然灾害影响的努力,包括通过在所有各级采取紧急行动以便: (a) 认人能够以可承受的价格获得用于早期预警的有关灾害的信息; (b) 把现有数据,尤其是地球气象观测系统获得的数据转为及时和有用的产品。 135. 酌情开发和推广应用环境影响评估,特别是将此作为一个国家工具,为可能给环境造成巨大不良影响的项目的决策提供关键信息。 136. 在政策、战略和项目各级,促进和进一步拟定在地方、国家两级以及在适宜情况下在区域一级作出可持续发展决策的方法。在这方面强调,各国对于所要采用的适当方法的选择,应足以满足本国的具体条件和情况所需,应在自愿基础上作出,并应符合其发展的优先需要。 十一. 可持续发展的体制框架 137. 在各级有一个有效的促进可持续发展的体制框架,是充分执行《21世纪议程》、采取后续行动落实可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的成果和应付正在出现的可持续发展挑战的关键。应根据《21世纪议程》的各项规定和1997年《进一步执行21世纪议程方案》以及《关于环境与发展的里约宣言》的各项原则,采取旨在加强这种框架的措施,并应促进实现国际商定的发展目标,包括《千年宣言》所载的目标,同时考虑到《蒙特雷共识》以及自1992年以来其他联合国重大会议和国际协定的有关结果。这一框架应能满足所有国家的需要,考虑到发展中国家的具体需要,包括执行的手段。它应能增强那些处理可持续发展问题的国际机构和组织,同时尊重其现有的任务规定,并增强有关的区域、国家和地方的机构。 138. 善政是可持续发展必不可少的。健全的经济政策、符合人们需要的牢固的民主体制和更完善的基础结构是可持续的经济成长、消灭贫穷、创造就业机会的基础。自由、和平与安全、内部安定、尊重人权,包括发展的权利和法治、两性平等、面向市场的政策、和对正义而民主的社会的全面承诺也是必不可少的,是相互加强的。 A. 目标 139. 在所有各级采取措施加强可持续发展体制安排时应遵循《21世纪议程》 的框架,以环发会议以来的各项发展为基础,并应除其他外实现下列目标: (a) 加强对可持续发展的承诺; (b) 均衡地整合可持续发展的经济、社会和环境三个方面; (c) 加强实施《21世纪议程》,包括通过特别是为发展中国家调动财政和技术资源和能力建设方案; (d) 加强一致性、协调和监测; (e) 促进法治和加强政府机构; (f) 限制联合国系统内外各国际组织活动的重叠和重复,根据其任务规定和相对优势提高其效力和效率; (g) 促进民间社会和其他利益有关者有效参与实施《21世纪议程》以及增加透明度和广泛民众参与; (h) 加强各国,特别是发展中国家所有各级包括地方一级促进可持续发展的能力;
143. The General Assembly of the United Nations should adopt sustainable development as a key element of the overarching framework for United Nations activities, particularly for achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, and should give overall political direction to the implementation of Agenda 21 and its review.(i) 加强旨在加强实施《21世纪议程》和首脑会议成果的国际合作。
D. Role of the Economic and Social CouncilB. 在国际一级加强可持续发展的体制框架 140. 国际社会应:
144. Pursuant to the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, the provisions of Agenda 21 regarding the Economic and Social Council and General Assembly resolutions 48/162 and 50/227, which reaffirmed the Council as the central mechanism for the coordination of the United Nations system and its specialized agencies and supervision of subsidiary bodies, in particular its functional commissions, and to promote the implementation of Agenda 21 by strengthening system-wide coordination, the Council should: (a) Increase its role in overseeing system-wide coordination and the balanced integration of economic, social and environmental aspects of United Nations policies and programmes aimed at promoting sustainable development;(a) 促进将《21世纪议程》中所载可持续发展目标以及对《21世纪议程》和首脑会议成果的实施的支持纳入联合国各有关机构、计划署和基金、全球环境基金以及国际金融和贸易机构在各自任务范围内的政策、工作方案和业务准则,同时强调它们的活动应充分考虑到各国——特别是发展中国家,并酌情考虑到转型期经济国家,为实现可持续发展而制订的国家方案和优先项目。
(b) Organize periodic consideration of sustainable development themes in regard to the implementation of Agenda 21, including the means of implementation. Recommendations in regard to such themes could be made by the Commission on Sustainable Development;(b) 加强联合国系统内和与国际金融机构、全球环境基金和世贸组织之间的协调,利用联合国系统行政首长委员会、联合国发展集团、环境管理小组及其他机构间协调机关。应在所有有关方面加强机构间协作,特别着重业务一级,并在具体问题上作出伙伴关系安排,以支持特别是发展中国家努力实施《21世纪议程》;
(c) Make full use of its high-level, coordination, operational activities and the general segments to effectively take into account all relevant aspects of the work of the United Nations on sustainable development. In this context, the Council should encourage the active participation of major groups in its high-level segment and the work of its relevant functional commissions, in accordance with the respective rules of procedure;(c) 加强和更有效地整合可持续发展政策和方案的三个构成部分,并促进将可持续发展目标完全纳入以社会问题为主要侧重点的机构的政策和方案。特别是可持续发展的社会构成部分应通过一些办法予以加强,包括强调采取后续行动执行社会发展问题世界首脑会议的成果及其五年期审查,同时考虑到它们的报告,以及支持社会保护制度。
(d) Promote greater coordination, complementarity, effectiveness and efficiency of activities of its functional commissions and other subsidiary bodies that are relevant to the implementation of Agenda 21;(d) 充分落实环境规划署理事会第七届特别会议 通过的关于国际环境管理的决定的成果,并请大会第五十七届会议审议理事会/全球部长级环境论坛实现普遍会籍这一重要而复杂的问题;
(e) Terminate the work of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for Development and transfer its work to the Commission on Sustainable Development;(e) 积极而建设性地参与确保及时完成关于缔结一项打击腐化现象联合国全面公约的谈判,包括讨论将非法取得的资金归还原国的问题;
(f) Ensure that there is a close link between the role of the Council in the follow-up to the Summit and its role in the follow-up to the Monterrey Consensus, in a sustained and coordinated manner. To that end, the Council should explore ways to develop arrangements relating to its meetings with the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization, as set out in the Monterrey Consensus;(f) 在可持续发展方面促进公司责任和问责制以及交流最佳做法,包括酌情通过利益有关者对话,例如通过可持续发展委员会和其他倡议; (g) 采取具体行动在各级执行《蒙特雷共识》。 141. 国际一级的善政是实现可持续发展的基本条件。为了确保一个活跃和有利的国际经济环境,必须处理对发展中国家的发展前景有影响的国际金融、贸易、技术和投资形式,以促进全球经济管理。为此,国际社会应采取一切必要和适当的措施,包括确保支持结构和宏观经济改革、对外债问题达成持久解决办法和增加发展中国家进入市场的机会。需要作出持续努力来改革国际金融结构,同时加强透明度和使发展中国家有效地参与决策过程。一个普遍的、有章可循的、开放的、非歧视的和公平的多边贸易制度以及有意义的贸易自由化,可以在全世界范围内大大刺激发展,使处于各个发展阶段的国家受益。 142. 一个充满生气和有效的联合国系统是增强国际合作促进可持续发展和建立对每一个国家都有好处的全球经济体系的基本条件。为此,必须坚决致力于联合国的理想和国际法原则以及《联合国宪章》郑重载明的原则,并加强联合国系统和其他多边机构,促进改善它们的业务。各国还应履行其承诺,尽快谈判和最后达成一项关于打击贪污的各个方面的联合国公约,包括将非法获得的资金汇回原国的问题,而且促进更强的合作以消除洗钱行为。 C. 大会的作用
(g) Intensify its efforts to ensure that gender mainstreaming is an integral part of its activities concerning the coordinated implementation of Agenda 21.143. 联合国大会应把可持续发展作为联合国的活动特别是旨在实现国际商定发展目标包括《千年宣言》所载目标的活动[总框架]的一个关键因素,并应为实施《21世纪议程》及其审查提供全面政治指导。
E.D.
Role and function of the Commission on Sustainable Development经济及社会理事会的作用
145. The Commission on Sustainable Development should continue to be the high-level commission on sustainable development within the United Nations system and serve as a forum for consideration of issues related to integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development. Although the role, functions and mandate of the Commission as set out in relevant parts of Agenda 21 and adopted in General Assembly resolution 47/191 continue to be relevant, the Commission needs to be strengthened, taking into account the role of relevant institutions and organizations. An enhanced role of the Commission should include reviewing and monitoring progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and fostering coherence of implementation, initiatives and partnerships.144. 按照《联合国宪章》的有关规定以及《21世纪议程》有关经济及社会理事会的规定和大会第48/162号和第50/227号决议,其中重申经社理事会是协调联合国系统及其专门机构以及监督附属机构,特别是其各职司委员会的中央机关,并通过加强全系统的协调促进实现《21世纪议程》,经社理事会应:
146. Within that context, the Commission should place more emphasis on actions that enable implementation at all levels, including promoting and facilitating partnerships involving Governments, international organizations and relevant stakeholders for the implementation of Agenda 21.(a) 增强其在监督全系统的协调和联合国旨在促进可持续发展的政策和方案的经济、社会和环境三方面均衡整合中的作用;
147. The Commission should:(b) 在实施《21世纪议程》方面安排定期审议可持续发展议题,包括实施手段。可持续发展委员会可就这类议题提出建议; (c) 充分利用其高级别、协调和业务活动以及常务部分,有效地考虑到联合国关于可持续发展的工作的所有有关方面。在这方面,经社理事会应鼓励主要群体按照其高级别部分及其各有关职司委员会各自的议事规则,积极参与它们的工作; (d) 促进增强各职司委员会及其附属机关有关实施《21世纪议程》的活动的[协调、互补性、效益和效率]; (e) 终止能源和自然资源促进发展委员会的工作,并将工作转交可持续发展委员会; (f) 确保经社理事会在采取后续行动执行首脑会议的成果方面的作用和在采取行动执行《蒙特雷共识》方面的作用之间有密切的联系。为此目的,理事会应探索方法,制定种种安排,按照《蒙特利共识》,将它的会议同布雷顿森林机构和世贸组织联系起来。 (g) 加强努力,确保把性别问题纳入主流成为协调实施《21世纪议程》的活动的一个组成部分。 E. 可持续发展委员会的作用和职能 145. 可持续发展委员会应继续成为联合国系统内可持续发展问题高级别委员会,并作为审议可持续发展三个方面的整合问题的论坛。虽然《21世纪议程》有关各部分中规定并由大会第47/191号决议通过的关于委员会的作用、职能和任务继续有效,但是考虑到有关机构和组织的作用,委员会的工作应得到加强。这种加强的作用应包括审查和监测《21世纪议程》的实施进展情况,以及促进实施工作、倡议和伙伴关系的协调一致。 146. 在这方面,委员会应更加强调行动,推动各级实施《议程》,包括推动和促进政府、国际组织和利益有关者为实施《21世纪议程》建立伙伴关系。 147. 委员会应该: (a) 审查和评估进展情况,并推动进一步实施《21世纪议程》; (b) 集中注意特定部门问题的跨部门方面,并提供论坛以便更好地整合各项政策,包括通过让处理可持续发展各个方面和部门的工作的各国部长在高级别部分互相交流;
(a) Review and evaluate progress and promote further implementation of Agenda 21; (b) Focus on the cross-sectoral aspects of specific sectoral issues and provide a forum for better integration of policies, including through interaction among Ministers dealing with the various dimensions and sectors of sustainable development through the high-level segments;(c) 应付与实施《21世纪议程》有关的新挑战和机会;
(c) Address new challenges and opportunities related to the implementation of Agenda 21;(d) 委员会应将重点放在与实施《21世纪议程》有关的行动,并限定委员会届会每两年进行谈判一次;
(d) Focus on actions related to implementation of Agenda 21, limiting negotiations in the sessions of the Commission to every two years;(e) 限定每届会议的议题数目。 148. 在其推动实施的作用方面,委员会应强调以下几点: (a) 审查进展情况,并推动进一步实施《21世纪议程》。在这方面,委员会应查明妨碍实施工作的因素,并为克服这些因素提出建议; (b) 成为促进可持续发展的伙伴们进行讨论的协调中心,包括交流经验、取得的进展和最佳做法; (c) 审查与财政援助和技术转让促进可持续发展以及能力建设有关的问题,同时充分利用现有信息。在这方面,委员会可考虑更有效地利用国家报告和区域经验,并为此提出适当建议; (d) 提供论坛,对有助于可持续发展规划、决策和可持续发展战略的实施的各项措施进行分析,交流经验。在这方面,委员会可考虑更有效地使用国家和区域报告; (e) 考虑到可持续发展领域的法律已有重大发展,并适当注意到有关政府间机构在促进实施《21世纪议程》方面与国际法律文书和机制有关的作用。
(e) Limit the number of themes addressed in each session. 148. In relation to its role in facilitating implementation, the Commission should emphasize the following:149. 关于委员会工作方案的实际模式,关于这些问题的具体决定应在委员会下一届会议拟订委员会主题工作方案时作出。特别是应审议以下问题:
(a) Review progress and promote the further implementation of Agenda 21. In this context, the Commission should identify constraints on implementation and make recommendations to overcome those constraints;(a) 平衡地审议第47/191号决议所载委员会各项任务的执行情况;
(b) Serve as a focal point for the discussion of partnerships that promote sustainable development, including sharing lessons learned, progress made and best practices;(b) 继续使国际组织和主要群体更直接和实质地参与其工作。
(c) Review issues related to financial assistance and transfer of technology for sustainable development, as well as capacity-building, while making full use of existing information. In this regard, the Commission on Sustainable Development could give consideration to more effective use of national reports and regional experience and to this end make appropriate recommendations;(c) 更多地考虑到科学对可持续发展的贡献,例如利用科学界的成果并鼓励国家、区域和国际科学网络参与委员会的工作;
(d) Provide a forum for analysis and exchange of experience on measures that assist sustainable development planning, decision-making and the implementation of sustainable development strategies. In this regard, the Commission could give consideration to more effective use of national and regional reports;(d) 促进教育工作者对可持续发展的贡献,并酌情考虑将其列入委员会的活动中;
(e) Take into account significant legal developments in the field of sustainable development, with due regard to the role of relevant intergovernmental bodies in promoting the implementation of Agenda 21 relating to international legal instruments and mechanisms.(e) 安排闭会期间会议的日期和期限。
149. With regard to the practical modalities and programme of work of the Commission, specific decisions on those issues should be taken by the Commission at its next session, when the Commission’s thematic work programme will be elaborated.150.
In particular, the following issues should be considered:采取进一步措施以促进可持续发展方面良好做法和取得的教训,此外促进适用现代数据收集和散播方法,包括更广泛地利用信息技术。
(a) Giving a balanced consideration to implementation of all of the mandates of the Commission contained in General Assembly resolution 47/191;F. 国际组织的作用
(b) Continuing to provide for more direct and substantive involvement of international organizations and major groups in the work of the Commission;151. 强调联合国系统内外的国际机构,包括国际金融机构、世贸组织和全球环境基金,需要在它们的任务范围内,扩大它们的各种合作努力,以期:
(c) Give greater consideration to the scientific contributions to sustainable development through, for example, drawing on the scientific community and encouraging national, regional and international scientific networks to be involved in the Commission;(a) 促进在各级有效和集体地支持实施《21世纪议程》;
(d) Furthering the contribution of educators to sustainable development, including, where appropriate, in the activities of the Commission;(b) 增强国际机构有效和协调地实施《21世纪议程》、可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的成果、《联合国千年宣言》和《蒙特雷共识》有关可持续发展的部分以及2001年11月在多哈举行的世贸组织第四次部长级会议的成果。
(e) The scheduling and duration of intersessional meetings.152. 请联合国秘书长利用执行首长协调理事会,包括通过非正式协作努力,进一步促进全系统机构间在可持续发展方面的合作和协调,并采取适当措施促进信息交流,并继续向经社理事会和委员会通报为实施《21世纪议程》而采取的行动。
150.153.
Undertake further measures to promote best practices and lessons learned in sustainable development, and in addition promote the use of contemporary methods of data collection and dissemination, including broader use of information technologies.大大加强支助开发计划署的可持续发展能力建设方案,同时参照21世纪能力方案取得的经验,作为支持特别是发展中国家建设地方和国家的发展能力的一个重要机制。
F.154.
Role of international institutions加强环境规划署与其他联合国其他组织和专门机构、布雷顿森林构和世贸组织之间在其任务范围内的合作。
151. Stress the need for international institutions both within and outside the United Nations system, including international financial institutions, the World Trade Organization and the Global Environment Facility, to enhance, within their mandates, their cooperative efforts to:155. 环境规划署、联合国人类住区规划署、开发计划署和贸发会议应在它们的任务范围内,加强对各种可持续发展方案和在所有各级上实施《21世纪议程》作出贡献,特别是在促进能力建设方面。 156. 为促进在国际一级有效实施《21世纪议程》,还应采取以下行动: (a) 精简国际可持续发展会议日历,酌情减少会议;缩短会议时间;减少花在谈判达成的成果的时间,以便增加讨论有关实施的实际问题的时间; (b) 鼓励提出建立伙伴关系的倡议供所有有关的行动者实施,以支持可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的成果。在这方面,进一步建立伙伴关系和后续伙伴关系应考虑到为首脑会议进行的筹备工作。 (c) 充分利用信息和通信技术领域中的发展。 157. 加强可持续发展的国际体制架构将是一个逐步演化的进程。必须经常审查有关的安排;找出差距;消除职能重复;继续追求可持续发展的经济、社会和环境三方面能更加整合、有效和协调,以实施《21世纪议程》。 G. 加强区域一级的可持续发展体制安排 158. 须通过各区域委员会和其他的区域和分区域机构和机关,在区域和分区域两级有效实施《21世纪议程》和首脑会议的成果。 159. 应改善各区域委员会、联合国基金、计划署和机构、区域开发银行、及其他区域和分区域机构和机关之间在区域内部可持续发展方面的协调与合作。这包括酌情支持制订、加强和实施商定的反映出国家和区域优先工作的区域可持续发展战略和行动计划。 160. 特别地并考虑到《21世纪议程》的有关规定,各区域委员会在与其他区域和分区域机构合作下,应:
(a) Promote effective and collective support to the implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels;(a) 推动以平衡的方式把可持续发展的三个方面纳入其工作之中,包括通过实施《21世纪议程》。为此,各区域委员会应通过内部行动加强能力并应酌情向它们提供外部支助;
(b) Enhance the effectiveness and coordination of international institutions to implement Agenda 21, the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, relevant sustainable development aspects of the Millennium Declaration, the Monterrey Consensus and the outcome of the Fourth Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization, held in Doha in November 2001.(b) 促进和推动把可持续发展的经济、社会和环境三方面平衡地纳入区域、分区域和其他机构的工作之中,譬如通过促进和加强交流有关实施《21世纪议程》的经验,包括国家经验、最佳做法、案例分析以及伙伴关系经验;
152. Request the Secretary-General of the United Nations, utilizing the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination, including through informal collaborative efforts, to further promote system-wide inter-agency cooperation and coordination on sustainable development, to take appropriate measures to facilitate exchange of information, and to continue to keep the Economic and Social Council and the Commission informed of actions being taken to implement Agenda 21.(c) 协助调动技术和金融援助和促进为实施区域和分区域商定的可持续发展方案和项目提供充分的资金,包括解决消除贫穷的目标;
153. Significantly strengthen support for the capacity-building programmes of the United Nations Development Programme for sustainable development, building on the experience gained from the Capacity 21 programme, as important mechanisms for supporting local and national development capacity-building efforts, in particular in developing countries.(d) 继续促进多方利益有关者参与并鼓励建立伙伴关系来支持在区域和分区域各级实施《21世纪议程》。
154.161.
Strengthen cooperation between the United Nations Environment Programme and other United Nations bodies and specialized agencies, the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization, within their mandates.应支助区域和分区域商定的可持续发展倡议和方案,例如《非洲发展新伙伴关系》和全球商定的《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展行动纲领》的各区域间方面。
155.H.
The United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, within their mandates, should strengthen their contribution to sustainable development programmes and the implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels, particularly in the area of promoting capacity-building.加强国家一级可持续发展体制框架
156.162.
To promote effective implementation of Agenda 21 at the international level, the following should also be undertaken:各国应:
(a) Streamline the international sustainable development meeting calendar and, as appropriate, reduce the number of meetings, the length of meetings and the amount of time spent on negotiated outcomes in favour of more time spent on practical matters related to implementation;(a) 继续促进以统一和协调的方式在国家各级建立可持续发展的体制框架,包括酌情通过建立或加强现有的为制定政策、协调和执行及执法所需的权力机构和机制;
(b) Encourage partnership initiatives for implementation by all relevant actors to support the outcome of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. In this context, further development of partnerships and partnership follow-up should take note of the preparatory work for the Summit;(b) 立即采取步骤推进制定和阐述国家可持续发展战略,并最迟在2005年实施这些战略。为此,应酌情通过国际合作来支持这些战略,并考虑到发展中国家特别是最不发达国家的特殊需要。这些战略如有可能可制定为将可持续发展的经济、社会和环境三方面结合一起的减贫战略,并应根据每一国家本国工作的优先次序加以执行。
(c) Make full use of developments in the field of information and communication technologies.163. 每个国家对其本国的可持续发展负有主要责任,而国家政策和发展战略的作用如何强调都不为过。所有国家应在国家一级促进可持续发展,特别是制定和执行支持可持续发展的明确有效的法律。所有国家应加强政府机构,包括提供必要的基础设施,促进透明度、问责制和公平的管理和司法机构。
157. Strengthening of the international institutional framework for sustainable development is an evolutionary process.164.
It is necessary to keep relevant arrangements under review; identify gaps; eliminate duplication of functions; and continue to strive for greater integration, efficiency and coordination of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development aiming at the implementation of Agenda 21.所有国家也应采取措施促进大众参与,包括提供机会获得有关法律、条例、活动、政策和方案的信息。各国应鼓励大众充分参与可持续发展政策的制定和实施。妇女应能充分平等地参与政策制定和作出决定。
G.165.
Strengthening institutional arrangements for sustainable development at the regional level进一步促进在国家一级,包括在地方一级,建立或加强可持续发展理事会和/或协调机构,以便在高级别上关注可持续发展政策。在这方面,应促进多方利益有关者的参与。
158.166.
Implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit should be effectively pursued at the regional and subregional levels, through the regional commissions and other regional and subregional institutions and bodies.支持所有国家、特别是发展中国家和转型期经济国家,包括在地方一级,努力加强可持续发展的国家体制安排,办法可包括促进采用跨部门方法,制定国家可持续发展战略和计划,如酌情制定减贫战略、协调援助、鼓励参与方法和加强政策分析、管理能力和执行能力,包括将性别观点纳入所有这些活动的主流。
159. Intraregional coordination and cooperation on sustainable development should be improved among the regional commissions, United Nations Funds, programmes and agencies, regional development banks and other regional and subregional institutions and bodies.167.
This should include, as appropriate, support for development, enhancement and implementation of agreed regional sustainable development strategies and action plans, reflecting national and regional priorities.加强地方当局以及利益有关者在实施《21世纪议程》和首脑会议成果的作用和能力,以及加强努力支持地方《21世纪议程》方案和相关倡议及伙伴关系,并特别鼓励地方当局之间及其与其他各级政府和利益有关者之间建立伙伴关系,以推进特别是在《人居议程》 中要求的可持续发展。
160.I.
In particular, taking into account relevant provisions of Agenda 21, the regional commissions, in collaboration with other regional and subregional bodies, should:主要群体的参与
(a) Promote the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development into their work in a balanced way, including through implementation of Agenda 21. To this end, the regional commissions should enhance their capacity through internal action and be provided, as appropriate, with external support;168. 加强政府行动者与包括所有主要群体和志愿者团体在内的非政府行动者之间在方案和活动方面的伙伴关系,以促进在所有各级实现可持续发展。
(b) Facilitate and promote a balanced integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development into the work of regional, subregional and other bodies, for example by facilitating and strengthening the exchange of experiences, including national experience, best practices, case studies and partnership experience related to the implementation of Agenda 21;169. 确认环境和人权,包括发展权的可能关系正在联合国会员国和观察国的透明参与下受到考虑。
(c) Assist in the mobilization of technical and financial assistance, and facilitate the provision of adequate financing for the implementation of regionally and subregionally agreed sustainable development programmes and projects, including addressing the objective of poverty eradication;170. 推动和支持青少年参与各项与可持续发展有关的方案和活动,例如通过支持地方青少年委员会或者类似机构,并在没有这类机构时鼓励设立此类机构。
(d) Continue to promote multi-stakeholder participation and encourage partnerships to support the implementation of Agenda 21 at the regional and subregional levels.决议3*
161. Regionally and subregionally agreed sustainable development initiatives and programmes, such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the interregional aspects of the globally agreed Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, should be supported.对南非政府和人员表示感谢
H. Strengthening institutional frameworks for sustainable development at the national level可持续发展问题世界首脑会议,
162. States should:应南非政府的邀请,于2002年8月26日至9月4日在南非约翰内斯堡集会,
(a) Continue to promote coherent and coordinated approaches to institutional frameworks for sustainable development at all national levels, including through, as appropriate, the establishment or strengthening of existing authorities and mechanisms necessary for policy-making, coordination and implementation and enforcement of laws;1. 对南非总统塔博 姆贝基阁下作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议主席对会议的圆满成果作出的杰出贡献深表赞赏;
(b) Take immediate steps to make progress in the formulation and elaboration of national strategies for sustainable development and begin their implementation by 2005. To this end, as appropriate, strategies should be supported through international cooperation, taking into account the special needs of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries. Such strategies, which, where applicable, could be formulated as poverty reduction strategies that integrate economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development, should be pursued in accordance with each country’s national priorities. 163. Each country has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development, and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. All countries should promote sustainable development at the national level by, inter alia, enacting and enforcing clear and effective laws that support sustainable development. All countries should strengthen governmental institutions, including by providing necessary infrastructure and by promoting transparency, accountability and fair administrative and judicial institutions. 164. All countries should also promote public participation, including through measures that provide access to information regarding legislation, regulations, activities, policies and programmes. They should also foster full public participation in sustainable development policy formulation and implementation. Women should be able to participate fully and equally in policy formulation and decision-making. 165. Further promote the establishment or enhancement of sustainable development councils and/or coordination structures at the national level, including at the local level, in order to provide a high-level focus on sustainable development policies. In that context, multi-stakeholder participation should be promoted. 166. Support efforts by all countries, particularly developing countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, to enhance national institutional arrangements for sustainable development, including at the local level. That could include promoting cross-sectoral approaches in the formulation of strategies and plans for sustainable development, such as, where applicable, poverty reduction strategies, aid coordination, encouraging participatory approaches and enhancing policy analysis, management capacity and implementation capacity, including mainstreaming a gender perspective in all those activities. 167. Enhance the role and capacity of local authorities as well as stakeholders in implementing Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit and in strengthening the continuing support for local Agenda 21 programmes and associated initiatives and partnerships and encourage, in particular, partnerships among and between local authorities and other levels of government and stakeholders to advance sustainable development as called for in, inter alia, the Habitat Agenda. I. Participation of major groups 168. Enhance partnerships between governmental and non-governmental actors, including all major groups, as well as volunteer groups, on programmes and activities for the achievement of sustainable development at all levels. 169. Acknowledge the consideration being given to the possible relationship between environment and human rights, including the right to development, with full and transparent participation of Member States of the United Nations and observer States. 170. Promote and support youth participation in programmes and activities relating to sustainable development through, for example, supporting local youth councils or their equivalent, and by encouraging their establishment where they do not exist. Resolution 3* Expression of thanks to the people and Government of South Africa The World Summit on Sustainable Development, Having met in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002, at the invitation of the Government of South Africa, 1. Expresses its deep appreciation to His Excellency Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa, for his outstanding contribution, as President of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, to the successful outcome of the Summit; 2. Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government of South Africa for having made it possible for the Summit to be held in South Africa and for the excellent facilities, staff and services so graciously placed at its disposal; 3. Requests the Government of South Africa to convey to the city of Johannesburg and to the people of South Africa the gratitude of the Summit for the hospitality and warm welcome extended to the participants. Resolution 4** Credentials of representatives to the World Summit on Sustainable Development The World Summit on Sustainable Development, Having considered the report of the Credentials Committee and the recommendation contained therein, Approves the report of the Credentials Committee. Chapter II Attendance and organization of work A. Date and place of the Summit 1. The World Summit on Sustainable Development was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002, in conformity with General Assembly resolutions 55/199 and 56/226. During that period, the Summit held 17 plenary meetings. B. Attendance 2. The following States and regional economic integration organizations were represented at the Summit: Afghanistan Chad Albania Chile Algeria China Andorra Colombia Angola Comoros Antigua and Barbuda Congo Argentina Cook Islands Armenia Costa Rica Australia Côte d’Ivoire Austria Croatia Azerbaijan Cuba Bahamas Cyprus Bahrain Czech Republic Bangladesh Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Barbados Democratic Republic of the Congo Belarus Denmark Belgium Djibouti Belize Dominica Benin Dominican Republic Bhutan Ecuador Bolivia Egypt Bosnia and Herzegovina El Salvador Botswana Equatorial Guinea Brazil Eritrea Brunei Darussalam Estonia Bulgaria Ethiopia Burkina Faso European Community Burundi Fiji Cambodia Finland Cameroon France Canada Gabon Cape Verde Gambia Central African Republic Georgia Germany Morocco Ghana Mozambique Greece Myanmar Grenada Namibia Guatemala Nepal Guinea Netherlands Guinea-Bissau New Zealand Guyana Nicaragua Haiti Niger Holy See Nigeria Honduras Niue Hungary Norway Iceland Oman India Pakistan Indonesia Palau Iran (Islamic Republic of) Panama Iraq Papua New Guinea Ireland Paraguay Israel Peru Italy Philippines Jamaica Poland Japan Portugal Jordan Qatar Kazakhstan Republic of Korea Kenya Republic of Moldova Kiribati Romania Kuwait Russian Federation Kyrgyzstan Rwanda Lao People’s Democratic Republic Saint Kitts and Nevis Latvia Saint Lucia Lebanon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Lesotho Samoa Liberia Sao Tome and Principe Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Saudi Arabia Liechtenstein Senegal Lithuania Seychelles Luxembourg Sierra Leone Madagascar Singapore Malawi Slovakia Malaysia Slovenia Maldives Solomon Islands Mali Somalia Malta South Africa Marshall Islands Spain Mauritania Sri Lanka Mauritius Sudan Mexico Suriname Micronesia (Federated States of) Swaziland Monaco Sweden Mongolia Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic United Kingdom of Great Britain and Tajikistan Northern Ireland Thailand United Republic of Tanzania The former Yugoslav Republic of United States of America Macedonia Uruguay Togo Uzbekistan Tonga Vanuatu Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela Tunisia Viet Nam Turkey Yemen Tuvalu Yugoslavia Uganda Zambia Ukraine Zimbabwe United Arab Emirates2. 对南非政府使会议能在南非举行,并亲切地为会议提供优良的设施、工作人员和服务表示感谢;
3. The following associate members of the regional commissions were represented by observers:3. 请南非政府向约翰内斯堡市和南非人民转达会议对它们招待和热情欢迎与会者表示感谢。
American Samoa* 在2002年9月4日第17次全体会议上通过,讨论情况见第十二章。
British Virgin Islands** 在2002年9月4日第17次全体会议上通过,讨论情况见第十章。
Netherlands Antilles1 A/CONF.199/15。
Puerto Rico决议4**
United States Virgin Islands出席可持续发展问题世界首脑会议代表的全权证书
4. The following State, having received an invitation to participate as an observer at the Summit, was represented:可持续发展问题世界首脑会议,
Timor-Leste审议了全权证书委员会的报告1及其中所载的建议,
5. The following entity, having received an invitation to participate as an observer at the World Summit on Sustainable Development and in the work of Summit, was represented:核可全权证书委员会的报告。
Palestine第二章 出席情况和工作安排
6. The secretariats of the following regional commissions were represented:A. 首脑会议日期和地点 1. 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议按照大会第55/199号和56/226号决议于2002年8月26日至9月4日在南非约翰内斯堡举行。在此期间,首脑会议举行了17次全体会议。
Economic Commission for EuropeB. 出席 2. 下列国家和区域经济一体化组织出席了首脑会议:
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific阿富汗 不丹
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean阿尔巴尼亚 玻利维亚
Economic Commission for Africa阿尔及利亚 波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那 安道尔 博茨瓦纳
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia安哥拉 巴西
7. The following United Nations bodies and programmes were represented:安提瓜和巴布达 文莱达鲁萨兰国
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights阿根廷 保加利亚
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees-South Africa亚美尼亚 布基纳法索
United Nations Environment Programme澳大利亚 布隆迪
United Nations Children’s Fund奥地利 柬埔寨
United Nations Institute for Training and Research阿塞拜疆 喀麦隆
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development巴哈马 加拿大
United Nations Development Programme巴林 佛得角
United Nations Human Settlements Programme孟加拉国 中非共和国
United Nations Population Fund巴巴多斯 乍得
United Nations University白俄罗斯 智利
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS比利时 中国
Office of the Special Coordinator for Least Developed, Landlocked and Island Developing Countries伯利兹 哥伦比亚
Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention贝宁 科摩罗
8. The secretariats of the following conventions were represented:刚果 冈比亚
Convention on Biological Diversity库克群岛 格鲁吉亚
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change哥斯达黎加 德国 科特迪瓦 加纳 克罗地亚 希腊 古巴 格林纳达 塞浦路斯 危地马拉 捷克共和国 几内亚 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国 几内亚比绍 刚果民主共和国 圭亚那 丹麦 海地 吉布提 罗马教廷 多米尼克 洪都拉斯 多米尼加共和国 匈牙利 厄瓜多尔 冰岛 埃及 印度 萨尔瓦多 印度尼西亚 赤道几内亚 伊朗伊斯兰共和国 厄立特里亚 伊拉克 爱沙尼亚 爱尔兰 埃塞俄比亚 以色列 欧洲共同体 意大利 斐济 牙买加 芬兰 日本 法国 约旦 加蓬 哈萨克斯坦 肯尼亚 摩洛哥 基里巴斯 莫桑比克 科威特 缅甸 吉尔吉斯斯坦 纳米比亚 老挝人民民主共和国 尼泊尔 拉脱维亚 荷兰 黎巴嫩 新西兰 莱索托 尼加拉瓜 利比里亚 尼日尔 阿拉伯利比亚民众国 尼日利亚 列支敦士登 纽埃 立陶宛 挪威 卢森堡 阿曼 马达加斯加 巴基斯坦 马拉维 帕劳 马来西亚 巴拿马 马尔代夫 巴布亚新几内亚 马里 巴拉圭 马耳他 秘鲁 马绍尔群岛 菲律宾 毛里塔尼亚 波兰 毛里求斯 葡萄牙 墨西哥 卡塔尔 密克罗尼西亚联邦 大韩民国 摩纳哥 摩尔多瓦共和国 蒙古 罗马尼亚 俄罗斯联邦 塔吉克斯坦 卢旺达 泰国 圣基茨和尼维斯 前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国 圣卢西亚 多哥 圣文森特和格林纳丁斯 汤加 萨摩亚 特立尼达和多巴哥 圣多美和普林西比 突尼斯 沙特阿拉伯 土耳其 塞内加尔 图瓦卢 塞舌尔 乌干达 塞拉利昂 乌克兰 新加坡 阿拉伯联合酋长国 斯洛伐克 大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国 斯洛文尼亚 坦桑尼亚联合共和国 所罗门群岛 美利坚合众国 索马里 乌拉圭 南非 乌兹别克斯坦 西班牙 瓦努阿图 斯里兰卡 委内瑞拉 苏丹 越南 苏里南 也门 斯威士兰 南斯拉夫 瑞典 赞比亚 瑞士 津巴布韦 阿拉伯叙利亚共和国 3. 下列各区域委员会准成员派观察员参加了会议: 美属萨摩亚 英属维尔京群岛 荷属安的列斯群岛 波多黎各 美属维尔京群岛 4. 下列国家获得邀请派观察员参加首脑会议,按邀请参加了会议: 东帝汶 5. 下列实体获得邀请派观察员参加可持续发展问题世界首脑会议及其工作,按邀请参加了会议: 巴勒斯坦 6. 下列区域委员会的秘书处出席了会议: 欧洲经济委员会 亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会 拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会 非洲经济委员会 西亚经济社会委员会 7. 下列联合国机构和计划署出席了会议: 联合国人权事务高级专员办事处 联合国难民事务高级专员办事处——南非 联合国环境规划署 联合国儿童基金会 联合国训练和研究所 联合国贸易和发展 联合国开发计划署 联合国人类住区规划署 联合国人口基金 联合国大学 联合国艾滋病毒/艾滋病联合方案 最不发达国家、内陆和岛屿发展中国家特别协调员办公室 药物管制和预防犯罪办事处 8. 下列公约的秘书处出席了会议: 生物多样性公约 联合国气候变化框架公约
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa联合国在发生严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化的公约
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal控制危险废物越境转移及其处置巴塞尔公约
9. The following specialized agencies and related organizations were represented:9. 下列专门机构和有关组织参加了会议:
International Labour Organization国际劳工组织
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations联合国粮食和农业组织
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization联合国教育、科学和文化组织
World Health Organization世界卫生组织
World Bank世界银行
International Atomic Energy Agency国际原子能机构
International Civil Aviation Organization国际民用航空组织
International Fund for Agricultural Development国际农业发展基金
International Maritime Organization国际海事组织
International Monetary Fund国际货币基金
Universal Postal Union万国邮政联盟
International Telecommunication Union国际电信组织
United Nations Industrial Development Organization联合国工业发展组织
World Intellectual Property Organization世界知识产权组织
World Meteorological Organization世界气象组织
World Tourism Organization世界旅游组织
World Trade Organization世界贸易组织
10. The following intergovernmental organizations were represented:10. 下列政府间组织出席了会议:
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States非洲、加勒比和太平洋国家集团
African Development Bank非洲开发银行
African Organization of Cartography and Remote Sensing非洲制图和遥感组织
African Union非洲联盟
Andean Community安第斯共同体
Andean Development Corporation安第斯开发公司
Annual Mines Ministries of the Americas Conference美洲矿务部年度会议
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa非洲阿拉伯经济开发银行
Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization亚非法律协商组织
Asian Development Bank亚洲开发银行
Asian Productivity Organization亚洲生产力组织
Association of Caribbean States加勒比国家联盟
Association of South-East Asian Nations东南亚国家联盟
Baltic 21 (Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region)波罗的海21(波罗的海区域21世纪议程)
Caribbean Community Secretariat加勒比共同体秘书处
Caribbean Conservation Agency加勒比养护机构
Caribbean Development Bank加勒比开发银行
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency加勒比紧急救灾机构
Centre for Applied Bioscience International实用生物科学国际中心
Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South南方科学和技术促进可持续发展委员会
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites/European Space Agency地球观测卫星委员会/欧洲航天局
Common Fund for Commodities商品共同基金
Commonwealth of Independent States独立国家联合体
Commonwealth Secretariat英联邦秘书处
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research国际农业研究协商小组
Convention on Migratory Species养护移栖物种公约
Convention on Wetlands湿地公约
Council of Europe欧洲委员会
Council of Europe Development Bank欧洲开发银行理事会
Council of the Baltic Sea States波罗的海国家理事会
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development欧洲复兴开发银行
European Space Agency欧洲航天局
Global Environment Facility全球环境基金
Inter-American Development Bank美洲开发银行
Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety政府间化学品安全论坛
International Association of Economic and Social Councils and Similar Institutions国际经济社会理事会和类似机构协会
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology国际遗传工程和生物技术中心
International Development Law Institute国际发展法学会
International Energy Agency国际能源机构
International Hydrographic Organization国际水道测量组织
International Institute for Refrigeration国际制冷研究所
International Joint Commission国际联合委员会
International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds国际油污赔偿基金
International Organization of La Francophonie国际法语国家组织
International Organization for Migration国际移徙组织
International Organization for Standardization国际标准化组织
International Tropical Timber Organization国际热带木材组织
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources国际自然及自然资源保护联盟
International Criminal Police Organization国际刑事警察组织
Inter-Parliamentary Union各国议会联盟
Islamic Development Bank伊斯兰开发银行
Iwokrama International Rainforest Project伊沃克拉马国际雨林项目
Latin American Economic System拉丁美洲经济体系
Latin American Parliament拉丁美洲议会
League of Arab States阿拉伯国家联盟
Lesotho Highlands Water Project莱索托高原水利项目
Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal塞内加尔河流开发组织
Nordic Council北欧理事会
Nordic Council of Ministers北欧部长理事会
North-South Centre of the Council of Europe欧洲委员会南北中心
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States东加勒比国家组织
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development经济合作与发展组织
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries石油输出国组织
Organization of the Islamic Conference伊斯兰会议组织
Pacific Centre for Environmental and Sustainable Development太平洋环境与可持续发展中心
Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat太平洋岛屿论坛秘书处
Partners in Population and Development人口与发展伙伴
Permanent Commission of the South Pacific南太平洋常设委员会
Permanent Court of Arbitration常设仲裁法院
Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden保护红海和亚丁湾环境区域组织
Regional Trade and Economic Integration区域贸易和经济一体化组织
Sahara and Sahel Observatory撒哈拉和萨赫勒观测站
South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme南亚合作环境署
South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission南太平洋应用地球科学委员会
South Pacific Regional Environment Programme南太平洋区域环境方案
Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region北极区域议员常设委员会
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Fund for International Development石油出口国组织国际发展基金
World Conservation Union世界保护联盟
11. A large number of non-governmental organizations attended the Summit. The Commission on Sustainable Development, acting as the preparatory committee of the Summit, accredited non-governmental organizations.111. 数量众多的非政府组织出席了这个首脑会议。可持续发展委员会作为首脑会议的筹备委员会负责认可非政府组织参加会议。1
12. Other entities having received a standing invitation and participating as observers are: the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.12. 获得长期邀请并以观察员地位参加会议的其他实体包括:红十字会与红新月会国际联合会;马耳他主权军事教团。
C.C.
Opening of the Summit首脑会议开幕
13. The World Summit on Sustainable Development was opened on 26 August 2002 by the Secretary-General of the Summit. The President of the Summit delivered an opening statement. Statements were also made by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Secretary-General of the Summit, the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme and the President of the United Nations General Assembly (see annex II).13. 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议于2002年8月26日由首脑会议秘书长宣布开幕。首脑会议主席致了开幕词。联合国秘书长、首脑会议秘书长、联合国环境规划署执行主任和联合国大会主席也发了言。
D.D.
Election of the President and other officers of the Summit选举首脑会议主席和主席团其他成员
14. At its 1st, 7th and 9th plenary meetings, on 26, 28 and 29 August 2002, the Summit elected the following officers:14. 首脑会议在2002年8月26日、28日和29日第1、7和9次全体会议上选出了下列主席团成员:
President of the Summit首脑会议主席
Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa, was elected President of the Summit by acclamation.南非总统塔博 姆贝基经鼓掌当选为首脑会议主席。
Vice-Presidents副主席
African States: Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda.非洲国家:喀麦隆、加纳、肯尼亚、尼日利亚、乌干达。
Eastern European States: Hungary, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.东欧国家:匈牙利、罗马尼亚、俄罗斯联邦、斯洛文尼亚、前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国。
Latin American and Caribbean States: Antigua and Barbuda, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru.拉丁美洲和加勒比国家:安提瓜和巴布达、巴西、古巴、墨西哥、秘鲁。
Western European and Other States: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, New Zealand, Norway.西欧和其他国家:比利时、丹麦、德国、新西兰、挪威。
Asian States: Iran, Iraq, Maldives, Pakistan and Samoa.亚洲国家:伊朗、伊拉克、马尔代夫、巴基斯坦和萨摩亚。
Vice-President ex officio当然副主席
Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini Zuma, Minister for Foreign Affairs of South Africa, was elected, by acclamation, Vice-President ex officio of the Summit.南非外交部长恩科萨扎纳 克拉丽斯 德拉米尼 祖马经鼓掌当选为首脑会议当然副主席。
Rapporteur-General总报告员
María Cecilia Rozas, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development of Peru, was elected, by acclamation, Rapporteur-General of the Summit.秘鲁环境和可持续发展事务主任玛丽亚 塞西莉亚 罗萨斯经鼓掌当选为总报告员。
Chairman of the Main Committee主要委员会主席
Emil Salim (Indonesia) was elected, by acclamation, Chairman of the Main Committee of the Summit.埃米尔 萨利姆(印度尼西亚)经鼓掌当选为首脑会议主要委员会主席。
E.E.
Adoption of the rules of procedure通过议事规则
15. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, the Summit adopted the rules of procedure (A/CONF.199/2 and Corr.1).15. 首脑会议在2002年8月26日第1次全体会议上通过了议事规则(A/CONF.199/2和Corr.1)
F.F.
Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters通过议程和其他组织事项
16. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, the Summit adopted the agenda as contained in document A/CONF.199/1.16. 首脑会议在2002年8月26日第1次全体会议上通过了载于A/CONF.
The agenda read as follows:199/1号文件的议程。议程如下:
1. Opening of the Summit.1. 首脑会议开幕。
2. Election of the President.2. 选举主席。
3. Adoption of the rules of procedure.3. 通过议事规则。
4. Adoption of the agenda and organization of work of the Summit: accreditation of intergovernmental organizations.4. 通过首脑会议议程和工作安排:认可政府间组织参加会议。
5. Election of officers other than the President.5. 选举主席以外的主席团成员。
6. Organization of work, including the establishment of the Main Committee.6. 工作安排, 包括成立主要委员会。
7. Credentials of representatives to the Summit:7. 出席首脑会议代表的全权证书:
(a) Appointment of the members of the Credentials Committee;(a) 任命全权证书委员会成员;
(b) Report of the Credentials Committee.(b) 全权证书委员会的报告。
8. Partnership events.8. 伙伴活动。
9. General debate.9. 一般性辩论。
10. Multi-stakeholder event.10. 多方利益有关者活动。
11. Round tables.11. 圆桌会议。
12. Draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.12. 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案。
13. Political document.13. 政治文件。
14. Adoption of the report of the Summit.14. 通过首脑会议的报告。
15. Closure of the Summit.15. 首脑会议闭幕。
G.G.
Accreditation of intergovernmental organizations认可政府间组织参加会议
17. At its 1st, 11th and 14th plenary meetings, on 26 August, 30 August and 3 September 2002, the Summit approved the accreditation of the 22 intergovernmental organizations listed in document A/CONF.199/13, as well as the following four additional intergovernmental organizations: the Centre for Applied Bioscience, the Permanent Inter-State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel, Central Asia Regional Cooperation and l’Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal.17. 首脑会议在2002年8月26日和30日第1、第11和第14次全体会议上核准了A/CONF.199/13号文件所列的22个政府间组织以及下列另外三个政府间组织参加会议:应用生物科学中心、萨赫勒抗旱常设国家间委员会、中亚区域合作组织和塞内加尔河流开发组织。
H.H.
Organization of work, including the establishment of the Main Committee工作安排,包括成立主要委员会
18. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August, the Summit approved the organization of work as outlined in document A/CONF.199/3.18. 首脑会议在8月26日第1次全体会议上核可了A/CONF.199/3号文件概述的工作安排。
19. At the same meeting, the Summit approved the proposed timetable of work for the Summit and the Main Committee as contained in annexes I and II to document A/CONF.199/3.19. 在同次会议上,首脑会议核可了载于A/CONF.199/3号文件附件一和二的首脑会议和主要委员会工作时间表草案。
I.I.
Credentials of representatives to the Summit出席首脑会议代表的全权证书
20. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August, in accordance with paragraphs 16 and 17 of its rules of procedure, the Summit appointed the following members of the Credentials Committee on the basis of the composition of the Credentials Committee of the General Assembly at its fifty-sixth session: China, Denmark, Jamaica, Lesotho, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Singapore, the United States of America and Uruguay.20. 首脑会议在8月26日第1次全体会议上,依照议事规则第16和第17条,根据大会第五十六届会议全权证书委员会的组成任命了全权证书委员会成员如下:中国、丹麦、牙买加、莱索托、俄罗斯联邦、塞内加尔、新加坡、美利坚合众国、乌拉圭。
J.J.
Documentation文件
21. The list of documents before the Summit is contained in annex I to the present report.21. 首脑会议收到的文件清单见本报告附件一。
Chapter III第三章
Partnership events伙伴活动
Partnership plenary meetings on water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture, biodiversity and cross-sectoral issues关于水和卫生、能源、保健、农业、生物多样性和跨部门问题的伙伴 全体会议
1. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, in accordance with decision 2002/PC/6 of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (A/CONF.199/4, chap. X), the Summit approved the organization of work as set out in document A/CONF.199/3 and decided that under agenda item 8, “Partnership events”, six partnership plenary meetings would be held, on the themes of water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture, biodiversity and cross-sectoral issues. Accordingly, the Summit heard general statements at its 2nd to 7th meetings, from 26 to 28 August 2002.1. 依照作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会筹备委员会的可持续发展委员会第2002/PC/6号决定(A/CONF.199/4第十章),首脑会议于2002年8月26日第1次会议上核可了A/CONF.199/3号文件所载的工作安排,并决定可在议程项目8“合作活动”下可举行六次伙伴全体会议,审议水和卫生、能源、保健、农业、生物多样性和跨部门问题。依此决定,首脑会议在2002年8月26日至28日举行的第2至7次会议上听取了一般性发言。
2. The themes of the 2nd and 3rd partnership plenary meetings, held on 26 August, were “Health and the environment” and “Biodiversity and ecosystem management”; the themes of the 4th and 5th meetings, held on 27 August, were “Agriculture” and “Cross-sectoral issues” (finance/trade, technology transfer, information/education/science, consumption patterns and capacity-building); and the themes of the 6th and 7th meetings, held on 28 August, were “Water and sanitation” and “Energy”. An account of the meetings is set out in paragraphs 4 to 43 below.2. 第2和第3次伙伴全体会议于8月26日举行,主题为“保健与环境”和“生物多样性和生态系统管理”;第4和第5次全体会议于8月27日举行,主题为“农业”和“跨部门问题(金融/贸易、技术转让、信息/教育/科学、消费模式和能力建设)”;第6和第7次会议于8月28日举行,主题为“水与卫生”和“能源”。会议纪要见下文第4至43段。
3. At the 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, the ex officio Vice-President of the Summit, Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini Zuma, Minister for Foreign Affairs of South Africa, introduced the summaries of the partnership plenary meetings, which were contained in document A/CONF.199/16 and Add.1 to 3.3. 2002年9月4日第17次会议,首脑会议当然副主席南非外交部长恩科萨扎纳 祖马介绍了伙伴全体会议的摘要(载A/CONF.199/16和Add.1至3等号文件)。
1. Health and the environment1. 保健与环境
4. The ex officio Vice-President of the Summit opened the 2nd plenary meeting on 26 August 2002, and the Summit began its consideration of agenda item 8, “Partnership events”, discussing the theme of health and the environment. The Secretary-General of the Summit made an introductory statement.4. 2002年8月26日,首脑会议当然副主席宣布第2次全体会议开幕,审议议程项目8“伙伴活动”,讨论了保健与环境的议题。首脑会议秘书长做了介绍性发言。
5. At the meeting, statements were made by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, acting as moderator, and the Executive Director for Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments of the World Health Organization (WHO), acting as presenter.5. 在同次会议上,可持续发展问题世界首脑会议秘书长特使以主持人的身份发了言;世界卫生组织(卫生组织)可持续发展与健康环境执行主任以讲演人的身份发了言。
6. Statements were also made by the following panellists: the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund, the Director for Water and Sanitation of the United Nations Children’s Fund, a representative of the World Bank and the Medical Research Counsellor of South Africa.6. 下列讨论小组成员发了言:联合国人口基金执行主任、联合国儿童基金会水与卫生问题主任、世界银行代表、南非医学研究顾问。
7. Statements were made by the representatives of the following States: Senegal, Norway, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Swaziland, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union), Romania, Cuba, South Africa, Canada and Finland.7. 下列各国代表发了言:塞内加尔、挪威、孟加拉国、印度尼西亚、斯威士兰、丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)、罗马尼亚、古巴、南非、加拿大、芬兰。
8. A statement was also made by the representative of Women’s Environment and Development Organization, a non-governmental organization.8. 非政府组织妇女环境与发展组织的代表也发了言。
2. Biodiversity and ecosystem management2. 生物多样性和生态系统管理
9. The ex officio Vice-President of the Summit opened the 3rd plenary meeting on 26 August 2002, on the theme of biodiversity and ecosystem management.9. 2002年8月26日第3次全体会议,首脑会议当然副主席宣布关于生物多样性和生态系统管理的会议开幕。
10. At the meeting, statements were made by the High-level Adviser for the United Nations Environment Programme and the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biodiversity, acting as presenters, and by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, acting as moderator.10. 会上,联合国环境规划署高级顾问、生物多样性公约执行秘书以讲演人的身份和秘书长特使以主持人的身份发了言。
11. As part of a panel discussion, statements were made by representatives of the following major groups: business, farmers, indigenous people, local authorities, non-governmental organizations, the scientific and technological communities, trade unions and women.11. 在小组讨论过程中,下列的主要群体的代表发了言:企业、农民、土著人民、地方当局、非政府组织、科技界、工会和妇女。
12. Also as part of the panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Ramsar Convention, the M.12. 在小组讨论过程中,下列组织代表发了言:联合国教育、科学及文化组织(教科文组织)、联合国开发计划署(开发计划署)、联合国环境规划署(环境规划署)、拉姆萨尔公约、M.
S.S.
Swaminathan Foundation, the Global Environment Facility and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Swaminathan基金会、全球环境基金、国际自然及自然资源保护联盟。
13. Statements were made by the representatives of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ecuador, India, Uganda, Japan, the Czech Republic, Benin, Armenia, Nepal, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union), the Niger, Seychelles, Norway, Gabon, the Netherlands, Egypt, Mexico and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the observer of Palestine.13. 大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、厄瓜多尔、印度、乌干达、日本、捷克共和国、贝宁、亚美尼亚、尼泊尔、丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)、尼日尔、塞舌尔、挪威、加蓬、荷兰、埃及、墨西哥和刚果民主共和国的代表,以及巴勒斯坦的观察员发了言。
14. Statements were also made by representatives of the following major groups: the private sector, youth and indigenous people.14. 下列主要群体的代表也发了言:私营部门、青年的土著人民。
3. Agriculture3. 农业
15. The ex officio Vice-President of the Summit opened the 4th plenary meeting on 27 August 2002, on the theme of agriculture.15. 2002年8月27日第4次全体会议,首脑会议当然副主席宣布开始讨论关于农业这个主题。
16. At the meeting, statements were made by M. S. Swaminathan of the M. S. Swaminathan Foundation and Pedro Sanchez, Executive Director of the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, acting as presenters, and the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, acting as moderator.16. 会上,M.S. Swaminathan基金会S. Swaminathan和国际农林研究中心执行主任Padro Sanchez以讲演人的身份发了言;秘书长特使以主持人的身份发了言。
17. As part of a panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of the following major groups: youth, women, trade unions, the scientific and technological communities, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, indigenous people, farmers and business.17. 在小组讨论过程中,下列主要群体的代表发了言:青年、妇女、工会、科技界、非政府组织、地方当局、土著人民、农民和企业。
18. Also as part of the panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the International Labour Organization and UNDP.18. 在小组讨论过程中,下列组织的代表发了言:世界银行、联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)、国际农业发展基金、联合国贸易和发展会议、国际劳工组织的开发计划署。
19. Statements were made by the representatives of Cape Verde, the United States of America, Austria, Iraq, Uruguay, Lesotho, the United Republic of Tanzania, Côte d’Ivoire, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Malawi, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Equatorial Guinea, Australia, the Syrian Arab Republic, Romania, Senegal, South Africa and Venezuela.19. 下列各国代表发了言:佛得角、美利坚合众国、奥地利、伊拉克、乌干达、莱索托、坦桑尼亚联合共和国、科特迪瓦、孟加拉国、埃塞俄比亚、马拉维、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、赤度几内亚、澳大利亚、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、罗马尼亚、塞内加尔、南非、委内瑞拉。
20. A statement was made by the representative of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, an intergovernmental organization.20. 政府间组织国际农业研究协商小组的代表发了言。
21. A statement was made by the representative of the European Commission, on behalf of the European Community.21. 欧洲联盟委员会代表代表欧洲共同体发了言。
22. Statements were also made by the representatives of the following major groups: indigenous people, and business and industry.22. 下列的主要群体的代表也发了言:土著人民、企业的工业。
4. Cross-sectoral issues (finance/trade, technology transfer, information/education/ science, consumption patterns and capacity-building)4. 跨部门问题(金融/贸易、技术转让、信息/教育/科学、消费模式和能力建设)
23. On behalf of the ex officio Vice-President of the Summit, a Vice-President of the Summit, Srgjan Kerim (the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), opened the 5th plenary meeting on 27 August 2002, on the theme of cross-sectoral issues.23. 2002年8月27日,首脑会议副主席斯格杨 克里姆(前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国)代表首脑会议当然副主席宣布关于跨部门问题的第5次全体会议开幕。
24. Statements were made by the Secretary-General of the Summit and the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, acting as moderator.24. 首脑会议秘书长,及秘书长特使以主持人的身份发了言。
25. As part of a panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of the following major groups: youth, women, trade unions, the scientific and technological communities, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, indigenous people, farmers and business.25. 在小组讨论过程中,下列主要群体的代表发了言:青年、妇女、工会、科技界、非政府组织、地方当局、土著人民、农民和企业。
26. Also as part of the panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of UNESCO, UNDP, UNEP, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World High Technology Society and the United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force.26. 也作为小组讨论的一部分,以下组织的代表发了言:教科文组织、开发计划署、环境规划署、联合国工业发展组织(工发组织)、联合国训练研究所、联合国贸易和发展会议、世界贸易组织、世界银行、经济合作与发展组织、世界高技术协会和联合国信息和通讯技术工作队。
27. Statements were made by the representatives of Saudi Arabia, Burkina Faso, Finland, Zambia, Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Ghana, Benin, Bangladesh, Uruguay, Sweden, Equatorial Guinea, Norway, Côte d’Ivoire, Japan, Cuba, Nepal, the United States of America and Botswana.27. 以下国家代表发了言:沙特阿拉伯、布基纳法索、芬兰、赞比亚、南斯拉夫、巴基斯坦、加纳、贝宁、孟加拉国、乌拉圭、瑞典、赤道几内亚、挪威、科特迪瓦、日本、古巴、尼泊尔、美利坚合众国和博茨瓦纳。
28. A statement was made by a representative of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites of the European Space Agency.28. 欧洲航天局地球观测卫星委员会的代表发了言。
29. Statements were also made by the representatives of the following major groups: women, business and industry.29. 以下主要团体的代表也发了言:妇女、商业界和工业界。
5. Water and sanitation5. 水和卫生
30. The ex officio Vice-President of the Summit opened the 6th plenary meeting on 28 August 2002, on the theme of water and sanitation.30. 2002年8月28日,首脑会议当然副主席宣布关于水和卫生问题的第6次全体会议开幕。
31. At the meeting, statements were made by Margaret Catley-Carlson, Chairperson of the Global Water Partnership, and Gourisankar Gosh, Executive Director of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, acting as presenters, and the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, acting as moderator.31. 在同次会议上,以下人士发了言:担任讲演人的全球水事伙伴关系主席Margaret Catley-Carlson和供水与卫生协作理事会执行主任Gourisankar Gosh,及担任主持人的秘书长特使。
32. As part of a panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of the following major groups: youth, women, trade unions, the scientific and technological communities, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, indigenous people, farmers and business.32. 作为小组讨论的一部分,以下主要团体代表发了言:青年、妇女、工会、科技界、非政府组织、地方当局、土著人民、农民和商界。
33. Also as part of the panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of FAO, WHO, UNDP, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, the United Nations Children’s Fund, UNEP, the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, the Chairman of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council and the Special Rapporteur on the right to adequate housing of the Commission on Human Rights.33. 也作为小组讨论的一部分,以下组织的代表发了言:粮农组织、气象组织、开发计划署、联合国人类住区规划署、联合国儿童基金会、环境规划署、联合国秘书处经济和社会事务部、供水与卫生协作理事会主席及人权委员会适当住房权利特别报告员。
34. Statements were made by the representatives of Switzerland, Mauritania, Yemen, India, the United States of America, Uruguay, Ukraine, Eritrea, Belgium, Egypt, Pakistan, Kenya, Israel, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union), Madagascar, Canada, the Niger, Venezuela, South Africa, Greece and Burkina Faso, as well as by the observer of Palestine.34. 以下国家代表及巴勒斯坦观察员发了言:瑞士、毛里塔尼亚、也门、印度、美利坚合众国、乌拉圭、乌克兰、厄立特里亚、比利时、埃及、巴基斯坦、肯尼亚、以色列、丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)、马达加斯加、加拿大、尼日尔、委内瑞拉、南非、希腊和布基纳法索。
35. A statement was made by the Special Rapporteur on the right to adequate housing of the Commission on Human Rights.35. 人权委员会适当住房权特别报告员发了言。
36. A statement was made by a representative of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, a non-governmental organization.36. 非政府组织国际自然及自然资源保护联盟的代表发了言。
37. A statement was also made by the Secretary-General of the Ramsar Convention.37. 拉姆萨尔公约秘书长也发了言。
6. Energy6. 能源
38. The ex officio Vice-President of the Summit opened the 7th plenary meeting on 28 August, on the theme of energy.38. 2002年8月28日,首脑会议当然副主席宣布关于能源问题的第7次全体会议开幕。
39. At the meeting, statements were made by Thomas B.39. 在同次会议上,以下人士发了言:担任讲演人的瑞典隆德大学工业环境经济国际研究所主任Thomas B.
Johansson, Director of the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, University of Lund, Sweden, and Stephen Karekezi, African Energy Policy Research Network, Kenya, acting as presenters, and by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, acting as moderator.Johanson和肯尼亚非洲能源政策研究网络的Stephen Karekezi先生,及担任主持人的秘书长特使。
40. As part of a panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of the following major groups: youth, women, trade unions, the scientific and technological communities, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, indigenous people, farmers and business.40. 作为小组讨论的一部分,以下主要团体代表发了言:青年、妇女、工会、科技界、非政府组织、地方当局、土著人民、农民和商界。
41. Also, as part of the panel discussion, statements were made by the representatives of UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO and the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.41. 也作为小组讨论的一部分,以下组织的代表发了言:开发计划署、环境规划署、工发组织及经济和社会事务部。
42. Statements were made by the representatives of Nigeria, New Zealand, Brazil, Tuvalu, Zambia, Costa Rica, Lesotho, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union), Japan, Slovenia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, the United States of America, Ecuador, Namibia, Nepal, Bulgaria, Germany, Uganda, Mexico, India, Algeria, Bhutan, Morocco, Chile, Sweden and Argentina.42. 以下国家代表发了言:尼日利亚、新西兰、巴西、图瓦卢、赞比亚、哥斯达黎加、莱索托、丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)、日本、斯洛文尼亚、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、美利坚合众国、厄瓜多尔、纳米比亚、尼泊尔、保加利亚、德国、乌干达、墨西哥、印度、阿尔及利亚、不丹、摩洛哥、智利、瑞典和阿根廷。
43. Statements were also made by the representatives of the following major groups: business and industry and non-governmental organizations.43. 以下主要团体的代表也发了言:商业界和工业界及非政府组织。
44. The comments of the ex officio Vice-President of the Summit (A/CONF.199/16/Add.1) on the partnership plenary meetings on water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity read as follows:44. 首脑会议当然副主席就水和卫生、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性等伙伴全体会议所作的评论(A/CONF.199/16/Add.1)如下:
“1. The central task of our deliberations at the World Summit on Sustainable Development is to take stock of the successes and failures of the past 10 years and agree on clear and practical measures to implement sustainable development. In our collective efforts to move from commitments to action to ensure more sustainable livelihoods for all, water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity (WEHAB) represent five specific areas in which concrete results are both essential and achievable. These and other important areas of implementation should be seen against the urgent need to mobilize the necessary cross-cutting means of implementation.“1. 在可持续发展问题世界首脑会议上,我们的讨论主要是为了评价在过去十年的成败经验,并商定明确而可行的措施以执行可持续发展。在我们集体努力,从作出承诺转移到采取行动,以确保人人有更加可持续的生活方面,水和卫生、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性是必须而且可以取得具体成果的五大具体领域。这些和其他重要的执行领域都必须考虑到迫切需要调动涉及各方面的必要执行手段。 “2. 我要对各位专家表示诚挚的谢意。他们齐心协力,编写和提出执行框架文件。他们的投入以及各主要团体的投入都是高质量的,大大促进了我们在互动会议中的对话。我还要感谢出色地主持了这次卓有成就的对话的联合国秘书长首脑会议特使简 普龙克先生,以及所有参与者。
“2. I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to the experts for their collaboration in the preparation of the implementation framework papers, and for their presentations. Their inputs, as well as those of the major groups, were of high quality and enhanced our dialogue during our interactive meetings. I would also like to thank the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Summit, Jan Pronk, who did an exceptional job in moderating this rich dialogue, as well as all the participants.“3. 应当鼓励这些讨论的创新性质,作为联合国系统内加强多方利益有关者参与和参加的范例。现在是采取具体行动的时候,所有能够和应当发挥作用的人,应可以以约翰内斯堡首脑会议后继行动执行模式,在各个层次同其他人充分参与。
“3. The innovative nature of these discussions should be encouraged as a model for enhanced multi-stakeholder participation and engagement within the United Nations system. This is the time for concrete action, and all who can and should play a role should be able to engage each other fully and at all levels in connection with the modalities of implementation in the follow-up to the Johannesburg Summit.“4. 执行框架所启动的进程应利用各国政府和各主要集团内可供我们使用的资源和技术,本着伙伴、公平参与互利的精神,实现切实的执行行动。我们欢迎一些代表团所宣布的具体倡议和伙伴关系,并将把在首脑会议期间提出的所有倡议编成一份有系统的清单,供各代表团参考。大家都应当期待在首脑会议剩下的期间内会有更具体的宣布。
“4. The process started by the implementation frameworks should harness the resources and technologies at our disposal, in Governments and in all major groups, for real implementation, in the spirit of partnership, equitable participation and mutual benefit. The concrete initiatives and partnerships announced by some delegations are welcome, and we will make available to all delegates a systematic list of all initiatives that have been proposed during the Summit. All should look forward to more specific announcements during the remainder of the Summit.“5. 讨论的结果将以主席摘要(A/CONF.199/16/Add.2)的形式印发。希望这可以帮助各代表团进一步执行可持续发展和执行在约翰内斯堡商定的成果的后继行动。
“5. The results of our deliberations will be made available in the form of a Chairperson’s summary (A/CONF.199/16/Add.2). It is hoped that this will assist delegations in the further implementation of sustainable development and follow-up to outcomes agreed in Johannesburg.“6. 各次伙伴全体会议的主要内容涉及下列共同主题:
“6. The key highlights from each partnership plenary meeting included the following common themes:( 必须有稳妥的政策和战略,在可持续发展的政策拟定和决策方面必须适当地与所有受影响的社区成员协商
The need for sound policies and strategies, and for proper consultation with all affected members of communities, in policy formulation and decision-making for sustainable development( 必须建立和加强伙伴关系,不仅是在各国政府之间,而且应当与妇女、青年、土著人民、非政府组织、地方当局、工人和工会、企业和工业、科技界和农民建立和加强伙伴关系
The need to build and strengthen partnerships not only among Governments but also with women, youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific and technological community and farmers( 必须建立能力和分享技术
The need for capacity-building and technology sharing( 调动额外资源取以实现有系统和可以预测的供资模式
The mobilization of additional resources to achieve systematic and predictable funding( 必须有切实可行的方案和行动,辅以明确、有时限的目标和时间框架,以及协调一致的衡量、监测和报告制度
The need for practical programmes and actions, with clear, time-bound targets and time frames, as well as a well-coordinated system of measurement, monitoring and reporting( 必须发展基础设施
The need for infrastructure development The need to improve institutional frameworks for better implementation and participation, particularly by vulnerable groups.( 必须改善机构框架以促进执行和参与,特别是脆弱群体的参与。
“7. There should be a strong focus on follow-up from all parties involved, keeping in mind that WEHAB is an initiative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The WEHAB frameworks would be part of the implementation process of the proposed plan of implementation of the Summit. It is thus proposed that the Summit invite the Secretary-General to initiate consultations with all relevant and interested Governments and parties to translate the frameworks into action through a flexible, action-oriented process.”“7. 有关各方应当重视后继行动,考虑到水和卫生、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性问题是联合国秘书长的一项倡议。水和卫生、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性问题的框架将是提议的首脑会议执行计划之执行进程的一部分。因此,提议首脑会议请秘书长与所有有关和感兴趣的国家政府和其他方面展开协商,以着重行动的灵活进程把框架付诸行动。
45. The summary of the partnership plenary meetings prepared by the ex officio Vice-President of the Summit (A/CONF.199/16/Add.2) read as follows:45. 首脑会议当然副主席编写的伙伴全体会议摘要(A/CONF.199/16/Add.2)如下:
“Introduction“导言
“1. The WEHAB discussions in plenary were carried out in response to decision 2002/PC/6, (see A/CONF.199/4, chap. X), adopted at the fourth session of the preparatory committee. A focus on five key thematic areas — water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity — was proposed by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan as a contribution to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The WEHAB initiative seeks to provide impetus for action in these five key thematic areas that are of crucial global importance, particularly for poor people throughout the developing world.“1. 根据第2002/PC/6号决定(见A/CONF.199/4,第十章),全体会议讨论了饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性的问题。联合国秘书长科菲 安南建议把重点集中在5个重要的专题领域——饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性方面,这是对可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的贡献。饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性倡议力求在这5个关键的、具有全球重要意义的专题领域中推动为发展中世界的穷人采取行动。
“2. In an effort to include all major stakeholders in the discussions, the plenary invited the participation of representatives of major groups and of the United Nations system, including the World Bank, in an interactive moderated dialogue with Governments. Each WEHAB theme had one meeting dedicated to it, involving a discussion of issues and challenges. Implementation framework documents prepared by a group of United Nations system experts were used as the basis of these discussions. There was also one meeting dedicated to a discussion of cross-sectoral issues. This experimental format for United Nations plenary meetings allowed the expression of a variety of valuable views and positions for the implementation of and follow-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The interactive dialogue with major groups was moderated by Jan Pronk, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the World Summit on Sustainable Development.“2. 为了使所有主要的利益有关者参与讨论,全体会议邀请主要群体和联合国系统的代表、包括世界银行参与与各国政府进行的互动式的协调对话。为饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性的各个专题召开一次专门的讨论会议,邀请就各种问题和挑战进行讨论。联合国系统一个专家组编写的执行框架文件是这些讨论的依据。还专门召开了一次讨论跨部门问题的会议。这是一次实验性的联合国全体会议的模式,这使人们可以对实施以及对可持续发展问题世界首脑会议采取后续行动提出各种有价值的观点和立场。与主要群体的互动式对话由秘书长的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议特使贾恩 普龙克先生协调。
“3. The purpose of the preparation of the implementation frameworks and the discussions at the Summit was to facilitate follow-up action and implementation after Johannesburg by all parties involved. The WEHAB frameworks could therefore be part of the implementation of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.“3. 编写执行框架和在首脑会议中进行讨论的目的是协助所有有关各方在约翰内斯堡首脑会议之后采取后续行动和参与实施。饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性框架应成为实施《约翰内斯堡执行计划》的一部分。
“Some common themes“一些共同主题
“4. Following are some common themes that ran throughout the five discussions.“4. 下面是5个讨论中的一些共同主题:
“5. The issues:“5. 议题:
The important potential role of the WEHAB themes in reaching the Millennium development goals and the newly agreed targets of Johannesburg饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性主题在实现千年发展目标和在约翰内斯堡新商定的目标中可能起到的重要作用
The importance of the WEHAB themes in the efforts of developing countries to eradicate poverty through people-centred development approaches饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性主题在发展中国家通过以人为中心的发展措施消除贫穷努力中的重要性
The need for intersectoral approaches, the interrelatedness of each of the WEHAB areas with other sectors and the need for strong coordination among sectors and among United Nations system agencies采取部门间措施的必要性,饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性各领域与其他部门之间的相关性,以及在各部门和联合国系统各机构间加强协调的必要性
The gender issue and the importance of placing greater emphasis on the empowerment of women as well as the negative effects on women in each of these areas性别问题、更多的强调赋予妇女权力的重要性以及各领域中对妇女的不利影响
The differentiated needs of the poor and the need to focus on improving knowledge, science, research and action in relation to their particular basic technological and economic needs穷人的不同需要、以及把重点放在针对他们的特定的基础、技术和经济需要加强知识、科学、研究和行动的必要性
The importance of the role of civil society and its potential contribution to policy and decision-making, as well as implementation民间社会作用的重要性、它对政策和决策以及实施有可能作出的贡献
The role of youth as important stakeholders in the Summit deliberations年轻人作为重要的利益有关者在首脑会议审议过程中的作用
The importance of the role of the private sector, but with transparency and clarity of roles and standards, corporate responsibility and social contribution私营部门作用的重要性,作用和标准的透明度和明了性,共同责任和社会贡献
The central role of production and consumption patterns and their effects on each of the WEHAB areas.生产和消费形态的重要作用及其对饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性各领域的影响
“6. The challenges:“6. 各项挑战:
Each WEHAB area is an entry point to achieving sustainable development, and taking action in any one of them advances the overarching goals of sustainable development.饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性的每一个领域都是实现可持续发展的起点,在其中任何一个领域采取行动都有助于实现可持续发展的总目标
The lack of action in most of the WEHAB areas is not due to a lack of agreements. In each, there exists an impressive body of agreements, conventions and protocols that give the basis on which to take concrete action.饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性的大部分领域中缺乏行动不是因为没有协定。每个领域都有一套引人注目的协定、公约和议定书,它们构成采取具体行动的依据
There is a need to shift from addressing the cure for problems to addressing the underlying causes — prevention and mitigation are more cost-effective.需要把重点从解决问题转移到解决根本根源方面
It is important to establish a level playing field for the poor in their countries and for developing countries in the international system.预防和减轻的效益更大
The importance of local communities should be recognized and civil society should be empowered so that those who are most knowledgeable about their needs can participate in decision-making in areas that affect them.必须在国家中为穷人、在国际制度中为发展中国家创造公平的竞争环境
There is a need for decentralized approaches to fit the needs of local communities.应承认地方社区的重要性,应赋予民间社会权力,以便最了解其需要的民间社会能够参与影响它们切身利益的领域的决策
There is a need for sound policies and strategies with concrete plans of action at the national level.需要采取权力下放的措施,以满足地方社区的需要
Partnerships, particularly those that include Governments, business and other major groups, are an important feature of implementation.需要在国家一级制定带有具体行动的合理政策和战略
There is a need for capacity-building and financial resources.合作伙伴关系、特别是那些包括政府、商业和其他主要群体的伙伴关系都是实施的重要特征 需要建设能力和累积财政资源
Economic instruments, including subsidies, have been used as a barrier to entry into markets and trade in general. Efforts should be made to eliminate these and to use these instruments instead to promote sustainable development.经济手段、包括补贴通常成为阻止进入市场和贸易的壁垒。应努力消除这些障碍,用这些手段推动可持续发展
“WEHAB meetings“饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性会议
“Health“健康
“7. Good health is vital for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development. Health is not only about lack of illness but also about fundamental human rights to clean water, sanitation and high-quality, affordable and equitable health services. Health issues thus need to be placed at the centre of sustainable development concerns. There is a growing sense of urgency with regard to breaking the vicious cycle of strongly interlinked problems of environmental degradation, ill health and poverty. People who are poor are more likely to get sick. People who are sick are more likely to become poor. Health and environment linkages need to be given greater recognition.“7. 身体健康是消灭贫穷和实现可持续发展的关键。健康不仅仅是指无病,而且还包括享有清洁饮水、环境卫生、高质量和可负担以及平等的保健服务的基本人权。因此,应把健康问题列为可持续发展关切的核心。迫切需要打破环境退化、不健康与贫穷之间的恶性循环,这三者之间的联系已变得越来越紧密了。穷人容易生病,患病的人也更容易限入贫困。需要更多地认识健康与环境之间的关系。
“8. The strong link between health, productivity and development not only justifies but requires more integrated and intersectoral approaches to health. Health issues need to be tackled not only by health ministries and health sectors but, perhaps even more importantly, by sectors such as transportation, energy and agriculture. But such action requires resources, and many estimates have been made on what it would take to reach the Millennium development goal targets for health by 2015. The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health has recommended an increase in domestic budgetary resources of 1 per cent by 2015, and donor grants of $27 billion a year by 2007 and $38 billion by 2015, for tackling the diseases of the poor.“8. 健康、生产力和发展之间的联系非常密切,它不仅证明采取更为综合和跨部门的措施合理,而且还证明需要采取这种行动。健康问题不单是要卫生部和保健部门来解决,也许更需要运输、能源和农业等部门来参与解决。但是这些行动需要资源,已经就实现千年发展目标为2015年规定的目标所需资源的情况做了很多估计。为解决穷人患病的问题,宏观经济学和卫生委员会建议到2015年增加国内预算资源1%,到2007年增加捐助赠款270亿美元,到2015年增加380亿美元。
“9. Most speakers agreed on the need to take urgent action at all levels to deal with the following priority health issues:“9. 大多数发言者都认为需要在各级采取紧迫行动,解决保健领域中的下列优先问题:
Controlling and eradicating communicable diseases, notably, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, as well as important diseases for developing countries, such as malaria控制和消除传染病、主要是结核(病)和艾滋病/艾滋病毒以及发展中国家中的严重疾病、例如疟疾
Prompt diagnosis and treatment of common diseases, such as diarrhoea and respiratory diseases, including those caused by indoor air pollution as a result of cooking on wood fires迅速诊断和治疗常见病、例如腹泻和呼吸道疾病,包括因室内烧柴煮饭而造成室内空气污染引起的疾病
Preventing and treating occupational health diseases and accidents预防和治疗职业病和意外事故
Developing preventive measures and focusing more on prevention in general制定预防性措施,把重点更多地集中在普遍预防方面
Improving access to better sanitation and clean water使人们能更多地享有环境卫生和清洁饮水
Tackling maternal mortality and reproductive health issues, and women’s health issues in general解决产妇死亡率和生殖健康问题以及各种妇女疾病
Protecting the health of vulnerable sectors of the population, including children, women and the elderly保护人口中的弱势群体、包括儿童、妇女和老人的健康
Protecting and using indigenous knowledge and traditional medicines and recognizing and compensating their benefits保护和利用当地知识和传统药物,承认和补偿这些费用
Gender empowerment.妇女权力。
“10. For success in approaching health issues, many identified the need for:“10. 为了成功地解决健康问题,很多代表确定需要采取下列措施:
Strong political will and long-term commitments at a high level在高级别上保持坚定的政治意愿和长期承诺
Sound policies and strategies合理的政策和战略
Practical programmes and actions on the ground with clear targets and time frames务实的方案和行动,并且规定有明确的目标和时限
Cross-sectoral and intersectoral coordination and harmonized actions (e.g., between energy, health, education, environment) at the various levels在各级别上开展跨部门和部门间的协调统一行动(例如能源、健康、教育和环境)
Strong coordination among United Nations system agencies and programmes联合国系统各机构和方案之间保持密切协调
Decentralized actions to get health assistance to people and communities that need it权力下放,为需要的人民和社区提供保健服务援助
Shared commitments by partners合作伙伴共同承诺
Partnerships based on available scientific research, data and reliable information建立在现有的科学研究、数据和可靠资料基础之上的合作伙伴关系
Broad involvement of civil society on a voluntary basis, through education, awareness-raising, dialogue, participation and empowerment通过教育、提高认识、对话、参与和赋予权力,使民间社会在自愿的基础上广泛参与
Mobilization of additional resources to achieve systematic and predictable funding.调动其他资源,有系统和可预测的筹措资金
“11. At the same time, participants noted that capacity-building and research are needed for:“11. 与此同时,参与者指出,需要在下列方面建设能力和研究:
Assessing and managing risks to health评估和管理健康风险
Identifying new and emerging health threats in time to take preventive measures (e.g., tobacco and smoking-related health issues)确定新的和新出现的健康威胁,以及时采取预防措施(例如烟草和与吸烟有关的健康问题)
Planning, managing and monitoring health needs计划、管理和监测健康需要
Training and retaining good health-care providers.训练和留住优秀的保健工作者
“12. Also considered essential by many were:“12. 很多代表也认为下列问题十分重要:
Learning from past lessons, best practices and case studies汲取以往的经验教训、最佳做法和个案研究
Offering visible evidence of successful partnerships提供可以看得到的成功的合作伙伴关系的证明
Developing an international code of conduct for recruiting health personnel from developing countries (reducing the brain drain from South to North)为从发展中国家征聘保健人员制定国际行为守则(减少从北到南的人才外流)
Mitigating the negative impacts on health of stabilization efforts by countries, such as structural adjustment programmes减少各国为稳定所作努力、例如结构调整方案对健康造成的不利影响
Advancing research on vaccines and preventive medicine for the diseases of the poor, and children most particularly, and ensuring the availability of and improving access to affordable medicine (links to trade and intellectual property rights)加强研制疫苗和预防药品,特别是治疗穷人和儿童疾病所需的药物,确保能够提供和使人们能够得到可负担的药品(与贸易和知识产权相关)
Committing further global funding for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, to be more consistent with needs承诺在全球范围根据需要为爱滋病/艾滋病毒、疟疾和结核病筹措资金
Committing more resources to the health of children承诺为儿童健康提供更多的资源
More recognition of the links between production and consumption patterns and health issues, and the need for paradigm shifts更加认识到生产和消费形态与健康问题之间的关联,以及改变模式的必要性
Placing greater focus on sanitation and the usefulness of time-bound targets for this important area (the Millennium development goals have targets for water but not for sanitation)在这一重要领域中,把重点更多的放在环境卫生和有时限的目标(为饮水而不是环境卫生制定的目标)方面
Better monitoring and determined action on emerging diseases and behavioural patterns that affect health, such as the use of tobacco更好地监测和针对新出现的疾病以及影响健康的行为方式、例如使用烟草采取明确行动
Better understanding that could lead to more focused action on the diseases of the poor in the rural sector, and health issues caused by types of livelihoods and daily work更好地理解能够导致对农村地区穷人的疾病、以及因生活方式和日常工作类型造成的健康疾病采取重点行动
Improving health services and health infrastructure in rural areas.改善农村地区的保健服务和保健基础设施
“Biodiversity“生物多样性
“13. Biodiversity and the ecosystems they support are the living basis of sustainable development. They generate a wide range of goods and services on which the world economy depends. About 40 per cent of the global economy is based on biological products and processes. The economic value of biodiversity is estimated to be $2.9 trillion per year, whereas that of ecosystem services is $33 trillion per year. Activities that reduce biodiversity jeopardize economic development and often the survival of many who depend on biodiversity for their livelihood, such as the poor in the rural areas of developing countries. The strong links that exist between biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation are not always recognized or understood.“13. 生物多样性和它们所支助的生态系统是可持续发展的生命基础。它们产生世界经济所依赖的各种物品和服务。全球经济的40%是以生物制品和过程为基础的。生物多样性的经济价值估计为每年29 000亿,而生态系统服务的经济价值为每年33 000亿美元。减少生物多样性的活动破坏经济发展,常常破坏依赖生物多样性的人的生存,例如发展中国家农村地区的穷人。生物多样性、保护和减少贫穷之间的紧密联系常常得不到认识或不被理解。
“14. Human-imposed threats to biodiversity demand immediate attention. The ecosystem approach, as laid out in the decisions under the Biodiversity Convention, should be implemented for progress to be achieved in conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The links between poverty and biodiversity need to be paid greater attention, as they are intimately related. Many of the poor in rural sectors of developing countries depend on biodiversity for their survival.“14. 人类对生物多样性造成的危险应立即引起重视。《生物多样化公约》各项决定中规定的生态系统措施应予以实施,以便在保护和可持续利用生态多样性的过程中取得进展。人们应当更加重视贫穷与生物多样性之间的关联,因为它们之间密不可分。发展中国家农村地区的很多穷人依赖生物多样性生存。
“15. Many instruments are in place and many important decisions have been taken on biodiversity. But the many agreements and conventions are not consistent with the lack of action and implementation. Much of the discussion focused on the obstacles to implementation and the need not for more agreements, but for concrete action at the national and local levels.“15. 已经就生物多样性的问题制定了很多文书,并作出了很多重要决定。但与很多协定和公约相悖的是缺乏行动和实施的现状。很多讨论的重点集中在实施的障碍和需要,而不是达成更多的协定,迫切需要在国家和地方各级采取具体行动。
“16. Although there is a need for more knowledge on biodiversity and its role in the functioning of ecosystems, there is enough knowledge to justify action. This knowledge is, however, often not provided to decision makers. Scientists must put the issues of biodiversity into understandable language for politicians to act on. There is an urgent need to mainstream biodiversity into overall development and sectoral strategies, but in order to do so, the closing of the feedback loop between science and policy makers must be better addressed. The lack of knowledge also applies to the public at large. There is not always recognition of the values of biodiversity and its links to other sectors. Strengthening intersectoral links is an essential prerequisite for tackling biodiversity concerns around the world.“16. 需要掌握更多的关于生物多样性的知识,了解生物多样化在生态系统中是如何发挥作用的。目前已有足够的知识可以采取行动。尽管如此,常常没有向决策者提供这方面的知识。科学家必须把生物多样性问题变为政治家可以理解的语言,以便他们就此采取行动。迫切需要把生物多样性的问题纳入全面发展和部门战略中,但为了做到这点,就必须要更好地解决科学家和决策者之间反馈途径封闭的问题。公众也缺乏这方面的知识。人们常常认识不到生物多样性的价值,及其与其他部门之间的关联。加强部门间的联系也是解决世界各地对生物多样性关切的必要先决条件。
“17. Challenges of biodiversity include:“17. 生物多样性的挑战包括:
Ensuring equitable benefits arising from the use of biodiversity确保公平享有生物多样性带来的益处
Empowering people and communities that are dependent on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning for their livelihoods, and supporting those that are affected by loss of biodiversity or negative changes in ecosystems赋予依赖生物多样性和生态系统运转生存的人们和社区权力,对因失去生物多样性、或由于生态系统发生不利变化而受影响的人提供支助
Protecting and using indigenous knowledge and recognizing and compensating its benefits保护和利用当地知识,承认和补偿其费用
Integrating biodiversity concerns and the importance of biodiversity into all economic activity, including agriculture, forestry, land use, water resources management and infrastructure development把生物多样性关切和生物多样性的重要性纳入所有经济活动中,包括农业、林业、土地利用、水资源管理以及发展基础设施
Recognizing not only the economic value but also the cultural and spiritual value of biodiversity不仅认识到经济价值,而且还应当认识到生物多样性的文化和精神价值
Shifting the focus from addressing the proximate causes of biodiversity loss to a strategy that addresses the underlying causes (treating the disease rather than the symptoms)把重点从解决生物多样性的近因转移到解决根本原因的战略方面(治疗的是疾病而不是症状)
Addressing the need for paradigm shifts (production and consumption patterns are at the root of biodiversity degradation and loss)解决模式改变的必要性(生产和消费形态是造成生物多样性退化和损失的根本原因)
Improving public knowledge and recognition of the importance of biodiversity for basic and daily needs for the public in general, which in turn could lead to a growing demand for more determined action on biodiversity by policy makers使公众更多的了解和认识到生物多样性对大众基本生活和日常需要的重要性,这反过来会导致更多的要求政策制定者对生物多样性采取更明确的行动
Improving knowledge on the links between production and consumption patterns and biodiversity增加对生产和消费形态与生物多样性之间关系的知识
Addressing the special conservation needs of important biodiversity areas and fragile ecosystems, such as those in many small island developing States.研究在重要的生物多样性领域和脆弱的生态系统中的特殊的保护需要,例如很多小岛屿发展中国家中的需要
“18. Among the many actions required to address the challenges, the participants noted the following:“18. 在为应付各种挑战而需要采取的很多行动中,与会者指出下列各点:
Developing better processes and mechanisms for concrete action and implementation为具体的行动和实施拟定更好的进程和机制
Introducing and using economic instruments more widely in relation to biodiversity (economic incentives and a closer look at the relation between perverse subsidies and biodiversity loss and degradation)广泛介绍和使用与生物多样性有关的经济文书(经济奖励和更密切重视不正当补贴与失去生物多样性和退化之间的关系)
Sharing more openly global and regional research results on ecosystem functioning and establishing ecological networks, particularly those that lead to more sustainable ecological mosaics for better land use and ecosystem management更公开地分享关于生态系统正常运转和建立生态网络的全球和区域研究成果,特别是能够实现可持续的生态组合,以便更好地利用土地和生态管理的那些成果
Building capacities, sharing technology and scaling up outstanding examples of best practices of rural communities throughout the developing world建设能力,分享技术,在发展中世界增加农村社区最佳做法的典范
Building better synergies among the various biodiversity-related conventions在与生物多样化相关的各公约之间更好地加强协作
Better recognition of linkages between trade and environment, particularly trade and biodiversity, and of the need to establish cooperation to achieve synergies and mutual supportiveness between multilateral environmental agreements and WTO更好地认识到贸易与环境、特别是贸易与生物多样性之间的联系,以及开展合作、在多边环境协定和世贸组织之间实现协同合作和相互支助的必要性
Addressing the challenges of poverty and the need to eradicate it, as a major impediment to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, particularly rural poverty, and developing new, sustainable options for employment应付贫穷带来的挑战以及解决贫穷问题的必要性,因为这是维护生物多样性和可持续使用的一个重要障碍、特别是农村贫穷问题,并为就业提出新的可持续的选择
Building capacities at the local level and empowering local communities to take action, as it is at the local level where stress on biodiversity occurs在地方一级建设能力,赋予地方社区采取行动的权力,因为主要是在地方一级为生物多样性采取相关行动
Building partnerships among Governments, business, farmers and local communities, which is the best way to mainstream biodiversity concerns into economic and social activity在政府、商业、农民和地方社区之间建立合作伙伴关系,因为这是把对生物多样性关切纳入经济和社会活动主流的最佳做法
Addressing the issues of intellectual property rights in support of equitable benefits and use through capacity-building and proper legislation.研究知识产权支助通过建设能力和适当立法公平享有益处和使用的问题
“Agriculture“农业
“19. Agriculture is central to sustainable development. About 70 per cent of the poor in developing countries live in rural areas and depend in one way or another on agriculture for their survival. Progress in agriculture, therefore, provides the best safety net against the poverty and hunger that exist in many countries of the world. Because of its important role in the economy of most developing countries, agriculture is also an engine for growth. A compact is needed to (a) defend gains already made (b) expand gains to marginal areas, and (c) make new gains through diversification of farming systems and products as well as by developing institutional structures to manage changes in ecology, economy and trade.“19. 农业对可持续发展至关重要。发展中国家大约70%的贫穷者生活在农村,以某种方式依赖农业为生。因此,在世界许多国家,农业的进步可为贫穷者和饥饿者提供最安全的网络。农业因其在大多数发展中国家经济中的重要作用,也是增长的原动力。需要一个协定,以(a) 维护已经取得的成果;(b) 扩大边远地区的成果;(c) 实现农业系统和产品的多样化,发展体制结构以应付生态、经济和贸易的变化,进而取得新的成果。
“20. One of the two presenters spoke of the polarization of agriculture: (a) the agriculture driven by technology, capital and subsidies (mass production) and (b) the agriculture driven by peasants and local farmers (production by the masses). Both commercial and peasant agriculture need to exist, and both make important contributions to feeding the population of the world. But both also require major reforms in order to realize their potential role of redressing the present trend of slow decline in the numbers of malnourished and hungry, particularly in Africa.“20. 两名主讲人之一谈到了农业的两极化:(a) 靠技术、资本和补贴驱动的农业(大规模生产),(b) 靠农民和当地农场主驱动的农业(依靠人力的生产)。商业性农业和小农农业都有存在的必要,这两种农业都为养活世界人口作出了重要贡献。但对二者也需要进行重大改革,以调动其潜力,扭转目前营养不良者和饥饿者人数、尤其是在非洲下降缓慢的趋势。
“21. Agriculture’s bad image as the sector that overproduces while millions go hungry, that receives subsidies while blocking markets for those that could produce at lower prices and that harms the environment with its chemicals needs to be taken seriously and redressed. Changing the image of the sector and increasing agricultural productivity in the developing world require tackling underlying causes and reversing the downward trend in official development assistance of the past decade. Agriculture and the need to increase agricultural productivity need to be placed back in a position of priority on the global agenda. FAO mentioned that, according to its proposed anti-hunger programme, cutting hunger in half by 2015 will require additional public investments of $24 billion annually over the next 13 years.“21. 农业部门因为生产过剩同时又听任千百万人挨饿,或接受补贴却阻止成本较低的生产者进入市场,或以其化学品污染环境,一向形象不佳,对此需要给予严肃考虑并加以解决。改革农业部门的形象,提高发展中世界的农业生产力,需要从根本上找原因,并扭转过去十年来的倒退趋势。在全球议程上,需要重新将农业和提高农业生产力摆在优先考虑的位置上。粮农组织谈到,按照其拟议的消除饥饿方案,为到2015年将饥饿人口减少一半,需要在今后13年内每年追加240亿美元的公共投资。
“22. Many participants focused on the issues of trade and subsidies and the need to eliminate trade-distorting subsidies and trade barriers in developed countries. It was mentioned that without solutions in these areas, little would be accomplished by the efforts to increase agricultural productivity and to decrease the numbers of the hungry and malnourished around the world. Many focused on the ‘governance of agriculture in the rich countries’ as an area requiring serious and determined action if we are to achieve progress in agricultural productivity in developing countries. It was suggested that perhaps a small portion of the $1 billion-a-day subsidy given by rich countries to their agricultural sector should be dedicated to helping developing countries address their problems of soil fertility, internal market development (particularly rural infrastructure) and access to the markets of the rich countries.“22. 许多与会者关注贸易和补贴问题,以及需要消除发达国家扭曲贸易的补贴和贸易壁垒。人们谈到,不解决这些领域的问题,提高农业生产力和减少全世界饥饿者和营养不良者的数目的努力就很难取得成果。许多人强调了“富裕国家的农业治理”,认为要想提高发展中国家的农业生产力,需要在这个领域采取严肃和坚决的行动。人们建议,可将富裕国家每天给予其农业部门的补贴的一小部分用于帮助发展中国家提高土壤肥力,发展国内市场(尤其是农村基础设施)和进入富裕国家的市场。
“23. The challenges of agriculture are of a short- medium- and long-term nature. In order to achieve the target of halving hunger by 2015, the problem of hunger needs to be tackled in all time scales. The urgent and critical short-term problem of frequent food emergencies in some parts of the world requires not only resources but also innovation. The establishment of decentralized community food bank networks was mentioned as one potential formula for the international community to support to address the needs of food-deficient areas. For the medium and long term, institutions and capacity-building are required to support sustainable production technologies and the competitiveness of agriculture in trade (both domestic and international).“23. 农业带来的挑战既是中短期的,又是长期的。为实现到2015年将饥饿者数目减少一半的指标,需要在短期、中期和长期各个时间段解决饥饿问题。世界一些地区频繁发生粮食危机,解决这一刻不容缓的短期问题,不仅需要资源,而且需要创新。人们提到,建立分散的社区粮食储备网络是国际社会支持解决缺粮地区需要的一个可能方式。就中期和长期而言,需要进行体制和能力建设,以推动可持续的生产技术,加强(国内和国际)贸易中的农业竞争力。
“24. The key issues mentioned for agriculture, particularly in developing countries, included:“24. 所提到的农业的关键问题,尤其是发展中国家的关键问题,包括:
The need to address the serious soil fertility problem in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa需要解决非洲撒哈拉以南地区发展中国家面临的严重的土壤肥力问题
The need to increase water-use productivity需要提高用水生产率
The potential diversification of crops, as well as non-farming activities, as alternative sources of income and employment in rural areas作物以及非农业活动的多样化可能,并依此作为农村地区收入和就业的替代性来源
The need to involve farmers in policy- and decision-making需要推动农民参与决策
Eliminating trade-distorting subsidies and trade barriers in developed countries to provide a level playing field and fair market access消除发达国家扭曲贸易的补贴和贸易壁垒,以提供良好的竞技场和公平的市场准入机会
Building and strengthening rural infrastructure (roads, rural electrification, social infrastructure such as schools and hospitals) and strengthening the rural economy建立并加强农村基础设施(道路、农村电力、学校和医院一类社会基础设施),加强农村经济
Addressing land tenure and land rights issues, including those related to women and indigenous people解决土地保有权和土地权利问题,包括与妇女和土著人口有关的问题
Applying research and development to increase productivity in crops and livestock that are of interest to the poor in rural areas通过研究与发展提高对农村地区贫困者至关重要的作物和牲畜的产量
Providing selective financial incentives in key areas to facilitate self-reliance and empower communities在关键领域提供选择性金融刺激措施,以加强自力更生,赋予社区权力
Strengthening early warning capacities vis-à-vis natural disasters加强对自然灾害的预警能力
Helping to scale up successful farming and agricultural practices in many parts of the developing world帮助在发展中国家许多地区更新耕作方式和农业做法
Supporting sustainable agricultural practices and organic farming efforts around the developing world, including for organically and sustainably produced crops that are increasingly in demand in developed countries支持发展中世界各地可持续的农业做法和有机耕作努力,包括在发展中国家通过有机的和可持续的方式生产其日益需要的作物
Improving links to other sectors of the economy, particularly water (about 70 per cent of the water use in the world is for agriculture, and any efficiencies here will provide water resources for other sectors) and energy (efficiencies in this sector could help free up energy services for other uses; but agriculture could also be a major player in energy production with its vast potential for biomass)改善与其他经济部门的联系,尤其是供水(世界水供应的大约70%是用于农业,这方面的效率将为其他部门提供水资源)和能源(这一部门的效率将有助于节省能源,将其转入其他用途;但农业因其巨大的生物物质潜力,同样也是能源生产的重要参与者)
Supporting preventive measures for reducing hunger and increasing agricultural productivity.支持预防性措施,以减少饥饿者数目,提高农业生产力。
“25. While large-scale, commercial agriculture does make an important contribution in feeding the world, the small farmers and their livelihood are key to sustainable development and key to reducing the numbers of hungry and malnourished around the world. But small farmers need technical and financial assistance, such as in the form of microcredits, to increase agricultural productivity and to produce high-value crops that can be grown on a small scale. The suggestion was made that there should be a better distinction, in terms of policies and support, between low-value/high-volume products (such as maize and beans) and those that are high-value/low-volume (such as fruits and vegetables), which are more marketable domestically and internationally to those with greater purchasing power.“25. 虽然大规模的商业性农业确实为养活世界人口作出了重要贡献,但小农及其生计对可持续发展以及减少全世界饥饿者和营养不良者的数目也是很关键的。不过,小农需要小额信贷一类技术和金融援助,以提高农业生产力,生产可以小规模种植的高价值作物。人们建议,在政策和支持方面,需要对高产低值产品(例如玉米和豆类)和低产高值产品(例如水果和蔬菜)作出更好的区分,而后者更适于在国内和国际市场上销售给拥有较强购买力的人。
“26. The Green Revolution of the past was technology-driven and input-intensive. The future agricultural revolution should be small-farmer sustainable-agriculture and low-input based. We have many lessons from the Green Revolution, which helped the world make a quantum leap in agricultural productivity. But is also led to stresses on the environment that could be avoided with new sustainable agricultural practices.“26. 以往的绿色革命属于技术驱动和投入密集型。今后的农业革命应着眼于低投入的小农可持续农业。我们从绿色革命中得出了许多教训,可帮助世界实现农业生产力的质的飞跃。但这也促使人们强调通过新的可持续农业做法来避免环境问题。
“27. To achieve sustainable agricultural growth, changes are needed for:“27. 为实现可持续的农业增长,需要促成下述方面的变化:
Promoting technological development — e.g., safe and accountable biotechnology use, new and renewable technology, information technology促进技术开发,例如安全和可靠的生物技术、新的可再生技术、信息技术
Building ecological foundations in terms of water, biodiversity, climate and land在水、生物多样性、气候和土地方面建立生态基金会
Developing marketable products and making use of marketable surplus开发适销产品,利用适销剩余
Applying integrative approaches, since agriculture, water, energy, land, biodiversity and other factors are closely linked采纳综合性方针,因为农业、水、能源、土地、生物多样性和其他因素是密切相关的
Increasing public investments in agriculture and building local markets增加对农业的公共投资,建立当地市场
Building capacities and establishing facilitating mechanisms for the diffusion of technologies to farmers, as well as the sharing of these technologies.为向农民传播技术并分享这些技术建立有关能力和机制
“28. In terms of human resources, special attention should be paid to:“28. 就人力资源而言,应特别关注:
Empowerment of women — women play an important role in eradicating hunger since they are the majority of farmers affected most by hunger and are key agents of change赋予妇女权力——妇女在消除饥饿方面有其重要作用,因为她们在受饥饿影响最严重的农民中占大多数,也是变化的主要动力
Retaining youth in agriculture — youth holds the key to the future; farming should be made intellectually satisfying and economically attractive to them争取青年人留在农业中——青年人掌握着未来,农业耕作对他们应在科学上是适宜的,经济上是有吸引力的
Recognition of waged agricultural workers’ conditions and needs承认农业中工资劳动者的条件和需要
Recognizing and valuing indigenous knowledge as well as respecting the rights and cultures of indigenous people承认并重视当地知识,尊重土著人口的权利和文化
Empowering local communities to join a global campaign to reduce the numbers that go hungry and malnourished each day throughout the world.赋予当地社区以权力,推动它们参与一场全球运动,以在全世界每日减少饥饿者和营养不良者的数目。
“Water and sanitation“水和卫生
“29. Water is not only the most basic of needs but is also at the centre of sustainable development and essential for poverty eradication. Water is intimately linked to health, agriculture, energy and biodiversity. Without progress on water, reaching other Millennium development goals will be difficult, if not impossible. Despite this, water is given low priority by countries, as evidenced by the decrease in official development assistance for this sector, by the reduction of investments by international financial institutions, by its low priority in national budgets and by the absence of water as a central feature in major regional programmes. And yet some 1.2 billion people still have no access to safe drinking water.“29. 水不仅是人类的最基本需要,也是实现可持续发展和消除贫困的关键所在。水与健康、农业、能源和生物多样性密切相关。没有水领域的进展,要想实现其他中期发展目标,即使不是不可能,也是很困难的。尽管如此,各国却很少重视水的问题,这一部门官方发展援助的减少、国际金融机构投资的削减、国民预算中的忽略以及重大区域方案中很少以水为中心,都表明了这一点。与此同时,仍有12亿人无法享有安全的饮用水。
“30. Sanitation is intimately linked to good health and, for many, survival. There is no justification for the 6,000 deaths of children that happen every day as a result of insufficient or deficient sanitation facilities. The need to come up with concrete plans of actions to reduce the number of people — 2.4 billion — who do not have adequate sanitation was mentioned as one of the priorities of the World Summit on Social Development. The usefulness of time-bound targets to achieve this in the medium and long term was emphasized.“30. 卫生与健康、乃至许多人的生存密切相关。每天有6 000名儿童死于卫生设施的不足或缺乏效率,这种状况是没有道理的。可持续发展问题世界首脑会议作为优先考虑之一,提到需要制订切实的行动计划,减少不能享有充分的卫生条件的人的数目,而这一数目目前高达24亿。人们强调了需要制订中期和长期的有时限的指标。
“31. The lack of action on water and the low priority it is given in many countries are not caused by a lack of agreement on the urgent need to take determined action. On the contrary, there is strong agreement on many of the key issues surrounding water and sanitation. On issues such as cost recovery, financial systems to ensure access and availability and the role of the private sector, there is less agreement. More global coordinated action and high national priority will help sort out these differences more easily. One of the presenters mentioned that there are several estimates on how much money is required to reach the Millennium development goals on water. One of these calculates that it would require between $14 billion and $30 billion a year on top of the roughly $30 billion a year already being spent.“31. 许多国家没有就水的问题采取行动或重视不够,并不是因为没有就迫切需要采取坚决行动达成一致意见。恰恰相反,在与水和卫生有关的许多关键问题上,人们有明确的共识。在费用回收、确保享有水和卫生机会的财政制度和私人部门的作用一类问题上,意见出现分歧。加强全球性协调一致行动,提高国家的重视程度,将有助于更好地解决这些分歧。一位主讲人提到,对需要多少钱来实现水方面的中期目标,有若干种估计。一种估计认为,在每年大约已花费300亿美元的基础上,每年还需要140亿到300亿美元。
“32. A common theme in the areas of water and sanitation is the need to involve all stakeholders in a multi-stakeholder approach to water and sanitation. The need to examine the institutional frameworks that establish priorities and policies for water and sanitation is also important, as many of the decisions regarding water and sanitation and the effects on people are taken in a variety of sectors and ministries.“32. 水和卫生领域的一个共同主题是,需要推动所有的有关利益方参与水和卫生问题各有关利益方方针。同样重要的是,需要审查体制框架,以建立水和卫生方面的优先考虑和政策,因为关于水和卫生问题的许多决定乃至对民众的影响都是源于不同的部门和部。
“33. The subjects of water and sanitation revolve around:“33. 水和卫生主题涉及:
Access, availability and affordability机会、可得性和可负担性
Allocation issues分配问题
Capacity-building and technological needs能力建设和技术需求
Social issues.社会问题。
“34. The following were highlighted as important issues to address in each of these areas:“34. 以下是人们在此类各领域中强调的重要问题:
“35. Access and availability:“35. 机会和可得性:
The numbers of people to reach with adequate and quality coverage are immense, and they are either in poor rural areas or in marginal urban or peri-urban areas where the ability to pay for services is more limited需要得到充分覆盖的民众,数量很大,他们或者是在贫穷的农村地区或市郊,或者是在准城镇地区,其支付服务费用的能力很有限
The need to come up with policies, including cross-subsidization schemes to help pay for the services of the poorest sectors of the population需要制订有关政策,包括交叉补贴计划,以帮助人口中的最贫穷者负担有关服务
The role of the private sector as a provider of technology, management and finance. It is most effective when there is a strong public sector assigning allocation priorities and where standards of accountability are present for all sectors私人部门可作为技术、管理和资金的提供者发挥作用。最有效的方式是存在强大的公营部门,规划分配的优先顺序,并为所有部门提出问责标准
The need for decentralized solutions to fit the needs of the local and rural communities, including with less costly technologies that use local human and capital inputs有必要针对当地和农村社区的需要,拿出不同的解决办法,包括推广利用当地人力和资本投入的低成本技术
The difficulties of poorer countries facing water scarcity in providing access to water and sanitation, particularly when they are constrained by indebtedness.供水短缺的较贫穷国家在供水和卫生方面遇到的困难,尤其是在它们受到债务限制时。
“36. Allocation issues:“36. 分配问题:
Water has many uses and is the object of many competing demands. These demands come not only from various sectors of the population but also from various sectors of the economy. An integrated water resources management approach at the country, regional and local levels is key to mediating among the various demands in a rational way.水有其许多用途,是许多相互抵触的需求着眼的目标。这些需求不仅来自人口的各阶层,而且来自经济的各个部门。国家、区域和地方各级的综合性水资源管理方针对以合理方式协调各种需求至关重要
Because there are sectors of the population that are less able to pay for services, policies and strategies need to be formulated to ensure that there are differentiated pay schemes that can replace the present system, which often has the poorest paying the highest costs for services.由于人口的一些阶层无力负担有关服务,在制订政策和战略时,需要确保制订区别对待的付款计划,以取代目前最贫穷者往往支付最高服务代价的制度
Transboundary considerations need to be given greater attention and resolution through regional cooperation (including those related to civil conflict that leads to ecosystem destruction).对跨界因素应给予更多考虑,并通过区域合作加以解决(包括与国内冲突有关的那些因素,这些因素往往导致生态系统崩溃)
The biggest user of water resources — agriculture — needs to improve water use efficiencies (‘more crop for the drop’).水资源的最大用户,也即农业,需要提高水的利用率(“一滴用水,更多作物”)
Many ecosystems that are crucial for the water supply lack constituencies. As a result, they are often degraded by human activity. The link between the conservation of ecosystems and water needs to be better recognized.许多对水供应至关重要的生态系统缺乏归属。如此一来,它们往往因人类活动而退化。需要更好地理解生态系统保护和水需求之间的关系。
“37. Capacity-building and technological needs:“37. 能力建设和技术需求:
There is a need for capacity-building, particularly in the introduction, use and maintenance of technologies that fit the needs of local poor populations.需要进行能力建设,尤其是采纳、使用和维持符合当地贫穷人口需要的技术
There is a need for capacity-building and education in water management and conservation, as well as in sanitation and hygiene.需要在水的管理和保护以及卫生保健方面进行能力建设和教育
Capacity-building in support of integration and coordination among sectors and communities is needed.需要进行能力建设,以支持各部门和各社区之间的协同一致
Education, information and public awareness are essential in support of water management and conservation.教育、信息和宣传在支持水的管理和保护方面是不可或缺的。
“38. Social issues:“38. 社会问题:
Water is a human right. Most countries are in agreement, but there is less agreement on how to put this right into practice.水是一项人权,大多数国家同意这一点,但如何来实现这项权利,意见就出现分歧。
Women and children and vulnerable populations in general are bearing the brunt of the negative impacts of the lack of action on water and sanitation — when there is a scarcity of water and sanitation in a country or region, it is not the rich who are affected but the poor.在水和卫生方面缺乏行动,其消极影响,令妇女、儿童和脆弱人口首当其冲。在水和卫生条件缺乏的国家或地区,受影响的是穷人而不是富人
Better institutional frameworks are needed for governance, decentralization and multi-stakeholder arrangements — an overarching framework that helps to link national, regional and local levels (linking strategies and policies with actions at the local level).需要改进治理、分权和各有关利益方安排方面的体制框架,以造成一个整体性框架,加强国家、区域和地方各级的联系(将战略和政策与地方一级的行动联系在一起)
Allocation of water among sectors of the population should be based not on the ability to pay but on need, and in the case of the ultra-poor, with little or no purchasing power, measures should be taken to ensure that water is supplied as needed.在人口的各阶层之间分配用水不应基于支付能力,而应基于需求,针对很少或没有购买力的赤贫阶层,应采取措施,确保按需要供应用水。
“Energy“能源
“39. Energy is central to the lives of the poor and affects them in terms of food, water, health, income and jobs. Access to energy is central to poverty alleviation. Currently, 50 per cent of the people living in least developed countries live on less than $1 a day, 70 per cent live on less than $2 a day, and approximately 50 per cent are unemployed. Access to affordable energy services is critical for increasing agricultural productivity, encouraging economic activity, generating employment and income opportunities and improving quality of life, particularly for women and children. The many hours a day spent fetching firewood and cooking using rudimentary methods could be used in other productive and family activities that they are now forgoing because of these chores.“39. 能源对贫者的生活非常重要,他们的粮食、饮水、卫生、收入和工作皆受其影响。能否获得能源对减贫至为重要。目前,最不发达国家人口的50%每天生活费不到1美元;70%每天的生活费不到2美元;大约50%失业。能够得到负担得起的能源服务对提高农业生产力、促进经济活动、创造就业机会和收入机会和提高生活素质特别是妇女和儿童的生活素质极为重要。每天以原始方法来收集烧柴和烧饭所用的大量时间可用来从事其他生产性活动和家庭活动。
“40. According to one of the presenters, energy interventions in the past have not been efficient. Small-scale technologies, ranging in cost from $50 to $300, are possible means to provide energy services to the poorest, particularly in rural areas. Some of the technologies recommended include mechanical water pumps, solar dryers and biofuel furnaces. The same presenter recommended that developing countries, particularly in Africa, should consider allocating from one quarter to one third of their energy budgets to small-scale energy technologies. These technologies should be as self-reliant as possible in terms of inputs, local equipment manufacture and maintenance.“40. 据一名报告者说,以往推介的能源措施效率不高。价格在50至300美元的小型技术有可能用来向最贫穷的人特别是在农村的这些人提供能源服务。推介的这些技术包括机械式水泵、太阳能干燥机和生物燃料炉。同一报告者建议发展中国家特别是非洲的发展中国家应当考虑把能源预算的四分之一至三分之一用在小规模能源技术上。这些技术在投入、设备的就地生产和维修方面应当尽可能自给自足。
“41. In addition to meeting the needs of the poor, energy services are crucial for economic growth and an entry point to sustainable development in general. Three major thrusts were mentioned as requiring action: the need to provide access to energy services to the approximately 2 billion people, mostly in rural areas, who do not have electricity; the need for an increased emphasis on renewable energy; and the need to develop clean and improved fossil fuel technologies. Switching to cleaner and more sustainable energy paths will, however, require policies and strategies. This shift will not be driven by scarcity, at least not in the foreseeable future. Setting time-bound targets on renewable energy was emphasized by several as a useful method to promote more sustainable sources of energy.“41. 除了满足贫者的需要外,能源服务对经济增长和进入一般的可持续发展是至关重要的。曾提到三项必要的大努力:必须向大多数住在农村地区的20亿人民——他们没电可用——提供能源服务;必须更加强调可再生资源;必须发展干净的、更好的矿物燃料技术。不过,转用较干净和更持久的能源道路将需要有政策和战略。这项转变不是-至少在可预见的将来不是-被稀缺推动的。有几个人强调设定有时间性的可再生资源目标是推广更多的可持续的能源的有效办法。
“42. A comprehensive policy agenda for sustainable development will include capacity-building programmes, attention to the needs of the rural poor and to those who do not have access to adequate or any energy services, and support for renewable energy development. Reducing subsidies and effectively internalizing environmental costs associated with energy use are elements of effective markets. Deregulating electricity markets, as many countries are now doing, should be undertaken in a way that meets the needs of the rural and urban poor.“42. 全面性的可持续发展政策大纲须包括能力建设方案、关注农村贫者和没有足够或没有任何能源服务的人的需要、支持可再生能源的发展。减少补贴和有效地把与能源的使用有关的环境成本内在化是有效的市场的必要要素。放松电力供应市场的管制——许多国家正在这样做,应当要能够满足农村和城市贫民的需要。
“43. Policies in general should be integrated and consistent to meet the needs of the poor in both rural and urban areas. The investments required for increasing the provision of energy services are immense and will be undertaken by both the public and the private sector. Creating an enabling environment for investments in the most appropriate energy paths for each country in support of sustainable development requires action now. Ten years ago, energy was not on the agenda, at least not directly (it was indirectly addressed through one of the conventions coming out of Rio — the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Ten years later in Johannesburg, energy not only is included but is one of the focal areas of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, requiring action and implementation.“43. 总的来说,政策应当是综合性的、前后一致的,能够满足农村和城市贫民的需要。增加能源服务力度所需的投资很大,将由政府和民间共同负担。为投资创造良好环境,使每个国家走适当的能源道路支持可持续发展,需要现在就采取行动。十年前,能源不在议程上——至少不是直接的(是来自里约的一份公约《联合国气候变化框架公约》间接提到的)。十年后在约翰内斯堡,能源不仅被包括在内,而且还是可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的重点之一,需要采取行动和落实执行。
“44. The following were highlighted as important issues in the various areas:“44. 以下是许多领域所强调的重要问题: 节约能源和提高能源的使用效率的重要性和将其纳入现有政策和消费模式的需要
The importance of energy conservation and efficiency and the need to integrate these into existing policies and consumption patterns干净能源与健康的关联的重要性
The importance of clean energy and health linkages干净能源的重要性和发展技术来利用这些资源 需要为可再生资源占总能源的比重订立明确目标
The importance of clean energy sources and the need to develop technologies to harness these resources需要平衡现在对集中的、高资本成本的传统能源,要投资于较分散的、为农村贫民而设计的小规模技术 需要在与能源有关的所有领域包括气候变化领域的合作,需要在批准京都议定书方面取得进展,使其能够生效 各国有能力就能源的使用和政策作出自己的决定,但要在改善了的全球性能源使用和获得的政策框架内 需要让民间社会参与界定政策和执行政策,要注意妇女和当地人包括土著人民的作用 需要去除不支持可再生能源的补贴 需要为受过渡到更干净的能源影响的工人提供安全网 需要改革市场来推动、支持和因应过渡到更能持久的能源道路上 科学和商业对发展和改进技术的重要性 需要启动大型方案来传播小规模、较干净的能源技术 与发展中国家合作在发展中国家发展和推介可再生能源技术和能源服务的重要性 区域一体化和合作的重要性以及这对达到区域能源目标的用处。 “45. 这场讨论所突出的主要能源目标包括: 提供能源供减贫之用。为了减贫取得能源服务应当包括放在农村地区和妇女取得能源的重点。国家能源预算应当拨出相当的经费作小规模能源投资,为贫者提供能够负担得起的能源服务。不过,也需要大型的能源项目来为工业提供能源,从而创造就业机会和增加收入。 节约能源和提高能源的使用效率。改良建筑物的设计和管理、改善大众运输、采用先进的和创新性的更干净的技术、能源标签和标准、改善政府的采购政策等都可以在这个领域作重大贡献。这是所有人的利益所在,所有人都可发挥作用。例如,工会可发挥作用,在工作场所节能。曾提到指示性能源效率目标是达到能源效率的有用手段。 提倡可再生能源。许多人同意,到2010年或2015年把现代可再生资源占各种能源的10%是可以达到的,是有用的。一些国家在同意制订指标的总概念的同时,相信每个国家应当能够按照自己的需要和能力自行决定其能源政策和各种能源的比例。 政策工具和经济手段的使用。许多人提到需要减少对不鼓励干净能源技术或可再生资源者减少补贴。有人建议应当把这些补贴的一部分分发给有关的同样这些公司,以加强有关可再生能源的研究和发展。还提到吸收环境成本的政策,但同时认识到这将增加能源供应的成本。如果出现这些影响的话,则应当制定政策来保护贫民。 满足妇女的需要。有需要设计满足妇女的需要的能源政策。这应当处理妇女所面临的特殊问题-室内空气污染和检柴、能源服务信贷机会和妇女参与决策过程。 关于气候变化的行动。许多人呼吁各国政府就气候变化问题采取行动。他们呼吁仍然未批准京都议定书的国家加以批准,使其能够尽早生效。不过,另一些国家却表示这个问题应当在其他论坛上讨论。 “跨部门的问题 “46. 与关于水、能源、卫生、农业和生物多样性的其他会议不一样,跨部门问题的会议没有框架文件,却有背景文件可作指导。这场讨论围绕着三个主题:(a) 信息、教育和科学;(b) 消费模式和生产模式;和(c) 贸易、技术转让和发展。在所有这三方面提倡可持续发展所面对的共同挑战包括: 需要有新的方针,强调增强力量、拥有权、由下至上和对性别问题有敏感认识 需要建设能力和分享信息 需要资源
The need for clear targets on renewable energy as a percentage of total energy把国际合作和全球化引向更加有利于可持续发展的方向
The need to balance the current heavy emphasis on centralized, high-capital-cost conventional energy with investments in more decentralized, small-scale technologies for the rural poor在与上述各项有关的问题上需要有主要群体参与公共政策的决策过程。
The need to cooperate in all areas related to energy, including climate change, and the need for progress on the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol so that it can enter into force“信息、教育和科学
The ability of countries to take their own decisions on energy use and policies, but within improved global policy frameworks for energy use and access“47. 科技界对知识的分享、技术转让和能力建设可作很大的贡献。基于科学证据的信息对于正确的决策也是极为重要的。需要有新的研究方向来探讨自然科学与社会科学之间的联系,使科研能够直接对消除贫穷和提倡可持续消费及生产等等目标作出贡献。
The need to engage with civil society in defining policy and implementation, with attention to the role of women and of local populations, including indigenous peoples“48. 教育对实现可持续发展至关重要。如果不投资于基本教育和提高大众的觉悟,那么消除贫穷是不可能的。妇女获得教育对实现两性平等是非常重要的。
The need to do away with subsidies that are not supportive of sustainable energy“49. 良好的能力建设举措要立足于5项原则:
The need to provide safety nets for workers affected by transitions to cleaner energy paths从开始就涉及利害关系方的拥有权
The need to restructure markets in order to promote, support and accommodate transitions to more sustainable energy paths一体化和充分考虑到长期的行动
The importance of science and business for the development and improvement of technologies跨部门地协调捐助者和接受捐助者
The need to launch large-scale programmes for dissemination of small-scale, cleaner energy technologies增强使用现代技术和通讯
The importance of partnerships for developing and introducing sustainable energy technologies and energy services in developing countries发展新的合作形式,例如地方当局之间自主的合作
The importance of regional integration and collaboration and the usefulness of these for reaching regional energy goals.“50. 信息对决策是非常重要的。信息分享就是能力建设的一种形式。地球观测卫星和地球测绘是监测地球上的变化的主要工具之一。
“45. The main energy objectives highlighted in the discussion included:“51. 在这组之下尚要讨论的问题包括:
Energy for poverty alleviation. Access to energy services for poverty alleviation should include a focus on access to energy in rural areas and for women. National energy budgets should include a significant allocation for small-scale energy investments for affordable energy services for the poor. Large-scale energy projects, however, are also necessary to provide energy for industry and thus for creating jobs and increasing incomes.垄断知识问题,例如通过专利
Energy conservation and energy efficiency. Improvement in building design and management, better mass transportation, adoption of advanced and innovative cleaner technologies, energy labelling and standards, and better public procurement policies can contribute significantly in this area. All have a stake and all have a role to play. Trade unions, for example, have a role to play in conserving energy in the workplace. Indicative energy efficiency goals were mentioned as useful instruments for reaching energy efficiency.不仅是强调理论知识,还着重实际知识
Promotion of renewable energy. Many agreed that a target of increasing modern renewable energy sources to 10 per cent of the energy mix by 2010 or 2015 is reachable and useful. Some countries, while agreeing on the overall concept of setting targets, believed that each country should be left to decide on its energy policy and energy mix according to needs and capacities.创造有利环境,促进教育、科学和研究
The use of policies and economic instruments. Many mentioned the need to reduce subsidies that do not promote clean energy technologies or renewable energy. Others suggested that some of these subsidies should be given to the same companies involved to increase research and development relating to renewable energy. Policies that internalize environmental costs were also mentioned, while it was also recognized that these would increase the cost of energy provision. When present, these adverse effects should be addressed with policies to protect the poor.共享研究的成果
Meeting the needs of women. There is a need to design energy policies that meet the needs of women. These should address the particular burdens faced by women with regard to indoor air pollution and wood collection, access to credit for energy services and the inclusion of women in the decision-making process.让青年参与能力的建设
Action on climate change. Many called upon Governments to take action aimed at climate change. They called upon countries that have not yet done so to ratify the Kyoto Protocol so that it can enter into force at the earliest possible date. Some other countries, however, suggested that this was a subject that should be discussed in other forums.利用传统知识和其他现有的知识
“Cross-sectoral issues可持续发展的新伦理观
“46. Unlike other meetings on WEHAB, the meeting on cross-sectoral issues did not have a framework document but instead a background issues paper as a guide. The discussion was clustered around three themes: (a) information, education and science; (b) consumption and production patterns; and (c) trade, technology transfer and development. Common challenges to promoting sustainable development in all three clusters include:遥感等新技术的重要性及其广泛应用于发展中国家的可能
The need for new approaches that emphasize empowerment, ownership, a bottom-up approach and gender sensitivity新兴趋势及信息和通信技术等新兴技术以及其对发展日益增加的关键作用。
The need for capacity-building and information-sharing“消费和生产形态
The need for resources“52. 里约与约翰内斯堡二者的一个显著的差异是后者更明显地是一个商业城市。企业界已经更加关心可持续发展问题;一些国家各行工业已认识到可持续生产更为有利可图。与此同时,各国政府已在通过税款减免和奖励来鼓励可持续发展的作法。为了实现可持续生产,发达国家已着重提高生产过程中资源的利用效率和减少浪费,但其成效参差不齐。
Steering international cooperation and globalization into a direction that is more beneficial for sustainable development“53. 跨国公司有能力为可持续发展作出贡献,并在其投资的国家里引导良好的作法。公司都喜欢新技术,许多公司知道发展中国家需要建立能力。东道国可能会给它们压力,要它们采用可持续的作法,其他的压力可为环境会计和汇报要求。地方当局可提倡绿色采购政策来促使工业以对环境友好及良好的方式来从事生产。
The need for the involvement of major groups in public policy-making in relation to all the foregoing.“54. 消费者团体在提出可持续消费方面可发挥重要作用,从而也提倡可持续生产。妇女是重要的消费者,因此应当参与在有关生产的决策过程。 “55. 突显的其他问题包括:
“Information, education and science考虑中小型企业的观点
“47. The scientific and technological community has much to contribute in the sharing of knowledge, the transfer of technology and capacity-building. Information based on scientific evidence is essential to sound decision-making as well. New lines of research are needed to address links between natural sciences and social sciences, so that science and research can contribute directly to poverty eradication and the promotion of sustainable consumption and production, among other goals.要求公司负起社会责任和向其问责
“48. Education is a key to achieving sustainable development. Poverty eradication cannot be achieved without investment in primary education and public awareness-raising. Female education is essential to achieving gender equality.政府的管制可能带引公司寻求最少的共同点,因此,良好的管治是重要的
“49. Good capacity-building initiatives need to be based on five principles:根据它们以往的记录,发达国家需要领头改变消费及生产模式。
Ownership involving stakeholders from the beginning“贸易、技术转让和发展
Integration and taking full account of ongoing actions“56. 发达国家与发展中国家之间的鸿沟(“全球性的人为隔离”)需要消除。多哈和蒙特雷获得了捐助国承诺增加援助,这是一个里程碑。这些进程与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议之间有着坚实的关系。
Cross-sectoral harmonization between donors and recipients“57. 据经济合作与发展组织表示,发展援助的一个重大转折点是捐助国同意在每一个发展中国家自行制定的单一发展框架中运作。需要双边和多边援助来解决全球性问题如贫穷问题。需要有切实的成果来实现以国内生产总值的0.7%来作为官方发展援助和及减免债务,以上使有关的国家能够有发展所需的资源。
Increased use of modern technology and communication“58. 还提到以下的问题:
Development of new forms of cooperation, such as decentralized cooperation among local authorities.不适当的发展模式可能弊大于利,特别是对穷人来说
“50. Information is essential for decision-making. Information-sharing is a form of capacity-building. Earth observation satellites and global mapping are essential tools for monitoring changes on the Earth. Data collection and distribution should be strengthened.需要更加重视技术的适当性
“51. Additional issues to be considered under this cluster include:大力呼吁减免债务,使有关国家能够摆脱其沉重负担
The question of monopolizing knowledge, such as through patenting撤除非农产品的关税
Emphasis not only on theoretical knowledge but also on practical knowledge撤消扭曲贸易的补贴
Creating enabling environments for promoting education, science and research建设基本设施和能力所需的长期融资
The sharing of the benefits of research综合的、跨部门的发展援助
The involvement of youth in capacity-building建设和平作为发展战略的组成部分
Making use of traditional and other already existing knowledge“居安思危”-呼吁使京都议定书生效 可持续发展文化不是外力所能强加于人的;需要以人为本的发展
New ethics of sustainable development合作伙伴对于提倡可持续发展的重要性。
The importance of new technologies, such as remote sensing, and their wide potential application for developing countries“结论
Emerging trends and technologies, such as information and communication technologies, and their growing key role in development.“59. 执行的迫切性。执行计划和水、能源、卫生、农业和生物多样性的所有指标和政策都需要适用。所有各级都需要行动起来:政府间、区域和地方,所有重要团体都需要积极参与。
“Consumption and production patterns“60. 组成伙伴关系,改变现状。政府、企业、地方社区和非政府组织之间需结合为伙伴,共同进行研究、订立标准及予以执行。为了能发挥效用,伙伴关系必须立足于透明、拥有权、可持续性等原则,有主要群体的参与,及有新的、更多、更好的直接财政资源的支持。
“52. A notable difference between Rio and Johannesburg is the more conspicuous presence of business at the latter. Business has taken more interest in sustainable development issues; industries in some countries have realized that it might be more profitable to produce more sustainably. At the same time, Governments have been encouraging sustainable practices by business through tax relief and incentives. Efforts to achieve sustainable production in developed countries have focused on achieving resource efficiency in production and on minimizing waste, but the results so far have been mixed.“61. 后续过程。需要有后续行动,才能够巩固水、能源、卫生、农业和生物多样性每一个领域新的伙伴关系和其他举措。联合国、各国政府和主要团体需要就后续过程的模式进行协商。联合国秘书长曾主动地在走向可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的过程中重视水、能源、卫生、农业和生物多样性,可邀请他来开展此种协商。”
“53. Transnational corporations have the potential to contribute to sustainable development and to guide good practices in countries where they invest. Companies are interested in new technology, and many are aware of the need for capacity-building in developing countries. Pressures on them to adopt sustainable practices could come from host countries and non-governmental organizations through such means as environmental accounting and reporting requirements. Local authorities could promote green procurement policies to push industries to produce in environmentally friendly and fair manners.关于区域执行行动的伙伴全体会议
“54. Consumer groups can play an important role in promoting sustainable consumption and thereby promoting sustainable production as well. Women are important consumers and thus should participate in decision-making concerning production.46. 2002年8月26日,第1次全体会议。依照作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议筹备委员会的可持续发展委员会第2002/PC/6号决定(见A/CONF.199/4,第十章),首脑会议于2002年8月29日第8次会议上核可了A/CONF.199/7号文件所提出的工作安排,并决定在议程项目8下举行关于区域执行情况的伙伴全体会议。以下为会议纪要。
“55. Other issues highlighted include:47. 首脑会议当然副主席宣布会议开幕。
Perspectives of small and medium enterprises to be considered48. 耶鲁大学教授、联合国开发计划署前署长古斯塔夫 斯佩思以主持人身份发了言。
Seeking corporate social responsibility and accountability49. 下列区域委员会执行秘书以讲演人身份发了言:欧洲经济委员会、拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会、亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、非洲经济委员会、西亚经济社会委员会。
The possibility that Government control may lead corporations to seek lowest common denominators thus, good governance is important50. 在小组讨论上,发言的人有:妇女环境与发展组织的代表;克罗地亚环境部长;非洲部长级环境会议、国际环境与发展中心、欧洲委员会、开发计划署亚洲及太平洋区域办事处、亚马孙河环境基金和国际干旱地区农业研究中心的代表;格鲁吉亚环境部长;非洲开发银行、巴勒斯坦全国环境机构、联合国环境规划署拉丁美洲和加勒比区域办事处、太平洋岛屿论坛、开发计划署、亚洲开发银行、南亚合作环境署和环境数据倡议的代表。
The need for developed countries to take the lead in changing consumption and production patterns, given their past records.51. 下列国家代表发了言:巴西、南非、丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)、以色列、瑞士、印度尼西亚、罗马尼亚、塔吉克斯坦、图瓦卢、阿塞拜疆、阿根廷。
“Trade, technology transfer and development52. 下列政府间组织的代表也发了言:安第斯开发公司和阿拉伯国家联盟。
“56. The wide gaps that exist between developed countries and developing countries (“global apartheid”) need to be bridged. Doha and Monterrey have achieved milestones in attaining commitments from donor countries to increase aid. There is a strong link between those processes and the World Summit on Sustainable Development.53. 首脑会议当然副主席编写的关于区域执行情况的伙伴全体会议摘要(A/CONF.199/16/Add.3)如下:
“57. A major turning point in development assistance, according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, has been for donors to agree to work on the basis of a single development framework that each of the developing countries itself decides on. Both bilateral and multilateral assistance are needed to tackle global issues such as poverty. Concrete results are needed in achieving the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance and providing debt relief to free up resources for the development of the countries concerned.“1. 关于区域执行问题的全体会议举行会议,由各区域委员会执行秘书简短发言,谈到的主题有:消除贫穷和可持续发展;为可持续发展筹资;自然资源和可持续发展;将环境和可持续发展纳入决策;和在可持续发展背景下的贸易、投资和全球化。
“58. Additional issues mentioned include:“2. 随后,由下列组织的代表组成小组发了言:国际环境与发展中心、亚马逊流域环境基金、联合国开发计划署(开发计划署)、欧洲委员会和国际干旱地区农业研究中心。各国政府的代表和来自下列机构的专家接着进行了参与式对话:非洲部长级环境会议;非洲开发银行;妇女环境与发展组织;联合国环境规划署(环境规划署)、亚洲开发银行;南亚合作环境署;巴勒斯坦环境管理局;阿布扎比环境数据倡议;和分别代表各自分区域的比利时、格鲁吉亚和克罗地亚三国的部长。会议由耶鲁大学教授、开发计划署前任署长古斯塔夫 斯佩思先生主持。
The possibility that inappropriate development models can do more harm than good, particularly to poor communities“讨论摘要
The need to place greater emphasis on the appropriateness of technology“3. 联合国环境与发展会议以来,区域执行已变得日益重要。许多经济、社会和环境问题,包括贸易与筹资、减轻自然灾害、流域的综合管理和废物处理等问题都具有跨国界性质,不能单单在国家一级处理。在区域或分区各级采取的行动在各国现实情况和全球优先事项之间搭建了桥梁,同时也着手处理由于地理位置邻近、比较接近同文同种和历史沿革相通所造成的共同关注领域和利益。组成区域集团将使较小的国家能够集体发言,并通过区域网络使它们能在全球秩序中取得更公平的地位。
A strong call for debt relief to free the countries concerned from their heavy burden“4. 各区域委员会和其他区域机构在履行若干职能方面具有战略上的优势,这些职能包括:
Elimination of tariffs against non-agricultural products通过组成多学科和跨部门伙伴关系推动结成区域伙伴和促进区域合作 在区域一级为部门间和多方利益相关者提供对话的论坛,特别是筹备全球谈判和大型会议
Removal of trade-distorting subsidies担任智囊团和对有关环境与可持续发展的越境问题进行分析 在区域一级支助能力建设工作和信息交流
Long-term financing for building infrastructure and capacity监测和评价所取得的进展,包括贯彻首脑会议的成果 “5. 尽管各区机构可能可以发挥这些作用,切须铭记,各区域机构能否发挥效力取决于其各自成员国是否持续提供支助。
Integrated, cross-sectoral development assistance“6. 对各区域委员会提出的五项主题提出了以下相关问题:
Peace-building as an integral part of development strategies尽管采取区域办法必须进一步宣扬,也应当制定明确的框架,以确保采用这种办法所获得的利益能够惠及一般民众。在这方面,赋于妇女、土著人民和其他弱势群体权力,以便参与政治对话和决策是必不可少的。举例来说,依照千年发展目标新近拟订的妇女行动议程将赋予每个区域的妇女权力,监测为执行而采取的行动。 自然资源的管理和公平利用提出了跨越国境的挑战,只能在区域或分区域级别,通过对区域生态系统、河流盆地和共同水域体系、区域海洋和有害物质的移动共同采用综合战略和管理来着手解决。
‘Today’s complacency is tomorrow’s plight’ — a call for the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol作出完善的决策时需要在地方、国家和区域各级收集比较准确的数据。阿布扎比环境数据行动是区域一级收集、分析和传播数据方面能力建设的一个实例。必须为开展科学研究和革新建立知识网络。 私营部门提高了对可持续发展问题重要性的认识。然而,必须处理利润问题,工商界才能真正有决心采取私营部门促进可持续发展的行动。应该通过市场奖励措施,有效地利用市场和利润来减少贫穷和实现其他千年发展目标。
The impossibility of imposing a culture of sustainable development from outside; the need for people-centred development“7. 代表们还发言阐述了各区域特有的问题:
Partnership as essential for promoting sustainable development.在非洲,显然需要有稳定和高质量的援助和伙伴关系,以便处理贫穷、艾滋病毒/艾滋病、粮食安全和其他优先问题。非洲发展新伙伴关系富有活力、前景良好,这项行动由非洲国家掌握主动权,并且获得政治承诺和资金,15个国家同世界其他国家建立了伙伴关系。它可以成为其他区域的发展典范。 太平洋岛屿在大亚洲区域里可能显得无足轻重,需要有一项综合战略来处理这些岛屿的具体需要。因此,应该强调由相关的利益有关者参与的分区域办法,以加强土著人民的参与。对太平洋以及加勒比和其他岛屿区域而言,岛屿的脆弱性和有关的风险管理问题、包括防止和减少自然灾害都是重要问题。
“Conclusions尊重人权、法制、透明度、机会平等以及人人有机会获得社会服务是欧洲实现社会融合的特别重要条件。为促进在废物管理、水的管理、清洁生产等领域建立生态伙伴关系以及新的筹资办法方面的伙伴关系而制定的战略,定于2003年在基辅举行的欧洲环境会议上核可。 拉丁美洲和加勒比行动旨在促进可持续发展,针对首脑会议成果采取有效行动,并且到2010年将可再生能源的使用水平提高到总能源的10%。目前拉丁美洲和加勒比已经建立金融机构的综合性网络,以便利分配落实各项全球承诺所必要的资源。在保护生物多样性和购买碳的计分方面已经成功地采取了分区域可持续发展行动。 在西非,区域化是一个比较新的概念。和平、安全和解决冲突是人们优先关注的问题和实现可持续发展的必要条件。尽管作出了积极努力,但是,没有实现和平,外债不断增加,学术和研究中心能力有限,这些现象阻碍了区域进步。但是,在信息和数据分享以及水管理领域开展区域合作和协调方面已经迈出重大步伐。预期将积极努力在下列方面开展进一步区域合作:能力建设;农业水土资源;地中海海洋污染;海湾国家珊瑚礁的保护;区域法律和管制制度的比较研究;合办信息和数据系统;包括卫星测绘,以及清除大规模毁灭性武器。
“59. The urgency of implementation. The Plan of Implementation, and all WEHAB targets and policies, need to be applied. Action is needed at all levels: intergovernmental, regional, and local, with active participation of all major groups.“8. 社发首脑会议的区域一级全面后续行动应该注重除其他外,各种跨界问题和外在因素、区域宣传和信息分享、促进和监测区域可持续发展有关的战略、宣传、提高认识和能力建设。”
“60. Partnerships to make things happen. Partnerships, between Governments, business, local communities and non-governmental organizations are needed to do research, to set standards and to implement. In order to be effective, partnerships must be based on the principles of transparency, ownership, sustainability and major-group participation, and underpinned with new, more and better-directed financial resources.第四章
“61. A follow-up process. Follow-up is needed in order to give a foothold to new partnerships and other initiatives in each of the WEHAB areas. Consultations are required between the United Nations, Governments and major groups on the modalities of the follow-up process. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, who took the initiative of focusing on WEHAB in the process leading to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, could be invited to start such consultations.”一般性辩论
Partnership plenary meeting on regional implementationA. 非国家实体的一般性发言
46. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, in accordance with decision 2002/PC/6 of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (see A/CONF.199/4, chap. X), the Summit approved the organization of work as set out in document A/CONF.199/3 and decided that under agenda item 8 it would hold a partnership plenary meeting on regional implementation, at its 8th meeting, on 29 August 2002. An account of the meeting is set out below.1. 8月26日,在第1次全体会议上,依照作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议筹备委员会的可持续发展委员会的第2002/PC/6号决定(见A/CONF.199/4,第十章),首脑会议核准了A/CONF.199/3号文件所载的工作安排,并决定议程项目9下的非国家实体一般性发言将于2002年8月29日和30日进行。因此,首脑会议在其2002年8月29日和30日第9、10和11次会议上听取了非国家实体的一般性发言。
47. The ex officio Vice-President of the Summit opened the meeting.2. 8月29日,在第9次会议上,首脑会议开始审议项目9,听取非国家实体的一般性发言。
48. A statement was made by Gustave Speth, Yale University professor and former Administrator of UNDP, acting as moderator. 49. Statements were also made by the Executive Secretaries of the Economic Commission for Europe, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Economic Commission for Africa and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, acting as presenters. 50. As part of a panel discussion, statements were made by the representative of the Women’s Environment and Development Organization; the Minister of Environment of Croatia; the representatives of the African Ministerial Conference on Environment, the International Centre for Environment and Development, the Council of Europe, the UNDP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, the Amazonian Environment Funds and the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas; the Minister of Environment of Georgia; and the representatives of the African Development Bank, the Palestinian National Environment Authority, the UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Pacific Islands Forum, UNDP, the Asian Development Bank, the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme and the Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative. 51. Statements were made by the representatives of Brazil, South Africa, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union), Israel, Switzerland, Indonesia, Romania, Tajikistan, Tuvalu, Azerbaijan and Argentina. 52. Statements were also made by the representatives of the following intergovernmental organizations: Corporación Andina de Fomento and the League of Arab States. 53. The summary of the partnership plenary meeting on regional implementation prepared by the ex officio Vice-President of the Summit (A/CONF.199/16/Add.3) read as follows: “1. The partnership plenary meeting of the World Summit on Sustainable Development on regional implementation opened with brief presentations by the Executive Secretaries of the regional commissions, addressing the themes of poverty eradication and sustainable development, financing for sustainable development, natural resources and sustainable development, integrating environment and sustainable development into decision-making, and trade, investment and globalization in the context of sustainable development. “2. A panel made up of representatives of the International Centre for Environment and Development, the Amazonian Environment Funds, UNDP, the Council of Europe and the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas then made statements. This was followed by an interactive dialogue between representatives of Governments and resource persons from the African Ministerial Conference on Environment, the African Development Bank, the Women’s, Environment and Development Organization, UNEP, the Asian Development Bank, the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme, the Palestinian Environment Authority, the Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative and ministers from Belgium, Georgia and Croatia representing their respective subregions. Gustave Speth, Professor at Yale University and former UNDP Administrator, moderated the meeting. “Highlights of the discussion “3. Regional implementation has become increasingly important since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Many economic, social and environmental issues, including trade and finance, natural disaster mitigation, integrated river basin management and waste management, are of a transboundary nature and cannot be dealt with at the national level alone. Actions taken at the regional or subregional level provide a bridge between national realities and global priorities, while also addressing common areas of concern and shared interests associated with geographic proximity, relative homogeneity and shared history. Regional groups give smaller countries a collective voice and, through regional networks, put them on a more equal footing in the global order. “4. The regional commissions and other regional institutions have strategic advantages in performing a number of functions, including: Promoting regional partnerships and regional cooperation through interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral partnerships Providing forums for intersectoral and multi-stakeholder dialogues at the regional level, particularly in preparation for global negotiations and conventions Acting as think tanks and undertaking analyses of transboundary problems related to environment and sustainable development Supporting capacity-building efforts and information exchange at the regional level Monitoring and assessing progress made, including the follow-up to Summit outcomes.3. 以下组织的代表发了言:联合国人权事务高级专员办事处;联合国环境规划署署长;世界卫生组织总干事、促进可持续发展企业行动主席;国际劳工组织总干事;联合国训练研究所执行主任;世界气象组织秘书长;全球环境基金主席;红十字国际委员会副主席;世界银行副总裁;世界旅游组织秘书长;第三世界科学院执行主任;非洲联盟委员会主席;联合国秘书处主管最不发达国家、内陆发展中国家和小岛屿发展中国家事务高级代表;法语国家国际组织秘书长代表;挪威国家联盟中心代表;欧洲理事会总干事;国际海事组织海洋环境司司长;红十字会与红新月会国际联合会主席;联合国地方当局咨询委员会主席;国际遗传工程和生物技术中心总干事;石油输出国组织国际发展基金总干事;经济及社会理事会和相似机构国际协会主席;联合国在发生严重干旱和/或荒漠化的国家特别是在非洲防治荒漠化的公约缔约方会议主席;土著环境网主席;非洲、加勒比和太平洋小组主席;常设仲裁法院助理法律顾问;国际水文学组织主席;欧洲经济委员会执行秘书;欧洲妇女致力创造共同的未来代表;南亚合作环境署总干事。
“5. Despite these potential roles for regional institutions, it is important to remember that the effectiveness of regional institutions is dependent on the continuous support provided by their respective member States. “6. The following issues were raised in relation to the five themes introduced by the regional commissions: Although a regional approach must be further promoted, a clear framework must also be established to ensure that the benefits of such an approach reach the people at large. The empowerment of women, indigenous people and other vulnerable groups to take part in policy dialogues and in decision-making is essential in this regard. For example, a newly created women’s action agenda in line with the Millennium development goals will empower women from each region to monitor actions for implementation. The management and equitable use of natural resources pose transboundary challenges that can be addressed only at the regional or subregional level, through joint and integrated strategies and management of regional ecosystems, river basins and common water systems, regional seas and movement of hazardous substances. Sound decision-making requires gathering more accurate data at the local, national and regional levels. The Abu Dhabi Environmental Data Initiative is one example of capacity-building at the regional level for data collection, analysis and dissemination. Building knowledge networks for scientific research and innovation is essential. Awareness has increased within the private sector on the importance of sustainable development issues. However, the notion of profits must be addressed for business and industry to become truly committed to undertaking private initiatives towards sustainable development. Markets and profits should be effectively directed to alleviate poverty and attain other Millennium development goals through market incentives. “7. Statements were also made regarding issues specific to each region: In Africa, stable and high-quality assistance and partnerships are clearly needed to combat poverty, HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and other priority issues. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development is a dynamic and promising initiative characterized by African ownership, political commitment and financing, with 15 countries involved in partnership with the rest of the world. It could serve as a development model for other regions. An integrated strategy is needed to address the specific needs of the Pacific islands, which can be overshadowed in the greater Asia region. Subregional approaches involving relevant stakeholders should therefore be emphasized in order to increase participation by indigenous people. The question of island vulnerability and related risk management, including natural disaster prevention and mitigation, are important issues for the Pacific as well as the Caribbean and other island regions. Respect for human rights, the rule of law, transparency, equality of opportunities and universal access to social services is particularly important for achieving social cohesion in Europe. Strategies set up to promote ecological partnerships in such areas as waste management, water management, cleaner production and partnerships for new mechanisms for financing are to be endorsed at the Environment for Europe Conference, to be held in Kiev in 2003. The Latin America and Caribbean initiative aims to promote sustainable development, adopt effective actions with respect to Summit outcomes and raise the level of the use of renewable energy to 10 per cent of total energy by 2010. A comprehensive network of financial institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean exists to facilitate the distribution of resources necessary to meet global commitments. Successful subregional sustainable development initiatives have already been undertaken in biodiversity conservation and the purchase of carbon credits. Regionalization is a relatively new concept in Western Asia. The priority concern and prerequisite for sustainable development is the issue of peace, security and conflict resolution. Despite positive efforts, regional progress has been hindered by the absence of peace, increasing foreign debt and the limited capacity of academic and research centres. However, significant steps have been taken in the direction of regional cooperation and coordination in information- and data-sharing and water management. Meaningful efforts for future regional cooperation are anticipated in areas involving capacity-building; water and soil resources for agriculture; marine pollution in the Mediterranean; coral reef protection in the Gulf States; comparative studies of regional laws and regulatory schemes; joint information and data systems, including satellite mapping; and eliminating weapons of mass destruction. “8. The overall follow-up to the Summit at the regional level should focus on, inter alia, transboundary issues and externalities, regional advocacy and information-sharing, promoting and monitoring regional sustainable development-related strategies, advocacy, awareness-raising and capacity-building.” Chapter IV4. 8月30日,第10次会议上,下列人士发了言:联合国儿童基金会执行主任;国际农业发展基金主席;联合国开发计划署署长;联合国人类住区规划署执行主任;各国议会联盟主席;荷兰农民协会主席;《生物多样性公约》执行秘书;联合国气候变化框架公约执行秘书;土耳其人居和《二十一世纪议程》青年协会代表;拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会、亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会、非洲经济委员会和西亚经济社会委员会各别的执行秘书;环境警戒代表;联合和共同赞助的联合国艾滋病毒/艾滋病方案执行主任;经济合作与发展组织环境局代理主任;推广土著知识基金会代表;联合国人口基金副执行主任;国际民用航空组织东南非洲办事处区域主任;国际农业研究协商小组总干事;欧洲工会联合会执行主任;国际自然及自然资源保护联盟总干事;波多黎各自由邦代理国务卿;波罗的海海洋环境保护委员会主席;独立国家联合体代表;南太平洋常设委员会代表;美属维尔京群岛外交部部长;巴塞尔公约秘书处执行秘书;美洲国家会议矿业部部长代表;和联合国教育、科学及文化组织主管自然科学助理总干事。
General debate5. 8月30日,在第11次会议上,下列人士发了言:联合国工业发展组织总干事;联合国粮食及农业组织总干事;国际移徙组织副总干事;国际原子能机构副总干事;联合国大学校长;明智结合的社会和环境活动执行主任;联合国贸易和发展会议秘书长;非洲开发银行副总裁;英联邦秘书处秘书长;墨西哥可持续发展青年理事会代表;石油输出国组织秘书长;欧洲复兴开发银行环境部部长;东南亚国家联盟环境事务助理主任;阿拉伯国家联盟环境和可持续发展部部长;威尔特恩劳工和社区占领中心主任;联合国药物管制和预防犯罪办事处执行主任;国际能源机构执行主任;美洲开发银行可持续发展部经理;ESKOM主席;国际标准化组织代理秘书长;马耳他主权军事教团代表;伊斯兰会议组织办公室主任;商品共同基金管理主任;世界工程组织联合会主席;人口与发展伙伴文件和通讯主任;太平洋岛屿论坛副秘书长;秘书长可持续发展问题世界首脑会议小组代表联合国难民事务高级专员办事处南非代表;肯尼亚国家农会首席执行官;欧洲航天局地球观测卫星委员会主席;人权委员会适当住房问题特别报告员;太平洋环境和可持续发展中心副次官;《移栖物种公约》副执行秘书;亚洲开发银行副总干事;国际实用生物科学非洲主任;世界城市和地方当局协会主席;以及非洲森林组织主席。
A.B.
General statements by non-State entities高级官员的一般性发言
1. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August, in accordance with decision 2002/PC/6 of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (see A/CONF.199/4, chap. X), the Summit approved the organization of work as set out in document A/CONF.199/3 and decided that the general statements by non-State entities under agenda item 9 would be heard, on 29 and 30 August 2002. Accordingly, the Summit heard general statements by non-State entities at its 9th, 10th and 11th meetings, on 29 and 30 August 2002.6. 8月26日,在第1次全体会议上,依照作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议筹备委员会的可持续发展委员会的建议(见A/CONF.199/4,第十章,第2002/PC/6号决定),首脑会议批准了A/CONF.199/3号文件所载的工作安排,并决定议程项目9项的高级官员一般性辩论将于2002年9月2日至4日进行。因此,首脑会议在其9月2日至4日第12至16次会议上进行了一般性辩论。
2. At its 9th meeting, on 29 August, the Summit began its consideration of item 9 by hearing general statements by non-State entities.7. 9月2日,在第12次会议上,南非总统兼首脑会议主席塔博 姆贝基宣布一般性辩论开始,并致辞。
3. Statements were made by the representative of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the President of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Director-General of the World Health Organization, the Chairman of Business Action for Sustainable Development, the Director-General of the International Labour Organization, the Executive Director of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, the Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization, the Chairman of the Global Environment Facility, the Vice-President of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Vice-President of the World Bank, the Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization, the Executive Director of the Third World Academy of Sciences, the Chairman of the Commission of the African Union, the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States of the United Nations Secretariat, the representative of the Secretary-General of the International Organization of la Francophonie, the representative of the Norwegian National Union Centre, the Director-General of the Council of Europe, the Director of the Marine Environment Division of the International Maritime Organization, the President of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Chairman of the United Nations Advisory Committee of Local Authorities, the Director-General of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, the Director-General of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Fund for International Development, the President of the International Association of Economic and Social Councils and Similar Institutions, the President of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, the President of the Indigenous Environment Network, the Representative of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group, the Assistant Legal Counsel of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Representative of the International Hydrographic Organization, the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Europe, the representative of Women in Europe for a Common Future and the Director-General of the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme.8. 在同一次会议上,联合国秘书长科菲 安南向首脑会议致辞。
4. At its 10th meeting, on 30 August, statements were made by the Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund, the President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, the Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the President of the Dutch Farmers’ Association, the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Executive Secretary of the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the representative of the Youth Association for Habitat and Agenda 21 Turkey, the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa, the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, the representative of Environmental Alert, the Executive Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the Acting Director of the Environment Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the representative of the Foundation to Promote Indigenous Knowledge, the Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund, the Regional Director of the Eastern and Southern African Office of the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Director-General of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Executive Director of the European Trade Unions Confederation, the Secretary-General of the Nordic Council of Ministers, the Director-General of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the Acting Secretary of State of the Estado Libre de Puerto Rico, the Chairperson of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, the representative of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the representative of the Permanent Commission of the South Pacific, the Minister of State for External Affairs of the United States Virgin Islands, the Executive Secretary of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, the representative of the Mines Ministries of the Americas Conference and the Assistant Director-General for Natural Sciences of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.9. 也在第12次会议上,大会第五十六届会议主席韩升洙向首脑会议致辞。
5. At its 11th meeting, on 30 August, statements were made by the Director-General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Deputy Director-General of the International Organization for Migration, the Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Rector of the United Nations University, the Executive Director of Wise Integrated Social and Environmental Activities, the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the Vice-President of the African Development Bank, the representative of the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the representative of the Mexican Youth Council for Sustainable Development, the Secretary-General of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Director of the Environment Department of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Assistant Director for Environment of the Association of South-East Asian Nations, the Director of the Department of Environment and Sustainable Development of the League of Arab States, the Director of the Wiltern Labor and Community Strategy Center, the Executive Director of the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, the Executive Director of the International Energy Agency, the Manager of the Department of Sustainable Development of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Chairman of EsKOM, the Acting Secretary-General of the International Organization for Standardization, the representative of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the Director of Cabinet of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Managing Director of the Common Fund for Commodities, the President of the World Federation of Engineering Organizations, the Director of Documentation and Communication of Partners in Population and Development, the Deputy Secretary-General of the Pacific Islands Forum, the representative of the Secretary-General’s Panel for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the representative of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees-South Africa, the Chief Executive Officer of the Kenya National Farmers’ Union, the Chairperson of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites of the European Space Agency, the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing of the Commission on Human Rights, the Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the Pacific Centre for Environmental and Sustainable Development, the Deputy Executive Secretary of the Convention on Migratory Species, the Deputy Director-General of the Asian Development Bank, the Director for Africa of the Centre for Applied Bioscience International, the President of the World Association of Cities and Local Authorities Coordination and the President of the Organisation africaine du bois.10. 在同一次会议上,Analiz Vergara (厄瓜多尔)、Justin Friesen(加拿大)、Lio Mingyu(中国)、Tiyiselani Manganyi(南非)和Julius Ndlovena(南非)也发了言,并代表世界儿童致辞。
B. General statements by high-level officials 6. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (see A/CONF.199/4, chap. X, decision 2002/PC/6), the Summit approved the organization of work as set out in document A/CONF.199/3 and decided that the general debate of high-level officials, under agenda item 9, would take place from 2 to 4 September 2002. Accordingly, the Summit held its general debate at its 12th to 16th meetings, from 2 to 4 September. 7. At the 12th meeting, on 2 September, Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa and President of the Summit, opened the general debate and delivered an address. 8. At the same meeting, Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, addressed the Summit. 9. Also at the 12th meeting, Han Seung-soo, President of the General Assembly at its fifty-sixth session, addressed the Summit. 10. At the same meeting, Analiz Vergara (Ecuador), Justin Friesen (Canada), Liao Mingyu (China), Tiyiselani Manganyi (South Africa) and Julius Ndlovena (South Africa) also made presentations and delivered a message on behalf of the children of the world. 11. Also at the 12th meeting, statements were made by Megawati Soekarnoputri, President of Indonesia; Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela (on behalf of the Group of 77 and China); Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Prime Minister of Denmark (on behalf of the European Union); Kessai H. Note, President of the Marshall Islands; Romano Prodi, President of the Commission of the European Community; Bharrat Jagdeo, President of Guyana; Gerhard Schroeder, Chancellor of Germany; Sam Nujoma, President of Namibia; Pakalitha B. Mosisili, Prime Minister of Lesotho; Tony Blair, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada; Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of Uganda; Ahmet Necdet Sezer, President of Turkey; José Manuel Durão Barroso, Prime Minister of Portugal; Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President of Algeria; Jacques Chirac, President of France; Fernando Henrique Cardoso, President of Brazil; Andranik Margaryan, Prime Minister of Armenia; Daniel Toroitich arap Moi, President of Kenya; Ahmed Mohamed Ag Hamani, Prime Minister of Mali; King Mohammed VI, Head of State of Morocco; Levy Patrick Mwanawasa, President of Zambia; Domitien Ndayizeye, Vice-President of Burundi; Seretse Khama Ian Khama, Vice-President of Botswana; Francisco Santos Calderón, Vice-President of Colombia; and José Guillermo Justiniano Sandoval, Head of the Economic and Social Ministerial Council and Minister of Sustainable Development and Planning of Bolivia. 12. At the 13th meeting, on 2 September, statements were made by Georgi Parvanov, President of Bulgaria; Helen Clark, Prime Minister of New Zealand; Abdoulaye Wade, President of Senegal; Mr. Stjepan Mesi, President of Croatia; Denis Sassou Nguesso, President of the Congo; Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of Italy; Tarja Halonen, President of Finland; Junichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan; Guy Verhofstadt, Prime Minister of Belgium; David Oddsson, Prime Minister of Iceland; Vojislav Koštunica, President of Yugoslavia; Saufatu Sopoanga, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Immigration and Labour of Tuvalu; Abel Pacheco de la Espriella, President of Costa Rica; El Hadj Omar Bongo, President of Gabon; Boris Trajkovski, President of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; King Mswati III, Head of State of Swaziland; Koffi Sama, Prime Minister of Togo; Bakili Muluzi, President of Malawi; Olusegun Obasanjo, President of Nigeria; Robert G. Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe; Ion Iliescu, President of Romania; Massoumeh Ebtekar, Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran; Alberto Díaz Lobo, Vice-President of Honduras; Alhaji Aliu Mahama, Vice-President of Ghana; Prince Albert, Crown Prince of Monaco; Datuk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia; Rialuth Serge Vohor, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, External Trade and Telecommunications of Vanuatu; Tariq Aziz, Vice Prime Minister of Iraq; Somsavat Lengsavad, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Alois Ospelt, Minister for Environment, Agriculture and Forestry of Liechtenstein; Jawad Salem Al-Orayyed, Minister of State for Municipal and Environmental Affairs of Bahrain; Joseph Deiss, Federal Councillor and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Switzerland; Vasso Papandreou, Minister of Environment of Greece; Mohammed A. Al-Jarallah, Minister of Health of Kuwait; El-Tigni Adam El-Tahir, Minister of Environment and Physical Development of the Sudan; Bassam Awadullah, Minister of Planning of Jordan; Sheikh Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud Al-Thani, Head of the Amiri Diwan of Qatar; Choi Sung-hong, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Republic of Korea; Salif Diallo, Minister of State, Minister of Agriculture, Water and Fishing Resources of Burkina Faso; Allan Wagner Tizón, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Peru; Carlos Cat, Minister for Social Housing, Territory Planning and Environmental Affairs of Uruguay; Michel Moussa, Minister of the Environment of Lebanon; Frederick A. Mitchell, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Public Service of the Bahamas; Rabbie L. Namaliu, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Immigration of Papua New Guinea; Janez Kopa, Minister of Environment, Spatial Planning and Energy of Slovenia; and Archbishop Renato Raffaele Martino, Head of the delegation of the Holy See. 13. At the 14th meeting, on 3 September, statements were made by Leo A. Falcam, President of the Federated States of Micronesia; Natsagiyn Bagabandi, President of Mongolia; Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan; Jan Peter Balkenende, Prime Minister of the Netherlands; Zhu Rongji, Premier of the State Council of China; Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of Poland; Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, President of Maldives; Leonid Danilovich Kuchma, President of Ukraine; Mathieu Kérékou, President of Benin (on behalf of the least developed countries); Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji, Prime Minister of Bhutan; Göran Persson, Prime Minister of Sweden; Mikhail M. Kasyanov, Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation; Fatos Nano, Prime Minister of Albania; Jean-Bertrand Aristide, President of Haiti; Laisenia Qarase, Prime Minister of Fiji; Bernard Makuza, Prime Minister of Rwanda; Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, President of Cape Verde; Isaias Afwerki, President of Eritrea; Vicente Fox, President of Mexico; Joaquim Alberto Chissano, President of Mozambique; Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya, President of Mauritania; Gustavo Noboa Bejarano, Constitutional President of Ecuador; José Rizo Castellón, Vice-President of Nicaragua; Arturo Vallarino, Vice-President of Panama; Juan Carlos Maqueda, Vice-President of Argentina; Charles Goerens, Minister of Environment, Minister for Cooperation and Humanitarian Action of Luxembourg; Shahida Jamil, Minister for Environment, Local Government and Rural Development of Pakistan; Shivaji Rukman Senanayaka, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources of Sri Lanka; Irakli Menagarishvili, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Georgia; Sayyid Assaad bin Tariq Al-Said, representative of the Sultan of Oman; Denis Kalume Numbi, Minister of Planning and Reconstruction of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Timothy Harris, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Education of Saint Kitts and Nevis; Abdallah Abdillahi Miguil, Minister of Housing, Urbanization, Environment and Country Planning of Djibouti; and Abbas Yusuf, Head of the delegation of Somalia. 14. At the 15th meeting, on 3 September, statements were made by Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Samoa; Teburoro Tito, President of Kiribati; Kjell Magne Bondevik, Prime Minister of Norway; Benjamin William Mkapa, President of the United Republic of Tanzania; Bertie Ahern, Prime Minister of Ireland; Dragan Mikerević, Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Affi N’Guessan, Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire; Anerood Jugnauth, Prime Minister of Mauritius; Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, President of Equatorial Guinea; Marc Ravalomanana, President of Madagascar; Lamine Sidimé, Prime Minister of Guinea; Pierre Charles, Prime Minister of Dominica; Girma Wolde Giorgis, President of Ethiopia; Yang Hyong Sop, Vice President of the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammad Al-Sharqi, Member of the Supreme Council of the United Arab Emirates and Ruler of the Emirate of Fujeira; Osmonakun Ibraimov, Vice President of Kyrgyzstan; Katalin Szili, President of the Parliament of Hungary; Shimon Peres, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Israel; Lawrence Gonzi, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Social Policy of Malta; James Cecil Cocker, Deputy Prime Minister of Tonga; Pham Gia Khiem, Deputy Prime Minister of Viet Nam; John Briceño, Deputy Prime Minister of Belize; Princess Chulabhorn Mahidol, Princess of Thailand; Snyder Rini, Deputy Prime Minister of Solomon Islands; Costas Themistocleous, Minister of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment of Cyprus; María Eugenia Brizuela de Ávila, Minister for Foreign Affairs of El Salvador; Arunas Kundrotas, Minister of Environment of Lithuania; H. Elizabeth Thompson, Minister of Physical Development and Environment of Barbados; Soledad Alvear Valenzuela, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Chile; Abdurrahman Mohamed Shalghem, Minister, Secretary of the General People’s Committee for Foreign Liaison and International Cooperation of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Lim Swee Say, Minister for the Environment of Singapore; Luis Alberto Meyer, Minister and Executive Secretary of Planning of Paraguay; Win Aung, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the National Commission for Environmental Affairs of Myanmar; Bobson Sesay, Minister of Lands, Country Planning, Forestry and the Environment of Sierra Leone; Clifford P. Marica, Minister of Labour, Technological Development and Environment of Suriname; Felipe Pérez Roque, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Cuba; Rennie Dumas, Minister of State, Office of the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago; M. Saifur Rahman, Minister of Finance and Planning of Bangladesh; Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs of Austria; Carlos Cáceres Ruiz, Minister of the Environment and Natural Resources of Guatemala; Osama Jaafar Faquih, Minister of Commerce of Saudi Arabia; Adnan Khuzam, Minister of State for Environmental Affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic; Laszlo Miklos, Minister of Environment of Slovakia; Abdulmalik A. Al-Iryani, Minister of Tourism and Environment of Yemen; Vilayat Mukhtar ogly Guliyev, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan; Faiza Abou El Naga, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Egypt; Prem Lal Singh, Minister for Population and Environment of Nepal; Djimrangar Dadnadji, Minister of Planning, Development and Cooperation of Chad; Heherson Alvarez, Secretary of the Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines. 15. At the 16th meeting, on 4 September, statements were made by Azali Assoumani, President of the Comoros; Fradique Bandeira Melo de Menezes, President of Sao Tome and Principe; Tommy E. Remengesau, Jr., President of Palau; Robert Woonton, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands; Alamara Intchia Nhassé, Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau; Hedayat Amin Arsala, Vice-President of Afghanistan; Sar Kheng, Deputy Prime Minister of Cambodia; Kozidavlat Koimdodov, Deputy Prime Minister of Tajikistan; Petr Mares, Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic; Vladimir Drazhin, Deputy Prime Minister of Belarus; Toke Talagi, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Environment of Niue; Liina Tönisson, Minister of Transport and Communications of Estonia; Yashwant Sinha, Minister for External Affairs of India; A. J. Nicholson, Minister of Justice and Attorney-General of Jamaica; Rafael F. de Moya Pons, Minister of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Dominican Republic; Yousef Abu-Safieh, Minister for the Environment of Palestine; Douglas Slater, Minister for Health and the Environment of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Colin Powell, Secretary of State of the United States of America; João Bernardo de Miranda, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Angola; Mohamed Ennabli, Minister of Environment and Land Management of Tunisia; Gheorghe Duca, Minister of Ecology, Construction and Territorial Development of the Republic of Moldova; Clarkson O. Tanyi-Mbianyor, Minister of Environment and Forestry of Cameroon; Jaume Matas, Minister for Environment of Spain; Ronnie Jumeau, Minister for Environment of Seychelles; Aïchatou Mindaoudou, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Niger; Olga Adellach, Minister of Agriculture and Environment of Andorra; Julian R. Hunte, Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Saint Lucia; David Kemp, Minister for the Environment and Heritage of Australia; Vladimirs Makarovs, Minister of Environmental Protection and Regional Development of Latvia; Agba Otikpo Mezode, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Central African Republic; Clarice Modeste-Curwen, Minister for Health and the Environment of Grenada; Baboucarr-Blaise Ismaila Jagne, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of the Gambia; José Luis Guterres, Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Chapter V Multi-stakeholder event 1. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (see A/CONF.199/4, chap. X, decision 2002/PC/6). The Summit approved the organization of work as set out in document A/CONF.199/3 and decided that the short multi-stakeholder event under agenda item 10, involving the highest level of representation from both major groups and Governments, would take place on Wednesday, 4 September 2002, after the conclusion of the general debate in the plenary and before the adoption of the final documents and the closure of the Summit. The objective of the event was to provide a forum for all major groups to renew their commitment to sustainable development and to the implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit. 2. At its 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, the Summit considered the item and heard statements by the following representatives of major groups: The Secretary-General of Youth for Sustainable Development Assembly (Youth); the co-Chair of the Indigenous Peoples’ Caucus (indigenous people); the Third World Network (non-governmental organizations); the President of the Federation of Latin American Cities and Association of Municipalities (local authorities); the General Secretary of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (trade unions); the Chairman of Business Action for Sustainable Development (business and industry); the President of the International Council for Science (scientific communities); the President of the International Federation of Agricultural Producers (farmers); and the Executive Director of Red Thread (women). 3. At the same meeting, the President of the Summit made a statement. 4. Also at the same meeting, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union) made a statement. 5. The Chairman’s summary of the multi-stakeholder event reads as follows: “1. The final plenary meeting of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held on 4 September 2002, included a multi-stakeholder event, at which representatives of each major group made statements expressing their continued commitment to the Rio principles and responding to the outcomes of the Summit. “2. Youth expressed frustration over the lack of progress in implementing sustainable development. They called for debt cancellation for the poorest countries, changes in the unsustainable development models of international financial institutions, restructuring of global markets to redress inequities between North and South, and an end to trade-distorting agricultural subsidies. Noting that conflict damages environmental and social sustainability, they stated that the draft plan of implementation lacked any reference to disarmament and proposed redirecting military funds to sustainable development. They also objected to the absence of clear mechanisms, targets and time frames, especially with regard to climate change, and called upon all countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In reaffirming their commitment to sustainable development, they asked all participants to stand as a symbol of solidarity towards a sustainable future. “3. Indigenous people recalled their efforts in many different international forums to communicate the urgent need to recognize indigenous people’s rights to self-determination, territories and resources, and cultural and traditional knowledge. They officially submitted to the Summit the “Kimberly Declaration” and the “Indigenous Peoples Implementation Plan of Action”, outcomes of the recent Indigenous Peoples’ International Summit on Sustainable Development, outlining hopes and commitments for the future of sustainable development. Expressing concern regarding the unsustainable agendas of the World Bank, IMF and WTO, they urged the United Nations to uphold the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and protect the rights of the poor and oppressed. They expressed hope for the future in recognizing their rights, utilizing their traditional knowledge and practices in conservation, and forming alliances built on mutual respect and diversity. “4. The NGOs noted that the Summit had constituted a great experience for the cooperation of many like-minded NGOs and common citizenry coming together in the interests of sustainable development. While they did not characterize the Summit as a missed opportunity, they stressed that more could have been done to further the millennium development goals. They emphasized the issues of debt sustainability, the reform of international financial institutions and the need for transparency in WTO. They asked the United Nations to provide leadership in all relevant forums to maintain a spirit of inclusion and cooperation, and honoured the many people who were unable to attend the Summit because they were engaged instead in striving against poverty and fighting for survival. “5. The local authorities offered a statement on behalf of the many mayors and municipalities that had met in parallel with the Summit to unify their voices on provisions of water, health and other basic services that local governments address every day. They underscored the importance of seeking coordinated solutions in interrelated processes, building alliances, emphasizing diversity and assuming shared responsibility at all levels of government. They stressed the need to strengthen the capacities of local governments to provide necessary conditions for decentralization and poverty eradication. They also stated that action at the local level through networks and horizontal coordination was essential for building a new global reality, confronting the challenges of poverty and implementing sustainable development. “6. The trade unions noted that workers were central to the social pillar of sustainable development, and could build a shared social responsibility only if opportunities for decent work and sustainable livelihoods were made available and respect for fundamental rights of workers were recognized. They urged the abandonment of separatist government mentalities in favour of hope for fundamental change, and stated that success would come through partnership, sustainable production, involvement of the ILO World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization, and active government effort to build upon existing international instruments addressing the behaviour of multinational corporations. “7. Business and industry expressed appreciation to Governments in voicing confidence in the ability of business to play a role in sustainable development through market mechanisms, and noted the need for cooperation in technology transfer and the role of consumers, especially youth. They noted awareness of the high standards by which business would be judged in undertaking partnership initiatives and grass-roots projects, and supported systems for business input into international institutions to create an environment of cooperation. Recognizing the need for accountability and open reporting initiatives to build support and trust, they reiterated their willingness to work together with other major groups and governments in that regard. “8. The scientific and technological communities articulated a vision for a sustainable future based on knowledge societies, in which science and technology would play a leadership role. They highlighted the advances made in science and technology over the past 10 years and the ever-increasing need for more accurate scientific data. Noting that policy-relevant science must be used in decision-making, they underscored the imbalance between developed and developing countries’ expenditures on research and development, pledging to address that imbalance through initiatives focusing on, inter alia, interdependencies and interactions between ecosystems and social systems, including local and regional contributions and contexts. They proposed an Advisory Panel on Science and Technology as a formal link between the Commission on Sustainable Development and scientists. “9. Farmers stated that agriculture should have a central place in the follow-up to the Summit. They outlined their commitments to enhance capacity-building through work with farmers’ organizations in the North, helping to strengthen the organizations of their colleagues in the South; strengthen partnerships with others working the field of agriculture, particularly at the regional and country levels; and continue efforts to participate in sustainable agricultural programmes of governments. They challenged Governments to live up to their commitments to support those efforts and to place sustainable agriculture at the heart of their national strategies. “10. Women noted that they had been continually forced to struggle for a reaffirmation of the same human rights that Governments had agreed upon for years. They demanded that health issues and human rights be negotiated on merit and not based on procedure. They stated that the Summit had failed to establish necessary multilateral institutions to enable action for implementation; identified HIV/AIDS, poverty, debt, war and militarism as obstacles to progress; and stated their commitment to working for successes in a world that united women and men in solidarity for sustainable development. Chapter VI Round tables 1. In accordance with decision 2002/PC/6 of its preparatory committee, the Summit held four round-table discussions on the theme “Making it happen!”, under agenda item 11, from 2 to 4 September 2002. For its consideration of the item, the Summit had before it a note by the Secretariat transmitting a discussion paper for the round tables prepared by the President of the Summit (A/CONF.199/L.5). An account of the round tables is set out below. Round table 1 2. On 2 September 2002, the Chairman of round table 1, Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of Poland, opened the round table and made a statement.11. 也在第12次会议上,下列人士发了言:印度尼西亚总统梅加瓦蒂;委内瑞拉总统乌戈 查韦斯(代表77国集团和中国)、丹麦总理安诺斯 福格 拉斯穆森(代表欧洲联盟)、马绍尔群岛总统Kessi H.Note;欧洲共同体委员会主席罗马诺 普罗迪;圭亚那总统巴拉特 罗格迪奥;德国总理格哈德 施罗德;纳米比亚总统萨姆 努乔马;莱索托总理帕卡利萨 莫西西里;大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国首相托尼 布莱尔;加拿大总理让 克雷蒂安;乌干达总统约韦里 卡吉塔 穆塞韦尼;土耳其总统阿赫迈特 内吉代特 塞泽尔;葡萄牙总理若泽 曼努埃尔 杜朗 巴罗佐;阿尔及利亚总统阿卜杜拉齐兹 布特弗利卡;法国总统雅克 希拉克;巴西总统费尔南多 恩里克卡多佐;亚美尼亚总理Andranik Margaryan;肯尼亚总统丹尼尔 阿拉普 莫伊;马里总理艾哈罗德 穆罕默德 哈曼尼;摩洛哥国家元首穆罕默德六世国王、赞比亚总统利维 帕特里克 姆瓦纳瓦萨;布隆迪副总统多米蒂安 恩达伊泽耶;博茨瓦纳副总统塞雷茨 卡马;哥伦比亚副总统弗朗西斯科 桑多斯 卡尔德龙和玻利维亚经济和社会部长理事会主席兼可持续发展和规划部长何塞 吉列尔莫 桑多瓦尔。
3. Statements were made by the representatives of Ukraine, Austria, Mauritius, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Uganda, Thailand, Pakistan, Peru, Mali, El Salvador, Algeria, Egypt, Viet Nam, Norway, Latvia, Tonga and the Cook Islands.12. 9月2日,在第13次会议上,下列人士发了言:保加利亚总统格奥尔基 帕尔瓦诺夫;新西兰总理海伦 克拉克;塞内加尔总统阿卜杜拉耶 瓦德;克罗地亚总统斯捷潘 梅西奇;刚果总统德尼 萨索-恩格索;意大利总理西尔维奥 贝卢斯科尼;芬兰总统塔里娅 哈洛宁;日本首相小泉纯一郎;比利时总理Guy Verhofstadt;冰岛总理Darid Oddsson;南斯拉夫总统沃伊斯拉夫 科什图尼察;图瓦卢总理兼外交事务、移民和劳工部长Saufatu科Sopoanga;哥斯达黎加总统Abel Pacheco de la Espriella;加蓬总统哈吉 奥马尔 邦戈;前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国总统鲍里斯 特拉伊科夫斯基;斯威士兰国家元首姆斯瓦提三世国王、多哥总理科菲 萨马;马拉维总统巴基利 穆卢齐;尼日利亚总统奥卢塞贡 奥巴桑乔;津巴布韦总统罗伯特 穆加贝;罗马尼亚总统扬 伊利埃斯库;伊朗伊斯兰共和国副总统Masscumeh Ebtekar;洪都拉斯副总统Alberto Diaz Lobo;加纳副总统Alhaji Aliu Mahama;摩纳哥王储艾伯特王子;马来西亚副首相Datnk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi;瓦努阿图副首相兼外交事务、外贸和通讯部长Rialuth Serge Vohor、伊拉克副总理塔里克 阿齐兹;老挝人民民主共和国副总理兼外交部长Somsavat lengsavad;列支敦士登环境、农业和森林部长Alois Ospelt;巴林市政和环境事务部长Jawad Salem Al-Orayyed;斯威士兰外交部长Joseph Deiss希腊环境部长Vasso Papandreou、科威特卫生部长Mohammed A.Al-Jarallah;苏丹环境和自然环境发展部长El-Tigni Adam El-Tahir;约旦规划部长Bassam Awadullah;卡塔尔Amiri Diwan首脑谢赫 阿卜杜拉 本 穆罕默德 本 沙特 萨尼;大韩民国外交和贸易部长崔成泓;布基那法索国务部长、农业部长、用水和渔业部长Salif Diallo;秘鲁外交部长Allan Wagner Tizoh;乌拉圭社会住房、民主规划和环境事务部长Carlos Cat;黎巴嫩环境部长Michel Monssa;巴哈马外交和公共服务部长Faderick A.Mitchell;巴布亚新几内亚外交和移民部长Rabbie L.Namaliu;斯洛文尼亚环境、空间规划和能源部长Janez Kopa;和教廷代表团团长雷纳托 拉斐尔 马蒂诺大主教。
4. The observer of Palestine made a statement.13. 9月3日,在第14次会议上,下列人士发了言:密克罗尼西亚联邦总统利奥 法尔卡姆;蒙古总统那察吉音 巴嘎班迪、哈萨克斯坦总统努尔苏丹 纳扎尔巴耶夫;荷兰总理Jan Peter Balkenende;中国国务院总理朱镕基;波兰总统亚历山大 克瓦希涅夫斯基;马尔代夫总统穆蒙 阿卜杜勒 加尧姆;乌克兰总统列奥尼德 达尼洛维奇 库奇马;贝宁总统马蒂厄 克雷库(代表最不发达国家);不丹总理Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji;瑞典总理Göran Persson;俄罗斯联邦政府主席Mikhail M. Kasyanov;阿尔巴尼亚总理Fatos Nano;海地总统让 贝特朗 阿里斯蒂德;斐济总理Laisenia Qarase、卢旺达总理伯纳德 马库扎;佛得角总统佩德罗 贝罗纳 罗德里格斯 皮雷斯;厄立特里亚总统伊萨亚斯 阿费沃基;墨西哥总统比森特 福克斯;莫桑比克总统若阿金 阿尔贝托 希萨诺;毛里塔尼亚总统马维亚 乌尔德 西德 艾哈迈德 塔亚、厄瓜多尔宪政总统古斯塔沃 诺沃亚 贝哈拉诺;尼加拉瓜副总统José Rizo Castellón;巴拿马副总统Arturo Vallarino;阿根廷副总统Juan Carlos Maqueda;卢森堡环境部长兼合作与人道主义行动部长Charles Goerens;巴基斯坦环境、地方政府和农村发展部长Shahida Jamil;斯里兰卡环境和自然资源部长Shivaji Rukman Senanayaka;格鲁吉亚外交部长Irakli Menagarishvili;阿曼苏丹的代表Sayyid Assaad bin Tariq Al-Said;刚果民主共和国规划和重建部长Denis Kalume Numbi;圣基茨和尼维斯外交和教育部长Timothy Harris;吉布提住房、都市化、环境和国家规划部长Abdallah Abdillahi Miguil和索马里代表团团长Abbas Yusuf。
5. The representative of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean made a statement.14. 9月3日,在第15次会议上,下列人士发了言:萨摩亚总理兼外交部长图伊拉埃帕 萨伊莱莱;基里巴斯总统塞布罗罗 斯托、挪威总理谢尔 马格纳 邦德维克;坦桑尼亚联合共和国总统本杰明 威廉 姆卡帕;爱尔兰总理伯蒂 艾亨;波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那总理Dragan Mikerevi;科特迪瓦总理Affi N’Guessan;毛里求斯总理阿内鲁德 贾格纳特;赤道几内亚总统特奥多罗 奥比昂 恩圭马 姆巴索戈;马达加斯加总统马克 拉瓦鲁马纳纳;几内亚总理Lamine Sidimé;多米尼克总理皮埃尔 查尔斯;埃塞俄比亚总统Girma Wolde Giorgis;朝鲜民主主义人民共和国最高人民会议副议长杨亨燮;阿拉伯联合酋长国最高委员会成员兼富查伊拉统治者Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammad Al-Sharqi;吉尔吉斯斯坦副总统Osmonakun Ibraimov、匈牙利议会议长Katalin Szili、以色列副总理兼外交部长西蒙 佩雷斯;马耳他副总理兼社会政策部长Lawrence Gonzi;汤加副总理James Cecil Cocker;越南副总理Pham Gia Khiem;伯利兹副总理John Briceño;泰国公主Chulabhorn Mahidol;所罗门群岛副总理Snyder Rini;塞浦路斯农业、自然资源和环境部长Costas Themistocleous;萨尔瓦多外交部长Maria Eugenia Brizuela de Ávila、立陶宛环境部长Arunas Kundrotas;巴巴多斯自然环境发展与环境部长H. Elizabeth Thompson;智利外交部长Soledad Alvean Valenquela;阿拉伯利比亚民众国总人民代表大会对外关系和国际合作秘书Abdurrahman Mohamed Shalghem;新加坡环境部长Lim Swece Say;巴拉圭规划部长兼执行秘书Luis Alberto Meyer;缅甸外交部长兼全国环境事务委员会主席Win Aung;塞拉利昂土地、国家规划、林业和环境部长Bobson Sesay;苏里南劳工、技术发展与环境部长Clifford P. Marica、古巴外交部长Felipe Pérez Roque;特立尼达和多巴哥国务部长兼总理办公室主任Rennie Dumas;孟加拉国财政和规划部长Saifur Rahman;奥地利联邦外交部长Benita Ferrero-Waldner;危地马拉环境和自然资源部长Carlos Cáceres Ruiz;沙特阿拉伯商业部长Osama Jaafar Faquih;阿拉伯叙利亚共和国负责环境事务国务部长Adnan Khuzam;斯洛伐克环境部长Laszlo Miklos;也门旅游和环境部长Abdulmalik A. Al-Iryani、阿塞拜疆外交部长Vilayat Mukhtarogly Guliyev;埃及负责外交事务国务部长Faiza Abou El Naga;尼泊尔人口和环境部长Prem Lal Singh;乍得规划、发展和合作部长Djimrangar Dadnadji;菲律宾环境与自然资源秘书Heherson Alvarez。
6. The representative of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification also made a statement. 7. Representatives of the following major groups made statements: the World Federation of Engineering Organisations; Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, Poland; the International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations; the International Chamber of Commerce; the Chamber of Agriculture of Mali; the Trade Union Congress, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (who also spoke on behalf of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions); the South African Local Government Association; Environmental Network International; and Capacity Global. 8. The summary prepared by the Chairman, an advance version of which was circulated in an informal paper, read as follows: “1. In his introduction the Chairman cited commitments made in Rio and Monterrey, as well as at the Millennium Summit and the World Summit for Children. He noted that although each contributed new elements, more stimuli were needed from the World Summit on Sustainable Development to respond to major problems such as poverty, famine, hunger, environmental degradation and unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. The Chairman noted that participants expressed confidence that the Plan of Implementation to be adopted at the Summit would provide some answers on how to implement solutions to those problems. “Leading to renewed and stronger commitment to global solidarity “2. Security, stability, peace and respect for human rights, as well as good governance, are basic requirements for sustainable development. Justice for the world’s poor must be ensured so that poverty can be eradicated. Accountable and rights-based partnerships should be developed without dismantling the social base of sustainable development. New partnerships at the global and regional levels, alliances between civil society and Governments and the strong engagement of local communities provide hope for progress. However, renewed and stronger commitment to global solidarity must be grounded in the political will of Governments. A strong Plan of Implementation and partnership initiatives must be complementary. “Mobilizing resources to support Millennium development goals and Summit priorities “3. The percentage of gross national product set aside for official development assistance has declined in the past 10 years, and a number of participants concurred that agreed official development assistance targets must not only be met, but also increased, to ensure adequate resources for developing countries in addressing poverty eradication. While noting that official development assistance should not constitute an unsustainable form of charity, several participants stressed that developed countries should instead redirect resources and establish venture capital funds in the poorest countries to stimulate investment in the South. Water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity (WEHAB) issues could guide the prioritization of official development assistance resources. “4. Clear goals, accountability, peer review, trust in partnerships and addressing corruption in both the private sector and Government were emphasized as keys to success in attracting investment for poverty reduction. The private sector can be a positive agent for change, but it needs reassurance that legal and political frameworks will promote stability for investments, as well as support from the public sector. “5. Globalization must be codified, and the multilateral trade system must be fair and equitable for all. The removal of trade barriers by developed countries and substantial trade liberalization are essential to provide developing countries and countries with economies in transition with new trade opportunities. However, in the view of some, trade liberalization has too often been proposed as the solution for sustainable development, with the debate turning to those who control trade liberalization and with little discussion of the rights of local communities. “6. Several participants stressed that countries with economies in transition should be involved in development and integration into global economic systems. Additionally, funds must be earmarked to create jobs in rural areas, financially viable projects need to be developed and access to credit needs to be facilitated. “7. Mobilization of resources is not about only financial and technical resources, but also human resources. The World Summit on Sustainable Development should offer solutions for mobilizing human resources. Several participants stressed job creation for income generation to reduce poverty, while another noted that expanding employment must be linked to improving the quality of employment, including good health and safety standards. Gender equality was stressed, and in particular women’s rights. A number of participants stressed the importance of an educated and empowered citizenship. “8. Sustainable development initiatives should take into account the specific social and economic conditions and cultural identities of indigenous people. Many stressed that programmes should be implemented on the basis of consultations with local communities, including women, youth and indigenous people. Recognition of land rights and the right to self-determination, and a rights-based approach to addressing poverty that would contribute to improving policies at the national level, are essential for strengthening local and indigenous communities. “Improving coherence and consistency in national and international institutions and their capacity to integrate the three components of sustainable development “9. Progress since Rio includes improvements in legal systems and sustainable development implementation at the regional level and by civil society. Institution-building is progressing in many parts of the world. A number of participants stressed the need to mainstream environmental considerations into the economic agenda through Government ministers of finance, trade, industry, mining, and agriculture. This should be the major task of the next decade. National sustainable development strategies provide a means for national integration and cooperation. It was emphasized that an integrated network of institutions at all levels is essential for coherent and consistent implementation of sustainable development policies.15. 9月4日,在第16次会议上,下列人士发了言:科摩罗总统Azali Assoumani;圣多美和普林西比总统弗拉迪克 班达拉 梅洛 德梅内泽斯;帕劳总统小汤米 雷门格绍;库克群岛总理Robert Woonton;几内亚比绍总理Alamara Intchia Nhassé、阿富汗副总统Hedayat Amin Arsala;柬埔寨副总理Sar Kheng;塔吉克斯坦副总理Kozidavlat Koimdodov、捷克共和国副总理Petr Mares;白俄罗斯副总理Vladimir Drazhin;纽埃副总理兼环境部长Toke Talagi;爱沙尼亚运输和通讯部长Liina Tönisson、印度外交部长Yashwant Sinha;牙买加司法部长兼总检察长A. J. Nicholson;多米尼加共和国自然资源和环境部长Rafael F. de Moya Pons、巴勒斯坦环境部长Yousef Abu-Safieh;圣文森特和格林纳丁斯卫生和环境部长Douglas Slater;美利坚合众国国务卿科林 鲍威尔;安哥拉外交部长João Bernardo de Miranda;突尼斯环境和土地管理部长Mohamed Ennabli;摩尔多瓦共和国生境、建筑和民主管理部长Gheorghe Duca、喀麦隆环境和林业部长Clarkson O. Tanyi-Mbianyor;西班牙环境部长Jaume Matas;塞舌尔环境部长Ronnie Jumeau;尼日尔外交部长Aichatou Mindaoudou、安道尔农业和环境部长Olga Adellach;圣卢西亚外交和国际贸易部长Julian R. Hunte;澳大利亚环境和传统部长David Kemp;拉脱维亚环境保护和区域发展部长Vladimirs Makarovs;中非共和国外交部长Agba Otikpo Mezode;格林纳达卫生和环境部长Clarice Modeste-Curwen;冈比亚负责外交事务的国务秘书Baboucarr-Blaise Ismaila Jagne;东帝汶民主共和国负责外交事务与合作的副部长José Luis Guterres。
“10. Regional sustainable development strategies are useful for regional-level cooperation and integration. The European Union water initiative, the Alpine Convention, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, and a framework for regional ocean initiatives were cited as examples of integrated regional initiatives. It was noted that a system of development banks is well established and is effectively assisting in implementing agreements in the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean region.第五章
“11. Several participants emphasized the vulnerability of local communities to the climate-change phenomenon, especially in the form of natural disasters, and the very great potential for severe economic and social consequences. They maintained that the international community is obliged to assist in reducing this vulnerability through support for regional actions, and internationally through the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.多方利益攸关者的活动
“12. In terms of institutional improvements, some participants noted the multiplicity and hierarchy of international agencies, and one suggested that the Economic and Social Council be used as a forum to ensure coherence and coordination of policies of the United Nations system related to sustainable development. The Commission on Sustainable Development should follow up the Summit and partnership initiatives. With respect to the national level, many agreed that national Governments should give more recognition to local governments.1. 2002年8月26日第1次全体会议,按照可持续发展委员会作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的筹备委员会提出的建议(见A/CONF.199/4,第十章,第2002/PC/6号决定),首脑会议将在全体会议一般性辩论结束之后,在通过最后文件以及首脑会议闭幕之前,于2002年9月4日星期三举行一次由主要群体和政府最高代表参加的多方利益攸关者的简短活动。活动的目的是为主要群体提供一个论坛,重申对可持续发展和实施《21世纪议程》以及首脑会议成果的承诺。
“Promoting cooperation in the five priority areas of water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity2. 2002年9月4日第17次全体会议,首脑会议审议了这一项目,听取了下列各主要群体代表的发言:青年促进可持续发展大会秘书长(青年);土著人民会议副主席(土著人民);第三世界网(非政府组织);拉丁美洲城市联合会和都市协会主席(地方当局);国际自由工会联合会(工会);促进可持续发展商业行动主席(商业企业);国际科学理事会主席(科学界);国际农产品联合会主席(农民)和红线妇女发展方案执行主任(妇女)。
“13. The need for affordable and accessible water and sanitation projects was highlighted. On biodiversity, it was stressed that special ecological networks were needed and that options for balancing biodiversity and energy needs should be developed. Sustainable development concerns agriculture producers directly, and several participants noted that destruction of agricultural lands in areas of conflict has caused production to drop because of wasted water resources. Support was expressed for activities on water access, access to renewable energy and assistance in resource-efficient energy consumption. Several participants called for urgent, equitable and fair solutions to agricultural subsidies. Others noted that unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed.3. 同次会议上,首脑会议主席作了发言。
“Bringing scientific knowledge to bear on decision-making and ensuring affordable access to critical technology and scientific knowledge4. 同次会议上,丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)作了发言。
“14. Decision-making must be based on sound scientific analysis. Several participants highlighted a lack of reliable data, especially at the regional level. With regard to the WEHAB areas, sufficient knowledge and technology are available, but not readily accessible. Modern technology for shifting to sustainable development processes is costly and those with low purchasing power have less opportunity to acquire and benefit from new information and technologies. Capacity-building is needed to apply available scientific knowledge and corresponding know-how. Several participants noted that a considerable body of technology and corresponding knowledge is available in the public sector in developing countries, which could be made available to developing countries at affordable prices.5. 主席关于多方利益有关者会议的摘要如下:
“Recommendations from participants “15. Recommendations included the following: Fulfil official development assistance commitments and facilitate foreign direct investment flows to developing countries. Official development assistance should particularly target the least developed countries that have limited access to foreign direct investment Develop financially viable projects and access to credits, regional and global cooperation, peace and security, capacity-building and economic stability Create markets for environmental services with strong support from the private sector Increase Global Environment Facility funding and make procedures simpler and more transparent Ratify the Kyoto Protocol so that it can enter into force as soon as possible Recognize the right to self-determination and land rights of indigenous communities.” Round table 2 9. On 3 September 2002, the Chairperson of round table 2, Massoumeh Ebtekar, Vice-President and Head of the Department of Environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran, opened the round table and made a statement. 10. Statements were made by the representatives of Venezuela, China, Mongolia, Japan, India, Brazil, Maldives, Hungary, Armenia, Malaysia, Slovakia, the Central African Republic, Yugoslavia, Gabon, Ghana, New Zealand, Cuba, Kiribati, Namibia, Nepal and Finland.“1. 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的最后全体会议于2002年9月4日举行,其中包括举行多方利益有关者会议。各主要集团的代表在多方利益有关者会议上发了言,表示决心继续支持里约原则和响应首脑会议取得的成果。
11. The Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs responded to points raised during the discussion. 12. Statements were made by the representatives of the World Health Organization and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. 13. The representative of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change made a statement. 14. The representative of the International Council for Science also made a statement. 15. The Chairperson made concluding remarks. 16. The summary prepared by the Chairperson, an advance version of which was circulated in an informal paper, read as follows: “1. The Chairman noted that participants addressed the problems of poverty, indebtedness, lack of necessary resources, lack of health-care services, sanitation and fresh water supply, trade-related issues, including subsidies, tariffs and primary goods prices, the digital divide and impacts on the environment. “2. Global warming was considered by a number of participants to be of major concern, especially for small island developing States and other vulnerable countries. Participants from small island developing States expressed anxiety about rising sea levels in parts of their countries that are no more than one or two metres above sea level. Other countries discussed increasingly harsh weather conditions that have had deleterious effects on their farming and livestock, which is especially important for countries that rely heavily on such means. It was suggested that capacity-building for local people could be an important tool to help adjust to changing conditions. “Leading to renewed and stronger commitment to global solidarity “3. In assessing implementation from a broad perspective, the importance of political will was frequently stressed. Public opinion and awareness were seen as a strong motivating factor for the creation and maintenance of such resolve. It was emphasized that the implementation of sustainable development goals hinges on the application of the principle of common but differentiated responsibility. “4. A number of participants pointed out that peace and security are essential preconditions for economic growth and development as well as protection of the environment. Sustainable development is impossible in regions and countries marked by conflicts, upheavals and wars. “Mobilizing resources to support Millennium development goals and Summit priorities “Human resource development “5. During the round-table discussion, a number of participants highlighted the importance of education and health as key elements for sustainable development and, in particular, poverty eradication. Participants stressed human resource development as essential for creating a foundation for future economic growth, as well as social development and environmental protection. Among the priorities, universal primary education, especially for girls, was highlighted. The link between health and education was also explored, and the provision of potable water and proper sanitation and the eradication of disease were seen as essential for creating conditions supportive of development. “6. Capacity-building was discussed as a cornerstone for human resource development as well as other aspects of sustainable development. One participant stated that in his country the cultivation of culture and creation of an identity were seen as integral to the assurance of a sense of human dignity. This sense of belonging to a community is important for maintaining a healthy and sustainable society. “Financial resources “7. There was a special, strong emphasis placed on the need for financing and the mobilization of new and additional resources to facilitate the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg agreements and commitments. A number of participants expressed concern over the difficulty of finding donors for project proposals. Too much of the money allocated for projects is absorbed in the process of project approval and administration. This arrangement should be improved to ensure that a larger portion of the funding is devoted to the projects themselves. “8. The clean development mechanism was identified as a new source of financing aimed at combating climate change. The mechanism is transparent and involves all relevant stakeholders, including the private sector. “9. A proposal to establish an international humanitarian fund to meet the goals of poverty eradication, health care, sanitation and education for the poor received broad support. This would be funded by a percentage of external debt repaid by the developing countries, a percentage of money seized from illicit drug trafficking profits and from overseas deposits of funds gained through corruption, and the taxation of major financial transactions. There was also a suggestion to consider the possibility of global taxation for the development of global public goods. “10. It was repeatedly emphasized that developed countries should honour their commitments to contribute 0.7 per cent of their gross national product to developing countries as official development assistance. Domestic savings and private investment were cited as other important sources of finance. “11. The Marshall Plan of the post-Second World War era was identified as a possible model for providing assistance for sustainable development. “12. The heavy debt burden carried by many developing countries was identified as a major impediment to mobilizing domestic resources for sustainable development. Many suggested the cancellation or restructuring of debt. Capping debt service at no more than 10 per cent of budgetary resources was also proposed. “13. Trade and foreign direct investment were cited among the important means of mobilizing financial resources. Therefore, calls were made for the removal of market-distorting subsidies and trade barriers. There were also calls for greater market access for developing countries. “14. The instability of financial markets was identified as a major obstacle to development. Several participants expressed concern over the inability of vulnerable economies to weather the wide fluctuations in the market as well as the string of recent crises. It was pointed out that the existing international financial institutions do not currently have the capacity to adequately address these issues. There is thus a need to strengthen and reform these institutions. “Improving coherence and consistency in national and international institutions and their capacity to integrate the three components of sustainable development “15. The significance of a balanced and holistic approach to the three pillars of sustainable development was highlighted. It was pointed out that an integrated approach, while not a novel idea, needs further development. There is currently no internationally agreed tool for using an integrated approach in policy and programme planning and development. Efforts should be undertaken to address this shortcoming. “16. The importance of collaboration and coordination among the international and regional organizations and other actors in the realization of sustainable development was highlighted. At the national level, there is a need for better coordination among ministries. “17. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development was mentioned as a potentially successful partnership, and there was a general call for greater cooperation and partnership among countries. Information and experience should be shared among developing countries as well as between developed and developing countries. “Promoting cooperation in the five priority areas of water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity “18. Human resource development is an important part of addressing issues related to water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity. Access to energy for the poor was cited as a principal requirement for sustainable development. Problems of ensuring safety in power generation, especially when working with nuclear energy, were addressed. It was stated that developing countries need greater financial and technical assistance to meet these concerns as well as to develop alternative energy sources. Concerns were expressed over the existing unsustainable patterns of consumption, which have an impact on natural resources. “Bringing scientific knowledge to bear on decision-making and ensuring affordable access to critical technology and scientific knowledge “19. Participants underscored the importance of national capacity-building in science and technology in developing countries and international cooperation to facilitate access for developing countries to technology and corresponding knowledge. “20. The importance of equitable sharing of the benefits of economic growth and development as well as scientific and technical progress was emphasized. Some participants noted that intellectual property rights systems should ensure that the benefits of the use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge are more equitably shared with the country of origin.“2. 青年对可持续发展执行工作缺乏进展表示失望。他们呼吁勾销最贫穷国家的债务,改变国际金融机构无法维持的发展模式,重整全球市场以期缩短南北的差距,并且终止扭曲贸易形态的农业补贴。注意到冲突有损环境和社会稳定,他们说明,《执行计划》草案未提及裁军,并建议将军事经费改充可持续发展之用。他们又反对未列入明确的机制、目标和时限,特别是有关气候改变方面,并呼吁所有国家批准《京都议定书》。他们重申对可持续发展的承诺,要求所有与会者对未来的可持续发展保持团结一致的形象。
“21. A greater degree of technology transfer is required, and there is a need to narrow the digital divide. Centres of excellence and institutions of higher learning should be established to build capacity for technological development at the national level. Such technology should be appropriate to national situations and circumstances. For example, information and communication technologies are currently a strong engine of growth around the world, but the developing countries are being left behind.“3. 土著人民回顾他们在许多不同形式的国际论坛上所作的努力,以期使人们确认土著人民的自决权利、领土权利和资源权利以及文化和传统知识权利的急切需要。他们正式向首脑会议提交‘金伯利宣言’和‘土著人民执行行动计划’,以及最近举行的土著人民可持续发展问题国际首脑会议的成果,简要说明了对未来的可持续发展的希望和承诺。他们对世界银行、货币基金组织和世贸组织无法持续的议程表示关注,敦促联合国坚持《联合国宪章》的原则和保障贫穷和受压迫的人的权利。他们表示希望将来会确认其权利、利用其有利养护环境的传统知识和惯习以及就互相尊重和多样性方面结成联盟。
“22. Although the goal for developing countries is to reach a level of development comparable to that of the industrialized countries, it is important to facilitate transfers of technology to developing countries to enable them to develop while avoiding environmental degradation.“4. 非政府组织表示,首脑会议使观点相同的非政府组织和一般公民为了追求可持续发展的利益而开展合作方面取得宝贵的经验。尽管他们没有把首脑会议看成是错失的机会,但是,他们强调,应当可以在促进落实千年发展目标方面开展更多工作。他们强调债务持续性、国际金融机构改革和必须促进世贸组织透明化等问题。他们要求联合国领导所有有关的论坛,以期保持包容和合作的精神,并应尊重由于正在开展消弭贫穷和争取生存而未出席首脑会议的许多人士。
“23. The incorporation of sound science into policy and decision-making was stated as a necessary requirement for addressing the WEHAB issues. Technology cannot be effectively used to achieve sustainable development unless there is a strong link between the scientific community and policy makers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was given as an example of success in this regard.“5. 代表许多市长和市府在首脑会议期间同时举行会议的地方当局发表了声明,就供水、保健和地方政府每天处理的其他基本服务问题提出共同看法。他们强调寻求相关进程的协调解决办法、建立联盟关系、着重多样性和承担各级政府分担的责任的重要性。他们强调必须加强地方政府的能力,以期提供权力分散和消弭贫穷的必要条件。他们又说明,地方一级通过网络和平行协调采取行动是为了面对贫穷的挑战和执行可持续发展而建立新的全球实质机制所必不可少的。
“Recommendations from participants“6. 工会说明,工人是可持续发展的主要社会支柱,只有在取得体面工作的机会和可持续生计以及工人的基本权利得到确认的情况下才能建立分担社会责任的体制。他们敦促放弃政府独立存在的观念,反之,应改为给人们带来促进根本改革的希望,同时指出,通过伙伴关系、可持续生产、全球化所涉社会问题世界委员会的参与以及政府在解决多国公司行为的现行国际文书的基础上开展积极努力才会获得成功。
“24. Recommendations included the following: Establish an International Humanitarian Fund to meet the goals of poverty eradication, health care, sanitation and education for the poor Create a system of peer review among countries to ensure commitment and the long-term implementation of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. This would require an institutional follow-up mechanism for such a review, and the United Nations was recognized as a possible forum Invest in education as a key element for poverty eradication and sustainable development Increase levels of consumption among some sectors of society in order to alleviate poverty while at the same time curbing high levels of consumption in developed countries, to attain a sustainable global rate of consumption Cap the servicing of the external debt at 10 per cent of national budgetary resources for highly indebted developing countries Develop science and technology to address matters of recycling and cleaner technology Consider the possibility of global taxation for the development of public services.” Round table 3 17. On 3 September 2002, the Chairman of round table 3, Göran Persson, Prime Minister of Sweden, opened the round table and made a statement. 18. Statements were made by the representatives of Ireland, Mozambique, Israel, the Sudan, the United States of America, Tunisia, Luxembourg, Guatemala, Argentina, the Netherlands, Swaziland, the Niger, Mauritania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. 19. Statements were made by the representatives of the following major groups: the Ikono-Ini Youth Consultative Assembly; Comisiones Obreras, Spain; EsKOM/Business Action for Sustainable Development; the Swedish Farmers’ Association; and the International Council for Science. 20. The summary prepared by the Chairman, an advance version of which was circulated in an informal paper, read as follows: “Leading to renewed and stronger commitment to global solidarity “1. Lack of political will was identified as a principal cause of slow progress in the implementation of Agenda 21. A renewal of commitment to the integration of environmental, economic and social pillars of sustainable development through a global coalition of Governments, international organizations and civil society needs to be carried out through increased partnerships and cooperation among relevant sectors. Overall, the discussion reflected agreement that an inclusive approach involving consultation with local communities and stakeholders should provide the basis for continued efforts to define and implement concrete actions.“7. 工商业界表示感谢各国政府说明深信商业界能够通过市场机制在可持续发展方面发挥作用,并说明必须促进在技术转让方面开展合作和消费者、特别是青年发挥作用。他们注意到各方对商业界在开展伙伴关系的行动和基层项目时将以很高的水平来作出裁断,并且支持商业界向国际机构提出创建合作环境投入的体制。他们确认,必须促进建设支持和信任的问责制和公开的具报行动,重申愿意与在这方面同其他主要团体和各国政府开展合作。
“2. Some participants highlighted links among environment, trade, peace accords, military arms reduction, the implementation of the Monterrey agreement and developing the values of democracy within a sustainable development framework. They supported adherence to the principles of freedom, equality, tolerance and respect for nature, and proposed international networks for science that reach across political, religious and social boundaries as a basis for global solidarity.“8. 科学和技术界阐明了以知识社会为基础的可持续未来社会前景,科学和技术界在这方面将发挥领导作用。他们强调说明了过去10年在科学和技术方面取得的进展和日益需要争取更准确科学数据的情况。他们指出,必须利用针对政策的科学来制订决策,强调发达国家和发展中国家在研究和发展方面的支出存在的差距,并作出承诺,除其他外,通过针对生态系统和社会系统的互相依存和互动而采取的措施,包括具有地方和区域贡献与特色的措施,以期消弭这种差距。他们提议设置可持续发展委员会科学和技术问题咨询小组,作为可持续发展委员会与科学家之间的正式联系机构。
“3. Sustainable development could be achieved through a sustainable development coalition given the common but differentiated responsibilities of nations. This requires mobilization to involve everyone in understanding and implementing sustainable development. The Commission on Sustainable Development should be strengthened to follow up implementation of the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.“9. 农人说明,农业应当在首脑会议的后续行动中占中心地位。他们扼要介绍决心通过与北方的农人组织合作来加强能力建设,帮助加强南方的农人组织;与农业领域的其他机构增强伙伴关系,特别是与区域和国家两级的伙伴关系;并将继续努力参与各国政府的可持续农业方案。他们呼吁各国政府遵守其支持这些努力的承诺,并将可持续农业视为国家战略的核心。
“Mobilizing resources to support Millennium development goals and Summit priorities“10. 妇女说明,她们被迫开展斗争,争取各国政府多年来已经在人权领域表示同意的同等权利。她们要求在保健问题和人权方面,应当按照优点来谈判,不应以程序为基础。她们指出,首脑会议没有设置能够负责执行的必要多边机构;认为艾滋病毒/艾滋病、贫穷、债务、战争和好战主义是进步的障碍;并且表示决心争取世界各地的妇女与男子团结一致,促进可持续发展。”
“4. Sustainable development depends on the ability of countries to mobilize domestic and international financial resources. The commitment of several countries at the Monterrey Conference to increase their levels of official development assistance over a period of time is a concrete step towards resource mobilization for poverty reduction. Participants said that foreign direct investment and official development assistance should be complementary and suggested debt cancellation for the poorest countries, and noted the agreement of those countries to raise their official development assistance to 1 per cent of gross national product. The contribution of trade, as discussed at Doha, was mentioned as one of the most significant resources for sustainable development.第六章
“5. Several participants stressed the importance of eliminating unsustainable and trade-distorting subsidies, including harmful agricultural subsidies. It was noted that the $1 billion per day spent in developed countries on agricultural subsidies exacerbated extreme poverty in developing countries by depriving small farmers of export opportunities and of sustainable livelihoods, while increasing overall disparities in wealth between the North and the South. While there was general agreement that world leaders should take action to eliminate harmful agricultural subsidies, most also recognized that this would be a challenging task. One participant said that it is possible to gradually reduce trade-distorting subsidies in a way that is also fair to developed-country farmers.圆桌会议
“6. The HIV/AIDS pandemic and hunger in Africa require more creative ways of mobilizing resources. Increased support from the Global Environment Facility and the World Bank should be given to educational and research institutions, the Global AIDS and Health Fund could be complemented by a global fund for poverty alleviation, and an international solidarity fund could mobilize action through civil society — for example, in the aftermath of natural disasters in developing countries that require relief assistance.1. 按照筹备委员会第2002/PC/6号决定,首脑会议在议程项目11之下就主题“实事实办”于2002年9月2日至4日举行了四次圆桌会议。为本项目的审议,首脑会议收到秘书处的一份说明,转递首脑会议主席为圆桌会议编写的讨论文件(A/CONF.199/L.5)。圆桌会议讨论情况如下。
“7. There was general agreement that Governments must increase support to institutions that can build basic human resource capacity and allow community-based organizations to contribute to sustainable development. The private sector, for its part, should stimulate community action through the planning of social and economic development efforts. Small farmers need to acquire education and the means to build capacities to participate in markets. International institutions should provide continuing support for these efforts.圆桌会议1
“8. It was proposed that care should be taken not to impose a donor-driven agenda in implementation and to avoid the creation of new bureaucracies. Recognizing that States represent national interests and private organizations answer primarily to their shareholders, there was support for the creation of a global non-governmental organizations that could pragmatically address poverty, health, education and other issues on a voluntary basis, with contributions from the private sector, including resources, technology and support for free and fair trade.2. 2002年9月2日,担任圆桌会议1主席的波兰总统亚历山大 克瓦希涅夫斯基主持圆桌会议开幕,作了发言。
“Mobilizing resources to support Millennium development goals and Summit priorities3. 下列各国代表发了言:乌克兰、奥地利、毛里求斯、印度尼西亚、沙特阿拉伯、乌干达、泰国、巴基斯坦、秘鲁、马里、萨尔瓦多、阿尔及利亚、埃及、越南、挪威、拉脱维亚、汤加、库克群岛。
“9. Ensuring a coherent and coordinated follow-up to Doha, Monterrey and Johannesburg commitments was considered important, and several participants called on the United Nations to avoid duplication, promote coherence within the United Nations system and establish clear links between the Plan of Implementation and partnership initiatives. Additionally, United Nations bodies should focus on action-oriented and locally embedded strategies that add value.4. 巴勒斯坦观察员作了发言。
“10. Consulting local communities has proved vital to the development of regional and national poverty reduction strategies. Lack of resources is a problem, but development banks have the potential to assist in the education and technology sectors, and industry can accommodate many stakeholders in consultation processes. Environmental action plans, economic development, health, agriculture, and energy efficiency can be implemented with funds from the private sector, loans from development banks and increased levels of employment. Strengthening regional cooperation for implementation is essential in this regard.5. 拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会代表作了发言。
“11. Regarding the national level, it was proposed to create a mechanism to ensure continuity so that a change in national Government does not affect the implementation of international agreements and commitments. Good governance should provide a framework, and partnerships should be supported so their impacts are felt in a context of cooperation and coherent effort. The elaboration of national sustainable development strategies and poverty reduction strategies could be complemented by permanent mechanisms for implementation. Real progress will be seen over time, as stronger links are forged among sectors.6. 联合国防治荒漠化公约代表也发了言。
“Promoting cooperation in the five priority areas of water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity7. 下列各主要群体的代表发了言:世界工程组织联合会;波兰新时代妇女发展运动;国际青年和学生拥护联合国运动;国际商会;马里农会;大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国工会联盟(也代表国际自由工会联合会发言);南非地方政府协会;国际环境网和全球能力。
“12. Partnerships provide a new foundation for sustainable development. One of the basic sustainable development commitments is to strengthen dialogue and empower civil society. An understanding of cultural diversity is also fundamental for making sustainable development happen in a way that is not only effective, but also appropriate for those who stand to benefit. Partnerships need to incorporate a cultural understanding of communities and their value systems in order to successfully meet targets related to energy, biodiversity, clean water and sanitation.8. 主席编写的摘要预发本作为非正式文件分发,其内容如下:
“13. Investments in initiatives for children’s health, including work with reporting and developing indicators on children’s health, water and sanitation, and air pollution, were seen as important. Clear actions to deliver water and sanitation to the rural poor should involve investment in rural infrastructure and engage non-governmental organizations, empower women and youth and monitor implementation. The belief that water is an unlimited resource must end.“1. 首先,主席重申里约会议和蒙特雷会议,以及千年首脑会议和儿童问题世界首脑会议所做承诺。他指出,尽管每次会议都有新的贡献,但还需要可持续发展问题世界首脑会议进一步激励,以便应付各重大问题,例如贫穷、饥荒、饥饿、环境退化、不可持续的生产和消费形式。主席注意到与会者怀抱信心,认为首脑会议通过的执行计划对于应付上述问题将能提供一些解答。 “对全球团结重申更坚决的承诺
“14. Participants from African countries highlighted problems of drought, desertification and health. The problem of desertification in the Sahel region requires substantial funds to maintain roads, wells and the social infrastructure and living conditions of rural and urban communities. In that region, the inclusion of farmers and trade unions in efforts to address the WEHAB areas was mentioned as an example of dealing with such challenges in an inclusive manner, illustrating the relationship between implementing sustainable development and ensuring decent working conditions.“2. 安全、稳定、和平和尊重人权,以及善政是可持续发展的基本要求。对全世界贫穷者必须确保正义才能消除贫穷。应发展负责任并基于权利的合伙关系而不破坏可持续发展的社会基础。全球一级和区域一级的新伙伴关系、民间社会和政府之间的联盟以及地方社区的积极参与是前进的希望。然而,对全球团结重新作出的坚决承诺必须要以政府的政治意愿为基础。同时补充以强有力的执行计划和合作行动。
“Bringing scientific knowledge to bear on decision-making and ensuring affordable access to critical technology and scientific knowledge“调集资源以支持千年发展目标和首脑会议优先事项
“15. The Millennium Declaration addresses universal education and notes the need to increase enrolment rates. The problem of brain drain was highlighted, and proposals were heard regarding the introduction of new technologies into development programmes and the integration of relevant sectors for information sharing. Official development assistance should be used for optimum benefit in developing countries.“3. 过去十年来官方发展援助在国民生产总值中所占百分比有所下降,一些与会者同意,官方发展援助的指标不仅要达到,而且要提高才能确保发展中国家得到充分的资源来消除贫穷。虽然官方发展援助不应成为一种不可持续的慈善行动,一些与会者强调说,发达国家应调动资源方向,在最贫穷国家建立企业资本资金来刺激南方国家的投资。饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性问题可以指导官方发展援助资源的优先方向。 “4. 私营部门和政府间的明确目标、问责制、同级审查、相信伙伴关系和防止贪污经强调是为消除贫穷吸引投资获得成功的关键。私营部门可作为改革的促进因素,但需要保证,就是法律和政治框架能促进稳定的投资以及公共部门的支助。
“16. Investments in science and technology are necessary to increase the scientific and technological knowledge base in developing countries. Investment in educational programmes is crucial to reverse the decline in science and technology research in developing countries. Networks and institutions are in place, but they need to be utilized to make science relevant to the integration of the three pillars of sustainable development. One participant called for triangular cooperation among finance providers, developing countries that have made advances in developing technology, and recipient countries involved in South-South technology transfer.“5. 全球化必须成为定案,多边贸易体系必须是人人均等。发达国家取消贸易壁垒以及大幅度贸易自由化才能为发展中国家以及转型经济国家提供新的贸易机会。然而,某些人认为,贸易自由化往往成了解决可持续发展的办法,使讨论转向那些控制贸易自由化的方面,而不再讨论地方社区的权利。
“Recommendations from participants“6. 若干与会者强调说,转型经济国家应参与发展,融入全球经济体系。此外,必须提供资金专门为农村地区创造就业机会,必须制订财政上可行的项目,并提供方便,满足信贷需要。
“17. Recommendations included the following:“7. 调集资源不仅仅是财政和技术资源,还包括人力资源。社会发展问题世界首脑会议应对调集人力资源提供解决办法。若干与会者强调要有创收的就业机会才能消除贫穷,另一与会者指出,扩大就业机会的同时必须改善就职条件,包括健康和安全标准。两性平等也受到强调,特别是妇女权利。若干与会者指出公民获得信息和权力的重要性。
Establish a global fund for poverty alleviation, similar to the Global AIDS and Health Fund“8. 可持续发展行动应顾及土著人民特殊的社会和经济条件和文化特征。许多人强调,各项方案应同地方团体、包括妇女、青年和土著人民协商执行。承认土地权和自决权,以及一种有助于改进国家政策的基于权利的解决贫穷办法是加强地方团体和土著社区的必要条件。
Create a mechanism to ensure continuity so that a change in national Government does not alter prior international agreements and commitments“提高国家和国际机构的协调一致性及其综合可持续发展三个组成部分的能力
Invest in science and technology to increase the scientific and technological knowledge base in developing countries“9. 里约会议以来的进展包括法律制度的改善以及区域一级和民间社会的可持续发展行动。全世界许多地区的体制建设取得进展。一些与会者强调必须通过政府的财政、贸易、工业、采矿和农业等部门将环境考虑纳入经济议程的主流。这应该是下一个十年的主要任务。国家可持续发展战略提供了国家一体化与合作的途径。有人强调说,所有各级的综合体制网络是协调一致执行可持续发展政策的必要条件。
Promote coherence within the United Nations and establish clear links between the Plan of Implementation and partnership initiatives“10. 区域可持续发展战略有助于区域一级的合作和一体化。欧洲联盟饮水倡议、高山公约、非洲发展新伙伴关系以及区域海洋倡议框架都是综合区域行动的实例。有人指出,开发银行体系已很健全,可以有效协助拉丁美洲和加勒比经济委员会地区各项协定的执行。
Consider the possibility of creating a global non-governmental organization that could pragmatically address poverty, health, education and other issues.”“11. 若干与会者强调地方社区容易受到气候变化现象的危害,特别是自然灾害,并在经济和社会上承受严重后果。他们认为国际社会有义务协助减少这种危害,应该支助区域行动,国际上则应批准《京都议定书》。
Round table 4“12. 关于体制改革,一些与会者指出国际机构的多样和多层现象。某一与会者建议经济及社会理事会作为一个论坛来确保联合国系统与可持续发展有关的政策之间的协调一致。可持续发展委员会应落实首脑会议的决策和合作倡议。在国家一级上,许多人同意国家政府应进一步承认地方政府。 “促进饮水和卫生、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性五个优先领域的合作 “13. 有人着重指出必须实施方便可行的饮水和卫生项目。关于生物多样性,有人强调需要特别的生态网络,并应找出平衡生物多样性和能源需求的办法。可持续发展直接关系到农业生产者,若干与会者指出,冲突地区农耕地遭到破坏,水资源浪费以致生产下降。有人表示支持关于取得饮水、取得可再生能源并协助有效利用资源进行能源消费的活动。若干与会者呼吁紧急地以公平办法来提供农业补助。另一些人指出,不可持续的生产和消费形式必须改变。 “使科学知识影响决策,并确保有能力取得关键性的技术和科学知识 “14. 决策必须基于健全的科学分析。若干与会者强调指出可靠的数据不足,特别是区域一级。在饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性方面,足够的知识和技术是存在的,但并不容易取得。转向可持续发展进程的现代技术费用昂贵,购买力较低者没有多少机会获取并受益于新的信息和技术。必须要进行能力建设才能应用已有的科学知识和相应的技能。若干与会者指出,发达国家公共部门现有大量的技术和相应的知识可以合理价格向发展中国家提供。 “与会者的建议 “15. 建议如下: 履行官方发展援助承诺并促使外国直接投资流向发展中国家。官方发展援助的对象特别应该是那些获得外国直接投资机会有限的最不发达国家; 制订财政上可行的项目和信贷办法、区域和全球合作、和平与发展、能力建设和经济稳定; 在私营部门强烈支助下开创环境服务市场; 增加全球环境资金,简化程序并提高透明度; 批准《京都议定书》使之尽早生效; 承认自决权和土著社区的土地权。” 圆桌会议2
21. On 4 September 2002, the Chairman of round table 4, Bharrat Jagdeo, President of Guyana, opened the round table and made a statement.9. 2002年9月3日,担任圆桌会议2主席的伊朗伊斯兰共和国副总统兼环境部部长马苏梅 埃博特克尔主持圆桌会议开幕并作了发言。
22. Statements were made by the representatives of Morocco, Belize, Cape Verde, Paraguay, Canada, Switzerland, Solomon Islands, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, the Gambia, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.10. 下列各国代表发了言:委内瑞拉、中国、蒙古、日本、印度、巴西、马尔代夫、匈牙利、亚美尼亚、马来西亚、斯洛伐克、中非共和国、南斯拉夫、加蓬、加纳、新西兰、古巴、基里巴斯、纳米比亚、尼泊尔和芬兰。
23. Statements were made by the representatives of the following specialized agencies, organizations, funds and programmes: the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme.11. 主管经济和社会事务副秘书长答复了讨论期间提出的几点问题。
24. Statements were made by the observers for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme.12. 世界卫生组织和西亚经济社会委员会代表作了发言。
25. Representatives of the following major groups also made statements: the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development; the International Federation of Agricultural Producers; the Third World Academy of Sciences; the Women’s Network for Sustainability; the Asamblea Nacional de los Pueblos Indígenas por la Autonomía; the World Association of Cities and Local Authorities; the Global Ecovillage Network; and the National Youth Commission of South Africa.13. 联合国气候变化框架公约代表作了发言。
26. The Chairman made concluding remarks.14. 国际科学理事会代表也发了言。
27. The summary prepared by the Chairman, an advance version of which was circulated in an informal paper, read as follows:15. 主席作了总结。
“Leading to renewed and stronger commitment to global solidarity16. 主席编写的摘要预发本作为非正式文件内分发。其内容如下:
“1. Participants expressed the importance of multi-stakeholder processes. One participant described the process of developing a matrix to set priorities to reshape national policies, involving all stakeholders. The Plan of Implementation needs to be carried out in both developed and developing countries and can be an important tool in formulating a new rationale for tackling global issues, creating alliances and gaining public support. The Summit has underscored the importance of a multilateral approach, and will provide new impetus to engage major groups, as well as the media, continuously for the cause of implementation. “2. Systemic approaches at the local level should prioritize renewable energy, water supply and sanitation, social family support schemes, cultural diversity, reciprocity and cooperation. One participant supported a new paradigm of social development based on empowering local communities, economic justice and ecological compassion. Another proposed national, regional and global youth councils.“1. 主席注意到与会者讨论了贫穷、负债、缺乏必要资源、缺乏保健服务、卫生和淡水供应、贸易方面问题,包括补助、关税和初级产品价格、数字分化和环境所受影响等问题。
“Mobilizing resources to support Millennium development goals and Summit priorities“2. 一些与会者认为全球增温是个令人担忧的问题,特别是对小岛屿发展中国家和其他脆弱国家而言。小岛屿发展中国家的与会者对于国内某些只超出海平面1或2米的地区海平面上升十分担忧。另一些国家谈到严苛的气候条件对农业和畜牧业的不良影响,这在大幅度依赖农业和畜牧业的国家问题特别严重。有人提到地方人民的能力建设是协助调整适应变化环境的一个重要工具。
“3. The discussion on mobilizing financial resources revolved around issues of meeting official development assistance targets, national budgets tied to servicing foreign debt, the potential of foreign direct investment for implementing sustainable development initiatives and creating an investment-friendly environment, and the need for international cooperation on the problems of smuggling and tax evasion.“对全球团结重申更坚决的承诺
“4. Perceptions of mismanagement of official development assistance were also discussed. Several participants felt that the view that official development assistance is wasted needs to be changed through evidence of effective use. Others responded that up to 70 per cent of official development assistance funds identified for specific countries do not actually end up being spent in those countries. Rather than relying on official development assistance, an investment-friendly climate should be fostered. Small-country participants felt that their voice was not heard by the international financial institutions, and that the response to the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative was very slow. They called on those institutions to accelerate the process. However, some participants noted that small countries are at a disadvantage in attracting foreign direct investment because they lack economies of scale. Trade barriers can sometimes negate official development assistance applications. Some measures, including a 0.5 per cent tax on regional trade to generate funds to improve infrastructure and a Tobin tax on international financial transactions, were suggested.“3. 从广泛角度来评估执行工作,则往往强调政治意愿的重要性。舆论和认识是建立并保持这种决心的强大动力。有人强调说,可持续发展目标的实施必须要应用共同承担但彼此有别的责任原则。
“5. The recognition that business can and should be part of the solution is a positive outcome of the Summit, as was discussed in detail by a number of participants. Some shortcomings of non-governmental organizations, such as difficulty in obtaining long-term funding, were noted. Regarding forestry, for example, the private sector can more effectively address reforestation by working with small farmers, and through land and forest stewardship, providing incentives for conservation. Companies are potential partners not just for funding but also as a means for implementing environmental projects. “6. Many private companies want to demonstrate that they have become environmentally and socially responsible. They face questions about legitimacy and are increasingly keen to establish links to environmental activity, and developing countries should try to take advantage of this. Businesses are acknowledging that trust and responsibility are essential to credible efforts in meaningful partnership, such as the Global Compact Initiative. The representative of the business community noted that sustainability for business is an opportunity; responsibility is the standard by which countries will be judged; accountability is an obligation they must assume; and partnership is the pathway that they will pursue in the future.“4. 一些与会者指出,和平与发展是经济增长和发展以及保护环境的必要先决条件。可持续发展在冲突、动乱和战争的地区和国家是不可能做到的。
“7. Capacity-building should begin at the local level and be augmented by Governments and non-governmental organizations, using education as a means to further development. Education and capacity-building should be linked through work carried out in the field that allows for a practical transfer of human resources and skills. Education was suggested as a sixth priority to add to WEHAB. Education should be specifically targeted at women and girls. “8. There is a need to create small- and medium-scale entrepreneurs and jobs, especially in least developed countries, in such areas as renewable energy supply at the local level. Investments in the maintenance of small-scale water and energy systems can create jobs and contribute towards alleviating poverty. Resource mobilization for cities is needed to improve housing conditions and address rapid urbanization.“调集资源以支持千年发展目标和首脑会议优先事项
“9. Several participants noted that in spite of their efforts in training skilled people, many young and educated people left their countries in search of better jobs. Some compensation should be given when international firms actively recruit their skilled people.“人力资源发展 “5. 圆桌会议讨论期间,一些与会者强调教育和健康作为可持续发展关键成份,特别是消除贫穷的重要性。与会者强调必须要进行人力资源发展才能为今后的经济增长打下基础,并实现社会发展和环境保护。优先事项之中特别指出了普及教育,特别是女童教育。有人提到健康和教育之间的关系,必须要能提供饮水和适当卫生并消除疾病才能创造有助于发展的条件。 “6. 能力建设是人力发展以及可持续发展其他各方面的基石。某一与会者说,在他本国内,文化教育和民族特征是人的尊严的一个必要成份。必须要有这种集团的归属感才能保持一个健康的可持续的社会。
“10. Pro-poor budgeting for women is needed to harness their intelligence and abilities. Partnership initiatives should also bear in mind the rights of local and indigenous communities to be consulted, recognizing their rights to self-determination and prior informed consent.“财政资源
“Improving coherence and consistency in national and international institutions and their capacity to integrate the three components of sustainable development“7. 会议上特别强调有必要筹集资金并调动新的额外资源来实施《21世纪议程》以及约翰内斯堡协定和承诺。一些与会者感到关切的是项目提案不容易找到捐助者。分配给项目的资金有太大一部分用于项目核可和管理过程。这种安排应加以改善,确保较大部分的资金用于项目本身。 “8. 清洁发展机制经指出是旨在对抗气候变化的一个新资金来源。这一机制是透明的,涉及所有利益攸关者,包括私营部门。 “9. 有人提议建立一个国际人道主义基金来满足消除贫穷、保健、卫生和教育以造福贫穷人口的目标,这项提议得到广泛支持。资金的来源是发展中国家偿还的外债的一部分,从非法药品贩运收益和贪污所得资金海外存款中没收的款项中的一部分以及从大款额财政交易中收取的税金。还有人建议考虑从发展全球公共物品抽取全球税金的可能性。 “10. 会议中反复强调的是发达国家应履行承诺,将总产值的0.7%作为官方发展援助提供给发展中国家。会上提到的其他重要资金来源有国内储蓄和私人投资。 “11. 二次大战后的《马歇尔计划》经指出为提供可持续发展援助的可能模式。 “12. 许多发展中国家沉重的债务负担经指出是为可持续发展调集国内资源的一个主要障碍。许多人建议取消或调整债务。还有人提议偿债额不超过预算资源的10%。 “13. 贸易和外国直接投资也是调集财政资源的重要手段。因此有人呼吁取消扭曲市场的补助和贸易壁垒。还有人呼吁扩大发展中国家进入市场的机会。 “14. 金融市场不稳定是发展的一个主要障碍。若干与会者关切的是脆弱经济没有能力预测市场的大幅度波动以及最近一连串的危机。有人指出,现有的国际金融机构还没有能力充分解决这些问题。因此有必要加强并改革这些机构。 “提高国家和国际机构的协调一致性及其综合可持续发展三个组成部分的能力 “15. 有人着重指出应均衡整体地看待可持续发展的三个支柱部门。综合办法虽不是新概念,但还需进一步发展。目前国际上还没有议定的工具在政策和方案规划和发展中采用综合办法。这项缺陷应设法加以纠正。 “16. 有人强调,必须要有国际和区域组织和其他行动者之间的合作与协调才能实现可持续发展。国家一级则需要各部门之间的进一步协调。 “17. 非洲发展新伙伴关系是一个可能获得成功的合作行动,各方都要求国家之间的进一步合作。发展中国家之间以及发达国家和发展中国家彼此应分享信息和经验。 “促进饮水和卫生、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性五个优先领域的合作 “18. 人力资源发展是解决饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等方面问题的重要部分。贫穷人口获得能源是可持续发展的一个主要条件。有人提到发电,特别是核发电的安全问题。发展中国家必须要有更多的财政和技术援助来解决这些问题,并发展其他能源。有人关切的是目前不可持续的消费形式对自然资源产生不利影响。 “使科学知识影响决策,并确保有能力取得关键性的技术和科学知识 “19. 与会者强调发展中国家在科学技术方面进行国家能力建设以及国际合作便利发展中国家取得技术和相应知识的重要性。 “20. 有人强调经济增长和发展以及科学和技术进展所得利益公平分享的重要性。一些与会者指出,知识产权制度应确保使用原始资源和传统知识所得利益更公平地与来源国分享。 “21. 需要进一步的技术转让,需要缩小数字分化。应设立英才中心和高等教学机构来进行国家一级技术发展的能力建设。这种技术应适应国家的处境和条件。例如,信息通信技术目前是全世界一个强大的增长动力,但发展中国家却落在潮流之后。 “22. 尽管发展中国家的目标是达到与工业化国家相应的发展水平,但在促进向发展中国家转让技术使它们能发展的同时要避免环境退化。 “23. 以健全的科学考虑影响政策和决策是解决饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性问题的基本条件。技术必须要同科学界和决策者密切结合才能有效用于实现可持续发展。政府间气候变化小组是这方面取得成功的一个实例。 “与会者的建议 “24. 建议如下: 设立一个国际人道主义基金为贫穷人口实现消除贫穷、保健、卫生和教育的目标; 建立一个国家间同级审查的制度以确保承诺和长期执行约翰内斯堡实施计划。这就需要一个体制性的后续机制来进行审查,联合国是一个可行的场所; 教育投资是消除贫穷和可持续的一个要素; 增加社会某些部门的消费水平以便减轻贫穷,同时限制发达国家的高消费水平,以达成可持续的全球消费率; 高度负债的发展中国家偿债额最高不超出国家预算资源的10%; 发展科学技术以解决回收和清洁技术问题; 考虑以全球性税收来发展公共服务的可能性。” 圆桌会议3 17. 2002年9月3日,圆桌3的主席——瑞典首相约兰 佩尔松——宣布会议开幕并发了言。 18. 以下国家代表发了言:爱尔兰、莫桑比克、以色列、苏丹、美利坚合众国、突尼斯、卢森堡、危地马拉、阿根廷、荷兰、瑞士、尼日尔、毛里塔尼亚和前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国。 19. 以下重要团体的代表发了言:Ikono-Ini青年协商大会;工人委员会(西班牙);Eskom促进可持续发展企业行动会;瑞典农场主协会;国际科学理事会。 20. 主席编写的总结如下(预发本已作为非正式文件分发): “导致对全球团结作出新的、更有力的承诺 “1. 缺乏政治意愿是执行《21世纪议程》进展缓慢的主要原因。需要通过各国政府、国际组织和民间社会的全球联盟来对可持续发展的环境、经济和社会支柱的一体化作出新的承诺,这就需要相关部门加强伙伴关系和合作。总的来说,讨论中体现了这样的共识:,一种鼓励参与的方法——与地方社区和利益相关者协商——应提供一种基础,在此基础上可继续努力,制定并实施具体的行动。 “2. 一些与会者着重指出了以下各种问题的相互联系:环境、贸易、和平协定、削减武器、执行《蒙特雷协定》以及在可持续发展的框架内发展民主价值观。他们支持遵从自由、平等、容忍和尊重自然等项原则,并建议发展跨越政治、宗教和社会界限的国际科学网络,以此作为全球团结的基础。 “3. 鉴于各国共有、但不尽相同的责任,通过一个可持续的发展联盟,可持续发展是能够实现的。这就需要调动每一个人来理解和实施可持续发展。应加强可持续发展委员会,让它就执行可持续发展问题世界首脑会议达成的文件进行后续工作。 “调动资源以支持千年发展目标和首脑会议优先任务 “4. 可持续发展取决于各国能否调动国内和国际金融资源。一些国家在蒙特雷会议上作出的在一段时间内逐步增加官方发展援助的承诺是在调动资源减贫方面的一项具体步骤。与会者指出,外国直接投资和官方发展援助应该互相补充,并建议免除最穷国家的债务,他们还注意到一些国家关于将其官方发展援助提高到国民生产总值1%的协议。与会者提到,贸易的贡献是可持续发展的最重要的资源之一,这一点在多哈会议上已经讨论过。 “5. 一些与会者强调了以下行动的重要性:消除不可持续的、扭曲贸易的补贴,包括有害的农业补贴。有人指出,发达国家每天花10亿美元用于农业补贴,这加剧了发展中国家的极端贫困,因为这种补贴剥夺了小型农场主的出口机会和可持续生计,同时还加剧了北方和南方之间的贫富不均。普遍的共识是,世界领导人应采取行动,消除有害的农业补贴,但同时大多数人也看到,这是一项艰巨的任务。有一位与会者说,存在着一种可能性,即采取一种逐步减少扭曲贸易的补贴的方法,这一方法同时对发达国家的农场又不失公平。 “6. 面对艾滋病毒/艾滋病在非洲的流行以及那里的贫困问题,需要以更富创造性的方法来调动资源。全球环境基金和世界银行应向教育和研究机构提供更多的支持,可设立一项全球减贫基金来补充全球艾滋病和健康基金;如果设立一项全球团结基金,就可以通过民间社会来展开行动,例如,在发展中国家发生自然灾害之后并需要救济援助时可展开行动。 “7. 存在一种总体的共识,即各国政府必须对那些能够建立基本的人力资源能力的机构提供更多的支持,并让社区一级组织为可持续发展作出贡献。就私营部门而言,它应通过规划社会和经济发展努力来激发社区行动。小型农场主需要获得教育和手段,以取得参与市场的能力。国际社会应对这些努力提供持续的支持。 “8. 有人提出,应注意在执行中不要强加一种捐助者说了算的工作方法,并且要避免设立新的官僚机构。认识到国家代表着国民利益,私营组织主要对其利益相关者负责,因此,有人支持设立一个全球非政府组织,这一组织通过私营部门的捐助——包括资源、技术和支持自由公平贸易等方面的帮助,应能够以志愿的形式务实地处理贫穷、保健、教育和其他问题。 “调动资源以支持千年发展目标和首脑会议优先任务 “9. 与会者认为,确保对多哈、蒙特雷和约翰内斯堡等各项承诺采取连贯协调的后续行动十分重要,有几位与会者要求联合国避免工作重复、促进联合国系统内的连贯一致,并在《执行计划》与各项伙伴合作诚意之间建立明确的联系。此外,联合国机构应着眼于那些能够增值的面向行动、土生土长的战略。 “10. 事实证明,在制定区域和国家减贫战略时,与当地社区协商至关重要。缺乏资源是一个问题,但是各开发银行有援助教育和技术部门的潜力,在协商活动中,工商界可以向许多利益相关者提供便利。环境行动计划、经济发展、保健、农业和能源效率,这些方面的工作都可以利用私营部门的资金、开发银行贷款以及就业增长来进行。因此,加强执行工作方面的区域合作十分关键。
“11. At the international level, United Nations agencies and programmes should streamline a process whereby country reports can be submitted using only one format, to avoid duplication. One participant noted that the United Nations Development Group works to facilitate better coordination at the country level among the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes. He also stated that better coordination with OECD, the World Bank and others outside the system should be improved.“11. 与会者建议,在国家一级建立一种确保连续性的机制,在这样的机制下,国家政府的更替不会影响国际协定和承诺的执行。善政应创造一种环境,应支持伙伴关系,使之对合作和连贯一致的努力产生影响。除了制定国家可持续发展战略和减贫战略,还可以辅以永久的实施机制。随着不同部门间更牢固的联系,在一定的时候会看到真正的进展。
“12. Many discussed the effects of desertification and drought in connection with action on water management. Desertification would be best addressed through the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which contains provisions that link combating desertification with sustainable development. Several called for coordinated implementation of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. “13. Cooperation at the regional and national levels is necessary, but international coordination is also required to avoid overlap and wasting resources. One participant noted that the World Urban Forum could serve to stimulate links among all levels for local action. Regional integration can be a catalyst for sustainable development.“在水和环卫、能源、保健、农业和生物多样化等五个优先领域促进合作
“14. Some called for a forum for the poorest small countries to have a voice in promoting broad-based partnerships in international institutions. One participant highlighted regional efforts on behalf of small island developing States, but noted that policy statements emanating from Rio and the Barbados Programme of Action need to be translated into action. A mechanism for advancing the cause of small island developing States in multilateral institutions, including contingent lines of credit for small, disaster-prone States, was suggested. Bodies that promote regional cooperation should link up with international initiatives and promote South-South cooperation through research centres of excellence that work in WEHAB areas, so as to exchange ideas and knowledge and support capacity-building in developing countries. “15. There is a need to use technology and institutional mechanisms to foster a multiplier effect. Ministries of planning should be strengthened to better articulate the integration of sectoral issues. Centres for monitoring water and the environment can measure degradation of soil and watersheds and prevent desertification before it is too late.“12. 伙伴合作关系为可持续发展提供了新的基础。可持续发展的基本承诺之一是加强对话并赋予民间社会权力。要实现可持续发展,对文化多样化的理解也至关重要,这种理解不仅使可持续发展行之有效,而且还使这种发展适合那些应从中获益的人。伙伴合作关系需包括对社区文化及其价值体系的理解,从而成功地实现能源、生物多样化、干净水和环卫等方面的各项目标。 “13. 与会者认为对儿童保健方案的投入——包括报告并制定有关儿童保健、水和环卫以及空气污染的指数——十分重要。向农村地区穷人提供水和环卫服务的明确行动应包括投资于农村基础设施、动员非政府组织参与、赋予妇女和青年权力并监察执行情况。必须打破水资源无限的想法。
“Promoting cooperation in the five priority areas of water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity“14. 来自非洲国家的与会者强调指出了干旱、荒漠化和健康问题。解决萨赫勒地区的荒漠化问题需要有大量的资金,以此来养护公路、水井并维持社会基础设施以及农村和城市社区的生活条件。与会者提到了该地区在解决饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等领域问题时动员了农场主和工会参与,并认为这是以动员参与的方式迎接这方面挑战的一个范例,显示了执行可持续发展和确保像样的工作条件之间的关系。
“16. Regional and global cooperation in the WEHAB areas needs to be promoted to meet the targets for water and sanitation. Coordination for regional implementation or consultations on education in the WEHAB areas should occur regularly to ensure continuous follow-up. The application of science and technology is key to the establishment of water treatment systems in rural areas. “17. Several participants noted that the draft plan of implementation contains a number of agricultural and sustainable development provisions that can inject dynamism into future action. The capacities of farm organizations should be built at the national level, and poverty in rural areas must be addressed in part through land ownership and water resources. Aid organizations working with farmer organizations through farmer-to-farmer exchanges have a greater potential to spread financial and technical assistance.让科学知识影响决策并确保能够获得可负担的重要技术和科学知识
“18. One participant recommended that biodiversity become an asset for mega-biodiverse countries so that it can be valued more accurately. Indigenous communities felt that their stewardship of biodiversity should be recognized as a contribution to the wealth of the world.“15. 《千年宣言》述及了普及教育问题并指出需要增加入学率。与会者着重指出了人才流失问题,并建议将新技术纳入发展方案,合并一些部门,以利于分享信息。应该使官方发展援助在发展中国家产生最大的有利作用。 “16. 为了扩大发展中国家科技知识基础,有必要投资于科技。扭转发展中国家科技研究衰退的关键是投资于教育方案。有关的网络和机构已经存在,但是需要加以利用,使科学对可持续发展三个支柱的一体化产生作用。一名与会者呼吁资金提供者、在技术开发方面取得进展的发展中国家以及参与南南技术转让的接受国进行三方合作。
“Bringing scientific knowledge to bear on decision-making and ensuring affordable access to critical technology and scientific knowledge“与会者提出的建议 “17. 提出的建议包括: 建立一项类似于全球艾滋病和健康基金的全球减贫基金 建立确保连续性的机制,从而国家政府的更替不至于改变以前达成的国际协定和承诺 投资于科技,以扩大发展中国家的科技知识基础 促进联合国内部的连贯一致,并在《行动计划》和各项伙伴合作倡议之间建立明确的联系 探讨是否可能设立一个能够切实处理贫穷、健康、教育和其他问题的全球非政府组织” 圆桌会议4 21. 2002年9月4日,圆桌4的主席巴拉特 贾格迪奥——圭亚那总统宣布会议开幕并发了言。 22. 以下国家的代表发了言:摩洛哥、伯利兹、佛得角、巴拉圭、加拿大、瑞士、所罗门群岛、阿拉伯利比亚民众国、冈比亚、伊拉克和刚果民主共和国。 23. 以下专门机构、组织、基金机构和规划署的代表发了言:联合国教育、科学和文化组织、联合国环境规划署以及联合国人类住区规划署。 24. 经济合作与发展组织以及南太平洋区域环境方案的观察员发了言。 25. 以下重要机构的代表也发了言:英荷皇家壳牌石油公司、促进可持续发展世界商业理事会、国际农业生产者联合会、第三世界科学院、促进可持续发展妇女网络、土著人民争取自治全国大会、世界城市和地方当局协会、全球生态村网络以及南非全国青年委员会。 26. 主席发表了结束语。 27. 主席编写的总结如下(预发本已作为非正式文件分发): “导致对全球团结作出新的、更有力的承诺 “1. 与会者表达了多方利益有关者合作进程的重要意义。一位与会者介绍了制作一种汇总表的方法,这一汇总表列出优先事项,重新确定国家政策并调动所有利益有关者参与。发达国家和发展中国家都需要落实《执行计划》,该计划可以成为一项重要工具,帮助确立解决全球问题的新的理念,建立联盟并争取公众支持。首脑会议强调了多边方法的重要性,它将再次推动重要团体以及媒体持续地参与执行工作。 “2. 地方一级的系统性工作方法应将以下方面列为优先领域:可再生能源、水供应和环卫、社会化家庭支助计划、文化多元、互惠和合作。有一位与会者只是一种新的社会发展模式,该模式的基础是赋予地方社区权力、经济公正以及生态同情。另一位与会者建议设立国家、区域和全球青年理事会。 “调动资源以支持千年发展目标和首脑会议优先任务 “3. 有关调动资金的讨论围绕着以下问题:实现官方发展援助目标、国民预算与偿还外债挂钩、以外国直接投资来实施可持续发展活动的可能性、创造有利于投资的环境以及需要就走私和逃税问题进行国际合作。 “4. 还讨论了有关官方发展援助管理不善的各种看法。一些与会者认为,需要通过有效使用的事实来改变官方发展援助被浪费的看法。其他人对此的看法是,指定用于某些国家的接近70%的资金实际上最后没有用于这些国家。与其依赖官方发展援助,还不如促进一种有利于投资的气候。来自小国家的与会者认为,国际金融机构听不到他们的声音,对重债穷国倡议作出的反应缓慢。他们要求这些机构加速这一进程。但是,一些与会者指出,小国家在吸引外国直接投资方面处于不利地位,因为它们的经济缺乏规模。贸易障碍有时会抵消官方发展援助的作用。有人提议采取一些措施,包括通过征收0.5%的区域贸易税来获得改善基础设施的资金以及对国际金融交易征收托宾税等措施。 “5. 实业界可以并应该是解决问题的途径之一,这一认识是首脑会议的一个积极成果,一些与会者对此作了详细讨论。与会者指出了非政府组织的一些不足之处,如难以获得长期的资金。例如,在森林问题上,私营部门可以更有效地解决造林问题,具体手段包括与小型农场主合作,通过土地和森林委托管理办法,鼓励森林养护。公司不仅有可能成为提供资金的合作伙伴,也可以成为执行环境项目的工具。 “6. 许多私营公司希望表明,它们已采取对环境和社会负责的态度。它们面对合法性问题,日益积极地将自己与环境活动联系在一起,发展中国家应尝试借此良机。工商界开始承认,信赖和责任感对有意义的伙伴合作关系之下令人信赖的努力来说至关重要,这种伙伴合作关系的一个例子是全球契约倡议。工商界代表指出,工商业的可持续性是一种机遇,而责任感是评判各国的标准;交代责任是它们必须承担的义务,伙伴合作关系是它们今后将走的道路。
“19. One participant stressed that political decisions must be based on sound science. Another pointed out that because humankind is destined to make decisions with incomplete scientific knowledge, precaution is a necessary element of decision-making. Another noted that Governments should seek independent and objective scientific advice, that scientists must be recognized as important advisers to Governments and that the opinions provided should be respected. “20. Safe drinking water technologies should be widely diffused by working with business communities to distribute, upgrade and maintain them.“7. 能力建设应始于地方,政府和非政府组织应加强这项工作,并以教育作为进一步发展的工具。教育和能力建设应与实地展开的工作联系起来,从而能够切实地进行人力资源和技能的转让。有人建议在饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等优先任务中加上教育,使之成为第六个优先任务。教育工作应特别针对妇女和女童。 “8. 需要在诸如地方可再生能源供应领域创建中小型企业并创造就业机会,特别是需要在发展中国家这样做。投资于小型水和能源系统的经营有助于创造就业机会和减贫。需要在城市调动资源以改善住房条件并处理迅速都市化所带来的问题。
“Recommendations from participants“9. 一些与会者指出,尽管他们努力培训技术人员,但许多青年人和受过教育的人离开自己的国家以寻找更好的工作。国际公司如果大力招聘技术人员,应提供一些补偿。 “10. 需要有帮助妇女的扶贫预算,使她们的知识和能力发挥作用。伙伴合作倡议还应顾及地方和土著社区发表意见的权利,应承认它们的自决权,并事先征得它们知情后的同意。
“21. Recommendations included the following:“提高国家和国际机构的协调一致及其综合可持续发展三个组成部分的能力
Promote broad-based participation, through coordination with United Nations bodies, with education as the top priority“11. 在国际一级,联合国机构和方案署应简化程序,使提交的国家报告格式统一,并避免重复。一名与会者指出,联合国发展集团作出了努力,推动联合国各机构、基金组织和方案署在国家一级更好地协调。他还指出,应该改善与经合组织、世界银行以及其他联合国系统外组织的协调。 “12. 许多与会者将荒漠化和干旱的影响与水管理行动联系起来讨论。处理荒漠化问题的最好办法是通过《联合国防治荒漠化公约》,该公约的一些条款将防治荒漠化与可持续发展联系在一起。几个与会者呼吁协调地执行《气候变化框架公约 》、《生物多样性公约》和《防治荒漠化公约》。
Pursue regional integration, through specific projects in each country to avoid working in isolation in addressing sustainable development“13. 有必要进行区域和国家两个层次的合作,然而,还需要进行国际协调,以避免重叠和资源浪费。一名与会者指出,世界城市论坛可促成将所有层次的当地行动联系起来。区域一体化可以促进可持续发展。
Achieve a response from the international financial institutions to the needs of small countries and accelerate the response to the HIPC Initiative“14. 一些与会者呼吁设立一个最穷小国论坛,从而在国际机构推动基础广泛的伙伴合作时能够听到它们的声音。一名与会者强调指出了为小岛屿发展中国家所作的区域努力,但他指出,里约会议和巴巴多斯行动纲领所产生的政策声明需要化为行动。有人建议设立一种机制,以便在多边机构中推动小岛屿发展中国家的事业,包括为自然灾害频繁的小国提供应急贷款。推动区域合作的机构应通过在饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等领域开展工作的英才中心,与有关国际举措和促进南南合作建立联系,以交流想法和知识,并支持发展中国家的能力建设。
Develop small- and medium-scale entrepreneurship, especially in least developed countries, as a means of creating jobs and contributing towards poverty alleviation“15. 需要利用技术和体制机制来扩大效果。应加强计划部的力量,以更好地表达各种部门问题的一体性。水和环境监测中心可以测量土地和流域退化程度并及时预防荒漠化。
Encourage aid organizations to work more closely with farmer organizations to facilitate the spread of financial and technical assistance through farmer-to-farmer exchanges“促进饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等五个领域的合作 “16. 需要促进饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等五个领域的区域和国际合作,以实现水和环卫方面的各项目标。应经常地协调有关饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性等领域方面的教育的区域执行和协商工作,以确保采取持续的后续行动。在农村地区建立水处理系统的关键是运用科学和技术。
Base decision-making on sound science, while applying the precautionary approach where information is lacking. Governments should seek out independent, objective scientific advice.”“17. 几位与会者指出,执行计划草案中有一些关于农业和可持续发展的规定,这些规定可以给今后的行动注入活力。应在国家一级建立农场组织的能力,必须解决农村地区贫穷问题,这方面的途径之一是土地拥有权和水资源。与农业者组织合作的援助机构通过农业者之间的交流在扩大金融和技术援助方面有更大的潜力。
Chapter VII“18. 一位与会者建议,生物多样化应成为物种极丰富的国家的资产,从而更精确地确定其价值。土著社区认为,应将它们对生物多样化的维护看作是对世界财富的贡献。
Report of the Main Committee“让科学知识影响决策并确保能够获得可负担的重要技术和科学知识
1. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, the World Summit on Sustainable Development decided to allocate agenda item 12, “Draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development” to the Main Committee, which was to submit its recommendations to the Summit.“19. 一名与会者强调指出,政治决策必须以可靠的科学知识为基础。另一名与会者指出,因为人类注定会在科学知识掌握不全面的情况下做决策,因此,决策过程中谨慎是一个必要的因素。另一名与会者指出,政府应征求独立而客观的科学意见,必须承认科学家是政府重要的顾问,必须尊重他们的意见。
A. Organization of work“20. 应广泛推广安全饮水技术,这方面应与工商界合作,以推广、升级和维持有关技术。 “与会者提出的建议 “21. 提出的建议包括: 通过与联合国机构合作,促进基础广泛的参与,并以教育作为最高优先事项 通过各国具体的项目寻求区域一体化,以避免可持续发展工作中的孤军作战 争取国际金融机构对小国的需要作出反应,并加速对重债穷国倡议的反应 特别是在发展中国家发展中小企业,以此创造就业机会并帮助减贫 鼓励援助机构更密切地与农业者组织合作,通过农业者之间的交流来促进金融和技术援助的传播 以可靠的科学知识作为决策基础,同时,在缺乏信息的情况下采取谨慎态度。政府应征求独立、客观的科学咨询意见。” 第七章 主要委员会的报告
2. The Main Committee held two meetings, on 26 August and 3 September 2002. It also held a number of informal meetings.1. 2002年8月26日,可持续发展问题世界首脑会议第1次全体会议决定把议程项目12“可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案”分配给主要委员会,由主要委员会向首脑会议提出建议。
3. The Main Committee had before it the following documents:A. 工作安排 2. 2002年8月26日至9月3日,主要委员会举行了两次会议,另外还举行了几次非正式会议。 3. 主要委员会收到以下文件:
(a) Note by the Secretariat on organizational and procedural matters (A/CONF.199/3);(a) 秘书处关于工作安排和程序事项的说明(A/CONF.199/3);
(b) Draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (A/CONF.199/L.1);(b) 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案(A/CONF.199/L.1);
(c) Report of the Main Committee (A/CONF.199/L.3);(c) 主要委员会的报告(A/CONF.199/L.3);
(d) Extract from the future draft report of the Main Committee containing the revised draft plan of implementation of the Summit (A/CONF.199/CRP.7).(d) 主要委员会载有首脑会议执行计划订正草案的未来报告草稿摘要(A/CONF.199/CRP.7)。
4. The Chairman of the Main Committee was Emil Salim (Indonesia), who was elected by acclamation at the 1st plenary meeting of the Summit, on 26 August.4. 8月26日,首脑会议第一次全体会议以鼓掌方式选举埃米尔 萨利姆(印度尼西亚)为主要委员会主席。
5. At the Committee’s 1st meeting, Dumisani Shadrack Kumalo, Chairman of the informal consultations, addressed the Committee concerning the status of negotiations on the draft plan of implementation.5. 在委员会第一次会议上,非正式协商主持人杜马萨尼 沙德拉克 库马洛向委员会介绍了执行计划草案的谈判情况。
6. At the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of Argentina and Australia.6. 在同次会议上,阿根廷和澳大利亚代表发了言。
7. At the 2nd meeting, on 3 September, Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini Zuma, Minister for Foreign Affairs of South Africa and ex officio Vice-President of the Summit, made a statement.7. 9月3日第二次会议上,南非外交部长兼首脑会议当然副主席恩科萨扎纳 德拉米尼 祖马发表讲话。
8. At the same meeting, the representatives of Malta, Argentina, Chile and Hungary made statements.8. 在同次会议上,马耳他、阿根廷、智利和匈牙利代表发了言。
9. Also at the same meeting, the Secretary-General of the Summit made a statement.9. 在同次会议上,首脑会议秘书长讲话。
B.B.
Action taken by the Main Committee主要委员会采取的行动
Draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案
10. At its 2nd meeting, the Main Committee had before it the revised draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (A/CONF.199/CRP.7; subsequently issued and transmitted to the plenary as A/CONF.199/L.3/Add.1-13), which was submitted on the basis of informal consultations.10. 在第二次会议上,主要委员会收到根据非正式协商结果提出的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划订正草案(A/CONF.199/CRP.7;其后作为A/CONF.199/L.3/Add.1-13印发及递交全体会议)。
11. At the same meeting, the ex officio Vice-President of the Summit reported on the outcome of informal consultations held on the draft plan of implementation.11. 在同次会议上,首脑会议当然副主席汇报了就执行计划草案举行非正式协商的结果。
12. Also at the same meeting, the representative of the United States of America made a statement.12. 在同次会议上,美利坚合众国代表发了言。
13. At the same meeting, the Assistant Director of the Division for Sustainable Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, made a statement.13 在同次会议上,经济和社会事务部可持续发展司助理司长发了言。
14. At the same meeting, a senior official of the Division of Sustainable Development read out corrections to the revised draft plan of implementation.14. 在同次会议上,可持续发展司一位高级官员宣读了执行计划订正草案的一些更正。
15. Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of Turkey, Tunisia, Australia, Ecuador, Brazil, Denmark, New Zealand, Mexico, Argentina, Norway, Switzerland, the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Republic of Korea, the Holy See, Malta and Guyana.15. 在同次会议上,土耳其、突尼斯、澳大利亚、厄瓜多尔、巴西、丹麦、新西兰、墨西哥、阿根廷、挪威、瑞士、美利坚合众国、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、大韩民国、罗马教廷、马耳他和圭亚那代表发了言。
16. At the same meeting, the Assistant Director of the Division for Sustainable Development made a second statement.16. 在同次会议上,可持续发展司助理司长第二次发言。
17. Also at the same meeting, the representative of Ethiopia made a statement and the representative of Norway made a second statement. The representative of Norway requested that its statement be included in the report of the Main Committee. The statement read as follows:17. 在同次会议上,埃塞俄比亚代表发了言,挪威代表第二次发言。挪威代表要求将其发言列入主要委员会报告。发言内容如下:
“I have a concern to raise in connection with the statement made on behalf of the contact group led by Ambassador John Ashe, making a reference to the opinion held by the contact group concerning negotiations in relation to paragraph 49 of the draft plan of implementation of the Summit, on corporate responsibility and accountability.“我对代表约翰 阿什大使领导的联络小组的发言感到关注,发言中提到联络小组对于首脑会议执行计划草案有关公司责任和问责制问题的第49段谈判所持的意见。
“Norway would like to express the following:“挪威希望提出如下说明:
(a) Informal contact groups do not exist under United Nations procedures, and thus should not be referred to in the formal record of this conference.(a) 联合国的程序没有非正式联络小组的规定,因此,不应在本次会议正式记录中予以提及。
(b) We hold that statements of interpretation related to negotiated paragraphs should be made by countries or formal bodies of the United Nations.(b) 我们认为,对协商议定的段落的解释性声明应由各国或联合国正式机构提出。
(c) We therefore question the making of a statement on behalf of the contact group.”(c) 因此,我们对代表联络小组作出的发言表示质疑。”
18. At the same meeting, the representative of Antigua and Barbuda made a statement.18. 在同次会议上,安提瓜和巴布达代表发了言。
19. At the same meeting, on the proposal of the Chairman, the Committee approved the text of the draft plan of implementation as contained in document A/CONF.199/CRP.7, as amended and orally corrected (subsequently issued and transmitted to plenary as A/CONF.199/L.3/Add.1-13 and Add.1-13/Corr.1 and 2), and recommended it for adoption by the Summit (for the text, see chap. I, resolution 2, annex).19. 在同次会议上,根据主席的提议,委员会核可了A/CONF.199/CRP.7号文件中所载并经修正和口头更正的执行计划草案文本(随后作为A/CONF.199/L.3和Add.1-13/Add.1-13/Corr.1和2号文件递交全体会议),并建议首脑会议予以通过(文本见第一章、决议一、附件)。
20. Also at the same meeting, the Main Committee adopted its draft report (A/CONF.199/L.3).20. 在同次会议上,主要委员会通过了报告草稿(A/CONF.199/L.3)。
Chapter VIII第八章
Adoption of the Political Declaration通过政治宣言
1. At its 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, under agenda item 13, the Summit considered the draft political declaration as contained in document A/CONF.199/L.6/Rev.2 and Corr.1, entitled “The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development”. The President of the Summit, Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa, made some remarks and introduced the draft political declaration.1. 2002年9月4日,在第17次全体会议上,首脑会议在议程项目13下审议了A/CONF.199/L.6/Rev.2和Corr.1号文件中所载题为“可持续发展问题约翰内斯堡宣言”的政治宣言草案。首脑会议主席、南非总统塔博 姆贝基发表讲话,介绍了政治宣言草案。
2. At the same meeting, on the recommendation of the President of the Summit, the Summit unanimously adopted the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and recommended it for endorsement by the General Assembly (for the text, see chap. I, resolution 1, annex).2. 在同次会议上,根据首脑会议主席的建议,首脑会议一致通过《可持续发展问题约翰内斯堡宣言》,并建议大会给予核可(文本见第一章、决议一、附件)。
Chapter IX第九章
Adoption of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development通过可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划
1. At its 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, the Summit considered the draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (agenda item 12), contained in the report of the Main Committee (A/CONF.199/L.3 and Add.1-13 and Add.1-13/Corr.1. 2002年9月4日,在第17次全体会议上,首脑会议审议了主要委员会报告(A/CONF.199/L.3和Add.1-13和Add.1-13/Corr.
1 and 2).1和2)中所载的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案。
2. The Chairman of the Main Committee made a statement in which he introduced the draft report and recommended its adoption by the Summit. The Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development was adopted by the Summit.2. 主要委员会主席发言,介绍了报告草稿,建议首脑会议予以通过。首脑会议通过了《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》。
3. At the same meeting, the representative of Venezuela, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution (A/CONF.199/L.7) whereby the Summit would adopt the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and recommend it to the General Assembly for endorsement. The Summit then adopted the draft resolution (for the final text, see chap. I, resolution 2, annex).3. 在同次会议上,委内瑞拉代表代表联合国会员国中的77国集团成员和中国介绍了决议草案(A/CONF.199/L.7)。根据该决议草案,首脑会议将通过《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》,并建议大会给予核可。首脑会议随后通过该决议草案(最后文本见第一章、决议二、附件)。
4. After the adoption of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, statements were made by the representatives of Switzerland, the Holy See, Venezuela (on behalf of the Group of 77 and China), Mexico, Tunisia, Denmark (on behalf of the European Union), Argentina, Saint Lucia, Brazil, Australia, Turkey, Samoa (on behalf of the Alliance of Small Island States), Ecuador, Peru, Norway, France, Uganda, Chile, Malta (also on behalf of Hungary), Tuvalu, India, El Salvador and the United States of America.4. 《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》通过之后,瑞士、教廷、委内瑞拉(代表77国集团和中国)、墨西哥、突尼斯、丹麦(代表欧洲联盟)、阿根廷、圣卢西亚、巴西、澳大利亚、土耳其、萨摩亚(代表小岛屿国家联盟)、厄瓜多尔、秘鲁、挪威、法国、乌干达、智利、马耳他(也代表匈牙利)、图瓦卢、印度、萨尔瓦多和美利坚合众国代表发了言。
Interpretive statements on the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development关于《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》的解释性声明
5. The representatives of a number of countries submitted statements that they requested the secretariat of the Summit to place on record. Those statements are set out below.5. 若干国家的代表提出了声明,要求首脑会议秘书处将其列入记录。这些声明如下。
6. The representative of Argentina submitted the following written statement:6. 阿根廷代表提出以下书面声明:
The Argentine delegation wishes to make the following interpretive statements:阿根廷代表团要提出以下解释性声明:
The Argentine energy policy is to diversify energy sources, giving preference to renewable energy sources. As a result, the energy production profile in Argentina has always had a sizeable component of renewable energy sources.阿根廷的能源政策着重能源供应来源多样化,并优先着重可再生能源。因此,在阿根廷能源的生产中,可再生能源一直占重要部分。
Legislation has, accordingly, been adopted to promote wind and solar energy, with a view especially to the enormous potential of Argentine Patagonia.在这一背景下,制定了促进风能和太阳能的规范,特别考虑到阿根廷巴塔哥尼亚地区的巨大潜力。
In keeping with this position, Argentina has endorsed the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative on Sustainable Development, which establishes renewable energy goals.基于此一立场,阿根廷支持拉丁美洲和加勒比可持续发展倡议,该倡议订定可再生能源方面的目标。
In addition, Argentina endorses the declaration on renewable energy introduced by the European Union at this Summit.同时,阿根廷共和国支持欧洲联盟在本次会议提出的可再生能源宣言。
It is the understanding of the Argentine Republic that the provisions of the Plan of Implementation are inspired by a respect for human life and human dignity (principle 1 of the Rio Declaration) and that therefore nothing in the Plan can be interpreted as justifying any action that directly or indirectly jeopardizes the inviolability and sacredness of human life from the moment of conception.阿根廷共和国理解,《执行计划》的内容,其精神在于尊重人类生命和人的尊严(《里约宣言》原则1),因此,这个文件的任何部分不能解释为容许直接间接侵害人类生命不容侵犯和神圣的原则。
The Argentine Republic interprets the reference in paragraph 31 (e) of the Plan of Implementation to the allocation of share of fishery resources for straddling stocks and highly migratory fish stocks to mean only the allocation of share of the fishery resources on the high seas.关于《执行计划》第31段,阿根廷共和国的解释是,该段提到跨界鱼类和高度洄游鱼类渔获限额的裁定,指的只是公海渔获限额的裁定。
7. The representative of Australia submitted the following written statement:7. 澳大利亚代表提出以下书面声明:
Australia joins the general agreement on the Political Declaration and Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development on the basis of the following understanding:澳大利亚同其他国家一样普遍同意《政治宣言》和《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》但以如下了解为基础:
Paragraph 44 (o) of the Plan of Implementation is an invitation to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to consider how to promote and safeguard the outcomes of its decision VI/24, adopted at its sixth meeting, held in The Hague from 7 to 19 April 2002.《执行计划》第44(o)段是邀请《生物多样性公约》缔约国会议审议如何促进和保证2002年4月7日至19日在海牙举行的第六次会议通过的VI/24号决定的成果。
In respect of paragraph 106 (d) of the Plan of Implementation, assistance in accessing technologies, knowledge and know-how means providing information on what is available, and the conditions of access to Australia’s publicly owned technology would need to be negotiated between the participating institutions. Technologies, knowledge and know-how held by Australian universities are not “publicly owned”, since while much university research is publicly funded, such funds are explicitly provided without claim by the funding bodies on the subsequent intellectual property.关于《执行计划》第106(d)段,协助获得技术、知识和专长是指提供资料,说明现有哪些技术、知识和专长;获得澳大利亚公共拥有技术的条件要经参加机构之间谈判商定。澳大利亚各大学的技术、知识和专长并非“公共拥有”,因为大学许多研究虽是公共供资,但供资机构在提供资金时,没有对随后的知识产权提出明确要求。
The Political Declaration and Plan of Implementation are without prejudice to Australia’s international rights and obligations, including those under the World Trade Organization Agreement, or the interpretation of those rights and obligations.《政治宣言》和《执行计划》不妨碍澳大利亚的国际权利和义务,包括根据世界贸易组织协定拥有的国际权利和义务,或者对这些权利和义务的解释。
8. The representative of Brazil submitted the following written statement:8. 巴西代表提出以下书面声明:
Brazil wishes to emphasize that it joins the consensus on the Plan of Implementation. The Plan could be better, but it was the agreement that was possible after very intensive, protracted and delicate negotiations. Notwithstanding these conditions, no one can deny that progress has been made in several areas, such as sanitation, chemicals, fisheries, means of implementation and governance. We also note the establishment of the solidarity fund for poverty eradication and the decision to negotiate an international instrument on sharing benefits of the use of biodiversity. This is a major step, and we are initiating a second generation of international agreements based on those adopted in Rio in 1992, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity.巴西要强调的是,巴西同各国一样,一致同意《执行计划》。《执行计划》本可以订得更好,但这是经过非常密集、微妙和长时间谈判之后可能达成的协定。尽管如此,任何人都无法否认,若干领域已经取得进展,如卫生、化学物品、渔业、执行手段和施政等。我们还注意到,为扶贫灭贫建立了团结基金,并决定开展谈判,商定一项分享使用生物多样性所得惠益的国际文书。这是重要的一大步,我们正在1992年里约会议通过的国际协定的基础上,例如《生物多样性公约》,开始拟订第二代国际协定。
Brazil has adhered to the consensus on the paragraphs on energy included in the draft implementation plan adopted by this conference, after realizing that, unfortunately, such consensus was the minimum common denominator possible today.巴西支持本次会议通过的执行计划草案中有关能源问题段落的协商一致意见,同时也认识到,很不幸,这种协商一致意见是目前唯一可能商定的最低限度共同标准。
As the President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, stated on Monday in the plenary, and as the Minister of Environment stressed in the debate held in the contact group that discussed the issue of energy, we came to Johannesburg determined to promote and have recognized by this conference a target of having renewable energy sources provide 10 per cent of total energy consumed by 2010.如巴西总统萨尔南多 亨里克 卡多索星期一在全体会议所指出,以及环境部长在联络小组讨论能源问题的辩论中所强调的,我们到约翰内斯堡来,是决心推动本次会议承认的,到2010年时可再生能源来源占整个能源消费的10%这一目标。
This target has already been agreed by the Latin American and Caribbean countries and is one of the central elements of the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative, adopted by the Ministers of Environment of our region. Our public policies and private sector are geared to that goal.拉丁美洲和加勒比各国早已同意这一目标,这是本区域环境部长通过的拉丁美洲和加勒比倡议中的一项中心环节。我们的公共政策和私营部门都为实现这一目标作好准备。
The results we collectively achieved fell short of our expectations. However, as we compare the text agreed in the Plan of Implementation with the texts agreed in Agenda 21 and at the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, we can see a step forward. We all agreed to substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources and to regularly evaluate progress towards this end. The concept of establishing targets has been clearly included in the international agenda on sustainable development.我们集体取得的成果没有达到我们的期望。不过,如果我们把《执行计划》中商定的文本同21世纪议程和可持续发展委员会第九届会议商定的文本进行比较,我们可以看出已向前迈进了一步。我们大家都同意大幅度增加可再生能源来源在全球所占的比例,定期评估为实现这一目标取得的进展。关于可持续发展问题的国际议程中明确列入了制订目标这一概念。
We will continue to strive for the promotion of renewable energy worldwide. We are prepared to cooperate with Africa and Europe, regions that also have established targets for increasing the share of renewable energy in their total energy supply. We intend to look for arrangements that promote and effectively implement such targets. We believe that the issue of renewable energy must become a central concern of the Commission on Sustainable Development, as the body to be entrusted with the follow-up of Agenda 21 and the outcome of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.我们将继续努力在全世界推广可再生能源。我们愿意同非洲和欧洲开展合作,这两个区域已经制定了在总的能源供应中扩大可再生能源比例的目标。我们打算制定安排,推动更有效实现这些目标。我们相信,可再生能源问题必须作为可持续发展委员会的中心问题,因为委员会负责落实21世纪议程和可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的成果。
In this context, Brazil supports the declaration made by the European Union.在这方面,巴西支持欧洲联盟的声明。
9. The representative of Denmark submitted the following written statement:9. 丹麦代表提出以下书面声明:
It is the understanding of the European Union that the consideration of the possible relationship between human rights and the environment referred to in paragraph 169 of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation should take into account the ongoing work in this area by the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and other governmental and non-governmental bodies.欧洲联盟的了解是,《约翰内斯堡执行计划》第169段中提到的对人权与环境之间可能具有的关系进行审议,应考虑到联合国环境规划署、联合国人权委员会及其他政府机构和非政府机构目前在这一领域开展的工作。
10. The representative of Ecuador submitted the following written statement:10. 厄瓜多尔代表提出以下书面声明:
With reference to paragraph 40 (n) of the Plan of Implementation, the delegation of Ecuador wishes to state the following:关于《执行计划》第40段,厄瓜多尔代表团要提出以下声明:
We underscore the importance of paragraph 40 (n), which advocates enhanced international cooperation to combat the illicit cultivation of narcotic plants, taking into account their negative social, economic and environmental impacts.我们认为第40段非常重要,该段敦促加强国际合作打击非法种植药品作物,考虑到这些作物对社会、经济和环境产生的不良影响。
We consider the eradication of illicit crops absolutely necessary and appropriate. However, we emphasize that the eradication procedures must be carried out by environment-friendly means that do not harm human health, and in such a way as to minimize the negative social and environmental impact locally.我们认为杜绝非法种植绝对必要。但是,我们要强调的是,杜绝过程的进行必须采用无害环境的方法,不影响人的健康,同时尽量减低对当地社会和环境的不良影响。
My delegation maintains that paragraph 40 (n) must be implemented in accordance with the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, especially principle 2, which establishes that States have the right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or under their control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.厄瓜多尔代表团要明确指出,该段的执行应遵循《里约环境与发展宣言》的各项原则,特别是原则2,该原则规定各国有责任按照自己本国的环境政策和发展政策运用自己的资源,并有责任确保在其管辖下或控制下进行的活动不致对国家管辖范围以外别国的环境造成损害。
Ecuador is not faced with the problem of illicit cultivation of narcotic plants and is living in an environment of domestic peace.厄瓜多尔没有非法种植药品作物的问题,而且国内和平。
11. The representative of the Holy See submitted the following written statement:11. 罗马教廷代表提出以下书面声明:
The Holy See, in conformity with its nature and its particular mission, is pleased to join the consensus on the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and expresses its thanks to the people and the Government of the Republic of South Africa and everyone involved in the work that has brought us to the closure of the Summit.罗马教廷遵循其性质和具体使命,很高兴同其他国家一起赞同《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》,并感谢南非共和国人民和政府以及努力工作使得首脑会议圆满成功的所有人士。
The Holy See reaffirms its position that any discussion on development must centre on human dignity and renews its commitment to the Rio Principles, the first of which states that “Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.”教廷重申其立场,即关于发展的任何讨论都必须以人的尊严为中心,并重申其对里约各项原则的承诺,其中第一项原则表示,“人是可持续发展各种关切问题的中心,有权过上健康和富有成效的生活,与自然和睦相处。”
The Holy See only regrets that this first principle did not find its way into the chapeau of each and every section of the document, as a reminder to guide our work here and in every area of sustainable development.教廷感到遗憾的是,此一第一项原则没有列入文件每一章节的开头部分,作为对我们此项工作和可持续发展每项领域里工作的指南。
My delegation is pleased to state that it joins the consensus for adoption without reservation. At the same time, the Holy See reaffirms all of the reservations that it expressed at the conclusion of the various other United Nations conferences and summits, as well as at the special sessions of the General Assembly for the review of those meetings.教廷代表团高兴地表示同其他国家一样赞同无保留地通过这项文件。同时,教廷重申其在联合国其他各项会议和首脑会议结束时,以及在大会关于审查这些会议成果的特别会议上表示的所有保留意见。
12. The representative of India submitted the following written statement:12. 印度代表提出以下书面声明:
At the closing plenary meeting of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, on 4 September 2002, India made an interpretive statement on paragraph 20 (e) of the Plan of Implementation.印度对《执行计划》第20(e)段提出解释性声明。
The representative of India stated that India had a comprehensive approach to energy supply, accorded high priority to renewable energy and was one of the few countries that had a separate Ministry to deal with renewable energy. A country of India’s size and diversity, however, needs to rely on diverse energy sources, and in that context fossil fuel and nuclear energy technologies are equally important. Energy technologies referred to in paragraph 20 (e), in India’s interpretation, include nuclear energy.印度代表表示,印度对能源供应采取一种全面处理方法,高度重视可再生能源,而且印度是单独设立一个部负责可再生能源问题的少数国家之一。不过,像印度这样辽阔多样的国家,必须依赖各种各样能源来源,在这方面,矿物燃料和核能源技术同样重要。印度对第20(e)段中所指能源技术的解释是,它包括核能源在内。
13. The representative of New Zealand submitted the following written statement:13. 新西兰代表提出以下书面声明:
New Zealand’s support for paragraphs 20 (e) and 20 (s) of the Plan of Implementation is given on the understanding that references to energy technologies in these two paragraphs are not interpreted so as to include nuclear energy technologies.新西兰支持《执行计划》第20(e)段和第20(s)段,但有一项了解,即这两段中所指的能源技术,不应解释为包括核能源技术在内。
14. The representative of Norway submitted the following written statement:14. 挪威代表提出以下书面声明:
Norway strongly supports the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. Unfortunately, the wording of paragraph 20 (e), committing us to developing more advanced, efficient and affordable fossil fuel and renewable technologies, may be misinterpreted. Norway agrees to paragraph 20 (e) with the clear understanding that its provisions do not include nuclear power.挪威坚决支持《约翰内斯堡执行计划》。不幸的是,第20(e)段的措辞责成我们开发更先进、更有效和更能担负的矿物燃料和可再生技术,这也可能引起。挪威同意第20(e)段,但有一项明确了解,即该段规定不包括核能源在内。
15. The representative of Peru submitted the following written statement:15. 秘鲁代表提出以下书面声明:
The delegation of Peru thanks the Government and people of South Africa for their generous hospitality and for their important contribution to the outcome of this Summit.秘鲁代表团感谢南非政府和人民的慷慨款待以及对此次首脑会议作出的重要贡献。
The delegation of Peru took part in the adoption by consensus of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit. However, it shares the concern expressed by the President of Venezuela on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement and China; it endorses the statement of the Holy See; and it concurs with the reservations expressed by the delegation of Mexico with regard to vulnerability to climate change, equitable access to the benefits of the development of genetic resources and a respect for traditional knowledge in the matter, and the crucial role of women, especially indigenous women, in sustainable development.秘鲁代表团参与协商一致地通过首脑会议的《执行计划》。但是,它同意委内瑞拉总统以77国集团和中国的名义表达的关注,支持教廷的声明,和支持墨西哥代表团就以下各点提出的保留:气候变化的影响;公平取得使用遗传资源的惠益及尊重相关的传统知识;以及妇女、特别是土著妇女在可持续发展方面可起的关键作用。
In that connection, the delegation of Peru reaffirms its position that the international community must act more forcefully to deal with certain specific consequences of climate change such as the El Niño phenomenon, which regularly affects Peru and the countries of the Pacific Basin with greater intensity and frequency; or the alarming pace of the progressive melting of the glaciers of the Andes range, which is jeopardizing our country’s water supply and hydroelectric energy and also the sustainability not only of the Andes ecosystem but of the Amazon jungle itself.在这方面,秘鲁代表团重申其立场,即国际社会应深化行动,注意气候变化造成的某些具体后果,例如厄尔尼诺现象的情况,这一现象每次都使秘鲁及太平洋流域国家受到严重影响,并且经常发生;以及安第斯山脉冰川惊人的解冰进程危及我国的供水和水力发电能源,而且不仅危及安第斯山脉生态系统的可持续性,也危及亚马孙大森林生态系统的可持续性。
Peru urges the international community to give effect as soon as possible to the Kyoto Protocol, including the implementation of the clean development mechanism, and the development of the market for carbon.秘鲁敦促国际社会执行《京都议定书》,包括执行清洁发展机制及发展碳市场。
Peru is pleased, furthermore, to be a member of the Group of Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries, together with 14 others in that category, and reaffirms its interest in the early start of negotiations, within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity, on an international regime stipulating that the countries of origin must have a fair and equitable share in the benefits arising out of access to genetic resources, and also recognizing the rights of indigenous populations based on their traditional knowledge.秘鲁很高兴参加极多样国家及有关国家行动小组,与其他同样性质的14个国家一道工作;它明确表示希望在《生物多样性公约》的框架内,尽快展开建立一个国际制度的谈判,以期规定发源地国可公平地、合理地分享使用遗传资源所得的惠益,并且承认土著人民运用传统知识的权利。
Lastly, the delegation of Peru states that it will act to meet the regional goal for Latin America set out by the delegation of Brazil, according to which at least 10 per cent of energy will, by the year 2010, be derived from renewable and cleaner sources; it also endorses the declaration by the European Union on the matter. It regrets, however, that it has not been possible during this World Summit to agree on a similar goal shared by the entire international community.最后,秘鲁代表团明确表示,它赞同巴西代表团发表的拉丁美洲区域目标,即到2010年时,至少10%的能源来自可再生的和更清洁的来源;此外,它也支持欧洲联盟关于这一问题的声明,虽然它对此次首脑会议期间未能商定一个整个国际社会都同意的目标,感到遗憾。
16. The representative of Switzerland submitted the following written statement:16. 瑞士代表提出以下书面声明:
Although Switzerland is satisfied that a compromise has been reached on the introductory part of paragraph 54 of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, we would like to reaffirm very clearly our commitment to the resolutions adopted at the Cairo and Beijing Conferences, in particular those relating to preventive and reproductive health. The Swiss Government considers the results of those Conferences to be essential and will continue working to ensure that those achievements are maintained.虽然瑞士对约翰内斯堡《执行计划》第47段起首部分能达成协议感到满意,但我们在此必须非常明确地重申我们对开罗会议和北京会议所通过的决议的承诺,特别是在预防保健和生殖健康方面。瑞士政府认为这两个会议的成果具有根本重要性,它将继续维护这些成果。
With regard to the question of precaution, Switzerland is pleased to note that no country has questioned the increasing importance attached to the concept of precaution since Rio and that that concept has been applied at the international level in several important areas such as chemicals and biosafety. Accordingly, the reaffirmation of principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development cannot be regarded as a rejection of that importance but rather as a recognition that principle 15 constitutes the basis for the incorporation of the precautionary principle into international law.关于预防,瑞士高兴地注意到没有任何国家怀疑里约会议以来预防概念的重大发展,这个概念在国际许多重要领域具体化,例如化学产品或生物安全产品。因此,可持续发展问题世界首脑会议《执行计划》内重申《里约环境与发展宣言》原则15,不能视为否定这一重大发展,而应视为承认原则15作为促进预防原则在国际法上发展的基础。
17. The representative of Tunisia submitted the following written statement:17. 突尼斯代表提出以下书面声明:
Tunisia expresses its great satisfaction at the adoption by the World Summit on Sustainable Development of paragraph 7 (b) of the Plan of Implementation, on the establishment of a world solidarity fund, and firmly believes that this decision constitutes an important breakthrough and a valuable tool in the hands of the international community to fight poverty.突尼斯十分满意的是可持续发展问题世界首脑会议通过《执行计划》中关于成立世界团结基金的第7(b)段,它坚信这项决定是一项重要突破,向国际社会扶贫灭贫提供一项宝贵手段。
Tunisia calls upon the international community and all stakeholders, including Governments, to participate in the setting up of this fund, as mentioned in that paragraph.突尼斯呼吁国际社会和所有利益攸关者,包括各国政府,参加建立该段提到的这项基金的工作。
Tunisia invites all countries to work together in order to finalize during the fifty-seventh session of the General Assembly the modalities for the operationalization of the world solidarity fund and the mobilization of required resources.突尼斯请所有国家一起努力,在大会第五十七届会议期间最后确定世界团结基金的运作方式,并调集所需资源。
18. The representative of Turkey submitted the following written statement:18. 土耳其代表提出以下书面声明:
The approval by Turkey of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development neither prejudices nor affects the position of Turkey concerning the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.土耳其赞成《可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划》,但这不妨碍也不影响土耳其关于1982年《联合国海洋法公约》的立场。
19. The representative of Tuvalu submitted the following written statement:19. 图瓦卢代表提出以下书面声明:
Tuvalu welcomes, with some reservations, the Plan of Implementation. We share the view of other delegations that have expressed disappointment over the fact that the Plan of Implementation does not contain targets and time frames regarding renewable energy. We share the interpretation stated by Norway that any reference to energy in paragraph 20 does not refer to nuclear power.图瓦卢欢迎《执行计划》,但有若干保留。我们同其他代表团一样,对《执行计划》没有列入关于可再生能源的目标和时间框架,感到失望。我们同意挪威代表的解释,即第20段中所提到的能源不包括核能源在内。
We share the views expressed by Saint Lucia with respect to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Tuvalu is a party to the WTO Agreement, and as such we wish to place on record that any reference to WTO in the Plan of Implementation does not imply any obligation upon the Government of Tuvalu.关于世界贸易组织,我们同圣卢西亚持同样看法。图瓦卢是世界贸易组织协定缔约国,因此希望把我国立场写入记录:《执行计划》中任何提到世界贸易组织的地方,不意味图瓦卢政府承担任何义务。
20. The representative of the United States of America submitted the following written statement:20. 美利坚合众国代表提出以下书面声明:
Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development《里约环境与发展宣言》原则7
As the United States of America stated for the record at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the United States understands and accepts that principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development highlights the special leadership role of developed countries, based on their industrial development, experience with environmental protection policies and actions, and wealth, technical expertise and capabilities. The United States does not accept any interpretation of principle 7 that would imply a recognition or acceptance by the United States of any international obligations or liabilities, or any diminution of the responsibilities of developing countries under international law.如美利坚合众国在1992年联合国环境与发展会议上列入记录的发言所指出的,美国理解并接受《里约环境与发展宣言》原则7突出发达国家因其工业发达,拥有环境保护政策和行动方面的经验,和拥有财富、技术专长和能力。应发挥特别领导作用。但美国不接受把原则7解释为意味美国承认或接受任何国际义务或责任,或发展中国家可减轻其在国际法下所负的责任。
The phrase “common but differentiated responsibilities” is contained in the second sentence of Rio principle 7, which provides that “in view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities”. The United States interprets references to common but differentiated responsibilities in the Plan of Implementation in this manner.里约原则7第二句中有“共同但有区别的责任”一词,该原则规定“考虑到各国因在造成全球环境退化方面作用不同而负有共同但有区别的责任”。美国对《执行计划》中共同但有区别的责任一词,就是作这样解释。
Corporate responsibility公司责任
During the conference, the Chairman of the Main Committee stated that it was “the collective understanding” of the contact group on means of implementation that paragraph 49 of the Plan of Implementation, regarding corporate responsibility and accountability, refers to existing intergovernmental agreements and international initiatives, and that this understanding should be reflected in the final report of the conference. The United States associates itself with this statement and notes that this understanding is of critical importance to the proper understanding and implementation of paragraph 49.会议期间,主要委员会主席表示,执行手段问题联络小组的“集体理解”是,《执行计划》中有关公司责任和问责的第49段是指现有的政府间协定和国际倡议,这一理解应反映在会议最后报告中。美国赞同这一说法,并指出,这一理解对正确理解和执行第49段极为重要。
Biological diversity生物多样性
While joining the consensus on the Plan of Implementation, the United States reserves its position with respect to paragraph 44 (o). This paragraph envisages the negotiation “within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity, bearing in mind the Bonn Guidelines, an international regime to promote and safeguard the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources”. In the context of the final negotiations on this paragraph, the words “legally binding” were deleted before the word “regime” at the request of numerous delegations. In the light of this negotiating history, the United States understands that the undertaking envisaged in this paragraph would not entail the development of a legally binding instrument. The United States further considers that this paragraph constitutes an invitation for States to explore non-binding tools to better implement the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Bonn Guidelines, the latter of which were adopted in April of this year. It is the view of the United States that any initiatives in this area must fully accord access to genetic resources and respect rights and obligations under international law.美国加入关于《执行计划》的协商一致意见时,对第44(o)段保留立场。该段设想“在《生物多样性公约》框架内进行谈判,同时考虑到《波恩准则》这一促进并保障公平及公正地分享使用遗传资源所得惠益的国际体制”。在关于该段的最后谈判中,应众多代表团的要求,删除了“体制”二字之前的“具有法律约束力”等字。鉴于这一段谈判历史,美国的了解是,该段设想的工作不会导致制订一项具有法律约束力的文书。美国还认为,该段是邀请各国探讨无约束力的手段,更好地执行《生物多样性公约》和《波恩准则》。《波恩准则》是今年4月通过的。美国认为,这一领域的任何倡议都必须提供充分使用遗传资源的机会,尊重国际法规定的权利和义务。
Health保健
The United States understands that no language in the Plan of Implementation, including references to health, “reproductive and sexual health”, “basic health services” and “health-care services”, or references to rights or freedoms, can in any way be interpreted as including or promoting abortion or the use of abortifacients. Similarly, the United States does not consider any reference in the document to United Nations conferences or summits, including the World Summit for Children, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the International Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for Social Development, and the Fourth World Conference on Women, and their follow-ups, to constitute an endorsement or promotion of abortion. The United States does, however, support the treatment of injuries or illnesses caused by illegal or legal abortion, including, for example, compassionate post-abortion care.美国的了解是,《执行计划》中的任何词语,包括保健、“生殖保健和性保健”、“基本保健服务”和“保健护理服务”。或任何提到权利或自由的地方,绝对不能解释为包括或推广堕胎或使用堕胎药。同样,美国认为,文件中提到联合国各种会议或首脑会议,包括世界儿童问题首脑会议、联合国环境与发展会议、人口与发展国际会议、社会发展问题世界首脑会议、第四次妇女问题世界会议及它们的后续活动的任何地方均不构成赞同或推广堕胎。不过,美国支持治疗非法或合法堕胎造成的伤害或疾病,例如包括堕胎后的细心医护。
Official development assistance官方发展援助
The United States reaffirms that it does not accept international aid targets based on percentages of donor gross national product. The United States does believe that aid should be increased to those developing countries making a demonstrated commitment to governing justly, investing in their own people, and promoting enterprise and entrepreneurship.美国重申,它不接受按捐助国国民生产总值比例制订国际援助指标。美国认为对于明确承诺公正施政,对本国人民投资、推动企业和企业家精神的发展中国家,应给予的增加援助。
Nature of the Plan of Implementation and the Johannesburg Declaration《执行计划》和《约翰内斯堡宣言》的性质
The United States highlights the importance of the Plan of Implementation and the Johannesburg Declaration and notes that, like other such declarations and related documents, these documents adopted at this conference contain important political goals and coordinated plans of action, but do not create legally binding obligations on States under international law.美国强调《执行计划》和《约翰内斯堡宣言》的重要性,并指出,同其他此类宣言和有关文件一样,本次会议通过的这些文件载有重要的政治目标和协调行动计划,但对各国并不产生按照国际法应负的具有法律约束力的义务。
Chapter X第十章
Report of the Credentials Committee全权证书委员会的报告
1. At its 1st plenary meeting, on 26 August 2002, the Summit, in accordance with rule 4 of its rules of procedure, appointed a Credentials Committee having the same composition as that of the Credentials Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations at its fifty-sixth session, namely, China, Denmark, Jamaica, Lesotho, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Singapore, the United States of America and Uruguay.1. 首脑会议在2002年8月26日第一次全体会议上,根据其议事规则第4条任命了一个全权证书委员会,其组成与联合国大会第五十六届会议全权证书委员会相同,即中国、丹麦、牙买加、莱索托、俄罗斯联邦、塞内加尔、新加坡、美利坚合众国和乌拉圭。
2. The Credentials Committee held one meeting, on 29 August 2002.2. 全权证书委员会于2002年8月29日举行了一次会议。
3. María Gabriela Chifflet (Uruguay) was unanimously elected Chairperson.3. 玛丽亚 加芙列拉 希夫莱女士(乌拉圭)被一致选为主席。
4. The Committee had before it a memorandum by the Secretary-General of the Summit dated 29 August 2002 on the credentials of representatives of States and of the European Community to the Summit. A representative of the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat made a statement relating to the memorandum by the Secretary-General of the Summit, in which, inter alia, he updated the memorandum to indicate credentials and communications received subsequent to its preparation.4. 委员会收到了首脑会议秘书长2002年8月29日关于出席首脑会议各国代表和欧洲共同体代表全权证书的备忘录。联合国秘书处法律事务厅的一名代表就首脑会议秘书长的备忘录发了言。在发言中,除其他事项外,他修订了备忘录,说明在拟订该备忘录之后收到的全权证书和函件。
5. As noted in paragraph 1 of the memorandum and in the statement relating thereto, formal credentials of representatives to the Summit, in the form required by rule 3 of the rules of procedure of the Summit, had been received, as at the time of the meeting of the Credentials Committee, from the following 77 States and the European Community: Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgium, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, the Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Fiji, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, the Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, the Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, the Republic of Korea, Romania, the Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, the Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United States of America, Uruguay and Viet Nam.5. 如同备忘录第1段及有关发言所指出,全权证书委员会在开会时已收到下列77个国家和欧洲共同体按照首脑会议议事规则第3条规定的形式提出的出席首脑会议代表的正式全权证书:阿尔及利亚、安提瓜和巴布达、阿根廷、澳大利亚、阿塞拜疆、巴林、比利时、不丹、文莱达鲁萨兰国、布基纳法索、柬埔寨、中国、克罗地亚、古巴、塞浦路斯、朝鲜民主主义人民共和国、丹麦、吉布提、多米尼加共和国、厄立特里亚、斐济、芬兰、格鲁吉亚、德国、加纳、教廷、匈牙利、冰岛、以色列、牙买加、日本、约旦、哈萨克斯坦、基里巴斯、老挝人民民主共和国、黎巴嫩、莱索托、列支敦士登、立陶宛、卢森堡、马达加斯加、马来西亚、马尔代夫、毛里求斯、墨西哥、摩纳哥、蒙古、缅甸、纳米比亚、尼泊尔、荷兰、尼日尔、尼日利亚、挪威、葡萄牙、大韩民国、罗马尼亚、俄罗斯联邦、圣卢西亚、新加坡、所罗门群岛、南非、西班牙、斯里兰卡、苏里南、瑞典、阿拉伯叙利亚共和国、泰国、汤加、特立尼达和多巴哥、土耳其、乌干达、乌克兰、阿拉伯联合酋长国、美利坚合众国、乌拉圭和越南。
6. As noted in paragraph 2 of the memorandum and in the statement relating thereto, information concerning the appointment of the representatives of States to the Summit had been communicated to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as at the time of the meeting of the Credentials Committee, by means of a cable or a telefax from the head of State or Government or the Minister for Foreign Affairs, or by means of a letter or note verbale from the mission concerned, by the following 112 States: Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, the Central African Republic, Chile, Colombia, the Comoros, the Congo, the Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, the Czech Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, France, Gabon, the Gambia, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Malawi, Mali, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Micronesia (Federated States of), Morocco, Mozambique, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Qatar, the Republic of Moldova, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, the Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Tuvalu, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.6. 如同备忘录第2段及有关发言所指出,下列112个国家在截至全权证书委员会开会时,已由国家或政府首脑或外交部长以电报或传真方式,或由有关使团以信件或普通照会方式,向联合国秘书长通报了关于任命出席会议的国家代表的资料:阿富汗、阿尔及利亚、安道尔、安哥拉、亚美尼亚、奥地利、巴哈马、孟加拉国、巴巴多斯、白俄罗斯、伯利兹、贝宁、玻利维亚、波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那、博茨瓦纳、巴西、保加利亚、布隆迪、喀麦隆、加拿大、佛得角、中非共和国、智利、哥伦比亚、科摩罗、刚果、库克群岛、哥斯达黎加、科特迪瓦、捷克共和国、刚果民主共和国、多米尼加、厄瓜多尔、埃及、萨尔瓦多、赤道几内亚、爱沙尼亚、埃塞俄比亚、法国、加蓬、冈比亚、希腊、格林纳达、危地马拉、几内亚、几内亚比绍、圭亚那、海地、洪都拉斯、印度、印度尼西亚、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、伊拉克、爱尔兰、意大利、肯尼亚、科威特、吉尔吉斯斯坦、拉脱维亚、利比里亚、阿拉伯利比亚民众国、马拉维、马里、马耳他、马绍尔群岛、毛里塔尼亚、密克罗尼西亚联邦、摩洛哥、莫桑比克、新西兰、尼加拉瓜、纽埃、阿曼、巴基斯坦、帕劳、巴拿马、巴布亚新几内亚、巴拉圭、秘鲁、菲律宾、波兰、卡塔尔、摩尔多瓦共和国、卢旺达、圣基茨和尼维斯、圣文森特和格林纳丁斯、萨摩亚、圣多美和普林西比、沙特阿拉伯、塞内加尔、塞舌尔、塞拉利昂、斯洛伐克、斯洛文尼亚、索马里、苏丹、斯威士兰、瑞士、塔吉克斯坦、前南斯拉夫的马其顿共和国、多哥、突尼斯、图瓦卢、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、坦桑尼亚联合共和国、乌兹别克斯坦、瓦努阿图、委内瑞拉、也门、南斯拉夫、赞比亚和津巴布韦。
7. As noted in paragraph 3 of the memorandum and in the statement relating thereto, the following State participating in the Summit had not, as at the time of the meeting of the Credentials Committee, communicated to the Secretary-General any information regarding its representatives to the Summit: Chad.7. 如同备忘录第3段及有关说明所指出,参加首脑会议的下列国家,在截至全权证书委员会开会时,尚未向秘书长通报任何关于其出席会议代表的资料:乍得。
8. The Committee decided to accept the credentials of the representatives of all States listed in the above-mentioned memorandum and the statement relating thereto and the European Community, on the understanding that formal credentials for representatives of the States referred to in paragraphs 6 and 7 above would be communicated to the Secretary-General as soon as possible.8. 委员会决定接受在上述备忘录及有关说明中提到的各国代表的全权证书以及欧洲共同体代表的全权证书,但有一项了解,就是上文第6和7段提到的各国代表的正式全权证书应尽快递交秘书长。
9. The Committee adopted the following draft resolution without a vote:9. 委员会未经表决通过了下列决议草案:
“The Credentials Committee,“全权证书委员会,
“Having examined the credentials of the representatives to the World Summit on Sustainable Development referred to in the memorandum of the Secretary-General of the Summit dated 29 August 2002,“审查了秘书长2002年8月29日备忘录所提到出席可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的代表的全权证书,
“Accepts the credentials of the representatives of the States and of the European Community referred to in the above-mentioned memorandum.”“接受上述备忘录提到的各国代表和欧洲共同体代表的全权证书。”
10. The Committee decided, without a vote, to recommend to the Summit the adoption of a draft resolution approving the report of the Committee.10. 委员会未经表决决定建议首脑会议通过一项决议草案,核准委员会的报告。
Action taken by the Summit首脑会议采取的行动
11. At its 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, the Summit considered the report of the Credentials Committee (A/CONF.199/15).11. 首脑会议在2002年9月4日第17次全体会议上审议了全权证书委员会的报告(A/CONF.199/15)。
12. The Summit adopted the draft resolution recommended by the Committee in its report (for the text, see chap. I, resolution 4).12. 首脑会议通过了委员会报告建议的决议草案(案文见第一章第4号决议)。
Chapter XI第十一章
Adoption of the report of the Summit通过首脑会议的报告
1. At its 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, the Rapporteur-General, María Cecilia Rozas (Peru), introduced the draft report of the Summit (A/CONF.199/L.2 and Add.1-4).1. 在2002年9月4日第17次全体会议上,总报告员玛丽亚 塞西莉亚 罗萨斯(秘鲁)介绍了首脑会议报告草稿(A/CONF.199/L.2和Add.1至4)。
2. At the same meeting, the Summit adopted the draft report and authorized the Rapporteur-General to finalize the report, in conformity with the practice of the United Nations, with a view to its submission to the General Assembly at its fifty-seventh session.2. 在同次会议上,首脑会议通过了报告草稿,并依照联合国的惯例,授权总报告员将报告定稿,以期将报告提交给大会第五十七届会议。
Chapter XII第十二章
Closure of the Summit首脑会议闭幕
1. At the 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, the representative of Venezuela, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution expressing the Summit’s gratitude to the host country (A/CONF.199/L.8).1. 在2002年9月4日第17次全体会议上,委内瑞拉代表代表属于77国集团的联合国会员国和中国介绍了首脑会议对东道国表示感谢的决议草案(A/CONF.199/L.8)。
2. At the same meeting, the Summit adopted the draft resolution (for text, see chap. I, resolution 3).2. 在同次会议上,首脑会议通过了该决议草案(案文见第一章,第3号决议)。
3. Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the representatives of Denmark (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union), Canada, Japan and the United States of America.3. 此外,在同次会议上,丹麦(代表属于欧洲联盟的联合国会员国)、加拿大、日本和美利坚合众国代表发了言。
4. At the same meeting, the observer of Palestine made a statement on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members the Arab Group.4. 在同次会议上,巴勒斯坦观察员代表属于阿拉伯集团的联合国会员国发了言。
5. Also at the same meeting, the President of the Summit made a statement, as well as an announcement related to document A/CONF.199/CRP.6/Rev.1.5. 另外,在同次会议上,首脑会议主席发了言,并就A/CONF.199/CRP.6/Rev.1号文件发布了一项通知。
6. At the same meeting, the Secretary-General of the Summit made a statement.6. 在同次会议上,首脑会议秘书长发了言。
7. Also at the same meeting, the representative of Venezuela, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China, made a statement.7. 另在同次会议上,委内瑞拉代表代表属于77国集团的联合国会员国和中国发了言。
8. At the same meeting, the President of the Summit made a statement and declared closed the Summit.8. 在同次会议上,首脑会议主席发了言,并宣布会议闭幕。
Notes
1 See Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 19 (A/56/19), chap. VIII, sect. B, decision 2001/PC/3; A/CONF.199/PC/14, para. 13; and A/CONF.199/4, para. 24.1 见《大会正式记录,第五十六届会议,补编第19号》(A/56/19),第八章,B节,第2001/PC/3号决定;A/CONF.199/PC/14,第13段;及A/CONF.199/4,第24段。
Annex I附件一
List of documents文件清单
Symbol Agenda item Title or description文号 议程项目 标题或说明
A/CONF.199/1 4 Provisional agendaA/CONF.199/1 4 临时议程
A/CONF.199/2 and Corr.1 3 Provisional rules of procedureA/CONF.199/2和Corr.1 3 暂行议事规则
A/CONF.199/3 6 Organizational and procedural mattersA/CONF.199/3 6 工作安排和程序事项
A/CONF.199/4A/CONF.199/4
Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development on its fourth session作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议筹备委员会可持续发展委员会第四届会议报告
A/CONF.199/5 9 Letter dated 28 March 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations addressed to the Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social AffairsA/CONF.199/5 9 2002年3月28日约旦王国常驻联合国代表给主管经济和社会事务副秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/6 9 Letter dated 17 July 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralA/CONF.199/6 9 2002年7月17日加拿大常驻联合国代表给秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/7 9 Letter dated 24 July 2002 from the Chargé d’affaires of the Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General of the World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentA/CONF.199/7 9 2002年7月24日秘鲁常驻联合国代表团临时代办给可持续发展问题世界首脑会议秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/8 9 Letter dated 6 August 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Bangladesh to the United Nations and the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralA/CONF.199/8 9 2002年8月6日孟加拉国常驻联合国代表和荷兰常驻联合国代表团临时代办给联合国秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/9 9 Letter dated 5 August 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Oman to the United Nations as Chairman of the Arab Group addressed to the Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social AffairsA/CONF.199/9 9 2002年8月5日阿曼常驻联合国代表以阿拉伯集团主席的身份给主管经济和社会事务副秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/10 and Corr.1 9 Letter dated 12 August 2002 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralA/CONF.199/10和Corr.1 9 2002年8月12日希腊常驻联合国代表团临时代办给秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/11 9 Letter dated 13 August 2002 from the Secretary-General of the Association of South-East Asian Nations addressed to the Secretary-General of the World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentA/CONF.199/11 9 2002年8月13日东南亚国家联盟秘书长给可持续发展问题世界首脑会议秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/12 9 Letter dated 16 August 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Luxembourg to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralA/CONF.199/12 9 2002年8月16日卢森堡常驻联合国代表给秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/13 4 Participation of intergovernmental organizations in the work of the World Summit on Sustainable Development: note by the Secretariat.A/CONF.199/13 4 政府间组织参与可持续发展问题世界首脑会议工作:秘书处的说明
A/CONF.199/14 9 Letter dated 22 August 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralA/CONF.199/14 9 2002年8月22日约旦常驻联合国代表给秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/15 7 (b) Report of the Credentials CommitteeA/CONF.199/15 7(b) 全权证书委员会的报告
A/CONF.199/16 and Add.1-3 8 Summaries of the partnership eventsA/CONF.199/16和Add.1-3 8 伙伴活动摘要
A/CONF.199/17 and Add.1 11 Summaries of the round tablesA/CONF.199/17和Add.1 11 圆桌会议摘要
A/CONF.199/18 9 Letter dated 4 September 2002 from the Chairman of the Fourth Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Alliance of Small Island States to the Secretary-General of the World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentA/CONF.199/18 9 2002年9月4日第四次小岛屿国家联盟国家元首和政府首脑会议主席给可持续发展问题世界首脑会议秘书长的信
A/CONF.199/19 12 Letter dated 4 September 2002 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, on behalf of the Member States that are members of the European Union, addressed to the President of the World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentA/CONF.199/19 12 2002年9月4日丹麦外交部长代表属于欧洲联盟的会员国给可持续发展问题世界首脑会议主席的信
A/CONF.199/L.1 12 Draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentA/CONF.199/L.1 12 可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案
A/CONF.199/L.2 and Add.1-4 14 Draft report of the SummitA/CONF.199/L.2和Add.1-4 14 (通过首脑会议的报告)报告草稿
A/CONF.199/L.3 and Add.1-13 and Add.1-13/Corr.A/CONF.199/L.3和Add.1-13及Add.1-13/Corr.
1 and 2 12 and 13 Draft report of the Main Committee1和2 12和13 主要委员会的报告草稿
A/CONF.199/L.4 8 Water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity: synthesis of the framework paper of the Working Group on WEHABA/CONF.199/L.4 8 饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性——饮水、能源、健康、农业和生物多样性问题工作组框架文件综述
A/CONF.199/L.5 11 Discussion paper for round tablesA/CONF.199/L.5 11 圆桌会议的讨论文件
A/CONF.199/L.6 and Rev.1 and 2 and Rev.2/Corr.1 13 Draft political declarationA/CONF.199/L.6及Rev.1和2以及Rev.2/Corr.1 13 政治宣言草稿
A/CONF.199/L.7 12 Draft resolution submitted by Venezuela on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China, entitled “Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development”A/CONF.199/L.7 12 委内瑞拉代表属于77国集团的联合国会员国和中国提出的决议草案,题为“可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的执行计划”
A/CONF.199/L.8 14 Draft resolution submitted by Venezuela on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China, entitled “Expression of thanks to the people and Government of South Africa”A/CONF.199/L.8 14 委内瑞拉代表属于77国集团的联合国会员国和中国提出的决议草案,题为“向南非人民和政府表示感谢”
A/CONF.199/CRP.1 12 Comments on the draft plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development: note by the SecretariatA/CONF.199/CRP.1 12 关于可持续发展问题世界首脑会议执行计划草案的评论:秘书处的说明
A/CONF.199/CRP.2A/CONF.199/CRP.2
Programme of meetings and activities会议和活动日程
A/CONF.199/CRP.3 8 Plenary meeting on cross-sectoral areas: issues for considerationA/CONF.199/CRP.3 8 关于跨部门领域的全体会议:供审议的问题
A/CONF.199/CRP.4 8 List of partnerships/initiatives on cross-sectoral areasA/CONF.199/CRP.4 8 关于跨部门领域的伙伴关系倡议清单
A/CONF.199/CRP.5 and Add.1 8 Type-2 partnership initiativesA/CONF.199/CRP.5和Add.1 8 2类伙伴关系倡议
A/CONF.199/CRP.6 and Rev.1A/CONF.199/CRP.6和Rev.1
Status of treaty event条约活动状况
A/CONF.199/CRP.7 12 Extract from the future draft report of the Main Committee containing the revised draft plan of implementation of the SummitA/CONF.199/CRP.7 12 主要委员会未来报告草稿(内载首脑会议执行计划订正草案)摘录
Background paper No. 1背景文件1
Co-Chair final conference statement: Sixth International Conference on Environmental Compliance and Enforcement会议联合主席的最后声明:关于环境法规遵守和执行情况的第六次国际会议
Background paper No. 2背景文件2
Montevideo Declaration: Report of the Environmental Committee of the Latin American Parliament to the World Summit on Sustainable Development蒙得维的亚宣言:出席可持续发展世界首脑会议的拉丁美洲议会环境委员会的报告
Background paper No. 3背景文件3
Communication and sustainable development: identifying local capacity-building priorities and available support通讯与可持续发展:查明当地能力建设的优先事项和现有支持
Background paper No. 4背景文件4
Declaration of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology生物保护协会第16次年会宣言
Background paper No. 5背景文件5
General framework of the Islamic agenda for sustainable development: Islamic Declaration on Sustainable Development伊斯兰可持续发展总框架:关于可持续发展的伊斯兰宣言
Background paper No. 6背景文件6
Sustainable development at the heart of the Commonwealth可持续发展是英联邦的核心
Background paper No. 7背景文件7
Statement of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination消除种族歧视委员会的声明
Background paper No. 8背景文件8
Statement on libraries and sustainable development关于图书馆与可持续发展的声明
Background paper No. 9背景文件9
Small States and sustainable development: bridging the gap小国与可持续发展:弥合差距
A/CONF.199/INF/1A/CONF.199/INF.1
Information for participants与会者手册
A/CONF.199/INF/2 (Parts I and II)A/CONF.199/INF.2(第一和第二部分)
List of participants与会者名单
Annex II附件二
Opening statements开幕词
Statement by Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations联合国秘书长科菲 安南的致词
Not far from this conference room, in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, 13 million people are threatened with famine. If any reminder were needed of what happens when we fail to plan for and protect the long-term future of our planet, it can be heard in the cries for help of those 13 million souls.在离本会场不远的莱索托、马拉维、莫桑比克、斯威士兰、赞比亚和津巴布韦,1 300万人面临饥荒。如果说需要有人提醒我们,不规划和保护地球的长远未来会发生什么,听一下这1 300万灵魂的呼救声就知道了。
And if there is one word that should be on everyone’s lips at this Summit, one concept that embodies everything we hope to achieve here in Johannesburg, it is responsibility. Responsibility for each other — but especially the poor, the vulnerable, and the oppressed — as fellow members of a single human family. Responsibility for our planet, whose bounty is the very basis for human well-being and progress. And most of all, responsibility for the future — for our children, and their children.在本次首脑会议上,如果说有一个词每人嘴上都应念念不忘、如果说有一个概念能体现我们在约翰内斯堡希望实现的一切,那就是责任。也就是我们人类大家庭成员相互的责任,特别是对穷人、易受害者和被压迫者的责任。还有对地球的责任,因为地球的物产是人类幸福和进步的基础。最重要的是对未来的责任,也就是说对子孙后代的责任。
Over the past decade, at conferences and summit meetings such as this one, the world has drawn up a far-reaching blueprint for a stable, prosperous twenty-first century. This Summit, like its landmark predecessors in Stockholm and Rio de Janeiro, focuses on a key component of that blueprint: the relationship between human beings and the natural environment.过去十年内,在今天这样的各种会议和首脑会议上,全世界为稳定、繁荣的二十一世纪制订了影响深远的蓝图。本次首脑会议与斯德哥尔摩首脑会议和里约首脑会议一样,着重处理这一蓝图的一个关键部分:人类与自然环境的关系。
We look to the environment for the food and fuel, and the medicines and materials, that our societies depend on. We look to it as a realm of beauty, and of spiritual sustenance.我们指望环境赐予我们社会所依赖的粮食和燃料、药物和材料。我们将环境视为美的王国、给予我们精神力量的王国。
But let us not be deceived, when looking at a clear blue sky, into thinking that all is well. All is not well. Science tells us that if we do not take the right action now, climate change will bring havoc, even within our lifetime. Let us not be fooled, when gazing at a vista of open land, into thinking that the desert is not advancing, or that toxic chemicals are not poisoning the soil. And when looking at a sparkling lake or ocean, let us not forget the water pollution and depleted fisheries beneath the surface.但我们不要上当,在仰视湛蓝的天空时,以为世上万事大吉。 世上并非万事大吉。科学告诉我们,如果我们现在不采取行动,甚至在我们的有生之年,气候变化就会带来灾难。我们不要被愚弄,在眺望旷野美景时,以为沙漠不在步步逼近,有毒化学品不在毒害土壤。在凝视波光涟漪的湖泊或海洋时,我们不要忘记水面下的污染以及枯竭的水产资源。
Let there be no more disguising the perilous state of the earth, or pretending that conservation is too expensive, when we know that the cost of failure to act is far greater. Let us stop being economically defensive, and start being politically courageous.地球岌岌可危的状况不能再掩盖了。也不能再借口保护环境的成本太高,因为我们知道,不采取行动的代价会高得多。我们必须停止在经济上找借口,开始在政治上表现出勇气。
And let us face an uncomfortable truth: the model of development we are accustomed to has been fruitful for the few, but flawed for the many. A path to prosperity that ravages the environment and leaves a majority of humankind behind in squalor will soon prove to be a dead-end road for everyone. Unsustainable practices are woven deeply into the fabric of modern life. Some say we should rip up that fabric. I say we can and must weave in new strands of knowledge and cooperation.让我们面对一个令我们感到不自在的事实:我们习以为常的发展模式,对少数人来说是有利可图,但对多数人来说是有缺陷的。我们很快就会知道,以破坏环境为代价、将人类大多数人留在贫民窟里的繁荣道路,对人人都是一条死胡同。无法持续的各种做法,深深地嵌入了现代生活的织体。我说,我们可以而且必须用新的知识与合作之线绣出美好的生活。
We have already taken tentative steps in this direction. Here in Johannesburg, we must do more. The focus from now on must be on implementing the many agreements that have been reached. That includes the Millennium development goals. Sustainability is one of those goals. But it is also a prerequisite for reaching all of the others.我们已探索性地朝着这一方向迈步。在约翰内斯堡,我们必须迈出更大的步伐。从今以后,重点必须是将业已达成的许多协议付诸实施。其中包括千年发展目标。可持续能力是其中一项目标。可持续能力也是实现其他目标的前提。
Action starts with Governments. The richest countries must lead the way. They have the wealth. They have the technology. And they contribute disproportionately to global environmental problems.行动必须从政府做起。最富裕的国家必须领头。它们有财力。它们有技术。全球环境问题,多半是它们造成的。
But Governments cannot do it alone. Civil society groups have a critical role, as partners, advocates and watchdogs. So do commercial enterprises. Without the private sector, sustainable development will remain only a distant dream. We are not asking corporations to do something different from their normal business: we are asking them to do their normal business differently.但各国政府无法单干。民间社会团体是合作伙伴、是倡导者,是监督员,可以起至关重要的作用。商业企业也一样。没有私营部门,可持续发展仍然只能是一个遥不可及的梦。我们不要求各公司做与正常业务不同的事:我们要求它们以不同的方式开展正常业务。
Sustainable development need not wait for tomorrow’s technological breakthroughs. The policies, the science and the green technologies at our disposal today can begin to do the job. With concerted action in five areas — water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity — progress could be far quicker than is commonly believed.可持续发展不需要等待明天的技术突破。我们今天具备的政策、科学和绿色技术,就可以开始发挥作用。在水、能源、卫生、农业和生物多样性五个领域采取协调一致的行动,取得的进展会比通常想象的大得多。
It is said that to everything there is a season. The world today needs to usher in a season of transformation, a season of stewardship. Let it be a season in which we make a long-overdue investment in the survival and security of future generations.据说凡事都讲季节。当今世界需要一个变革的季节、一个管理的季节。让这个季节成为我们对子孙后代的生存和安全进行早就应当进行的投资。
In closing, I would like to thank President Mbeki, his Government and the people of South Africa for opening their hearts and homes to the world. I hope that this Summit, in turn, marks the opening of a new chapter for us all — a chapter of responsibility, partnership and implementation.最后,我要感谢姆贝基总统、南非政府和人民向全世界敞开胸怀和家园。我希望本次首脑会议为我们大家打开新的篇章——责任、伙伴关系和付诸实施的篇章。
Statement by Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa and President of the World Summit on Sustainable Development南非总统、可持续发展问题世界首脑会议主席戈万 姆贝基的致词
On behalf of our people and the peoples of Africa as a whole, I would like to thank you most sincerely for the honour you have extended to us by electing us President of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. We will strive to discharge the responsibilities that attach to this high post, and we count on your support and cooperation in this regard.谨代表南非人民和全体非洲人民,最衷心地感谢你们给我们荣誉,选举我们出任可持续发展问题世界首脑会议主席。我们将力争履行赋予这一崇高职务的各项责任。在这方面,我们希望得到你们的支持与合作。
I am privileged to join Nitin Desai in warmly welcoming you all to Johannesburg, to South Africa and to Africa. I trust that you will have a happy and productive stay in this city of gold, which for more than a century has been home to people drawn from many parts of Africa and the rest of the world.我荣幸地与尼廷 德赛一起热烈欢迎各位到约翰内斯堡来,到南非来,到非洲来。我相信,你们将在这个黄金城市度过一段愉快而富有成果的时间。一个多世纪以来,非洲许多地区和世界其他地区的人在这个城市安家。
In the last 30 years, the torch of sustainable development has travelled from Europe to the Americas, and through Asia and it now burns in Africa. After a protracted journey, it has arrived in the continent that is the cradle of humanity.过去30年以来,可持续发展的火炬,从欧洲,传到美洲,通过亚洲,今天在非洲熊熊燃烧。经过长途旅行,火炬来到了非洲这个人类摇篮。
The fact that we have convened at this cradle of humanity emphasizes the obligation we all face to respond with all seriousness and urgency and to adopt a meaningful Johannesburg plan of implementation, in the interests of all humanity and our common planet.我们在人类摇篮开会这个事实突出说明,为了全人类和我们共同的地球的利益,我们大家有义务认真严肃地采取紧急对策,通过富有意义的约翰内斯堡执行计划。
I am convinced that it is our shared view that we should approach our work over the next few days in this spirit. I am also certain that we share the view that poverty, underdevelopment, inequality within and among countries and the worsening global ecological crisis sum up the dark shadow under which most of the world lives.我相信大家都同意,今后几年我们应本着这一精神开展工作。我还相信大家都同意,贫穷、不发达、各国内部和各国之间的不平等、以及不断恶化的全球生态危机,就是笼罩世界上多数人生活的阴影。
I am also certain that we are of one mind that the imperative of human solidarity, as well as actual experience, demand that we strive together for a shared prosperity. A global human society based on poverty for many and prosperity for a few, characterized by islands of wealth surrounded by a sea of poverty, is unsustainable.我还相信大家都同意,从人类团结以及实际经验的角度,都要求我们携手创造共同繁荣。建立在许多人贫穷、少数人繁荣的全球人类社会,其中财富的孤岛被贫穷的海洋所包围,是无法持续的。
All of us understand that the goal of shared prosperity is achievable because, for the first time in human history, human society possesses the capacity, the knowledge and the resources to eradicate poverty and underdevelopment. To use these possibilities successfully requires that we also agree to the concept of common but differentiated responsibility.我们大家都了解,共同繁荣的目标是可以实现的,因为人类有史以来首次具备了消灭贫穷和欠发达的能力。要成功地利用此种潜力,还要求我们接受共同而有区别的责任的概念。
All of us also understand and accept the positions agreed in Stockholm and Rio de Janeiro regarding the need for all of us to act together to protect the global environment. All of us agree that unsustainable patterns of production and consumption are creating an environmental disaster that threatens both life in general and human life in particular.我们大家也了解并接受在斯德哥尔摩和里约达成的立场,即我们大家必须共同行动,保护地球环境。我们大家都同意,无法持续的生产和消费形态正在造成环境灾难,威胁一切生命,尤其是人的生命。
The 1992 Earth Summit at Rio produced several landmark agreements aimed at halting and reversing environmental destruction, poverty and inequality. Agenda 21 placed the appropriate framework for sustainable development at the centre of the challenges facing humanity. In accepting Agenda 21, we agreed to integrate social and economic development with environmental protection, in a manner that would ensure the sustainability of our planet and the prosperity of all humanity.1992年在里约举行的地球首脑会议达成了几个里程碑式的协定,目的是制止和逆转环境破坏、贫穷和不平等。《21世纪议程》将制订适当的可持续发展框架,置于对付人类面临的挑战的核心。我们接受了《21世纪议程》,就等于同意将社会和经济发展与环境保护相结合,以确保我们地球的持续能力和全人类的繁荣。
Those important decisions were reinforced by the conclusions reached at a series of international conferences covering such important issues as gender equality, social development and population, children’s rights, world trade, food security, health, habitat, racism and racial discrimination, financing for development, and the environment.关于下列重要问题的一系列国际会议达到的结论,加强了这些重要决定:两性平等、人口与社会发展、儿童权利、世界贸易、粮食安全、卫生、生境、种族主义和种族歧视、发展筹资、以及环境。
The United Nations Millennium Summit stands out among these global gatherings because its outcome, the Millennium Declaration, constitutes a united pledge made by the world’s political leaders at the highest level. These leaders committed themselves to meet the Millennium development goals, which must inform the outcome of this Summit.联合国千年首脑会议是这些全球会议中最突出的一次,因为其成果——《千年宣言》——是世界最高一级政治领导人联合作出的承诺。各位领导人承诺实现千年发展目标。这些目标有助于了解本次首脑会议的成果。
Apart from the details of the agreements arrived at in the context of the global negotiations of the last decade, the recognition has grown that, indeed, the world has become a global village. The survival of everybody in this village demands that we develop a universal consensus to act together to ensure that there is no longer any river that divides our common habitat into poor and wealthy parts.除了过去十年在全球谈判中所达成协定的细节外,人们越来越认识到,世界的确已成为一个全球村。全球村每个人的生存,要求我们达成一项普遍共识,确保不再有将我们的共同生境分割成穷区和富区的河流。
This indicates that the noble concept of human solidarity has once again regained currency as a driving force in the reconstruction and development of our common world. This confirms our collective capacity to overcome cynicism, to outgrow market fundamentalism, to accept the imperative of people-centred development. Among other achievements, the Earth Charter represents this healthy development.这表明,人类团结的崇高概念再次盛行,成为推动我们的共同世界重建和发展的动力。这证明,我们具备克服玩世不恭、淘汰市场原教旨主义、接受以人为核心的发展的集体能力。除了其他成就外,《地球宪章》即是此种健康发展的反映。
We can therefore make bold to say that there exists a detailed global agenda for sustainable development that provides the solid base from which the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development must proceed. Regional initiatives, such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, provide us with the framework and the institutions to translate the global agenda into reality.因此,我们可以放心地说,详细的可持续发展全球议程已经奠定了坚实的基础,约翰内斯堡可持续发展问题世界首脑会议必须在这一基础上向前推进。区域倡议、如非洲发展新伙伴关系,向我们提供了将全球议程转化为现实的框架和体制的机会。
Sadly, we have not made much progress in realizing the grand vision contained in Agenda 21 and other international agreements. It is no secret that the global community has not yet demonstrated the will to implement the decisions it has freely adopted.令人伤感的是,我们在实现《21世纪议程》和其他国际协定所载的宏伟蓝图方面未能取得很大进展。无庸讳言,国际社会尚未表现出执行它自愿作出的各项决定的意愿。
The tragic result of this is an avoidable increase in human misery and ecological degradation, including the growth of the gap between North and South. It is as though we were determined to regress to the most primitive condition of existence in the animal world, a world of the survival of the fittest. It is as though we had decided to spurn what the human intellect tells us — that a world of the survival of the fittest only presages the destruction of all humanity.由此产生的悲惨结局是,人类痛苦、生态退化加剧,南北差距扩大,而这一切本来是可以避免的。我们好象决意退回到适者生存的动物世界最原始的生存状况。我们好象已决定回避人类智慧的告诫,那就是,适者生存的世界,只能预示全人类的毁灭。
As we deliberate and work on a way forward, we need to take stock of the inertia of the past decade and agree on very clear and practical measures that will help us to deal decisively with all the challenges that we face. This is the central task of this Summit.我们在探讨和确定前进道路时,必须回顾过去十年的惰性,达成极为明确的、切实可行的措施,以便有助于我们坚决对付我们所面临的一切挑战。这就是本次首脑会议的核心任务。
We do not have a new agenda to discover. We have no obligation to relearn what we already know about the parlous state of human society and the environment. There is no need for us to reopen battles that have been fought and resolved.我们无须发现新的议程。我们没有义务重新了解人类社会和环境岌岌可危的状况。这些我们都了解。已经打完的仗,没有必要再去打,因为问题已经解决。
There is every need for us to demonstrate to the billions of people whom we lead that we are committed to the vision and practice of human solidarity, that we do not accept that human society should be constructed on the basis of the savage principle of the survival of the fittest.我们十分有必要向我们领导下的数十亿人表明,我们致力于人类团结的远景和实践,我们不同意人类社会应建立在适者生存的野蛮原则基础上。
The Summit meets under the theme “People, planet and prosperity”, its focus is on the improvement of people’s lives everywhere, through sustainable development. What is required of us is that we agree on the practical measures that will help humanity to achieve these results. The Johannesburg plan of implementation that we must discuss and negotiate must be a real plan of implementation, a credible and meaningful global plan of action for the realization of the goals that humanity has already set itself.本次首脑会议的主题是“人民、地球与繁荣”。其重点是通过可持续发展,改善世界各地人民的生活。我们必须做的是,商定有助于人类实现这些成果的实际措施。我们必须讨论和谈判的约翰内斯堡执行计划,必须是一个实实在在的执行计划,必须是一个可信的、有意义的全球行动计划,以便实现人类已经为自己确定的各项目标。
Similarly, the political declaration of the Summit must constitute an honest pledge by the world’s Governments to implement the programme contained in the plan of implementation. Work is proceeding to construct this declaration, which cannot be finalized outside of the context of the plan of implementation. The necessary consultations will take place to ensure that it is truly owned by all of us and constitutes a genuine commitment to act.同样,首脑会议的政治宣言必须是各国政府实施执行计划所载方案的真诚决心。这一宣言正在拟订过程中,没有执行计划,宣言是无法定稿的。必须进行必要的协商,以确保这项宣言确实为我们大家所拥有,并且是采取行动的真正承诺。
The Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 (General Assembly resolution S-19/2, annex) states in paragraph 23, “Democracy, respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, transparent and accountable governance in all sectors of society, as well as effective participation by civil society, are also an essential part of the necessary foundations for the realization of social and people-centred sustainable development.” Accordingly, our proceedings must take into account the effective participation of civil society both in deciding what is to be done and in implementing what has been agreed.进一步执行《21世纪议程》方案(大会S-19/2号决议,附件)第23段说,“民主、尊重一切人权和基本自由,包括发展的权利、在社会所有阶层实行透明和负责任的治理方式、以及民间社会的有效参与,也都是实现社会发展和以人为中心的可持续发展必要基础的主要部分”。据此,我们的讨论必须考虑到民间社会的有效参与。民间社会不仅应参与决定做什么,而且应参与实施已达成的目标。
This World Summit comes after a long and intensive process of global interaction. In this regard, I am privileged to thank the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, the Secretary-General of the Summit Nitin Desai, and his team, the Bureau of the Summit preparatory process, President Megawati Soekarnoputri, the Government of Indonesia, Emil Salim, and many others for the sterling work they have done to bring us to where we are.本次首脑会议是在漫长而紧张的全球互动之后举行的。在这方面,我谨感谢联合国秘书长科菲 安南、首脑会议秘书长尼廷 德赛及其下属、首脑会议筹备进程主席团、梅加瓦蒂总统、印度尼西亚政府、埃米尔 萨利姆、以及为使我们在这里济济一堂作出艰辛工作的其他许多人。
The peoples of the world expect that this World Summit will live up to its promise of being a fitting culmination to a decade of hope by adopting a practical programme for the translation of the dream of sustainable development into reality and bringing into being a new global society that is caring and humane. We will realize this if we have agents of change in our global village. These are men and women who will get down to the serious work of the achievement of the agreed goals. This requires brave, bold, conscientious and principled people. I believe that I am addressing that group of people now.全世界人民期望本次首脑会议通过切实可行的方案,以便将可持续发展的梦想转化成现实,建立一个有爱心、有人情味的全球新社会,从而不负众望,成为一个充满期望的十年的适当高潮。只要在全球村中有变革力量,我们就能做到这一点。这种力量就是为实现商定的目标而认真努力的男男女女。这就需要勇敢、果断、有良心、有原则的人。我相信,我现在正在与这样的人讲话。
I wish you success in your critically important deliberations.祝愿你们至关重要的讨论取得成功。
Statement by Nitin Desai, Secretary-General of the World Summit on Sustainable Development可持续发展问题世界首脑会议秘书长尼廷 德赛的致词
I should begin with a word of thanks to you, Mr. President, and through you, to the people of South Africa, the people of the province of Gauteng, and the people of Johannesburg who have worked so hard to make these extraordinarily wonderful arrangements for our meetings here. I also wish to take this opportunity to thank, through you, all of the members of your team — Minister Dlamini Zuma, Minister Valli Moosa, and all of the officials in their ministries and in other ministries who, over the past year and a half, have been working so hard to ensure that this Summit will be a great success.主席先生,首先我要感谢你,并通过你感谢南非人民、高滕省人民和约翰内斯堡人民进行如此大的努力,为本次会议作出了非常出色的安排。我还要趁此机会通过你感谢你的班子的全体成员——德拉米尼 祖马部长、瓦利 穆萨部长、这两个部以及其他各部全体官员。他们在过去一年半内,为确保本次首脑会议取得圆满成功作出了巨大努力。
In many ways, this Summit is the last in a great cycle of global conferences that the United Nations began in the 1990s. The cycle began with the World Summit for Children and the Rio Earth Summit, and continued with a series of conferences that have addressed all major dimensions of economic and social development. Taken together, these conferences have defined for us, for the world, not just a framework for development policy and development cooperation, but also a comprehensive vision of what human progress is all about. Of all these conferences, perhaps Rio was the most ambitious, with the most wide-ranging agenda. Its outcomes included Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration, the Statement of Principles on Forests and the launch of a number of major conventions, which, together, have put before the world a truly ambitious agenda, combining the social, economic and environmental dimensions of development, and focusing on the challenges facing us in three key areas: eradicating poverty; moving us to a pattern of consumption and production that is ecologically more sustainable; and allowing us to handle critical ecosystems such as forests and oceans in a more holistic and integrated way.从许多方面讲,本次首脑会议是联合国1990年代开始的一大轮全球会议的最后一次。这轮会议自世界儿童首脑会议和里约地球首脑会议开始,其后举行了一系列会议,评估经济和社会发展的各方面主要问题。这些会议为我们、为世界所确定的,不仅是发展政策和发展合作框架,而且是包含人类进步全部意义的全面远景。在所有这些会议中,也许里约会议最雄心勃勃,议程范围最广。其成果包括《21世纪议程》、《里约宣言》、《森林原则声明》,并发起了一系列重要公约。这一切为全世界提出了十分庞大的议程,将发展的社会、经济和环境方面结合起来,集中处理我们在三个领域面临的挑战:消灭贫穷;促使我们接受生态上更有持续性的消费和生产形态;使我们能以更加统筹协调的方法处理森林和海洋等至关重要的生态系统。
Many assessments have been made in preparation for this conference on how much progress has been made in meeting the Rio challenges. They have been the subject of many reports and extensive discussions over the past year. We know that there have been some successes — that there is heightened awareness, and that there have been many concrete achievements, particularly in communities that have established local Agenda 21s. Non-governmental organizations have managed to do some very creative things, especially at the local level. But, in spite of improvements in social conditions and progress in enacting environmental legislation, overall, the record card is very poor. Extreme poverty and avoidable diseases persist, and the deterioration of soil, water, oceans and forests continues. Risks accumulate, as in the case of global climate change, as well as in other areas. But rather than dwelling on the problems, what we must ask ourselves is why they persist. The purpose of this Summit is to tackle what has stood in the way of our making progress, and what we can do in order to get action, to get results.为了筹备本次会议,关于在应付里约会议提出的挑战方面已取得多大进展的问题,已作出许多评估。在过去一年内,许多报告和会议广泛探讨了此种进展。我们知道,已经取得一些成功——认识已提高;已经取得许多具体成果,特别是在制定当地21世纪议程的社区。非政府组织已经做了一些很有创造性的事情,特别是在地方一级。但尽管社会条件已改善,制定环境立法方面取得了进展,但总的来说,成绩单仍很差。绝对贫穷和可以避免的疾病依然存在,土壤、水、海洋和森林状况持续恶化。在全球气候变化和其他领域,危险因素不断积累。然而,我们必须做的,不是思考这些问题本身,而是问一下自己,这些问题为何依然存在。本次首脑会议的目的是,处理妨碍我们取得进展的障碍;弄清我们可以做些什么,以便付诸行动,获得成果。
One basic factor here is that the world has been changing rapidly in this decade. We now talk every day, everywhere, of globalization — a word we hardly used in Rio. And, certainly, the fact that economic development is now increasingly driven by trade and financial liberalization has, in some ways, made it more difficult to pursue some of the social and environmental objectives that were set at the great cycle of the United Nations conferences beginning with the Rio Conference. And, as you have said, Mr. President, globalization has not led to greater equity. It has, in many ways, widened the divide between the rich and the poor, both between and within countries.一个基本因素是,过去十年内,世界的变化很快。我们现在随时随地都在谈论全球化,而在里约我们几乎没有使用这个词。实际上,经济发展现在越来越多地受贸易和金融自由化牵动。因此,在某种程度上,实现从里约会议开始的一大轮联合国会议确定的一些社会和环境目标更为困难。主席先生,正如你所说,全球化未能促进平等。从许多方面,全球化扩大了富国与穷国以及富人与穷人之间的差距。
And these are not the only changes that should concern us. In Rio we hardly talked about the AIDS pandemic. In countries that are seriously affected by HIV/AIDS, it is simply not possible to think of implementing the objectives of United Nations conferences unless we directly address this pandemic and find ways of containing it and reversing it.这些变化不是我们应当关切的唯一变化。在里约会议上,我们很少谈论艾滋病这一大流行病。在受艾滋病毒/艾滋病严重影响的国家,要实现联合国会议制定的目标,简直无法想象,除非我们直接对付、设法遏制和扭转这一大流行病。
There are other changes of a different nature that have taken place over this decade, and that present us with a widely different set of circumstances than those that prevailed at the time of Rio. One example: this has been the decade of information technology, and many countries have prospered because of it. Today we take it for granted in many parts of the world. I sometimes have to remind people that when we did the Rio Conference, there was no World Wide Web. The Internet was there, but not the World Wide Web. And yet we have not adequately connected the potential of information technology with the agenda for sustainable development.在过去十年内,还发生了其他不同性质的变化。这些变化所带来的各种环境,与里约会议召开时的环境大不相同。一个例子是,过去十年是信息十年,许多国家因此而繁荣。在世界许多地区,这一点已经习以为常。有时我不得不提醒人们,我们召开里约会议时,还没有万维网。因特网是有的,但不是万维网。但我们尚未将信息技术的潜能与可持续发展议程充分联系起来。
So one reason why we have not fully succeeded in implementing what we agreed in Rio is that we have not been able to adapt the means of implementation of the Rio agenda, and of the agendas of the conferences that followed it, to the major changes that have taken place over this decade. But there are other equally fundamental reasons.所以,我们没有完全成功实现我们在里约达成的目标,一个原因是,我们未能调整里约议程以及后来各次会议议程的执行手段,以适应过去十年发生的巨大变化。但还有其他同样重要的理由。
The Rio agreements presumed an improvement in the macroeconomic climate for development. This decade has not witnessed that. This has been a decade of declining official development assistance. And the measures that have the potential to result in improvements in market access and debt relief have come only at the end of the decade and are still quite modest. We must therefore accept that the expectations we had in Rio regarding an improvement in macroeconomic prospects for developing countries have not, by and large, been fulfilled. This is certainly a very important reason why we have not made the progress we had sought. It is not, however, only the absence of adequate macroeconomic support that can explain why we have not had the types of results that we ought to have had on the ground in relation to poverty, the environment and risk management.里约各项协定假设,发展的宏观经济环境会改善。但过去十年情况并非如此。在这十年中,官方发展援助不断减少。可能使市场准入和减免债务方面情况好转的措施,在该十年结束时才采取,而且幅度仍很小。因此,我们必须承认,我们在里约对发展中国家宏观经济前景好转的期望基本上未能实现。我们未能取得预期进展,这自然是一个极为重要的原因。但是,我们在贫穷、环境和风险管理方面为何没有取得应有的成果,不是缺乏充足的宏观经济支持这一点能够解释的。 一个基本限制因素是,我们尚未真正理解将这些方面结合起来意味着什么。许多人问我,“本次首脑会议的议程为何这么广?为何要囊括如此多的东西?”理由是,迄今为止,我们一直在各部门界限内开展工作。这样做完全行不通。我可以举出许多例子,但我只想举一个很说明问题的例子:促使女童上学,即女童的教育问题。在世界许多地方,为达到这一目的,你可以做的最有用的一件事情是改善水供应。很简单,如果你改善水供应,就可以缩短女童为家里取水的时间,这就可以改善她们的出勤率。现在想象一下,一个教育部长去找财政部长说,为开办教育方案,需要一笔供水资金。当然,如果这位财政部长象各位那样果断、那样有远见,他或许会说“可以”。但我猜想有许多财政部长不乐意这样做。这只是一个例子。我们需要做的是触类旁通。但在国家或全球一级,我们没有制定适当程序,我们无法这样做。
A basic constraint is that we have not yet truly grasped what it means to bring these things together. Many people ask me, “Why is the Summit’s agenda so broad? Why do you cover so many things?” The reason is that we have, so far, been working along sectoral lines; and that simply does not work. I could provide many illustrations, but let me give only one very telling example: getting girls into school, girls’ education. In many parts of the world, one of the most useful things you can do to this end is to improve water supply. Quite simply, if you improve water supply, you reduce the time the girls take to go to collect water for their houses, and that improves their school attendance. Now, imagine an education department going to a finance minister and saying that, for the education programme, they need money for water supply. Of course, if the finance minister were as bold and as far-sighted as yours he would probably say “Yes”. But I suspect that a lot of other finance ministers would not be so happy to do that. This is only one example. What we need to do is to connect. But we do not have in place the processes that will allow us to do so, at the national level or the global level.另一个因素是,里约会议制定的是一个宏伟远景,一个行进图。但要开始旅行,一张行进图还是不够的。你还需要一个路线图。你必须说,“我从这里开始,到那里结束。这些是我准备用的资源。”现在需要的是一个中期框架。
Another factor is that Rio was a grand vision, a road map. But a road map is not quite enough for starting to travel. You also need a route plan. You need to say, “I am going to start here and end there, and these are the resources I am going to use.” What is needed is a medium-term framework.我认为,我们现在具备一个为在约翰内斯堡开展工作的框架。这一框架可以处理其中某些障碍。
I believe that we now have a framework available to us for our work in Johannesburg that addresses some of these barriers.在宏观经济方面,我们从在多哈回合达成的协定中已经看到一些重要的、积极的变化。对我们有利的是,发展筹资问题蒙特雷会议就增加发展援助作出了大量承诺。最近已就补充全球环境基金资金达成了协议。千年宣言为我们制定了一整套2015年中期计划,其重点是贫穷、教育、保健和可持续发展。如我刚才所说,我们有很多在当地取得成功的极好例子。我们必须总结这些成功事例,使其形成规模,以便将少数地方发生的事情在大范围内普及。如果我们将在千年首脑会议上接受的中期框架与可持续发展的长期远景结合起来,如果我们利用成功实施多哈和蒙特雷会议成果在资金方面提供的机会,那么,我想我们是能够取得成果的。这就是我们迄今所开展工作的努力方向:拟订一个注重指标、时间表、目标和活动并可以促成具体成果的执行计划。
On the macroeconomic side, we have seen important, positive developments in the agreements reached for the Doha round. We have the advantage of the Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development, where substantial commitments were made for additional development assistance. We have the recent agreements reached on the replenishment of the Global Environment Facility. And the Millennium Summit has given us a comprehensive set of medium-term goals for the year 2015, focusing on issues of poverty, education, health and sustainable development. As I said earlier, we have many, many wonderful examples of local success. We must bring these things together in order to scale up these successes, so that what is happening in a few places can happen much more widely. If we connect the medium-term framework that we all accepted at the Millennium Summit with the larger vision of sustainable development, if we use the opportunities that a successful implementation of Doha and Monterrey can provide on the finance side, then, I think, we can show results. This is what our work so far has been oriented towards: a plan of implementation focused on targets, timetables, goals and activities that can lead to concrete results.我们必须将重点放在水与健康、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性等领域当前存在的各种关键问题上,使我们有一种具体的承诺感,并使我们有某种可以实现的、可以监测的东西。此外,我们必须将政府将达成的协议与推广各种极好的倡议结合起来。这些倡议是地方一级、非政府组织提出的,在许多情况下是企业部门提出的。这就是伙伴关系概念发生作用的地方。伙伴关系的作用,基本上是将我们在地方一级看到的活力与政府必须作出的承诺结合起来。这两种东西我们都需要。不仅仅是其中一种。而是两种都要。光有伙伴关系,而没有政府的承诺,是行不通的。政府的承诺很重要。但伙伴关系使这种承诺更加可信,并提高我们将此种承诺付诸实施的能力。
It is important that we focus here on key, current challenges in the areas of water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity, in ways that will give us a sense of concrete commitment, that will give us something both achievable and monitorable. In addition, we need to connect what Governments are going to agree on with what can be done by scaling up the wonderful initiatives that have come at the local level and from non-governmental organizations and, in many cases, the business sector. This is where the notion of partnerships comes in. Partnerships basically serve to connect the dynamism that we see at the local level with the commitments that Governments need to make. We need both. Not one or the other — both. Partnerships without the commitments of Governments will not work. The commitments of Governments are important. But partnerships add credibility to the commitments and enhance our capacity to implement them in practice.这种伙伴关系也是民间社会参与联合国的一个新阶段。里约会议是民间社会与联合国一起开展宣传和拟订政策的关键阶段;让我们确保本次首脑会议成为不仅在宣传倡导和政策拟订过程中、而且在实际执行过程中完善此种参与的阶段。因此,在本次首脑会议上,重要的不仅是在桑顿发生的一切,而且是在民间社会成员开会的本市其他许多会址发生的一切。
These partnerships will also mark a new stage in the involvement of civil society in the United Nations. Rio marked a critical phase of the engagement of civil society with the United Nations in advocacy and policy development; let us see to it that this Summit marks the stage at which we complete this engagement not just in the processes of advocacy and policy development, but also in the process of actual implementation. That is why at this Summit what is important is not only what takes place in Sandton but also what takes place in the many other venues in this city where members of civil society are meeting.但我们不要忘记,这是一个中期框架。我时常提醒人们,到2015年将无法获得安全水源的人数减少一半,可持续的目标才达到一半。我们仍有很长的路要走。
But let us bear in mind that this is a medium-term framework. I keep reminding people that when you halve the number of people who do not have access to safe water by 2015, that is only halfway to sustainability. When you bring half of the poor people over the poverty line, that is only halfway to sustainability. We still have a long way to go.我们之所以注重中期,是因为我们需要行动。但从可持续发展议程的性质看,我们不应忘记长期——不仅在脑子里不忘记,而且在作出决定时不忘记。我们请人们不仅注重2015年,而且注重2050年。有时他们会说,“那不是太遥远了吗?”但我们应当牢记,到2050年还活着的人,半数已经出生。所以,不仅注重2015年,而且注重2050年,并非只是一个理论问题。我们是在谈论已经生活在这个世界上的半数人:我们的子女,我们的孙子孙女。在可持续消费、可持续能源和可持续生态系统的许多领域,我们都必须在中长期的框架内开展工作。
We are focusing on the medium term because we want action. But it is in the nature of the agenda of sustainable development that we should not lose sight of the long term — not only in our thoughts but also in our decisions. When we ask people to focus not only on 2015 but also on 2050, sometimes they say, “Isn’t that rather far away?” But we should bear in mind that more than half of the people who will be alive in 2050 are already born, so focusing not just on 2015 but also on 2050 is not merely theoretical. We are talking about the lives of more than half of the people who are already here in the world: our children, our grandchildren. There are many areas of sustainable consumption, energy and ecosystem management where we must operate within a longer-term framework.首先,必须有紧迫感。必须认识到,我们没有时间可以浪费。每年有300万人死于空气污染、500万人死于水传播的疾病。如果说这是一种病,而这种病又有一个名称,难道我们不会把它看作一个紧急问题?但我们没有这样做。我们让这个问题持续存在。如果我们能促成一种紧迫感,在中期框架中准确确定一种行动、伙伴关系以及可以指导我们实现长期可持续发展的远景,那么我认为,我们可以取得成果。如果10年后我们再次开会、或许再次在约翰内斯堡开会,我们就可以不谈论我们没有达到的目标,而是可以谈论我们达到的目标,谈论我们仍需要达到哪些目标。
Above all, there must be a sense of urgency, the realization that we don’t have time to lose. Every year, 3 million people die because of air pollution and 5 million because of water-borne diseases. If these were a single disease — if they had one name — would we not treat it as an emergency? But we do not, and we let it continue. If we can bring together this sense of urgency, precision in the medium-term framework for action, partnerships and a vision that can guide us towards longer-term sustainability, then, I believe, we will be able to show results. And when we meet 10 years from now, perhaps again in Johannesburg, we will be able to talk not about what we have not achieved, but about what we have achieved and what more we can achieve.主席先生,最后我要回顾你曾经说过的话。你将当今世界的现状说成是某种形式的“全球种族隔离”。对于这一描述,许多人有共鸣:这个世界已分隔成富人和穷人;能够获得安全饮用水人和无法获得安全饮用水的人;数十亿能够获得能源的人和数十亿无法获得能源的人。你要求我们以全世界与不久前在美丽的贵国存在的种族隔离作斗争时表现出的威力打击全球种族隔离。
Let me conclude, Mr. President, by recalling something you said yesterday. You described the world, as it is now, in terms of a form of “global apartheid”, a phrase that has resonated with many people: a world divided between the rich and the poor; between those who have access to safe water and those who do not; between the billions of people who have access to energy and the billions who do not. And you correctly asked that we attack this form of apartheid with the same vigour that the world mustered to fight the apartheid that existed in your wonderful country only a short while ago.主席先生,当时是如何作斗争的呢?有两点很重要:第一,世界各国没有说,“这是他们的问题”;而是说,“这是我们的问题”。第二,世界各国团结起来,并接受自己的责任,支持你们改变制度的斗争。今天我们在对付全球种族隔离的各种基本问题时,需要的正是这种团结和责任感。
And how was that done, Mr. President? Two things were important. First, the rest of the world did not say, “This is their problem”; it said, “It is also our problem.” Second, it exercised solidarity and accepted responsibility in supporting you in your fight to change that system. That is the same sense of solidarity and responsibility that we need today in addressing the issues underlying this global apartheid.主席先生,再次向你表示感谢,并期望本次首脑会议产生的成果,成为这场斗争的一个转折点,以确保当今世界上存在的全球富人与穷人间的隔离最终消亡。
I thank you once again, Mr. President, and look forward to an outcome that will mark a turning point in the struggle to ensure that this global apartheid between the rich and the poor characterizing today’s world will finally be eliminated.联合国环境规划署执行主任克劳斯 特普费尔的发言
Statement by Klaus Töpfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme约翰内斯堡市举行的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议是国际社会致力于使我们的星球未来走上可持续道路的决定性时刻。这样说有许多理由,首先,如前所述,十年之前,我们在里约举行会议,国际社会在可持续发展的道路上启程时,我们当中没有南非。当时,自由的南非仍然是个梦想。十年以后,南非已成为国际社会坚强而有活力的一员,我们在这个伟大的国家举行会议,在自由民选的南非总统领导下,正在制定新的航线。
The World Summit on Sustainable Development in the city of Johannesburg represents a defining moment in the efforts of the international community to put our planet on a sustainable path for the future. It is a defining moment for many reasons, but above all, as we were earlier reminded, 10 years ago, when we met in Rio to embark on our journey as an international community on the path of sustainable development, South Africa was not among us. At that time the vision of a free South Africa was still a dream. Ten years later, we are meeting to chart a new course under the leadership of a freely elected South African President, in this great country that has emerged as a strong and vibrant member of the international community.主席先生,你把战胜种族隔离和自由、民主、包容的南非的诞生称为“人类精神的胜利”,事实也的确如此。世界的目光注视着我们,等待看到我们弥合彼此间分歧的迹象,找到达成有意义协议的政治意愿。人类精神必须成为我们的指路明灯。转化我们的社会,以实现可持续性,确实将是人类精神的伟大胜利。
Mr. President, you have called the victory over apartheid and the emergence of a free, democratic and inclusive South Africa a “triumph of the human spirit”, and indeed it is. The eyes of the world are upon us here, waiting for signs that we are able to bridge our differences, that we are able to find the political will to achieve a meaningful agreement. The transformation of our societies to achieve sustainability will be that very triumph of the human spirit that must be our beacon.里约会议以来,我们取得了许多成就。在对抗环境挑战和实现可持续性方面,拟订了新的国际法律文书,提高了人们的认识,在国家和国际各级都取得了进展。同时,全球环境变化各方面的科学新证据更要求我们大力加紧努力。我们都同意,这次首脑会议是落实的首脑会议、也是责任与合作的首脑会议。我们都同意,具体落实必须成为我们工作的重点。现在应该是把我们的政治承诺化为行动的时候了。战胜贫穷及实现所有人共享的负责任的繁荣,必须落实成为我们的目标。
Since Rio we have achieved much. New international legal instruments have been developed. Awareness has increased, and progress has been made at the national and international levels in confronting environmental challenges and achieving sustainability. At the same time, new scientific evidence of the planetary dimensions of global environment change has raised the need for a quantum increase in our efforts. We have all agreed that this is the Summit of implementation, the Summit of accountability and of partnership. We have all agreed that concrete implementation must be the focus of our work. The time has come to translate our political commitment into action. Implementation must be our target to fight poverty, for responsible prosperity for all human beings.联合国环境规划署《全球环境展望》的汇编,基于世界各地几百名科学家的工作,指明了全球环境恶化的根源。这些根源在于普遍贫穷、不可持续的消费和生产模式,以及财富分配上日益不平等这些社会和经济问题。城市四分五裂、功能失调,饮水供应减少,稀缺资源存在潜在的冲突,支撑地球生命的环境资本加速丧失,这些现象在我们的世界普遍存在。我们受害于全球层面的问题。对这些问题必须作出全球反应。投资于可持续发展,就是投资于我们所有人未来的安全。
The United Nations Environmental Programme Global Environment Outlook, compiled through the work of several hundred scientists around the world, singled out the root causes of global environmental degradation. These are embedded in social and economic problems such as pervasive poverty, unsustainable patterns of consumption and production and vast and increasing inequities in the distribution of wealth. Our world is characterized by divided and dysfunctional cities, dwindling water supplies, potential conflict over scarce resources and the accelerating loss of the environmental capital that underpins life on Earth. We suffer from problems of planetary dimensions. They require global responses. Investing in sustainable development will be investing in the future security of us all.不可持续的发展模式导致环境退化,穷人受有害环境的趋势的影响最为严重,最无应付能力,也最无咎可归。我们认识到环境与发展的关系不可分割。因此,筹备首脑会议工作就是在“环境促进发展的明确主题下进行的。在这方面,我们必须看到,国际社会还有很长的路要走,才能通过其活动,使可持续发展三大支柱融为一体。我们必须特别重视社会问题和妇女的社会作用。不能指望得到基本社会服务、就业和保健的社会就不可能是可持续的社会。我们必须继续推进已取得的进展,使民间组织在各个级别参加我们将来的工作。我们必须挑战私营部门,使之转化。我们必须找到途径,以更具创造性的方式利用科学技术。
Just as unsustainable patterns of development result in environmental degradation, the severest impacts of negative environmental trends are felt by the poor, those most poorly equipped to deal with them and who often have the least responsibility for causing them. We recognize the integral relationship between environment and development. Therefore, we have undertaken our preparation for the Summit under the clear theme “Environment for development”. In this regard, we must recognize that the international system still has a long way to go in integrating the three pillars of sustainable development throughout its activities. We must especially give attention to the social dimension and the role of women in society. A society that is unable to live in the expectation of basic social services, employment and health cannot be a sustainable society. We must continue to pursue the advances we have already made in including civil society organizations at all levels in our future work. We must challenge the private sector to transform itself. And we must find ways to use science and technology in more creative ways.最近,气候变化极其剧烈,也越来越频繁。南部非洲发生旱灾,导致十年来最严重的粮食危机,威胁着1 300万穷人。欧洲和亚洲最近则发生水灾,破坏了数十万人的生活。现在比以往任何时候都能更清楚,必须作出全球反应。不能有负于千百万名不可持续发展模式的受害者。不能在这次伟大的首脑会议结束时仍然感到,由于相互间的分歧,我们无法面对我们时代的这项巨大挑战。主席先生,我们在座的每一个人都有责任在您的领导下作出努力。两周以后,我们离开这座城市和这个美丽好客的国家时,所取得的成果必须对得起南非人民的人类精神的胜利。这正是我们的机会,可以证明所有人讨论的重振国际团结与合作精神,不只是遥不可及的希望。这将是我们对这座城市给予首脑会议盛情接待与友情的感谢。
Recently we have witnessed extreme and increasingly frequent weather events, such as the drought afflicting southern Africa and resulting in the worst food crisis in a decade, which threatens 13 million poor people. The recent floods in Europe and Asia have devastated the lives of hundreds of thousands. More than ever before, this brings the need for a global response into perspective. We cannot afford to fail those millions of victims of unsustainable patterns of development. We cannot afford to leave this great Summit with the feeling that our differences did not allow us to confront this great challenge of our times. It is the responsibility of each and every one of us here to work under your leadership, Mr. President. In two weeks’ time, we must leave this city and country of beauty and hospitality with an outcome worthy of the triumph of the human spirit achieved by the people of South Africa. This is the opportunity for us to prove that the reinvigoration of international solidarity and partnership that we all talk of is not merely a pious wish. That will be our thanks for the great hospitality and friendship we received in this city and at this Summit.南非实现了其自由的梦想。我们一定要实现环境、社会和经济上可持续发展的梦想,实现所有人共享负责任的繁荣的梦想。我们都非常重视这次首脑会议的成功。让我们保证,全力支持你,主席先生,支持首脑会议秘书长、我的朋友和同事尼廷 德赛,支持东道国,支持首脑会议取得成功。
South Africa realized its dream of freedom. We must realize the dream of environmentally, socially and economically sustainable development, of responsible prosperity for all. We all attach the greatest importance to the success of this Summit. Let us pledge to provide our total support to you, Mr. President, to the Secretary-General of the Summit, my friend and colleague Nitin Desai, to the host country and to the Summit itself to achieve that success.联合国大会主席韩升洙的发言
Statement by Han Seung-soo, President of the General Assembly of the United Nations我很高兴也很荣幸在这次历史性的可持续发展问题世界首脑会议上发言。我代表联合国大会,对主办这次会议的南非政府和人民表示最诚挚的感谢。我希望,主席先生,在您干练的领导下,这次首脑会议定能取得丰硕的成果,在我们为实现全人类共享的福祉与繁荣的共同努力中,再造新的里程碑。
I am very pleased and honoured to address this historic World Summit on Sustainable Development. On behalf of the United Nations General Assembly, I would like to express my profound gratitude to the Government and the people of South Africa for hosting this meeting. I hope that under your able leadership, Mr. President, this Summit will produce fruitful results, achieving another important milestone in our common endeavours to achieve well-being and prosperity for all humankind.十年前,国际社会衷心欢迎里约首脑会议通过里约原则和《21世纪议程》,为实现可持续发展指明了道路。今天,我们汇聚于约翰内斯堡,重申里约的承诺,并进一步采取措施,确保落实这些承诺。尽管过去十年取得的进展有目共睹,但必须承认,距离实现我们商定的目标仍很遥远。
Ten years ago the international community wholeheartedly welcomed the adoption of the Rio principles and Agenda 21 at the Rio Summit, which provided the road map for achieving sustainable development. Today we gather here in Johannesburg to reaffirm our commitments made in Rio and to take further steps to ensure their implementation. Despite the notable progress during the last 10 years, we have to admit that we are still far short of realizing what we agreed to achieve.在某些方面,情况反而恶化了。过去十年,赤贫人口增加了。环境退化仍令人忧虑地严重威胁着我们星球的安全。我认为,发现如何制止反向发展进程,即所谓“非发展”,与促进可持续发展是同样重要的。“非发展”可能有几个不同的原因,但不论是什么,我们都必须在全球一级密切合作加以制止。
In some cases, on the contrary, the situation has even deteriorated. The number of people living in extreme poverty has increased over the last decade. Environmental degradation continues to pose serious and alarming threats to the safety of our planet. I believe that as important as promoting sustainable development is discovering how to stop the reversal of the process of development, which one might term “de-development”. There could be several different causes of “de-development”, but whatever they are, we should closely cooperate at the global level to halt it.在这方面,科菲 安南秘书长提出,水资源、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性五个领域是这次首脑会议应取得进展的领域,应该得到我们大家的全力支持和积极合作。在发展领域,也有一些重大挑战必须在全球一级处理。
In this context, the five areas — water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity — suggested by Secretary-General Kofi Annan as areas where progress should be made at this Summit merit the full support and active cooperation of all of us. There are also some other formidable challenges in the field of development that need to be addressed at the global level.消灭贫穷摆在实现可持续发展努力的最前面。保护环境与同样重要。过去两年,联合国已作出重大努力,在这些领域提供了必要的推动力。
The eradication of poverty is at the forefront of our efforts to achieve sustainable development. No less important is the protection of our environment. Over the last two years, the United Nations particularly has made serious efforts to provide necessary impetus in these areas.历史性的千年首脑会议促使人们更关注若干项国际发展目标。人们满意地看到,千年首脑会议所创造的势头大大有助于国际社会的重大努力能获得成功,特别是去年11月在多哈举行的世界贸易组织部长级会议和今年3月在墨西哥蒙特雷举行的发展筹资问题国际会议上的努力。
The historic Millennium Summit was instrumental in bringing greater focus and attention to a number of international development goals. It is satisfying to note that the momentum generated by the Millennium Summit significantly contributed to the successes of major efforts of the international community, particularly the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization, held in Doha last November, and the International Conference on Financing for Development, held in Monterrey, Mexico, in March this year.可持续发展问题世界首脑会议现已及时给我们提供了机会,以期寻求途径,从而能推动执行《多哈发展议程》和《蒙特雷共识》将可取得的进展。为确保所有利益有关者和行动者,不仅是国家,还有非政府组织,都能真诚合作,积极参与执行进程,这次首脑会议对此也十分重要。
The World Summit on Sustainable Development now provides us with a timely opportunity to explore ways to build on the progress to be made in implementing the Doha Development Agenda and the Monterrey Consensus. This Summit is also important for ensuring the active involvement of all stakeholders and actors, including not only States but also non-governmental organizations, in the implementation process through true partnership.我真诚希望,我们已通过的执行计划是切实可行的,但须作出适当的时间安排并提供一系列的手段来促进落实。关于这次首脑会议的后续行动,我代表联合国大会表示,确实相信联合国系统可以发挥至关重要的作用。
I sincerely hope that the plan of implementation that we adopt will be concrete and practicable, with a suitable time frame and a set of means to facilitate implementation. With regard to the follow-up of this Summit, I, speaking on behalf of the United Nations General Assembly, earnestly believe that the United Nations system has a critical role to play.我还认为,迫切需要使《千年宣言》、《多哈发展议程》、《蒙特雷共识》以及这次会议成果的后续行动都融为一体。联合国大会将是实现这个目标的最佳讲坛。我热切提议,应该利用大会的高级别对话,研讨相得益彰的、有助于实现各项国际发展目标与可持续发展的有效途径和方法。
I also consider that there is an urgent need to integrate follow-up actions to the Millennium Declaration, the Doha Development Agenda, the Monterrey Consensus and the outcome of this meeting. The General Assembly would provide a most appropriate forum for this purpose. I strongly propose to use the high-level dialogue of the General Assembly for deliberating on effective ways and means to achieve the various international development goals and sustainable development in a more mutually reinforcing manner.世界正面临广泛而严峻的挑战。我们正在试图制订雄心勃勃的目标。因此,我们完全应该合作,共同努力确定如何实现这些目标。执行计划应该指引我们使可持续的全球社会成为现实。
The world is facing immense and daunting challenges. We are trying to set ambitious goals. Therefore, it is only fitting that we should cooperate, combining our efforts to determine how we will achieve those goals. The plan of implementation should guide us towards making a sustainable global community a reality.我要强调,完成我们面前的任务不仅是为我们自己,而且也是为了子孙后代。让我们共同努力保护我们的家园——地球。让我们共同打造全球伙伴关系,使可持续发展能向前迈进。
Let me stress that the tasks before us are not just for us but for future generations. Let us work together to preserve our home, the Earth. And let us forge a global partnership to bring sustainable development forward.附件三
Annex III并行活动和相关活动
Parallel and associated activities1. 大会第55/199号决议鼓励《21世纪议程》指明的各主要群组作出有效贡献并积极参与。可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的特点就是主要群组的高级别参与。该决议还请可持续发展委员会作为可持续发展问题世界首脑会议的筹备委员会,认可尚未具有经社理事会咨商地位的非政府组织参与首脑会议进程。据此,已认可了737个新组织参加首脑会议(此外还有2 500多个经社理事会认可并且列入可持续发展委员会名单上的组织)。共有8 046名主要群组代表出席了首脑会议的正式部分。主要群组积极参与了首脑会议的正式活动,包括多方利益有关者活动(9月4日),高级别圆桌会议(9月2日至4日),专题全体会议(8月26日至28日)。首脑会议期间启动了220多项合作倡议,其中许多涉及主要群组(完整的伙伴关系清单见http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/sustainable_dev/partnership_initiatives.html)。主要群组还按照地域和研讨事项大约分为40个核心组。每天举行八至十个核心组会议。
1. The World Summit on Sustainable Development was characterized by a high level of participation by major groups, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 55/199, which encouraged effective contributions from, and the active participation of, all major groups, as identified in Agenda 21. The resolution also requested the Commission on Sustainable Development, acting as the preparatory committee for the Summit, to accredit non-governmental organizations not already in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council to the Summit process. Accordingly, 737 new organizations were accredited to the Summit (in addition to more than 2,500 organizations accredited with the Economic and Social Council and on the Commission on Sustainable Development list). Overall, 8,046 representatives of major groups attended the official segment of the Summit. Major groups were actively involved in official Summit events, including the multi-stakeholder event (4 September); the high-level round tables (2-4 September); and the thematic plenary meetings (26-28 August). More than 220 partnership initiatives were launched at the Summit, many of which involved major groups (for a full list of partnerships see http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/sustainable_dev/partnership_initiatives.html). Major groups also organized themselves into approximately 40 geographical and issue-based caucuses. Eight to ten caucus meetings were held daily.2. 此外,结合首脑会议举行了150多次并行活动,其中几项是民间组织和主要群组安排的。8月19日至9月4日,在Nasrec博览会中心举行了南非民间社会秘书处筹办的民间社会全球论坛。该论坛有一个“妇女帐篷”项目,有25 000多人参加,其成果包括《民间社会宣言和行动纲领》(见http://www.worldsummit.org.za)。主要群组还参与了其他几项并行活动,包括促进可持续发展企业行动于9月1日主办的“Lekgotla:企业活动日”。世界各地的企业领导人同其他主要群组和政府官员一起讨论了促进可持续发展的倡议和伙伴关系(见http://www.basd-action.net/activities/business.shtml)。8月27日至30日,国际地方环境倡议理事会和其他合作伙伴组织举行了“地方行动推动世界”活动。其成果是提交首脑会议的《地方政府宣言》(见http://www.iclei.org/lgs/)。“乌班图村”是“国际最佳做法展览”的重要内容。该展览成为中心地点,背景各异的人们通过娱乐和展览活动相互接触,交流自己的独特文化遗产及其对可持续发展的影响(见www.joburgsummit2002.com)。8月28日至9月3日,在“水穹”举行了几次有关水资源的活动,包括会议、工作会议、记者会、附加活动和展览。题为“没有水就没有未来”的活动目的是为了提高人们对水是可持续发展关键问题的认识(见www.waterdome.net)。
2. In addition, more than 150 parallel events, several of which were organized by civil society organizations and major groups, were held in conjunction with the Summit. A Civil Society Global Forum, organized by the South African Civil Society Secretariat, was held from 19 August to 4 September at the Expo Centre in Nasrec. This Forum included a “women’s tent”, and was attended by more than 25,000 people. Outcomes included a Civil Society Declaration and Programme of Action (see http://www.worldsummit.org.za). Major groups were also involved in a number of other parallel events, including “Lekgotla: a business day”, hosted by Business Action for Sustainable Development on 1 September. It brought world business leaders together with other major groups and government officials to discuss initiatives and partnerships for sustainable development (see http://www.basd-action.net/activities/business.shtml). A local government event, “Local action moves the world”, organized by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and other partners, was held from 27 to 30 August. The outcome was a local government declaration to the Summit (see http://www.iclei.org/lgs/). The “Ubuntu village” event featured the International Best Practices Exhibition. It served as a central venue for people from diverse backgrounds to interact and to share their unique cultural heritages and show their impacts on sustainable development, through entertainment and exhibition activities (see www.joburgsummit2002.com). Several water-related events, including conferences, workshops, press conferences, side events and exhibitions, were held from 28 August to 3 September at the Water Dome. The event entitled “No water, no future” aimed to increase awareness of water as a key issue in sustainable development (see www.waterdome.net). 3. The Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development was held from 26 August to 3 September. Major groups that were organizing partners included the International Council for Science, the Third World Academy of Sciences and the World Federation of Engineering Organizations. The Forum provided a platform for highlighting the critical contributions of science, technology and innovation to sustainable development (see http://www.scienceforum.co.za/). The Indigenous Peoples’ International Summit on Sustainable Development was held at Kimberley, South Africa, from 20 to 23 August. Outcomes include the Kimberley Declaration of 28 August 2002 (see http:www.tebtebba.org/tebtebba_files/wssd/indexa.html). The International Youth Summit and African Youth Summit were hosted by the South African Youth Council from 15 to 19 August and from 19 to 23 August, respectively, at Mogwase in the North West Province of South Africa (for more information, contact philmusekwa@union.org.za).3. 8月26日至9月3日举行了促进可持续发展科学、技术和创新论坛。作为合作组织者的主要群组包括国际科学理事会、第三世界科学院和世界工程组织联合会。论坛提供了突出强调科学、技术和创新对可持续发展的重要贡献的舞台(见http://www.scienceforum.co.za/)。8月20至23日在南非金伯利举行了可持续发展问题土著人民国际首脑会议。成果包括2002年8月28日《金伯利宣言》(见http://www.tebtebba.org/tebtebba_files/wssd/indexa.html)。南非青年理事会分别于8月15日至19日和8月19日至23日在南非西北省的Mogwase主办了国际青年首脑会议和非洲青年首脑会议(欲了解更多情况,请联系:philmusekwa@union.org.za)。
4. A total of 48 side events were held at Sandton Convention Centre during the Summit. All side events took place in the margins of the official meetings, during lunchtime and evening breaks.4. 首脑会议期间在Sandton会议中心共举行48个附加活动。这些活动都是在正式会议零星时间以及在午餐和晚间休息时举行的。
5. The side events were balanced in terms of organizers and sponsors (Governments, intergovernmental organizations, major groups); geography; and coverage of the main Summit themes (including water and sanitation, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity). Practically all side events during the second week of the Summit involved heads of State or Government as participants.5. 在组织者和主办者方面(政府、政府间组织、主要群组),在地域上,在首脑会议主要专题(包括饮水和卫生、能源、保健、农业和生物多样性)的覆盖方面,这些附加活动都做到了平衡。实际上,首脑会议第二周进行的所有附加活动都有国家元首和政府首脑参加。
02-63693* (E) 041202 *0263693* * Adopted at the 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002; for the discussion, see chap. VIII.02-63692* (C) 041202 041202
Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.《联合国人类环境会议的报告,斯德哥尔摩》,1972年6月5日至16日,(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.
73.II.73.11.
A.A.
14 and corrigendum), chap. I.14和更正),第一章。
Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.联合国环境与发展会议的报告,里约热内卢,1992年6月3日至14日》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.
93.I.93.I.
8 and corrigenda), vols. I-III.8和更正),第一至三卷。
Ibid., vol. I: Resolutions adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annexes I and II.同上,第一卷:《会议通过的决议》,决议1,附件一和二。
Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.《发展筹资问题国际会议的报告,蒙特雷,墨西哥,2002年3月18日和22日》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.
02.II.02.11.
A.A.
7), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.7六口号,第一章,决议1,附件。
See A/C.2/56/7, annex.见A/C.2/56/7,附件。
See General Assembly resolution 55/2.见大会第55/2号决议。
See ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up Adopted by the International Labour Conference at its Eighty-sixth Session, Geneva, 18 June 1998 (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1998). * Adopted at the 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002; for the discussion, see chap. IX.见《国际劳工组织大会第八十六届会议通过的劳工组织关于工作中的基本原则和权利宣言以及其后续行动,日内瓦,1998年6月16日》(日内瓦,国际劳工局,1998年)。
Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.《联合国环境和发展会议的报告,里约热内卢,1992年6月3日至14日》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.
93.I.93.I.
8 and corrigenda).8和更正)。
Ibid., vol. I: Resolutions Adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annexes I and II.同上,第一卷:《会议通过的决议》,决议1,附件一和二。
General Assembly resolution S-19/2, annex. General Assembly resolution 55/2. Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), vol. I: Resolutions Adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex I. Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development , Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.02.II.A.7), chap. I, resolution 1, annex. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1954, No. 33480. See ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up Adopted by the International Labour Conference at its Eighty-sixth Session, Geneva, 16 June 1998 (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1998). Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2001, Supplement No. 9 (E/2001/29), chap. I.B. UNEP/FAO/PIC/CONF.5, annex III. www.chem.unep.ch/sc. Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety, third session, Forum III final report (IFCS/Forum III/23w), annex 6.大会第S-19/2号决议,附件。
United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 1673, No. 28911.大会第55/2号决议。 《环发会议的报告,里约热内卢,1992年6月3日至14日》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.93.I.8和更正),第一卷:《会议通过的决议》,决议1,附件一。 《发展筹资问题国际会议的报告,蒙特雷,墨西哥,2002年3月18日和22日》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.02.11.A.7),第一章,决议1,附件。 《联合国条约汇编》,第1954卷,第33480号。 见《国际劳工组织大会第八十六届会议通过的劳工组织关于工作中的基本原则和权利宣言以及其后续行动,日内瓦,1998年6月16日》(日内瓦,国际劳工局,1998年)。 《经社理事会正式记录,2001年,补编第9号》(E/2001/29),第一章B节。 UNEP/FAO/PIC/Conf.5,附件三。 www.chem.unep.ch/sc。 政府间化学品安全论坛,第三届会议,第三次论坛最后报告(IFCS/Forum III/23w),附件6。 《联合国条约汇编,第1673卷,第28911号》。
Official Records of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, vol. XVII (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.84.V.3), document A/CONF.62/122.《联合国第三届海洋法会议的正式记录》,第十七卷(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.84.V.3),文件A/CONF.62/122。
See Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations document C200/INF/25, appendix I.见粮农组织文件C200/INF/25,附录一。
See UNEP/CBD/COP/5/23, annex III.见UNEP/CBD/COP/5/23,附件三。
See International Fisheries Instruments (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.98.V.11), sect. I; see also A/CONF.164/37.见《国际渔业文书》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.98.V.II),第一节,又见/CONF.164/137。
Ibid.同上。
Ibid., sect. III.同上,第三节。
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1999.罗马,粮农组织,1999年。
Ibid., 2001.同上,2001年。
See A/51/312, annex II, decision II/10.见A/51/312,附件二,决定2/10。
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 996, No. 14583).《关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地拉姆萨尔公约》(《联合国条约汇编》,第996卷,第14583号)。
See United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological Diversity (Environmental Law and Institution Programme Activity Centre), June 1992.见联合国环境规划署,《生物多样性公约》(环境法和机构方案活动中心),1992年6月。
A/51/116, annex II.A/51/116,附件二,
See E/CN.17/2002/PC.2/15.见/E/CN.17/2002/PC.2/15。
A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1 and Corr.1, annex I.A/AC.237/18(Part II)/Add.1和Corr.1,附件。
FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1, decision 1/CP.3, annex.FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1,决定1/CP.3,附件。
FCCC/CP/2001/13 and Add.1-4.FCCC/CP/2001/13和Add.1至4。
See General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.见大会第2200A(XXI)号决议,附件。
Report of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Thirty-first Session, Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (C2001/REP), appendix D.《粮农组织大会的报告,第三十三届会议,罗马,2001年11月2日至13日》(C 2001/REP),附录D。
See A/C.2/56/7, annex.见A/C.2/56/7,附件。
Http://www.biodiv.org/biosafety/protocol.asp.http://www.biodiv.org/biosafety/protocol.asp。
General Assembly resolution S-26/2, annex.大会第S-26/2号决议,附件。
Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.《小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展全球会议的报告,布里奇敦,巴巴多斯,1994年4月25日至5月6日》(联合国出版物,出售品编号E.
94.I.94.I.
18 and corrigenda), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.18和更正),决议1,附件二。
E/CN.17/2002/PC.2/5/Add.2.E/CN.17/2002/PC.2/5/Add.2。
E/CN.17/2002/PC.2/8.E/CN.17/2002/PC.2/8。
ECE/ACC.22/2001/2, annex I.ECE/ACC.22/2001/2,附件一。
A/CONF.192/13.A/CONF.192/13。
A/CONF.191/11.A/CONF.191/11。
A/C.2/56/2, annex, paras. 13 and 14.A/C.2/56/2,附件,第13和14段。
Ibid,. paras. 17-19.同上,第17至19段。
General Assembly resolution 2625 (XXV), annex.大会第2625(XXV)号决议,附件。
See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2001, Supplement No. 9 (E/2001/29), chap. I.B.见《经社理事会正式记录,2001年,补编第9号》(E/2001/29),第一章B节。
References in the present chapter to Agenda 21 are deemed to include Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit.本章提及《21世纪议程》时均认为包括《21世纪议程》、《进一步执行21世纪议程方案》和首脑会议的成果。
UNEP/GCSS.VII/6, annex I.UNEP/GCSS.VII/6,附件一。
A/CONF.165/14, chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.A/CONF.165/14,第一章,决议1,附件二。
* Adopted at the 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, for the discussion see chap. XII. ** Adopted at the 17th plenary meeting, on 4 September 2002, for the discussion see chap. X. A/CONF.199/15. ------
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