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Annex附件
Information-gathering instrument on United Nations standards and norms related primarily to the prevention of crime主要与预防犯罪有关的联合国标准和规范资料收集文书
Pursuant to Economic and Social Council resolution 2004/28 of 21 July 2004, the following questionnaire is designed as a tool to collect information to assist in the preparation of the report of the Secretary-General, in particular as regards the following:根据经济及社会理事会2004年7月21日第2004/28号决议,设计了下面的调查问卷,以收集有关资料,协助编写秘书长的报告,特别是关于以下方面:
(a) The difficulties encountered in the application of United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention;(a) 在适用联合国预防犯罪标准和规范方面遇到的困难;
(b) Ways in which technical assistance can be provided; and(b) 可以提供技术援助的方法;
(c) Useful practices and emerging challenges.(c) 有益做法和新出现的挑战。
It is not intended to produce a scorecard of how well States are doing. It addresses the main sections of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime (Council resolution 2002/13, annex) and, as the case may be, other relevant instruments.本调查问卷并不是为了对各国的做法进行打分。它涉及《预防犯罪准则》(理事会第2002/13号决议,附件)的主要章节及其他相关文书(视情况而定)。
Economic and Social Council resolution 2002/13 of 24 July 2003 on action to promote effective crime prevention accepted the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime and also requested the Secretary-General to report to the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice on the implementation of that resolution. In the Guidelines, crime prevention refers to “strategies and measures that seek to reduce the risk of crimes occurring” by influencing “their multiple causes” (para. 3). It includes social crime prevention (or prevention through social development), local, community or neighbourhood-based crime prevention, situational crime prevention and measures to prevent recidivism. The definition does not include law enforcement and other criminal justice intervention, even though these may have crime prevention aspects. It is cognizant, however, of the need to take account of “the growing internationalization of criminal activities” (para. 4). When referring to the community, it refers in essence to “the involvement of civil society at the local level” (para. 5).经济及社会理事会2003年7月24日关于“采取行动促进有效预防犯罪”的第2002/13号决议认可了《预防犯罪准则》,并请秘书长向预防犯罪和刑事司法委员会报告该决议的执行情况。在《准则》中,预防犯罪是指通过影响“犯罪的多种原因”来“谋求降低犯罪发生风险的各种战略和措施”(第3段)。它包括社会犯罪预防(或通过社会发展加以预防)、以当地、社区或居民点为基础的犯罪预防、情境犯罪预防,以及预防再次犯罪的措施。该定义并不包括执法和其他刑事司法干预,虽然这些干预可能也具有预防犯罪的方面。不过,该准则认识到必须考虑“犯罪活动的日趋国际化”(第4段)。在提到社区时,该准则认为社区的基本含义是“地方一级民间社会的参与”(第5段)。
Other instruments relevant to the prevention of crime include:与预防犯罪有关的其他文书有:
Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/9 of 24 July 1995, the annex to which contains the Guidelines for cooperation and technical assistance in the field of urban crime prevention经济及社会理事会1995年7月24日第1995/9号决议,该决议附件载有城市预防犯罪领域的合作和技术援助准则
General Assembly resolution 51/60 of 12 December 1996, the annex to which contains the United Nations Declaration on Crime and Public Security大会1996年12月12日第51/60号决议,该决议附件载有《联合国关于犯罪和公共安全问题的宣言》
The questionnaire is divided into five sections: structuring crime prevention at the governmental level; crime prevention approaches; implementation issues; international cooperation, networking and technical assistance; and concluding questions. In developing the questionnaire, related paragraphs have been grouped for simplicity and clarity.本调查问卷分成五个部分:建立政府一级的预防犯罪结构;预防犯罪的办法;执行问题;国际合作、网络建设和技术援助;以及结论性问题。在编写本调查问卷时,为简单清楚起见,将相关各段归在了一起。
I.一.
Structuring crime prevention at the government level建立政府一级的预防犯罪结构
The following paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime refer to government responsibility, leadership and structures to organize and deliver effective crime prevention.《预防犯罪准则》下列各段提到了政府在组织和实施有效的预防犯罪方面的责任、领导和结构:
2.2.
It is the responsibility of all levels of government [national, regional and local] to create, maintain and promote a context within which relevant governmental institutions and all segments of civil society, including the corporate sector, can better play their part in preventing crime.各级政府[国家、区域和地方]有责任创造、维持和促进一个有利的环境,使有关政府机构和包括企业界在内的民间社会各部分在预防犯罪方面都能很好地发挥作用。
Government leadership 7. All levels of government should play a leadership role in developing effective and humane crime prevention strategies and in creating and maintaining institutional frameworks for their implementation and review. Cooperation/partnerships 9. Cooperation/partnerships should be an integral part of effective crime prevention, given the wide-ranging nature of the causes of crime and the skills and responsibilities required to address them. This includes partnerships working across ministries and between authorities, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, the business sector and private citizens. Government structures 17. Governments should include prevention as a permanent part of their structures and programmes for controlling crime, ensuring that clear responsibilities and goals exist within government for the organization of crime prevention, by, inter alia: (a) Establishing centres or focal points with expertise and resources; (b) Establishing a crime prevention plan with clear priorities and targets; (c) Establishing linkages and coordination between relevant government agencies or departments; (d) Fostering partnerships with non-governmental organizations, the business, private and professional sectors and the community; (e) Seeking the active participation of the public in crime prevention by informing it of the need for and means of action and its role. Training and capacity-building 18. Governments should support the development of crime prevention skills by: (a) Providing professional development for senior officials in relevant agencies; (b) Encouraging universities, colleges and other relevant educational agencies to offer basic and advanced courses, including in collaboration with practitioners; (c) Working with the educational and professional sectors to develop certification and professional qualifications; (d) Promoting the capacity of communities to develop and respond to their needs. Supporting partnerships 19. Governments and all segments of civil society should support the principle of partnership, where appropriate, including: (a) Advancing knowledge of the importance of this principle and the components of successful partnerships, including the need for all of the partners to have clear and transparent roles; (b) Fostering the formation of partnerships at different levels and across sectors; (c) Facilitating the efficient operation of partnerships. 1. Have government bodies in your country taken steps to implement the approach to crime prevention defined in the Guidelines? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. 2. In your country, have specific crime prevention policies or strategies been adopted? (a) At the national level? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please cite the title and date of adoption. Has this policy or strategy been enshrined in legislation? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please provide the reference and date of adoption. (b) At the regional level? ( ) Yes ( ) No (c) At the local level? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer to (b) and/or (c) above is “Yes”, please specify. 3. In your country, which government department, ministry or organization at the national level has the responsibility for leadership in crime prevention? Please specify. 4. In your country, does the organization or framework of crime prevention include: (a) A centre or focal point at the national level? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please cite the name and status of the responsible agency or agencies. (b) Centres or focal points at the regional level? ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) Not applicable (c) Establishing crime prevention plans with clear priorities? (i) At the national level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (ii) At the regional level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No ( ) Not applicable (iii) At the local level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (d) Establishing linkages and coordination between relevant government agencies and organizations? (i) At the national level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (ii) At the regional level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No ( ) Not applicable (e) Fostering partnerships with non-governmental organizations, the business, private and professional sectors and the community? (i) At the national level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (ii) At the regional level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No ( ) Not applicable (iii) At the local level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (f) Seeking the active participation of the general public? (i) At the national level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (ii) At the regional level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No ( ) Not applicable (iii) At the local level? ( ) Yes ( ) Yes, in part ( ) No (g) A specific role for the police and other institutions performing similar roles? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe. 5. In your country, do government bodies support the development of crime prevention skills by: (a) Providing professional development? ( ) Yes ( ) No (b) Encouraging relevant educational institutions to offer basic and advanced courses? ( ) Yes ( ) No (c) Working to develop certification and professional qualifications? ( ) Yes ( ) No (d) Promoting the capacity of communities to develop and respond to their own needs? ( ) Yes ( ) No II. Crime prevention approaches Crime prevention as defined in the relevant instruments refers to various approaches generally called social, community-based and situational crime prevention, as well as preventing recidivism. In respect to social crime prevention, relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime include: 6. Crime prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches, including those which: (a) Promote the well-being of people and encourage pro-social behaviour through social, economic, health and educational measures, with a particular emphasis on children and youth, and focus on the risk and protective factors associated with crime and victimization (prevention through social development, or social crime prevention); Socio-economic development and inclusion 8. Crime prevention considerations should be integrated into all relevant social and economic policies and programmes, including those addressing employment, education, health, housing and urban planning, poverty, social marginalization and exclusion. Particular emphasis should be placed on communities, families, children and youth at risk. Social development 24. Governments should address the risk factors of crime and victimization by: (a) Promoting protective factors through comprehensive and non-stigmatizing social and economic development programmes, including health, education, housing and employment; (b) Promoting activities that redress marginalization and exclusion; (c) Promoting positive conflict resolution; (d) Using education and public awareness strategies to foster a culture of lawfulness and tolerance while respecting cultural identities. 6. Is the concept of social crime prevention (as defined in paragraph 6 (a) of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime) part of your country’s crime prevention policy, strategy or programmes? ( ) Yes ( ) No政府领导
7.7.
Do your country’s crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes include a specific focus on:各级政府在制定有效的和人道的预防犯罪战略和在为战略的实施和审查建立和维持体制框架方面,应当发挥领导作用。
(a) Children and youth at risk of victimization or offending?合作/伙伴关系
( ) Yes ( ) No9. 合作/伙伴关系应当是有效预防犯罪的一个组成部分,因为犯罪的原因是多种多样的,解决犯罪问题所需要的技巧和责任也是多种多样的。这种伙伴关系包括各部委之间的伙伴关系以及当局、社区组织、非政府组织、商业部门和公民个人之间的伙伴关系。
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.政府结构
(b) Vulnerable groups?17. 各国政府应当把预防作为其遏制犯罪的机构和方案的一个长期任务,确保政府内部对于预防犯罪的组织工作责任明确、目标清楚,特别是通过:
( ) Yes ( ) No(a) 建立具有专门知识和资源的中心或联络点;
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(b) 制订重点和目标明确的预防犯罪计划;
(c) The different needs of men and women?(c) 在有关政府机构或部门之间建立联系并进行协调;
( ) Yes ( ) No(d) 与非政府组织、商界、私营部门和专业团体以及社区发展伙伴关系。
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(e) 通过向公众宣传行动的必要性和手段及其作用,鼓励公众积极参与预防犯罪。
8. Are crime prevention considerations integrated into relevant social and economic policies and programmes?培训与能力建设
( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please specify. 9. In your country, do crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes:18. 各国政府应当支持开发预防犯罪的技能,办法是:
(a) Promote protective factors (e.g. staying in school, positive parenting, job training for youth, etc.)?(a) 向有关机构高级官员提供专业发展机会;
( ) Yes ( ) No(b) 鼓励各大学、学院和其他有关教育机构开设基础班和高级班,包括与从事这项工作的人员合作;
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.(c) 与教育部门和专业团体一起做提供证明和专业资格证书的工作; (d) 提高社区发展和满足自身需要的能力。
(b) Promote activities to redress marginalization or exclusion?支持伙伴关系
( ) Yes ( ) No19. 各国政府及民间社会各阶层应当支持伙伴关系原则,其中酌情包括:
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.(a) 宣传该原则的重要性及成功的伙伴关系的要素,包括所有伙伴有必要具有明确而透明的角色; (b) 促进在不同级别和跨部门建立伙伴关系;
(c) Promote positive conflict resolution (e.g. mediation, restorative justice, etc.)?(c) 为伙伴关系的有效运作提供便利。
( ) Yes ( ) No1. 贵国政府机构是否已采取步骤执行《准则》中所述的预防犯罪方法?
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请简单说明。 2. 贵国是否已通过具体的预防犯罪政策或战略?
(d) Use education and public awareness?(a) 在国家一级?
( ) Yes ( ) No( )是 ( )否
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.若回答“是”,请说明标题和通过日期。 该政策或战略是否已纳入立法? ( )是 ( )否
(e) Involve the media?若回答“是”,请说明有关法律和通过日期。
( ) Yes ( ) No(b) 在区域一级?
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.( )是 ( )否
In respect of community or locally based crime prevention, relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime include:(c) 在地方一级?
6. Crime prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches, including those which:( )是 ( )否 对于上述(b)和(或)(c),若回答“是”,请说明。 3. 在贵国,国家一级的哪个政府部委或组织负责预防犯罪方面的领导工作? 请说明。 4. 贵国的预防犯罪组织或框架是否包括: (a) 国家一级的中心或联络点? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明负责机构的名称和地位。
(b) Change the conditions in neighbourhoods that influence offending, victimization and insecurity that results from crime by building on the initiatives, expertise and commitment of community members (locally based crime prevention);(b) 区域一级的的中心或联络点?
10. Does your country have specific crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes designed to change the conditions that influence offending, victimization and insecurity in neighbourhoods?( )是 ( )否
( ) Yes ( ) No( )不适用
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(c) 制订重点明确的预防犯罪计划?
11. Does your crime prevention policy or strategy include an integrated approach to address the multiple risk and protective factors in highly vulnerable neighbourhoods or communities?㈠ 在国家一级?
( ) Yes ( ) No( )是 ( )否 ( )不适用
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.㈡ 在区域一级?
In respect of situational crime prevention, relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime include:( )是 ( )部分是
6. Crime prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches, including those which:( )否 ( )不适用
(c) Prevent the occurrence of crimes by reducing opportunities, increasing risks of being apprehended and minimizing benefits, including through environmental design, and by providing assistance and information to potential and actual victims (situational crime prevention);㈢ 在地方一级?
Situational prevention( )是 ( )部分是
26. Governments and civil society, including, where appropriate, the corporate sector, should support the development of situational crime prevention programmes by, inter alia:( )否 (d) 在有关政府机构和组织之间建立联系并进行协调? ㈠ 在国家一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 ㈡ 在区域一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 ( )不适用 (e) 与非政府组织、商界、私营部门和专业团体以及社区发展伙伴关系? ㈠ 在国家一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 ㈡ 在区域一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 ( )不适用 ㈢ 在地方一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 (f) 争取普通公众的积极参与? ㈠ 在国家一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 ㈡ 在区域一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 ( )不适用 ㈢ 在地方一级? ( )是 ( )部分是 ( )否 (g) 为警察局和履行类似职责的其他机构设定的具体职责? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 5. 贵国政府机构是否通过以下方式支持开发预防犯罪的技能: (a) 提供专业发展机会? ( )是 ( )否 (b) 鼓励有关教育机构开设基础班和高级班? ( )是 ( )否 (c) 开展提供证明和专业资格证书的工作? ( )是 ( )否 (d) 提高社区发展和满足自身需要的能力? ( )是 ( )否 二. 预防犯罪的办法 有关文书定义的预防犯罪是指一般称为社会犯罪预防、以社区为基础的犯罪预防和情境犯罪预防,以及预防再次犯罪的各种方法。 关于社会犯罪预防,《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落包括: 6. 预防犯罪包括各种办法,其中有: (a) 通过社会、经济、卫生和教育方面的措施提高人民的福利并且鼓励有利于社会的行为,特别关注儿童与青少年,并重视与犯罪和受害有关的风险和保护性因素(通过社会发展加以预防,或称社会犯罪预防); 社会经济发展与包容 8. 对预防犯罪的考虑应当纳入所有相关的社会及经济政策与方案中,包括针对就业、教育、卫生、住房和城市规划、贫穷、社会边缘化和排斥等问题的政策和方案。应当特别关注社区、家庭、问题儿童与青少年。 社会发展 24. 各国政府应当消除犯罪和受害的风险因素,办法是:
(a) Improved environmental design;(a) 通过综合的和非谴责性的社会和经济发展方案,包括卫生、教育、住房和就业方案,促进保护性因素;
(b) Appropriate methods of surveillance that are sensitive to the right to privacy;(b) 倡导消除边缘化和排斥的活动;
(c) Encouraging the design of consumer goods to make them more resistant to crime;(c) 倡导积极的冲突解决办法;
(d) Target “hardening” without impinging upon the quality of the built environment or limiting free access to public space;(d) 利用教育和公众宣传战略来培育尊重文化特性、守法和容忍的文化。
(e) Implementing strategies to prevent repeat victimization.6. 社会犯罪预防概念(按《预防犯罪准则》第6(a)段的定义)是否是贵国预防犯罪政策、战略或方案的一部分?
12. Does your country have specific situational crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes to:( )是 ( )否 7. 贵国的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案是否具体关注: (a) 儿童与青少年有受害或犯罪的风险? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 (b) 弱势群体? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 (c) 男女的不同需要? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 8. 是否将预防犯罪方面的考虑纳入了相关的社会和经济政策与方案? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 9. 贵国的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案是否:
(a) Improve environmental design and management?(a) 促进保护性因素(如继续上学、积极育儿、对青少年的就业培训等)?
( ) Yes ( ) No( )是 ( )否
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.若回答“是”,请简单说明。 (b) 倡导消除边缘化和排斥的活动?
(b) Implement appropriate methods of surveillance that are sensitive to privacy?( )是 ( )否
( ) Yes ( ) No若回答“是”,请简单说明。
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(c) 倡导积极的冲突解决办法?
(c) Promote target hardening without impinging on the quality of the built environment?( )是 ( )否
( ) Yes ( ) No若回答“是”,请简单说明。
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(d) 利用教育和公众宣传?
(d) Encourage the design of crime resistant consumer goods?( )是 ( )否
( ) Yes ( ) No若回答“是”,请简单说明。
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(e) 动员媒体参与?
(e) Implement strategies to prevent repeat victimization?( )是 ( )否
( ) Yes ( ) No若回答“是”,请简单说明。
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.关于以社区或当地为基础的犯罪预防,《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落包括:
In respect of the prevention of recidivism, relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime include:6. 预防犯罪包括各种办法,其中有: (b) 通过社区成员的各种活动、专门知识和承诺来改变居民点中那些对犯罪、受害和不安全具有影响的条件以及犯罪所导致的不安定情况(以当地为基础的犯罪预防);
6. Crime prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches, including those which:10. 贵国是否制订了旨在改变居民点中那些影响犯罪、受害和不安全的条件的具体的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 11. 贵国的预防犯罪政策或战略是否包括涉及非常脆弱的居民点或社区的多种风险和保护性因素的综合方法? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 关于情境犯罪预防,《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落包括: 6. 预防犯罪包括各种办法,其中有: (c) 通过减少机会,提高被捕风险和使获利最小化,包括通过环境设计和向潜在的和实际的受害者提供援助和信息,以预防犯罪的发生(情境犯罪预防); 情景预防 26. 各国政府和民间社会,在适宜时包括企业界,应当支持制定情境犯罪预防方案,特别是通过: (a) 改进环境设计; (b) 谨慎对待隐私权的恰当的监督方法; (c) 鼓励设计更易抵制犯罪的消费品;
(d) Prevent recidivism by assisting in the social reintegration of offenders and other preventive mechanisms (reintegration programmes).(d) 使目标“难以得手”,但又不影响现有环境的质量或限制进入公共场所的自由;
13. In your country, do you have specific policies, strategies or programmes to prevent recidivism by assisting in the social reintegration of offenders and other preventive mechanisms?(e) 实施预防再次被害的战略。
( ) Yes ( ) No12. 贵国是否有具体的情境犯罪预防政策、战略或方案,以便:
If the answer is “Yes”, please specify.(a) 改进环境设计和管理? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。
III.(b) 实施谨慎对待隐私权的恰当的监督方法? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 (c) 使目标难以得手,但又不影响现有环境的质量? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 (d) 鼓励设计抵制犯罪的消费品? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 (e) 实施预防再次被害的战略? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 关于预防再次犯罪,《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落包括: 6.
Implementation issues预防犯罪包括各种办法,其中有: (d) 通过帮助罪犯融入社会和其他预防机制来预防再次犯罪(重返社会方案)。
Sustainability and accountability are important principles to ensure the implementation of effective crime prevention programmes and initiatives.13.
The relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime are:贵国是否有通过帮助罪犯融入社会和其他预防机制来预防再次犯罪的具体的政策、战略或方案?
1. There is clear evidence that well-planned crime prevention strategies not only prevent crime and victimization, but also promote community safety and contribute to the sustainable development of countries. Effective, responsible crime prevention enhances the quality of life of all citizens. It has long-term benefits in terms of reducing the costs associated with the formal criminal justice system, as well as other social costs that result from crime. Crime prevention offers opportunities for a humane and more cost-effective approach to the problems of crime.( )是 ( )否
Sustainability/accountability若回答“是”,请说明。
10. Crime prevention requires adequate resources, including funding for structures and activities, in order to be sustained.三.
There should be clear accountability for funding, implementation and evaluation and for the achievement of planned results.执行问题
Sustainability可持续性和问责制是确保执行有效的预防犯罪方案和举措的重要原则。《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落有:
20. Governments and other funding bodies should strive to achieve sustainability of demonstrably effective crime prevention programmes and initiatives through, inter alia:1. 有明显证据表明,经过周密计划的预防犯罪战略不仅能够预防犯罪和受害,而且能够提高社区的安全性并有利于国家的可持续发展。有效的和负责任的预防犯罪能够提高全体公民的生活质量,在降低正规的刑事司法系统的成本及其他由犯罪导致的社会费用方面具有长期效益。预防犯罪为采用人道的、更有成本效益的方法来解决犯罪问题提供了可能性。 可持续性/问责制 10. 预防犯罪需要有充足的资源,包括为各个机构和各种活动提供资金,以便持续开展这一活动。对于筹资、执行和评价,以及对于预期结果的实现,应当有明确的问责制。 可持续性 20. 各国政府及其他供资机构应当努力实现经证明有效的犯罪预防方案和举措的持续实施,特别是通过: (a) 审查资金分配情况,以在预防犯罪与刑事司法及其他系统之间建立并维持适当的平衡,目的是更有效地预防犯罪与受害; (b) 为预防犯罪活动的筹资、方案编制和协调建立明确的问责制; (c) 鼓励社区参与促进这些方案和举措的可持续性。 14. 贵国采取了哪些措施来确保预防犯罪政策、战略和方案的可持续性? 请简单说明。 15. 贵国是否曾系统地试图评估犯罪成本和包括预防犯罪措施在内的犯罪控制措施和成本? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明资金来源和估计成本总额。 在实施预防犯罪方面,确定了严格实施程序的各种要素。《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落如下: 知识基础 11. 预防犯罪的战略、政策、方案和行动应当建立在有关犯罪问题、犯罪的多种原因以及有希望并经过验证的做法的广泛、跨学科的知识基础之上。 21. 各国政府和/或民间社会应当酌情促进以知识为基础的犯罪预防,特别是通过:
(a) Reviewing resource allocation to establish and maintain an appropriate balance between crime prevention and the criminal justice and other systems, to be more effective in preventing crime and victimization;(a) 为社区解决犯罪问题提供必要的信息;
(b) Establishing clear accountability for funding, programming and coordinating crime prevention initiatives;(b) 支持产生有科学依据的、有效的、切合实际的有用知识;
(c) Encouraging community involvement in sustainability.(c) 促进整理和综合知识,并且查明和弥补知识库中的空白;
14. In your country, what measures have been taken to ensure the sustainability of crime prevention policies, strategies and programmes?(d) 在研究人员、决策者、教育工作者、来自其他有关部门的从业者和更广泛的团体之间交流有关知识;
Please describe briefly.(e) 运用这一知识在别处进行成功的干预,制定新的举措,预测新的犯罪问题并防患于未然;
15. In your country, have there been systematic attempts to assess the costs of crime and crime control measures, including crime prevention measures?(f) 建立数据库系统来帮助更有成本效益地管理犯罪预防工作,包括对犯罪与受害情况进行定期调查;
( ) Yes ( ) No(g) 鼓励运用这些数据来减少再次受害、惯常犯罪和高犯罪率地区。
If the answer is “Yes”, please provide the source of funding and an estimate of the total costs.有计划地进行干预
In implementing crime prevention, elements of a rigorous process have been identified.22.
The relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime are:有计划地进行干预应当促进包括以下各方面的一个过程:
Knowledge base(a) 系统分析犯罪问题、其原因、风险因素和后果,特别是在地方一级;
11. Crime prevention strategies, policies, programmes and actions should be based on a broad, multidisciplinary foundation of knowledge about crime problems, their multiple causes and promising and proven practices.(b) 利用最适宜的方法并根据当地的具体问题和情况制订干预计划;
21. As appropriate, Governments and/or civil society should facilitate knowledge-based crime prevention by, inter alia:(c) 制订进行高效率、有成效和可持续的适当干预的实施计划; (d) 动员那些能够治本的实体; (e) 监督和评价。 支持评价 23. 各国政府、其他供资机构和参与制定和实施计划的机构应当: (a) 进行短期和长期评价,严格验证是什么在起作用,在哪里和为什么起作用; (b) 进行成本效益分析; (c) 评估活动导致犯罪和受害程度的下降情况,犯罪严重程度的下降情况,以及对犯罪的恐惧心理的减轻程度; (d) 系统评估活动的结果和出乎意料的后果,不管是正面的还是反面的,例如犯罪率降低或个人和/或社区的指责。 16. 在贵国,是否通过以下方式促进利用以知识为基础的预防犯罪战略、政策或方案: (a) 支持产生和利用有用的信息和数据? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请简单说明。 (b) 支持有用信息和数据的共享? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请简单说明。 (c) 促进运用有用的信息和数据来减少再次受害、惯常犯罪和高犯罪率地区? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请简单说明。 17. 贵国的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案是否促进包括以下各方面的规划过程:
(a) Providing the information necessary for communities to address crime problems;(a) 系统分析犯罪问题、其原因、风险因素和后果,特别是在地方一级?
(b) Supporting the generation of useful and practically applicable knowledge that is scientifically reliable and valid;( )是 ( )否
(c) Supporting the organization and synthesis of knowledge and identifying and addressing gaps in the knowledge base;若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(d) Sharing that knowledge, as appropriate, among, inter alia, researchers, policy makers, educators, practitioners from other relevant sectors and the wider community;(b) 利用最适宜的方法并根据当地的具体问题和情况制订干预计划?
(e) Applying this knowledge in replicating successful interventions, developing new initiatives and anticipating new crime problems and prevention opportunities;( )是 ( )否
(f) Establishing data systems to help manage crime prevention more cost-effectively, including by conducting regular surveys of victimization and offending;若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(g) Promoting the application of those data in order to reduce repeat victimization, persistent offending and areas with a high level of crime.(c) 制订进行高效率、有成效和可持续的适当干预的实施计划?
Planning intervention( )是 ( )否
22. Those planning interventions should promote a process that includes:若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(a) A systematic analysis of crime problems, their causes, risk factors and consequences, in particular at the local level;(d) 动员那些能够治本的实体?
(b) A plan that draws on the most appropriate approach and adapts interventions to the specific local problem and context;( )是 ( )否
(c) An implementation plan to deliver appropriate interventions that are efficient, effective and sustainable;若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(d) Mobilizing entities that are able to tackle causes;(e) 监督和评价?
(e) Monitoring and evaluation.( )是 ( )否
Supporting evaluation若回答“是”,请简单说明。
23.18.
Governments, other funding bodies and those involved in programme development and delivery should:贵国的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案是否包括:
(a) Undertake short- and longer-term evaluation to test rigorously what works, where and why;(a) 进行评价以严格验证是什么在起作用?
(b) Undertake cost-benefit analyses;( )是 ( )否
(c) Assess the extent to which action results in a reduction in levels of crime and victimization, in the seriousness of crime and in fear of crime;若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(d) Systematically asses the outcomes and unintended consequences, both positive and negative, of action, such as a decrease in crime rates or the stigmatization of individuals and/or communities.(b) 进行成本效益分析?
16. In your country, is the use of knowledge-based crime prevention strategies, policies or programmes facilitated by:( )是 ( )否
(a) Supporting the generation and utilization of useful information and data?若回答“是”,请简单说明。
( ) Yes ( ) No(c) 评估犯罪和受害的下降情况,以及对犯罪的恐惧心理的减轻情况?
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.( )是 ( )否
(b) Supporting the sharing of useful information and data?若回答“是”,请简单说明。
( ) Yes ( ) No(d) 评估结果和出乎意料的后果?
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.( )是 ( )否
(c) Promoting the application of useful information and data to reduce repeat victimization, persistent offending and high crime areas?若回答“是”,请简单说明。
( ) Yes ( ) No19. 是否对贵国的国家预防犯罪政策或战略的组成部分或具体活动进行了评介?
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.( )是 ( )否
17. In your country, do the crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes promote a planning process that includes:若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(a) A systematic analysis of crime problems, their causes and risk factors and consequences, in particular at the local level?《预防犯罪准则》认识到地方有组织犯罪和跨国有组织犯罪之间的联系以及预防有组织犯罪的必要性。《准则》中的相关段落有:
( ) Yes ( ) No相互依存
If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly.13. 在适宜时,国家预防犯罪的判断和战略应当考虑当地的犯罪问题与国际有组织犯罪之间的联系。
(b) A plan that draws on the most appropriate approaches and adapts interventions to the specific local problems and local context?预防有组织犯罪
( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (c) An implementation plan to deliver efficient, effective and sustainable interventions? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (d) Mobilizing entities that are able to tackle causes? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (e) Monitoring and evaluation? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. 18. In your country, do the crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes include: (a) Undertaking evaluation to test rigorously what works?27. 各国政府和民间社会应当致力于分析和应对跨国有组织犯罪与国内和当地犯罪问题之间的联系,特别是采取以下办法:
( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (b) Undertaking cost-benefit analyses? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (c) Assessing reduction in crime, victimization and fear of crime? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (d) Assessing outcomes and unintended consequences? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. 19. Has an evaluation of components or specific activities of your country’s national crime prevention policy or strategy been undertaken?(a) 通过适当的立法、行政或其他措施减少有组织犯罪集团现在和将来用犯罪所得参与合法市场的机会;
( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. The Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime recognize the links between local and transnational organized crime and the need to prevent organized crime. The relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines are: Interdependency 13. National crime prevention diagnoses and strategies should, where appropriate, take account of links between local criminal problems and international organized crime. Prevention of organized crime 27. Governments and civil society should endeavour to analyse and address the links between transnational organized crime and national and local crime problems by, inter alia: (a) Reducing existing and future opportunities for organized criminal groups to participate in lawful markets with the proceeds of crime, through appropriate legislative, administrative or other measures; (b) Developing measures to prevent the misuse by organized criminal groups of tender procedures conducted by public authorities and of subsidies and licences granted by public authorities for commercial activity; (c) Designing crime prevention strategies, where appropriate, to protect socially marginalized groups, especially women and children, who are vulnerable to the action of organized criminal groups, including trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants.(b) 制定措施,防止有组织犯罪集团滥用政府当局操作的招标程序以及政府当局为商业活动发放的补贴和许可证;
Links between transnational and local crime(c) 酌情制订犯罪预防战略,以保护处于社会边缘的群体,尤其是妇女和儿童,他们容易受到有组织犯罪集团的活动的伤害,包括贩卖人口和偷运移民。
31. Member States should collaborate to analyse and address the links between transnational organized crime and national and local crime problems.跨国犯罪与地方犯罪之间的联系
20.31.
In your country, do crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes assess the potential links between local and national crime problems and transnational organized crime?各会员国应当共同分析和应对跨国有组织犯罪与国家和地方犯罪问题之间的联系。
( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. 21. In your country, do the crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes include: (a) Measures to reduce opportunities for organized criminal groups to participate in lawful markets? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (b) Measures to prevent the misuse of public tender procedures, subsidies and licences? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. (c) Measures to protect socially marginalized groups, especially women and children, who are vulnerable to exploitation by organized criminal groups, including preventing trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please describe briefly. IV. International cooperation, networking and technical assistance Member States are encouraged to facilitate international cooperation and develop networks for the exchange of practices and knowledge. The relevant paragraphs of the Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime include: Technical assistance 29. Member States and relevant international funding organizations should provide financial and technical assistance, including capacity-building and training, to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, communities and other relevant organizations for the implementation of effective crime prevention and community safety strategies at the regional, national and local levels. In that context, special attention should be given to research and action on crime prevention through social development. Networking 30. Member States should strengthen or establish international, regional and national crime prevention networks with a view to exchanging proven and promising practices, identifying elements of their transferability and making such knowledge available to communities throughout the world. Prioritizing crime prevention 32. The Centre for International Crime Prevention of the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention of the Secretariat, the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network of affiliated and associated institutes and other relevant United Nations entities should include in their priorities crime prevention as set out in these Guidelines, set up a coordination mechanism and establish a roster of experts to undertake needs assessment and to provide technical advice. Dissemination 33. Relevant United Nations bodies and other organizations should cooperate to produce crime prevention information in as many languages as possible, using both print and electronic media. 22. Does your country participate in international networks for the exchange of information and knowledge on crime prevention policies, strategies or programmes? ( ) Yes ( ) No If the answer is “Yes”, please specify. 23. What are the main obstacles to your country participating in international networking? Please describe. 24. Please identify guides, toolkits, compendiums or manuals of crime prevention practices from your country that can be shared with other countries.20. 贵国的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案是否评估地方和国家犯罪问题与跨国有组织犯罪之间的可能联系?
25. Does your country need technical assistance in any area of crime prevention?( )是 ( )否
( ) Yes ( ) No若回答“是”,请简单说明。
26.21.
Is your country able to provide technical assistance in any area of crime prevention?贵国的预防犯罪政策、战略或方案是否包括:
( ) Yes ( ) No(a) 减少有组织犯罪集团参与合法市场的机会的措施?
If the answer to questions 25 and/or 26 is “Yes”, please mark the appropriate box(es) below: Need technical assistance Can provide technical assistance( )是 ( )否
(a)若回答“是”,请简单说明。
Including prevention as a permanent part of government structures (para. 17)(b) 防止滥用公共招标程序、补贴和许可证的措施?
(b)( )是 ( )否
Government support for the development of crime prevention skills (para. 18)若回答“是”,请简单说明。
(c)(c) 保护处于社会边缘的群体,尤其是容易受到有组织犯罪集团剥削的妇女和儿童的措施,包括防止贩运人口和偷运移民的措施?
Government and civil society support of partnerships (para. 19)( )是 ( )否
(d)若回答“是”,请简单说明。
Social crime prevention (paras.四.
6 (a), 8 and 24)国际合作、网络建设和技术援助 鼓励各会员国促进国际合作并建立交流做法和知识的网络。《预防犯罪准则》中的相关段落包括:
(e)技术援助
Locally based or neighbourhood crime prevention (para.29.
6 (b))各会员国及有关国际供资组织应当向发展中国家和经济转型期国家、社区及其他有关组织提供财政和技术援助,包括能力建设和培训,以便在区域、国家和地方各级实施有效预防犯罪战略和社区安全战略。在这方面,应当特别关注通过社会发展预防犯罪方面的研究和行动。
(f)网络建设
Situational crime prevention (paras.30.
6 (c) and 26)各会员国应当加强或建立国际、区域和国家预防犯罪网,以便交流各种切实可行而且有希望的做法,确定可传播这些做法的要素,并向世界各地的社区传播这些知识。
(g)将预防犯罪作为优先事项
Prevention of recidivism (para.32.
6 (d))秘书处药物管制和预防犯罪办事处国际预防犯罪中心、联合国预防犯罪和刑事司法方案网各附属研究所和联系研究所以及联合国其他相关实体应当按照本准则的规定,将预防犯罪作为它们的优先事项,建立协调机制并拟订从事需求评估和技术咨询的专家名册。
(h)传播 33. 联合国有关机构及其他组织应当进行合作,用尽可能多的语文提供预防犯罪方面的信息,不管是使用印刷媒体还是电子媒体。
Sustainability and accountability of crime prevention (paras.22. 贵国是否参与旨在交流关于预防犯罪政策、战略或方案的信息和知识的国际网络? ( )是 ( )否 若回答“是”,请说明。 23.
1, 10 and 20)贵国在参与国际网络建设方面的主要障碍是什么?
(i)请说明。 24. 请说明贵国可与其他国家分享的预防犯罪做法方面的指南、工具包、简编或手册。
Knowledge-based crime prevention (paras.25. 贵国是否需要任何预防犯罪方面的技术援助? ( )是 ( )否 26.
11 and 21)贵国是否能在任何预防犯罪方面提供技术援助?
(j)( )是 ( )否
Planning interventions (para. 22)若对问题25和(或)26回答“是”,请在下列相应的空格中注明 需要技术援助 可提供技术援助
(k)(a) 把预防作为政府结构的一个长期任务(第17段)
Monitoring and evaluation (para. 23)(b) 政府支持开发预防犯罪的技能(第18段) (c) 政府和民间社会支持伙伴关系(第19段)
(l) Assessing the links between local crime problems and transnational organized crime (paras. 13, 27 and 31)(d) 社会犯罪预防(第6(a)、8和24段)
(m) Of the areas identified, is there a priority? If so, please identify.(e) 以当地为基础的楞居民点预防犯罪(第6(b)段)
V. Concluding questions(f) 情景犯罪预防(第6(c)段和26段)
27. What are some of the main lessons your country has derived from national experience in implementing crime prevention policies, strategies and programmes?(g) 防止再次犯罪(第6(d)段)
Please describe.(h) 预防犯罪的可持续和问责制(第1、10和20段) (i) 以知识为基础的犯罪预防(第11和21段) (j) 有计划地进行干预(第22段) (k) 监督和评价(第23段) (l) 评估地方犯罪问题和跨国有组织犯罪之间的联系(第13、27和31段) (m) 在所确定的领域中是否有一个优先事项? 若是,请指明 五. 结论性问题 27. 贵国在实施预防犯罪政策、战略和方案方面有哪些主要的经验教训? 请说明。
28.28.
What are the main challenges in your country for delivering effective crime prevention?贵国在实施有效的预防犯罪方面面临着哪些主要挑战?
Please describe.请说明。