CAC_COSP_IRG_I_3_1_ADD_18_EC
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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.18 V1500669.doc (English)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/ADD.18 V1500668.doc (Chinese)
United Nations联合国
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
2 February 20152 February 2015
Original: EnglishChinese Original: English
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18
V.15-00669 (E) 100215 110215V.15-00668 (C)
*1500669**1500668*
<>V1500669<>实施情况审议组
<>CAC/COSP/IRG/I/3/1/Add.18<> <><> Implementation Review Group Sixth session第六届会议
Vienna, 1-5 June 20152015年6月1日至5日,维也纳
Item 2 of the provisional agenda临时议程项目2
**
CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1.CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1。
Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption审议《联合国反腐败公约》实施情况
Executive summary提要
Note by the Secretariat秘书处的说明
Addendum增编
Contents目录
Page页次
Executive summary提要
22
Ghana加纳
22
II. Executive summary二. 提要
Ghana加纳
1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of Ghana in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption1. 导言:加纳在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和体制框架概述
Ghana signed the Convention on 9 December 2004, ratified it on 16 December 2005 and deposited its instrument of ratification on 24 June 2007.加纳于2004年12月9日签署《公约》,2005年12月16日批准《公约》,并于2007年6月24日交存批准书。
Ghana has a dualist system and does not apply the Convention directly.加纳有一套二元系统,并不直接适用《公约》。 加纳的法律体系以判例法为基础。 2012年,加纳制定了一项全国反腐行动计划,将由加纳议会审议通过。
The legal system in Ghana is based on the common law.与反腐最相关的机构是人权和行政司法委员会、经济和有组织犯罪办公室、加纳警察署、总检察长办公室、金融情报中心、总审计长办公室、内部审计署、公共采购局、总会计局、国家调查局以及议会公共账户委员会。
In 2012, Ghana developed a National Anti-Corruption Action Plan, which was pending adoption by the Parliament of Ghana at the time of the review.加纳在司法局成立了金融和经济犯罪法庭。
The institutions most relevant in the fight against corruption are the CHRAJ (Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice), EOCO (Economic and Organised Crime Office), the Ghana Police Service, the Attorney-General’s Office, the FIC (Financial Intelligence Center), the Auditor-General’s Office, the Internal Audit Agency, the Public Procurement Authority, Controller and Accountant-General’s Department, Bureau of National Investigations and the Public Accounts’ Committee of Parliament.人权和行政司法委员会及经济和有组织犯罪办公室是最重要的腐败调查机构。
Within the Judicial Service, Ghana has established Financial and Economic Crime Courts.在检控方面,自2010年成立以来,经济和有组织犯罪办公室大力投入专业调查培训。
The CHRAJ and the EOCO are the most important corruption investigation authorities.人权和行政司法委员会没有提起公诉的权力。
With regard to prosecution, the EOCO has since its creation in 2010 invested considerably in specialized investigation training.2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法
CHRAJ does not have the power to prosecute.2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述 贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)
2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement1960年《刑事犯罪法》(第29号法)第239条、第241至第243条以及第245条对向国家公职人员行贿的行为做出规定。 第3条对“公职人员”进行了界定,第261条对“有值对价”进行了界定,与之对应的是“不当好处”。 《刑事犯罪法》第151条、第239条、第242至第244条、第247条、第253至和第254条将公职人员的受贿行为定为刑事犯罪。 虽然没有具体的跨国贿赂罪,但是基于第3条对公职人员的界定比较宽泛,所援引的上述规范也适用于该情况。 然而,此类行为只有发生在加纳才能被起诉,因为没有确立针对发生在海外的腐败罪行的管辖权。 《刑事犯罪法》第252条将主动和被动影响力交易定为刑事犯罪。 就主动影响力交易而言,第252条第2款既未包括向“任何其他人”提供不当好处,也未包括“许诺”和“直接或间接”提供这种不当好处。
2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review就被动影响力交易而言,第252条第1款不包括“索取”、“直接或间接”以及“为其个人或其他人”这些因素。
Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)《公共采购法》第92和93条对私营部门的行贿罪行的一些方面做了规定;但是,这仅限于采购过程,这些条款所涉及的行为经常涉及贿赂公职人员的行为。
Active bribery of national public officials is regulated in sections 239, 241-243 and 245 of the Criminal Offences Act, 1960 (Act 29).加纳未对私营部门的受贿行为进行刑事定罪。 洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条) 加纳在2008年《反洗钱法》(第749号法)第1至3条及《麻醉药品法》第12条中将清洗犯罪所得行为定为犯罪。 《反洗钱法》对掩饰来源和地点的行为进行了规定,但未对掩饰财产的真实性质、处置、调动和所有权作出规定。
Section 3 defines the term “public officer”, while Section 261 defines “valuable consideration”, corresponding to “undue advantage”.该法对包括大多数腐败犯罪在内的一系列上游犯罪做了规定,无论犯罪行为发生在加纳还是其他地方。
Sections 151, 239, 242-244, 247, 253-254 of the Criminal Offences Act criminalize passive bribery of public officials.自洗钱行为未被排除在外。 加纳未向联合国秘书长提供其法律副本。 值得注意的是,被起诉的洗钱案件只有两起。 2014年,加纳通过了《反洗钱法》(修正案)(第874号法)。 该法将掩饰来源、处置、调动或所有权定为刑事犯罪;只是没有涉及掩盖财产的真实本质。 《反洗钱法》第1条和第3条对窝赃进行了刑事定罪。 虽然可以在“占有”因素下予以述及,但该法未包括“继续保留”因素。 贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条) 《刑事犯罪法》第124至125条、第128至129条、第179A、C、D条及第260条和1977年颁布的《公共财产保护法》(最高军事委员会第140号法令)第1至4条(尤其是第3条)对贪污和挪用的行为做出了规定。 这些罪行适用于所有人员,不只是公职人员。
While there is no specific offence of transnational bribery, the norms quoted above could also be applied in this context based on the broad definition of public officers in Section 3.《公共财产保护法》第3条提到“委托犯罪分子保管的资产”,但不是通过公职。
However, such conduct can only be prosecuted if committed in Ghana because no jurisdiction was established for corruption offences committed abroad.《法》未对为了第三方的利益而贪污的行为作出具体规定。
Both active and passive trading in influence are criminalized in Section 252 of the Criminal Offences Act.《刑事犯罪法》第179 C和D条将滥用职权定为刑事犯罪。
With regard to active trading in influence, Section 252, paragraph 2, does not cover the provision of an undue benefit to “any other person”, nor the “promise” and the granting “directly or indirectly” of such undue benefit.加纳当局确认,第179C条中的“为个人谋利”因素也包括为第三方谋利。
As to passive trading in influence, Section 252, paragraph 1, does not cover the elements of “solicitation”, “directly or indirectly” and “for himself or herself or for another person”.加纳未对资产非法增加进行刑事定罪。
Some aspects of the offence of active bribery in the private sector are covered in sections 92 and 93 of the Public Procurement Act; however, they are limited to the procurement process and the conducts covered in these provisions will often entail bribery of a public official.根据《刑事犯罪法》第124至125条、第128至129条和140条以及1977年《公共财产保护法》(最高军事委员会第140号法令)第1至4条(尤其是第3条)可对私营部门贪污或挪用财产的行为进行处罚。
Ghana has not criminalized passive bribery in the private sector.《公共财产保护法》第3条提到“委托犯罪分子保管的资产”。
Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)然而,这些条款并未对指导私营部门实体或在私营部门实体工作的人员贪污或挪用的行为作出具体规定,而是只提到了公共财产。
Ghana establishes the laundering of proceeds of crime as an offence in sections 1-3 of the Anti-Money Laundering Act 2008 (Act 749), and section 12 of the Narcotic Drug Act.另外,未对为第三方利益而贪污的行为作出具体规定。
The Anti-Money Laundering Act covers the disguise of the origin and location, but not of the true nature, disposition, movement or ownership of property.妨害司法(第二十五条)
A wide range of predicate offences including most corruption offences is covered, whether they occur in Ghana or elsewhere.《刑事犯罪法》第234至235条、第251条以及第20条规定了为诱导伪证、干预作证或干预提供证据而许诺给予、提议给予和实际给予不正当好处的相关罪行。
Self-laundering is not excluded.第222条对为了干预作证而非为了提供伪证或提供其他证据而使用武力、威胁或恐吓以妨害司法的行为做了规定。
Ghana has not provided a copy of its laws to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.第74条对伤害威胁作了一般刑事定罪。
It is noted that only two money-laundering cases had been prosecuted.《刑事犯罪法》第234至235条、《反恐怖主义法》第25条以及《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》第21条对妨害司法的行为进行了规定;《刑事犯罪法》仅对使用暴力的行为进行了规定,未涉及威胁和恐吓。
In 2014, Ghana adopted the Anti-Money Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2014 (Act 874).《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》第21条未对武力、威胁和恐吓的行为作出具体规定,而且制裁程度要低得多。
It criminalizes the disguise of the source, disposition, movement or ownership; only the disguise of the true nature of the property is not covered.法人责任(第二十六条)
Concealment is criminalized by sections 1 and 3 of the Anti-Money Laundering Act, which does not contain the element of “continued retention”, although it could be covered under the element “takes possession”.加纳确定了不影响实施犯罪行为的自然人的刑事责任的前提下法人的刑事责任;没有具体的条款规定适用的制裁。
Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)需要指出的是,控告法人的情况并不常见。
The Criminal Offences Act addresses embezzlement and misappropriation in its Sections 124-125, 128-129, 179 A, C, D and 260, as well as Sections 1 to 4, and especially Section 3, of the Public Property Protection Act from 1977 (Supreme Military Council Decree 140).《公共采购法》第3(q)和(r)条允许将提供了诱因的公司排除在外。
These offences apply to all persons, not only to public officials.参与和未遂(第二十七条)
Section 3 of the Public Property Protection Act refers to assets “entrusted to care” to the offender, but not by virtue of an official position.《刑事犯罪法》第18、第20和第29条和《麻醉药品法》第56条对参与和未遂进行了规定;《刑事犯罪法》第19条和《麻醉药品法》第56条对准备犯罪的行为进行了规定。
Embezzlement for the benefit of a third person is not specifically regulated.起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)
Abuse of functions is criminalized in sections 179 C and D of the Criminal Offences Act.加纳对腐败罪行采用多种制裁手段。
Ghanaian authorities confirmed that the element “for private profit and benefit” in section 179 C can also cover the benefit of third parties.除了监禁之外,还可处以罚款。
Ghana has not criminalized illicit enrichment.加纳没有管辖特权。
The embezzlement or misappropriation of property in the private sector is punishable under Sections 124-125, 128-129 and 140 of the Criminal Offences Act, as well as Sections 1 to 4, and especially Section 3, of the Public Property Protection Act from 1977 (SMCD 140).总统、议会成员、司法部门的高级代表、外交官、经济和有组织犯罪办公室以及人权和行政司法委员会拥有豁免权。
Section 3 of the Public Property Protection Act refers to assets “entrusted to care” of the offender.法院可以解除豁免权。
However, they do not specifically address embezzlement or misappropriation by those directing or working in a private sector entity, and they only refer to public property.起诉不是强制性的;《加纳检察官守则》包含一些检察官如何行使其酌处权的准则。
Further, embezzlement for the benefit of a third person is not specifically regulated.加纳可以实施预防性羁押或其他措施,例如保释。
Obstruction of justice (art. 25)通过“人人享有正义”方案,减少了刑事审判中的拖延现象。
Sections 234-235 and 251, together with Section 20, of the Criminal Offence Act contain relevant offences for the promise, offering and giving of an undue advantage to induce false testimony or to interfere in the giving of testimony or the production of evidence.设有关于许可和假释的规定;假释的条款并未在实践中应用。
The use of physical force, threats or intimidation to obstruct justice are regulated in Section 222 for the interference with the giving of testimony, not for false testimony or the production of other evidence.根据《公务员纪律守则条例》第11条,公职人员可能因为刑事诉讼而被停职。
Section 74 generally criminalizes threat of harm.在实践中,重新任职也有可能。
Sections 234-235 of the Criminal Offences Act, section 25 of the Anti-Terrorism Act, and Section 21 of the EOCO Act provide for obstruction of justice; the Criminal Offence Act only provides for the use of violence, not threats and intimidation.因刑事诉讼而被免职被认为是违反宪法的。
Section 21 of the EOCO Act does not specifically cover physical force, threat and intimidation, and the sanction is considerably lower.根据《公职人员法》第9条,有些人员可能会被取消任公职或在国有独资公司任职的资格。
Liability of legal persons (art. 26)《公务员纪律守则条例》第9条规定,只有在由同一原因造成的刑事诉讼程序结束之后方可采用纪律程序。
Ghana has established the criminal liability of legal persons without prejudice to the criminal liability of the natural persons who have committed the offences; no specific provisions spell out the applicable sanctions.加纳没有帮助被定罪人员重返社会的方案。
It was noted that accusations against legal persons were not frequent.如果与司法配合者能够弥补其所造成的损害,则可获得减轻制裁或在司法程序中获得证人地位,因此,如果其能够提供有用的信息,则可免于起诉。
Section 3 (q) and (r) of the Public Procurement Act allow for the debarring of companies which have offered inducements.此类人员目前不享受证人保护。
Participation and attempt (art. 27)加纳未订立允许在国际案件中减轻刑罚或赋予豁免权的协定或安排。
Participation and attempt are regulated in sections 18, 20 and 29 of the Criminal Offences Act and section 56 of the Narcotics Drugs Act; the preparation of an offence in section 19 of the Criminal Offences Act and section 56 of the Narcotics Drugs Act.保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)加纳没有保护证人的方案。
Ghana has a broad range of sanctions for corruption offences.一项《保护证人法案》(2013)有待通过。
Fines can be imposed in addition to imprisonment.加纳还未与其他国家订立转移证人、鉴定人和受害人的协定和安排。
Ghana does not have jurisdictional privileges.加纳未制定有助于在刑事诉讼程序中使受害者的意见和关切得到表达和考虑的措施。
Immunity rights are accorded to the President, Members of Parliament, high representatives of the judiciary, diplomats, EOCO and the CHRAJ.《证据法》第107条、《反洗钱法》第32条和《举报人法》提出了保护举报人的观点。
Immunities can be lifted by the courts.一项《2013年举报人(修正)法案》有待通过。
Prosecution is not obligatory; some guidelines are contained in the Ghana Code for Prosecutors as to how to apply their discretionary powers.冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)
Ghana can impose preventive detention or alternative measures, such as bail.《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》第51条对非定罪基础上没收腐败所得和工具(而非“拟使用的”工具)进行了规定。
Through the “Justice for All” programme, delays in criminal trials have been reduced.经济和有组织犯罪办公室和金融情报中心拥有冻结和扣押的广泛权力(《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》第23、第24和第74条以及《反洗钱法》第47条);可以扣押拟用于犯罪的货币,而非拟使用的其他工具。
There are regulations on both license and parole; the provision on parole it is not applied in practice.除恐怖主义案件之外,没有负责管理所扣押和没收财产的方案或机构。
According to regulation 11 of the Civil Service Disciplinary Code Regulations, a public official can be suspended from office pending criminal proceedings.没有关于以下方面的立法:扣押和没收改变或转化为其他财产的犯罪所得;没收与通过合法来源所获得的财产混合的达到评估价值的所得;扣押和没收由犯罪所得、由此类犯罪所得所转变或转化成的财产或由与此类犯罪所得所混合的财产带来的收入或其他收益。
As a matter of practice, reassignment is also possible.《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》关于冻结财产的第33条适用于扣押银行记录。
The removal pending criminal proceedings is considered unconstitutional.《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》第41和45条对举证责任倒置进行了规定。
Persons can be disqualified from public office and from office in a company wholly owned by the State according to section 9 of the Public Office Holders Act.此类行政没收手段经常使用,原因就在于腐败和洗钱案件的起诉数量很少。
Regulation 9 of the Civil Service Disciplinary Code Regulations stipulates that disciplinary proceedings shall not be taken until the conclusion of the criminal proceedings on the same grounds.《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》第31和54条规定,扣押和没收不应当损害善意第三方的权利。
Ghana does not have a programme for the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences.金融情报中心可以要求金融机构提供金融信息,而其他所有调查机构则需要法院令才能解除银行保密。
Collaborators with justice can be awarded a mitigated sanction if they compensate the damage caused, or be given the status of a witness in the procedure and therefore be exempt from prosecution if they supply useful information.时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)
Such persons do not currently enjoy witness protection.无时效规定。
Ghana does not have agreements or arrangements in place that would permit the mitigation of punishment or the granting of immunity in international cases.《司法协助法》第71条将外国刑事定罪引入刑事诉讼程序。
Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)管辖权(第四十二条)
Ghana does not have a witness protection programme. A Witness Protection Bill (2013) is pending. Ghana has not concluded agreements and arrangements with other States for the relocation of witnesses, experts and victims. Ghana does not have measures through which the views and concerns of victims could be presented and considered in criminal proceedings. The protection of reporting persons is foreseen by section 107 of the Evidence Act, section 32 of the Anti-Money Laundering Act, and the Whistleblower Act. A Whistleblower (Amendment) Bill 2013 is pending.加纳对《公约》第四十二条提及的大多数情况规定了管辖权,以下情况除外:针对其某位国民而实施的腐败罪行;参与或企图参与加纳境外进行的洗钱行为;针对国家而实施的罪行;被指控的犯罪分子处于其领土范围内且加纳未对其进行引渡的罪行。
Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)加纳在一定程度上确定了对其国民所犯罪行的管辖权。
Section 51 of the EOCO Act regulates non-conviction based confiscation of proceeds and instruments of corruption, but not of instruments “destined for use”.当刑事诉讼程序可能在加纳及另外一个国家启动或进行时,加纳会征求对方国家中央机关的意见,为诉讼程序确定合适的地点。
The EOCO and FIC have broad powers for freezing and seizure (sec.腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)
23, 24 EOCO Act, sec. 74 EOCO Act, sec. 47 AML Act); currency destined for use in offences can be seized, but not other instrumentalities destined for use. There is no programme or institution responsible for the management of seized and confiscated property apart from terrorism cases. There is no legislation on the seizure and forfeiture of proceeds of crime transformed or converted into other property; for the confiscation up to the assessed value of proceeds intermingled with property acquired from legitimate sources; and for the seizure and confiscation of income or other benefits derived from proceeds of crime, from property into which such proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted or from property with which such proceeds of crime have been intermingled. Section 33 of the EOCO Act on freezing of property is applicable to the seizure of bank records.加纳没有关于撤销或废止合同或取消特许权的立法或相关实践,尽管实际上似乎有此类行为发生。
Sections 41 and 45 of the EOCO Act establish the inversion of the burden of proof.一些加纳公民团体已经在加纳境内的据认为涉及腐败的主要国际公司案件中启动了公益诉讼。
This administrative confiscation is very frequently applied, especially due to the low number of prosecutions in corruption and money-laundering cases.除了专门关于举报人的条款之外,没有立法规定腐败行为所造成损害的赔偿问题。
Sections 31 and 54 of the EOCO ACT foresee that seizure and confiscation shall be without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties.专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条)
The FIC can request financial institutions for banking information, while all other investigation bodies need a court order for the lifting of banking secrecy.人权和行政司法委员会、经济和有组织犯罪办公室、加纳警察署刑事调查局以及金融情报中心是通过执法反腐败的专门机关。
Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41)在国家机关之间的合作方面,人权和行政司法委员会与经济和有组织犯罪办公室共享信息不受限制,而且二者可以建立联合小组。
There is no statute of limitations.警察署、经济和有组织犯罪办公室以及金融情报中心有必要展开密切的协调,因为警察不能冻结和扣押资产。
Section 71 of the Mutual Legal Assistance Act is used to introduce foreign criminal convictions into criminal proceedings.金融情报中心已经与其他国家机关达成了几项谅解备忘录。
Jurisdiction (art. 42)在私营部门方面,相关主管机关,尤其是总检察长办公室,正在与私营部门实体的内部调查人员针对具体个案开展合作。
Ghana has established its jurisdiction with regard to most circumstances referred to in article 42 of the Convention, with the exception of corruption offences committed against one of its nationals; acts of participation in and attempts of money-laundering carried out outside Ghana; offences committed against the State; and offences when the alleged offender is present in its territory and Ghana does not extradite him.金融情报中心与金融机构合作开展了一系列培训和外联研讨会。
Ghana has partially established its jurisdiction over offences committed by a national.加纳的各类机构中都设有投诉办公室、投诉箱和热线,以鼓励举报腐败。
Ghana consults with the central authority of a foreign State to determine the appropriate venue for the proceedings to take place when criminal proceedings are likely to be initiated or are pending in both States.2.2. 成功经验和良好做法
Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35)综述
Ghana does not have legislation or relevant practice for rescinding or annulling contracts or withdrawing concessions, although this seems to be done in practice.加纳采用了多机构的方法进行反腐。
Groups of Ghanaian citizens have started public interest litigation in cases in which major international firms in Ghana were supposedly involved in corrupt practices.立法和实践为国家机构之间的合作提供了机会,也有助于信息共享和灵活分工。
Except for provisions specific to whistle-blowers, no legislation foresees the compensation for damages suffered as a result of corruption.近年来,加纳努力使其反腐方面的立法实现现代化,并已经向议会提交了更多的法案。
Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39)加纳的反腐机构在其工作人员的专门培训方面大力投入,重点关注训练有素的官员所带来的长期利益。
The CHRAJ, the EOCO, the Criminal Investigation Department of the Ghana Police Service and the FIC are the specialized bodies combating corruption through law enforcement.刑事定罪和执法
With regard to cooperation between national authorities, there is no limitation on the sharing of information between CHRAJ and EOCO and they can also establish joint teams.通过其“人人享有正义”方案,加纳已经采取行动审议并减少在押囚犯的数目(第三十条第四款)。
Close coordination of the Police Service, EOCO and FIC was necessary because the police could not seize and freeze assets.加纳通过其经济和有组织犯罪办公室以及金融情报中心拥有冻结和扣押的广泛权力,该权力分别在14天(经济和有组织犯罪办公室)或7天(金融情报中心)之后需要法院的确认(第三十一条第二款)。
The FIC has concluded several MoUs with other national institutions.积极注意到,总检察长办公室正在与私营部门实体的内部调查人员合作调查腐败罪行,而且金融情报中心正在通过培训和增强认识的活动积极影响金融部门(第三十九条第一款)。
With regard to the private sector, the competent authorities, in particular the Attorney-General’s Office, are cooperating with internal investigators in private sector entities on a case-to-case basis.对于包括腐败在内的刑事犯罪,加纳没有规定时效(第二十九条)。
The FIC conducted a series of training and outreach workshops with financial institutions.2.3. 实施方面的挑战
Various institutions in Ghana have complaint offices, complaint boxes and hotlines to encourage reporting on corruption.综述
2.2. Successes and good practices General part Ghana has adopted a multi-agency approach to the fight against corruption. Legislation and practices give opportunities for cooperation between national institutions and allow for information-sharing and flexible distribution of labour. Ghana has made in recent years an effort to modernize its legislation on the fight against corruption and has also presented more bills to the Parliament. Ghanaian anti-corruption institutions invested considerably in the specialized training of their staff, focusing on the long-term benefits of having suitably trained officials.在腐败罪行起诉数量有限的情况下,注意到经济和有组织犯罪办公室仍处于其初始阶段,人权和行政司法委员会没有提起公诉的权力。
Criminalization and law enforcement鼓励加纳阐明并调整其调查和起诉权力与责任,以确保腐败案件中起诉职能的效率、有效性和独立性。
Through its “Justice for All” programme, Ghana has taken action to review and reduce the number of prisoners on remand (art. 30, para.鼓励通过国家反腐败行动计划。
4).刑事定罪
Ghana has broad powers for freezing and seizure by the EOCO and FIC which need to be confirmed by the Court after 14 (EOCO) or 7 (FIC) days respectively (art. 31, para.就刑事定罪而言,建议加纳:
2).明确将跨国行贿定为刑事犯罪;明确考虑将跨国受贿定为刑事犯罪,以阐明法律(第十六条第一和二款)。
It is noted positively that the Attorney-General’s Office is cooperating with the internal investigators in private sector entities in the investigation of corruption offences, and that FIC is actively reaching out to the financial sector with training and awareness-raising activities (art. 39, para.加纳可以考虑其是否要促进充分实施第十七条,为与通过本人职位所受托保管资产相关的公职人员确定一个更加明确的罪行,并对第三方的利益进行规范(第十七条)。
1). Ghana has no statute of limitation for criminal offences including corruption (art. 29). 2.3. Challenges in implementation General part In the context of the limited number of prosecutions on corruption offences, note was taken of the fact that EOCO was still in its initial phase and CHRAJ did not have the power to prosecute. Ghana is encouraged to clarify and align its investigation and prosecution powers and responsibilities to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and independence of the prosecution function in corruption cases.建议加纳考虑对其有关影响力交易的立法进行修订,以涵盖向“其他任何人员”提供不正当好处的情形以及“许诺”和“直接或间接”提供不正当好处的行为(第十八条第 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠项)。
The adoption of the National Anti-Corruption Action Plan is encouraged.考虑对其立法进行修订,以纳入“索取”、“直接或间接”以及“为其本人或者他人”等因素(第十八款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项)。
Criminalization With regard to criminalization, it is recommended that Ghana: Explicitly criminalizes active transnational bribery; considers explicitly criminalizing passive transnational bribery, for the purpose of clarity of the law (art. 16, paras. 1 and 2). Ghana could consider whether it would enhance the full implementation of article 17 to create a more specific offence for public officials which relate to assets entrusted to the official by virtue of their position, and regulate the benefit for a third party (art. 17). It is recommended that Ghana considers amending its legislation on trading in influence to cover instances in which an undue benefit is provided to “any other person”, as well as the conduct of “promise” and the granting “directly or indirectly” of an undue benefit (art. 18, subpara. a). Considers amending its legislation to include the elements of “solicitation”, “directly or indirectly” and “for himself or herself or for another person” (art. 18, subpara. b). Observe that Section 179 C of the Criminal Offences Act is applied to cases in which the benefit is for a third party; should the judiciary not interpret the law in this way it could imply the need for legislative clarification (art. 19). Considers criminalizing illicit enrichment (art. 20). Considers criminalizing active and passive bribery in the private sector (art. 21, subparas. a and b). Considers whether it would enhance the full implementation of article 22 to create a more specific offence (art. 22). Amends its legislation to cover the disguise of the origin, true nature, disposition, movement or ownership of or rights with respect to property as stipulated by the Convention (art. 23, subpara. 1 (a) (ii)). The Anti-Money Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2014 (Act 874) criminalized the disguise of the source, disposition, movement or ownership; only the disguise of the true nature of the property is not covered. Provides the Secretary-General of the United Nations with copies of its laws on laundering of proceeds of crime (art. 23, subpara. 2d). Although the “continued retention” could be covered under the element “takes possession”, considers amending its legislation to cover this element (art. 24). Recognizing that the threat of harm offence can in general terms address the elements of physical force, threats and intimidation for purposes of obstruction of justice with regard to the provision of false testimony and to the production of other evidence, assess whether the establishment of a specific offence would be useful (art. 25, subpara. a). Amends its legislation to cover the elements of threat and intimidation in a comparable manner to physical violence (art. 25, subpara. b). Law enforcement With regard to law enforcement, it is recommended that Ghana: Clarifies which sanctions would be applicable to legal persons in criminal cases, with a view to ensuring that they are effective, proportionate and dissuasive; and encourages the systematic application of the criminal responsibility of legal persons (art. 26). Take measures to establish an appropriate balance between immunities and the possibility of effectively investigating, prosecuting and adjudicating offences (art. 30, para. 2).注意到《刑事犯罪法》第179C条适用于为第三方谋利的案件;如果司法部门不这样解释该法律,就意味着有必要阐明立法(第十九条)。
Considers whether applying parole in appropriate cases could lead to taking more specifically into account the respective gravity of the offence concerned (art. 30, para.考虑将资产非法增加定为刑事犯罪(第二十条)。
5).考虑将私营部门的行贿和受贿定为刑事犯罪(第二十一条,第 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠和 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项)。
Considers establishing procedures for the disqualification of persons convicted of corruption offences also for holding office in companies partly owned by the State (art.30, subparas.考虑其是否要促进充分实施二十二条,以确定一个更加具体的罪行(第二十二条)。
7 a and b).对其立法进行修订,以根据《公约》规定,纳入掩饰财产的来源、真实性质、处置、调动或所有权或与财产相关的权利(第二十三条第一款第项 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠第2目)。
Amends its legislation to allow that criminal and disciplinary procedures be conducted in parallel (art. 30, para.2014年《反洗钱(修正)法》(第874号法)将掩饰来源、处置、调动或所有权定为刑事犯罪;只有掩饰财产的真实性质未涉及。
8).为联合国秘书长提供其有关对犯罪所得的洗钱行为的法律(第二十三条第二款第 = 4 \* GB4 ㈣项)。
Takes measures to promote the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences (art. 30, para.虽然可以在“占有”因素下涵盖“继续保留”,但可以考虑对其立法进行修订,以纳入这一因素(第二十四条)。
10).认识到伤害罪一般指为了提供伪证或提供其他证据而使用武力、威胁和恐吓以妨害司法,评估确立一个具体的罪行是否有用(第二十五条第 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠项)。
Amends its legislation to facilitate the confiscation of instruments “destined for use” in the commission of corruption offences (art. 31, subpara.对其立法进行修订,以纳入与人身暴力相当的威胁和恐吓这些因素(第二十五条第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项)。
1 (a)).执法
Amends its legislation to facilitate the freezing and seizure of instrumentalities destined for use in the commission of corruption offences for all assets (art. 31, para.就执法而言,建议加纳:
2).澄清哪些制裁措施适用于刑事案件中的法人,以确保制裁措施的有效性、恰当性和劝诫性;鼓励系统地适用法人刑事责任(第二十六条)。
Adopts measures to regulate the administration by the competent authorities of frozen, seized or confiscated property (art. 31, para.采取措施适当平衡豁免权和有效调查、起诉和对犯罪做出判决的可能性(第三十条第二款)。
3).考虑在适当的案件中适用假释是否有助于更具体考虑所涉及罪行的严重性(第三十条第五款)。
Amends its legislation to provide for the seizure and forfeiture of proceeds of crime transformed or converted into other property; for the confiscation up to the assessed value of proceeds intermingled with property acquired from legitimate sources; and for the seizure and confiscation of income or other benefits derived from proceeds of crime, from property into which such proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted or from property with which such proceeds of crime have been intermingled (art. 31, paras. 4-6).考虑确定程序,以取消犯了腐败罪行的人在系部分国有的公司中的任职资格(第三十条第七款第 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠和第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项)。
Adopts, as a matter of urgency, witness protection legislation and a witness protection programme.对其立法进行修订,以允许同时开展刑事和纪律程序(第三十条第八款)。
These should offer all forms of necessary protection, including evidentiary rules to permit witnesses and experts to give testimony in a manner that ensures their safety, and refer also to experts and victims in so far as they are witnesses, as well as collaborators with justice (art. 32, paras. 1, 2 and 4; art. 37, para.采取措施促进犯罪人员重返社会(第三十条第十款)。
4).对其立法进行修订,以促进没收腐败犯罪中“拟使用的”的工具(第三十一条第一款第 = 1 \* GB4 ㈠项)。
Considers entering into agreements and arrangements with other States for the relocation of witnesses or experts (art. 32, para.对其立法进行修订,以促进冻结和扣押针对所有资产的腐败犯罪中所拟使用的工具(第三十一条第二款)。
3).采取措施规范主管机关对所冻结、扣押或没收财产的管理(第三十一条第三款)。
Amends its legislation to enable the views and concerns of victims to be presented and considered in criminal proceedings (art. 32, para.对其立法进行修订,以对下述方面进行规定:扣押和没收改变或转化为其他财产的犯罪所得;没收与通过合法来源所获得的财产混合的达到评估价值的所得;扣押和没收由犯罪所得、由此类犯罪所得所转变或转化成的财产或由与此类犯罪所得所混合的财产带来的收入或其他收益(第三十一条第四至六款)。
5).作为一项紧急事项,通过保护证人立法和保护证人方案。
Ghana is encouraged to further expand the scope and content of measures to protect whistle-blowers (art. 33).这些立法和方案应提供各种形式的必要保护,其中包括允许证人和鉴定人以确保其安全的方式作证的证据规则,并提及作为证人的鉴定人和受害人以及与司法配合的人(第三十二条第一、二、和四款;第三十七条第四款)。
It is recommended that Ghana takes measures to clarify the consequences of corruption, such as, whether corruption is a relevant factor in legal proceedings to annul or rescind a contract, withdraw a concession or similar measures (art. 34).考虑与其他国家订立有关转移证人或鉴定人的协定和安排(第三十二条第三款)。
Takes such measures to ensure compensation can be obtained for damage suffered as a result of corruption (art. 35).对其立法进行修订,以在刑事诉讼程序中使受害者的意见和关切得到表达和考虑(第三十二条第五款)。
Ensures that all specialized law enforcement institutions are provided with the funds established by law (art. 36).鼓励加纳进一步拓展保护举报人的措施的范围和内容(第三十三条)。
Considers whether additional measures could be taken to encourage collaborators with justice to cooperate (art. 37, para.建议加纳采取措施澄清腐败行为的后果,例如腐败行为在法律程序中是否是废止或撤销合同、取消特许权或类似的措施的相关因素(第三十四条)。
1).采取措施确保对腐败行为所造成的损害进行赔偿(第三十五条)。
Ghana could consider entering into agreements or arrangements on cases where a collaborator with justice is located in one State Party but can provide substantial cooperation to the competent authorities of another State Party (art. 37, para.确保为所有专职执法机构提供法律规定的资金(第三十六条)。
5).考虑是否可以采取额外措施以鼓励那些与司法配合者合作(第三十七条第一款)。
Ghana could establish its jurisdiction over corruption offences on the grounds that they are committed by a Ghanaian national and against a Ghanaian national, over acts of participation in and attempts to commit money-laundering carried out outside its territory; and over corruption offences committed against the State (art. 42, para.加纳可以考虑就与司法配合者处于某个缔约国但可以为另一缔约国的主管机关提供实质合作的案件订立协定或安排(第三十七条第五款)。
2).加纳可以确立对下列罪行的管辖权:由加纳国民实施或者针对加纳国民的腐败罪行;参与或企图实施在加纳境外进行的洗钱行为;针对该国的腐败罪行(第四十二条第二款)。
Ghana could establish its jurisdiction over corruption offences when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him or her (art. 42, para.加纳可以确立对被指控的犯罪分子处于其领域内且加纳未对其进行引渡的情况下腐败罪行的管辖权(第四十二条第四款)。
4).建议在实践中,加纳主管机关征求同样行使其管辖权的其他国家的意见,以便除了考虑合适的地点之外协调其行动(第四十二条第五款)。
It is recommended that in practice, the responsible authorities of Ghana consult with those of other States which also exercise their jurisdiction with a view to coordinating their actions apart from considering the appropriate venue (art. 42, para.2.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要
5).加纳强调了下述技术援助需要:
2.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention示范立法、培训和能力建设(第二十三条)。
Ghana highlighted the following needs for technical assistance:示范立法和能力建设(第二十六条)。
Model legislation, training and capacity-building (art. 23).起草立法方面的援助以及相关专家的现场援助(第三十条)。
Model legislation, capacity-building (art. 26).负责辨认、追查和没收财产或工具的主管机关的能力建设方案(第三十一条)。
Assistance in legislative drafting, on-site assistance by a relevant expert (art. 30).财务调查能力建设(第三十六条)。
Capacity-building programmes for authorities responsible for identifying, tracing and confiscating property or instrumentalities (art. 31).建立资产申报核查系统方面的援助(第三十八条)。
Capacity-building for financial investigations (art. 36).负责建立和管理举报方案和机制的主管机关的能力建设方案(第三十九条)。
Assistance for the establishment of an asset declaration verification system (art. 38).3. 第四章:国际合作
Capacity-building programmes for authorities responsible for the establishment and management of reporting programmes and mechanisms (art. 39).3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述
3. Chapter IV: International cooperation引渡;被判刑人员的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、四十五和四十七条)
3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review《引渡法》规定了引渡要求。
Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47)加纳根据已有条约进行引渡,不以《公约》为法律依据。
Extradition requirements are set forth in the Extradition Act.加纳对条约缔约国和英联邦国家适用引渡。
Ghana makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty and does not use the Convention as legal basis.加纳未告知联合国秘书长其是否将《公约》作为引渡的法律依据。
Ghana applies extradition to treaty States and to Commonwealth States.一项《引渡法案》有待通过。
Ghana has not informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations whether it takes the Convention as legal basis for extradition.加纳要求引渡必须满足双重犯罪。
An Extradition Bill was pending.可以引渡其国民。
Ghana requires dual criminality for extradition and can extradite its nationals.根据《引渡法》第一个附表和《反洗钱法》,并非所有腐败罪行都可以引渡。
According to the first Schedule to the Extradition Act and the Anti-Money Laundering Law, not all corruption offences are extraditable.加纳不考虑将所有腐败罪行纳入其引渡条约中可以引渡的罪行。
Ghana does not consider all corruption offences to be included as extraditable offences in its extradition treaties.通过外交渠道处理引渡请求。
Extradition requests are processed through the diplomatic channels.由总检察长办公室准备主动引渡请求,无需法庭命令。
Active extradition requests are prepared by the Attorney-General’s office without the need for a judicial order.在被动引渡请求中,由地区治安法官决定表面证据确凿案件的证据标准。
In passive extradition requests the District Magistrate decides on an evidentiary standard of a prima facie case.加纳有统一的引渡程序,但是没有简化和加快引渡诉讼程序的程序。
Ghana has a uniform extradition procedure, and does not have procedures in place to simplify and expedite extradition proceedings.就拒绝歧视性请求方面,《引渡法》第2(2)条和第23条没有明确提及基于某人的国籍或政治观点的歧视行为。
With regard to the refusal of discriminatory requests, Sections 2 (2) and 23 of the Extradition Act do not specifically mention discrimination on account of a person’s nationality or political opinions.在实践中,加纳可以在引渡程序过程中与其他国家展开磋商。
Ghana can as a matter of practice engage in consultations with other States during extradition proceedings.加纳是多项双边和多边引渡协定和安排的缔约方。
Ghana is party to several bilateral and multilateral extradition agreements and arrangements.就被判刑人员的移管而言,加纳有一项《被判罪人员移管法》,而且在该方面订立了一项双边安排。
With regard to the transfer of sentenced persons, Ghana has a Transfer of Convicted Persons Act and has concluded one bilateral arrangement in the matter.《司法协助法》第5(f)条对刑事诉讼移交作了规定。
Section 5 (f) of the Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) Act foresees the transfer of criminal proceedings.司法协助(第四十六条)
Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)《司法协助法》(2010年第807号法)为司法协助提供了法律框架。
The MLA Act (Act 807 of 2010) provides the legal framework for mutual legal assistance.加纳缔结了两项区域条约。
Ghana has concluded two regional treaties.加纳不要求以条约为基础,但可以在一项安排的基础上提供协助(《司法协助法》第1条第1款)。
Ghana does not require a treaty basis, but can provide assistance on the basis of an arrangement (Section 1 paragraph 1 of the MLA Act).没有条约时可以适用《公约》,或者可以适用《公约》替代条约。
The Convention can be applied in the absence of or in lieu of a treaty.加纳可以予以提供司法协助的国家列表上有163个国家。
The Schedule of countries to which Ghana can provide mutual legal assistance lists 163 countries.加纳未提供充足的有关司法协助的统计数据。
Ghana did not provide adequate statistics on mutual legal assistance.加纳一般要求双重犯罪,但是《司法协助法》第17条包含了一项免除该要求的程序。
Ghana generally requires dual criminality, but Section 17 of the MLA Act contains a procedure to overcome this requirement.加纳可以为一系列措施及针对据认为法人有责任的犯罪行为提供司法协助。
Ghana can provide MLA for a wide range of measures, also with regard to offences for which a legal person is considered responsible.《司法协助法》仅包含移管被拘禁人员的基本规则。
The MLA Act only contains basic rules on the transfer of persons in custody.虽然加纳未告知联合国秘书长其指定中央机关的情况或司法协助请求可使用的语言,但司法部为其中央机关。
The Ministry of Justice is the central authority, although Ghana has not notified the Secretary-General of the United Nations of its designation or the language or languages acceptable for mutual legal assistance requests.该中央机关可以直接向其他中央机关发送和从其他中央机关接收司法协助请求。
The central authority can send and receive MLA requests directly to and from other central authorities.在紧急情况下,加纳可以以电子邮件或口头形式通过国际刑警组织接收请求。
In urgent circumstances, Ghana can receive requests through INTERPOL, by e-mail or orally.在实践中,加纳在不违反加纳国内法律的范围内,根据请求所规定的程序满足司法协助请求。
Ghana can as a matter of practice comply with mutual legal assistance requests in accordance with procedures specified in the request, to the extent not contrary to the domestic law of Ghana.《司法协助法》未明确规定执行请求所需一般费用的承担情况。
The MLA Act does not contain a clear regulation on the bearing of ordinary costs of the execution of a request.加纳要求向法院提出申请,旨在获得许可向请求国提供信息。
Ghana requires an application to Court aiming at obtaining permission of providing information to the requesting State.执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)
Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and50)《经济和有组织犯罪办公室法》和《反洗钱法》规定了经济和有组织犯罪办公室和金融情报中心在执法合作方面的任务。
The EOCO Act and the Anti-Money-Laundering Act contain mandates for law enforcement cooperation for the EOCO and FIC.金融情报中心已经与外国对应部门缔结了几项谅解备忘录,而且申请成为埃格蒙特集团的成员。
The FIC has concluded several memorandums of understanding with foreign counterparts and has applied for membership in the Egmont Group.此外,各机关通过国际刑警组织、西非警察局长委员会、欧洲反欺诈办公室以及通过非正式方式与其他国家的机关合作。
Furthermore, the authorities cooperate through INTERPOL, the West African Police Chiefs Committee, OLAF and informally with the authorities of other States.加纳未缔结任何执法合作条约,而且就《公约》所包括的犯罪行为而言,加纳不以《公约》为执法合作的依据。
Ghana has not concluded any treaties on law enforcement cooperation and does not consider the Convention as the basis for mutual law enforcement cooperation in respect of the offences covered by the Convention.后国家访问发展:金融情报中心于2014年6月24日被接纳加入金融情报中心埃格蒙特集团,现在是其一个成员。
Post-country visit development: The FIC is now a member of the Egmont Group, after having been admitted on 24 June 2014.《司法协助法》第54条提出了联合侦查的想法,加纳曾在贩运儿童案件中使用过联合侦查手段。
Section 54 of the MLA Act foresees joint investigations, and Ghana has used them in the past in child trafficking cases.加纳还与该区域的其他国家缔结了一项联合侦查四方协定。
Ghana also has a quadripartite agreement on joint investigations with other States in the region.在国家腐败案件中,加纳可以采用控制下交付和特工行动,而且已经采用了这些方法;经济和有组织犯罪办公室可以申请一项窃听电话的法庭命令。
Ghana can use controlled delivery and undercover operations in national corruption cases and has done so; EOCO can apply for a judicial order for phone tapping.法律并没对这些权力做出明确规定,但《司法协助法》第53条提出了在国际层面上开展秘密侦查的安排。
These powers are not clearly regulated in law, however, Section 53 of the MLA Act foresees arrangements for covert investigations at the international level.加纳未缔结在国际层面上使用特殊侦查手段的双边或多边协定或安排。
Ghana has not concluded bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements for the use of special investigative techniques at the international level.3.2. 成功经验和良好做法
3.2. Successes and good practices2010年,加纳通过了一项《司法协助法》,该法包含关于一系列司法协助事项的详细条款。
Ghana has in 2010 adopted a Mutual Legal Assistance Act that contains very detailed provisions on a wide range of mutual legal assistance matters.该法包括能够促进合作的现代做法,例如在司法协助中自发披露信息或使用视频会议。
It contains modern practices that facilitate cooperation, such as spontaneous information disclosure or the use of videoconferencing in mutual legal assistance.此外,该法明确列出了许多国家在实践中所遵循的原则,例如特殊性原则或有关保密性的原则。
Further, it explicitly spells out principles that in many countries are applied as a matter of practice, such as the specialty principle or the rules on confidentiality.该法还包括有关相关问题的条款,例如刑事诉讼的移交、联合侦查或在国际层面使用特殊侦查手段(第四十六条)。
It also contains provisions on related issues such as the transfer of criminal proceedings, joint investigations or the use of special investigative techniques at the international level (art. 46).3.3. 实施方面的挑战
3.3. Challenges in implementation在国际合作方面,建议加纳:
With regard to international cooperation, it is recommended that Ghana:确保所有腐败罪行是可引渡的罪行,无论是通过将其纳入《引渡法》附表,还是通过采用所有罪行方法,可能附带一项最低处罚要求(第四十四条第一款)。
Ensures that all corruption offences are extraditable offences, either by including them in the Schedule of the Extradition Act or by turning to an all-crime approach, possibly with a minimum penalty requirement (art. 44, para.加纳可以考虑在缺乏双重犯罪的情况下准许引渡(第四十四条第二款)。
1).建议加纳确保其所有引渡条约中将所有腐败罪行视为可引渡的罪行。
Ghana could consider granting the extradition of a person in the absence of dual criminality (art. 44, para.加纳未来如果缔结更多的引渡条约,应当承诺将此类罪行定为可引渡的罪行(第四十四条第四款)。
2).考虑将《公约》作为引渡的法律依据,或者以《公约》为基础做出临时安排,或适时与其他国家订立双边和多边协定和安排;并告知秘书长其将《公约》作为法律依据(第四十四条第五、六和十八款)。
It is recommended that Ghana ensures that all corruption offences are deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any of its extradition treaties.努力加快引渡程序,例如通过引入简化程序(第四十四条第九款)。
Should Ghana conclude more extradition treaties in the future, it should undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences (art. 44, para.明确规定当有充足的理由相信请求的目的是基于某人的国籍或政治观点对其进行起诉或处罚时,不予批准引渡(第四十四条第十五款)。
4).采取措施确保可以在行政安排的基础上通过司法协助与《公约》所有缔约国合作;考虑建立或强化司法协助统计数据汇编系统,该系统还能解决请求的处理和持续时间问题(第四十六条第一和二十四款)。
Considers using the Convention as a legal basis for extradition, or otherwise allow ad hoc arrangements on the basis of the Convention, or, where appropriate, conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements and arrangements with other States; as well as inform the Secretary-General on the use of the Convention as a legal basis (art. 44, paras. 5, 6, 18).通过立法或直接适用《公约》解决被羁押人员的移管,以便在两个缔约国的主管机关同意的前提下帮助获取证据;以及应加纳的请求向加纳移管人员(第四十六条第十至十二款)。
Endeavours to expedite extradition proceedings by, for example, introducing simplified proceedings (art. 44, para.通知秘书长其指定中央机关的情况以及能够接受的司法协助请求所用语文(第四十六条第十三和十四款)。
9).通过直接适用《公约》,满足询问请求现况相关信息的请求(第四十六条第二十四款)。
Explicitly regulate that extradition cannot be granted when there are substantial grounds for believing that the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s nationality or political opinions (art. 44 para.阐明执行请求所需一般费用应当由被请求国承担(第四十六条第二十八款)。
15).考虑直接适用《公约》以及适时订立双边协定或安排(第四十六条第三十款)。
Take measures to ensure that it can cooperate through MLA on the basis of administrative arrangements with all States parties to the Convention; and consider creating or strengthening a system for the compilation of statistics on mutual legal assistance that also addresses the processing and duration of requests (art. 46, paras. 1 and 24).扩大现有执法国际合作体系,并探索其他途径,包括人员交流(第四十八条第一款)。
Addresses by legislation or direct application of the Convention the transfer of detained persons for purposes of assistance in obtaining evidence in cases in which the competent authorities of both States parties agree; and the transfer of persons to Ghana upon a request by Ghana (art. 46, paras. 10-12).考虑将《公约》作为执法合作的依据,或者考虑订立有关该事项的双边或其他多边协定或安排(第四十八条第二款)。
Notifies the Secretary-General of the designation of its central authority and the language or languages acceptable for mutual legal assistance requests (art. 46, paras. 13 and 14).继续与其他国家合作,应对通过使用现代技术实施的腐败行为(第四十八条第三款)。
Complies with requests for information on the status of the request by direct application of the Convention (art. 46, para.阐明其有关控制下交付和特工行动的立法,并考虑建立其他特殊侦查手段,例如电子监控;并考虑增强经济和有组织犯罪办公室开展电话监控的能力(第五十条第一和四款)。
24).考虑订立协定或安排,或者允许在国际层面针对个案使用特殊侦查手段(第五十条第二和三款)。
Clarify that ordinary costs of the execution of a request should always be borne by the requested State (art. 46, para.3.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要
28).加纳表达了对下述技术援助的兴趣:
Considers applying the Convention directly and, where appropriate, conclude bilateral agreements or arrangements (art. 46, para.负责刑事事项国际合作的主管机关能力建设方案,以及建立电子图书馆(第四十六条)。
30). Expands the existing structures for international cooperation in law enforcement and explore further avenues, including the exchange of personnel (art. 48, para. 1). Considers using the Convention as the basis for mutual law enforcement cooperation, or otherwise, consider concluding bilateral or other multilateral agreements or arrangements on the matter (art. 48, para. 2). Continue cooperating with other States to respond to corruption committed through the use of modern technology (art. 48, para. 3). Clarify its legislation with regard to controlled delivery and undercover operations, and consider establishing other special investigative techniques, such as electronic surveillance; and consider strengthening EOCO’s capacities to perform phone surveillance (art. 50, paras. 1 and 4). Considers entering into agreements or arrangements, or allow decisions to use special investigative techniques at the international level to be made on a case-by-case basis (art. 50, paras. 2 and 3). 3.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention Ghana has expressed interest in the following forms of technical assistance: Capacity-building programmes for authorities responsible for international cooperation in criminal matters, development of an e-library (art. 46). Capacity-building programmes for authorities responsible for designing and managing the use of special investigative techniques (art. 50).负责设计和管理特殊侦查手段应用的主管机关能力建设方案(第五十条)。
Equipment in the area of special investigative techniques (art. 50).特殊侦查手段领域的设备(第五十条)。