CAC_COSP_IRG_I_4_1_ADD_5_CE
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CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.5 V1408393.doc (Chinese)CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/ADD.5 V1408394.doc (English)
联合国United Nations
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.5CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.5
联合国反腐败公约 缔约国会议Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption
Distr.: GeneralDistr.: General
16 December 201416 December 2014
Chinese Original: EnglishOriginal: English
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.5CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.5
CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.5CAC/COSP/IRG/I/4/1/Add.5
V.14-08393 (C) GH 210115 210115V.14-08394 (E) 241214 2901214
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实施情况审议组Implementation Review Group
第六届会议Sixth session
2015年6月1日至5日,维也纳Vienna, 1-5 June 2015
临时议程项目2Item 2 of the provisional agenda
**
CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1。CAC/COSP/IRG/2015/1.
审议《联合国反腐败公约》的实施情况Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption
提要Executive summary
秘书处的说明Note by the Secretariat
增编Addendum
目录Contents
页次Page
提要Executive summary
22
密克罗尼西亚联邦Federated States of Micronesia
22
二. 提要II. Executive summary
密克罗尼西亚联邦Federated States of Micronesia
1. 导言:密克罗尼西亚联邦在实施《联合国反腐败公约》方面的法律和1. Introduction: Overview of the legal and institutional framework of the Federated States of Micronesia in the context of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption
体制框架概述The Convention was acceded to by the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) on 21 March 2012 and entered into force on 20 April 2012.
密克罗尼西亚联邦政府2012年3月21日加入《公约》,2012年4月20日,《公约》生效。FSM is an independent, sovereign nation made up of the four States of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap.
密克罗尼西亚联邦是由丘克、科斯雷、波纳佩和雅浦四州组成的主权独立国家。The State Governments carry out many major governmental functions and have corresponding legislative powers.
州政府履行政府的许多重要职能,并且拥有相应的立法权力。FSM is a constitutional democracy.
密克罗尼西亚联邦是个宪政民主体。The Judicial Branch is composed of the FSM Supreme Court, a single court at national level, with judges sitting in trial as well as appellate divisions.
司法部门由密克罗尼西亚联邦最高法院组成。Corruption cases involving national public officials or national funds which are either administered at a national or State level are tried at the national level.
该法院是国家级的单一法院,拥有审判法官并设有上诉分庭。At the State level, each State has a court, comprising of first instance and appellate divisions, which try cases according to the criminal law of the respective State.
涉及国家公职人员或在国家或州一级管理的国家资金的腐败案件在国家一级审理。FSM has a mixed legal system of common and customary law.
在州一级,每个州各设一个法院,并由一审分庭和上诉分庭组成,它们根据各州的刑法审理案件。The FSM Supreme Court can act as the final interpreter of the Constitution and laws.
密克罗尼西亚联邦实行普通法和习惯法混合使用的法律制度。When FSM courts have not yet addressed an issue, the Court may look to the restatements and decisions of other common law jurisdictions to determine the meaning of particular provisions if suitable for FSM.
联邦最高法院可充当宪法和法律的最终解释者。The written law is comprised of the Constitution and the various titles of the FSM Code.
当密克罗尼西亚联邦法院尚未解决某一问题时,法院可参照其他普通法司法管辖区的重述和决定,以确定适用于联邦的特定条款的含义。Title 11 of the FSM Code comprises the Revised Criminal Code Act.
成文法包括《宪法》和《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》的各编条款。Customary law is recognized in the criminal process and should be considered by the courts.
《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第11编包括《刑法典》修订本。All sections cited in this Executive Summary refer to the Revised Criminal Code Act of title 11 of the FSM Code unless otherwise specified.
刑事程序认可习惯法,法院应考虑习惯法。The review focused on the national level.
本提要中引述的所有条款均指《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第11编《刑法典》修订本,除非另有说明。Although it was confirmed that the majority of laws relevant for the implementation of the Convention at the State level were similar to the national level, it was pointed out that the conduct of a review at the State level would be beneficial to assess if the provisions were sufficient against the requirements of the Convention.
审查的重点在国家层面上。Key authorities fighting corruption are the Department of Justice (DoJ) headed by the Secretary of Justice (otherwise known as the Attorney-General (AG)), National Police (NP), including the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) and Transnational Crime Unit (TCU), and the National Public Auditor (NPA).
尽管已经证实与在州一级实施《公约》有关的大多数法律与国家一级的相似,但有人指出,在州一级进行审查将有利于评估相关条款按照《公约》的要求是否充足。2. Chapter III: Criminalization and law enforcement
反腐败的关键当局是司法部长(又称总检察长)领导的司法部和国家警察署,包括金融情报机构、打击跨国犯罪机构和国家公共审计局。2.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review
2. 第三章:刑事定罪和执法Bribery and trading in influence (arts. 15, 16, 18 and 21)
2.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述Active and passive forms of bribery are criminalized in section 516.
贿赂和影响力交易(第十五、十六、十八和二十一条)Sections 519 to 521 comprise additional provisions.
第516条将主动和被动形式的贿赂行为定为刑事罪。Section 516 meets most requirements of the Convention.
第519至第521条包括附加条款。Cases involving third-party beneficiaries are not clearly regulated.
第516条符合《公约》的大多数要求。The same gap exists in regard to most corruption offences and should be addressed.
没有对涉及第三方受益者的案件作出明确规定。Sections 516, 519 and 521 differentiate between benefits and pecuniary benefits.
在大多数腐败罪方面存在同样的差距,应当予以消除。The mixed terminology should be consolidated to cover all undue advantages.
第516、519和521条对利益和金钱利益作出了区别。The terms “public official” and “public servant” are defined in section 104 as “any person elected, appointed or employed to perform a governmental function on behalf of FSM”.
应合并使用各种术语,以涵盖所有不正当好处。This includes the President, Government employees, legislators, judges, consultants and unpaid positions.
“公职人员”和“公务人员”在第104条的定义是“当选、获得任命或受雇代表密克罗尼西亚联邦履行政府职能的任何人”。Section 516 extends the definition to persons who have been elected, appointed, hired or designated, but do not yet occupy the position.
这包括总统、政府雇员、立法人员、法官、顾问和无薪职位。Persons performing a service for a governmental enterprise are covered if national funds are involved (e.g. in form of subsidies or shares held by the Government).
第516条将该定义扩大到当选、任命、受雇或指定但尚未就职的人员。Bribery of foreign public officials or officials of public international organizations is not criminalized.
如果涉及国家资金(例如,政府补贴或股份等形式的资金),则包括供职于政府企业的人员。Bribery in the private sector is not criminalized.
贿赂外国公职人员或国际公共组织官员的行为未被定为刑事犯罪。Trading in influence is partially criminalized under section 521 where conduct occurs with a view to influence a public official.
私营部门内的贿赂行为未被定为刑事犯罪。Cases of supposed influence are not included.
第521条将意图影响公职人员的影响力交易部分定为刑事犯罪。No case examples of bribery or trading in influence were provided.
推定具有影响力的案件未予列入。Money-laundering, concealment (arts. 23 and 24)
没有提供任何贿赂或影响力交易案例。Money-laundering is defined in section 903 and criminalized in section 918.
洗钱、窝赃(第二十三和二十四条)Taken together, all elements required by the Convention can be found.
第903条对洗钱作出了界定,第918条将洗钱定为刑事罪。However, due to incoherent language some elements are only comprised in one or the other section and therefore cause gaps and potential challenges in implementation.
总体来说,可以找到《公约》规定的所有内容。In regard to predicate offences, FSM applies a serious offence approach.
然而,由于用语前后不一,一些内容仅包括在某一条中,因而导致实施方面的差距和潜在挑战。Serious offences are those punishable by imprisonment for a term of more than one year under the law of FSM or any of its States or under the law of a foreign State, in relation to acts or omissions, which, had they occurred in FSM would have constituted such an offence (s.903(20)).
对于上游犯罪,密克罗尼西亚联邦适用重罪办法。All Convention offences, as far as they are criminalized in FSM, constitute serious offences, except obstructing the administration of law or other governmental functions (s.501).
严重罪行指按照密克罗尼西亚联邦或其任何一州或外国关于作为或不作为的法律应处以一年以上徒刑的罪行,这种作为或不作为若发生在密克罗尼西亚联邦境内则构成严重罪行(第903(20)条)。Provisions regarding criminal participation, attempt, solicitation and conspiracy apply also to money-laundering.
《公约》规定的所有罪行只要在密克罗尼西亚联邦定为刑事罪,则构成严重罪行,妨害司法或其他政府职能的除外(第501条)。A person could only be charged with the predicate or the money-laundering offence.
关于参与犯罪、犯罪未遂、教唆犯罪和共谋犯罪的规定也适用于洗钱。So far no money-laundering cases have been prosecuted, but two cases are currently under investigation.
只能以上游犯罪或洗钱罪指控当事人。Concealment is not criminalized separately from the money-laundering provisions.
迄今为止,没有起诉任何洗钱案件,但目前正在调查两起案件。Embezzlement, abuse of functions and illicit enrichment (arts. 17, 19, 20 and 22)
未另行按关于洗钱的规定将窝赃定为刑事犯罪。Embezzlement is addressed in sections 221 and 223 of title 55 of the FSM Code, referred to as Budget Procedures Act of 1981.
贪污、滥用职权和资产非法增加(第十七、十九、二十和二十二条)These sections criminalize the making or authorization of an expenditure or creation or authorization of an obligation in excess of the sum made available, in advance to its availability or for purposes other than those for which an allotment has been made.
称为1981年《预算程序法》的《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第55编第221条和第223条载有有关贪污的条款。Also relevant are the provisions on theft, criminal mischief and unauthorized possession or removal of property.
这些条款将超出可用总额在款项到位前预先进行或核可一项支出或者产生或核可一项债务或为了达到拨款用途以外的目的而这样做的行为定为刑事犯罪。It was concluded that all relevant aspects could be covered through the existing provisions.
关于盗窃、恶意损害、未经授权占有或迁移他人财产的规定也很重要。Case examples were provided.
得出的结论是现行规定可涵盖所有相关方面。Embezzlement in the private sector could be addressed through the provisions on theft and criminal mischief (see above).
相关案例已经提供。Abuse of function is criminalized in section 512 on conflict of interest.
私营部门的贪污可以盗窃和恶意侵害他人的刑事罪条文(见上文)予以处理。Additionally, section 515 makes it a crime, among others, to speculate or wager on the basis of official action or information.
关于利益冲突的第512条将滥用职权行为定为刑事犯罪。The breach of post-employment restrictions is criminalized in section 513.
此外,第515条除其他外将在正式行为或信息的基础上实施的投机或赌博行为定为刑事犯罪。Illicit enrichment is not criminalized.
第513条将违反聘用结束后禁令的行为定为刑事犯罪。Obstruction of justice (art. 25)
资产非法增加未定为刑事犯罪。Obstruction of justice is criminalized.
妨害司法(第二十五条)According to section 526 it constitutes a crime if a person, believing that an official proceeding or investigation is pending or about to be instituted, attempts to induce or otherwise cause a witness or informant to, for example, testify falsely or provide false information, or withhold any testimony, information, document or thing.
妨害司法被定为刑事犯罪。The same section also makes it an offence for the witness to solicit any benefit for consideration of such an act.
根据第526条,当事人若认为一项正式诉讼或调查正在进行当中或者即将进行,却企图诱使或以其他方式致使证人或举报人虚假作证或提供虚假信息,或扣压证词、信息、文件或物品的,即构成犯罪。Section 527 extends the protection and makes it a crime to harm another in retaliation for any act lawfully done by such person in the capacity as a witness or informant.
同一条文也规定证人为使此类行为得到考虑而牟取任何利益的行为构成犯罪。Sections 501 and 502 make it a crime to interfere with, delay or obstruct a public official in the discharge of any duty.
第527条扩大了保护的范围,规定对证人或举报人合法采取的行为实施报复而伤害他们的行为属于刑事犯罪。Additionally of relevance are section 517 on threats and other improper influence in official and political matters and section 518 that protects against retaliation for a past official action.
第501条和第502条规定干涉、拖延或妨碍公职人员履行任何职责的行为构成犯罪。No case examples were provided.
另外的相关条款是关于对公务和政务产生的威胁和其他不正当影响的第517条以及防止对以往的正式行为实施报复的第518条。Liability of legal persons (art. 26)
未提供任何案例。Criminal liability of legal persons exists in FSM without prejudice to the criminal liability of natural persons.
法人责任(第二十六条)The term “person”, “he”, “she”, “accused” and “defendant” include any natural or legal persons, including but not limited to, a government, corporation or unincorporated association, or other organization (s.104(9) and s.903(13)).
在密克罗尼西亚联邦,法人的刑事责任是存在的,但不影响自然人的刑事责任。The penalties provided by law are applicable to both natural and legal persons alike, with the exception of section 918 on money-laundering which foresees specific penalties for legal persons.
“人”、“他”、“她”、“被控告人”和“被告”包括任何自然人或法人,包括但不限于政府、法人团体或不具有法人资格的协会或其他组织(第104(9)条和第903(13)条)。The available range of sentences does not appear to be effective and sufficiently dissuasive for legal persons.
法律规定的处罚对自然人和法人同样适用,但关于洗钱的第918条除外,因为该条预见到对法人的具体处罚。Participation and attempt (art. 27)
现有的刑罚范围对法人似乎没有效力,也不足以起到惩戒作用。All relevant forms of participation are covered in sections 301 and 104, as well as sections 202 and 204.
参与和未遂(第二十七条)The attempt of an offence is criminalized in section 201.
第301条和第104条以及第202条和第204条涵盖所有相关形式的参与。Some preparatory acts are covered under conspiracy (s.203), if any party to the conspiracy commits an overt act in furtherance of the conspiracy.
第201条将犯罪未遂定为犯罪。Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions; cooperation with law enforcement authorities (arts. 30 and 37)
共谋涵盖一些预备行为(第203条),但条件是参与共谋的任何一方实施了促成共谋的公开行为。No minimum penalties are established in regard to Convention offences.
起诉、审判和制裁;与执法机关的合作(第三十和三十七条)Most Convention offences are criminalized by a maximum term of imprisonment of 5 or 10 years, convertible into a fine not exceeding $50,000 or $100,000.
对于《公约》规定的罪行未规定最低处罚。Courts are required by case law to apply individualized sentencing, taking the defendant, the defendant’s background and the nature of the offence into account.
《公约》规定的大多数罪行被定为刑事犯罪,并处以最长5年或10年的徒刑,也可折算为不超过5万或10万美元的罚金。According to section 1203, the courts shall give due recognition to generally accepted customs and restitution, reparation or service to the victim or to his or her family.
法院须按照判例法适用个性化的量刑,并考虑被告、被告的背景和所犯罪行的性质。FSM only provides for functional, but not for criminal immunities.
根据第1203条,法院应适当承认普遍接受的习惯和给予受害者或其家属的赔偿、补偿或服务。The AG has wide discretion to prosecute based on common law principles.
密克罗尼西亚联邦仅有职能豁免规定,而没有刑事豁免规定。Due to the small size of the team (four assistant AGs at the time of the country visit with two positions being vacant) all Government attorneys are responsible for all types of crime.
总检察长拥有广泛的裁量权,可依照普通法原则提出起诉。Title 12 of the FSM Code on Criminal Procedure sets forth measures to be taken on the conditional release of persons being prosecuted, taking into account the need to ensure the presence of the accused in the future (s.604).
由于团队的规模很小(在进行国别访问时有四名总检察长助理,但有两个职位空缺),所有政府检察官负责所有类型的犯罪。In most cases, parole can be granted after one third of the sentence has been served.
《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》关于刑事程序的第12编规定了有条件释放被起诉人应采取的措施,同时考虑到必须确保被告日后到庭(第604条)。The trial justice is required to consider the views of the prosecution, prisoner and victim, among other things, in the decision to grant parole (s.1204).
在大多数情况下,服满三分之一刑期后可准予假释。The National Public Service System applies to all employees of and positions in the Government of FSM, with the exception of the persons listed in in section 117 of title 52 of the FSM Code on Public Employment.
审判机构在准予假释的裁决中除其他事项外须考虑起诉方、囚犯和受害者的意见(第1204条)。This includes members of Congress, judges and court personnel, members of any board, public corporation, commission or similar body, among others.
《国家公职部门制度》适用于密克罗尼西亚联邦政府的所有雇员和职位,但《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》关于公众就业的第52编第117条所列人员除外。An employee of the Government of FSM who has been accused of any criminal offence may be suspended by the management official for a period longer than 30 days without pay pending the outcome of the investigation.
这包括国会议员、法官和法院工作人员、任何董事会的成员、公营公司、委员会或类似机构,等等。Without prejudice to the criminal process, an employee may also be dismissed if the good of the public service is to be served.
密克罗尼西亚联邦政府雇员被控犯下任何刑事罪行的,可由管理官员暂停其职务,时限在30天以上,在调查结果未出来之前不发薪酬。According to section 136 of title 52 of the FSM Code, referred to as the National Public Service System Act, the commission of or attempt of any material deception or fraud would cause removal and permanent disqualification of appointment from the public service.
在不妨碍刑事程序的情况下,如果为了公职部门的利益,可解雇雇员。It was explained that corrupt activities would be considered in the same way.
根据《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》(又称《国家公职部门制度法》)第52编第136条,实施任何重大欺骗或欺诈或此类未遂行为将导致被公职部门除名和永久丧失获得公职部门任命的资格。The provisions do not extend to employment in public enterprises.
据解释,将以同样的方式考虑对腐败行为的处理。The possibility of granting immunity from prosecution to cooperating offenders in exchange for testimony and other assistance is within the AG’s discretionary powers.
这些条款不适用于公共企业的聘用。Further, the prosecutor and counsel for the defendant may enter into plea agreements.
准许免于起诉配合的罪犯以此作为取得证词和其他协助的交换条件的可能性属于总检察长的酌处权。Courts usually treat cooperation as a mitigating factor at the sentencing stage.
此外,被告的检察官和律师可签订认罪协议。Protection of witnesses and reporting persons (arts. 32 and 33)
在量刑阶段,法院通常把给予配合的行为视为从宽量刑的因素。No specific witness and victim protection programmes exist.
保护证人和举报人(第三十二和三十三条)However, some measures can be taken to provide a certain level of protection.
不存在具体的证人和受害者保护方案。Any interference or influence of witnesses is criminalized, as described above.
然而,可采取一些措施提供一定程度的保护。This extends also to retaliatory measures (s.527).
如上所述,对证人的任何干扰或影响都以犯罪论处。FSM tries to encourage the reporting of corruption through measures such as a toll-free hotline operated by the NPA.
这也包括报复性措施(第527条)。No provisions on whistle-blower protection are in place, except through the efforts to grant confidentiality to reporting persons.
密克罗尼西亚联邦试图鼓励通过采取国家公共审计局开通的免费热线等措施举报腐败行为。A bill to address whistle-blower protection is under preparation.
除了为举报人保密以外,没有制定保护检举人的规定。Freezing, seizing and confiscation; bank secrecy (arts. 31 and 40)
目前正在编写涉及保护检举人的法案。Sections 929 et seq.
冻结、扣押和没收;银行保密(第三十一和四十条)and 935 et seq.
第929条及其以下各条和第935条及其以下各条对没收有污点财产作出了规定。regulate the confiscation of tainted property.
这种有污点财产指用于实施严重犯罪或与此有关的财产,或者指犯罪所得,包括直接从犯罪活动中衍生或获得的财产其后所转换、转变或混合成的财产,以及在犯罪后的任何时候从此类财产衍生或获取的收入、资本或其他经济利益。This is property used in, or in connection with, the commission of a serious offence, or proceeds of crime, including property into which any property derived or realized directly from the offence was later converted, transformed or intermingled property, as well as income, capital or other economic gains derived or realized from such property at any time since the offence.
《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第11编未明确涵盖拟用于腐败犯罪的财产;然而,关于搜查和扣押的第12编第304(f)条规定可对计划或拟用于刑事犯罪的财产或已经用作实施刑事犯罪的手段的财产发出搜查令。Property destined for use in a corruption offence is not clearly covered in title 11 of the FSM Code; however, section 304(f) of title 12 on search and seizure states that search warrants may be issued for property designed or intended for use in, or property which is, or has been used as the means of committing, a criminal offence.
对于当事人死亡或潜逃的情形,第933条和第934条考虑了并部分涉及非定罪基础上的没收。Non-conviction based forfeiture has been considered and is partially addressed in sections 933 and 934 where a person dies or absconds.
在财产已被处置、无法追踪、大量缩减、混合及难以分割的情况下,可没收同等价值的其他财产(第940条)。In case the property has been disposed of, cannot be traced, has been substantially diminished or commingled and cannot be divided without difficulty, forfeiture of the equivalent value is possible (s.940).
第920条及其以下各条和第950条及其以下各条以及《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第12编关于搜查和扣押的第3章对追踪、搜查和扣押作出了规定。Tracing, search and seizure are regulated in sections 920 et seq.
据解释,在实践中,同样的规定用于冻结账户,而且,《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》还规定紧急情况下可用电话或其他通信手段发出搜查令(例如,第951条)。and 950 et seq. and under chapter 3 on searches and seizure of title 12 of the FSM Code. It was explained that, in practice, the same provisions are used for freezing accounts and that the FSM Code also provides for search warrants to be issued by telephone or other means of communication in case of urgency (e.g. s.951). Bona-fide third parties are protected under various sections, in particular sections 907, 935 and 938. The Supreme Court appoints a receiver of frozen, seized or confiscated property and may give directions (s.966 et seq.). Section 924 in chapter 9 on money-laundering and proceeds of crime highlights that any secrecy and confidentiality obligations are overridden by the provisions of this chapter. However, in practice, a narrow interpretation seems to be a challenge as only the bank which sent a suspicious transaction report (STR) is required to lift bank secrecy and to provide the requested documentation. Also, the regulation only exists in the chapter on money-laundering but not in relation to other corruption offences. Statute of limitations; criminal record (arts. 29 and 41) Prosecution of a crime punishable by imprisonment for ten years or more must be commenced within six years after it is committed or within two years after it is discovered, or with reasonable diligence could have been discovered, whichever is the longest. For crimes punishable by imprisonment for five years, the times are diminished to three years after the commission or one year after the discovery, whichever is the longest. Considering the secrecy and complexity of corruption cases, these time limits could pose a challenge to successful prosecutions. Suspension of the statute of limitations period is possible when the accused is absent from the jurisdiction or a prosecution is pending against the accused for the same conduct. Prior convictions in any jurisdiction are admissible if they are relevant, subject to the rules of evidence for the FSM. Jurisdiction (art. 42) FSM has territorial jurisdiction over the offences established in accordance with the Convention when they are committed in whole or in part in the exclusive economic zone of FSM (s.104, title 18 of the FSM Code), on board of a vessel flagged and registered by FSM or any airborne vehicle of the Government. Active and passive personality jurisdiction is partly established focusing on national public servants. Thus, FSM may extend its jurisdiction over offences committed against or by national public servants in the course of, or in connection with their employment or service. FSM may also exercise jurisdiction over offences which have been committed against FSM and over acts that occur outside of its territory, if a person conspires, causes, assists, aids or abets another to commit or attempt to commit an offence in FSM, and if a person intentionally causes, or attempts to cause a result within FSM prohibited by criminal law. Consequences of acts of corruption; compensation for damage (arts. 34 and 35) No concrete forms of remedial action were cited. However, in practice, operating licences can and have been revoked upon conviction of an offence, for example, in the context of fishing by the competent maritime authority. In a criminal proceeding, the court can make an order for appropriate restitution, reparation or service to the victim of the crime or to his or her family (s.1202(6)). Entities or persons, who have suffered damage as a result of an act of corruption, have the right to initiate legal proceedings to claim compensation from those responsible for the damage due to the deprivation of their rights according to Title 11, Chapter 7, subsection 701(3). Also general rules of tort or breach of contract apply. Specialized authorities and inter-agency coordination (arts. 36, 38 and 39) DoJ is mandated to combat corruption, economic crime and money-laundering. The Secretary of Justice has the function of AG and is appointed by the President upon the advice and consent of the Congress for a term of four years. Termination of Office would also require the consent of Congress. NP, including FIU and TCU, is set up under DoJ and investigates corruption and money-laundering cases. NPA, who is appointed by the President upon the advice and consent of the Congress for a term of four years and whose appointment can only be terminated with a 2/3 majority of the Congress, also investigates corruption cases under his or her mandate. Both institutions refer cases to AG for prosecution and/or advice. Interagency cooperation is regular but mainly on an informal basis. Specifically, NP and DoJ at national level cooperate closely and on a daily basis. A joint law enforcement agreement exists between the Police at national and State levels. Cases are transferred depending which level of administration is involved. Exchange of further information such as case statistics is weak and plans are under way to strengthen this exchange and data-management. FIU receives STRs from financial institutions and cash dealers. There is no formalized cooperation with the private sector, but reporting of alleged offences is encouraged through awareness-raising and NPA’s toll-free hotline. 2.2. Successes and good practices Extension of the public official and public servant definition to include persons who have been elected, appointed, hired or designated to become a public official although not yet occupying that position (s.516(2)). Strong collaboration and knowledge exchange between law enforcement authorities at the national level, in particular NP and AG. 2.3. Challenges in implementation Include advantages or benefits for “another person or entity” (third-party beneficiaries) in corruption offences and expand the terminology of “benefit” instead of “pecuniary benefit” to all corruption offences.
各条特别是第907、935和938条规定善意第三方应受到保护。Criminalize active bribery of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations and consider criminalizing its passive form.
最高法院指定被冻结、扣押或没收的财产的接收方并可下达指令(第966条及其以下各条)。Consider criminalizing bribery in the private sector.
关于洗钱和犯罪所得的第9章第924条着重强调,任何秘密和机密义务均按本章的规定予以撤销。Consider extending the scope of the provisions relative to trading in influence and abuse of functions in line with the Convention.
但在实践中,狭义的解释似乎是个挑战,因为只有送交可疑交易报告的银行才需要解除银行保密并提供要求提供的文件。Harmonize and consolidate the provisions on money-laundering.
此外,该章仅有与洗钱有关的监管规定,而没有与其他腐败罪有关的规定。Consider criminalizing illicit enrichment.
时效;犯罪记录(第二十九和四十一条)Extend the statute of limitations period.
对于应处十年或十年以上徒刑的罪行,应在该等罪行实施后的六年内,或者该等罪行被发现后或以合理的谨慎本会被发现后的两年内开始起诉,以二者当中较长的期限为准。 对于应处五年徒刑的罪行,期限减至该等罪行实施后三年或该等罪行被发现后一年内,以二者当中较长的期限为准。 考虑到腐败案件的保密性和复杂性,这些时限可能对成功起诉构成挑战。Extend the range of — and/or streamlining existing — criminal and non-criminal penalties for Convention offences to ensure they are proportionate and dissuasive in regard to legal persons.
如果被告不在管辖区或者还没有因同一行为起诉被告,则有可能暂停时效期限。 如果切合实际,任何管辖区所作的事先定罪都可予以采纳,但须符合密克罗尼西亚联邦的证据规则。Consider further measures to address the consequences of corruption, such as the blacklisting of companies.
管辖权(第四十二条) 根据《公约》确定的犯罪若全部或部分是在密克罗尼西亚联邦专属经济区内在悬挂该联邦船旗和由该联邦注册的船只上或该联邦政府的任何航空器上实施,密克罗尼西亚联邦则对其拥有属地管辖权(《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第18编第104条)。Strengthen witness and victims (insofar as they are witnesses) protection measures, including possibilities of closed hearings and specific evidentiary rules.
积极和消极的属人管辖权得以部分确定,侧重点是国家公务人员。Continue ongoing efforts to put in place whistle-blower protection measures.
因此,密克罗尼西亚联邦可将其管辖权扩大到包括侵害在职或正在履行公务的国家公务人员的犯罪或此类人员犯下的罪行。 密克罗尼西亚联邦也可对危害本国的犯罪和在本国境外实施的行为行使管辖权,条件是当事人共谋、造成、协助或教唆他人在联邦内实施犯罪,或者企图在联邦境内造成刑法禁止的结果。Ensure that sufficient measures are in place to lift bank secrecy for criminal investigations in relation to all corruption offences.
腐败行为的后果;损害赔偿(第三十四和三十五条)Strengthen the collection and exchange of data, statistics and information in regard to Convention offences comprising both State and national levels.
未援引具体形式的救济行动。Ensure sufficient and continued resources and training for the bodies and persons specialized in combating corruption.
但在实践中,一经定罪即可吊销营业执照,例如由主管海事部门吊销捕鱼执照。Consider extending extraterritorial jurisdiction to crimes committed abroad against or by not only a national public official, but also against or by any national of FSM or a stateless person with habitual residence in FSM.
在刑事诉讼中,法院可下达给予犯罪受害人或其家庭适当赔偿、补偿或服务的命令(第1202(6)条)。 因腐败行为而遭受损害的实体或个人有权根据第11编第7章第701(3)分条提起法律诉讼,要求因剥夺其权利而造成损害的责任人给予补偿。2.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention
此外还适用侵权或违约的一般规则。FSM indicated that it would require a range of technical assistance.
专职机关和机构间协调(第三十六、三十八和三十九条)In regard to the criminalization of offences, predominantly legal advice and some assistance in legislative drafting.
司法部的任务是打击腐败、经济犯罪和洗钱。Capacity-building through on-site assistance by an anti-corruption and forensic expert for the Police (FIU) and Government attorneys in the investigation and prosecution of corruption and money-laundering offences.
司法部长拥有总检察长的职权,由总统根据国会的建议并经国会同意后任命,任期四年。Legal advice and training in regard to the legal mandate to freeze proceeds of crime and on the issue of lifting bank secrecy.
终止职务也须经国会同意。In regard to the liability of legal persons, assistance in legislative drafting, on the matter of blacklisting companies and the establishment of proportionate and effective sanctions.
国家警察署,包括金融情报机构和打击跨国犯罪机构,隶属于司法部,负责调查腐败和洗钱案件。 国家公共审计局由总统根据国会的建议并经其同意后任命,任期四年;只有经国会三分之二多数同意才能终止其任命;该局还调查属于其任务授权的腐败案件。Legal advice on how to establish a comprehensive non-conviction based forfeiture system.
这两个机构都将案件移交给总检察长进行起诉并/或征求其建议。Good practices and capacity-building on witness and whistle-blower protection, particularly for Small Island Developing States.
机构间开展定期合作,但主要是非正式合作。 具体来说,国家警察署和司法部在国家层面上开展密切的日常合作。Assistance in conducting a Convention review at the State level.
国家和州一级的警察部门之间订立了联合执法协议。 案件的移交取决于涉及哪一级的管理机构。3. Chapter IV: International cooperation
案件统计数据等详细信息的交流工作不力,目前正计划加强这种交流和数据管理。 金融情报机构从金融机构和现金交易商那里获取可疑交易报告。3.1. Observations on the implementation of the articles under review
与私营部门没有进行正式合作,但鼓励通过提高认识和国家公共审计局的免费热线电话举报涉嫌犯下的罪行。Extradition; transfer of sentenced persons; transfer of criminal proceedings (arts. 44, 45 and 47)
2.2. 成功经验和良好做法 扩充公职人员和公务人员的定义,使其包括当选、任命、受雇或指定为公职人员但尚未就职的人员(第516(2)条)。 国家一级的执法机关特别是国家警察署和总检察长办公室之间进行密切合作和知识交流。In FSM, extradition is regulated by chapter 14 on criminal extradition, title 12, of the FSM Code.
2.3. 实施方面的挑战 在贪污罪中列入对“另一人或实体”(第三方受益人)的好处或利益,并把“利益”一语而不是“金钱利益”一语扩大到适用于所有腐败罪行。FSM makes extradition conditional on the existence of an agreement with the foreign State (s.1401).
将主动贿赂外国公职人员和国际公共组织官员定为刑事犯罪,并考虑将受贿行为定为刑事犯罪。It currently has extradition agreements with the United States of America and the Philippines.
考虑将私营部门的贿赂行为定为刑事犯罪。Conduct-based dual criminality is required and either national or State law may be applied.
考虑根据《公约》扩大与影响力交易和滥用职权有关的规定的范围。FSM endeavours to swiftly carry out extradition procedures, pursuant to section 1404 on the time commitment pending extradition.
协调和巩固关于洗钱的规定。According to that section, once a justice certifies an accused as extraditable, the person will be imprisoned until extradition.
考虑将资产非法增加定为刑事犯罪。Bail will only be granted in special circumstances.
延长时效期限。Section 1402 covers the provisional arrest of persons sought for extradition from a foreign country to FSM.
扩大对《公约》规定的犯罪进行刑事和非刑事处罚的范围并/或简化现有的此类处罚,以确保对法人的处罚适度且具有警戒性。 考虑采取进一步措施消除腐败行为的后果,例如将公司列入黑名单。 加强对证人和受害者(作为证人)的保护措施,包括进行非公开审理和制定具体证据规则的可能性。 继续不断努力落实检举人保护措施。 确保制定充足的措施对所有腐败犯罪相关刑事调查解除银行保密。 加强关于《公约》所规定罪行的数据、统计数据和信息的收集和交换,包括在州和国家层面这样做。 确保为反腐败的专职机构和人员提供充足和持续的资源和培训。 考虑扩大域外管辖权的范围,使之适用于在国外对本国公职人员犯下的罪行或本国公职人员在国外犯下的罪行,并且同样适用于对密克罗尼西亚联邦的任何国民或常住无国籍人员犯下的罪行或该国民和人员犯下的罪行。 2.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要 密克罗尼西亚联邦表示它将需要一系列技术援助。 对犯罪的刑事定罪,主要是法律咨询和立法起草方面的一些援助。 通过警方(金融情报机构)的反腐败和法证专家与政府检察官在调查和起诉腐败和洗钱犯罪的过程中提供现场协助来建设能力。 就冻结犯罪所得和解除银行保密问题提供法律咨询和培训。 关于法人的责任,在将公司列入黑名单以及确定相称和有效的制裁的事项上协助起草相关立法。 提供法律意见,说明如何建立一项全面的非定罪没收制度。 关于证人和检举人保护的良好做法和能力建设,特别是对小岛屿发展中国家。 协助在州一级开展《公约》审议工作。 3. 第四章:国际合作 3.1. 关于所审议条款实施情况的评述 引渡;被判刑人的移管;刑事诉讼的移交(第四十四、四十五和四十七条) 在密克罗尼西亚联邦,引渡由《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第12编关于犯罪引渡的第14章加以规范。 密克罗尼西亚联邦规定引渡以与外国订有协议为条件(第1401条)。 它目前与美利坚合众国和菲律宾订有引渡协议。 必须符合基于行为的双重犯罪条件,并且可适用国家法律。 密克罗尼西亚联邦根据关于引渡前所作时限承诺的第1404条努力迅速执行引渡程序。 根据该条,一旦司法机关证明被告可予引渡,该人在引渡前将被监禁。 仅在特殊情况下才准予保释。 第1402条述及暂时逮捕被请求从外国引渡到密克罗尼西亚联邦的人员。 密克罗尼西亚联邦可引渡本国国民,它与美利坚合众国订立的协议明确规定了这一点,而且,这一做法已经成为惯例。FSM can extradite its own nationals, as is clearly stipulated in its agreement with the United States of America and has also been the practice.
根据《宪法》和《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》,与任何其他普通刑事诉讼相类似,被请求引渡人从贯穿相关诉讼程序的正当诉讼程序和公平待遇中获益。Under the Constitution and the FSM Code, persons sought in extradition proceedings benefit from due process and fair treatment throughout the process, similarly to any other ordinary criminal proceeding.
在实践中,在拒绝引渡之前会与请求国进行协商。As a matter of practice, consultations take place with requesting States before refusing extradition.
密克罗尼西亚联邦在处理引渡事项方面没有多少经验。FSM does not have substantial experience in dealing with extradition.
在过去5年里,发出了三项与腐败相关的引渡请求(两项获得批准,一项待批准),但没有收到任何引渡请求。In the last 5 years, three corruption-related extradition requests were sent (two granted and one still pending) and none were received.
密克罗尼西亚联邦负责引渡的主管机关是外交部。The competent authority responsible for extradition in FSM is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第12编第15章对被判刑人的移管作出了规定。The transfer of sentenced persons is addressed in chapter 15, title 12, of the FSM Code.
这种移管以与外国订有协议为条件。Such a transfer is conditional on the existence of an agreement with the foreign State.
罪犯必须是外国国民或密克罗尼西亚联邦国民或公民,并且必须同意移管,而且须符合双重犯罪要求(第1501条)。The offender must be a national of the foreign State or a national or citizen of FSM and must consent to the transfer, and the dual criminality requirement must be satisfied (s.1501).
负责移管被判刑人的中央机关是总检察长办公室(第1503条)。The central authority for the transfer of sentenced persons is AG’s Office (s.1503).
未对刑事诉讼的移交作出规定。The transfer of criminal proceedings is not provided for. Mutual legal assistance (art. 46)
司法协助(第四十六条)Chapter 17, title 12, of the FSM Code regulates issues pertaining to the provision of mutual legal assistance (MLA).
《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》第12编第17章规范与提供司法协助有关的问题。MLA is only provided in relation to a serious offence (s.1705).
仅对严重罪行提供司法协助(第1705条)。The definition of “serious offence” requires dual criminality to be fulfilled with a penalty threshold of imprisonment for a period of not less than twelve months (s.1704).
“严重罪行”的定义规定须满足双重犯罪且最低监禁处罚下限不少于12个月(第1704条)。FSM can then afford a requesting State the widest measure of MLA to the extent that the request is made through the Secretary of DoJ.
密克罗尼西亚联邦可向请求国提供最广泛的司法协助措施,但条件是该请求是通过司法部长提出的。Sections 1709 (general provision on foreign requests for an evidence-gathering order or a search warrant), 1710 and 1713-716 cover the purposes of the Convention for which MLA is to be afforded.
第1709条(关于外国请求下达收集证据令或搜查令的一般规定)、第1710条及第1713-716条涵盖须为之给予司法协助的《公约》宗旨。Section 1707 also provides for the forms of MLA that the Secretary can request.
第1707条还规定了部长可请求提供何种形式的司法协助。Chapter 17 covers the consensual transfer of detained persons from and to FSM in response to an MLA request (ss.1710 and 1711), also guaranteeing his or her personal liberty in FSM.
第17章涵盖根据提出的司法协助请求在双方同意的情况下向密克罗尼西亚联邦或密克罗尼西亚联邦向其他国家移管被拘留人(第1710和1711条),同时也保障被移管人在密克罗尼西亚联邦的人身自由。The Secretary of DoJ is the central authority for MLA.
司法部长是负责司法协助的中央机关主管人。FSM notified the Secretary-General of the United Nations that MLA requests are to be submitted in English.
密克罗尼西亚联邦通知联合国秘书长,司法协助请求应以英文提交。Section 1708 outlines what is to be included in an MLA request.
第1708条概述应纳入司法协助请求中的内容。While a request received will be executed in accordance with the domestic law of FSM, a requesting State can provide the procedure that it wishes to have followed in giving effect to the request (s.1708(1)(d)).
当接到的一项请求将按照密克罗尼西亚联邦国内法加以执行时,请求国可提供它希望在执行请求时遵循的程序(第1708(1)(d)条)。FSM requires the submission of an MLA request before information can be transmitted.
密克罗尼西亚联邦要求在转递信息前提交司法协助请求。No information or other materials obtained through MLA can be used for a purpose other than that specified in the request, unless the Secretary consents after consulting with the foreign State (s.1708).
通过司法协助获得的信息和其他资料不得用于司法协助请求所指定的范围以外的目的,部长与外国协商后同意的情况除外(第1708条)。Foreign documents are privileged in MLA proceedings (s.1717).
在司法协助程序中,外国文件享有特权(第1717条)。After consulting with the requesting State, FSM may postpone an MLA request where it is likely to prejudice an ongoing investigation or proceeding (s.1705(2)(c)).
如果有可能妨碍正在进行的调查或诉讼,经与请求国协商之后,密克罗尼西亚联邦可延迟批准司法协助请求(第1705(2)(c)条)。MLA may be refused on the grounds that granting the request would be likely to prejudice the sovereignty, security or other essential public interest of FSM (s.1705(2)(b)).
可以以批准司法协助请求将可能损害密克罗尼西亚联邦的主权、安全或其他重要公共利益为由拒绝提供司法协助(第1705(2)(b)条)。Moreover, nothing is to be construed or interpreted to affect FSM’s powers in relation to its own criminal investigations and other mutual assistance in criminal matters (s.1705(4)).
此外,任何规定都不得被理解或解释为影响密克罗尼西亚联邦在其本国刑事调查和其他刑事事项相互协助方面的权力(第1705(4)条)。The Secretary also has a general power to grant a request on such terms and conditions as he or she deems fit (s.1705(2)(a)).
部长还拥有根据其本人认为适当的条款和条件批准一项请求的一般权力(第1705(2)(a)条)。In 2013, five (corruption-related) MLA requests were sent by FSM and four are in the process of being executed.
2013年,密克罗尼西亚联邦发出了五项(与腐败有关的)司法协助请求,有四项目前正在执行当中。One MLA request was received and successfully completed.
已收到并成功满足一项司法协助请求。Law enforcement cooperation; joint investigations; special investigative techniques (arts. 48, 49 and 50)
执法合作;联合侦查;特殊侦查手段(第四十八、四十九和五十条)FSM has various means to facilitate law enforcement cooperation, including joint investigations.
密克罗尼西亚联邦有多种途径来促进执法合作,包括联合侦查。As part of the Pacific Transnational Crime Network (PTCN), the Australian Federal Police through its Law Enforcement Cooperation Program established TCU under NP.
作为太平洋跨国犯罪情报网的组成部分,澳大利亚联邦警察局通过其执法合作方案设立了隶属国家警察署的打击跨国犯罪机构。TCU also serves as the centre for the Micronesian region with liaison officers from Palau, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the Republic of Marshall Islands situated in FSM.
打击跨国犯罪机构还充当密克罗尼西亚地区中心,其联络官来自帕劳、北马里亚纳群岛联邦和位于密克罗尼西亚联邦中的马绍尔群岛共和国。TCU further cooperates with INTERPOL through the Pacific Transnational Crime Coordination Centre and Homeland Security (USA).
打击跨国犯罪机构通过太平洋跨国犯罪问题协调中心和国土安全部(美国)与国际刑警组织开展进一步合作。FSM is party to the multilateral agreement that established PTCN in the region.
密克罗尼西亚联邦加入了在本区域建立太平洋跨国犯罪情报网的多边协定。It has multilateral arrangements with the Pacific Islands Chief of Police, Guam-based and U.S.
密克罗尼西亚联邦通过太平洋屿岛论坛秘书处和其他执法网络与太平洋群岛警察局长、关岛和美国的对等机构及其他执法机构建立了多项多边安排。counterparts and other law enforcement agencies through the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat and other law enforcement networks.
金融情报机构的一项任务是与其他国家交换关于洗钱和资助恐怖主义的金融情报。FIU has a mandate to exchange financial intelligence with other States in relation to money-laundering and terrorist financing.
该机构酌情与打击跨国犯罪机构、密克罗尼西亚联邦国家警察署和其他相关机构共享获得的信息。Information received by FIU is shared, as appropriate, with the TCU, FSM National Police and other relevant agencies.
密克罗尼西亚联邦也是太平洋金融情报机构协会的非正式成员。FSM is also informally a member of the Pacific Association of FIUs.
3.2. 成功经验和良好做法3.2. Successes and good practices
总体而言,强调了在实施《公约》第四章方面取得的下述成功经验和良好做法:Overall, the following success and good practice in implementing Chapter IV of the Convention is highlighted:
密克罗尼西亚联邦的国际执法合作,特别是通过打击跨国犯罪机构进行的此类合作。FSM’s international law enforcement cooperation, especially through the TCU. 3.3. Challenges in implementation The following challenges and recommendations were highlighted by the reviewers: Consider granting extradition requests that include several separate offences, one of which is extraditable. Explore the possibility of relaxing the application of the double criminality requirement in extradition cases, especially those involving corruption offences which are not established domestically. Consider using the Convention as a legal basis for extradition, mutual legal assistance and law enforcement cooperation in respect of Convention offences and consequently ensure that any Convention-related offences not be considered political offences. Ensure that any extradition treaties that FSM may conclude with other States provide that Convention offences are extraditable. Provide for extradition to be subject to the conditions of FSM or by the applicable extradition agreements, including a minimum penalty requirement for extradition. Consider further simplifying evidentiary requirements in order to allow for extradition to be dealt with efficiently and effectively. Ensure the existence of a ground for refusal of extradition where there are substantial grounds for believing that the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s sex, race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political opinions or compliance with a request would cause prejudice to that person’s position for any one of these reasons. Ensure that extradition is not refused on the sole ground that it involves fiscal matters. Take such legislative measures as may be necessary to ensure that MLA involving non-coercive measures is afforded in the absence of dual criminality, in line with art. 46(9)(b) of the Convention. Notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the central authority designated for MLA. Consider granting legal authority for relevant authorities to proactively transmit information to a foreign competent authority, without a prior request, where such information could assist in the investigation and prosecution of Convention offences. Ensure that an MLA request is not declined on the ground of bank secrecy and may not be declined on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters. Consider the possibility of transferring criminal proceedings to and from a foreign State where it would be in the interests of the proper administration of justice. Introduce, to the extent permitted by the domestic legislation, special investigative techniques, as may be necessary and within existing resources, and providing the corresponding training to law enforcement personnel.
3.3. 实施方面的挑战3.4. Technical assistance needs identified to improve implementation of the Convention
审议人员着重强调了以下挑战和建议: 考虑准予包含若干独立犯罪且其中一项属于可引渡犯罪的引渡请求。The following technical assistance needs were identified:
探索是否可能放宽在引渡案件中适用双重犯罪要求,特别是在涉及未在国内确定的腐败罪的案件中这样做。 对《公约》所规定的犯罪,考虑将《公约》用作进行引渡、司法协助和执法合作的法律依据,并且因此确保与《公约》有关的任何罪行不被视为政治犯罪。Summary of good practices/lessons learned in relation to MLA and the transfer of criminal proceedings.
确保密克罗尼西亚联邦可能与其他国家缔结的任何引渡条约规定与《公约》有关的罪行可引渡。Legal advice on how to improve extradition, MLA, the transfer of sentenced persons, transfer of criminal proceedings and special investigative techniques.
规定引渡须符合密克罗尼西亚联邦的条件或遵守适用的引渡协定,包括关于引渡的最低限度刑罚要求。Capacity-building programmes for authorities responsible for international cooperation in criminal matters and for cross-border law enforcement cooperation, as well as for designing and managing the use of special investigative techniques.
考虑进一步简化证据要求,以便能够高效率和有成效地处理引渡。Development of an international cooperation database at the national level, as well as MLA templates for requesting States and internal guidelines for staff on how to deal with international cooperation requests.
如果有充分理由认为提出引渡请求是为了以某人的性别、种族、宗教、国籍、族裔或者政治观点为由对其进行起诉或者处罚,或者按照一项请求行事将使该人的地位因上述任一原因而受到损害,则确保存在拒绝引渡的理由。 确保不得仅以涉及财税事项为由拒绝引渡。 采取必要的立法措施,确保按照《公约》第四十六条第九款第 = 2 \* GB4 ㈡项的规定,在非双重犯罪的情况下,提供涉及非强制性措施的司法协助。 向联合国秘书长通报所指定的负责处理司法协助事宜的中央机关。 考虑授予有关机关法定权限,在信息可协助调查和起诉《公约》所规定的犯罪时,无需事先请求,主动将有关的信息转递给外国主管机关。 确保不得以银行保密为由拒绝司法协助请求,也不得仅以犯罪也被视为涉及财税事项为由而拒绝此类请求。 与另一国相互移交刑事诉讼程序若有利于正当司法,则考虑这种移交的可能性。 在国内法规允许的情况下,在现有资源范围内视需要采用特殊侦查手段,并向执法人员提供相应的培训。 3.4. 在改进《公约》实施方面认明的技术援助需要 需要认明下述技术援助需要: 总结在司法协助和刑事诉讼移交方面的良好做法/所得经验教训。 提出法律咨询意见,说明如何改进引渡、司法协助、被判刑人的移管、刑事诉讼的移交和特殊侦查手段。 针对负责刑事事项国际合作和跨境执法合作的主管部门的能力建设方案,以及关于制定和管理特殊侦查手段的使用的能力建设方案。 在国家一级开发国际合作数据库,并开发针对请求国的司法协助模板以及编写有关工作人员如何处理国际合作请求的内部指导方针。 提供技术援助(例如建立和管理数据库/信息共享系统)以加强执法合作。Technological assistance (e.g. set-up and management of databases/information-sharing systems) to enhance law enforcement cooperation.
其他:协助评估《密克罗尼西亚联邦法典》中的引渡范围和覆盖面;并举行研讨会,由移管被定罪人的国家讨论此类人员的移管问题。Other: Assistance in assessing the scope and coverage of extradition in the FSM Code; and a symposium in which the transfer of convicted persons is discussed by the States that are transferring such persons.